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Sample records for pim1 kinase synergizes

  1. Pim1 kinase synergizes with c-MYC to induce advanced prostate carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Kim, Jongchan; Roh, Meejeon; Franco, Omar E.; Hayward, Simon W.; Wills, Marcia L.; Abdulkadir, Sarki A.

    2010-01-01

    The oncogenic PIM1 kinase has been implicated as a cofactor for c-MYC in prostate carcinogenesis. Here we show that in human prostate tumors, coexpression of c-MYC and PIM1 is associated with higher Gleason grades. Using a tissue recombination model coupled with lentiviral-mediated gene transfer we find that Pim1 is weakly oncogenic in naïve adult mouse prostatic epithelium. However, it cooperates dramatically with c-MYC to induce prostate cancer within 6-weeks. Importantly, c-MYC/Pim1 synergy is critically dependent on Pim1 kinase activity. c-MYC/Pim1 tumors showed increased levels of the active serine-62 (S62) phosphorylated form of c-MYC. Grafts expressing a phosphomimetic c-MYCS62D mutant had higher rates of proliferation than grafts expressing wild type c-MYC but did not form tumors like c-MYC/Pim1 grafts, indicating that Pim1 cooperativity with c-MYC in vivo involves additional mechanisms other than enhancement of c-MYC activity by S62 phosphorylation. c-MYC/Pim1-induced prostate carcinomas demonstrate evidence of neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation. Additional studies, including the identification of tumor cells coexpressing androgen receptor and NE cell markers synaptophysin and Ascl1 suggested that NE tumors arose from adenocarcinoma cells through transdifferentiation. These results directly demonstrate functional cooperativity between c-MYC and PIM1 in prostate tumorigenesis in vivo and support efforts for targeting PIM1 in prostate cancer. PMID:20140016

  2. Pim-1 kinase expression during murine mammary development

    SciTech Connect

    Gapter, Leslie A.; Magnuson, Nancy S.; Ng, Ka-yun; Hosick, Howard L. . E-mail: hosick@wsu.edu

    2006-07-07

    Pim-1 kinase phosphorylates substrates whose activities are linked to proliferation, survival, differentiation, and apoptosis. Although pim-1 is induced by hormones and cytokines, the hormonal control and contribution of Pim-1 to mammary gland development have not been evaluated. We examined Pim-1 expression in mammary cell lines, investigated whether Pim-1 levels could be altered in breast epithelia by mammogenic hormones, and evaluated Pim-1 expression during mammary development. We found that Pim-1 was elevated in most mammary carcinoma cell lines and progesterone increased Pim-1 protein to some extent in non-tumorigenic mammary epithelia. Pim-1 expression in situ was consistent with the documented profile of progesterone activity in mouse mammary glands. Pim-1 nuclear localization correlated with cytoplasmic distribution for its substrate, p21{sup CIP/Waf1}, and we found that Pim-1 and p21 associate in vitro. Our results suggest that Pim-1 expression may be regulated by progesterone during mammary development and Pim-1 associates with p21 in mammary epithelial cells.

  3. Clinical and biological significance of PIM1 kinase in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yunfei; Feng, Yong; Shen, Jacson; Gao, Yan; Cote, Gregory; Choy, Edwin; Harmon, David; Mankin, Henry; Hornicek, Francis; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2016-07-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most prevalent histological form of primary malignant bone tumor. The majority of osteosarcoma patients have limited alternative therapeutic options and metastatic patients generally have a poor prognosis. Proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase PIM1 is associated with growth and survival of many kinds of tumor cells. However, the role of PIM1 in osteosarcoma remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the functional and therapeutic relevance of PIM1 as a putative target in osteosarcoma. We found PIM1 was highly expressed in various osteosarcoma cell lines and in tumor tissues from osteosarcoma patients. Tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that the overall and disease-free survival rate of patients with high levels of PIM1 protein expression were significantly shorter than patients with low levels. High levels of PIM1 were also associated with present metastasis and can be considered as an independent prognostic factor in osteosarcoma patients. Knockdown of PIM1 expression by synthetic siRNA or shRNA greatly inhibited cell growth, migration, and invasion. Moreover, these changes accompanied with down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. The similar results were obtained in osteosarcoma cells treated with PIM1 specific inhibitor (SMI-4a). These results suggest that PIM1 kinase is critical for the growth and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells and can be a potential therapeutic target for osteosarcoma treatment. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1185-1194, 2016. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Rejuvenation of human cardiac progenitor cells with Pim-1 kinase.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Sadia; Khan, Mohsin; Nguyen, Jonathan; Alkatib, Monique; Siddiqi, Sailay; Hariharan, Nirmala; Wallach, Kathleen; Monsanto, Megan; Gude, Natalie; Dembitsky, Walter; Sussman, Mark A

    2013-10-25

    Myocardial function is enhanced by adoptive transfer of human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) into a pathologically challenged heart. However, advanced age, comorbidities, and myocardial injury in patients with heart failure constrain the proliferation, survival, and regenerative capacity of hCPCs. Rejuvenation of senescent hCPCs will improve the outcome of regenerative therapy for a substantial patient population possessing functionally impaired stem cells. Reverse phenotypic and functional senescence of hCPCs by ex vivo modification with Pim-1. C-kit-positive hCPCs were isolated from heart biopsy samples of patients undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation. Growth kinetics, telomere lengths, and expression of cell cycle regulators showed significant variation between hCPC isolated from multiple patients. Telomere length was significantly decreased in hCPC with slow-growth kinetics concomitant with decreased proliferation and upregulation of senescent markers compared with hCPC with fast-growth kinetics. Desirable youthful characteristics were conferred on hCPCs by genetic modification using Pim-1 kinase, including increases in proliferation, telomere length, survival, and decreased expression of senescence markers. Senescence characteristics of hCPCs are ameliorated by Pim-1 kinase resulting in rejuvenation of phenotypic and functional properties. hCPCs show improved cellular properties resulting from Pim-1 modification, but benefits were more pronounced in hCPC with slow-growth kinetics relative to hCPC with fast-growth kinetics. With the majority of patients with heart failure presenting advanced age, infirmity, and impaired regenerative capacity, the use of Pim-1 modification should be incorporated into cell-based therapeutic approaches to broaden inclusion criteria and address limitations associated with the senescent phenotype of aged hCPC.

  5. Rejuvenation of Human Cardiac Progenitor Cells With Pim-1 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Mohsin, Sadia; Khan, Mohsin; Nguyen, Jonathan; Alkatib, Monique; Siddiqi, Sailay; Hariharan, Nirmala; Wallach, Kathleen; Monsanto, Megan; Gude, Natalie; Dembitsky, Walter; Sussman, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Myocardial function is enhanced by adoptive transfer of human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) into a pathologically challenged heart. However, advanced age, comorbidities, and myocardial injury in patients with heart failure constrain the proliferation, survival, and regenerative capacity of hCPCs. Rejuvenation of senescent hCPCs will improve the outcome of regenerative therapy for a substantial patient population possessing functionally impaired stem cells. Objective Reverse phenotypic and functional senescence of hCPCs by ex vivo modification with Pim-1. Methods and Results C-kit–positive hCPCs were isolated from heart biopsy samples of patients undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation. Growth kinetics, telomere lengths, and expression of cell cycle regulators showed significant variation between hCPC isolated from multiple patients. Telomere length was significantly decreased in hCPC with slow-growth kinetics concomitant with decreased proliferation and upregulation of senescent markers compared with hCPC with fast-growth kinetics. Desirable youthful characteristics were conferred on hCPCs by genetic modification using Pim-1 kinase, including increases in proliferation, telomere length, survival, and decreased expression of senescence markers. Conclusions Senescence characteristics of hCPCs are ameliorated by Pim-1 kinase resulting in rejuvenation of phenotypic and functional properties. hCPCs show improved cellular properties resulting from Pim-1 modification, but benefits were more pronounced in hCPC with slow-growth kinetics relative to hCPC with fast-growth kinetics. With the majority of patients with heart failure presenting advanced age, infirmity, and impaired regenerative capacity, the use of Pim-1 modification should be incorporated into cell-based therapeutic approaches to broaden inclusion criteria and address limitations associated with the senescent phenotype of aged hCPC. PMID:24044948

  6. Functional Role and Therapeutic Potential of the Pim-1 Kinase in Colon Carcinoma12

    PubMed Central

    Weirauch, Ulrike; Beckmann, Nadine; Thomas, Maren; Grünweller, Arnold; Huber, Kilian; Bracher, Franz; Hartmann, Roland K; Aigner, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus 1 (Pim-1) kinase is overexpressed in various tumors and has been linked to poor prognosis. Its role as proto-oncogene is based on several Pim-1 target proteins involved in pivotal cellular processes. Here, we explore the functional relevance of Pim-1 in colon carcinoma. Experimental Design RNAi-based knockdown approaches, as well as a specific small molecule inhibitor, were used to inhibit Pim-1 in colon carcinoma cells. The effects were analyzed regarding proliferation, apoptosis, sensitization toward cytostatic treatment, and overall antitumor effect in vitro and in mouse tumor models in vivo. Results We demonstrate antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and overall antitumor effects of Pim-1 inhibition. The sensitization to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment upon Pim-1 knockdown offers new possibilities for combinatorial treatment approaches. Importantly, this also antagonizes a 5-FU-triggered Pim-1 up-regulation, which is mediated by decreased levels of miR-15b, a microRNA we newly identify to regulate Pim-1. The analysis of the molecular effects of Pim-1 inhibition reveals a complex regulatory network, with therapeutic Pim-1 repression leading to major changes in oncogenic signal transduction with regard to p21Cip1/WAF1, STAT3, c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), c-Myc, and survivin and in the levels of apoptosis-related proteins Puma, Bax, and Bcl-xL. Conclusions We demonstrate that Pim-1 plays a pivotal role in several tumor-relevant signaling pathways and establish the functional relevance of Pim-1 in colon carcinoma. Our results also substantiate the RNAi-mediated Pim-1 knockdown based on polymeric polyethylenimine/small interfering RNA nanoparticles as a promising therapeutic approach. PMID:23814490

  7. Structural basis of constitutive activity and a unique nucleotide binding mode of human Pim-1 kinase.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kevin C; Wang, Lian; Hickey, Eugene R; Studts, Joey; Barringer, Kevin; Peng, Charline; Kronkaitis, Anthony; Li, Jun; White, Andre; Mische, Sheenah; Farmer, Bennett

    2005-02-18

    Pim-1 kinase is a member of a distinct class of serine/threonine kinases consisting of Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3. Pim kinases are highly homologous to one another and share a unique consensus hinge region sequence, ER-PXPX, with its two proline residues separated by a non-conserved residue, but they (Pim kinases) have <30% sequence identity with other kinases. Pim-1 has been implicated in both cytokine-induced signal transduction and the development of lymphoid malignancies. We have determined the crystal structures of apo Pim-1 kinase and its AMP-PNP (5'-adenylyl-beta,gamma-imidodiphosphate) complex to 2.1-angstroms resolutions. The structures reveal the following. 1) The kinase adopts a constitutively active conformation, and extensive hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions between the activation loop and the catalytic loop might be the structural basis for maintaining such a conformation. 2) The hinge region has a novel architecture and hydrogen-bonding pattern, which not only expand the ATP pocket but also serve to establish unambiguously the alignment of the Pim-1 hinge region with that of other kinases. 3) The binding mode of AMP-PNP to Pim-1 kinase is unique and does not involve a critical hinge region hydrogen bond interaction. Analysis of the reported Pim-1 kinase-domain structures leads to a hypothesis as to how Pim kinase activity might be regulated in vivo.

  8. Regulation of prostate stromal fibroblasts by the PIM1 protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Zemskova, Marina Y.; Song, Jin H.; Cen, Bo; Cerda-Infante, Javier; Montecinos, Viviana P.; Kraft, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    The PIM1 oncogene is over-expressed in human prostate cancer epithelial cells. Importantly, we observe that in human hyperplastic and cancerous prostate glands PIM1 is also markedly elevated in prostate fibroblasts, suggesting an important role for this kinase in epithelial/stromal crosstalk. The ability of PIM1 to regulate the biologic activity of stromal cells is demonstrated by the observation that expression of PIM1 kinase in human prostate fibroblasts increases the level and secretion of the extracellular matrix molecule, collagen 1A1 (COL1A1), the pro-inflammatory chemokine CCL5, and the platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR). PIM1 is found to regulate the transcription of CCL5. In co-cultivation assays where PIM1 overexpressing fibroblasts are grown with BPH1 prostate epithelial cells, PIM1 activity markedly enhances the ability of these fibroblasts to differentiate into myofibroblasts and express known markers of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). This differentiation can be reversed by the addition of small molecule PIM kinase inhibitors. Western blots demonstrate that PIM1 expression in prostate fibroblasts stimulates the phosphorylation of molecules that regulate 5’Cap driven protein translation, including 4EBP1 and eIF4B. Consistent with the hypothesis that the kinase controls translation of specific mRNAs in prostate fibroblasts, we demonstrate that PIM1 expression markedly increases the level of COL1A1 and PDGFRβ mRNA bound to polysomes. Together these results point on PIM1 as a novel factor in regulation of the phenotype and differentiation of fibroblasts in prostate cancer by controlling both the transcription and translation of specific mRNAs. PMID:25451079

  9. Pim1 kinase promotes angiogenesis through phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase at Ser-633

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Yi, Bing; Zhu, Ni; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Guan-Xin; Huang, Shengdong; Sun, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Aims Posttranslational modification, such as phosphorylation, plays an essential role in regulating activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). In the present study, we aim to determine whether eNOS could be phosphorylated and regulated by a novel serine/threonine–protein kinase Pim1 in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). Methods and results Using immunoprecipitation and protein kinase assays, we demonstrated that Pim1 specifically interacts with eNOS, which leads to a marked phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser-633 and increased production of nitric oxide (NO). Intriguingly, in response to VEGF stimulation, eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-633 exhibits two distinct phases: transient phosphorylation occurring between 0 and 60 min and sustained phosphorylation occurring between 2 and 24 h, which are mediated by the protein kinase A (PKA) and Pim1, respectively. Inhibiting Pim1 by either pharmacological inhibitor SMI-4a or the dominant-negative form of Pim1 markedly attenuates VEGF-induced tube formation, while Pim1 overexpression significantly increases EC tube formation and migration in an NO-dependent manner. Importantly, Pim1 expression and eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-633 were substantially decreased in high glucose-treated ECs and in the aorta of db/db diabetic mice. Increased Pim1 expression ameliorates impaired vascular angiogenesis in diabetic mice, as determined by an ex vivo aortic ring assay. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate Pim1 as a novel kinase that is responsible for the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser-633 and enhances EC sprouting of aortic rings from diabetic mice, suggesting that Pim1 could potentially serve as a novel therapeutic target for revascularization strategies. PMID:26598507

  10. Enhancement of myocardial regeneration through genetic engineering of cardiac progenitor cells expressing Pim-1 kinase.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Kimberlee M; Cottage, Christopher T; Wu, Weitao; Din, Shabana; Gude, Natalie A; Avitabile, Daniele; Quijada, Pearl; Collins, Brett L; Fransioli, Jenna; Sussman, Mark A

    2009-11-24

    Despite numerous studies demonstrating the efficacy of cellular adoptive transfer for therapeutic myocardial regeneration, problems remain for donated cells with regard to survival, persistence, engraftment, and long-term benefits. This study redresses these concerns by enhancing the regenerative potential of adoptively transferred cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) via genetic engineering to overexpress Pim-1, a cardioprotective kinase that enhances cell survival and proliferation. Intramyocardial injections of CPCs overexpressing Pim-1 were given to infarcted female mice. Animals were monitored over 4, 12, and 32 weeks to assess cardiac function and engraftment of Pim-1 CPCs with echocardiography, in vivo hemodynamics, and confocal imagery. CPCs overexpressing Pim-1 showed increased proliferation and expression of markers consistent with cardiogenic lineage commitment after dexamethasone exposure in vitro. Animals that received CPCs overexpressing Pim-1 also produced greater levels of cellular engraftment, persistence, and functional improvement relative to control CPCs up to 32 weeks after delivery. Salutary effects include reduction of infarct size, greater number of c-kit(+) cells, and increased vasculature in the damaged region. Myocardial repair is significantly enhanced by genetic engineering of CPCs with Pim-1 kinase. Ex vivo gene delivery to enhance cellular survival, proliferation, and regeneration may overcome current limitations of stem cell-based therapeutic approaches.

  11. KSHV encoded LANA upregulates Pim-1 and is a substrate for its kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bajaj, Bharat G.; Verma, Subhash C.; Lan, Ke; Cotter, Murray A.; Woodman, Zenda L.; Robertson, Erle S. . E-mail: erle@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2006-07-20

    Pim kinases are proto-oncogenes that are upregulated in a number of B cell cancers, including Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) associated Burkitt's lymphoma. They have also been shown to be upregulated in Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) infected primary B cells. Most cells in KSHV-associated tumors are latently infected and express only a small subset of viral genes, with KSHV latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA) being constitutively expressed. LANA regulates the transcription of a large number of cellular and viral genes. Here, we show that LANA upregulates transcription from the Pim-1 promoter (pPim-1) and map this activation to a region in the promoter located within the sequence (-681 to +37). We show that LANA expressing cells can proliferate faster and are better protected from drug induced apoptosis. Since transition through cell cycle check points and anti-apoptosis are functions associated with Pim-1, it is likely that higher Pim-1 expression in cells expressing LANA is responsible, at least in part, for this effect. A Pim-1 phosphorylation site was also identified within the amino-terminal domain of LANA. Using in vitro kinase assays, we confirmed that LANA was indeed a Pim-1 substrate, and the failure of Pim-1 to phosphorylate LANA mutated at SS205/6RR identified this site as the specific serine residues phosphorylated by Pim-1. This report provides valuable insight into yet another cellular signaling pathway subverted by KSHV LANA and suggests a contribution to KSHV related oncogenesis.

  12. A novel Pim-1 kinase inhibitor targeting residues that bind the substrate peptide.

    PubMed

    Tsuganezawa, Keiko; Watanabe, Hisami; Parker, Lorien; Yuki, Hitomi; Taruya, Shigenao; Nakagawa, Yukari; Kamei, Daisuke; Mori, Masumi; Ogawa, Naoko; Tomabechi, Yuri; Handa, Noriko; Honma, Teruki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Okabe, Takayoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Akiko

    2012-03-30

    A new screening method using fluorescent correlation spectroscopy was developed to select kinase inhibitors that competitively inhibit the binding of a fluorescently labeled substrate peptide. Using the method, among approximately 700 candidate compounds selected by virtual screening, we identified a novel Pim-1 kinase inhibitor targeting its peptide binding residues. X-ray crystal analysis of the complex structure of Pim-1 with the inhibitor indicated that the inhibitor actually binds to the ATP-binding site and also forms direct interactions with residues (Asp128 and Glu171) that bind the substrate peptide. These interactions, which cause small side-chain movements, seem to affect the binding ability of the fluorescently labeled substrate. The compound inhibited Pim-1 kinase in vitro, with an IC(50) value of 150 nM. Treatment of cultured leukemia cells with the compound reduced the amount of p21 and increased the amount of p27, due to Pim-1 inhibition, and then triggered apoptosis after cell-cycle arrest at the G(1)/S phase. This screening method may be widely applicable for the identification of various new Pim-1 kinase inhibitors targeting the residues that bind the substrate peptide.

  13. Pim-1 Kinase Regulating Dynamics Related Protein 1 Mediates Sevoflurane Postconditioning-induced Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Dong; Chen, Hui-Juan; Wang, Da-Liang; Wang, Hui; Deng, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is well documented that sevoflurane postconditioning (SP) has a significant myocardial protection effect. However, the mechanisms underlying SP are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the Pim-1 kinase played a key role in SP-induced cardioprotection by regulating dynamics-related protein 1 (Drp1). Methods: A Langendorff model was used in this study. Seventy-two rats were randomly assigned into six groups as follows: CON group, ischemia reperfusion (I/R) group, SP group, SP+proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (Pim-1) inhibitor II group, SP+dimethylsufoxide group, and Pim-1 inhibitor II group (n = 12, each). Hemodynamic parameters and infarct size were measured to reflect the extent of myocardial I/R injury. The expressions of Pim-1, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and cytochrome C (Cyt C) in cytoplasm and mitochondria, the Drp1 in mitochondria, and the total Drp1 and p-Drp1ser637 were measured by Western blotting. In addition, transmission electron microscope was used to observe mitochondrial morphology. The experiment began in October 2014 and continued until July 2016. Results: SP improved myocardial I/R injury-induced hemodynamic parametric changes, cardiac function, and preserved mitochondrial phenotype and decreased myocardial infarct size (24.49 ± 1.72% in Sev group compared with 41.98 ± 4.37% in I/R group; P < 0.05). However, Pim-1 inhibitor II significantly (P < 0.05) abolished the protective effect of SP. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that, compared with I/R group, the expression of Pim-1 and Bcl-2 in cytoplasm and mitochondria as well as the total p-Drp1ser637 in Sev group (P < 0.05) were upregulated. Meanwhile, SP inhibited Drp1 compartmentalization to the mitochondria followed by a reduction in the release of Cyt C. Pretreatment with Pim-1 inhibitor II significantly (P < 0.05) abolished SP-induced Pim-1/p-Drp1ser637 signaling activation. Conclusions: These findings suggested

  14. Pim1 Kinase Overexpression Enhances ckit(+) Cardiac Stem Cell Cardiac Repair Following Myocardial Infarction in Swine.

    PubMed

    Kulandavelu, Shathiyah; Karantalis, Vasileios; Fritsch, Julia; Hatzistergos, Konstantinos E; Loescher, Viky Y; McCall, Frederic; Wang, Bo; Bagno, Luiza; Golpanian, Samuel; Wolf, Ariel; Grenet, Justin; Williams, Adam; Kupin, Aaron; Rosenfeld, Aaron; Mohsin, Sadia; Sussman, Mark A; Morales, Azorides; Balkan, Wayne; Hare, Joshua M

    2016-12-06

    Pim1 kinase plays an important role in cell division, survival, and commitment of precursor cells towards a myocardial lineage, and overexpression of Pim1 in ckit(+) cardiac stem cells (CSCs) enhances their cardioreparative properties. The authors sought to validate the effect of Pim1-modified CSCs in a translationally relevant large animal preclinical model of myocardial infarction (MI). Human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs, n = 10), hckit(+) CSCs overexpressing Pim1 (Pim1(+); n = 9), or placebo (n = 10) were delivered by intramyocardial injection to immunosuppressed Yorkshire swine (n = 29) 2 weeks after MI. Cardiac magnetic resonance and pressure volume loops were obtained before and after cell administration. Whereas both hCSCs reduced MI size compared to placebo, Pim1(+) cells produced a ∼3-fold greater decrease in scar mass at 8 weeks post-injection compared to hCSCs (-29.2 ± 2.7% vs. -8.4 ± 0.7%; p < 0.003). Pim1(+) hCSCs also produced a 2-fold increase of viable mass compared to hCSCs at 8 weeks (113.7 ± 7.2% vs. 65.6 ± 6.8%; p <0.003), and a greater increase in regional contractility in both infarct and border zones (both p < 0.05). Both CSC types significantly increased ejection fraction at 4 weeks but this was only sustained in the Pim1(+) group at 8 weeks compared to placebo. Both hCSC and Pim1(+) hCSC treatment reduced afterload (p = 0.02 and p = 0.004, respectively). Mechanoenergetic recoupling was significantly greater in the Pim1(+) hCSC group (p = 0.005). Pim1 overexpression enhanced the effect of intramyocardial delivery of CSCs to infarcted porcine hearts. These findings provide a rationale for genetic modification of stem cells and consequent translation to clinical trials. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Crystal Structures of Proto-oncogene Kinase Pim1: A Target of Aberrant Somatic Hypermutations in Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Abhinav; Mandiyan, Valsan; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Zhang, Chao; Rice, Julie; Tsai, James; Artis, Dean R.; Ibrahim, Prabha; Bremer, Ryan

    2010-07-19

    Pim1, a serine/threonine kinase, is involved in several biological functions including cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. While pim1 has been shown to be involved in several hematopoietic cancers, it was also recently identified as a target of aberrant somatic hypermutation in diffuse large cell lymphoma (DLCL), the most common form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The crystal structures of Pim1 in apo form and bound with AMPPNP have been solved and several unique features of Pim1 were identified, including the presence of an extra {beta}-hairpin in the N-terminal lobe and an unusual conformation of the hinge connecting the two lobes of the enzyme. While the apo Pim1 structure is nearly identical with that reported recently, the structure of AMPPNP bound to Pim1 is significantly different. Pim1 is unique among protein kinases due to the presence of a proline residue at position 123 that precludes the formation of the canonical second hydrogen bond between the hinge backbone and the adenine moiety of ATP. One crystal structure reported here shows that changing P123 to methionine, a common residue that offers the backbone hydrogen bond to ATP, does not restore the ATP binding pocket of Pim1 to that of a typical kinase. These unique structural features in Pim1 result in novel binding modes of AMP and a known kinase inhibitor scaffold, as shown by co-crystallography. In addition, the kinase activities of five Pim1 mutants identified in DLCL patients have been determined. In each case, the observed effects on kinase activity are consistent with the predicted consequences of the mutation on the Pim1 structure. Finally, 70 co-crystal structures of low molecular mass, low-affinity compounds with Pim1 have been solved in order to identify novel chemical classes as potential Pim1 inhibitors. Based on the structural information, opportunities for optimization of one specific example are discussed.

  16. Human CD180 Transmits Signals via the PIM-1L Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Nicole; Zajonz, Alexandra; Burger, Matthew T.; Schweighoffer, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important sensors of the innate immune system that recognize conserved structural motifs and activate cells via a downstream signaling cascade. The CD180/MD1 molecular complex is an unusual member of the TLR family, since it lacks the components that are normally required for signal transduction by other TLRs. Therefore the CD180/MD 1 complex has been considered of being incapable of independently initiating cellular signals. Using chemogenetic approaches we identified specifically the membrane bound long form of PIM-1 kinase, PIM-1L as the mediator of CD180-dependent signaling. A dominant negative isoform of PIM-1L, but not of other PIM kinases, inhibited signaling elicited by cross-linking of CD180, and this effect was phenocopied by PIM inhibitors. PIM-1L was directed to the cell membrane by its N-terminal extension, where it colocalized and physically associated with CD180. Triggering CD180 also induced increased phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein BAD in a PIM kinase-dependent fashion. Also in primary human B cells, which are the main cells expressing CD180 in man, cross-linking of CD180 by monoclonal antibodies stimulated cell survival and proliferation that was abrogated by specific inhibitors. By associating with PIM-1L, CD180 can thus obtain autonomous signaling capabilities, and this complex is then channeling inflammatory signals into B cell survival programs. Pharmacological inhibition of PIM-1 should therefore provide novel therapeutic options in diseases that respond to innate immune stimulation with subsequently increased B cell activity, such as lupus erythematosus or myasthenia gravis. PMID:26555723

  17. The role of PIM1/PIM2 kinases in tumors of the male reproductive system

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-García, Manuel Pedro; Lucena-Cacace, Antonio; Robles-Frías, María José; Narlik-Grassow, Maja; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Carnero, Amancio

    2016-01-01

    The PIM family of serine/threonine kinases has three highly conserved isoforms (PIM1, PIM2 and PIM3). PIM proteins are regulated through transcription and stability by JAK/STAT pathways and are overexpressed in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. The PIM kinases possess weak oncogenic abilities, but enhance other genes or chemical carcinogens to induce tumors. We generated conditional transgenic mice that overexpress PIM1 or PIM2 in male reproductive organs and analyzed their contribution to tumorigenesis. We found an increase in alterations of sexual organs and hyperplasia in the transgenic mice correlating with inflammation. We also found that PIM1/2 are overexpressed in a subset of human male germ cells and prostate tumors correlating with inflammatory features and stem cell markers. Our data suggest that PIM1/2 kinase overexpression is a common feature of male reproductive organs tumors, which provoke tissue alterations and a large inflammatory response that may act synergistically during the process of tumorigenesis. There is also a correlation with markers of cancer stem cells, which may contribute to the therapy resistance found in tumors overexpressing PIM kinases. PMID:27901106

  18. Differential regulation of androgen receptor by PIM-1 kinases via phosphorylation-dependent recruitment of distinct ubiquitin E3 ligases.

    PubMed

    Linn, Douglas E; Yang, Xi; Xie, Yingqiu; Alfano, Alan; Deshmukh, Dhanraj; Wang, Xin; Shimelis, Hermela; Chen, Hegang; Li, Wei; Xu, Kexin; Chen, Mingyuan; Qiu, Yun

    2012-06-29

    Androgen receptor (AR) plays a pivotal role in prostate cancer. Regulation of AR transcriptional activity by post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation by multiple kinases, is well documented. Here, we report that two PIM-1 kinase isoforms which are up-regulated during prostate cancer progression, namely PIM-1S and PIM-1L, modulate AR stability and transcriptional activity through differentially phosphorylating AR at serine 213 (Ser-213) and threonine 850 (Thr-850). Although both kinases are capable of interacting with and phosphorylating AR at Ser-213, only PIM-1L could phosphorylate Thr-850. We also showed that PIM-1S induced Ser-213 phosphorylation destabilizes AR by recruiting the ubiquitin E3 ligase Mdm2 and promotes AR degradation in a cell cycle-dependent manner, while PIM-1L-induced Thr-850 phosphorylation stabilizes AR by recruiting the ubiquitin E3 ligase RNF6 and promotes AR-mediated transcription under low-androgen conditions. Furthermore, both PIM-1 isoforms could promote prostate cancer cell growth under low-androgen conditions. Our data suggest that these kinases regulate AR stability and transcriptional activity through recruitment of different functional partners in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. As AR turnover has been previously shown to be critical for cell cycle progression in prostate cancer cells, PIM-1 kinase isoforms may promote prostate cancer cell growth, at least in part, through modulating AR activity via distinct mechanisms.

  19. Pim-1 ligand-bound structures reveal the mechanism of serine/threonine kinase inhibition by LY294002.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Marc D; Black, James; Futer, Olga; Swenson, Lora; Hare, Brian; Fleming, Mark; Saxena, Kumkum

    2005-04-08

    Pim-1 is an oncogene-encoded serine/threonine kinase primarily expressed in hematopoietic and germ cell lines. Pim-1 kinase was originally identified in Maloney murine leukemia virus-induced T-cell lymphomas and is associated with multiple cellular functions such as proliferation, survival, differentiation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis (Wang, Z., Bhattacharya, N., Weaver, M., Petersen, K., Meyer, M., Gapter, L., and Magnuson, N. S. (2001) J. Vet. Sci. 2, 167-179). The crystal structures of Pim-1 complexed with staurosporine and adenosine were determined. Although a typical two-domain serine/threonine protein kinase fold is observed, the inter-domain hinge region is unusual in both sequence and conformation; a two-residue insertion causes the hinge to bulge away from the ATP-binding pocket, and a proline residue in the hinge removes a conserved main chain hydrogen bond donor. Without this hydrogen bond, van der Waals interactions with the hinge serve to position the ligand. The hinge region of Pim-1 resembles that of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase more closely than it does other protein kinases. Although the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 also inhibits Pim-1, the structure of the LY294002.Pim-1 complex reveals a new binding mode that may be general for Ser/Thr kinases.

  20. PIM1 kinase regulates cell death, tumor growth and chemotherapy response in triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brasó-Maristany, Fara; Filosto, Simone; Catchpole, Steven; Marlow, Rebecca; Quist, Jelmar; Francesch-Domenech, Erika; Plumb, Darren A; Zakka, Leila; Gazinska, Patrycja; Liccardi, Gianmaria; Meier, Pascal; Gris-Oliver, Albert; Cheang, Maggie Chon U; Perdrix-Rosell, Anna; Shafat, Manar; Noël, Elodie; Patel, Nirmesh; McEachern, Kristen; Scaltriti, Maurizio; Castel, Pau; Noor, Farzana; Buus, Richard; Mathew, Sumi; Watkins, Johnathan; Serra, Violeta; Marra, Pierfrancesco; Grigoriadis, Anita; Tutt, Andrew N

    2017-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) have poor prognosis and lack targeted therapies. Here we identified increased copy number and expression of the PIM1 proto-oncogene in genomic data sets of patients with TNBC. TNBC cells, but not nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells, were dependent on PIM1 for proliferation and protection from apoptosis. PIM1 knockdown reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic factor BCL2, and dynamic BH3 profiling analysis revealed that PIM1 prevents mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in TNBC cell lines. In TNBC tumors and their cellular models, PIM1 expression was associated with several transcriptional signatures involving the transcription factor MYC, and PIM1 depletion in TNBC cell lines decreased, in a MYC-dependent manner, cell population growth and expression of the MYC target gene MCL1. Treatment with the pan–PIM kinase inhibitor AZD1208 impaired the growth of both cell line and patient-derived xenografts and sensitized them to standard-of-care chemotherapy This work identifies PIM1 as a malignant-cell-selective target in TNBC and the potential use of PIM1 inhibitors for sensitizing TNBC to chemotherapy-induced apoptotic cell death. PMID:27775704

  1. Inhibition of PIM1 kinase attenuates inflammation-induced pro-labour mediators in human foetal membranes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ratana; Barker, Gillian; Lappas, Martha

    2017-06-01

    Does proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukaemic virus (PIM)1 kinase play a role in regulating the inflammatory processes of human labour and delivery? PIM1 kinase plays a critical role in foetal membranes in regulating pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators. Infection and inflammation have strong causal links to preterm delivery by stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and collagen degrading enzymes, which can lead to rupture of membranes. PIM1 has been shown to have a role in immune regulation and inflammation in non-gestational tissues; however, its role has not been explored in the field of human labour. PIM1 expression was analysed in myometrium and/or foetal membranes obtained at term and preterm (n = 8-9 patients per group). Foetal membranes, freshly isolated amnion cells and primary myometrial cells were used to investigate the effect of PIM1 inhibition on pro-labour mediators (n = 5 patients per treatment group). Foetal membranes, from term and preterm, were obtained from non-labouring and labouring women, and from preterm pre-labour rupture of membranes (PPROM) (n = 9 per group). Amnion was collected from women with and without preterm chorioamnionitis (n = 8 per group). Expression of PIM1 kinase was determined by qRT-PCR and western blotting. To determine the effect of PIM1 kinase inhibition on the expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-labour mediators induced by bacterial products lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (10 μg/ml) and flagellin (1 μg/ml) and pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF) (10 ng/ml), chemical inhibitors SMI-4a (20 μM) and AZD1208 (50 μM) were used in foetal membrane explants and siRNA against PIM1 was used in primary amnion cells. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. PIM1 expression was significantly increased in foetal membranes after spontaneous term labour compared to no labour at term and in amnion with preterm chorioamnionitis compared to preterm with no chorioamnionitis. There was no

  2. Implications of promiscuous Pim-1 kinase fragment inhibitor hydrophobic interactions for fragment-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Good, Andrew C; Liu, Jinyu; Hirth, Bradford; Asmussen, Gary; Xiang, Yibin; Biemann, Hans-Peter; Bishop, Kimberly A; Fremgen, Trisha; Fitzgerald, Maria; Gladysheva, Tatiana; Jain, Annuradha; Jancsics, Katherine; Metz, Markus; Papoulis, Andrew; Skerlj, Renato; Stepp, J David; Wei, Ronnie R

    2012-03-22

    We have studied the subtleties of fragment docking and binding using data generated in a Pim-1 kinase inhibitor program. Crystallographic and docking data analyses have been undertaken using inhibitor complexes derived from an in-house surface plasmon resonance (SPR) fragment screen, a virtual needle screen, and a de novo designed fragment inhibitor hybrid. These investigations highlight that fragments that do not fill their binding pocket can exhibit promiscuous hydrophobic interactions due to the lack of steric constraints imposed on them by the boundaries of said pocket. As a result, docking modes that disagree with an observed crystal structure but maintain key crystallographically observed hydrogen bonds still have potential value in ligand design and optimization. This observation runs counter to the lore in fragment-based drug design that all fragment elaboration must be based on the parent crystal structure alone.

  3. Eco-friendly synthesis of novel cyanopyridine derivatives and their anticancer and PIM-1 kinase inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Abouzid, Khaled A M; Al-Ansary, Ghada H; El-Naggar, Abeer M

    2017-07-07

    Targeting Pim-1 kinase recently proved to be profitable for conquering cancer proliferation. In the current study, we report the design, synthesis and biological evaluation of two novel series of 2-amino cyanopyridine series (5a-g) and 2-oxocyanopyridine series (6a-g) targeting Pim-1 kinase. All of the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anticancer activity against a panel of three cell lines, namely, the liver cancer cell line (HepG2), the colon cancer cell line (HCT-116) and the breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Most of the compounds showed good to moderate anti-proliferative activity against HepG2 and HCT-116 cell lines while only few compounds showed significant cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell line. Further, the Pim-1 kinase inhibitory activity for the two series was evaluated where most of the tested compounds showed marked Pim-1 kinase inhibitory activity (26%-89%). Moreover, determination of the IC50 values unraveled very potent molecules in the submicromolar range where compound 6c possessed an IC50 value of 0.94 μM. Moreover, apoptosis studies were conducted on the most potent compound 6c to evaluate the proapoptotic potential of our compounds. Interestingly, it induced the level of active caspase 3 and boosted the Bax/Bcl2 ratio 22704 folds in comparison to the control. Finally, a molecular docking study was conducted to reveal the probable interaction with the Pim-1 kinase active site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Accelerated Evolution of PAK3- and PIM1-like Kinase Gene Families in the Zebra Finch, Taeniopygia guttata

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lesheng; Lovell, Peter V.; Heger, Andreas; Mello, Claudio V.; Ponting, Chris P.

    2010-01-01

    Genes encoding protein kinases tend to evolve slowly over evolutionary time, and only rarely do they appear as recent duplications in sequenced vertebrate genomes. Consequently, it was a surprise to find two families of kinase genes that have greatly and recently expanded in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) lineage. In contrast to other amniotic genomes (including chicken) that harbor only single copies of p21-activated serine/threonine kinase 3 (PAK3) and proviral integration site 1 (PIM1) genes, the zebra finch genome appeared at first to additionally contain 67 PAK3-like (PAK3L) and 51 PIM1-like (PIM1L) protein kinase genes. An exhaustive analysis of these gene models, however, revealed most to be incomplete, owing to the absence of terminal exons. After reprediction, 31 PAK3L genes and 10 PIM1L genes remain, and all but three are predicted, from the retention of functional sites and open reading frames, to be enzymatically active. PAK3L, but not PIM1L, gene sequences show evidence of recurrent episodes of positive selection, concentrated within structures spatially adjacent to N- and C-terminal protein regions that have been discarded from zebra finch PAK3L genes. At least seven zebra finch PAK3L genes were observed to be expressed in testis, whereas two sequences were found transcribed in the brain, one broadly including the song nuclei and the other in the ventricular zone and in cells resembling Bergmann's glia in the cerebellar Purkinje cell layer. Two PIM1L sequences were also observed to be expressed with broad distributions in the zebra finch brain, one in both the ventricular zone and the cerebellum and apparently associated with glial cells and the other showing neuronal cell expression and marked enrichment in midbrain/thalamic nuclei. These expression patterns do not correlate with zebra finch-specific features such as vocal learning. Nevertheless, our results show how ancient and conserved intracellular signaling molecules can be co

  5. Pim-1 kinase-dependent phosphorylation of p21Cip1/WAF1 regulates its stability and cellular localization in H1299 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yandong; Wang, Zeping; Magnuson, Nancy S

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory showed that p21Cip1/WAF1 can be phosphorylated by Pim-1 kinase in vitro, implying that part of the function of Pim-1 might involve influencing the cell cycle. In the present study, site-directed mutagenesis and phosphorylated-specific antibodies were used as tools to identify the sites phosphorylated by Pim-1 and the consequences of this phosphorylation. What we found was that Pim-1 can efficiently phosphorylate p21 on Thr145 in vitro using recombinant protein and in vivo in intact cells. Unexpectedly, we found that Ser146 is a second site that is phosphorylated in vivo, but this phosphorylation event seems to be an indirect result of Pim-1 expression. More importantly, the consequences of phosphorylation of either Thr145 or Ser146 are distinct. When p21 is phosphorylated on Thr145, it localizes to the nucleus and results in the disruption of the association between proliferating cell nuclear antigen and p21. Furthermore, phosphorylation of Thr145 promotes stabilization of p21. On the other hand, when p21 is phosphorylated on Ser146, it localizes primarily in the cytoplasm and the effect of phosphorylation on stability is minimal. Cotransfection of wild-type Pim-1 with p21 increases the rate of proliferation compared with cotransfection of p21 with kinase-dead Pim-1. Knocking down Pim-1 expression greatly decreases the rate of proliferation of H1299 cells and their ability to grow in soft agar. These data suggest that Pim-1 overexpression may contribute to tumorigenesis in part by influencing the cellular localization and stability of p21 and by promoting cell proliferation.

  6. Identification of novel inhibitors for Pim-1 kinase using pharmacophore modeling based on a novel method for selecting pharmacophore generation subsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahin, Rand; Swellmeen, Lubna; Shaheen, Omar; Aboalhaija, Nour; Habash, Maha

    2016-01-01

    Targeting Proviral integration-site of murine Moloney leukemia virus 1 kinase, hereafter called Pim-1 kinase, is a promising strategy for treating different kinds of human cancer. Headed for this a total list of 328 formerly reported Pim-1 kinase inhibitors has been explored and divided based on the pharmacophoric features of the most active molecules into 10 subsets projected to represent potential active binding manners accessible to ligands within the binding pocket of Pim-1 kinase. Discovery Studio 4.1 (DS 4.1) was employed to detect potential pharmacophoric active binding manners anticipated by Pim-1 Kinase inhibitors. The pharmacophoric models were then allowed to compete within Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) framework with other 2D descriptors. Accordingly Genetic algorithm and multiple linear regression investigation were engaged to find the finest QSAR equation that has the best predictive power r 262 2 = 0.70, F = 119.14, r LOO 2 = 0.693, r PRESS 2 against 66 external test inhibitors = 0.71 q2 = 0.55. Three different pharmacophores appeared in the successful QSAR equation this represents three different binding modes for inhibitors within the Pim-1 kinase binding pocket. Pharmacophoric models were later used to screen compounds within the National Cancer Institute database. Several low micromolar Pim-1 Kinase inhibitors were captured. The most potent hits show IC50 values of 0.77 and 1.03 µM. Also, upon analyzing the successful QSAR Equation we found that some polycyclic aromatic electron-rich structures namely 6-Chloro-2-methoxy-acridine can be considered as putative hits for Pim-1 kinase inhibition.

  7. 3D-QSAR and virtual screening studies of thiazolidine-2,4-dione analogs: Validation of experimental inhibitory potencies towards PIM-1 kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asati, Vivek; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Budhwani, Ashok Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The proviral insertion site in moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) is a family of serine/threonine kinase of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CAMK) group which is responsible for the activation and regulation of cellular transcription and translation. The three isoforms of PIM kinase (PIM-1, PIM-2 and PIM-3) share high homology and functional idleness are widely expressed and involved in a variety of biological processes including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Altered expression of PIM-1 kinase correlated with hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. In the present study, atom-based 3D-QSAR, docking and virtual screening studies have been performed on a series of thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives as PIM-1 kinase inhibitors. 3D-QSAR and docking approach has shortlisted the most active thiazolidine-2,4-dione derivatives such as 28, 31, 33 and 35 with the incorporation of more than one structural feature in a single molecule. External validations by various parameters and molecular docking studies at the active site of PIM-1 kinase have proved the reliability of the developed 3D-QSAR model. The generated pharmacophore (AADHR.33) from 3D-QSAR study was used for screening of drug like compounds from ZINC database, where ZINC15056464 and ZINC83292944 showed potential binding affinities at the active site amino acid residues (LYS67, GLU171, ASP128 and ASP186) of PIM-1 kinase (PDB ID: "pdb:4DTK").

  8. Discovery of imidazopyridazines as potent Pim-1/2 kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wurz, Ryan P; Sastri, Christine; D'Amico, Derin C; Herberich, Brad; Jackson, Claire L M; Pettus, Liping H; Tasker, Andrew S; Wu, Bin; Guerrero, Nadia; Lipford, J Russell; Winston, Jeffrey T; Yang, Yajing; Wang, Paul; Nguyen, Yen; Andrews, Kristin L; Huang, Xin; Lee, Matthew R; Mohr, Christopher; Zhang, J D; Reid, Darren L; Xu, Yang; Zhou, Yihong; Wang, Hui-Ling

    2016-11-15

    High levels of Pim expression have been implicated in several hematopoietic and solid tumor cancers, suggesting that inhibition of Pim signaling could provide patients with therapeutic benefit. Herein, we describe our progress towards this goal using a screening hit (rac-1) as a starting point. Modification of the indazole ring resulted in the discovery of a series of imidazopyridazine-based Pim inhibitors exemplified by compound 22m, which was found to be a subnanomolar inhibitor of the Pim-1 and Pim-2 isoforms (IC50 values of 0.024nM and 0.095nM, respectively) and to potently inhibit the phosphorylation of BAD in a cell line that expresses high levels of all Pim isoforms, KMS-12-BM (IC50=28nM). Profiling of Pim-1 and Pim-2 expression levels in a panel of multiple myeloma cell lines and correlation of these data with the potency of compound 22m in a proliferation assay suggests that Pim-2 inhibition would be advantageous for this indication.

  9. Flexibility of the P-loop of Pim-1 kinase: observation of a novel conformation induced by interaction with an inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lorien J.; Watanabe, Hisami; Tsuganezawa, Keiko; Tomabechi, Yuri; Handa, Noriko; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yuki, Hitomi; Honma, Teruki; Ogawa, Naoko; Nagano, Tetsuo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Akiko

    2012-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Pim-1 is emerging as a promising target for cancer therapeutics. Much attention has recently been focused on identifying potential Pim-1 inhibitor candidates for the treatment of haematopoietic malignancies. The outcome of a rational drug-design project has recently been reported [Nakano et al. (2012 ▶), J. Med. Chem. 55, 5151–5156]. The report described the process of optimization of the structure–activity relationship and detailed from a medicinal chemistry perspective the development of a low-potency and nonselective compound initially identified from in silico screening into a potent, selective and metabolically stable Pim-1 inhibitor. Here, the structures of the initial in silico hits are reported and the noteworthy features of the Pim-1 complex structures are described. A particular focus was placed on the rearrangement of the glycine-rich P-loop region that was observed for one of the initial compounds, (Z)-7-(azepan-1-ylmethyl)-2-[(1H-indol-3-­yl)methylidene]-6-hydroxy-1-benzofuran-3(2H)-one (compound 1), and was also found in all further derivatives. This novel P-loop conformation, which appears to be stabilized by an additional interaction with the β3 strand located above the binding site, is not usually observed in Pim-1 structures. PMID:22869110

  10. Flexibility of the P-loop of Pim-1 kinase: observation of a novel conformation induced by interaction with an inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lorien J; Watanabe, Hisami; Tsuganezawa, Keiko; Tomabechi, Yuri; Handa, Noriko; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yuki, Hitomi; Honma, Teruki; Ogawa, Naoko; Nagano, Tetsuo; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Akiko

    2012-08-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Pim-1 is emerging as a promising target for cancer therapeutics. Much attention has recently been focused on identifying potential Pim-1 inhibitor candidates for the treatment of haematopoietic malignancies. The outcome of a rational drug-design project has recently been reported [Nakano et al. (2012), J. Med. Chem. 55, 5151-5156]. The report described the process of optimization of the structure-activity relationship and detailed from a medicinal chemistry perspective the development of a low-potency and nonselective compound initially identified from in silico screening into a potent, selective and metabolically stable Pim-1 inhibitor. Here, the structures of the initial in silico hits are reported and the noteworthy features of the Pim-1 complex structures are described. A particular focus was placed on the rearrangement of the glycine-rich P-loop region that was observed for one of the initial compounds, (Z)-7-(azepan-1-ylmethyl)-2-[(1H-indol-3-yl)methylidene]-6-hydroxy-1-benzofuran-3(2H)-one (compound 1), and was also found in all further derivatives. This novel P-loop conformation, which appears to be stabilized by an additional interaction with the β3 strand located above the binding site, is not usually observed in Pim-1 structures.

  11. Cytoplasmic Irradiation Induces Metabolic Shift in Human Small Airway Epithelial Cells via Activation of Pim-1 Kinase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinhua; Zhang, Qin; Wuu, Yen-Ruh; Zou, Sirui; Hei, Tom K

    2017-04-01

    The unique cellular and molecular consequences of cytoplasmic damage caused by ionizing radiation were studied using a precision microbeam irradiator. Our results indicated that targeted cytoplasmic irradiation induced metabolic shift from an oxidative to glycolytic phenotype in human small airway epithelial cells (SAE). At 24 h postirradiation, there was an increase in the mRNA expression level of key glycolytic enzymes as well as lactate secretion in SAE cells. Using RNA-sequencing analysis to compare genes that were responsive to cytoplasmic versus nuclear irradiation, we found a glycolysis related gene, Pim-1, was significantly upregulated only in cytoplasmic irradiated SAE cells. Inhibition of Pim-1 activity using the selective pharmaceutic inhibitor Smi-4a significantly reduced the level of lactate production and glucose uptake after cytoplasmic irradiation. In addition, Pim-1 also inhibited AMPK activity, which is a well-characterized negative regulator of glycolysis. Distinct from the glycolysis induced by cytoplasmic irradiation, targeted nuclear irradiation also induced a transient and minimal increase in glycolysis that correlated with increased expression of Hif-1α. In an effort to explore the underline mechanism, we found that inhibition of mitochondria fission using the cell-permeable inhibitor mdivi-1 suppressed the induction of Pim-1, thus confirming Pim-1 upregulation as a downstream effect of mitochondrial dysfunction. Our data show and, for the first time, that cytoplasmic irradiation mediate expression level of Pim-1, which lead to glycolytic shift in SAE cells. Additionally, since glycolysis is frequently linked to cancer cell metabolism, our findings further suggest a role of cytoplasmic damage in promoting neoplastic changes.

  12. Palbociclib treatment of FLT3-ITD+ AML cells uncovers a kinase-dependent transcriptional regulation of FLT3 and PIM1 by CDK6

    PubMed Central

    Uras, Iris Z.; Walter, Gina J.; Scheicher, Ruth; Bellutti, Florian; Prchal-Murphy, Michaela; Tigan, Anca S.; Valent, Peter; Heidel, Florian H.; Kubicek, Stefan; Scholl, Claudia; Fröhling, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Up to 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia have constitutively activating internal tandem duplications (ITDs) of the FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinase. Such mutations are associated with a poor prognosis and a high propensity to relapse after remission. FLT3 inhibitors are being developed as targeted therapy for FLT3-ITD+ acute myeloid leukemia; however, their use is complicated by rapid development of resistance, which illustrates the need for additional therapeutic targets. We show that the US Food and Drug Administration–approved CDK4/6 kinase inhibitor palbociclib induces apoptosis of FLT3-ITD leukemic cells. The effect is specific for FLT3-mutant cells and is ascribed to the transcriptional activity of CDK6: CDK6 but not its functional homolog CDK4 is found at the promoters of the FLT3 and PIM1 genes, another important leukemogenic driver. There CDK6 regulates transcription in a kinase-dependent manner. Of potential clinical relevance, combined treatment with palbociclib and FLT3 inhibitors results in synergistic cytotoxicity. Simultaneously targeting two critical signaling nodes in leukemogenesis could represent a therapeutic breakthrough, leading to complete remission and overcoming resistance to FLT3 inhibitors. PMID:27099147

  13. PIM1-minicircle as a therapeutic treatment for myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingyan J.; Broughton, Kathleen M.; Alvarez, Roberto; Siddiqi, Sailay; Loaiza, Rebeca; Nguyen, Nicky; Quijada, Pearl; Gude, Natalie; Sussman, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    PIM1, a pro-survival gene encoding a serine/ threonine kinase, influences cell proliferation and survival. Modification of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) or cardiomyocytes with PIM1 using a lentivirus-based delivery method showed long-term improved cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). However, lentivirus based delivery methods have stringent FDA regulation with respect to clinical trials. To provide an alternative and low risk PIM1 delivery method, this study examined the use of a non-viral modified plasmid-minicircle (MC) as a vehicle to deliver PIM1 into mouse CPCs (mCPCs) in vitro and the myocardium in vivo. MC containing a turbo gfp reporter gene (gfp-MC) was used as a transfection and injection control. PIM1 was subcloned into gfp-MC (PIM1-MC) and then transfected into mCPCs at an efficiency of 29.4±3.7%. PIM1-MC engineered mCPCs (PIM1-mCPCs) exhibit significantly (P<0.05) better survival rate under oxidative treatment. PIM1-mCPCs also exhibit 1.9±0.1 and 2.2±0.2 fold higher cell proliferation at 3 and 5 days post plating, respectively, as compared to gfp-MC transfected mCPCs control. PIM1-MC was injected directly into ten-week old adult FVB female mice hearts in the border zone immediately after MI. Delivery of PIM1 into myocardium was confirmed by GFP+ cardiomyocytes. Mice with PIM1-MC injection showed increased protection compared to gfp-MC injection groups measured by ejection fraction at 3 and 7 days post injury (P = 0.0379 and P = 0.0262 by t-test, respectively). Success of PIM1 delivery and integration into mCPCs in vitro and cardiomyocytes in vivo by MC highlights the possibility of a non-cell based therapeutic approach for treatment of ischemic heart disease and MI. PMID:28323876

  14. In vivo analysis of Pim-1 deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Laird, P W; van der Lugt, N M; Clarke, A; Domen, J; Linders, K; McWhir, J; Berns, A; Hooper, M

    1993-01-01

    The Pim-1 proto-oncogene encodes a highly conserved serine/threonine phosphokinase which is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic organs and gonads in mammals. Overexpression of Pim-1 predisposes to lymphomagenesis in mice. To develop a further understanding of Pim-1 in molecular terms, as well as in terms of its potential role in hematopoietic development, we have generated mice deficient in Pim-1 function. Pim-1-deficient mice are ostensibly normal, healthy and fertile. Detailed comparative analyses of the hematopoietic systems of the mutant mice and their wild-type littermates showed that they are indistinguishable for most of the parameters studied. Our analyses revealed one unexpected phenotype that correlated with the level of Pim-1 expression: Pim-1 deficiency correlated with a erythrocyte microcytosis, whereas overexpression of Pim-1 in E mu-Pim-1-transgenic mice resulted in erythrocyte macrocytosis. In order to confirm that the observed decrease in erythrocyte Mean Cell Volume (MCV) was attributable to the Pim-1 deficiency, we developed mice transgenic for a Pim-1 gene construct with its own promoter and showed that this transgene could restore the low erythrocyte Mean Cell Volume observed in the Pim-1-deficient mice to near wild-type levels. These results might be relevant to the observed involvement of the Pim-1 gene in mouse erythroleukemogenesis. The surprising lack of a readily observed phenotype in the lymphoid compartment of the Pim-1-deficient mice, suggests a heretofore unrecognized degree of in vivo functional redundancy of this highly conserved proto-oncogene. Images PMID:8233823

  15. Pim1 promotes human prostate cancer cell tumorigenicity and c-MYC transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The serine/threonine kinase PIM1 has been implicated as an oncogene in various human cancers including lymphomas, gastric, colorectal and prostate carcinomas. In mouse models, Pim1 is known to cooperate with c-Myc to promote tumorigenicity. However, there has been limited analysis of the tumorigenic potential of Pim1 overexpression in benign and malignant human prostate cancer cells in vivo. Methods We overexpressed Pim1 in three human prostate cell lines representing different disease stages including benign (RWPE1), androgen-dependent cancer (LNCaP) and androgen-independent cancer (DU145). We then analyzed in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity as well as the effect of Pim1 overexpression on c-MYC transcriptional activity by reporter assays and gene expression profiling using an inducible MYC-ER system. To validate that Pim1 induces tumorigenicity and target gene expression by modulating c-MYC transcriptional activity, we inhibited c-MYC using a small molecule inhibitor (10058-F4) or RNA interference. Results Overexpression of Pim1 alone was not sufficient to convert the benign RWPE1 cell to malignancy although it enhanced their proliferation rates when grown as xenografts in vivo. However, Pim1 expression enhanced the in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic potentials of the human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and DU145. Reporter assays revealed increased c-MYC transcriptional activity in Pim1-expressing cells and mRNA expression profiling demonstrated that a large fraction of c-MYC target genes were also regulated by Pim1 expression. The c-MYC inhibitor 10058-F4 suppressed the tumorigenicity of Pim1-expressing prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, 10058-F4 treatment also led to a reduction of Pim1 protein but not mRNA. Knocking-down c-MYC using short hairpin RNA reversed the effects of Pim1 on Pim1/MYC target genes. Conclusion Our results suggest an in vivo role of Pim1 in promoting prostate tumorigenesis although it displayed distinct oncogenic activities

  16. Nuclear PIM1 confers resistance to rapamycin-impaired endothelial proliferation.

    PubMed

    Walpen, Thomas; Kalus, Ina; Schwaller, Jürg; Peier, Martin A; Battegay, Edouard J; Humar, Rok

    2012-12-07

    The PIM serine/threonine kinases and the mTOR/AKT pathway integrate growth factor signaling and promote cell proliferation and survival. They both share phosphorylation targets and have overlapping functions, which can partially substitute for each other. In cancer cells PIM kinases have been reported to produce resistance to mTOR inhibition by rapamycin. Tumor growth depends highly on blood vessel infiltration into the malignant tissue and therefore on endothelial cell proliferation. We therefore investigated how the PIM1 kinase modulates growth inhibitory effects of rapamycin in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAEC). We found that proliferation of MAEC lacking Pim1 was significantly more sensitive to rapamycin inhibition, compared to wildtype cells. Inhibition of mTOR and AKT in normal MAEC resulted in significantly elevated PIM1 protein levels in the cytosol and in the nucleus. We observed that truncation of the C-terminal part of Pim1 beyond Ser 276 resulted in almost exclusive nuclear localization of the protein. Re-expression of this Pim1 deletion mutant significantly increased the proliferation of Pim1(-/-) cells when compared to expression of the wildtype Pim1 cDNA. Finally, overexpression of the nuclear localization mutant and the wildtype Pim1 resulted in complete resistance to growth inhibition by rapamycin. Thus, mTOR inhibition-induced nuclear accumulation of PIM1 or expression of a nuclear C-terminal PIM1 truncation mutant is sufficient to increase endothelial cell proliferation, suggesting that nuclear localization of PIM1 is important for resistance of MAEC to rapamycin-mediated inhibition of proliferation.

  17. Nuclear PIM1 confers resistance to rapamycin-impaired endothelial proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Walpen, Thomas; Kalus, Ina; Schwaller, Juerg; Peier, Martin A.; Battegay, Edouard J.; Humar, Rok

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pim1{sup -/-} endothelial cell proliferation displays increased sensitivity to rapamycin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer mTOR inhibition by rapamycin enhances PIM1 cytosolic and nuclear protein levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Truncation of Pim1 beyond serine 276 results in nuclear localization of the kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear PIM1 increases endothelial proliferation independent of rapamycin. -- Abstract: The PIM serine/threonine kinases and the mTOR/AKT pathway integrate growth factor signaling and promote cell proliferation and survival. They both share phosphorylation targets and have overlapping functions, which can partially substitute for each other. In cancer cells PIM kinases have been reported to produce resistance to mTOR inhibition by rapamycin. Tumor growth depends highly on blood vessel infiltration into the malignant tissue and therefore on endothelial cell proliferation. We therefore investigated how the PIM1 kinase modulates growth inhibitory effects of rapamycin in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAEC). We found that proliferation of MAEC lacking Pim1 was significantly more sensitive to rapamycin inhibition, compared to wildtype cells. Inhibition of mTOR and AKT in normal MAEC resulted in significantly elevated PIM1 protein levels in the cytosol and in the nucleus. We observed that truncation of the C-terminal part of Pim1 beyond Ser 276 resulted in almost exclusive nuclear localization of the protein. Re-expression of this Pim1 deletion mutant significantly increased the proliferation of Pim1{sup -/-} cells when compared to expression of the wildtype Pim1 cDNA. Finally, overexpression of the nuclear localization mutant and the wildtype Pim1 resulted in complete resistance to growth inhibition by rapamycin. Thus, mTOR inhibition-induced nuclear accumulation of PIM1 or expression of a nuclear C-terminal PIM1 truncation mutant is sufficient to increase endothelial cell proliferation

  18. The discovery of novel benzofuran-2-carboxylic acids as potent Pim-1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yibin; Hirth, Bradford; Asmussen, Gary; Biemann, Hans-Peter; Bishop, Kimberly A; Good, Andrew; Fitzgerald, Maria; Gladysheva, Tatiana; Jain, Annuradha; Jancsics, Katherine; Liu, Jinyu; Metz, Markus; Papoulis, Andrew; Skerlj, Renato; Stepp, J David; Wei, Ronnie R

    2011-05-15

    Novel benzofuran-2-carboxylic acids, exemplified by 29, 38 and 39, have been discovered as potent Pim-1 inhibitors using fragment based screening followed by X-ray structure guided medicinal chemistry optimization. The compounds demonstrate potent inhibition against Pim-1 and Pim-2 in enzyme assays. Compound 29 has been tested in the Ambit 442 kinase panel and demonstrates good selectivity for the Pim kinase family. X-ray structures of the inhibitor/Pim-1 binding complex reveal important salt-bridge and hydrogen bond interactions mediated by the compound's carboxylic acid and amino groups.

  19. Functional Effect of Pim1 Depends upon Intracellular Localization in Human Cardiac Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Samse, Kaitlen; Emathinger, Jacqueline; Hariharan, Nirmala; Quijada, Pearl; Ilves, Kelli; Völkers, Mirko; Ormachea, Lucia; De La Torre, Andrea; Orogo, Amabel M.; Alvarez, Roberto; Din, Shabana; Mohsin, Sadia; Monsanto, Megan; Fischer, Kimberlee M.; Dembitsky, Walter P.; Gustafsson, Åsa B.; Sussman, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPC) improve heart function after autologous transfer in heart failure patients. Regenerative potential of hCPCs is severely limited with age, requiring genetic modification to enhance therapeutic potential. A legacy of work from our laboratory with Pim1 kinase reveals effects on proliferation, survival, metabolism, and rejuvenation of hCPCs in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that subcellular targeting of Pim1 bolsters the distinct cardioprotective effects of this kinase in hCPCs to increase proliferation and survival, and antagonize cellular senescence. Adult hCPCs isolated from patients undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation were engineered to overexpress Pim1 throughout the cell (PimWT) or targeted to either mitochondrial (Mito-Pim1) or nuclear (Nuc-Pim1) compartments. Nuc-Pim1 enhances stem cell youthfulness associated with decreased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, preserved telomere length, reduced expression of p16 and p53, and up-regulation of nucleostemin relative to PimWT hCPCs. Alternately, Mito-Pim1 enhances survival by increasing expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL and decreasing cell death after H2O2 treatment, thereby preserving mitochondrial integrity superior to PimWT. Mito-Pim1 increases the proliferation rate by up-regulation of cell cycle modulators Cyclin D, CDK4, and phospho-Rb. Optimal stem cell traits such as proliferation, survival, and increased youthful properties of aged hCPCs are enhanced after targeted Pim1 localization to mitochondrial or nuclear compartments. Targeted Pim1 overexpression in hCPCs allows for selection of the desired phenotypic properties to overcome patient variability and improve specific stem cell characteristics. PMID:25882843

  20. Functional Effect of Pim1 Depends upon Intracellular Localization in Human Cardiac Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Samse, Kaitlen; Emathinger, Jacqueline; Hariharan, Nirmala; Quijada, Pearl; Ilves, Kelli; Völkers, Mirko; Ormachea, Lucia; De La Torre, Andrea; Orogo, Amabel M; Alvarez, Roberto; Din, Shabana; Mohsin, Sadia; Monsanto, Megan; Fischer, Kimberlee M; Dembitsky, Walter P; Gustafsson, Åsa B; Sussman, Mark A

    2015-05-29

    Human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPC) improve heart function after autologous transfer in heart failure patients. Regenerative potential of hCPCs is severely limited with age, requiring genetic modification to enhance therapeutic potential. A legacy of work from our laboratory with Pim1 kinase reveals effects on proliferation, survival, metabolism, and rejuvenation of hCPCs in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that subcellular targeting of Pim1 bolsters the distinct cardioprotective effects of this kinase in hCPCs to increase proliferation and survival, and antagonize cellular senescence. Adult hCPCs isolated from patients undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation were engineered to overexpress Pim1 throughout the cell (PimWT) or targeted to either mitochondrial (Mito-Pim1) or nuclear (Nuc-Pim1) compartments. Nuc-Pim1 enhances stem cell youthfulness associated with decreased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, preserved telomere length, reduced expression of p16 and p53, and up-regulation of nucleostemin relative to PimWT hCPCs. Alternately, Mito-Pim1 enhances survival by increasing expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL and decreasing cell death after H2O2 treatment, thereby preserving mitochondrial integrity superior to PimWT. Mito-Pim1 increases the proliferation rate by up-regulation of cell cycle modulators Cyclin D, CDK4, and phospho-Rb. Optimal stem cell traits such as proliferation, survival, and increased youthful properties of aged hCPCs are enhanced after targeted Pim1 localization to mitochondrial or nuclear compartments. Targeted Pim1 overexpression in hCPCs allows for selection of the desired phenotypic properties to overcome patient variability and improve specific stem cell characteristics. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Pim-1: A Molecular Target to Modulate Cellular Resistance to Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    7 • Identication of quercetagetin as a moderately potent and specific, cell-permeable PIM1 kinase inhibitor • Demonstration...Baird K, Ahn J-Y, Meltzer P, Lilly M, Small D: Pim-1 is upregulated in constitutively activating FLT3 mutants and plays a role in FLT3-mediated cell...survival. Blood 105(4), 1759-1767 (2005). 49. Chen WW, Chan DC, Donald C, Lilly MB, Kraft AS. Pim family kinases enhance tumor growth of

  2. ERG deregulation induces PIM1 over-expression and aneuploidy in prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Magistroni, Vera; Mologni, Luca; Sanselicio, Stefano; Reid, James Frances; Redaelli, Sara; Piazza, Rocco; Viltadi, Michela; Bovo, Giorgio; Strada, Guido; Grasso, Marco; Gariboldi, Manuela; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    The ERG gene belongs to the ETS family of transcription factors and has been found to be involved in atypical chromosomal rearrangements in several cancers. To gain insight into the oncogenic activity of ERG, we compared the gene expression profile of NIH-3T3 cells stably expressing the coding regions of the three main ERG oncogenic fusions: TMPRSS2/ERG (tERG), EWS/ERG and FUS/ERG. We found that all three ERG fusions significantly up-regulate PIM1 expression in the NIH-3T3 cell line. PIM1 is a serine/threonine kinase frequently over-expressed in cancers of haematological and epithelial origin. We show here that tERG expression induces PIM1 in the non-malignant prostate cell line RWPE-1, strengthening the relation between tERG and PIM1 up-regulation in the initial stages of prostate carcinogenesis. Silencing of tERG reversed PIM1 induction. A significant association between ERG and PIM1 expression in clinical prostate carcinoma specimens was found, suggesting that such a mechanism may be relevant in vivo. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that tERG directly binds to PIM1 promoter in the RWPE-1 prostate cell line, suggesting that tERG could be a direct regulator of PIM1 expression. The up-regulation of PIM1 induced by tERG over-expression significantly modified Cyclin B1 levels and increased the percentage of aneuploid cells in the RWPE-1 cell line after taxane-based treatment. Here we provide the first evidence for an ERG-mediated PIM1 up-regulation in prostate cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a direct effect of ERG transcriptional activity in the alteration of genetic stability.

  3. Pim-1: A Molecular Target to Modulate Cellular Resistance to Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    phosphorylation site for PIM1 on the p105/NFKB1 precursor protein • Identication of quercetagetin as a moderately potent and specific, cell-permeable PIM1...an orthotopic murine model. J Urology 173, 604-609 (2005). 48. Kim K-T, Baird K, Ahn J-Y, Meltzer P, Lilly M, Small D: Pim-1 is upregulated... Donald C, Lilly MB, Kraft AS. Pim family kinases enhance tumor growth of prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2005 Aug;3(8):443-51. 50

  4. Pim-1 levels determine the size of early B lymphoid compartments in bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The mouse proto-oncogene Pim-1, which encodes two cytoplasmic serine- threonine-specific protein kinases, is frequently activated by proviral insertion in murine leukemia virus-induced hematopoietic tumors. Transgenic mice overexpressing Pim-1 show a low incidence of spontaneous T cell lymphomas, whereas null mutant mice lack an obvious phenotype. We have analyzed the early B lymphoid compartment from both null mutant and E mu-Pim-1 transgenic mice. The level of Pim-1 expression appears to be a determining factor in the ability of these cells to respond to the growth factors interleukin 7 (IL-7) and SF (steel factor). The impaired response in null mutant mice could be rescued by introduction of a functional Pim-1 transgene. Moreover, overexpression of Pim-1 facilitates the derivation of primitive lymphoid cell lines that are dependent on combined stimulation with IL- 7 and SF or insulin-like growth factor 1. These results for the first time identify the involvement of Pim-1 in a normal cellular function, as an important regulator of early B lymphopoiesis in mice. PMID:8228813

  5. Expression of a Pim-1 transgene accelerates lymphoproliferation and inhibits apoptosis in lpr/lpr mice.

    PubMed Central

    Möröy, T; Grzeschiczek, A; Petzold, S; Hartmann, K U

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the Pim-1 kinase are predisposed to develop T-cell lymphomas with a long latency period of about 7-9 months. However, the exact functional basis of the oncogenic activity of Pim-1 remains obscure. C57BL/6 mice homozygous for the lpr mutation develop a well-described lymphoproliferative syndrome at about 26-30 weeks of age. This syndrome is characterized mainly by the accumulation of abnormal T cells in lymph nodes because of the lack of Fas receptor-induced apoptosis. We find that backcross of E mu-Pim-1 transgenics (mice with a transgene that carries the mouse Pim-1 gene under the transcriptional control of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer E mu) into lpr/lpr mice results in strong acceleration of lymphoproliferation and dramatic enlargement of lymph nodes. In addition, we show here that cultured lymph node cells from E mu-Pim-1 lpr/lpr mice are rescued from rapid apoptosis that normally occurs in nontransgenic lpr cells in vitro. We also present evidence that CD4+/CD8+ double-positive thymocytes from lpr/lpr mice are sensitive to dexamethasone-induced apoptosis, although lpr/lpr mice lack the Fas receptor. In contrast, E mu-Pim-1 lpr/lpr animals show considerable protection from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. These results show that Pim-1 can strongly accelerate lymphoproliferation through inhibition of apoptosis and thereby provide first insight into the functional basis for the oncogenic activity of Pim-1. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7504280

  6. Pim1 inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Ramon; Shaw, Darren M; Caccamo, Antonella; Oddo, Salvatore

    2016-07-13

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. Clinically, AD is characterized by impairments of memory and cognitive functions. Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles are the prominent neuropathologies in patients with AD. Strong evidence indicates that an imbalance between production and degradation of key proteins contributes to the pathogenesis of AD. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a key role in maintaining protein homeostasis as it regulates both protein synthesis and degradation. A key regulator of mTOR activity is the proline-rich AKT substrate 40 kDa (PRAS40), which directly binds to mTOR and reduces its activity. Notably, AD patients have elevated levels of phosphorylated PRAS40, which correlate with Aβ and tau pathologies as well as cognitive deficits. Physiologically, PRAS40 phosphorylation is regulated by Pim1, a protein kinase of the protoconcogene family. Here, we tested the effects of a selective Pim1 inhibitor (Pim1i), on spatial reference and working memory and AD-like pathology in 3xTg-AD mice. We have identified a Pim1i that crosses the blood brain barrier and reduces PRAS40 phosphorylation. Pim1i-treated 3xTg-AD mice performed significantly better than their vehicle treated counterparts as well as non-transgenic mice. Additionally, 3xTg-AD Pim1i-treated mice showed a reduction in soluble and insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels, as well as a 45.2 % reduction in Aβ42 plaques within the hippocampus. Furthermore, phosphorylated tau immunoreactivity was reduced in the hippocampus of Pim1i-treated 3xTg-AD mice by 38 %. Mechanistically, these changes were linked to a significant increase in proteasome activity. These results suggest that reductions in phosphorylated PRAS40 levels via Pim1 inhibition reduce Aβ and Tau pathology and rescue cognitive deficits by increasing proteasome function. Given that Pim1 inhibitors are already being tested in ongoing human clinical trials

  7. Pim-1: A Molecular Target to Modulate Cellular Resistance to Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    the p105/NFKB1 precursor protein • Identication of quercetagetin as a moderately potent and specific, cell-permeable PIM1 kinase inhibitor...173, 604-609 (2005). 48. Kim K-T, Baird K, Ahn J-Y, Meltzer P, Lilly M, Small D: Pim-1 is upregulated in constitutively activating FLT3 mutants...and plays a role in FLT3-mediated cell survival. Blood 105(4), 1759-1767 (2005). 49. Chen WW, Chan DC, Donald C, Lilly MB, Kraft AS. Pim family

  8. PIM1: A Molecular Target to Modulate Cellular Resistance to Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    tion by other members of the PIM family of kinascs, namely P1M-2 and PIM-?.2T Not surprisingly, hemato- poictic cells taken from triple knockout...Biol Chem. 283(30):20635-44. (2008). 57. Shah N, Pang B, Yeoh KG, Thorn S, Chen CS, Lilly MB, Salto -Tellez M. Potential roles for the PIM1 kinase in

  9. Inhibition of the Pim1 Oncogene Results in Diminished Visual Function

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jun; Shine, Lisa; Raycroft, Francis; Deeti, Sudhakar; Reynolds, Alison; Ackerman, Kristin M.; Glaviano, Antonino; O'Farrell, Sean; O'Leary, Olivia; Kilty, Claire; Kennedy, Ciaran; McLoughlin, Sarah; Rice, Megan; Russell, Eileen; Higgins, Desmond G.; Hyde, David R.; Kennedy, Breandan N.

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to profile genetic pathways whose differential expression correlates with maturation of visual function in zebrafish. Bioinformatic analysis of transcriptomic data revealed Jak-Stat signalling as the pathway most enriched in the eye, as visual function develops. Real-time PCR, western blotting, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization data confirm that multiple Jak-Stat pathway genes are up-regulated in the zebrafish eye between 3–5 days post-fertilisation, times associated with significant maturation of vision. One of the most up-regulated Jak-Stat genes is the proto-oncogene Pim1 kinase, previously associated with haematological malignancies and cancer. Loss of function experiments using Pim1 morpholinos or Pim1 inhibitors result in significant diminishment of visual behaviour and function. In summary, we have identified that enhanced expression of Jak-Stat pathway genes correlates with maturation of visual function and that the Pim1 oncogene is required for normal visual function. PMID:23300608

  10. The Novel PIM1 Inhibitor NMS-P645 Reverses PIM1-Dependent Effects on TMPRSS2/ERG Positive Prostate Cancer Cells And Shows Anti-Proliferative Activity in Combination with PI3K Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mologni, Luca; Magistroni, Vera; Casuscelli, Francesco; Montemartini, Marisa; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    PIM1 is over-expressed in multiple tumors, including prostate cancer (PCa). PIM1 upregulation is mediated by direct binding of the ERG transcription factor to its promoter. About 50% of PCa cases are characterized by the presence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion, leading to ERG over-expression and thus to PIM1 transcriptional activation. PIM kinases are considered as weak oncogenes, but when combined with additional genetic alterations can induce strong transforming effects. Here we show anti-proliferative activity of the newly described PIM1 inhibitor NMS-P645 in combination with the PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 in TMPRSS2/ERG positive and negative PCa cells. Treatment with NMS-P645 alone can reverse PIM1-mediated pro-survival signals in prostate cells, such as activation of STAT3 through Tyr705 phosphorylation and resistance to taxane-based treatments, but does not exert a strong anti-tumoral effect. However, the simultaneous treatment with NMS-P645 and GDC-0941 induces a significant anti-proliferative response in PCa cells. These results support the use of combination strategies with PIM and PI3K inhibitors as effective treatment for PCa cases. PMID:28123608

  11. NFκB-Pim-1-Eomesodermin axis is critical for maintaining CD8 T-cell memory quality.

    PubMed

    Knudson, Karin M; Pritzl, Curtis J; Saxena, Vikas; Altman, Amnon; Daniels, Mark A; Teixeiro, Emma

    2017-02-28

    T-cell memory is critical for long-term immunity. However, the factors involved in maintaining the persistence, function, and phenotype of the memory pool are undefined. Eomesodermin (Eomes) is required for the establishment of the memory pool. Here, we show that in T cells transitioning to memory, the expression of high levels of Eomes is not constitutive but rather requires a continuum of cell-intrinsic NFκB signaling. Failure to maintain NFκB signals after the peak of the response led to impaired Eomes expression and a defect in the maintenance of CD8 T-cell memory. Strikingly, we found that antigen receptor [T-cell receptor (TCR)] signaling regulates this process through expression of the NFκB-dependent kinase proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus-1 (PIM-1), which in turn regulates NFκB and Eomes. T cells defective in TCR-dependent NFκB signaling were impaired in late expression of Pim-1, Eomes, and CD8 memory. These defects were rescued when TCR-dependent NFκB signaling was restored. We also found that NFκB-Pim-1 signals were required at memory to maintain memory CD8 T-cell longevity, effector function, and Eomes expression. Hence, an NFκB-Pim-1-Eomes axis regulates Eomes levels to maintain memory fitness.

  12. NFκB–Pim-1–Eomesodermin axis is critical for maintaining CD8 T-cell memory quality

    PubMed Central

    Knudson, Karin M.; Saxena, Vikas; Altman, Amnon; Daniels, Mark A.; Teixeiro, Emma

    2017-01-01

    T-cell memory is critical for long-term immunity. However, the factors involved in maintaining the persistence, function, and phenotype of the memory pool are undefined. Eomesodermin (Eomes) is required for the establishment of the memory pool. Here, we show that in T cells transitioning to memory, the expression of high levels of Eomes is not constitutive but rather requires a continuum of cell-intrinsic NFκB signaling. Failure to maintain NFκB signals after the peak of the response led to impaired Eomes expression and a defect in the maintenance of CD8 T-cell memory. Strikingly, we found that antigen receptor [T-cell receptor (TCR)] signaling regulates this process through expression of the NFκB-dependent kinase proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus-1 (PIM-1), which in turn regulates NFκB and Eomes. T cells defective in TCR-dependent NFκB signaling were impaired in late expression of Pim-1, Eomes, and CD8 memory. These defects were rescued when TCR-dependent NFκB signaling was restored. We also found that NFκB–Pim-1 signals were required at memory to maintain memory CD8 T-cell longevity, effector function, and Eomes expression. Hence, an NFκB–Pim-1–Eomes axis regulates Eomes levels to maintain memory fitness. PMID:28193872

  13. CD95-mediated apoptosis in Burkitt's lymphoma B-cells is associated with Pim-1 down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Matou-Nasri, Sabine; Rabhan, Zaki; Al-Baijan, Haya; Al-Eidi, Hamad; Yahya, Wesam Bin; Al Abdulrahman, Abdelkareem; Almobadel, Nasser; Alsubeai, Mona; Al Ghamdi, Saleh; Alaskar, Ahmed; AlBalwi, Mohammed; Alzahrani, Mohsen; Alabdulkareem, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    B-cells of the high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) overexpress survival oncoproteins, including the proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukaemia virus kinase (Pim)-1, and become apoptosis resistant. Activated death receptor CD95 after ligation with anti-CD95 monoclonal antibody (mAb) resulted in the regression of BL via induction of apoptosis, suggesting a decrease of survival protein expression. Here, CD95-mediated apoptotic pathways in BL B-cell lines (Raji and Daudi) following treatment with anti-CD95 mAb was investigated with the cause-and-effects on pim-1 gene expression, in comparison with leukemic cell line (K562) used as CD95-negative cells. Immunohistochemical staining for CD95 and Pim-1 was performed, and the effects of anti-CD95 mAb on apoptotic signalling using western blotting, on caspase activity and cell survival of BL B-cell and leukemic cell lines were determined. We showed that Raji cells expressed more CD95 receptors than Daudi cells. Half of each population underwent apoptosis accompanied by decreased cell viability after anti-CD95 mAb treatment. Distinct extrinsic and intrinsic CD95-mediated apoptotic pathways in Raji and Daudi cells were revealed by high caspase activity and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, respectively. We observed decreased Pim-1 transcript and protein expression levels with increased heat-shock protein (Hsp)70 and decreased Hsp90 expression in anti-CD95 mAb-treated cells. Throughout the study, K562 cells did not undergo apoptosis upon anti-CD95 mAb treatment. Pim-1 knockdown following to stable transfection with plasmid vectors induced apoptosis and decreased viability of BL and K562 cells. Therefore, CD95-mediated apoptosis induces Pim-1 down-regulation in BL B-cells, but Pim-1 down-regulation cannot fully eradicate BL and leukaemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Alpinumisoflavone induces apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by modulating miR-370/PIM1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yantao; Yang, Xiuwei; Zhao, Ning; Peng, Jianjun; Gao, Hui; Qiu, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most prevalent type of esophageal cancer and accumulating evidence has confirmed the role of miRNAs in ESCC. One such miRNA, miR-370, was found to be aberrantly downregulated in various human malignancies. This study showed that the expression of miR-370 was significantly lower in ESCC tissues and cell lines, and miR-370 functioned as a tumor suppressor in ESCC. Moreover, this is the first report that showed miR-370 suppresses cell proliferation and tumor growth by directly targeting Pim family kinases 1 (PIM1). Furthermore, alpinumisoflavone, a naturally occurring flavonoid, could inhibit tumor growth of ESCC by targeting miR-370/PIM1 signaling. PMID:28042498

  15. Identification of the First Inhibitor of the GBP1:PIM1 Interaction. Implications for the Development of a New Class of Anticancer Agents against Paclitaxel Resistant Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Class III β-tubulin plays a prominent role in the development of drug resistance to paclitaxel by allowing the incorporation of the GBP1 GTPase into microtubules. Once in the cytoskeleton, GBP1 binds to prosurvival kinases such as PIM1 and initiates a signaling pathway that induces resistance to paclitaxel. Therefore, the inhibition of the GBP1:PIM1 interaction could potentially revert resistance to paclitaxel. A panel of 44 4-azapodophyllotoxin derivatives was screened in the NCI-60 cell panel. The result is that 31 are active and the comparative analysis demonstrated specific activity in paclitaxel-resistant cells. Using surface plasmon resonance, we were able to prove that NSC756093 is a potent in vitro inhibitor of the GBP1:PIM1 interaction and that this property is maintained in vivo in ovarian cancer cells resistant to paclitaxel. Through bioinformatics, molecular modeling, and mutagenesis studies, we identified the putative NSC756093 binding site at the interface between the helical and the LG domain of GBP1. According to our results by binding to this site, the NSC756093 compound is able to stabilize a conformation of GBP1 not suitable for binding to PIM1. PMID:25211704

  16. Synthesis and Transport Properties of Novel MOF/PIM-1/MOF Sandwich Membranes for Gas Separation

    PubMed Central

    Fuoco, Alessio; Khdhayyer, Muhanned R.; Attfield, Martin P.; Esposito, Elisa; Jansen, Johannes C.; Budd, Peter M.

    2017-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were supported on polymer membrane substrates for the fabrication of composite polymer membranes based on unmodified and modified polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1). Layers of two different MOFs, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) and Copper benzene tricarboxylate ((HKUST-1), were grown onto neat PIM-1, amide surface-modified PIM-1 and hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) -modified PIM-1. The surface-grown crystalline MOFs were characterized by a combination of several techniques, including powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the film morphology on the neat and modified PIM-1 membranes. The pure gas permeabilities of He, H2, O2, N2, CH4, CO2 were studied to understand the effect of the surface modification on the basic transport properties and evaluate the potential use of these membranes for industrially relevant gas separations. The pure gas transport was discussed in terms of permeability and selectivity, highlighting the effect of the MOF growth on the diffusion coefficients of the gas in the new composite polymer membranes. The results confirm that the growth of MOFs on polymer membranes can enhance the selectivity of the appropriately functionalized PIM-1, without a dramatic decrease of the permeability. PMID:28208658

  17. The putative oncogene Pim-1 in the mouse: its linkage and variation among t haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, J H; Phillips, S J

    1987-11-01

    Pim-1, a putative oncogene involved in T-cell lymphomagenesis, was mapped between the pseudo-alpha globin gene Hba-4ps and the alpha-crystallin gene Crya-1 on mouse chromosome 17 and therefore within the t complex. Pim-1 restriction fragment variants were identified among t haplotypes. Analysis of restriction fragment sizes obtained with 12 endonucleases demonstrated that the Pim-1 genes in some t haplotypes were indistinguishable from the sizes for the Pim-1b allele in BALB/c inbred mice. There are now three genes, Pim-1, Crya-1 and H-2 I-E, that vary among independently derived t haplotypes and that have indistinguishable alleles in t haplotypes and inbred strains. These genes are closely linked within the distal inversion of the t complex. Because it is unlikely that these variants arose independently in t haplotypes and their wild-type homologues, we propose that an exchange of chromosomal segments, probably through double crossingover, was responsible for indistinguishable Pim-1 genes shared by certain t haplotypes and their wild-type homologues. There was, however, no apparent association between variant alleles of these three genes among t haplotypes as would be expected if a single exchange introduced these alleles into t haplotypes. If these variant alleles can be shown to be identical to the wild-type allele, then lack of association suggests that multiple exchanges have occurred during the evolution of the t complex.

  18. Synthesis and Transport Properties of Novel MOF/PIM-1/MOF Sandwich Membranes for Gas Separation.

    PubMed

    Fuoco, Alessio; Khdhayyer, Muhanned R; Attfield, Martin P; Esposito, Elisa; Jansen, Johannes C; Budd, Peter M

    2017-02-11

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were supported on polymer membrane substrates for the fabrication of composite polymer membranes based on unmodified and modified polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1). Layers of two different MOFs, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) and Copper benzene tricarboxylate ((HKUST-1), were grown onto neat PIM-1, amide surface-modified PIM-1 and hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) -modified PIM-1. The surface-grown crystalline MOFs were characterized by a combination of several techniques, including powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the film morphology on the neat and modified PIM-1 membranes. The pure gas permeabilities of He, H₂, O₂, N₂, CH₄, CO₂ were studied to understand the effect of the surface modification on the basic transport properties and evaluate the potential use of these membranes for industrially relevant gas separations. The pure gas transport was discussed in terms of permeability and selectivity, highlighting the effect of the MOF growth on the diffusion coefficients of the gas in the new composite polymer membranes. The results confirm that the growth of MOFs on polymer membranes can enhance the selectivity of the appropriately functionalized PIM-1, without a dramatic decrease of the permeability.

  19. A high-throughput small molecule screen identifies synergism between DNA methylation and Aurora kinase pathways for X reactivation.

    PubMed

    Lessing, Derek; Dial, Thomas O; Wei, Chunyao; Payer, Bernhard; Carrette, Lieselot L G; Kesner, Barry; Szanto, Attila; Jadhav, Ajit; Maloney, David J; Simeonov, Anton; Theriault, Jimmy; Hasaka, Thomas; Bedalov, Antonio; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Lee, Jeannie T

    2016-12-13

    X-chromosome inactivation is a mechanism of dosage compensation in which one of the two X chromosomes in female mammals is transcriptionally silenced. Once established, silencing of the inactive X (Xi) is robust and difficult to reverse pharmacologically. However, the Xi is a reservoir of >1,000 functional genes that could be potentially tapped to treat X-linked disease. To identify compounds that could reactivate the Xi, here we screened ∼367,000 small molecules in an automated high-content screen using an Xi-linked GFP reporter in mouse fibroblasts. Given the robust nature of silencing, we sensitized the screen by "priming" cells with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5azadC). Compounds that elicited GFP activity include VX680, MLN8237, and 5azadC, which are known to target the Aurora kinase and DNA methylation pathways. We demonstrate that the combinations of VX680 and 5azadC, as well as MLN8237 and 5azadC, synergistically up-regulate genes on the Xi. Thus, our work identifies a synergism between the DNA methylation and Aurora kinase pathways as being one of interest for possible pharmacological reactivation of the Xi.

  20. A high-throughput small molecule screen identifies synergism between DNA methylation and Aurora kinase pathways for X reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Lessing, Derek; Dial, Thomas O.; Wei, Chunyao; Payer, Bernhard; Carrette, Lieselot L. G.; Kesner, Barry; Szanto, Attila; Jadhav, Ajit; Maloney, David J.; Simeonov, Anton; Theriault, Jimmy; Hasaka, Thomas; Bedalov, Antonio; Bartolomei, Marisa S.; Lee, Jeannie T.

    2016-01-01

    X-chromosome inactivation is a mechanism of dosage compensation in which one of the two X chromosomes in female mammals is transcriptionally silenced. Once established, silencing of the inactive X (Xi) is robust and difficult to reverse pharmacologically. However, the Xi is a reservoir of >1,000 functional genes that could be potentially tapped to treat X-linked disease. To identify compounds that could reactivate the Xi, here we screened ∼367,000 small molecules in an automated high-content screen using an Xi-linked GFP reporter in mouse fibroblasts. Given the robust nature of silencing, we sensitized the screen by “priming” cells with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5azadC). Compounds that elicited GFP activity include VX680, MLN8237, and 5azadC, which are known to target the Aurora kinase and DNA methylation pathways. We demonstrate that the combinations of VX680 and 5azadC, as well as MLN8237 and 5azadC, synergistically up-regulate genes on the Xi. Thus, our work identifies a synergism between the DNA methylation and Aurora kinase pathways as being one of interest for possible pharmacological reactivation of the Xi. PMID:28182563

  1. Pim-1 preserves mitochondrial morphology by inhibiting dynamin-related protein 1 translocation.

    PubMed

    Din, Shabana; Mason, Matthew; Völkers, Mirko; Johnson, Bevan; Cottage, Christopher T; Wang, Zeping; Joyo, Anya Y; Quijada, Pearl; Erhardt, Peter; Magnuson, Nancy S; Konstandin, Mathias H; Sussman, Mark A

    2013-04-09

    Mitochondrial morphological dynamics affect the outcome of ischemic heart damage and pathogenesis. Recently, mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) has been identified as a mediator of mitochondrial morphological changes and cell death during cardiac ischemic injury. In this study, we report a unique relationship between Pim-1 activity and Drp1 regulation of mitochondrial morphology in cardiomyocytes challenged by ischemic stress. Transgenic hearts overexpressing cardiac Pim-1 display reduction of total Drp1 protein levels, increased phosphorylation of Drp1-(S637), and inhibition of Drp1 localization to the mitochondria. Consistent with these findings, adenoviral-induced Pim-1 neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) retain a reticular mitochondrial phenotype after simulated ischemia (sI) and decreased Drp1 mitochondrial sequestration. Interestingly, adenovirus Pim-dominant negative NRCMs show increased expression of Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only protein p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), which has been previously shown to induce Drp1 accumulation at mitochondria and increase sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli. Overexpression of the p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis-dominant negative adenovirus attenuates localization of Drp1 to mitochondria in adenovirus Pim-dominant negative NRCMs promotes reticular mitochondrial morphology and inhibits cell death during sI. Therefore, Pim-1 activity prevents Drp1 compartmentalization to the mitochondria and preserves reticular mitochondrial morphology in response to sI.

  2. Membranes of Polymers of Intrinsic Microporosity (PIM-1) Modified by Poly(ethylene glycol)

    PubMed Central

    Bengtson, Gisela; Neumann, Silvio; Filiz, Volkan

    2017-01-01

    Until now, the leading polymer of intrinsic microporosity PIM-1 has become quite famous for its high membrane permeability for many gases in gas separation, linked, however, to a rather moderate selectivity. The combination with the hydrophilic and low permeable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(ethylene oxides) (PEO) should on the one hand reduce permeability, while on the other hand enhance selectivity, especially for the polar gas CO2 by improving the hydrophilicity of the membranes. Four different paths to combine PIM-1 with PEG or poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) were studied: physically blending, quenching of polycondensation, synthesis of multiblock copolymers and synthesis of copolymers with PEO/PPO side chain. Blends and new, chemically linked polymers were successfully formed into free standing dense membranes and measured in single gas permeation of N2, O2, CO2 and CH4 by time lag method. As expected, permeability was lowered by any substantial addition of PEG/PEO/PPO regardless the manufacturing process and proportionally to the added amount. About 6 to 7 wt % of PEG/PEO/PPO added to PIM-1 halved permeability compared to PIM-1 membrane prepared under similar conditions. Consequently, selectivity from single gas measurements increased up to values of about 30 for CO2/N2 gas pair, a maximum of 18 for CO2/CH4 and 3.5 for O2/N2. PMID:28587247

  3. Ganoderma lucidum Combined with the EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Erlotinib Synergize to Reduce Inflammatory Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Arroyo, Ivette J.; Rios-Fuller, Tiffany J.; Feliz-Mosquea, Yismeilin R.; Lacourt-Ventura, Mercedes; Leal-Alviarez, Daniel J.; Maldonado-Martinez, Gerónimo; Cubano, Luis A.; Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) targeted against EGFR and downstream pathways has increased the necessity to identify agents that may be combined with these therapies to provide a sustained response for breast cancer patients. Here, we investigate the therapeutic potential of Ganoderma lucidum extract (GLE) in breast cancer, focusing on the regulation of the EGFR signaling cascade when treated with the EGFR TKI, Erlotinib. SUM-149, or intrinsic Erlotinib resistant MDA-MB-231 cells, and a successfully developed Erlotinib resistant cell line, rSUM-149 were treated with increasing concentrations of Erlotinib, GLE, or their combination (Erlotinib/GLE) for 72h. Treatment effects were tested on cell viability, cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion. To determine tumor progression, severe combined immunodeficient mice were injected with SUM-149 cells and then treated with Erlotinib/GLE or Erlotinib for 13 weeks. We assessed the protein expression of ERK1/2 and AKT in in vitro and in vivo models. Our results show that GLE synergizes with Erlotinib to sensitize SUM-149 cells to drug treatment, and overcomes intrinsic and developed Erlotinib resistance. Also, Erlotinib/GLE decreases SUM-149 cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion. GLE increases Erlotinib sensitivity by inactivating AKT and ERK signaling pathways in our models. We conclude that a combinatorial therapeutic approach may be the best way to increase prognosis in breast cancer patients with EGFR overexpressing tumors. PMID:26958085

  4. Synergism of FAK and tyrosine kinase inhibition in Ph+ B-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Churchman, Michelle L.; Richmond, Jennifer; Robbins, Alissa; Jones, Luke; Shapiro, Irina M.; Pachter, Jonathan A.; Weaver, David T.; Houghton, Peter J.; Smith, Malcolm A.; Lock, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    BCR-ABL1+ B progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ B-ALL) is an aggressive disease that frequently responds poorly to currently available therapies. Alterations in IKZF1, which encodes the lymphoid transcription factor Ikaros, are present in over 80% of Ph+ ALL and are associated with a stem cell–like phenotype, aberrant adhesion molecule expression and signaling, leukemic cell adhesion to the bone marrow stem cell niche, and poor outcome. Here, we show that FAK1 is upregulated in Ph+ B-ALL with further overexpression in IKZF1-altered cells and that the FAK inhibitor VS-4718 potently inhibits aberrant FAK signaling and leukemic cell adhesion, potentiating responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, inducing cure in vivo. Thus, targeting FAK with VS-4718 is an attractive approach to overcome the deleterious effects of FAK overexpression in Ph+ B-ALL, particularly in abrogating the adhesive phenotype induced by Ikaros alterations, and warrants evaluation in clinical trials for Ph+ B-ALL, regardless of IKZF1 status. PMID:27123491

  5. MiR-328 targeting PIM-1 inhibits proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells in PDGFBB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Zhengjiang; Zhang, Limin; Chen, Jidong; Li, Yanjiao; Kang, Kang; Qu, Junle; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhai, Yujia; Li, Li; Gou, Deming

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been recognized to mediate PDGF-induced cell dysregulation, but their exact functions remain to be elucidated. By using a sensitive S-Poly(T) Plus qRT-PCR method, the expression profiling of 1,078 miRNAs were investigated in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) with or without PDGFBB stimulation. MiR-328 was found as a prominent down-regulated miRNA, displaying a specific dose- and time-dependent downregulation upon PDGFBB exposure. Functional analyses revealed that miR-328 could inhibit PASMCs proliferation and migration both with and without PDGFBB treatment. The Ser/Thr-protein kinase-1 (PIM-1) was identified as a direct target of miR-328, and functionally confirmed by a rescue experiment. In addition, the decrease of miR-328 by PDGFBB might be due to the increased expression of DNA methylation transferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNA methylation. Finally, serum miR-328 level was downregulated in PAH patients associated with congenital heart disease (CHD- PAH). Overall, this study provides critical insight into fundamental regulatory mechanism of miR-328 in PDGFBB-activited PASMCs via targeting PIM- 1, and implies the potential of serum miR-328 level as a circulating biomarker for CHD- PAH diagnosis. PMID:27448984

  6. In utero exposure to benzene increases embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels in CD-1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Joanne; Winn, Louise M.

    2008-05-01

    Benzene is a known human leukemogen, but its role as an in utero leukemogen remains controversial. Epidemiological studies have correlated parental exposure to benzene with an increased incidence of childhood leukemias. We hypothesize that in utero exposure to benzene may cause leukemogenesis by affecting the embryonic c-Myb/Pim-1 signaling pathway and that this is mediated by oxidative stress. To investigate this hypothesis, pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with either 800 mg/kg of benzene or corn oil (i.p.) on days 10 and 11 of gestation and in some cases pretreated with 25 kU/kg of PEG-catalase. Phosphorylated and total embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels were assessed using Western blotting and maternal and embryonic oxidative stress were assessed by measuring reduced to oxidized glutathione ratios. Our results show increased oxidative stress at 4 and 24 h after exposure, increased phosphorylated Pim-1 protein levels 4 h after benzene exposure, and increased Pim-1 levels at 24 and 48 h after benzene exposure. Embryonic c-Myb levels were elevated at 24 h after exposure. PEG-catalase pretreatment prevented benzene-mediated increases in embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels, and benzene-induced oxidative stress. These results support a role for ROS in c-Myb and Pim-1 alterations after in utero benzene exposure.

  7. Synergism between ivermectin and the tyrosine kinase/P-glycoprotein inhibitor crizotinib against Haemonchus contortus larvae in vitro.

    PubMed

    Raza, Ali; Kopp, Steven R; Kotze, Andrew C

    2016-08-30

    Anthelmintic resistance is a major problem in parasitic nematodes of livestock worldwide. One means to counter resistance is to use synergists that specifically inhibit resistance mechanisms in order to restore the toxicity, and hence preserve the usefulness, of currently available anthelmintics. P-glycoproteins (P-gps) eliminate a wide variety of structurally unrelated xenobiotics from cells, and have been implicated in anthelmintic resistance. Crizotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor under development as a cancer therapeutic. The compound also inhibits P-gps, and has been shown to reverse multidrug resistance in cancer cells. We were therefore interested in determining if the compound was able to increase the sensitivity of Haemonchus contortus larvae to ivermectin, as measured by in vitro larval development and migration assays with a drug-resistant and a -susceptible isolate. In migration assays, co-administration of crizotinib increased the toxicity of ivermectin to resistant larvae (up to 5.7-fold decrease in ivermectin IC50), and rendered the resistant larvae equally or more sensitive to ivermectin than the susceptible isolate. On the other hand, co-administration of crizotinib had no effect on ivermectin sensitivity in the susceptible isolate. In development assays, significant increases in the sensitivity of both the resistant (up to 1.9-fold) and susceptible (up to 1.6-fold) larvae to ivermectin were observed, although the magnitude of the observed synergism was less than seen in migration assays, and the resistant larvae retained significant levels of ivermectin resistance. By highlighting the ability of the P-gp inhibitor crizotinib to increase the sensitivity of H. contortus larvae to ivermectin, this study provides further evidence that P-gp inhibitors are potential tools for modulating the efficacy of anthelmintics. In addition, the differences in the outcomes of the two assays, with 'resistance-breaking' effects being much more marked in migration

  8. Overcoming Resistance to Inhibitors of the Akt Protein Kinase by Modulation of the Pim Kinase Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    kinase . This grant proposal will explore the resistance to small molecule AKT protein kinase inhibitors mediated by the... molecule AKT protein kinase inhibitors is potentially mediated by the Pim-1 protein kinase , and that unique Pim protein kinase inhibitors that can in...application is essential for the development of this combined chemotherapeutic strategy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Small Molecule AKT Inhibitors ,

  9. PIM-1 as a Solution-Processable “Molecular Basket” for CO 2 Capture from Dilute Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Simon H.; Jue, Melinda L.; Leisen, Johannes; Jones, Christopher W.; Lively, Ryan P.

    2015-12-15

    Rising atmospheric CO2 levels have triggered recent research into the science of amine materials supported on hard, porous materials such as mesoporous silica or alumina. While such materials can give high CO2 uptakes and good sorption kinetics, they are difficult to utilize in practical applications due to difficulty in contacting large volumes of CO2-laden gases with powder materials without significant pressure drops or sorbent attrition. Here, we describe a simple approach based on the impregnation of a permanently microporous polymer, PIM-1, with poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), removing the need for use of the hard oxide. PEI/PIM-1 composites demonstrate comparable performance to more traditionally studied oxide sorbents, with the benefit that PIM-1 is soluble in common solvents, making it eminently more viable for processing into morphologies that can facilitate heat and mass transfer and fabrication into low pressure drop contactors. In addition to adsorption studies performed on a variety of PEI/PIM-1 architectures, spin diffusion NMR studies were performed to suggest that PEI is well-dispersed within the PIM-1, allowing for rapid CO2 adsorption.

  10. Time of flight in MUSE at PIM1 at Paul Scherrer Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wan; Gilman, Ronald; MUSE Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The MUSE experiment at PIM1 at Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland, measures elastic scattering of electrons and muons from a liquid hydrogen target. The intent of the experiment is to deduce whether the radius of the proton is the same when determined from the two different particle types. Precision timing is an important aspect of the experiment, used to determine particle types, reaction types, and beam momentum. Here we present results for a test setup measuring time of flight between prototypes of two detector systems to be used in the experiment, compared to Geant4 simulations. The results demonstrate time of flight resolution better than 100 ps, and beam momentum determination at the level of a few tenths of a percent. Douglass Project for Rutgers Women in Math, Science & Engineering, National Science Foundation Grant 1306126 to Rutgers University.

  11. Carcinogenicity study of 217 Hz pulsed 900 MHz electromagnetic fields in Pim1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Oberto, Germano; Rolfo, Katia; Yu, Ping; Carbonatto, Michela; Peano, Sergio; Kuster, Niels; Ebert, Sven; Tofani, Santi

    2007-09-01

    In an 18-month carcinogenicity study, Pim1 transgenic mice were exposed to pulsed 900 MHz (pulse width: 0.577 ms; pulse repetition rate: 217 Hz) radiofrequency (RF) radiation at a whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.5, 1.4 or 4.0 W/kg [uncertainty (k = 2): 2.6 dB; lifetime variation (k = 1): 1.2 dB]. A total of 500 mice, 50 per sex per group, were exposed, sham-exposed or used as cage controls. The experiment was an extension of a previously published study in female Pim1 transgenic mice conducted by Repacholi et al. (Radiat. Res. 147, 631-640, 1997) that reported a significant increase in lymphomas after exposure to the same 900 MHz RF signal. Animals were exposed for 1 h/day, 7 days/week in plastic tubes similar to those used in inhalation studies to obtain well-defined uniform exposure. The study was conducted blind. The highest exposure level (4 W/kg) used in this study resulted in organ-averaged SARs that are above the peak spatial SAR limits allowed by the ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection) standard for environmental exposures. The whole-body average was about three times greater than the highest average SAR reported in the earlier study by Repacholi et al. The results of this study do not suggest any effect of 217 Hz-pulsed RF-radiation exposure (pulse width: 0.577 ms) on the incidence of tumors at any site, and thus the findings of Repacholi et al. were not confirmed. Overall, the study shows no effect of RF radiation under the conditions used on the incidence of any neoplastic or non-neoplastic lesion, and thus the study does not provide evidence that RF radiation possesses carcinogenic potential.

  12. Synergism between inositol polyphosphates and TOR kinase signaling in nutrient sensing, growth control and lipid metabolism in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Couso, Inmaculada; Evans, Bradley; Li, Jia; Liu, Yu; Ma, Fangfang; Diamond, Spencer; Allen, Doug K; Umen, James G

    2016-09-06

    The networks that govern carbon metabolism and control intracellular carbon partitioning in photosynthetic cells are poorly understood. Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is a conserved growth regulator that integrates nutrient signals and modulates cell growth in eukaryotes, though the TOR signaling pathway in plants and algae has yet to be completely elucidated. We screened the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas using insertional mutagenesis to find mutants that conferred hypersensitivity to the TOR inhibitor rapamycin. We characterized one mutant, vip1-1, that is predicted to encode a conserved inositol hexakisphosphate kinase from the VIP family that pyrophosphorylates phytic acid (InsP6) to produce the low abundance signaling molecules InsP7 and InsP8. Unexpectedly, the rapamycin hypersensitive growth arrest of vip1-1 cells was dependent on the presence of external acetate, which normally has a growth-stimulatory effect on Chlamydomonas. vip1-1 mutants also constitutively over-accumulated triacylglycerols (TAGs) in a manner that was synergistic with other TAG inducing stimuli such as starvation. vip1-1 cells had reduced InsP7 and InsP8, both of which are dynamically modulated in wild-type cells by TOR kinase activity and the presence of acetate. Our data uncover an interaction between the TOR kinase and inositol polyphosphate signaling systems that we propose governs carbon metabolism and intracellular pathways that lead to storage lipid accumulation. {copyright, serif} 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Synergism between Inositol Polyphosphates and TOR Kinase Signaling in Nutrient Sensing, Growth Control, and Lipid Metabolism in Chlamydomonas[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bradley S.; Li, Jia; Liu, Yu; Diamond, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    The networks that govern carbon metabolism and control intracellular carbon partitioning in photosynthetic cells are poorly understood. Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase is a conserved growth regulator that integrates nutrient signals and modulates cell growth in eukaryotes, though the TOR signaling pathway in plants and algae has yet to be completely elucidated. We screened the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using insertional mutagenesis to find mutants that conferred hypersensitivity to the TOR inhibitor rapamycin. We characterized one mutant, vip1-1, that is predicted to encode a conserved inositol hexakisphosphate kinase from the VIP family that pyrophosphorylates phytic acid (InsP6) to produce the low abundance signaling molecules InsP7 and InsP8. Unexpectedly, the rapamycin hypersensitive growth arrest of vip1-1 cells was dependent on the presence of external acetate, which normally has a growth-stimulatory effect on Chlamydomonas. vip1-1 mutants also constitutively overaccumulated triacylglycerols (TAGs) in a manner that was synergistic with other TAG inducing stimuli such as starvation. vip1-1 cells had reduced InsP7 and InsP8, both of which are dynamically modulated in wild-type cells by TOR kinase activity and the presence of acetate. Our data uncover an interaction between the TOR kinase and inositol polyphosphate signaling systems that we propose governs carbon metabolism and intracellular pathways that lead to storage lipid accumulation. PMID:27600537

  14. Synergism between inositol polyphosphates and TOR kinase signaling in nutrient sensing, growth control, and lipid metabolism in Chlamydomonas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The networks that govern carbon metabolism and control intracellular carbon partitioning in photosynthetic cells are poorly understood. Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is a conserved growth regulator that integrates nutrient signals and modulates cell growth in eukaryotes, though the TOR signaling ...

  15. Therapeutic Value of PLK1 Knockdown in Combination with Prostate Cancer Drugs in PIM-1 Overexpressing Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-13

    of tumor cells on its activity in mitosis (Fink et al., 2007). Silencing of PLK1 has been shown to enhance drug sensitivity in some cancer cells...crucial role at various steps of mitosis and is overexpressed in many tumor types including prostate cancer, where PLK1 overexpression was found to...the co-localization of PIM1 and PLK1. PLK1 was detected in centrosome, kinetochore and midbody during mitosis (Fig. 2B), consistent with its multiple

  16. Rational Redesign of a Functional Protein Kinase-Substrate Interaction

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein kinases typically phosphorylate substrates in the context of specific sequence motifs, contributing to specificity essential for accurate signal transmission. Protein kinases recognize their target sequences through complementary interactions within the active site cleft. As a step toward the construction of orthogonal kinase signaling systems, we have re-engineered the protein kinase Pim1 to alter its phosphorylation consensus sequence. Residues in the Pim1 catalytic domain interacting directly with a critical arginine residue in the substrate were substituted to produce a kinase mutant that instead accommodates a hydrophobic residue. We then introduced a compensating mutation into a Pim1 substrate, the pro-apoptotic protein BAD, to reconstitute phosphorylation both in vitro and in living cells. Coexpression of the redesigned kinase with its substrate in cells protected them from apoptosis. Such orthogonal kinase–substrate pairs provide tools to probe the functional consequences of specific phosphorylation events in living cells and to design synthetic signaling pathways. PMID:28314095

  17. The human Pim-1 gene is selectively transcribed in different hemato-lymphoid cell lines in spite of a G + C-rich housekeeping promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, T C; Loeb, J; Ayres, M; Sellers, W

    1990-01-01

    The expression of the Pim-1 proto-oncogene was studied by using the K562, Daudi, and Jurkat cell lines. In K562, Pim-1 mRNA levels were more than 20-fold higher than in Daudi and 50-fold higher than in Jurkat. Nuclear run-on assay data correlated directly with the steady-state mRNA levels, suggesting that the rate of transcription was responsible for the selective expression of this gene. Furthermore, the half-life of Pim-1 mRNA was shown to be 47 min in K562, 71 min in Daudi, and 35 min in Jurkat. This indicated that selective Pim-1 mRNA expression did not depend on posttranscriptional regulation. Therefore, 1.7 kilobases of the Pim-1 promoter was sequenced and studied in detail. The sequence showed that the region from nucleotide -1 to -873 was G + C rich (71%). Study of promoter deletions defined two major functional regions, a proximal element (nucleotide -104 to -1) and a distal element (nucleotide -427 to -336). DNase I protection assays identified binding sites for the Sp1 and AP2 proteins in these elements. A possible new transcription factor binds at position -348 in the distal element. In our study of the 1.7-kilobase Pim-1 promoter, we found no differences between K562 and Jurkat that could explain large differences in transcription. Therefore, the Pim-1 promoter appears to function constitutively, and we conclude that distant elements must regulate the tissue-selective expression of this gene. Although the Pim-1 gene has a G + C-rich housekeeping promoter, expression is carefully regulated at the level of transcription. Images PMID:2181282

  18. Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FAST K) synergizes with TIA-1/TIAR proteins to regulate Fas alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, José M; Valcárcel, Juan

    2007-01-19

    The factors and mechanisms that mediate the effects of intracellular signaling cascades on alternative pre-mRNA splicing are poorly understood. TIA-1 (T-cell intracellular antigen 1) and TIAR (TIA-1-related) proteins regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing by promoting the use of suboptimal 5' splice sites followed by uridine-rich intronic enhancer sequences. These proteins promote, for example, inclusion of Fas receptor exon 6, which leads to an mRNA encoding a pro-apoptotic form of the receptor at the expense of the form that skips exon 6, which encodes an anti-apoptotic form. Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FAST K) is known to interact with and phosphorylate TIA-1. Here we have tested the possibility that FAST K influences alternative pre-mRNA splicing by affecting the activity of TIA-1/TIAR. Depletion of FAST K form Jurkat cells leads to skipping of exon 6 from endogenous Fas transcripts. Conversely, FAST K overexpression enhances exon 6 inclusion of Fas reporters transfected in HeLa cells. Consistent with the possibility that the effects of FAST K are mediated by changes in the function of TIA-1/TIAR, the effects of FAST K overexpression (i) are largely suppressed by depletion of TIA-1 and TIAR and (ii) are significantly compromised by mutation of a TIA-1/TIAR-responsive enhancer present downstream of exon 6 5' splice site. Furthermore, in vitro phosphorylation of TIA-1 by FAST K results in enhanced U1 snRNP recruitment. Interestingly, this enhancement is not due to increased binding of TIA-1 to the pre-mRNA. Taken together, the results connect Fas signaling with the activity of splicing factors that modulate Fas alternative splicing, suggesting the existence of an autoregulatory loop that could serve to amplify Fas responses.

  19. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Synergizes with Notch2 to Govern Marginal Zone B Cells in Nonobese Diabetic Mice1,2

    PubMed Central

    Nyhoff, Lindsay E.; Steinberg, Hannah E.; Sullivan, Allison M.; Kendall, Peggy L.

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of autoimmune-prone marginal zone (MZ) B cells has been implicated in type 1 diabetes (T1D). To test disease contributions of MZ B cells in NOD mice, Notch2 haploinsufficiency (Notch2+/−) was introduced, but failed to eliminate the MZ, as it does in C57BL/6 mice. Notch2+/−/NOD have MZ B cell numbers similar to WT C57BL/6, yet still develop diabetes. To test whether BCR-signaling supports Notch2+/−/NOD MZ B cells, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk)-deficiency was introduced. Surprisingly, MZ B cells failed to develop in Btk-deficient Notch2+/−/NOD mice. Expression of Notch2 and its transcriptional target, Hes5, were increased in NOD MZ B cells compared with C57BL/6 MZ B cells. Btk-deficiency reduced Notch2+/− signaling exclusively in NOD B cells, suggesting that BCR-signaling enhances Notch2 signaling in this autoimmune model. The role of BCR-signaling was further investigated using an anti-insulin transgenic BCR (125Tg). Anti-insulin B cells in 125Tg/Notch2+/−/NOD mice populate an enlarged MZ, suggesting that low level BCR signaling overcomes reliance on Notch2. Tracking clonotypes of anti-insulin B cells in H chain only VH125Tg/NOD mice showed that BTK-dependent selection into the MZ depends on strength of antigenic binding, while Notch2-mediated selection does not. Importantly, anti-insulin B cell numbers were reduced by Btk-deficiency, but not Notch2-haploinsufficiency. These studies show that: 1) Notch2-haploinsufficiency limits NOD MZ B cell expansion without preventing T1D, 2) BTK supports the Notch2 pathway in NOD MZ B cells, and 3) autoreactive NOD B cell survival relies on BTK more than Notch2, regardless of MZ location, which may have important implications for disease-intervention strategies. PMID:26034172

  20. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Synergizes with Notch2 To Govern Marginal Zone B Cells in Nonobese Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Case, James B; Bonami, Rachel H; Nyhoff, Lindsay E; Steinberg, Hannah E; Sullivan, Allison M; Kendall, Peggy L

    2015-07-01

    Expansion of autoimmune-prone marginal zone (MZ) B cells has been implicated in type 1 diabetes. To test disease contributions of MZ B cells in NOD mice, Notch2 haploinsufficiency (Notch2(+/-)) was introduced but failed to eliminate the MZ, as it does in C57BL/6 mice. Notch2(+/-)/NOD have MZ B cell numbers similar to those of wild-type C57BL/6, yet still develop diabetes. To test whether BCR signaling supports Notch2(+/-)/NOD MZ B cells, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) deficiency was introduced. Surprisingly, MZ B cells failed to develop in Btk-deficient Notch2(+/-)/NOD mice. Expression of Notch2 and its transcriptional target, Hes5, was increased in NOD MZ B cells compared with C57BL/6 MZ B cells. Btk deficiency reduced Notch2(+/-) signaling exclusively in NOD B cells, suggesting that BCR signaling enhances Notch2 signaling in this autoimmune model. The role of BCR signaling was further investigated using an anti-insulin transgenic (Tg) BCR (125Tg). Anti-insulin B cells in 125Tg/Notch2(+/-)/NOD mice populate an enlarged MZ, suggesting that low-level BCR signaling overcomes reliance on Notch2. Tracking clonotypes of anti-insulin B cells in H chain-only VH125Tg/NOD mice showed that BTK-dependent selection into the MZ depends on strength of antigenic binding, whereas Notch2-mediated selection does not. Importantly, anti-insulin B cell numbers were reduced by Btk deficiency, but not Notch2 haploinsufficiency. These studies show that 1) Notch2 haploinsufficiency limits NOD MZ B cell expansion without preventing type 1 diabetes, 2) BTK supports the Notch2 pathway in NOD MZ B cells, and 3) autoreactive NOD B cell survival relies on BTK more than Notch2, regardless of MZ location, which may have important implications for disease-intervention strategies. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. Expression of pim-1 in tumors, tumor stroma and tumor-adjacent mucosa co-determines the prognosis of colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong-hai; Li, Jian-jun; Xie, Fang-wei; Chen, Jian-fang; Yu, Ying-hao; Ouyang, Xue-nong; Liang, Hou-jie

    2013-01-01

    Provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (pim-1) is a proto-oncogene that is linked to the development and progression of several cancers. In this study, we evaluated pim-1 expression in tumors, tumor stroma and tumor-adjacent mucosa together as an independent prognostic factor for colon cancer patients. The study included 343 colon cancer patients. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect pim-1. Multivariate cox regression for disease-free survival (DFS) were used to identify independent prognostic factors. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to calculate the weight of pim-1 in tumors, tumor stroma and tumor-adjacent mucosa in order to obtain a Pim-1 total score (PTS) for recurrence and survival. Kaplan-Meier DFS curves and OS curves for patients with different pim-1 expression levels were compared using the log-rank test. In this study, four independent prognostic factors were identified for colon cancer patients: pim-1 expression in tumors, tumor stroma, tumor-adjacent mucosa, as well as tumor stage. It has been established that clinical stage is an important prognostic factor for colon cancer patients. However, PTS can identify the patients who are likely to recur not only in the whole radical excision group but also within each stage of this group. Based on the results of this study we can conclude that the PTS combined with clinical staging system may be a better predictor of colon cancer patients' prognosis than using the clinical stage system alone. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: ChiCTR-PRCH-12002842.

  2. Expression of pim-1 in Tumors, Tumor Stroma and Tumor-Adjacent Mucosa Co-Determines the Prognosis of Colon Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian-fang; Yu, Ying-hao; Ouyang, Xue-nong; Liang, Hou-jie

    2013-01-01

    Provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (pim-1) is a proto-oncogene that is linked to the development and progression of several cancers. In this study, we evaluated pim-1 expression in tumors, tumor stroma and tumor-adjacent mucosa together as an independent prognostic factor for colon cancer patients. The study included 343 colon cancer patients. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect pim-1. Multivariate cox regression for disease-free survival (DFS) were used to identify independent prognostic factors. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to calculate the weight of pim-1 in tumors, tumor stroma and tumor-adjacent mucosa in order to obtain a Pim-1 total score (PTS) for recurrence and survival. Kaplan–Meier DFS curves and OS curves for patients with different pim-1 expression levels were compared using the log-rank test. In this study, four independent prognostic factors were identified for colon cancer patients: pim-1 expression in tumors, tumor stroma, tumor-adjacent mucosa, as well as tumor stage. It has been established that clinical stage is an important prognostic factor for colon cancer patients. However, PTS can identify the patients who are likely to recur not only in the whole radical excision group but also within each stage of this group. Based on the results of this study we can conclude that the PTS combined with clinical staging system may be a better predictor of colon cancer patients’ prognosis than using the clinical stage system alone. Clinical Trials Gov. Number: ChiCTR-PRCH-12002842 PMID:24116137

  3. Cysteine desulfurase Nfs1 and Pim1 protease control levels of Isu, the Fe-S cluster biogenesis scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ji-Yoon; Marszalek, Jaroslaw; Craig, Elizabeth Anne

    2012-01-01

    Fe-S clusters are critical prosthetic groups for proteins involved in various critical biological processes. Before being transferred to recipient apo-proteins, Fe-S clusters are assembled on the highly conserved scaffold protein Isu, the abundance of which is regulated posttranslationally on disruption of the cluster biogenesis system. Here we report that Isu is degraded by the Lon-type AAA+ ATPase protease of the mitochondrial matrix, Pim1. Nfs1, the cysteine desulfurase responsible for providing sulfur for cluster formation, is required for the increased Isu stability occurring after disruption of cluster formation on or transfer from Isu. Physical interaction between the Isu and Nfs1 proteins, not the enzymatic activity of Nfs1, is the important factor in increased stability. Analysis of several conditions revealed that high Isu levels can be advantageous or disadvantageous, depending on the physiological condition. During the stationary phase, elevated Isu levels were advantageous, resulting in prolonged chronological lifespan. On the other hand, under iron-limiting conditions, high Isu levels were deleterious. Compared with cells expressing normal levels of Isu, such cells grew poorly and exhibited reduced activity of the heme-containing enzyme ferric reductase. Our results suggest that modulation of the degradation of Isu by the Pim1 protease is a regulatory mechanism serving to rapidly help balance the cell’s need for critical iron-requiring processes under changing environmental conditions. PMID:22689995

  4. Time of flight and the MUSE experiment in the PIM1 Channel at the Paul Sherrer Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wan; MUSE Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The MUSE experiment in the PIM1 Channel at the Paul Sherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland, measures scattering of electrons and muons from a liquid hydrogen target. The intent of the experiment is to deduce from the scattering probabilities whether the radius of the proton is the same when determined from the scattering of the two different particle types. An important technique for the experiment is precise timing measurements, using high precision scintillators and a beam Cerenkov counter. We will describe the motivations for the precise timing measurement. We will present results for the timing measurements from prototype experimental detectors. We will also present results from a simulation program, Geant4, that was used to calculate energy loss corrections to the time of flight determined between the beam Cherenkov counter and the scintillator. This work is supported in part by the U.S. National Science Foundation Grant PHY 1306126 and the Douglass Project for Women in Math, Science, and Engineering.

  5. Prostaglandin E2 transactivates the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor and synergizes with colony-stimulating factor-1 in the induction of macrophage migration via the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Digiacomo, Graziana; Ziche, Marina; Dello Sbarba, Persio; Donnini, Sandra; Rovida, Elisabetta

    2015-06-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a key mediator of immunity, inflammation, and cancer, acts through 4 G-protein-coupled E-prostanoid receptors (EPs 1-4). Crosstalk between EPs and receptor tyrosine kinases also occurs. Colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) is an RTK that sustains the survival, proliferation, and motility of monocytes/macrophages, which are an essential component of innate immunity and cancer development. The aim of this study was to investigate on a possible crosstalk between EP and CSF-1R. In BAC1.2F5 and RAW264.7 murine macrophages, CSF-1 (EC₅₀ = 18.1 and 10.2 ng/ml, respectively) and PGE2 (EC₅₀ = 1.5 and 5.5 nM, respectively) promoted migration. PGE2 induced rapid CSF-1R phosphorylation that was dependent on Src family kinases (SFKs). CSF-1R inhibition reduced PGE2-elicited ERK1/2 phosphorylation and macrophage migration, indicating that CSF-1R plays a role in PGE2-mediated immunoregulation. EP4 appeared responsible for functional PGE2/CSF-1R crosstalk. Furthermore, PGE2 synergized with CSF-1 in inducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation and macrophage migration. ERK1/2 inhibition completely blocked migration induced by the combination CSF-1/PGE2. CSF-1/PGE2 functional interaction with respect to migration also occurred in bone marrow-derived murine macrophages (EC₅₀ CSF-1, 6.7 ng/ml; EC₅₀ PGE2, 16.7 nM). These results indicated that PGE2 transactivates CSF-1R and synergizes with its signaling at ERK1/2 level in promoting macrophage migration. © FASEB.

  6. In Silico Determination of Gas Permeabilities by Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics: CO2 and He through PIM-1

    PubMed Central

    Frentrup, Hendrik; Hart, Kyle E.; Colina, Coray M.; Müller, Erich A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the permeation dynamics of helium and carbon dioxide through an atomistically detailed model of a polymer of intrinsic microporosity, PIM-1, via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations. This work presents the first explicit molecular modeling of gas permeation through a high free-volume polymer sample, and it demonstrates how permeability and solubility can be obtained coherently from a single simulation. Solubilities in particular can be obtained to a very high degree of confidence and within experimental inaccuracies. Furthermore, the simulations make it possible to obtain very specific information on the diffusion dynamics of penetrant molecules and yield detailed maps of gas occupancy, which are akin to a digital tomographic scan of the polymer network. In addition to determining permeability and solubility directly from NEMD simulations, the results shed light on the permeation mechanism of the penetrant gases, suggesting that the relative openness of the microporous topology promotes the anomalous diffusion of penetrant gases, which entails a deviation from the pore hopping mechanism usually observed in gas diffusion in polymers. PMID:25764366

  7. In Silico Determination of Gas Permeabilities by Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics: CO2 and He through PIM-1.

    PubMed

    Frentrup, Hendrik; Hart, Kyle E; Colina, Coray M; Müller, Erich A

    2015-03-10

    We study the permeation dynamics of helium and carbon dioxide through an atomistically detailed model of a polymer of intrinsic microporosity, PIM-1, via non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations. This work presents the first explicit molecular modeling of gas permeation through a high free-volume polymer sample, and it demonstrates how permeability and solubility can be obtained coherently from a single simulation. Solubilities in particular can be obtained to a very high degree of confidence and within experimental inaccuracies. Furthermore, the simulations make it possible to obtain very specific information on the diffusion dynamics of penetrant molecules and yield detailed maps of gas occupancy, which are akin to a digital tomographic scan of the polymer network. In addition to determining permeability and solubility directly from NEMD simulations, the results shed light on the permeation mechanism of the penetrant gases, suggesting that the relative openness of the microporous topology promotes the anomalous diffusion of penetrant gases, which entails a deviation from the pore hopping mechanism usually observed in gas diffusion in polymers.

  8. Selective Akt Inhibitors Synergize with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Effectively Override Stroma-Associated Cytoprotection of Mutant FLT3-Positive AML Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Nelson, Erik; Sattler, Martin; Liu, Feiyang; Nicolais, Maria; Zhang, Jianming; Mitsiades, Constantine; Smith, Robert W.; Stone, Richard; Galinsky, Ilene; Nonami, Atsushi; Griffin, James D.; Gray, Nathanael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-treated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients commonly show rapid and significant peripheral blood blast cell reduction, however a marginal decrease in bone marrow blasts. This suggests a protective environment and highlights the demand for a better understanding of stromal:leukemia cell communication. As a strategy to improve clinical efficacy, we searched for novel agents capable of potentiating the stroma-diminished effects of TKI treatment of mutant FLT3-expressing cells. Methods We designed a combinatorial high throughput drug screen using well-characterized kinase inhibitor-focused libraries to identify novel kinase inhibitors capable of overriding stromal-mediated resistance to TKIs, such as PKC412 and AC220. Standard liquid culture proliferation assays, cell cycle and apoptosis analysis, and immunoblotting were carried out with cell lines or primary AML to validate putative candidates from the screen and characterize the mechanism(s) underlying observed synergy. Results and Conclusions Our study led to the observation of synergy between selective Akt inhibitors and FLT3 inhibitors against mutant FLT3-positive AML in either the absence or presence of stroma. Our findings are consistent with evidence that Akt activation is characteristic of mutant FLT3-transformed cells, as well as observed residual Akt activity following FLT3 inhibitor treatment. In conclusion, our study highlights the potential importance of Akt as a signaling factor in leukemia survival, and supports the use of the co-culture chemical screen to identify agents able to potentiate TKI anti-leukemia activity in a cytoprotective microenvironment. PMID:23437141

  9. 1-Methoxy-canthin-6-one induces c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-dependent apoptosis and synergizes with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand activity in human neoplastic cells of hematopoietic or endodermal origin.

    PubMed

    Ammirante, Massimo; Di Giacomo, Rita; De Martino, Laura; Rosati, Alessandra; Festa, Michela; Gentilella, Antonio; Pascale, Maria Carmela; Belisario, Maria Antonietta; Leone, Arturo; Turco, Maria Caterina; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2006-04-15

    We investigated the effects of 1-methoxy-canthin-6-one, isolated from the medicinal plant Ailanthus altissima Swingle, on apoptosis in human leukemia (Jurkat), thyroid carcinoma (ARO and NPA), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HuH7) cell lines. Cultures incubated with the compound showed >50% of sub-G1 (hypodiploid) elements in flow cytometry analysis; the apoptosis-inducing activity was evident at <10 micromol/L and half-maximal at about 40 micromol/L 1-methoxy-canthin-6-one. The appearance of hypodiploid elements was preceded by mitochondrial membrane depolarization, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, and Smac/DIABLO and procaspase-3 cleavage. We subsequently investigated the effect of 1-methoxy-canthin-6-one in combination with human recombinant tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in the four cell lines. Suboptimal concentrations (10 micromol/L 1-methoxy-canthin-6-one and 0.25 ng/mL TRAIL, respectively) of the two agents, unable to elicit apoptosis when used alone, induced mitochondrial depolarization, activation of caspase-3, and 45% to 85% of sub-G1 elements when added together to the cells. The synergism seemed to rely partly on the enhanced expression of TRAIL receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1; DR4), analyzed by immunofluorescence, by 1-methoxy-canthin-6-one. Cell incubation with 1-methoxy-canthin-6-one resulted in activating c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), as revealed by Western blotting; induction of apoptosis and TRAIL-R1 up-regulation by 1-methoxy-canthin-6-one were >80% prevented by the addition of the JNK inhibitor (JNKI) SP600125JNKI, indicating that both effects were almost completely mediated by JNK activity. On the other hand, synergism with TRAIL was reduced by about 50%, suggesting that besides up-regulating TRAIL-R1, 1-methoxy-canthin-6-one could influence other factor(s) that participated in TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These findings indicate that 1-methoxy-canthin-6-one can represent a candidate for in vivo studies of

  10. CX-4945, a selective inhibitor of casein kinase 2, synergizes with B cell receptor signaling inhibitors in inducing diffuse large B cell lymphoma cell death.

    PubMed

    Mandato, Elisa; Nunes, Sara Canovas; Zaffino, Fortunato; Casellato, Alessandro; Macaccaro, Paolo; Tubi, Laura Quotti; Visentin, Andrea; Trentin, Livio; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Piazza, Francesco

    2017-04-26

    Approximately one third of Diffuse Large B cell Lymphomas (DLBCL) are refractory or relapse. Novel therapeutic approaches under scrutiny include inhibitors of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling. Protein kinase CK2 propels survival, proliferation and stress response in solid and hematologic malignancies and promotes a "non-oncogene addiction" phenotype. Whether this kinase regulates BCR signaling thus being a suitable pharmacological target in DLBCL is unknown. To establish if CK2 controls DLBCL cell survival and the BCR signaling; to check if the combination of CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 and BCR blockers Ibrutinib and Fostamatinib is more effectively cytotoxic for DLBCL cells than the single agents; to survey the changes in signaling molecules downstream BCR upon CK2 inhibition. A panel of GC and ABC DLBCL cells were treated with CX-4945 and Fostamatinib or Ibrutinib. BCR signaling was assayed by intracellular Ca++ measurement and looking at the phosphorylation of signaling molecules. The effects on cell survival were assessed by flow cytometry, western blot and MTT assays. CK2 inhibition with CX-4945 causes DLBCL cell death. CX-4945 impaired AKT phosphorylation and intracellular Ca++ mobilization upon BCR engagement. The CK2 inhibitor acted synergistically with either the SYK inhibitor Fostamatinib or the BTK inhibitor Ibrutinib in inducing DLBCL cell death. CX-4945 was equally effective in GC and ABC DLBCL subtypes as well as in "double hit" DLBCL cell lines. These findings suggest a role for CK2 downstream of the BCR in controlling survival pathways crucial for cell growth of different DLBCL subtypes. Also, the use of CX-4945 in combination with BCR signaling blockers could represent a novel rational therapeutic approach in DLBCL. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Kinase crystal identification and ATP-competitive inhibitor screening using the fluorescent ligand SKF86002.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lorien J; Taruya, Shigenao; Tsuganezawa, Keiko; Ogawa, Naoko; Mikuni, Junko; Honda, Keiko; Tomabechi, Yuri; Handa, Noriko; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Akiko

    2014-02-01

    The small kinase inhibitor SKF86002 lacks intrinsic fluorescence but becomes fluorescent upon binding to the ATP-binding sites of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38α). It was found that co-crystals of this compound with various kinases were distinguishable by their strong fluorescence. The co-crystals of SKF86002 with p38α, Pim1, ASK1, HCK and AMPK were fluorescent. Addition of SKF86002, which binds to the ATP site, to the co-crystallization solution of HCK promoted protein stability and thus facilitated the production of crystals that otherwise would not grow in the apo form. It was further demonstrated that the fluorescence of SKF86002 co-crystals can be applied to screen for candidate kinase inhibitors. When a compound binds competitively to the ATP-binding site of a kinase crystallized with SKF86002, it displaces the fluorescent SKF86002 and the crystal loses its fluorescence. Lower fluorescent signals were reported after soaking SKF86002-Pim1 and SKF86002-HCK co-crystals with the inhibitors quercetin, a quinazoline derivative and A-419259. Determination of the SKF86002-Pim1 and SKF86002-HCK co-crystal structures confirmed that SKF86002 interacts with the ATP-binding sites of Pim1 and HCK. The structures of Pim1-SKF86002 crystals soaked with the inhibitors quercetin and a quinazoline derivative and of HCK-SKF86002 crystals soaked with A-419259 were determined. These structures were virtually identical to the deposited crystal structures of the same complexes. A KINOMEscan assay revealed that SKF86002 binds a wide variety of kinases. Thus, for a broad range of kinases, SKF86002 is useful as a crystal marker, a crystal stabilizer and a marker to identify ligand co-crystals for structural analysis.

  12. Characterization of pal-1, a common proviral insertion site in murine leukemia virus-induced lymphomas of c-myc and Pim-1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Scheijen, B; Jonkers, J; Acton, D; Berns, A

    1997-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis with Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) in c-myc and Pim-1 transgenic mice permits the identification of oncogenes that collaborate with the transgenes in lymphomagenesis. The recently identified common insertion site pal-1, in MoMLV-induced lymphomas, is located in a region in which several independent integration clusters are found: eis-1, gfi-1, and evi-5. Proviral insertions of MoMLV in the different integration clusters upregulate the transcriptional activity of the Gfi-1 gene, which is located within the pal-1 locus. The eis-1/pal-1/gfi-1/evi-5 locus serves as a target for MoMLV proviral insertions in pre-B-cell lymphomas of Emu-myc transgenic mice (20%) and in T-cell lymphomas of H-2K-myc (75%) and Emu-pim-1 (93%) transgenic mice. Many tumors overexpress both Gfi-1 as well as Myc and Pim gene family members, indicating that Gfi-1 collaborates with Myc and Pim in lymphomagenesis. Proviral integrations in the previously identified insertion site bmi-1 are, however, mutually exclusive with integrations in the eis-1/pal-1/gfi-1/evi-5 locus. This finding suggests that Bmi-1 and Gfi-1 belong to the same complementation group in lymphoid transformation. PMID:8985317

  13. Mapping of the Pim-1 oncogene in mouse t-haplotypes and its use to define the relative map positions of the tcl loci t0(t6) and tw12 and the marker tf (tufted).

    PubMed

    Ark, B; Gummere, G; Bennett, D; Artzt, K

    1991-06-01

    Pim-1 is an oncogene activated in mouse T-cell lymphomas induced by Moloney and AKR mink cell focus (MCF) viruses. Pim-1 was previously mapped to chromosome 17 by somatic cell hybrids, and subsequently to the region between the hemoglobin alpha-chain pseudogene 4 (Hba-4ps) and the alpha-crystalline gene (Crya-1) by Southern blot analysis of DNA obtained from panels of recombinant inbred strains. We have now mapped Pim-1 more accurately in t-haplotypes by analysis of recombinant t-chromosomes. The recombinants were derived from Tts6tf/t12 parents backcrossed to + tf/ + tf, and scored for recombination between the loci of T and tf. For simplicity all t-complex lethal genes properly named tcl-tx are shortened to tx. The Pim-1 gene was localized 0.6 cM proximal to the tw12 lethal gene, thus placing the Pim-1 gene 5.2 cM distal to the H-2 region in t-haplotypes. Once mapped, the Pim-1 gene was used as a marker for further genetic analysis of t-haplotypes. tw12 is so close to tf that even with a large number of recombinants it was not possible to determine whether it is proximal or distal to tf. Southern blot analysis of DNA from T-tf recombinants with a separation of tw12 and tf indicated that tw12 is proximal to tf. The mapping of two allelic t-lethals, t0 and t6 with respect to tw12 and tf has also been a problem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Double mutant P53 (N340Q/L344R) promotes hepatocarcinogenesis through upregulation of Pim1 mediated by PKM2 and LncRNA CUDR

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mengying; An, Jiahui; Zheng, Qidi; Xin, Xiaoru; Lin, Zhuojia; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Haiyan; Lu, Dongdong

    2016-01-01

    P53 is frequently mutated in human tumors as a novel gain-of-function to promote tumor development. Although dimeric (M340Q/L344R) influences on tetramerisation on site-specific post-translational modifications of p53, it is not clear how dimeric (M340Q/L344R) plays a role during hepatocarcinogenesis. Herein, we reveal that P53 (N340Q/L344R) promotes hepatocarcinogenesis through upregulation of PKM2. Mechanistically, P53 (N340Q/L344R) forms complex with CUDR and the complex binds to the promoter regions of PKM2 which enhances the expression, phosphorylation of PKM2 and its polymer formation. Thereby, the polymer PKM2 (tetramer) binds to the eleventh threonine on histone H3 that increases the phosphorylation of the eleventh threonine on histone H3 (pH3T11). Furthermore, pH3T11 blocks HDAC3 binding to H3K9Ac that prevents H3K9Ac from deacetylation and stabilizes the H3K9Ac modification. On the other hand, it also decreased tri-methylation of histone H3 on the ninth lysine (H3K9me3) and increases one methylation of histone H3 on the ninth lysine (H3K9me1). Moreover, the combination of H3K9me1 and HP1 α forms more H3K9me3-HP1α complex which binds to the promoter region of Pim1, enhancing the expression of Pim1 that enhances the expression of TERT, oncogenic lncRNA HOTAIR and reduces the TERRA expression. Ultimately, P53 (N340Q/L344R) accerlerates the growth of liver cancer cells Hep3B by activating telomerase and prolonging telomere through the cascade of P53 (N340Q/L344R)-CUDR-PKM2-pH3T11- (H3K9me1-HP1α)-Pim1- (TERT-HOTAIR-TERRA). Understanding the novel functions of P53 (N340Q/L344R) will help in the development of new liver cancer therapeutic approaches that may be useful in a broad range of cancer types. PMID:27167190

  15. Therapeutic Value of PLK1 Knockdown in Combination with Prostate Cancer Drugs in PIM-1 Overexpressing Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    overexpressed in a wide variety of cancer types including prostate and its expression correlates with poor patient prognosis (Strebhardt and Ullrich , 2006...Strebhardt K, Ullrich A. 2006. Targeting polo-like kinase 1 for cancer therapy. Nat Rev Cancer 6(4):321-330. Weichert W, Schmidt M, Gekeler V

  16. Ki67 and PIM1 expression predict outcome in mantle cell lymphoma treated with high dose therapy, stem cell transplantation and rituximab: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B 59909 correlative science study

    PubMed Central

    HSI, ERIC D.; JUNG, SIN-HO; LAI, RAYMOND; JOHNSON, JEFFREY L.; COOK, JAMES R.; JONES, DAN; DEVOS, SVEN; CHESON, BRUCE D.; DAMON, LLOYD E.; SAID, JONATHAN

    2011-01-01

    The proliferation index in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has not been validated in the context of aggressive therapy regimens in the rituximab era. We assessed Ki67 and PIM1 (a cell cycle-related gene upregulated in blastoid MCL) expression by immunohistochemistry in a phase II study Cancer and Leukemia Group B 59909 of aggressive chemotherapy and rituximab followed by autologous stem cell transplantation plus rituximab in untreated MCL patients < 70 years of age. As a continuous variable or using a cutoff of 35%, higher image analysis (IA Ki67, n = 52) was associated with shorter progression free survival (PFS) (P ≤ 0.030) and event free survival (EFS) (P ≤ 0.017). PIM1 expression (n = 50) was associated with PFS (P = 0.033) and EFS (P = 0.043). Bivariate Cox models showed IA Ki67 and PIM1 were independent of clinical factors. High Ki67 (> 35%) is an important independent prognostic marker in aggressively treated MCL in the rituximab era. PIM1 expression predicts poor outcome and, given its potential role as a therapeutic target, deserves further study. PMID:19021050

  17. Effect of pristine and functionalized single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes on CO2 separation of mixed matrix membranes based on polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1): a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Golzar, Karim; Modarress, Hamid; Amjad-Iranagh, Sepideh

    2017-08-19

    Molecular dynamics (MD) and grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were conducted to investigate the transport properties of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, and oxygen through pure and mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) based on polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-1). For this purpose, first, 0.5 to 3 wt% of pristine single-walled carbon nanotube (p-SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (p-MWCNT) were embedded into the pure PIM-1, and then for better dispersion of CNT particles into the polymer matrix and to improve the performance of the resulting MMMs, polyethylene glycol (PEG) functionalized SWCNT and MWCNT (f-SWCNT and f-MWCNT, respectively) were loaded. The characterization of the obtained MMMs was carried out by using density, glass transition temperature, X-ray pattern, and fractional free volume calculations. Comparing the obtained results with the available reported experimental data, indicate the authenticity of the applied simulation approach. The simulation results exhibit that the pristine and PEG-functionalized CNT particles improve the transport properties such as diffusivity, solubility, and permeability of the PIM-1 membranes, without sacrificing their selectivity. Also, the MMMs incorporated with 2 wt% of the functionalized CNT particles indicate better performance for the CO2 separation from other gases. According to the calculated results, the highest permeability and diffusivity for CO2 are observed in the [PIM-1/f-SWCNT] MMM among the other membranes which represent that the loading of the f-SWCNTs can enhance the CO2 separation performance of PIM-1 more than other CNTs studied in this work.

  18. Photo-physics study of an hydroxy-quinoline derivative as inhibitor of Pim-1 kinase: ultraviolet-visible linear dichroism spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Lamhasni, T; Ait Lyazidi, S; Hnach, M; Haddad, M; Desmaële, D; Spanget-Larsen, J; Nguyen, D D; Ducasse, L

    2013-09-01

    The photophysical properties of the antiviral 7-nicotinoyl-styrylquinoline (MB96) were investigated by means of UV-Vis linear dichroism (LD) spectroscopy on molecular samples aligned in stretched polyvinylalcohol (PVA), supported by time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. Experimentally, the directions of the transitions moments with respect to the long axis of the molecule were deduced from the orientation K factors, determined by means of "trial-and-error" procedure. The absorption spectrum presents two parts. The main transition in the lowest energy part, observed around 365 nm and showing the highest K value 0.8, is longitudinally in-plane polarized. The highest energy part which is extended between 230 and 320 nm, large, diffuse, and of weak intensity, shows estimated K values between 0.2 and 0.5. This complex structure is transversally polarized with some contamination by the longitudinal character of the first strong band. The TD-DFT results agree fairly well with the LD measurements.

  19. Structure Guided Optimization, in Vitro Activity, and in Vivo Activity of Pan-PIM Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proviral insertion of Moloney virus (PIM) 1, 2, and 3 kinases are serine/threonine kinases that normally function in survival and proliferation of hematopoietic cells. As high expression of PIM1, 2, and 3 is frequently observed in many human malignancies, including multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and myeloid leukemias, there is interest in determining whether selective PIM inhibition can improve outcomes of these human cancers. Herein, we describe our efforts toward this goal. The structure guided optimization of a singleton high throughput screening hit in which the potency against all three PIM isoforms was increased >10,000-fold to yield compounds with pan PIM Kis < 10 pM, nanomolar cellular potency, and in vivo activity in an acute myeloid leukemia Pim-dependent tumor model is described. PMID:24900629

  20. Overcoming Resistance to Inhibitors of the AKT Protein Kinase by Modulation of the Pim Kinase Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    translation of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase in prostate cancer. This regulates the activity of the MET/ HGF axis and potentially can affect the...on culture of wild-type DU145 cells in the presence of HGF was enhanced in the Pim-1-overexpressing cells (Fig 6a). This effect was specific as there...was no difference in ERK phosphorylation between the over expressor and wild-type cell lines cultured in HGF . Conversely, in PC3-LN4 cells in

  1. Pim kinases are upregulated during Epstein-Barr virus infection and enhance EBNA2 activity

    SciTech Connect

    Rainio, Eeva-Marja; Ahlfors, Helena; Ruuska, Marja; Kieff, Elliott; Koskinen, Paeivi J. . E-mail: paivi.koskinen@btk.fi

    2005-03-15

    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is strongly associated with B-cell proliferative diseases such as Burkitt's lymphoma. Here we show that the oncogenic serine/threonine kinases Pim-1 and Pim-2 enhance the activity of the viral transcriptional activator EBNA2. During EBV infection of primary B-lymphocytes, the mRNA expression levels of pim genes, especially of pim-2, are upregulated and remain elevated in latently infected B-cell lines. Thus, EBV-induced upregulation of Pim kinases and Pim-stimulated EBNA2 transcriptional activity may contribute to the ability of EBV to immortalize B-cells and predispose them to malignant growth.

  2. Pathophysiological roles of Pim-3 kinase in pancreatic cancer development and progression.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Yi; Mukaida, Naofumi

    2014-07-28

    Pim-3 is a member of the provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (Pim) family proteins that exhibit serine/threonine kinase activity. Similar to the other Pim kinases (Pim-1 and Pim-2), Pim-3 is involved in many cellular processes, including cell proliferation, survival, and protein synthesis. Although Pim-3 is expressed in normal vital organs, it is overexpressed particularly in tumor tissues of endoderm-derived organs, including the liver, pancreas, and colon. Silencing of Pim-3 expression can retard in vitro cell proliferation of hepatocellular, pancreatic, and colon carcinoma cell lines by promoting cell apoptosis. Pim-3 lacks the regulatory domains similarly as Pim-1 and Pim-2 lack, and therefore, Pim-3 can exhibit its kinase activity once it is expressed. Pim-3 expression is regulated at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels by transcription factors (e.g., Ets-1) and post-translational modifiers (e.g., translationally-controlled tumor protein), respectively. Pim-3 could promote growth and angiogenesis of human pancreatic cancer cells in vivo in an orthotopic nude mouse model. Furthermore, a Pim-3 kinase inhibitor inhibited cell proliferation when human pancreatic cancer cells were injected into nude mice, without inducing any major adverse effects. Thus, Pim-3 kinase may serve as a novel molecular target for developing targeting drugs against pancreatic and other types of cancer.

  3. Expression of PIM kinases in Reed-Sternberg cells fosters immune privilege and tumor cell survival in Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Szydłowski, Maciej; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, Anna; Derezińska, Edyta; Hoser, Grażyna; Wasilewska, Danuta; Szymańska-Giemza, Olga; Jabłońska, Ewa; Białopiotrowicz, Emilia; Sewastianik, Tomasz; Polak, Anna; Czardybon, Wojciech; Gałęzowski, Michał; Windak, Renata; Zaucha, Jan Maciej; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Brzózka, Krzysztof; Juszczyński, Przemysław

    2017-09-21

    Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) express multiple immunoregulatory proteins that shape the cHL microenvironment and allow tumor cells to evade immune surveillance. Expression of certain immunoregulatory proteins is modulated by prosurvival transcription factors, such as NFκB and STATs. Because these factors also induce expression of the oncogenic PIM1/2/3 serine/threonine kinases, and as PIMs modulate transcriptional activity of NFκB and STATs, we hypothesized that these kinases support RS cell survival and foster their immune privilege. Here, we investigated PIM1/2/3 expression in cHL and assessed their role in developing RS cell immune privilege and survival. PIM1/2/3 were ubiquitously expressed in primary and cultured RS cells, and their expression was driven by JAK-STAT and NFκB activity. Genetic or chemical PIM inhibition with a newly developed pan-PIM inhibitor, SEL24-B489, induced RS cell apoptosis. PIM inhibition decreased cap-dependent protein translation, blocked JAK-STAT signaling, and markedly attenuated NFκB-dependent gene expression. In a cHL xenograft model, SEL24-B489 delayed tumor growth by 95.8% (P = .0002). Furthermore, SEL24-B489 decreased the expression of multiple molecules engaged in developing the immunosuppressive microenvironment, including galectin-1 and PD-L1/2. In coculture experiments, T cells incubated with SEL24-B489-treated RS cells exhibited higher expression of activation markers than T cells coincubated with control RS cells. Taken together, our data indicate that PIM kinases in cHL exhibit pleiotropic effects, orchestrating tumor immune escape and supporting RS cell survival. Inhibition of PIM kinases decreases RS cell viability and disrupts signaling circuits that link these cells with their niches. Thus, PIM kinases are promising therapeutic targets in cHL. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  4. Lethal Synergism between Influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, Jennifer M; Ashar, Harshini K; Chow, Vincent TK; Teluguakula, Narasaraju

    2016-01-01

    The devastating synergism of bacterial pneumonia with influenza viral infections left its mark on the world over the last century. Although the details of pathogenesis remain unclear, the synergism is related to a variety of factors including pulmonary epithelial barrier damage which exposes receptors that influence bacterial adherence and the triggering of an exaggerated innate immune response and cytokine storm, which further acts to worsen the injury. Several therapeutics and combination therapies of antibiotics, anti-inflammatories including corticosteroids and toll-like receptor modifiers, and anti-virals are being discussed. This mini review summarizes recent developments in unearthing the pathogenesis of the lethal synergism of pneumococcal co-infection following influenza, as well as addresses potential therapeutic options and combinations of therapies currently being evaluated. PMID:27981251

  5. The Synergic Integrated Concepts of C2S

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    manner, main intention or construction principle. The synergic integrated concept of the command and control system represents a definition and...trends comprise specifications of synergic integrated concepts for the command and control systems, particularly battlefield digitalisation and Network

  6. PIM kinase inhibition presents a novel targeted therapy against triple-negative breast tumors with elevated MYC expression

    PubMed Central

    Horiuchi, Dai; Camarda, Roman; Zhou, Alicia Y.; Yau, Christina; Momcilovic, Olga; Balakrishnan, Sanjeev; Corella, Alexandra N.; Eyob, Henok; Kessenbrock, Kai; Lawson, Devon A.; Marsh, Lindsey A.; Anderton, Brittany N.; Rohrberg, Julia; Kunder, Ratika; Bazarov, Alexey V.; Yaswen, Paul; McManus, Michael T.; Rugo, Hope S.; Werb, Zena; Goga, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which lacks the expression of the estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors, represents the breast cancer subtype with the poorest outcome1. No targeted therapy is available against this subtype due to lack of validated molecular targets. We previously reported that MYC signaling is disproportionally elevated in triple-negative (TN) tumors compared to receptor-positive (RP) tumors2. MYC is an essential, pleiotropic transcription factor that regulates the expression of hundreds of genes3. Direct inhibition of oncogenic MYC transcriptional activity has remained challenging4,5. The present study conducted an shRNA screen against all kinases to uncover novel MYC-dependent synthetic lethal combinations, and identified PIM1, a non-essential kinase. Here we demonstrate that PIM1 expression was elevated in TN tumors and was associated with poor prognosis in patients with hormone and HER2 receptor-negative tumors. Small molecule PIM kinase inhibitors halted the growth of human TN tumors with elevated MYC expression in patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) and MYC-driven transgenic breast cancer models by inhibiting oncogenic transcriptional activity of MYC while simultaneously restoring the function of the endogenous cell cycle inhibitor, p27. Our findings warrant clinical evaluation of PIM kinase inhibitors in patients with TN tumors that exhibit elevated MYC expression. PMID:27775705

  7. Development and Application of a High-Throughput Fluorescence Polarization Assay to Target Pim Kinases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seongho; Hong, Victor Sukbong

    2016-01-01

    Pim proteins consisting of three isoforms (Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3) are a family of serine/threonine kinases that regulate fundamental cellular responses such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Overexpression of the Pim kinases has been linked to a wide variety of hematological and solid tumors. Thus, all three Pim kinases have been studied as promising targets for anticancer therapy. Here, we report on the development and optimization of an immobilized metal ion affinity partitioning (IMAP) fluorescence polarization (FP) method for Pim kinases. In this homogeneous 384-well assay method, fluorescein-labeled phosphopeptides are captured on cationic nanoparticles through interactions with immobilized trivalent metals, resulting in high polarization values. The apparent Km values for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were determined to be 45 ± 7, 6.4 ± 2, and 29 ± 5 μM for Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3, respectively. The assay yielded robustness with Z'-factors of >0.75 and low day-to-day variability (CV <5%) for all three Pim kinases. The IMAP FP assay was further validated by determining IC50 values for staurosporine and a known Pim inhibitor. We have also used an IMAP FP assay to examine whether compound 1, an ATP mimetic inhibitor designed through structure-based drug design, is indeed an ATP-competitive inhibitor of Pim kinases. Kinetic analysis based on Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that the inhibition mechanism of compound 1 is ATP competitive against all three Pim isoforms. The optimized IMAP assay for Pim kinases not only allows for high-throughput screening but also facilitates the characterization of novel Pim inhibitors for drug development.

  8. New insights into the synergism of nucleoside analogs with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael W; Parker, William B; Xu, Bo

    2013-09-26

    Nucleoside analogs have been frequently used in combination with radiotherapy in the clinical setting, as it has long been understood that inhibition of DNA repair pathways is an important means by which many nucleoside analogs synergize. Recent advances in our understanding of the structure and function of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), a critical enzyme required for the anti-tumor activity for many nucleoside analogs, have clarified the mechanistic role this kinase plays in chemo- and radio-sensitization. A heretofore unrecognized role of dCK in the DNA damage response and cell cycle machinery has helped explain the synergistic effect of these agents with radiotherapy. Since most currently employed nucleoside analogs are primarily activated by dCK, these findings lend fresh impetus to efforts focused on profiling and modulating dCK expression and activity in tumors. In this review we will briefly review the pharmacology and biochemistry of the major nucleoside analogs in clinical use that are activated by dCK. This will be followed by discussions of recent advances in our understanding of dCK activation via post-translational modifications in response to radiation and current strategies aimed at enhancing this activity in cancer cells.

  9. AZD1208, a potent and selective pan-Pim kinase inhibitor, demonstrates efficacy in preclinical models of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Erika K; McEachern, Kristen; Dillman, Keith S; Palakurthi, Sangeetha; Cao, Yichen; Grondine, Michael R; Kaur, Surinder; Wang, Suping; Chen, Yuching; Wu, Allan; Shen, Minhui; Gibbons, Francis D; Lamb, Michelle L; Zheng, Xiaolan; Stone, Richard M; Deangelo, Daniel J; Platanias, Leonidas C; Dakin, Les A; Chen, Huawei; Lyne, Paul D; Huszar, Dennis

    2014-02-06

    Upregulation of Pim kinases is observed in several types of leukemias and lymphomas. Pim-1, -2, and -3 promote cell proliferation and survival downstream of cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways. AZD1208 is a potent, highly selective, and orally available Pim kinase inhibitor that effectively inhibits all three isoforms at <5 nM or <150 nM in enzyme and cell assays, respectively. AZD1208 inhibited the growth of 5 of 14 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines tested, and sensitivity correlates with Pim-1 expression and STAT5 activation. AZD1208 causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MOLM-16 cells, accompanied by a dose-dependent reduction in phosphorylation of Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death, 4EBP1, p70S6K, and S6, as well as increases in cleaved caspase 3 and p27. Inhibition of p4EBP1 and p-p70S6K and suppression of translation are the most representative effects of Pim inhibition in sensitive AML cell lines. AZD1208 inhibits the growth of MOLM-16 and KG-1a xenograft tumors in vivo with a clear pharmacodynamic-pharmacokinetic relationship. AZD1208 also potently inhibits colony growth and Pim signaling substrates in primary AML cells from bone marrow that are Flt3 wild-type or Flt3 internal tandem duplication mutant. These results underscore the therapeutic potential of Pim kinase inhibition for the treatment of AML.

  10. Discovery and optimization of pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazinones leads to novel and selective inhibitors of PIM kinases.

    PubMed

    Casuscelli, Francesco; Ardini, Elena; Avanzi, Nilla; Casale, Elena; Cervi, Giovanni; D'Anello, Matteo; Donati, Daniele; Faiardi, Daniela; Ferguson, Ronald D; Fogliatto, Gianpaolo; Galvani, Arturo; Marsiglio, Aurelio; Mirizzi, Danilo G; Montemartini, Marisa; Orrenius, Christian; Papeo, Gianluca; Piutti, Claudia; Salom, Barbara; Felder, Eduard R

    2013-12-01

    A novel series of PIM inhibitors was derived from a combined effort in natural product-inspired library generation and screening. The novel pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazinones initial hits are inhibitors of PIM isoforms with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. The application of a rational optimization strategy, guided by the determination of the crystal structure of the complex in the kinase domain of PIM1 with compound 1, led to the discovery of compound 15a, which is a potent PIM kinases inhibitor exhibiting excellent selectivity against a large panel of kinases, representative of each family. The synthesis, structure-activity relationship studies, and pharmacokinetic data of compounds from this inhibitor class are presented herein. Furthermore, the cellular activities including inhibition of cell growth and modulation of downstream targets are also described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Discovery of 3H-Benzo[4,5]thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-ones as Potent, Highly Selective, and Orally Bioavailable Inhibitors of the Human Protooncogene Proviral Insertion Site in Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (PIM) Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Zhi-Fu; Hasvold, Lisa A.; Leverson, Joel D.; Han, Edward K.; Guan, Ran; Johnson, Eric F.; Stoll, Vincent S.; Stewart, Kent D.; Stamper, Geoff; Soni, Nirupama; Bouska, Jennifer J.; Luo, Yan; Sowin, Thomas J.; Lin, Nan-Horng; Giranda, Vincent S.; Rosenberg, Saul H.; Penning, Thomas D.

    2010-02-19

    Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3 are a family of serine/threonine kinases which have been found to be overexpressed in a variety of hematopoietic malignancies and solid tumors. Benzothienopyrimidinones were discovered as a novel class of Pim inhibitors that potently inhibit all three Pim kinases with subnanomolar to low single-digit nanomolar K{sub i} values and exhibit excellent selectivity against a panel of diverse kinases. Protein crystal structures of the bound Pim-1 complexes of benzothienopyrimidinones 3b (PDB code 3JYA), 6e (PDB code 3JYO), and 12b (PDB code 3JXW) were determined and used to guide SAR studies. Multiple compounds exhibited potent antiproliferative activity in K562 and MV4-11 cells with submicromolar EC{sub 50} values. For example, compound 14j inhibited the growth of K562 cells with an EC{sub 50} value of 1.7 {micro}M and showed K{sub i} values of 2, 3, and 0.5 nM against Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3, respectively. These novel Pim kinase inhibitors efficiently interrupted the phosphorylation of Bad in both K562 and LnCaP-Bad cell lines, indicating that their potent biological activities are mechanism-based. The pharmacokinetics of 14j was studied in CD-1 mice and shown to exhibit bioavailability of 76% after oral dosing. ADME profiling of 14j suggested a long half-life in both human and mouse liver microsomes, good permeability, modest protein binding, and no CYP inhibition below 20 {micro}M concentration.

  12. Extracellular calcium stimulates DNA synthesis in synergism with zinc, insulin and insulin-like growth factor I in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Huang, J S; Mukherjee, J J; Chung, T; Crilly, K S; Kiss, Z

    1999-12-01

    In serum-starved mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts cultured in 1.8 mM Ca2+-containing medium, addition of 0.75-2 mM extra Ca2+ stimulated DNA synthesis in synergism with zinc (15-60 microM), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I. Extra Ca2+ stimulated phosphorylation/activation of p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases by an initially (10 min) zinc-independent mechanism; however, insulin, and particularly zinc, significantly prolonged Ca2+-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. In addition, extra Ca2+ activated p70 S6 kinase by a zinc-dependent mechanism and enhanced the stimulatory effect of zinc on choline kinase activity. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I also commonly increased both p70 S6 kinase and choline kinase activities. In support of the role of the choline kinase product phosphocholine in the mediation of mitogenic Ca2+ effects, cotreatments with the choline kinase substrate choline (250 microM) and the choline kinase inhibitor hemicholinium-3 (2 mM) enhanced and inhibited, respectively, the combined stimulatory effect of extra Ca2+ (3.8 mM total) and zinc on DNA synthesis. In various human skin fibroblast lines, 1-2 mM extra Ca2+ also stimulated DNA synthesis in synergism with zinc and insulin. The results show that in various fibroblast cultures, high concentrations of extracellular Ca2+ can collaborate with zinc and certain growth factors to stimulate DNA synthesis. Considering the high concentration of extracellular Ca2+ in the dermal layer, Ca2+ may promote fibroblast growth during wound healing in concert with zinc, insulin growth factor-I insulin, and perhaps other growth factors.

  13. PIM kinases as therapeutic targets against advanced melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Shannan, Batool; Watters, Andrea; Chen, Quan; Mollin, Stefan; Dörr, Markus; Meggers, Eric; Xu, Xiaowei; Gimotty, Phyllis A.; Perego, Michela; Li, Ling; Benci, Joseph; Krepler, Clemens; Brafford, Patricia; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Zhi; Zhang, Gao; Liu, Qin; Yin, Xiangfan; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Herlyn, Meenhard; Vultur, Adina

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies for the treatment of metastatic melanoma show encouraging results in the clinic; however, not all patients respond equally and tumor resistance still poses a challenge. To identify novel therapeutic targets for melanoma, we screened a panel of structurally diverse organometallic inhibitors against human-derived normal and melanoma cells. We observed that a compound that targets PIM kinases (a family of Ser/Thr kinases) preferentially inhibited melanoma cell proliferation, invasion, and viability in adherent and three-dimensional (3D) melanoma models. Assessment of tumor tissue from melanoma patients showed that PIM kinases are expressed in pre- and post-treatment tumors, suggesting PIM kinases as promising targets in the clinic. Using knockdown studies, we showed that PIM1 contributes to melanoma cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo; however, the presence of PIM2 and PIM3 could also influence the outcome. The inhibition of all PIM isoforms using SGI-1776 (a clinically-available PIM inhibitor) reduced melanoma proliferation and survival in preclinical models of melanoma. This was potentiated in the presence of the BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 and in the presence of PI3K inhibitors. Our findings suggest that PIM inhibitors provide promising additions to the targeted therapies available to melanoma patients. PMID:27448973

  14. Synergism among ternary mixtures of fourteen sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Sattely-Miller, E A; Graham, B G; Booth, B J; Gibes, K M

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the degree of synergism of sweet taste among ternary mixtures of 14 sweeteners. A trained panel evaluated ternary mixtures of 14 sweeteners varying in chemical structure and type. The ternary mixtures that were tested were limited to those in which the compounds comprising the mixture were synergistic in binary combinations, according to an earlier study. All sweeteners in the ternary mixtures were isointense with 2% sucrose, according to a previously developed formulae. Each self-mixture was also tested (e.g. 2% sucrose + 2% sucrose + 2% sucrose). The triad with the highest mean sweetness intensity rating was alitame-neohesperidin dihydrochalcone-rebaudioside-A (10.8). This represents an increase of 99.4% when compared with the average of the self-mixtures. While this is greater than the maximum of 74% increase found for binary mixtures, more dyadic combinations of sweeteners tested previously exhibited synergism than ternary combinations tested here. However, most ternary mixtures were synergistic (significantly greater than the average of the three self-mixtures) to some degree.

  15. Synergism between ipratropium and theophylline in asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Kreisman, H; Frank, H; Wolkove, N; Gent, M

    1981-01-01

    Ipratropium bromide is a bronchodilator whose effect has been compared with beta agonists but not with theophylline. Twelve asthmatics were given four two-week courses of the different combinations of ipratropium (40 micrograms in two puffs), theophylline capsules, and their corresponding placebos in a random, double-blind fashion. There was a significant increase in FEV1 and MMFR 60 minutes after theophylline was administered (p less than 0.05) when measured after one and two weeks of therapy. FEV1 and MMFR were significantly increased (p less than 0.05) 30 and 60 minutes after ipratropium inhalation and this increase was significantly greater when the patient had also been taking theophylline compared with placebo capsules (p less than 0.05). There was no toxicity associated with this combination. The synergism demonstrated may be related to the time sequence of drug administration, mechanical or cellular factors. PMID:6458919

  16. A synergic approach to terraforming Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogg, Martyn J.

    1992-08-01

    A two-stage terraforming scenario is outlined for Mars. The approach adopted differs from past methodology in two ways. It adopts a more conservative and plausible Martian volatile inventory. Possible planetary engineering solutions, including possible synergic use of terraforming techniques, are examined in detail. In the first stage, the Martian environment is modified to a state where it can support microbial and hardy plant life in approximately 200 years. While this step is conceptually similar to past scenarios, it differs greatly in detail. The second stage deals with the creation of conditions tolerable for human beings over a period of approximately 21,000 years. It is concluded that terraforming Mars is possible but not by the passive, or near-spontaneous, methods favored by some workers. A powerful industrial effort is required both on the planet's surface and in space as will be continuing technological intervention to stabilize the postterraformed regime.

  17. Inhibition of oncogenic Pim-3 kinase modulates transformed growth and chemosensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dapeng; Cobb, Michael G.; Gavilano, Lily; Witherspoon, Sam M.; Williams, Daniel; White, Catherine D.; Taverna, Pietro; Bednarski, Brian K.; Kim, Hong Jin; Baldwin, Albert S.; Baines, Antonio T.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal cancer with a 5-year survival rate of only 6%. Although the cytosine analog gemcitabine is the drug commonly used to treat PDAC, chemoresistance unfortunately renders the drug ineffective. Thus, strategies that can decrease this resistance will be essential for improving the dismal outcome of patients suffering from this disease. We previously observed that oncogenic Pim-1 kinase was aberrantly expressed in PDAC tissues and cell lines and was responsible for radioresistance. Furthermore, members of the Pim family have been shown to reduce the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the role of Pim-3 in chemoresistance of PDAC cells. We were able to confirm upregulation of the Pim-3 oncogene in PDAC tissues and cell lines vs. normal samples. Biological consequences of inhibiting Pim-3 expression with shRNA-mediated suppression included decreases in anchorage-dependent growth, invasion through Matrigel and chemoresistance to gemcitabine as measured by caspase-3 activity. Additionally, we were able to demonstrate that Pim-1 and Pim-3 play overlapping but non-identical roles as it relates to gemcitabine sensitivity of pancreatic cancer cells. To further support the role of Pim-3 suppression in sensitizing PDAC cells to gemcitabine, we used the pharmacological Pim kinase inhibitor SGI-1776. Treatment of PDAC cells with SGI-1776 resulted in decreased phosphorylation of the proapoptotic protein Bad and cell cycle changes. When SGI-1776 was combined with gemcitabine, there was a greater decrease in cell viability in the PDAC cells vs. cells treated with either of the drugs separately. These results suggest combining drug therapies that inhibit Pim kinases, such as Pim-3, with chemotherapeutic agents, to aid in decreasing chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer. PMID:23760491

  18. Binding site identification and role of permanent water molecule of PIM-3 kinase: A molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Ul-Haq, Zaheer; Gul, Sana; Usmani, Saman; Wadood, Abdul; Khan, Waqasuddin

    2015-11-01

    The kinome is a protein kinase complement of the human genome, categorized as serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases. These kinases catalyze phosphorylation reaction by using ATP as phosphoryl donor. Proviral Integration Site for Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (PIM) kinase encodes serine/threonine protein kinases that recognized as proto-oncogene, responsible for rapid growth of cancerous cells. It is implicated in cell survival and function via cell cycle progression and its metabolism. PIM-3, sub-member of PIM kinases is a proto-oncogene, its overexpression inhibits apoptosis, and results in progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. PIM-3 is considered as a promising drug target but attempts to develop its specific inhibitors is slowed down due to the lack of 3D structure by any experimental technique. In silico techniques generally facilitate scientist to explore hidden structural features in order to improve drug discovery. In the present study, homology modeling, molecular docking and MD simulation techniques were utilized to explore the structure and dynamics of PIM-3 kinase. Induction of water molecules during molecular docking simulation explored differences in the hinge region between PIM-1 and PIM-3 kinases that may be responsible for specificity. Furthermore, role of water molecules in the active site was also explored via radial distribution function (RDF) after a 10 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Generated RDF plots exhibited the importance of water for inhibitor binding through their bridging capability that links the ligand with binding site residues.

  19. Antagonism and synergism between lead and zinc in amphibian larvae.

    PubMed

    Herkovits, J; Pérez-Coll, C S

    1991-01-01

    Lead and zinc effects on Bufo arenarum larval survival were studied in single and combined treatments. On a weight basis, lead is about twice as toxic as zinc. The antagonism or synergism between these heavy metals is dose-dependent.

  20. 7,8-Dichloro-1-oxo-β-carbolines as a Versatile Scaffold for the Development of Potent and Selective Kinase Inhibitors with Unusual Binding Modes†

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Development of both potent and selective kinase inhibitors is a challenging task in modern drug discovery. The innate promiscuity of kinase inhibitors largely results from ATP-mimetic binding to the kinase hinge region. We present a novel class of substituted 7,8-dichloro-1-oxo-β-carbolines based on the distinct structural features of the alkaloid bauerine C whose kinase inhibitory activity does not rely on canonical ATP-mimetic hinge interactions. Intriguingly, cocrystal structures revealed an unexpected inverted binding mode and the presence of halogen bonds with kinase backbone residues. The compounds exhibit excellent selectivity over a comprehensive panel of human protein kinases while inhibiting selected kinases such as the oncogenic PIM1 at low nanomolar concentrations. Together, our biochemical and structural data suggest that this scaffold may serve as a valuable template for the design and development of specific inhibitors of various kinases including the PIM family of kinases, CLKs, DAPK3 (ZIPK), BMP2K (BIKE), and others. PMID:22136433

  1. ABT-869, a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor: inhibition of FLT3 phosphorylation and signaling in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Deepa B.; Li, Junling; Tapang, Paul; Owen McCall, J.; Pease, Lori J.; Dai, Yujia; Wei, Ru-Qi; Albert, Daniel H.; Bouska, Jennifer J.; Osterling, Donald J.; Guo, Jun; Marcotte, Patrick A.; Johnson, Eric F.; Soni, Niru; Hartandi, Kresna; Michaelides, Michael R.; Davidsen, Steven K.; Priceman, Saul J.; Chang, Jenny C.; Rhodes, Katrin; Shah, Neil; Moore, Theodore B.; Sakamoto, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    In 15% to 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), aberrant proliferation is a consequence of a juxtamembrane mutation in the FLT3 gene (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3–internal tandem duplication [FLT3-ITD]), causing constitutive kinase activity. ABT-869 (a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor) inhibited the phosphorylation of FLT3, STAT5, and ERK, as well as Pim-1 expression in MV-4-11 and MOLM-13 cells (IC50 approximately 1-10 nM) harboring the FLT3-ITD. ABT-869 inhibited the proliferation of these cells (IC50 = 4 and 6 nM, respectively) through the induction of apoptosis (increased sub-G0/G1 phase, caspase activation, and PARP cleavage), whereas cells harboring wild-type (wt)–FLT3 were less sensitive. In normal human blood spiked with AML cells, ABT-869 inhibited phosphorylation of FLT3 (IC50 approximately 100 nM), STAT5, and ERK, and decreased Pim-1 expression. In methylcellulose-based colony-forming assays, ABT-869 had no significant effect up to 1000 nM on normal hematopoietic progenitor cells, whereas in AML patient samples harboring both FLT3-ITD and wt-FLT3, ABT-869 inhibited colony formation (IC50 = 100 and 1000 nM, respectively). ABT-869 dose-dependently inhibited MV-4-11 and MOLM-13 flank tumor growth, prevented tumor formation, regressed established MV-4-11 xenografts, and increased survival by 20 weeks in an MV-4-11 engraftment model. In tumors, ABT-869 inhibited FLT3 phosphorylation, induced apoptosis (transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL]) and decreased proliferation (Ki67). ABT-869 is under clinical development for AML. PMID:17209055

  2. ABT-869, a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor: inhibition of FLT3 phosphorylation and signaling in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Deepa B; Li, Junling; Tapang, Paul; Owen McCall, J; Pease, Lori J; Dai, Yujia; Wei, Ru-Qi; Albert, Daniel H; Bouska, Jennifer J; Osterling, Donald J; Guo, Jun; Marcotte, Patrick A; Johnson, Eric F; Soni, Niru; Hartandi, Kresna; Michaelides, Michael R; Davidsen, Steven K; Priceman, Saul J; Chang, Jenny C; Rhodes, Katrin; Shah, Neil; Moore, Theodore B; Sakamoto, Kathleen M; Glaser, Keith B

    2007-04-15

    In 15% to 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), aberrant proliferation is a consequence of a juxtamembrane mutation in the FLT3 gene (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication [FLT3-ITD]), causing constitutive kinase activity. ABT-869 (a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor) inhibited the phosphorylation of FLT3, STAT5, and ERK, as well as Pim-1 expression in MV-4-11 and MOLM-13 cells (IC(50) approximately 1-10 nM) harboring the FLT3-ITD. ABT-869 inhibited the proliferation of these cells (IC(50) = 4 and 6 nM, respectively) through the induction of apoptosis (increased sub-G(0)/G(1) phase, caspase activation, and PARP cleavage), whereas cells harboring wild-type (wt)-FLT3 were less sensitive. In normal human blood spiked with AML cells, ABT-869 inhibited phosphorylation of FLT3 (IC(50) approximately 100 nM), STAT5, and ERK, and decreased Pim-1 expression. In methylcellulose-based colony-forming assays, ABT-869 had no significant effect up to 1000 nM on normal hematopoietic progenitor cells, whereas in AML patient samples harboring both FLT3-ITD and wt-FLT3, ABT-869 inhibited colony formation (IC(50) = 100 and 1000 nM, respectively). ABT-869 dose-dependently inhibited MV-4-11 and MOLM-13 flank tumor growth, prevented tumor formation, regressed established MV-4-11 xenografts, and increased survival by 20 weeks in an MV-4-11 engraftment model. In tumors, ABT-869 inhibited FLT3 phosphorylation, induced apoptosis (transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL]) and decreased proliferation (Ki67). ABT-869 is under clinical development for AML.

  3. Developmental synergism of steroidal estrogens in sex determination.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, J M; Willingham, E; Osborn, C T; Rhen, T; Crews, D

    1999-02-01

    Gonadal sex in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, is determined by incubation temperature during embryonic development. Evidence suggests that temperature determines sex by influencing steroid hormone metabolism and/or sensitivity: steroidogenic enzyme inhibitors or exogenous sex steroid hormones and their man-made analogs override (or enhance) temperature effects on sex determination. Specifically, nonaromatizable androgens and aromatase inhibitors induce testis differentiation at female-producing temperatures, whereas aromatizable androgens and estrogens induce ovary differentiation at male-producing temperatures. Moreover, natural estrogens and temperature synergize to produce more females than would be expected if estrogens and temperature had purely additive effects on sex determination. In this study, we use sex reversal of turtle embryos incubated at a male-producing temperature to examine synergism among steroidal estrogens: estrone, 17ss-estradiol, and estriol. A low dose of 17ss-estradiol (200 ng) showed significant synergism when administered with a single low dose of estriol (10 ng). Likewise, a single low dose of estrone (250 ng) had a synergistic effect when combined with the same low dose of estriol (10 ng). We conclude that the weak natural estrogens estrone and 17ss-estradiol synergize with a low dose of the more potent estriol to reverse gonadal sex during the critical period of sexual differentiation. These results suggest that weak environmental estrogens may also synergize with stronger natural estrogens.

  4. Use of copper(I) catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) for the preparation of conjugated pyrrolo[2,3-a]carbazole Pim kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Letribot, Boris; Akué-Gédu, Rufine; Santio, Niina M; El-Ghozzi, Malika; Avignant, Daniel; Cisnetti, Federico; Koskinen, Päivi J; Gautier, Arnaud; Anizon, Fabrice; Moreau, Pascale

    2012-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated that pyrrolo[2,3-a]carbazole-3-carbaldehydes are potent Pim kinase inhibitors with in vitro antiproliferative activities. In the present study, we report the synthesis of new pyrrolocarbazoles substituted at the N-10 position. When their ability to inhibit Pim kinase activities were evaluated in in vitro assays, we observed that this nitrogen atom can be substituted without loss of Pim-1 and Pim-3 inhibitory potencies. Moreover, when we added a fluorescent dansyl group (compound 13), we were able to show that 13 penetrates the plasma membrane and enters the cytoplasm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Synergism between soluble and dietary fiber bound antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Ecem Evrim; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2015-03-04

    This study investigates the synergism between antioxidants bound to dietary fibers (DF) of grains and soluble antioxidants of highly consumed beverages or their pure antioxidants. The interaction between insoluble fractions of grains containing bound antioxidants and soluble antioxidants was investigated using (i) a liposome-based system by measuring the lag phase before the onset of oxidation and (ii) an ESR-based system by measuring the reduction percentage of Fremy's salt radical. In both procedures, antioxidant capacities of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were measured as well as their combinations, which were prepared at different ratios. The simple addition effects of DF-bound and soluble antioxidants were compared with measured values. The results revealed a clear synergism for almost all combinations in both liposome- and ESR-based systems. The synergism observed in DF-bound-soluble antioxidant system paints a promising picture considering the role of fiber in human gastrointestinal (GI) tract health.

  6. Tests of pesticidal synergism with young pheasants and Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreitzer, J.F.; Spann, J.W.

    1973-01-01

    Thirteen pairs of chemicals involving 18 pesticides and two polychlorinated biphenyl preparations were each fed for 5 days to Japanese quail or ring-necked pheasant chicks 7 to 16 days of age. Malathion + EPN, and malathion + trichlorofon were moderately synergistic in tests with both species, whereas joint toxicities of the other chemicals tended to be additive. Comparisons with other studies of joint action of pesticides against mammals and insects suggest that the two species of birds tested are less susceptible to synergism than are mammals or insects. The results also suggest that the likelihood of a factor of synergism greater than three in birds is not great.

  7. C1-Cx revisited: intramolecular synergism in a cellulase.

    PubMed Central

    Din, N; Damude, H G; Gilkes, N R; Miller, R C; Warren, R A; Kilburn, D G

    1994-01-01

    Endoglucanase A (CenA) from the bacterium Cellulomonas fimi is composed of a catalytic domain and a nonhydrolytic cellulose-binding domain that can function independently. The individual domains interact synergistically in the disruption and hydrolysis of cellulose fibers. This intramolecular synergism is distinct from the well-known intermolecular synergism between individual cellulases. The catalytic domain corresponds to the hydrolytic Cx system and the cellulose-binding domain corresponds to the nonhydrolytic C1 system postulated by Reese et al. [Reese, E. T., Sui, R. G. H. & Levinson, H. S. (1950) J. Bacteriol. 59, 485-497] to be required for the hydrolysis of cellulose. PMID:7972069

  8. Enhance-Synergism and Suppression Effects in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovetsky, Stan; Conklin, W. Michael

    2004-01-01

    Relations between pairwise correlations and the coefficient of multiple determination in regression analysis are considered. The conditions for the occurrence of enhance-synergism and suppression effects when multiple determination becomes bigger than the total of squared correlations of the dependent variable with the regressors are discussed. It…

  9. Enhance-Synergism and Suppression Effects in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovetsky, Stan; Conklin, W. Michael

    2004-01-01

    Relations between pairwise correlations and the coefficient of multiple determination in regression analysis are considered. The conditions for the occurrence of enhance-synergism and suppression effects when multiple determination becomes bigger than the total of squared correlations of the dependent variable with the regressors are discussed. It…

  10. Peripheral synergism between tramadol and ibuprofen in the formalin test.

    PubMed

    Chavarria-Bolaños, Daniel; Perez-Urizar, José; Grandfils, Christian; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury

    2014-06-01

    Preclinical Research Analgesics with different mechanisms of action can be combined in order to obtain pharmacological synergism, employing lower doses of each agent, thus diminishing side effects. For instance, an atypical dual analgesic such as tramadol (TMD) and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug such as ibuprofen (IBU) are good candidates to be evaluated when combined and applied peripherally. The present study was conducted to evaluate possible local synergism between TMD and IBU when combined peripherally using the formalin test in rats. The effects of the individual analgesics and their combinations were evaluated simultaneously using a 5% formalin dilution. Dose-effect curves were determined for TMD (50-400 μg/paw) and IBU (1-100 μg/paw). Experimental effective doses were evaluated and isobolographic analyses were constructed to evaluate TMD-IBU combination synergism. Both drugs produced a dose-dependent analgesic effect when applied separately. Isobolographic analysis showed synergism during phase 1 (0-10 min) and phase 2 (15-60 min) when compared with theoretical doses (P < 0.05), with interaction indexes of 0.06 and 0.09, respectively. The present information supports the peripheral analgesic effect of TMD and IBU, especially when combined at appropriate doses.

  11. Ribavirin Inhibits the Activity of mTOR/eIF4E, ERK/Mnk1/eIF4E Signaling Pathway and Synergizes with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Imatinib to Impair Bcr-Abl Mediated Proliferation and Apoptosis in Ph+ Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yuping; Shi, Rui; Yang, Xi; Naren, Duolan; Yan, Tianyou

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), which is the main composition factor of eIF4F translation initiation complex, influences the growth of tumor through modulating cap-dependent protein translation. Previous studies reported that ribavirin could suppress eIF4E-controlled translation and reduce the synthesis of onco-proteins. Here, we investigated the anti-leukemic effects of ribavirin alone or in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib in Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) leukemia cell lines SUP-B15 (Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, Ph+ ALL) and K562 (chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line, CML). Our results showed that ribavirin had anti-proliferation effect; it down-regulated the phosphorylation levels of Akt, mTOR, 4EBP1, and eIF4E proteins in the mTOR/eIF4E signaling pathway, and MEK, ERK, Mnk1 and eIF4E proteins in ERK/Mnk1/eIF4E signaling pathway; reduced the expression of Mcl-1 (a translation substrates of eIF4F translation initiation complex) at protein synthesis level not mRNA transcriptional level; and induced cell apoptosis in both SUP-B15 and K562. 7-Methyl-guanosine cap affinity assay further demonstrated that ribavirin remarkably increased the eIF4E binding to 4EBP1 and decreased the combination of eIF4E with eIF4G, consequently resulting in a major inhibition of eIF4F complex assembly. The combination of ribavirin with imatinib enhanced antileukemic effects mentioned above, indicating that two drugs have synergistic anti-leukemic effect. Consistent with the cell lines, similar results were observed in Ph+ acute lymphoblastic primary leukemic blasts; however, the anti-proliferative role of ribavirin in other types of acute primary leukemic blasts was not obvious, which indicated that the anti-leukemic effect of ribavirin was different in cell lineages. PMID:26317515

  12. Drug activity and therapeutic synergism in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Carter, W H; Wampler, G L; Stablein, D M; Campbell, E D

    1982-08-01

    In work involving modeling of response surfaces to describe the effects of cancer chemotherapy treatments, it is important to define activity and therapeutic synergism in a statistically defensible manner. This requires the construction of confidence intervals around the estimated optimal treatment which has been achieved by use of an indirect method first proposed by Box and Hunter. Activity for a drug or a combination can be claimed at 100(1 - alpha)% level of confidence when the 100(1 - alpha)% confidence interval about the optimal treatment excludes a zero dose. Results of treatment of B16 melanoma and Lewis lung carcinoma with 3,4-dihydroxybenzohydroxamic acid are used to demonstrate this definition. Extensions of this concept lead to a statistically valid definition of therapeutic synergism. If the confidence region about the optimum combination of k drugs does not contact any of the k - 1 dimensional subspaces, then a k drug therapeutic synergism can be claimed. In the event that a k drug therapeutic synergism cannot be claimed, there may be subsets of the drugs which do combine with therapeutic synergy. These concepts are demonstrated by two- and three-drug combination experiments in L1210-bearing C57BL/6 x DBA/2 F1 (B6D2F1) mice. Razoxane and dacarbazine show therapeutic synergism at a 95% confidence level. A three-drug combination of 5-fluorouracil, Teniposide, and mitomycin C is considered. In this case, although the estimated optimum treatment includes 48.1 mg of 5-fluorouracil per kg, 15.9 mg of Teniposide per kg, and 3.9 mg of mitomycin C per kg, the confidence region generated failed to confirm at an 80% level of confidence that 5-fluorouracil was a necessary component of the best treatment.

  13. The PIM inhibitor AZD1208 synergizes with ruxolitinib to induce apoptosis of ruxolitinib sensitive and resistant JAK2-V617F-driven cells and inhibit colony formation of primary MPN cells

    PubMed Central

    Mazzacurati, Lucia; Lambert, Que T.; Pradhan, Anuradha; Griner, Lori N.; Huszar, Dennis; Reuther, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Classical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are hematopoietic stem cell disorders that exhibit excess mature myeloid cells, bone marrow fibrosis, and risk of leukemic transformation. Aberrant JAK2 signaling plays an etiological role in MPN formation. Because neoplastic cells in patients are largely insensitive to current anti-JAK2 therapies, effective therapies remain needed. Members of the PIM family of serine/threonine kinases are induced by JAK/STAT signaling, regulate hematopoietic stem cell growth, protect hematopoietic cells from apoptosis, and exhibit hematopoietic cell transforming properties. We hypothesized that PIM kinases may offer a therapeutic target for MPNs. We treated JAK2-V617F-dependent MPN model cells as well as primary MPN patient cells with the PIM kinase inhibitors SGI-1776 and AZD1208 and the JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. While MPN model cells were rather insensitive to PIM inhibitors, combination of PIM inhibitors with ruxolitinib led to a synergistic effect on MPN cell growth due to enhanced apoptosis. Importantly, PIM inhibitor mono-therapy inhibited, and AZD1208/ruxolitinib combination therapy synergistically suppressed, colony formation of primary MPN cells. Enhanced apoptosis by combination therapy was associated with activation of BAD, inhibition of downstream components of the mTOR pathway, including p70S6K and S6 protein, and activation of 4EBP1. Importantly, PIM inhibitors re-sensitized ruxolitinib-resistant MPN cells to ruxolitinib by inducing apoptosis. Finally, exogenous expression of PIM1 induced ruxolitinib resistance in MPN model cells. These data indicate that PIMs may play a role in MPNs and that combining PIM and JAK2 kinase inhibitors may offer a more efficacious therapeutic approach for MPNs over JAK2 inhibitor mono-therapy. PMID:26472029

  14. Synergic effect of methanol and water on pine liquefaction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun-Peng; Zhu, Wei-Wei; Wei, Xian-Yong; Fan, Xing; Cao, Jing-Pei; Dou, You-Quan; Zong, Zhi-Min; Zhao, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pine liquefaction (PL) and re-liquefaction of its liquefaction residues in sub- and supercritical methanol, water or methanol/water mixed solvents (MWMSs) was investigated. The results show that isometric MWMS has the highest synergic effect on PL. Moreover, the total yield of bio-oil (BO) and conversion from pine and its residue both liquefied in the MWMS were obvious higher than those from PL in methanol (water) and re-liquefaction of its residue in water (methanol), suggesting that the interaction between the two solvents is responsible for synergic effect. This approach facilitates understanding the mechanism for biomass liquefaction in mixed solvents and developing efficient utilization process of biomass. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanism and Synergism in Epithelial Fluid and Electrolyte Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong Hee; Park, Seonghee; Shcheynikov, Nikolay; Muallem, Shmuel

    2014-01-01

    A central function of epithelia is the control of the volume and electrolyte composition of bodily fluids through vectorial transport of electrolytes and the obligatory H2O. In exocrine glands fluid and electrolyte secretion is carried out by both acinar and duct cells, with the portion of fluid secreted by each cell type vary among glands. All acinar cells secrete isotonic, plasma-like fluid, while the duct determines the final electrolyte composition of the fluid by absorbing most of the Cl− and secreting HCO3−. The key transporters mediating acinar fluid and electrolyte secretion are the basolateral Na+/K+/2Cl− cotransporter, the luminal Ca2+-activated Cl− channel ANO1 and basolateral and luminal Ca2+-activated K+ channels. Ductal fluid and HCO3− secretion are mediated by the basolateral membrane Na+-HCO3− cotransporter NBCe1-B and the luminal membrane Cl−/HCO3− exchanger slc26a6 and the Cl− channel CFTR. The function of the transporters is regulated by multiple inputs, which in the duct include major regulation by the WNK/SPAK pathway that inhibit secretion and the IRBIT/PP1 pathway that antagonize the effects of the WNK/SPAK pathway to both stimulate and coordinate the secretion. The function of these regulatory pathways in secretory glands acinar cells is yet to be examined. An important concept in biology is synergism among signaling pathways to generate the final physiological response that ensures regulation with high fidelity and guards against cell toxicity. While synergism is observed in all epithelial functions, the molecular mechanism mediating the synergism is not known. Recent work reveals a central role for IRBIT as a third messenger that integrates and synergizes the function of the Ca2+ and cAMP signaling pathways in activation of epithelial fluid and electrolyte secretion. These concepts are discussed in this review using secretion by the pancreatic and salivary gland ducts as model systems. PMID:24240699

  16. Endo-exo Synergism in Cellulose Hydrolysis Revisited*

    PubMed Central

    Jalak, Jürgen; Kurašin, Mihhail; Teugjas, Hele; Väljamäe, Priit

    2012-01-01

    Synergistic cooperation of different enzymes is a prerequisite for efficient degradation of cellulose. The conventional mechanistic interpretation of the synergism between randomly acting endoglucanases (EGs) and chain end-specific processive cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) is that EG-generated new chain ends on cellulose surface serve as starting points for CBHs. Here we studied the hydrolysis of bacterial cellulose (BC) by CBH TrCel7A and EG TrCel5A from Trichoderma reesei under both single-turnover and “steady state” conditions. Unaccountable by conventional interpretation, the presence of EG increased the rate constant of TrCel7A-catalyzed hydrolysis of BC in steady state. At optimal enzyme/substrate ratios, the “steady state” rate of synergistic hydrolysis became limited by the velocity of processive movement of TrCel7A on BC. A processivity value of 66 ± 7 cellobiose units measured for TrCel7A on 14C-labeled BC was close to the leveling off degree of polymerization of BC, suggesting that TrCel7A cannot pass through the amorphous regions on BC and stalls. We propose a mechanism of endo-exo synergism whereby the degradation of amorphous regions by EG avoids the stalling of TrCel7A and leads to its accelerated recruitment. Hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw suggested that this mechanism of synergism is operative also in the degradation of lignocellulose. Although both mechanisms of synergism are used in parallel, the contribution of conventional mechanism is significant only at high enzyme/substrate ratios. PMID:22733813

  17. Quercetin inhibits a large panel of kinases implicated in cancer cell biology.

    PubMed

    Boly, Rainatou; Gras, Thierry; Lamkami, Touria; Guissou, Pierre; Serteyn, Didier; Kiss, Robert; Dubois, Jacques

    2011-03-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic secondary metabolites from plants that possess a common phenylbenzopyrone structure (C6-C3-C6). Depending upon variations in their heterocyclic C-ring, flavonoids are categorised into one of the following groups: flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavanols, anthocyanidins, isoflavones or chalcones. Flavonols include, among others, the molecules quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol. The anticancer activity of flavonols was first attributed to their electron-donating ability, which comes from the presence of phenolic hydroxyl groups. However, an emerging view is that flavonoids, including quercetin, may also exert modulatory actions in cells by acting through the protein kinase and lipid kinase signalling pathways. Data from the current study showed that 2 μM quercetin, a low concentration that represents less than 10% of its IC50 growth-inhibitory concentration as calculated from the average of eight distinct cancer cell lines, decreased the activity of 16 kinases by more than 80%, including ABL1, Aurora-A, -B, -C, CLK1, FLT3, JAK3, MET, NEK4, NEK9, PAK3, PIM1, RET, FGF-R2, PDGF-Rα and -Rß. Many of these kinases are involved in the control of mitotic processes. Quantitative video microscopy analyses revealed that quercetin displayed strong anti-mitotic activity, leading to cell death. In conclusion, quercetin partly exerts its anticancer activity through the inhibition of the activity of a large set of kinases. Quercetin could be an interesting chemical scaffold from which to generate novel derivatives possessing various types of anti-kinase activities.

  18. A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of PIM Kinases as a Potential Treatment for Urothelial Carcinomas12

    PubMed Central

    Foulks, Jason M.; Carpenter, Kent J.; Luo, Bai; Xu, Yong; Senina, Anna; Nix, Rebecca; Chan, Ashley; Clifford, Adrianne; Wilkes, Marcus; Vollmer, David; Brenning, Benjamin; Merx, Shannon; Lai, Shuping; McCullar, Michael V.; Ho, Koc-Kan; Albertson, Daniel J.; Call, Lee T.; Bearss, Jared J.; Tripp, Sheryl; Liu, Ting; Stephens, Bret J.; Mollard, Alexis; Warner, Steven L.; Bearss, David J.; Kanner, Steven B.

    2014-01-01

    The proto-oncogene proviral integration site for moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) kinases (PIM-1, PIM-2, and PIM-3) are serine/threonine kinases that are involved in a number of signaling pathways important to cancer cells. PIM kinases act in downstream effector functions as inhibitors of apoptosis and as positive regulators of G1-S phase progression through the cell cycle. PIM kinases are upregulated in multiple cancer indications, including lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and prostate, gastric, and head and neck cancers. Overexpression of one or more PIM family members in patient tumors frequently correlates with poor prognosis. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate PIM expression in low- and high-grade urothelial carcinoma and to assess the role PIM function in disease progression and their potential to serve as molecular targets for therapy. One hundred thirty-seven cases of urothelial carcinoma were included in this study of surgical biopsy and resection specimens. High levels of expression of all three PIM family members were observed in both noninvasive and invasive urothelial carcinomas. The second-generation PIM inhibitor, TP-3654, displays submicromolar activity in pharmacodynamic biomarker modulation, cell proliferation studies, and colony formation assays using the UM-UC-3 bladder cancer cell line. TP-3654 displays favorable human ether-à-go-go-related gene and cytochrome P450 inhibition profiles compared with the first-generation PIM inhibitor, SGI-1776, and exhibits oral bioavailability. In vivo xenograft studies using a bladder cancer cell line show that PIM kinase inhibition can reduce tumor growth, suggesting that PIM kinase inhibitors may be active in human urothelial carcinomas. PMID:24953177

  19. Structure-based lead discovery for protein kinase C zeta inhibitor design by exploiting kinase-inhibitor complex crystal structure data and potential therapeutics for preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qing-Chun; Zhang, Cui-Juan; Li, Jie

    2014-10-14

    The protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine kinases with a broad range of cellular targets. Members of the PKC family participate at the diverse biological events involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival. The PKC isoform zeta (PKCζ) is an atypical member that has recently been found to play an essential role in promoting human uterine contractility and thus been raised as a new target for treating preterm labour and other tocolytic diseases. In this study, an integrative protocol was described to graft hundreds of inhibitor ligands from their complex crystal structures with cognate kinases into the active pocket of PKCζ and, based on the modeled structures, to evaluate the binding strength of these inhibitors to the non-cognate PKCζ receptor by using a consensus scoring strategy. A total of 32 inhibitors with top score were compiled, and eight out of them were tested for inhibitory potency against PKCζ. Consequently, five compounds, i.e. CDK6 inhibitor fisetin, PIM1 inhibitor myricetin, CDK9 inhibitor flavopiridol and PknB inhibitor mitoxantrone as well as the promiscuous kinase inhibitor staurosporine showed high or moderate inhibitory activity on PKCζ, with IC50 values of 58 ± 9, 1.7 ± 0.4, 108 ± 17, 280 ± 47 and 0.019 ± 0.004 μM, respectively, while other three compounds, including two marketed drugs dasatinib and sunitinib as well as the Rho inhibitor fasudil, have not been detected to possess observable activity. Next, based on the modeled structure data we modified three flavonoid kinase inhibitors, i.e. fisetin, myricetin and flavopiridol, to generate a number of more potential molecular entities, two of which were found to have a moderately improved activity as compared to their parent compounds.

  20. Mitochondrial activation chemicals synergize with surface receptor PD-1 blockade for T cell-dependent antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Chamoto, Kenji; Chowdhury, Partha S; Kumar, Alok; Sonomura, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Honjo, Tasuku

    2017-01-31

    Although immunotherapy by PD-1 blockade has dramatically improved the survival rate of cancer patients, further improvement in efficacy is required to reduce the fraction of less sensitive patients. In mouse models of PD-1 blockade therapy, we found that tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in draining lymph nodes (DLNs) carry increased mitochondrial mass and more reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that ROS generation by ROS precursors or indirectly by mitochondrial uncouplers synergized the tumoricidal activity of PD-1 blockade by expansion of effector/memory CTLs in DLNs and within the tumor. These CTLs carry not only the activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) but also an increment of their downstream transcription factors such as PPAR-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and T-bet. Furthermore, direct activators of mTOR, AMPK, or PGC-1α also synergized the PD-1 blockade therapy whereas none of above-mentioned chemicals alone had any effects on tumor growth. These findings will pave a way to developing novel combinatorial therapies with PD-1 blockade.

  1. Mitochondrial activation chemicals synergize with surface receptor PD-1 blockade for T cell-dependent antitumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Chamoto, Kenji; Chowdhury, Partha S.; Kumar, Alok; Sonomura, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Honjo, Tasuku

    2017-01-01

    Although immunotherapy by PD-1 blockade has dramatically improved the survival rate of cancer patients, further improvement in efficacy is required to reduce the fraction of less sensitive patients. In mouse models of PD-1 blockade therapy, we found that tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in draining lymph nodes (DLNs) carry increased mitochondrial mass and more reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that ROS generation by ROS precursors or indirectly by mitochondrial uncouplers synergized the tumoricidal activity of PD-1 blockade by expansion of effector/memory CTLs in DLNs and within the tumor. These CTLs carry not only the activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) but also an increment of their downstream transcription factors such as PPAR-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and T-bet. Furthermore, direct activators of mTOR, AMPK, or PGC-1α also synergized the PD-1 blockade therapy whereas none of above-mentioned chemicals alone had any effects on tumor growth. These findings will pave a way to developing novel combinatorial therapies with PD-1 blockade. PMID:28096382

  2. LYN- and AIRE-mediated tolerance checkpoint defects synergize to trigger organ-specific autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Proekt, Irina; Miller, Corey N; Jeanne, Marion; Fasano, Kayla J; Moon, James J; Lowell, Clifford A; Gould, Douglas B; Anderson, Mark S; DeFranco, Anthony L

    2016-10-03

    Studies of the genetic factors associated with human autoimmune disease suggest a multigenic origin of susceptibility; however, how these factors interact and through which tolerance pathways they operate generally remain to be defined. One key checkpoint occurs through the activity of the autoimmune regulator AIRE, which promotes central T cell tolerance. Recent reports have described a variety of dominant-negative AIRE mutations that likely contribute to human autoimmunity to a greater extent than previously thought. In families with these mutations, the penetrance of autoimmunity is incomplete, suggesting that other checkpoints play a role in preventing autoimmunity. Here, we tested whether a defect in LYN, an inhibitory protein tyrosine kinase that is implicated in systemic autoimmunity, could combine with an Aire mutation to provoke organ-specific autoimmunity. Indeed, mice with a dominant-negative allele of Aire and deficiency in LYN spontaneously developed organ-specific autoimmunity in the eye. We further determined that a small pool of retinal protein-specific T cells escaped thymic deletion as a result of the hypomorphic Aire function and that these cells also escaped peripheral tolerance in the presence of LYN-deficient dendritic cells, leading to highly destructive autoimmune attack. These findings demonstrate how 2 distinct tolerance pathways can synergize to unleash autoimmunity and have implications for the genetic susceptibility of autoimmune disease.

  3. SYNERGISM FROM COMBINED IMMUNOLOGIC AND PHARMACOLOGIC INHIBITION OF HER2 IN VIVO

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Michael A.; Wei, Junping; Hartman, Zachary; Xia, Wenle; Ren, Xiu-Rong; Lei, Gangjun; Barry, William T.; Osada, Takuya; Hobeika, Amy C.; Peplinski, Sharon; Jiang, Haixiang; Devi, Gayathri R.; Chen, Wei; Spector, Neil; Amalfitano, Andrea; Lyerly, H. Kim; Clay, Timothy M.

    2009-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody trastuzumab and the EGFR/HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib improve the clinical outcome of patients with HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. However, the majority of metastatic cancers will eventually progress suggesting the need for other therapies. Because HER2 overexpression persists, we hypothesized that the anti-HER2 immune response induced by cancer vaccines would be an effective strategy for treating trastuzumab and lapatinib-refractory tumors. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the antibody response could synergize with lapatinib to enhance tumor inhibition. We developed a recombinant adenoviral vector expressing a kinase-inactive HER2 (Ad-HER2-ki) to use as a cancer vaccine. Vaccine-induced polyclonal HER2-specific anti-serum was analyzed for receptor internalization and signaling effects alone and in combination with lapatinib. Ad-HER2-ki vaccine induced potent T cell and antibody responses in mice and the vaccine-induced polyclonal HER2-specific anti-serum mediated receptor internalization and degradation much more effectively than trastuzumab. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that HER2-vaccine induced antibodies effectively caused a decrease in HER2 expression, but when combined with lapatinib caused significant inhibition of HER2 signaling, decreased pERK and pAKT levels, and reduced breast tumor cell proliferation. In addition, a known mechanism of resistance to lapatinib, induction of survivin, was inhibited. The combination of Ad-HER2-ki plus lapatinib also showed superior anti-tumor efficacy in vivo. Based on these results, we feel clinical studies using this approach to target HER2-overexpressing breast cancer, including trastuzumab- and lapatinib-resistant tumors is warranted. PMID:19856307

  4. Competition, professional synergism, and the geographic distribution of rural physicians.

    PubMed

    Connor, R A; Hillson, S D; Krawelski, J E

    1995-11-01

    This study provides a theoretical and empirical investigation of competition and synergism among physicians in rural areas. The results show that rural primary care physicians cluster together rather than distribute themselves evenly. This suggests that public policy makers and rural communities must take an active role to ensure provider availability in all rural areas. There is less clustering among subspecialists. The results also reveal a disturbing negative relationship between young children and physician availability in rural areas. Finally, the results provide strong evidence that the relationship between rural physicians and hospitals is synergistic.

  5. Asbestos as an air pollutant and synergism with smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    For many years the health consequences of asbestos exposure, including an overall mortality experience of approximately 50% from cancer among occupationally exposed individuals, have been well documented worldwide. Less well appreciated are the lessons to be learned from data available concerning outdoor asbestos air pollution and, of perhaps greater concern, the risks in certain indoor environments contaminated by this useful mineral. The biologically complex issue of carcinogenic synergism has been clearly demonstrated for cigarette smoking, asbestos-exposed individuals. Prevention of cancer among those exposed to asbestos not only requires efforts to minimize such exposure, but also requires strong antismoking measures among those exposed.

  6. Investigation of synergism in binary mixtures of sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Booth, B J; Carr, B T; Losee, M L; Sattely-Miller, E A; Graham, B G

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the presence and degree of synergism among all binary mixtures of 14 sweeteners varying in chemical structure. A trained panel evaluated binary combinations of the following sweeteners: three sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), two polyhydric alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), two diterpenoid glycosides (rebaudioside-A, stevioside), two dipeptide derivatives (alitame, aspartame), one sulfamate (sodium cyclamate), one protein (thaumatin), two N-sulfonyl amides (acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin), and one dihydrochalcone (neohesperidin dihydrochalcone). Each sweetener was tested at three concentrations that were isosweet with 3%, 5%, and 7% sucrose. Two methods of analysis were performed to determine synergistic effects. In Method I, an ANOVA was performed for each intensity level to determine if the mean sweetness intensity ratings of each binary mixture were equal to nominal sweetness (i.e., additivity) or not equal to nominal sweetness (i.e., synergism or suppression). In Method II, an additional ANOVA was performed to determine if the sweetness intensity ratings of any given mixture were equal to or greater than the average of the sweetness ratings of the two pure components in that blend.

  7. The Synergism between Belotecan and Cisplatin in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Joo Young; Song, Sang Hyun; Kim, Tae-Young; Park, Jung Hyun; Jong, Hyun-Soon; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Kim, Noe Kyoung

    2006-01-01

    Purpose We wanted to demonstrate the anti-cancer effect and interaction between belotecan and cisplatin on gastric cancer cell line and we evaluated the mechanisms of this synergistic effect in vitro. Materials and Methods The growth inhibitory effect of belotocan and cisplatin against several gastric cancer cell lines (SNU-5, SNU-16 and SNU-601) was estimated by tetrazolium dye assay. The effect of a combination treatment was evaluated by the isobologram method. The biochemical mechanisms for the interaction between the drugs were analyzed by measuring the formation of DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) and DNA topo-I activity. Results Belotecan showed synergism with cisplatin for growth inhibitory effect on the gastric cancer cell lines SNU-5, and SNU-16, but this was subadditive on the SNU-601 cell line. The formation of DNA ICLs in SNU-16 cells by cisplatin was increased by combination with belotecan, but this was not affected in SNU-601 cells. The topo-I inhibition by belotecan was enhanced at high concentrations of cisplatin in SNU-16, but not in SNU-601 cells. Conclusion Belotecan and cisplatin show various combination effect against gastric cancer cells. The synergism between cisplatin and belotecan could be the result of one of the following mechanisms: the modulating effect of belotecan on the repair of cisplatin-induced DNA adducts and the enhancing effect of cisplatin on the belotecan-induced topo-I inhibitory effect. PMID:19771277

  8. Synergism in education: An innovative approach to practice teaching supervision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereni, Joseph Ibewuike

    1985-12-01

    The problem of effective teacher education is central to the pressing needs of Nigerian education at all levels. Scholars have identified many of them, including the general problems relating to the supervision, guidance, and evaluation of student-practice teaching. The purpose of this essay is briefly to describe an innovative approach undertaken by the Imo State School Board (Nigeria), in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, to resolve some of the problems identified. The underlying assumption is that the student teachers' internship is best conducted with closer collaboration, supervision, and guidance of the teachers. The study employed a theoretical framework synergism in education which integrated earlier studies by both American and Nigerian scholars. The concept of synergism has been defined as the combined healthy action of all `elements' of a system. Application of the theory showed how the State Ministry of Education, the State School Board, the Teacher Training Colleges and the Nigeria Union of Teachers of Imo State collectively resolved in 1980 the problems of inadequate supervisory personnel, high cost of student-teaching internship, and poor student assessment and evaluation. With the synergetic supervisory process, the functions of planning, changing, and decision-making about instructional improvement are shared, with a certain degree of power equalization, among the student teachers, supervisors, co-operating teachers, and the school executives.

  9. Actions of Rho family small G proteins and p21-activated protein kinases on mitogen-activated protein kinase family members.

    PubMed Central

    Frost, J A; Xu, S; Hutchison, M R; Marcus, S; Cobb, M H

    1996-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are a family of serine/threonine kinases that are regulated by distinct extracellular stimuli. The currently known members include extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 (ERK1), ERK2, the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPKs), and p38 MAP kinases. We find that overexpression of the Ste20-related enzymes p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and PAK2 in 293 cells is sufficient to activate JNK/SAPK and to a lesser extent p38 MAP kinase but not ERK2. Rat MAP/ERK kinase kinase 1 can stimulate the activity of each of these MAP kinases. Although neither activated Rac nor the PAKs stimulate ERK2 activity, overexpression of either dominant negative Rac2 or the N-terminal regulatory domain of PAK1 inhibits Ras-mediated activation of ERK2, suggesting a permissive role for Rac in the control of the ERK pathway. Furthermore, constitutively active Rac2, Cdc42hs, and RhoA synergize with an activated form of Raf to increase ERK2 activity. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized connection between Rho family small G proteins and the ERK pathway. PMID:8668187

  10. Oncoprotein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2001-02-27

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  11. Synergic effects of tryptamine and octopamine on ophiuroid luminescence (Echinodermata).

    PubMed

    Vanderlinden, C; Mallefet, J

    2004-10-01

    In ophiuroids, bioluminescence is under nervous control. Previous studies have shown that acetylcholine is the main neurotransmitter triggering light emission in Amphipholis squamata and Amphiura filiformis. By contrast, none of the neurotransmitters tested so far induced luminescence in two other ophiuroid species, Ophiopsila aranea and Ophiopsila californica. The aim of this work was thus to investigate the putative involvement of two biogenic amines, tryptamine and octopamine, in light emission of three ophiuroid species. A. filiformis responds to both tryptamine and octopamine, mainly on its arm segments, while O. californica only responds to tryptamine stimulation. By contrast, tryptamine and octopamine do not seem to be involved in O. aranea luminescence control since none of these substances induced light emission in this species. The synergic effects of several other drugs with tryptamine and octopamine were also tested.

  12. AZDAST the new horizon in antimicrobial synergism detection.

    PubMed

    Ziaei-Darounkalaei, Navid; Ameri, Mehrdad; Zahraei-Salehi, Taghi; Ziaei-Darounkalaei, Omid; Mohajer-Tabrizi, Tahereh; Bornaei, Lotfollah

    2016-01-01

    The attempts via introducing many methods have been conducted to select the best antibiotic combination in the treatment of seriously ill patients. Operational or interpretational complexity or time-consuming along with sufficient accuracy led to postpone routine clinical use of these tests until today, despite the urgent need for them. By this study and proposed method, selection of the best double antibiotic synergistic combination against resistant pathogen is simply same as Kirby-Bauer antibiotic susceptibility test. It seems, precise and reliable results (very low coefficient of variation) will be introduced it as a routine accurate diagnostic doubled antimicrobial synergism test.•The objective of this study was to introduce a novel method in antibiotic interaction detection.•It demonstrates high sensitivity and accuracy.•Easy implementation by routine microbiology labs materials and equipment and so easy stand-alone interpretation seems to make it friendly test be able to replacing the previous methods.

  13. Terpenes from Copaifera demonstrated in vitro antiparasitic and synergic activity.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Erika; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Veiga, Valdir F; Pinto, Angelo C; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2012-04-12

    To discover new possible therapies for Chagas' disease, we evaluated against all Trypanosoma cruzi life stages the in vitro trypanocidal and synergistic activity of terpenes isolated from Copaifera oleoresins collected in the Amazon and investigated their possible mechanism of action. Seven acid diterpenes and one sesquiterpene were tested. Terpenes promoted changes in oxidative metabolism followed by autophagic processes in the parasite cell leading to selective death. Furthermore, they were more effective against replicative forms, in particular amastigotes. A synergistic effect occurred. Cytotoxicity to erythrocytes and nucleated cells was moderate. This is the first study showing synergic activity between two terpenes against T. cruzi. Combinations of natural compounds can show high activity and may lead to new alternative treatments in the future.

  14. Ocean Warming–Acidification Synergism Undermines Dissolved Organic Matter Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Shuo; Anaya, Jesse M.; Chen, Eric Y-T; Farr, Erik; Chin, Wei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of synergisms on natural processes is a critical step toward determining the full-extent of anthropogenic stressors. As carbon emissions continue unabated, two major stressors—warming and acidification—threaten marine systems on several scales. Here, we report that a moderate temperature increase (from 30°C to 32°C) is sufficient to slow— even hinder—the ability of dissolved organic matter, a major carbon pool, to self-assemble to form marine microgels, which contribute to the particulate organic matter pool. Moreover, acidification lowers the temperature threshold at which we observe our results. These findings carry implications for the marine carbon cycle, as self-assembled marine microgels generate an estimated global seawater budget of ~1016 g C. We used laser scattering spectroscopy to test the influence of temperature and pH on spontaneous marine gel assembly. The results of independent experiments revealed that at a particular point, both pH and temperature block microgel formation (32°C, pH 8.2), and disperse existing gels (35°C). We then tested the hypothesis that temperature and pH have a synergistic influence on marine gel dispersion. We found that the dispersion temperature decreases concurrently with pH: from 32°C at pH 8.2, to 28°C at pH 7.5. If our laboratory observations can be extrapolated to complex marine environments, our results suggest that a warming–acidification synergism can decrease carbon and nutrient fluxes, disturbing marine trophic and trace element cycles, at rates faster than projected. PMID:25714090

  15. Ocean warming-acidification synergism undermines dissolved organic matter assembly.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Shuo; Anaya, Jesse M; Chen, Eric Y-T; Farr, Erik; Chin, Wei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of synergisms on natural processes is a critical step toward determining the full-extent of anthropogenic stressors. As carbon emissions continue unabated, two major stressors--warming and acidification--threaten marine systems on several scales. Here, we report that a moderate temperature increase (from 30°C to 32°C) is sufficient to slow--even hinder--the ability of dissolved organic matter, a major carbon pool, to self-assemble to form marine microgels, which contribute to the particulate organic matter pool. Moreover, acidification lowers the temperature threshold at which we observe our results. These findings carry implications for the marine carbon cycle, as self-assembled marine microgels generate an estimated global seawater budget of ~1016 g C. We used laser scattering spectroscopy to test the influence of temperature and pH on spontaneous marine gel assembly. The results of independent experiments revealed that at a particular point, both pH and temperature block microgel formation (32°C, pH 8.2), and disperse existing gels (35°C). We then tested the hypothesis that temperature and pH have a synergistic influence on marine gel dispersion. We found that the dispersion temperature decreases concurrently with pH: from 32°C at pH 8.2, to 28°C at pH 7.5. If our laboratory observations can be extrapolated to complex marine environments, our results suggest that a warming-acidification synergism can decrease carbon and nutrient fluxes, disturbing marine trophic and trace element cycles, at rates faster than projected.

  16. Novel synergic antidiabetic effects of Astragalus polysaccharides combined with Crataegus flavonoids via improvement of islet function and liver metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kai; Zhang, Shaobo; Jiang, Xin; Xie, Weidong

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the synergic effects and potential mechanisms of action of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) combined with Crataegus flavonoids (CF) in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg streptozotocin in mice. Normal and untreated diabetic control mice were used, and CF‑treated (200 mg/kg/day), APS‑treated (200 mg/kg/day), APS + CF (AC)‑treated (200 mg/kg/day of each) and metformin‑treated (200 mg/kg/day) diabetic mice were orally administrated the appropriate therapeutic agent for 4 weeks. The results demonstrated that AC treatment significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose, food and water intake in the diabetic mice. The AC group demonstrated increased serum insulin levels and islet cell function was restored. Furthermore, the AC‑treated mice demonstrated significant increases in the protein expression levels of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox‑1 and phosphorylated adenosine 5'‑monophosphate‑activated protein kinase in the pancreatic and liver tissue samples, respectively. In addition, AC significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of neurogenin 3, v‑maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family, protein A and insulin, and simultaneously decreased the expressions of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor‑α and chemokine (C‑C motif) ligand 2 in the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic mice. The anti‑inflammatory activity of APS and the islet‑restoring effect of CF may contribute to the improvement of islet function. AC exerted greater antidiabetic effects compared with APS or CF treatments alone. These results indicated that AC treatment had a synergic antidiabetic effect, which may involve improvements in islet function and liver metabolism. These effects of AC may facilitate the treatment of type 1 or 2 diabetes, as these patients frequently experience impaired islet function and disordered extrapancreatic metabolism.

  17. Ibrutinib synergizes with MDM-2 inhibitors in promoting cytotoxicity in B chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Melloni, Elisabetta; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Casciano, Fabio; Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Celeghini, Claudio; Cuneo, Antonio; Zauli, Giorgio; Secchiero, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-leukemic activity of the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor Ibrutinib in combination with the small molecule MDM-2 inhibitor Nutlin-3 in preclinical models. Methods The potential efficacy of the Ibrutinib/Nutlin-3 combination was evaluated in vitro in a panel of B leukemic cell lines (EHEB, JVM-2, JVM-3, MEC-1, MEC-2) and in primary B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patient samples, by assessing cell viability, cell cycle profile, apoptosis and intracellular pathway modulations. Validation of the combination therapy was assessed in a B leukemic xenograft mouse model. Results Ibrutinib exhibited variable anti-leukemic activity in vitro and the combination with Nutlin-3 synergistically enhanced the induction of apoptosis independently from the p53 status. Indeed, the Ibrutinib/Nutlin-3 combination was effective in promoting cytotoxicity also in primary B-CLL samples carrying 17p13 deletion and/or TP53 mutations, already in therapy with Ibrutinib. Molecular analyses performed on both B-leukemic cell lines as well as on primary B-CLL samples, while confirming the switch-off of the MAPK and PI3K pro-survival pathways by Ibrutinib, indicated that the synergism of action with Nutlin-3 was independent by p53 pathway and was accompanied by the activation of the DNA damage cascade signaling through the phosphorylation of the histone protein H2A.X. This observation was confirmed also in the JVM-2 B leukemic xenograft mouse model. Conclusions Taken together, our data emphasize that the Ibrutinib/Nutlin-3 combination merits to be further evaluated as a therapeutic option for B-CLL. PMID:27661115

  18. Evidence of cue synergism in termite corpse response behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyshen, Michael D.; Shelton, Thomas G.

    2012-02-01

    Subterranean termites of the genus Reticulitermes are known to build walls and tubes and move considerable amounts of soil into wood but the causes of this behavior remain largely unexplored. In laboratory assays, we tested the hypothesis that Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks) would carry more sand into wooden blocks containing corpses compared to corpse-free controls. We further predicted that the corpses of predatory ants would elicit a stronger response than those of a benign beetle species or nestmates. As hypothesized, significantly more sand was carried into blocks containing corpses and this material was typically used to build partitions separating the dead from the rest of the colony. Contrary to expectations, however, this behavior did not vary among corpse types. We then tested the hypothesis that oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid released during arthropod decay and used by ants and other arthropod taxa in corpse recognition, would induce a similar building response in R. virginicus. To additionally determine the role of foreign objects in giving rise to this behavior, the experiment was carried out with and without imitation corpses (i.e., small glass beads). As predicted, oleic acid induced building (a tenfold increase) but only when applied to beads, suggesting strong synergism between tactile and chemical cues. Oleic acid also significantly reduced the amount of wood consumed by R. virginicus and may possess useful repellent properties.

  19. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound.

    PubMed

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the "Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae" and the "Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances." These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice.

  20. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the “Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae” and the “Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances.” These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice. PMID:27190537

  1. Synergism between tramadol and parecoxib in the orofacial formalin test.

    PubMed

    Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario Alberto; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Castañeda-Santana, Demian Ismael; de la Rosa-Coronado, Maximiliano; Aragon-Martinez, Othoniel Hugo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between tramadol and parecoxib in the orofacial formalin test. Tramadol (10, 31.6, 56, and 100 mg/kg ip) or parecoxib (31.6, 56, 100, and 178 mg/kg ip) were administered 10 min before formalin (2.5%) injection into the upper lip to characterize the dose-response curve of each individual drug in the orofacial pain test in mice. Once the dose-response curve of each drug was obtained, an experimental effective dose 50 (ED50 ) value was determined for each drug. The tramadol-parecoxib combination was evaluated in four different groups of animals. The isobolographic analysis and the interaction index were used to evaluate the nature of interaction between both drugs. The isobologram and the interaction index showed increased in the antinociceptive effect of the combination. The tramadol-parecoxib combination produces a synergism in the second phase of the orofacial formalin test. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Will Synergizing Vaccination with Therapeutics Boost Measles Virus Eradication?

    PubMed Central

    Plemper, Richard K; Hammond, Anthea L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Measles virus is a major human pathogen responsible for approximately 150,000 measles deaths annually. The disease is vaccine preventable and eradication of the virus is considered feasible in principle. However, a herd immunity exceeding 95% is required to prevent sporadic viral outbreaks in a population. Declining disease prevalence combined with public anxieties about vaccination safety has increased vaccine refusal especially in the European region, which has resulted in measles resurgence in some areas. Areas covered Here, we discuss whether synergizing effective measles therapeutics with vaccination could contribute to solving an endgame conundrum of measles elimination by accelerating the eradication effort. Based on an anticipated use for protection of high-risk contacts of confirmed measles cases through post-exposure prophylaxis, we identify key elements of the desirable drug profile, review current disease management strategies and the state of experimental inhibitor candidates, evaluate the risk associated with viral escape from inhibition, and consider the potential of measles therapeutics for the management of persistent viral infection of the CNS. Assuming a post-measles world with waning measles immunity, we contemplate the possible impact of therapeutics on controlling the threat imposed by closely related zoonotic pathogens of the same genus as measles virus. Expert opinion Efficacious therapeutics given for post-exposure prophylaxis of high-risk social contacts of confirmed index cases may aid measles eradication by closing herd immunity gaps due to vaccine refusal or failure in populations with overall good vaccination coverage. The envisioned primarily prophylactic application of measles therapeutics to a predominantly pediatric and/or adolescent patient population dictates the drug profile; the article must be safe and efficacious, orally available, shelf-stable at ambient temperature, and amenable to cost-effective manufacture

  3. Pim Kinases Promote Migration and Metastatic Growth of Prostate Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Santio, Niina M.; Eerola, Sini K.; Paatero, Ilkka; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Anizon, Fabrice; Moreau, Pascale; Tuomela, Johanna; Härkönen, Pirkko; Koskinen, Päivi J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and methods Pim family proteins are oncogenic kinases implicated in several types of cancer and involved in regulation of cell proliferation, survival as well as motility. Here we have investigated the ability of Pim kinases to promote metastatic growth of prostate cancer cells in two xenograft models for human prostate cancer. We have also evaluated the efficacy of Pim-selective inhibitors to antagonize these effects. Results We show here that tumorigenic growth of both subcutaneously and orthotopically inoculated prostate cancer xenografts is enhanced by stable overexpression of either Pim-1 or Pim-3. Moreover, Pim-overexpressing orthotopic prostate tumors are highly invasive and able to migrate not only to the nearby prostate-draining lymph nodes, but also into the lungs to form metastases. When the xenografted mice are daily treated with the Pim-selective inhibitor DHPCC-9, both the volumes as well as the metastatic capacity of the tumors are drastically decreased. Interestingly, the Pim-promoted metastatic growth of the orthotopic xenografts is associated with enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, forced Pim expression also increases phosphorylation of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor, which may enable the tumor cells to migrate towards tissues such as the lungs that express the CXCL12 chemokine ligand. Conclusions Our results indicate that Pim overexpression enhances the invasive properties of prostate cancer cells in vivo. These effects can be reduced by the Pim-selective inhibitor DHPCC-9, which can reach tumor tissues without serious side effects. Thus, Pim-targeting therapies with DHPCC-9-like compounds may help to prevent progression of local prostate carcinomas to fatally metastatic malignancies. PMID:26075720

  4. Boswellic acids synergize antitumor activity and protect against the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in mice bearing Ehrlich's carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shimaa A; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to test whether boswellic acids add to the antitumor effects of doxorubicin against solid tumors of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) grown in mice, and to investigate the protective effects of boswellic acids against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Sixty-four female Swiss albino mice bearing EAC solid tumors were distributed among 8 groups as follows: group 1, EAC control group; group 2, doxorubicin treatment group [mice were injected with doxorubicin (6 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·week(-1)) for 3 weeks]; groups 3-5, these mice were treated with boswellic acids (125, 250, or 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), respectively; groups 6-8, these mice were treated with a combination of doxorubicin and boswellic acids (125, 250, or 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), respectively, for 3 weeks. The results indicated that boswellic acids synergized the antitumor activity of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin-treated mice showed elevated serum activities of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB as well as cardiac malondialdehyde. Further, decreases in cardiac levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were observed. These effects were accompanied by an increase in cardiac expression of caspase 3. Thus, treatment with boswellic acids attenuated doxorubicin-evoked disturbances in the above-mentioned parameters, highlighting antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities. Therefore, boswellic acids could be potential candidates for ameliorating the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin.

  5. Characterization of a Viral Synergism in the Monocot Brachypodium distachyon Reveals Distinctly Altered Host Molecular Processes Associated with Disease1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Mandadi, Kranthi K.; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G.

    2012-01-01

    Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) and its satellite virus (SPMV) together infect several small grain crops, biofuel, and forage and turf grasses. Here, we establish the emerging monocot model Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as an alternate host to study PMV- and SPMV-host interactions and viral synergism. Infection of Brachypodium with PMV+SPMV induced chlorosis and necrosis of leaves, reduced seed set, caused stunting, and lowered biomass, more than PMV alone. Toward gaining a molecular understanding of PMV- and SPMV-affected host processes, we used a custom-designed microarray and analyzed global changes in gene expression of PMV- and PMV+SPMV-infected plants. PMV infection by itself modulated expression of putative genes functioning in carbon metabolism, photosynthesis, metabolite transport, protein modification, cell wall remodeling, and cell death. Many of these genes were additively altered in a coinfection with PMV+SPMV and correlated to the exacerbated symptoms of PMV+SPMV coinfected plants. PMV+SPMV coinfection also uniquely altered expression of certain genes, including transcription and splicing factors. Among the host defenses commonly affected in PMV and PMV+SPMV coinfections, expression of an antiviral RNA silencing component, SILENCING DEFECTIVE3, was suppressed. Several salicylic acid signaling components, such as pathogenesis-related genes and WRKY transcription factors, were up-regulated. By contrast, several genes in jasmonic acid and ethylene responses were down-regulated. Strikingly, numerous protein kinases, including several classes of receptor-like kinases, were misexpressed. Taken together, our results identified distinctly altered immune responses in monocot antiviral defenses and provide insights into monocot viral synergism. PMID:22961132

  6. Synergic hypocholesterolaemic effect of n-3 PUFA and oestrogen by modulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism in female rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yuna; Jin, Youri; Park, Yongsoon

    2015-12-14

    n-3 PUFA such as EPA and DHA as well as oestrogen have been reported to decrease blood levels of cholesterol, but their underlying mechanism is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the combination of n-3 PUFA supplementation and oestrogen injection on hepatic cholesterol metabolism. Rats were fed a modified AIN-93G diet with 0, 1 or 2 % n-3 PUFA (EPA+DHA) relative to the total energy intake for 12 weeks. Rats were surgically ovariectomised at week 8, and, after 1-week recovery, rats were injected with 17β-oestradiol-3-benzoate (E2) or maize oil for the last 3 weeks. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA and E2 injection significantly increased the ratio of the hepatic expression of phosphorylated AMP activated protein kinase (p-AMPK):AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) and decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA increased hepatic expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) and sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1); however, E2 injection decreased CYP7A1 and CYP8B1 but not CYP27A1. Additionally, E2 injection increased hepatic expression of oestrogen receptor-α and β. In conclusion, n-3 PUFA supplementation and E2 injection had synergic hypocholesterolaemic effects by down-regulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis (n-3 PUFA and oestrogen) and up-regulating bile acid synthesis (n-3 PUFA) in ovariectomised rats.

  7. IL-17E synergizes with EGF and confers in vitro resistance to EGFR-targeted therapies in TNBC cells

    PubMed Central

    Merrouche, Yacine; Fabre, Joseph; Cure, Herve; Garbar, Christian; Fuselier, Camille; Bastid, Jeremy; Antonicelli, Frank; Al-Daccak, Reem; Bensussan, Armand; Giustiniani, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-, progesterone receptor- and HER2-negative breast cancers, also known as triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), have poor prognoses and are refractory to current therapeutic agents, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. Resistance to anti-EGFR therapeutic agents is often associated with sustained kinase phosphorylation, which promotes EGFR activation and translocation to the nucleus and prevents these agents from acting on their targets. The mechanisms underlying this resistance have not been fully elucidated. In addition, the IL-17E receptor is overexpressed in TNBC tumors and is associated with a poor prognosis. We have previously reported that IL-17E promotes TNBC resistance to anti-mitotic therapies. Here, we investigated whether IL-17E promotes TNBC resistance to anti-EGFR therapeutic agents by exploring the link between the IL-17E/IL-17E receptor axis and EGF signaling. We found that IL-17E, similarly to EGF, activates the EGFR in TNBC cells that are resistant to EGFR inhibitors. It also activates the PYK-2, Src and STAT3 kinases, which are essential for EGFR activation and nuclear translocation. IL-17E binds its specific receptor, IL-17RA/IL17RB, on these TNBC cells and synergizes with the EGF signaling pathway, thereby inducing Src-dependent EGFR transactivation and pSTAT3 and pEGFR translocation to the nucleus. Collectively, our data indicate that the IL-17E/IL-17E receptor axis may underlie TNBC resistance to EGFR inhibitors and suggest that inhibiting IL-17E or its receptor in combination with EGFR inhibitor administration may improve TNBC management. PMID:27462789

  8. IL-17E synergizes with EGF and confers in vitro resistance to EGFR-targeted therapies in TNBC cells.

    PubMed

    Merrouche, Yacine; Fabre, Joseph; Cure, Herve; Garbar, Christian; Fuselier, Camille; Bastid, Jeremy; Antonicelli, Frank; Al-Daccak, Reem; Bensussan, Armand; Giustiniani, Jerome

    2016-08-16

    Estrogen receptor-, progesterone receptor- and HER2-negative breast cancers, also known as triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), have poor prognoses and are refractory to current therapeutic agents, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. Resistance to anti-EGFR therapeutic agents is often associated with sustained kinase phosphorylation, which promotes EGFR activation and translocation to the nucleus and prevents these agents from acting on their targets. The mechanisms underlying this resistance have not been fully elucidated. In addition, the IL-17E receptor is overexpressed in TNBC tumors and is associated with a poor prognosis. We have previously reported that IL-17E promotes TNBC resistance to anti-mitotic therapies. Here, we investigated whether IL-17E promotes TNBC resistance to anti-EGFR therapeutic agents by exploring the link between the IL-17E/IL-17E receptor axis and EGF signaling. We found that IL-17E, similarly to EGF, activates the EGFR in TNBC cells that are resistant to EGFR inhibitors. It also activates the PYK-2, Src and STAT3 kinases, which are essential for EGFR activation and nuclear translocation. IL-17E binds its specific receptor, IL-17RA/IL17RB, on these TNBC cells and synergizes with the EGF signaling pathway, thereby inducing Src-dependent EGFR transactivation and pSTAT3 and pEGFR translocation to the nucleus. Collectively, our data indicate that the IL-17E/IL-17E receptor axis may underlie TNBC resistance to EGFR inhibitors and suggest that inhibiting IL-17E or its receptor in combination with EGFR inhibitor administration may improve TNBC management.

  9. The accessible cellulose surface influences cellulase synergism during the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinguang; Gourlay, Keith; Arantes, Valdeir; Van Dyk, J S; Pribowo, Amadeus; Saddler, Jack N

    2015-03-01

    Effective enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose requires the synergistic action of a suite of cellulase components. Most previous studies have only assessed cellulase synergism on model cellulosic substrates. When the actions of individual and combinations of cellulases (Cel7A, Cel6A, Cel7B, Cel5A) were assessed on various pretreated lignocellulosic substrates, Cel7A was shown to be the major contributor to overall cellulose hydrolysis, with the other enzymes synergistically enhancing its hydrolytic efficiency, at least partially, by facilitating Cel7A desorption (assessed by a double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). When the influences of various substrate physicochemical characteristics on the effectiveness of enzyme synergism were assessed, a strong relationship was observed between cellulose accessibility (as determined by the cellulose binding module technique) and the degree of synergism, with greater synergy observed on the more disorganized/accessible cellulose surface.

  10. Synergism of cellulases from Trichoderma reesei in the degradation of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Henrissat, B.; Driguez, H.; Viet, C.; Schuelein, M.

    1985-08-01

    The action of cellobiohydrolases I and II (CBHI and CBHII) and endoglucanases I and II (EGI and EGII) purified from Trichoderma reesei was evaluated against various substrates. CBHI degraded the ..beta..-D-glucan from barley in a typical endo pattern. With cellulose substrates, the synergism between CBHI and endoglucanase I or II depended on the structural and ultrastructural features of the substrate. This effect, unrelated to endo-exo cooperation, was found with substrates of intermediate crystallinity whereas weak or no synergism was recorded with cellulose microcrystals or the soluble carboxy-methyl cellulose derivative. Synergistic degradation of cellulose was also recorded with mixtures of CBHI and CBHII. On the other hand, synergism between endoglucanases and CBHII followed the pattern expected for an endo-exo cooperation. These results presented support evidence for multiple types of cooperation between the cellulolytic enzymes. 30 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  11. 75 FR 42743 - Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC's...

  12. 75 FR 42744 - Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC's application...

  13. Teaching resources. Protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Avrom

    2005-02-22

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering the structure and function of protein kinases and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: A Course for Graduate Students." The lecture begins with a discussion of the genomics and evolutionary relationships among kinases and then proceeds to describe the structure-function relationships of specific kinases, the molecular mechanisms underlying substrate specificity, and selected issues in regulation of kinase activity.

  14. Anti-vRE and anti-MRSA activities of new quinolones and their synergism with commercial antibiotics. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Yoshikazu; Komemushi, Sadao; Tsukamoto, Goro; Kondo, Hirosato; Yoshikawa, Akiko; Muraoka, Osamu

    2008-09-01

    Anti-VRE and anti-MRSA activities of new quinolone derivatives [The two quinolone derivatives are 8- [3-[(ethylamino) methyl]-1-pyrrodinyl] -7-fluoro-9, 1-[(N-methylimino)methano]-5-oxo-5H-thiazolo[3,2-a]quinolone-4-carboxylic acid (compound A) and 7-fluoro-8-morpholino-9,1-[(N-methylimino) methanol-5-oxo-5H-thiazolo [3,2-a] quinolone-4-carboxylic acid (compound B)] and their synergism with commercial antibiotics were investigated. Compound A exhibited potent antibacterial activity against VRE and MRSA among the five new quinolone compounds tested, and showed superior activity to pefloxacin, ofloxacin and levofloxacin, which are clinically in use these days. With respect to the anti-VRE activity, compound A showed synergism with fosfomycin (FOM), and partial synergism with ampicillin (ABPC), gentaicin (GM), minocycline (MINO) and vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM). Partial synergism in anti-VRE activity was also observed between compound B and GM, MINO, FOM and VCM. Compound A also showed synergism with MINO and FOM in anti-MASA activity. Partial synergism was observed with ABPC, GM and VCM. Synergism with ABPC was not detected in anti-MRSA activity. On the other hand, the synergism of compound B with FOM, and the partial synergisms with ABPC, GM and MINO were also found against MRSA. No synergism with ABPC was found against MRSA. These results suggested that compound A and B could possibly reduce the daily administration dose of these antibiotics in the treatment of nosocomial infections, and also reduce the possibility of the occurrence of nosocomial infections caused by VRE and/or MRSA.

  15. Two Kinase Family Dramas

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Thomas A.; Hurley, James H.

    2007-01-01

    In this issue, Lietha and colleagues (2007) report the structure of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and reveal how FAK maintains an autoinhibited state. Together with the structure of another tyrosine kinase, ZAP-70 (Deindl et al., 2007), this work highlights the diversity of mechanisms that nature has evolved within the kinase superfamily to regulate their activity through autoinhibition. PMID:17574014

  16. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  17. Synergism of the carbon-heterocyclic thion composition in the process of polyethylene thermooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struk, V. A.; Oparin, D. A.; Medved', A. V.; Orlovskii, S. V.; Gritsevich, A. I.

    2000-05-01

    It is shown by the methods of IR spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis that heterocyclic thions of thiophthalone, isoindoline, and phthalazine systems can be effectively used as inhibitors of thermooxidation of low-pressure charge-filled polyethylene. The effect of synergism of the thion-charge complex has been revealed. The possible mechanism of the protective action of these thions is discussed.

  18. What Is Institutional Synergism? An Analysis of a Consortium of Health and Education Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapadin, David; Carmel, Harvey

    1977-01-01

    The authors offer an operational definition of institutional integration and synergism, with reference to the Health and Education Council (a consortium of Essex Community College, Baltimore County Health Department, and Franklin Square Hospital). Key elements that appear to be essential to successful cooperative efforts are noted and described.…

  19. Adsorption and synergism of cellobiohydrolase I and II of Trichoderma reesei during hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Medve, J.; Tjerneld, F. . Dept. of Biochemistry); Staahlberg, J. . Dept. of Molecular Biology)

    1994-11-05

    Hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) by cellobiohydrolase I and II (CBH I and II) from Trichoderma reesei has been studied. Adsorption and synergism of the enzymes were investigated. Experiments were performed at different temperatures and enzyme/substrate ratios using CBH I and CBH II alone and in reconstituted equimolar mixtures. Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) analysis was found to be an accurate and reproducible method to follow the enzyme adsorption. A linear correlation was found between the conversion and the amount of adsorbed enzyme when Avicel was hydrolyzed by increasing amounts of CBH I and/or CBH II. CBH I had lower specific activity compared to CBH II although, over a wide concentration range, more CBH I was adsorbed than CBH II. Synergism between the cellobiohydrolases during hydrolysis of the amorphous fraction of Avicel showed a maximum as a function of total enzyme concentration. Synergism measured as a function of bound enzyme showed a continuous increase, which indicates that by decreasing the distance between the two enzymes the synergism is enhanced. The adsorption process for both enzymes was slow. Depending on the enzyme/substrate ratio it took 30--90 min to reach 95% of the equilibrium binding. The amount of bound enzyme decreased with increasing temperature. The two enzymes compete for the adsorption sites but also bind to specific sites. Stronger competition for adsorption sites was shown by CBH I.

  20. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N. Kirk; Cutler, G. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur. PMID:26010088

  1. Effects of methoprene and synergized pyrethrin aerosol applications on Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of horizontal transfer of the insect growth regulator (IGR) methoprene on confined populations of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) either with or without hidden refugia. Multiple applications were made with the IGR alone or combined with synergized p...

  2. 78 FR 43889 - Synergizing Efforts in Standards Development for Cellular Therapies and Regenerative Medicine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... go to: https://collaboration.fda.gov/sesdctrmpworkshop/ . If you have never attended an Adobe Connect... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Synergizing Efforts in Standards Development for Cellular Therapies and Regenerative Medicine Products; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...

  3. Evaluation of synergized pyrethrin aerosol for control of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aerosol insecticides have been used in flour mill pest management programs, but there is limited information on their efficacy on different insect life stages. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of synergized pyrethrin applied as an aerosol against eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of the red fl...

  4. Influence of temperature and artificially-created physical barriers on the efficacy of synergized pyrethrin aerosol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flour mills in the United States are utilizing synergized pyrethrin aerosol for management of stored product insects. However, the dispersal of the aerosol within a facility may be hampered by barriers created from machinery and other equipment that block dispersion. Additionally, seasonal temperatu...

  5. Efficacy of aerosol applications of methoprene and synergized pyrethrin against Tribolium castaneum adults and eggs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of a single aerosol application of the insecticides methoprene and piperonyl butoxide-synergized pyrethrin, alone or in combination, and the insecticide carrier, Isopar M, against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. The initial tes...

  6. Crizotinib synergizes with cisplatin in preclinical models of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-Xiu; Xie, Feng-Feng; Hou, Li-Jiao; Chen, Xiu-Xiu; Ou, Rong-Ying; Yu, Jiang-Tao; Qiu, Jian-Ge; Zhang, Wen-Ji; Jiang, Qi-Wei; Yang, Yang; Zheng, Di-Wei; Chen, Yao; Huang, Jia-Rong; Wang, Kun; Wei, Meng-Ning; Li, Wen-Feng; Shi, Zhi; Yan, Xiao-Jian

    2017-01-01

    Crizotinib, a small molecule inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), c-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1) and c-MET (also called MET or hepatocyte growth factor receptor), has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer whose tumors have rearrangements in the ALK or ROS1 gene. However, the anticancer effect of crizotinib on ovarian cancer is still unclear. In this study, our data show that crizotinib can actively induce cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis with the decreasing phosphorylation of the downstream signaling effectors AKT and ERK in human ovarian cancer cells. Crizotinib also increases the intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) levels, and pretreating with ROS scavenger N-acety-L-cysteine partially reverses crizotinib-induced apoptosis. Moreover, crizotinib can synergistically inhibit ovarian cancer cells growth in vitro and in vivo when combines with cisplatin. Altogether, crizotinib potently potentiates the activity of cisplatin in ovarian cancer, suggesting the synergistic effect of crizotinib and cisplatin may be valuable for ovarian cancer patients’ treatment. PMID:28469773

  7. Sorafenib synergizes with metformin in NSCLC through AMPK pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Groenendijk, Floris H; Mellema, Wouter W; van der Burg, Eline; Schut, Eva; Hauptmann, Michael; Horlings, Hugo M; Willems, Stefan M; van den Heuvel, Michel M; Jonkers, Jos; Smit, Egbert F; Bernards, René

    2015-01-01

    The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is under clinical investigation for the treatment of many solid tumors, but in most cases, the molecular target responsible for the clinical effect is unknown. Furthermore, enhancing the effectiveness of sorafenib using combination strategies is a major clinical challenge. Here, we identify sorafenib as an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), in a manner that involves either upstream LKB1 or CAMKK2. We further show in a phase II clinical trial in KRAS mutant advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with single agent sorafenib an improved disease control rate in patients using the antidiabetic drug metformin. Consistent with this, sorafenib and metformin act synergistically in inhibiting cellular proliferation in NSCLC in vitro and in vivo. A synergistic effect of both drugs is also seen on phosphorylation of the AMPKα activation site. Our results provide a rationale for the synergistic antiproliferative effects, given that AMPK inhibits downstream mTOR signaling. These data suggest that the combination of sorafenib with AMPK activators could have beneficial effects on tumor regression by AMPK pathway activation. The combination of metformin or other AMPK activators and sorafenib could be tested in prospective clinical trials. PMID:25080865

  8. Protein Kinases and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anna M.; Messing, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    Although drugs of abuse have different chemical structures and interact with different protein targets, all appear to usurp common neuronal systems that regulate reward and motivation. Addiction is a complex disease that is thought to involve drug-induced changes in synaptic plasticity due to alterations in cell signaling, gene transcription, and protein synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that drugs of abuse interact with and change a common network of signaling pathways that include a subset of specific protein kinases. The best studied of these kinases are reviewed here and include extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5, protein kinase C, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and Fyn tyrosine kinase. These kinases have been implicated in various aspects of drug addiction including acute drug effects, drug self-administration, withdrawal, reinforcement, sensitization, and tolerance. Identifying protein kinase substrates and signaling pathways that contribute to the addicted state may provide novel approaches for new pharma-cotherapies to treat drug addiction. PMID:18991950

  9. Drug Synergism of Proteasome Inhibitors and Mitotane by Complementary Activation of ER Stress in Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kroiss, Matthias; Sbiera, Silviu; Kendl, Sabine; Kurlbaum, Max; Fassnacht, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Mitotane is the only drug approved for treatment of the orphan disease adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and was recently shown to be the first clinically used drug acting through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress induced by toxic lipids. Since mitotane has limited clinical activity as monotherapy, we here study the potential of activating ER-stress through alternative pathways. The single reliable NCI-H295 cell culture model for ACC was used to study the impact MG132, bortezomib (BTZ) and carfilzomib (CFZ) on mRNA and protein expression of ER-stress markers, cell viability and steroid hormone secretion. We found all proteasome inhibitors alone to trigger expression of mRNA (spliced X-box protein 1, XBP1) and protein markers indicative of the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) dependent pathway of ER-stress but not phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), a marker of the PRKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)-dependent pathway. Whereas mitotane alone activated both pathways, combination of BTZ and CFZ with low-dose mitotane blocked mitotane-induced eIF2α phosphorylation but increased XBP1-mRNA splicing indicating that proteasome inhibitors can commit signalling towards a single ER-stress pathway in ACC cells. By applying the median effect model of drug combinations using cell viability as a read out, we determined significant drug synergism between mitotane and both BTZ and CFZ. In conclusion, combination of mitotane with activators of ER-stress through the unfolded protein response is synergistic in an ACC cell culture model. Since proteasome inhibitors are readily available clinically, they are attractive candidates to study for ACC treatment in clinical trials in combination with mitotane.

  10. Single concentration tests show synergism among Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxins against the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles albimanus.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Luna, María Teresa; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario; Miranda-Ríos, Juan

    2010-07-01

    Bioassays of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with larvae of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles albimanus showed that the cytolytic protein Cyt1Aa was not toxic alone, but it increased the toxicity of the crystalline proteins Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa. Synergism also occurred between Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins. Whereas many previous analyses of synergism have been based on a series of toxin concentrations leading to comparisons between expected and observed values for the concentration killing 50% of insects tested (LC(50)), we describe and apply a method here that enables testing for synergism based on single concentrations of toxins.

  11. Control of translational activation by PIM kinase in activated B-cell diffuse large B-cell lymphoma confers sensitivity to inhibition by PIM447

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Tara L.; Li, Lingxiao; Tula-Sanchez, Ana A.; Pongtornpipat, Praechompoo; Schatz, Jonathan H.

    2016-01-01

    The PIM family kinases promote growth and survival of tumor cells and are expressed in a wide variety of human cancers. Their potential as therapeutic targets, however, is complicated by overlapping activities with multiple other pathways and remains poorly defined in most clinical scenarios. Here we explore activity of the new pan-PIM inhibitor PIM447 in a variety of lymphoid-derived tumors. We find strong activity in cell lines derived from the activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL). Sensitive lines show lost activation of the mTORC1 signaling complex and subsequent lost activation of cap-dependent protein translation. In addition, we characterize recurrent PIM1 protein-coding mutations found in DLBCL clinical samples and find most preserve the wild-type protein's ability to protect cells from apoptosis but do not bypass activity of PIM447. Pan-PIM inhibition therefore may have an important role to play in the therapy of selected ABC-DLBCL cases. PMID:27556513

  12. Correction: Synergism between genome sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry and bio-inspired synthesis reveals insights into nocardioazine B biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Norah; Porwal, Suheel K; James, Elle D; Bis, Dana M; Karty, Jonathan A; Lane, Amy L; Viswanathan, Rajesh

    2015-09-21

    Correction for 'Synergism between genome sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry and bio-inspired synthesis reveals insights into nocardioazine B biogenesis' by Norah Alqahtani et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2015, 13, 7177-7192.

  13. Phage-antibiotic synergism: a possible approach to combatting Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Knezevic, Petar; Curcin, Sanja; Aleksic, Verica; Petrusic, Milivoje; Vlaski, Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly resistant opportunistic pathogen and an important etiological agent of various types of infections. During the last decade, P. aeruginosa phages have been extensively examined as alternative antimicrobial agents. The aim of the study was to determine antimicrobial effectiveness of combining subinhibitory concentrations of gentamicin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin or polymyxin B with P. aeruginosa-specific bacteriophages belonging to families Podoviridae and Siphoviridae. The time-kill curve method showed that a combination of bacteriophages and subinhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone generally reduced bacterial growth, and synergism was proven for a Siphoviridae phage σ-1 after 300 min of incubation. The detected alteration in morphology after ceftriaxone application, resulting in cell elongation, along with its specific mode of action, seemed to be a necessary but was not a sufficient reason for phage-antibiotic synergism. The phenomenon offers an opportunity for future development of treatment strategies for potentially lethal infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

  14. Synergism by co-assembly at the origin of ion selectivity in liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dourdain, S.; Hofmeister, I.; Dufreche, J.F.; Turgis, R.; Pellet-Rostaing, S.; Zemb, T.; Pecheur, O.; Leydier, A.; Jestin, J.; Testard, F.

    2012-08-15

    In liquid-liquid extraction, synergism emerges when for a defined formulation of the solvent phase, there is an increase of distribution coefficients for some cations in a mixture. To characterize the synergistic mechanisms, we determine the free energy of mixed co-assembly in aggregates. Aggregation in any point of a phase diagram can be followed not only structurally by SANS, SAXS, and SLS, but also thermodynamically by determining the concentration of monomers coexisting with reverse aggregates. Using the industrially used couple HDEHP/TOPO forming mixed reverse aggregates, and the representative couple U/Fe, we show that there is no peculiarity in the aggregates microstructure at the maximum of synergism. Nevertheless, the free energy of aggregation necessary to form mixed aggregates containing extracted ions in their polar core is comparable to the transfer free energy difference between target and nontarget ions, as deduced from the synergistic selectivity peak. (authors)

  15. Hydractinia echinata test-system. IV. Toxic synergism of human pharmaceuticals in mixtures with iodoform.

    PubMed

    Chicu, Sergiu A; Schannen, Ladislaus; Putz, Mihai V; Simu, Georgeta-M

    2016-12-01

    The structure-toxicity relationships for a series of singular human stomatological pharmaceuticals preparations and in mixture with Iodoform on Hydractinia echinata were obtained and their synergism was analyzed through the Metamorphosis Reduction Concentration (MRC50) within the "Köln model". The differences manifested between the total and individual components of the samples and mixtures, associated with toxic versus non-toxic synergism, are dependent on three essential factors of synthesis (the nature, the concentration and the number) besides manifested isotoxicity of the given components. The method represents a practical alternative useful for the reduction of experimental tests on animal to the lowest possible level, in accordance to the '3Rs' (reduce, reuse and recycle) integrative concept.

  16. The synergism of nucleoside antibiotics combined with guanine 7-N-oxide against a rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV).

    PubMed

    Hasobe, M; Saneyoshi, M; Isono, K

    1986-09-01

    Guanine 7-N-oxide was shown to have synergistic activity in combination with neplanocin A against a rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), as reported previously. We examined further the antiviral activity of guanine 7-N-oxide in combination with other nucleoside antibiotics against IHNV. Synergism was seen between guanine 7-N-oxide and D-eritadenine or cordycepin. It is considered that compounds inhibiting RNA methylation show synergism with guanine 7-N-oxide.

  17. Synergism in the desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil models by mixed surfactant solutions.

    PubMed

    Sales, Pablo S; Fernández, Mariana A

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of a mixed surfactant system on the desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil model systems. The interaction of a non-ionic surfactant, Tween 80, and an anionic one, sodium laurate, forming mixed micelles, produces several beneficial effects, including reduction of adsorption onto solid of the non-ionic surfactant, decrease in the precipitation of the fatty acid salt, and synergism to solubilize PAHs from solids compared with individual surfactants.

  18. Synergism between aminoglycosides and cephalosporins with antipseudomonal activity: interaction index and killing curve method.

    PubMed Central

    Hallander, H O; Dornbusch, K; Gezelius, L; Jacobson, K; Karlsson, I

    1982-01-01

    Combinations of gentamicin with cefotaxime, moxalactam, and ceftazidime were tested against 43 bacterial strains, most of them blood isolates. With an interaction index of less than or equal to 0.5 as borderline, synergism was demonstrated against 30 to 40% of the strains by the fractional inhibitory concentration index and against 50 to 70% by the fractional bactericidal concentration index. The reproducibility of the index was within +/- 0.2 for two-thirds of 40 repetitive assays and within +/- 0.4 to 0.5 for all of these assays. Similar results were obtained when netilmicin was substituted for gentamicin. The killing curve system for studying antibiotic synergism was standardized to give results comparable to those obtained with the interaction index. This was achieved when one-half of a previously determined minimum bactericidal concentration was used for single drugs and the amount of antibiotic was at least halved again when drugs were used in combination. An initial bacterial concentration of 10(5) to 10(6) colony-forming units per ml is recommended. Given these conditions, synergism could be defined as a 2-log 10 or more decrease in viable count given by both drugs together, as compared with the more active of the pair after 24 h. Prediction of killing curve results could then be obtained with the fractional bactericidal concentration index. When cephalosporins and gentamicin were combined from the start, the beta-lactam antibiotics were less susceptible to inactivation, as demonstrated in time-killing assays. If one of the antibiotics were added after 24 h, synergism was not demonstrable. The results indicate that the new cephalosporins may be advantageously combined with aminoglycosides. PMID:7181485

  19. Combination of single walled carbon nanotubes/graphene oxide with paclitaxel: a reactive oxygen species mediated synergism for treatment of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, Neha; Arora, Aditya; Vasu, K. S.; Sood, A. K.; Katti, Dhirendra S.

    2013-03-01

    Heterogeneity in tumors has led to the development of combination therapies that enable enhanced cell death. Previously explored combination therapies mostly involved the use of bioactive molecules. In this work, we explored a non-conventional strategy of using carbon nanostructures (CNs) [single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and graphene oxide (GO)] for potentiating the efficacy of a bioactive molecule [paclitaxel (Tx)] for the treatment of lung cancer. The results demonstrated enhanced cell death following combination treatment of SWNT/GO and Tx indicating a synergistic effect. In addition, synergism was abrogated in the presence of an anti-oxidant, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), and was therefore shown to be reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent. It was further demonstrated using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay that treatment with CNs was associated with enhanced mitogen associated protein kinase (MAPK) activation that was ROS mediated. Hence, these results for the first time demonstrated the potential of SWNT/GO as co-therapeutic agents with Tx for the treatment of lung cancer.Heterogeneity in tumors has led to the development of combination therapies that enable enhanced cell death. Previously explored combination therapies mostly involved the use of bioactive molecules. In this work, we explored a non-conventional strategy of using carbon nanostructures (CNs) [single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and graphene oxide (GO)] for potentiating the efficacy of a bioactive molecule [paclitaxel (Tx)] for the treatment of lung cancer. The results demonstrated enhanced cell death following combination treatment of SWNT/GO and Tx indicating a synergistic effect. In addition, synergism was abrogated in the presence of an anti-oxidant, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), and was therefore shown to be reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent. It was further demonstrated using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay that treatment with CNs was associated with enhanced

  20. Synergism of insecticides provides evidence of metabolic mechanisms of resistance in the obliquebanded leafroller Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Hollingworth, Robert M

    2004-05-01

    The interactions between six insecticides (indoxacarb, cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, azinphosmethyl, tebufenozide and chlorfenapyr) and three potential synergists, (piperonyl butoxide (PBO), S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) and diethyl maleate (DEM)) were studied by dietary exposure in a multi-resistant and a susceptible strain of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris). The synergists did not produce appreciable synergism with most of the insecticides in the susceptible strain. Except for tebufenozide, PBO synergized all the insecticides to varying degrees in the resistant strain. A very high level of synergism by PBO was found with indoxacarb, which reduced the resistance level from 705- to 20-fold when PBO was administered alone and to around 10-fold when used in combination with DEF. DEF also synergized indoxacarb, cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, azinphosmethyl and tebufenozide in the resistant strain. DEM produced synergism of indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl and chlorfenapyr in the resistant strain. DEM was highly synergistic to cypermethrin, and to some extent to tebufenozide in both the susceptible and resistant strains equally, implying that detoxification by glutathione S-transferases was not a mechanism of resistance for these insecticides. The high level of synergism seen with DEM in the case of cypermethrin may be due to an increase in oxidative stress resulting from the removal of the antioxidant, glutathione. These studies indicate that enhanced detoxification, often mediated by cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases, but with probable esterase and glutathione S-transferase contributions in some cases, is the major mechanism imparting resistance to different insecticides in C. rosaceana.

  1. Opioid Mechanism Involvement in the Synergism Produced by the Combination of Diclofenac and Caffeine in the Formalin Model

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Ramos, José María; Díaz-Reval, M. Irene

    2013-01-01

    Analgesics can be administered in combination with caffeine for improved analgesic effectiveness in a process known as synergism. The mechanisms by which these combinations produce synergism are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the administration of diclofenac combined with caffeine produced antinociceptive synergism and whether opioid mechanisms played a role in this event. The formalin model was used to evaluate the antinociception produced by the oral administration of diclofenac, caffeine, or their combination. Opioid involvement was analyzed through intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of naloxone followed by the oral administration of the study drugs. Diclofenac presented a dose-dependent effect, with a mean effective dose (ED50) of 6.7 mg/kg. Caffeine presented an analgesic effect with a 17–36% range. The combination of subeffective doses of each of the two drugs presented the greatest synergism with an effect of 57.7 ± 5.6%. The maximal antinociceptive effect was obtained with the combination of 10.0 mg/kg diclofenac and 1.0 mg/kg of caffeine, with an effect of 76.7 ± 5.6%. The i.c.v. administration of naloxone inhibited the effect of diclofenac, both separately and combined. In conclusion, caffeine produces antinociceptive synergism when administered in combination with diclofenac, and this synergism is partially mediated by opioid mechanisms at the central level. PMID:27335871

  2. PIM Kinases as Potential Therapeutic Targets in a Subset of Peripheral T Cell Lymphoma Cases

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Sánchez, Esperanza; Odqvist, Lina; Rodríguez-Pinilla, Socorro M.; Sánchez-Beato, Margarita; Roncador, Giovanna; Domínguez-González, Beatriz; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; García Collazo, Ana M.; Cantalapiedra, Esther González; Fernández, Joaquín Pastor; del Olmo, Soraya Curiel; Pisonero, Helena; Madureira, Rebeca; Almaraz, Carmen; Mollejo, Manuela; Alves, F. Javier; Menárguez, Javier; González-Palacios, Fernando; Rodríguez-Peralto, José Luis; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L.; Real, Francisco X.; García, Juan F.; Bischoff, James R.; Piris, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no efficient therapy for patients with peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL). The Proviral Integration site of Moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) kinases are important mediators of cell survival. We aimed to determine the therapeutic value of PIM kinases because they are overexpressed in PTCL patients, T cell lines and primary tumoral T cells. PIM kinases were inhibited genetically (using small interfering and short hairpin RNAs) and pharmacologically (mainly with the pan-PIM inhibitor (PIMi) ETP-39010) in a panel of 8 PTCL cell lines. Effects on cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle, key proteins and gene expression were evaluated. Individual inhibition of each of the PIM genes did not affect PTCL cell survival, partially because of a compensatory mechanism among the three PIM genes. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of all PIM kinases strongly induced apoptosis in all PTCL cell lines, without cell cycle arrest, in part through the induction of DNA damage. Therefore, pan-PIMi synergized with Cisplatin. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of PIM reduced primary tumoral T cell viability without affecting normal T cells ex vivo. Since anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ ALCL) cell lines were the most sensitive to the pan-PIMi, we tested the simultaneous inhibition of ALK and PIM kinases and found a strong synergistic effect in ALK+ ALCL cell lines. Our findings suggest that PIM kinase inhibition could be of therapeutic value in a subset of PTCL, especially when combined with ALK inhibitors, and might be clinically beneficial in ALK+ ALCL. PMID:25386922

  3. Prediction of Synergism from Chemical-Genetic Interactions by Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Wildenhain, Jan; Spitzer, Michaela; Dolma, Sonam; Jarvik, Nick; White, Rachel; Roy, Marcia; Griffiths, Emma; Bellows, David S; Wright, Gerard D; Tyers, Mike

    2015-12-23

    The structure of genetic interaction networks predicts that, analogous to synthetic lethal interactions between non-essential genes, combinations of compounds with latent activities may exhibit potent synergism. To test this hypothesis, we generated a chemical-genetic matrix of 195 diverse yeast deletion strains treated with 4,915 compounds. This approach uncovered 1,221 genotype-specific inhibitors, which we termed cryptagens. Synergism between 8,128 structurally disparate cryptagen pairs was assessed experimentally and used to benchmark predictive algorithms. A model based on the chemical-genetic matrix and the genetic interaction network failed to accurately predict synergism. However, a combined random forest and Naive Bayesian learner that associated chemical structural features with genotype-specific growth inhibition had strong predictive power. This approach identified previously unknown compound combinations that exhibited species-selective toxicity toward human fungal pathogens. This work demonstrates that machine learning methods trained on unbiased chemical-genetic interaction data may be widely applicable for the discovery of synergistic combinations in different species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Levamisole and cocaine synergism: a prevalent adulterant enhances cocaine's action in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tallarida, Christopher S.; Egan, Erin; Alejo, Gissel D.; Raffa, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Rawls, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Levamisole is estimated by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) to be present in about 80% of cocaine seized in the United States and linked to debilitating, and sometimes fatal, immunologic effects in cocaine abusers. One explanation for the addition of levamisole to cocaine is that it increases the amount of product and enhances profits. An alternative possibility, and one investigated here, is that levamisole alters cocaine's action in vivo. We specifically investigated effects of levamisole on cocaine's stereotypical and place-conditioning effects in an established invertebrate (planarian) assay. Acute exposure to levamisole or cocaine produced concentration-dependent increases in stereotyped movements. For combined administration of the two agents, isobolographic analysis revealed that the observed stereotypical response was enhanced relative to the predicted effect, indicating synergism for the interaction. In conditioned place preference (CPP) experiments, cocaine produced a significant preference shift; in contrast, levamisole was ineffective at all concentrations tested. For combination experiments, a submaximal concentration of cocaine produced CPP that was enhanced by inactive concentrations of levamisole, indicating synergism. The present results provide the first experimental evidence that levamisole enhances cocaine's action in vivo. Most important is the identification of synergism for the levamisole/cocaine interaction, which now requires further study in mammals. PMID:24440755

  5. Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases.

    PubMed

    Betoni, Joyce Elaine Cristina; Mantovani, Rebeca Passarelli; Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio; Fernandes Junior, Ary

    2006-06-01

    Searches for substances with antimicrobial activity are frequent, and medicinal plants have been considered interesting by some researchers since they are frequently used in popular medicine as remedies for many infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the synergism between 13 antimicrobial drugs and 8 plant extracts--"guaco" (Mikania glomerata), guava (Psidium guajava), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), garlic (Allium sativum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), ginger (Zingiber officinale), "carqueja" (Baccharis trimera), and mint (Mentha piperita)--against Staphylococcus aureus strains, and for this purpose, the disk method was the antimicrobial susceptibility test performed. Petri dishes were prepared with or without dilution of plant extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations in Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA), and the inhibitory zones were recorded in millimeters. In vitro anti-Staphylococcus aureus activities of the extracts were confirmed, and synergism was verified for all the extracts; clove, guava, and lemongrass presented the highest synergism rate with antimicrobial drugs, while ginger and garlic showed limited synergistic capacity.

  6. Levamisole and cocaine synergism: a prevalent adulterant enhances cocaine's action in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tallarida, Christopher S; Egan, Erin; Alejo, Gissel D; Raffa, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J; Rawls, Scott M

    2014-04-01

    Levamisole is estimated by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) to be present in about 80% of cocaine seized in the United States and linked to debilitating, and sometimes fatal, immunologic effects in cocaine abusers. One explanation for the addition of levamisole to cocaine is that it increases the amount of product and enhances profits. An alternative possibility, and one investigated here, is that levamisole alters cocaine's action in vivo. We specifically investigated effects of levamisole on cocaine's stereotypical and place-conditioning effects in an established invertebrate (planarian) assay. Acute exposure to levamisole or cocaine produced concentration-dependent increases in stereotyped movements. For combined administration of the two agents, isobolographic analysis revealed that the observed stereotypical response was enhanced relative to the predicted effect, indicating synergism for the interaction. In conditioned place preference (CPP) experiments, cocaine produced a significant preference shift; in contrast, levamisole was ineffective at all concentrations tested. For combination experiments, a submaximal concentration of cocaine produced CPP that was enhanced by inactive concentrations of levamisole, indicating synergism. The present results provide the first experimental evidence that levamisole enhances cocaine's action in vivo. Most important is the identification of synergism for the levamisole/cocaine interaction, which now requires further study in mammals.

  7. Synergism in binary mixture of surfactants 11. Mixtures containing mono- and disulfonated alkyl- and dialkyldiphenylethers

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.J.; Zhen Huo Zhu; Tao Gao

    1993-04-01

    Interaction and synergism at 25C of some alkyl- and dialkyl-diphenylether mono- and disulfonates with a second surfactant containing a single hydrophilic and a single hydrophobic group (a nonionic, a betaine, or an amine oxide type of surfactant) in aqueous solutions containing swamping amounts of NaCl were studied by calculating interaction parameters from surface tension-concentration data. Attractive interaction in mixed monolayers at the aqueous solution/water interface increased in the order: monoalkyl monosulfonate (MAMS) < monoalkyl disulfonate (MADS) < dialkyl disulfonate (DADS). In mixed micelles, by contrast, the DADS interaction was always weaker than that of either the MAMS or MADS. This is believed to be due to greater steric inhibition of micelle formation by the DADS structure. As a result of these differences in interaction, the DADS (gemini-type) structure is more prone than the other two types of structures to show synergism in both surface tension reduction efficiency and effectiveness, and less prone to show synergism in mixed micelle formation.

  8. Synergism between mefloquine and artemisinin and its enhancement by retinol in Plasmodium falciparum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kerschbaumer, Gerwald; Wernsdorfer, Gunther; Wiedermann, Ursula; Congpuong, Kanungnit; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Wernsdorfer, Walther H

    2010-10-01

    Following the advent of mefloquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Thailand in the 1990s, the combined treatment of falciparum malaria with artesunate and mefloquine was found to be highly effective in treating and curing the patients in the affected areas. Monitoring of the clinical-parasitological response and of the in vitro sensitivity of P. falciparum was systematically conducted in order to detect any signs of failure of this type of artemisinin-based combination treatment (ACT). In earlier observations the in vitro activity of artemisinin was found to be significantly enhanced when combined with retinol. The same applies to mefloquine. In order to check whether the synergism between artemisinin and mefloquine was maintained in the presence of retinol, the pharmacodynamic interaction of the three compounds was investigated in the western border area of Thailand. Successful parallel tests with mefloquine, artemisinin, retinol, mefloquine-artemisinin 5:1 as well as mefloquine-artemisinin (5:1) + retinol low, medium and high were obtained with 43 fresh parasite isolates. The retinol concentrations in the low, medium and high formulations corresponded to the 50th, 65th and 80th percentile of the physiological mean concentrations in the blood of healthy adults. The IC(50), IC(90) and IC(99) values for mefloquine alone showed a further increase over the data of 2008. In the combinations with artemisinin and retinol moderate synergism was observed at the IC(50), but synergism increased strongly at the IC(90) and the IC(99).

  9. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mirshafiey, Abbas; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Asghari, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are essential components of signal transduction pathways that mediate cell-to-cell communication and their function as relay points for signaling pathways. They have a key role in numerous processes that control cellular proliferation and differentiation, regulate cell growth and cellular metabolism, and promote cell survival and apoptosis. Recently, the role of RTKs including TCR, FLT-3, c-Kit, c-Fms, PDGFR, ephrin, neurotrophin receptor, and TAM receptor in autoimmune disorder, especially rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis has been suggested. In multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, RTKs and their tyrosine kinase enzymes are selective important targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) agents. TKIs, compete with the ATP binding site of the catalytic domain of several tyrosine kinases, and act as small molecules that have a favorable safety profile in disease treatment. Up to now, the efficacy of TKIs in numerous animal models of MS has been demonstrated, but application of these drugs in human diseases should be tested in future clinical trials. PMID:25337443

  10. [Tyrosine kinase inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Robert, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    Membrane receptors with tyrosine kinase activity and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases have emerged as important potential targets in oncology. Starting from basic structures such as anilino-quinazoline, numerous compounds have been synthesised, with the help of tyrosine kinase crystallography, which has allowed to optimise protein-ligand interactions. The catalytic domains of all kinases present similar three-dimensional structures, which explains that it may be difficult to identify molecules having a high specificity for a given tyrosine kinase. Some tyrosine kinase inhibitors are relatively specific for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) such as géfitinib and erlotinib; other are mainly active against platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and the receptor KIT, such as imatinib or nilotinib, and other against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors involved in angiogenesis, such as sunitinib and sorafenib. The oral formulation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors is well accepted by the patients but may generate sometimes compliance problems requiring pharmacokinetic monitoring. This chemical family is in full expansion and several dozens of compounds have entered clinical trials.

  11. MAPKAP kinase-2; a novel protein kinase activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Stokoe, D; Campbell, D G; Nakielny, S; Hidaka, H; Leevers, S J; Marshall, C; Cohen, P

    1992-01-01

    A novel protein kinase, which was only active when phosphorylated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), has been purified 85,000-fold to homogeneity from rabbit skeletal muscle. This MAP kinase activated protein kinase, termed MAPKAP kinase-2, was distinguished from S6 kinase-II (MAPKAP kinase-1) by its response to inhibitors, lack of phosphorylation of S6 peptides and amino acid sequence. MAPKAP kinase-2 phosphorylated glycogen synthase at Ser7 and the equivalent serine (*) in the peptide KKPLNRTLS*VASLPGLamide whose sequence is similar to the N terminus of glycogen synthase. MAPKAP kinase-2 was resolved into two monomeric species of apparent molecular mass 60 and 53 kDa that had similar specific activities and substrate specificities. Peptide sequences of the 60 and 53 kDa species were identical, indicating that they are either closely related isoforms or derived from the same gene. MAP kinase activated the 60 and 53 kDa forms of MAPKAP kinase-2 by phosphorylating the first threonine residue in the sequence VPQTPLHTSR. Furthermore, Mono Q chromatography of extracts from rat phaeochromocytoma and skeletal muscle demonstrated that two MAP kinase isoforms (p42mapk and p44mapk) were the only enzymes in these cells that were capable of reactivating MAPKAP kinase-2. These results indicate that MAP kinase activates at least two distinct protein kinases, suggesting that it represents a point at which the growth factor-stimulated protein kinase cascade bifurcates. Images PMID:1327754

  12. Dual IGF-1R/InsR inhibitor BMS-754807 synergizes with hormonal agents in treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaonan; Huang, Fei; Macedo, Luciana F; Harrington, Sean C; Reeves, Karen A; Greer, Ann; Finckenstein, Friedrich Graf; Brodie, Angela; Gottardis, Marco M; Carboni, Joan M; Haluska, Paul

    2011-12-15

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling has been implicated in the resistance to hormonal therapy in breast cancer. Using a model of postmenopausal, estrogen-dependent breast cancer, we investigated the antitumor effects of the dual IGF-1R/InsR tyrosine kinase inhibitor BMS-754807 alone and in combination with letrozole or tamoxifen. BMS-754807 exhibited antiproliferative effects in vitro that synergized strongly in combination with letrozole or 4-hydroxytamoxifen and fulvestrant. Similarly, combined treatment of BMS-754807 with either tamoxifen or letrozole in vivo elicited tumor regressions not achieved by single-agent therapy. Notably, hormonal therapy enhanced the inhibition of IGF-1R/InsR without major side effects in animals. Microarray expression analysis revealed downregulation of cell-cycle control and survival pathways and upregulation of erbB in response to BMS-754807 plus hormonal therapy, particularly tamoxifen. Overall, these results offer a preclinical proof-of-concept for BMS-754807 as an antitumor agent in combination with hormonal therapies in hormone-sensitive breast cancer. Cooperative cell-cycle arrest, decreased proliferation, and enhanced promotion of apoptosis may contribute to antitumor effects to be gauged in future clinical investigations justified by our findings.

  13. Dasatinib synergizes with both cytotoxic and signal transduction inhibitors in heterogeneous breast cancer cell lines--lessons for design of combination targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Brian J; Whichard, Zakary L; Corey, Seth J

    2012-07-01

    Molecularly targeted therapies have emerged as the leading theme in cancer therapeutics. Multi-cytotoxic drug regimens have been highly successful, yet many studies in targeted therapeutics have centered on a single agent. We investigated whether the Src/Abl kinase inhibitor dasatinib displays synergy with other agents in molecularly heterogeneous breast cancer cell lines. MCF-7, SKBR-3, and MDA-MB-231 display different signaling and gene signatures profiles due to expression of the estrogen receptor, ErbB2, or neither. Cell proliferation was measured following treatment with dasatinib±cytotoxic (paclitaxel, ixabepilone) or molecularly targeted agents (tamoxifen, rapamycin, sorafenib, pan PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126). Dose-responses for single or combination drugs were calculated and analyzed by the Chou-Talalay method. The drugs with the greatest level of synergy with dasatinib were rapamycin, ixabepilone, and sorafenib, for the MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and SK-BR-3 cell lines respectively. However, dasatinib synergized with both cytotoxic and molecularly targeted agents in all three molecularly heterogeneous breast cancer cell lines. These results suggest that effectiveness of rationally designed therapies may not entirely rest on precise identification of gene signatures or molecular profiling. Since a systems analysis that reveals emergent properties cannot be easily performed for each cancer case, multi-drug regimens in the near future will still involve empirical design.

  14. All-trans retinoic acid synergizes with FLT3 inhibition to eliminate FLT3/ITD+ leukemia stem cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hayley S.; Greenblatt, Sarah M.; Shirley, Courtney M.; Duffield, Amy S.; Bruner, J. Kyle; Li, Li; Nguyen, Bao; Jung, Eric; Aplan, Peter D.; Ghiaur, Gabriel; Jones, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-mutant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) portends a poor prognosis, and ineffective targeting of the leukemic stem cell (LSC) population remains one of several obstacles in treating this disease. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been used in several clinical trials for the treatment of nonpromyelocytic AML with limited clinical activity observed. FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used as monotherapy also achieve limited clinical responses and are thus far unable to affect cure rates in AML patients. We explored the efficacy of combining ATRA and FLT3 TKIs to eliminate FLT3/internal tandem duplication (ITD)+ LSCs. Our studies reveal highly synergistic drug activity, preferentially inducing apoptosis in FLT3/ITD+ cell lines and patient samples. Colony-forming unit assays further demonstrate decreased clonogenicity of FLT3/ITD+ cells upon treatment with ATRA and TKI. Most importantly, the drug combination depletes FLT3/ITD+ LSCs in a genetic mouse model of AML, and prolongs survival of leukemic mice. Furthermore, engraftment of primary FLT3/ITD+ patient samples is reduced in mice following treatment with FLT3 TKI and ATRA in combination, with evidence of cellular differentiation occurring in vivo. Mechanistically, we provide evidence that the synergism of ATRA and FLT3 TKIs is at least in part due to the observation that FLT3 TKI treatment upregulates the antiapoptotic protein Bcl6, limiting the drug’s apoptotic effect. However, cotreatment with ATRA reduces Bcl6 expression to baseline levels through suppression of interleukin-6 receptor signaling. These studies provide evidence of the potential of this drug combination to eliminate FLT3/ITD+ LSCs and reduce the rate of relapse in AML patients with FLT3 mutations. PMID:27103744

  15. Inhibition of a signaling pathway in cardiac muscle cells by active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, J; Carlson, M; Mansour, S J; Chien, K R; Ahn, N G; Thorburn, A

    1995-01-01

    Signaling via the Ras pathway involves sequential activation of Ras, Raf-1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK), and the extracellular signal-regulated (ERK) group of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Expression from the c-Fos, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), and myosin light chain-2 (MLC-2) promoters during phenylephrine-induced cardiac muscle cell hypertrophy requires activation of this pathway. Furthermore, constitutively active Ras or Raf-1 can mimic the action of phenylephrine in inducing expression from these promoters. In this study, we tested whether constitutively active MKK, the molecule immediately downstream of Raf, was sufficient to induce expression. Expression of constitutively active MKK induce ERK2 kinase activity and caused expression from the c-Fos promoter, but did not significantly activate expression of reporter genes under the control of either the ANF or MLC-2 promoters. Expression of CL100, a phosphatase that inactivates ERKs, prevented expression from all of the promoters. Taken together, these data suggest that ERK activation is required for expression from the Fos, ANF, and MLC-2 promoters but MKK and ERK activation is sufficient for expression only from the Fos promoter. Constitutively active MKK synergized with phenylephrine to increase expression from a c-Fos- or an AP1-driven reporter. However, active MKK inhibited phenylephrine- and Raf-1-induced expression from the ANF and MLC-2 promoters. A DNA sequence in the MLC-2 promoter that is a target for inhibition by active MKK, but not CL100, was mapped to a previously characterized DNA element (HF1) that is responsible for cardiac specificity. Thus, activation of cardiac gene expression during phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy requires ERK activation but constitutive activation by MKK can inhibit expression by targeting a DNA element that controls the cardiac specificity of gene expression. PMID:8589450

  16. A new synergic-assembly strategy towards three-dimensional (3D) hollow nanoarchitectures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2008-12-01

    Large-scale synthesis and assembly of meso-, micro- and nanostructured building blocks with the desired orientations are of great interest for the next-generation nanoarchitecture design. On the consideration that the traditional synthetic methodologies for nanostructures often produce tangled nanounits, how to align the nanounits into the ordered orientation at high production yield is a great challenge to current methods. The present review describes a facile and controllable way to grow and assemble the 3D hollow nanoarchitectures, with the utilization of the synergic effects of hollowing process from the self-produced templates and the highly anisotropic growth of nanounits of the target materials in one-pot reaction. In this process, the building block nanounits spontaneously in-situ form owing to their highly anisotropic internal structure, while the self-produced templates act as the supporter and growth-direction guidance for the in-situ formed nanounits. Therefore, the whole assembly process is simple, controllable and without the complicated manipulations. Herein, in the light of the different kinds of self-produced templates involved in the assembly process, recent developments based on the new synergic-assembly strategy are reviewed according to the classifications: (1) self-produced gas bubble template strategy; (2) self-produced homogeneous solid template strategy; (3) self-produced heterogeneous solid template strategy. Notably, the synergic-assembly methodology described in this review provides a newly essential way to construct and assemble nanoarchitectures facilely and controllably, and is also a crucial step for the next-generation of nanoarchitecture design in the near future. In conclusion, the challenges and prospects for the future are discussed.

  17. In Vitro Synergism between Azithromycin or Terbinafine and Topical Antimicrobial Agents against Pythium insidiosum

    PubMed Central

    Itaqui, Sabrina R.; Verdi, Camila M.; Tondolo, Juliana S. M.; da Luz, Thaisa S.; Alves, Sydney H.; Santurio, Janio M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe here in vitro activity for the combination of azithromycin or terbinafine and benzalkonium, cetrimide, cetylpyridinium, mupirocin, triclosan, or potassium permanganate. With the exception of potassium permanganate, the remaining antimicrobial drugs were active and had an MIC90 between 2 and 32 μg∕ml. The greatest synergism was observed for the combination of terbinafine and cetrimide (71.4%). In vivo experimental evaluations will clarify the potential of these drugs for the topical treatment of lesions caused by Pythium insidiosum. PMID:27216049

  18. Synergization of silicone with developed crosslinking to soy-based polyurethane foam matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvistia Firdaus, Flora

    2014-06-01

    Flexible polyurethane foam obtained from reaction of soybased polyol with TDI:MDI (80:20), and surfactant. The goal of this research is to determine the synergization effect of silicone with low molecular alcohols; methanol and ethylene glycol (EG) in soy-polyurethane formula on holding moisture of foams to density, foam solutions capacity, and cellular morphology. The optimized of polyol was achieved by ratio of epoxide/methanol 1:6 (mol/mol), and epoxide/EG 1:3 (mol/mol). It was found silicone surfactant can minimize solution absorbency in polyurethane foam matrix.

  19. In Vitro Synergism between Azithromycin or Terbinafine and Topical Antimicrobial Agents against Pythium insidiosum.

    PubMed

    Itaqui, Sabrina R; Verdi, Camila M; Tondolo, Juliana S M; da Luz, Thaisa S; Alves, Sydney H; Santurio, Janio M; Loreto, Érico S

    2016-08-01

    We describe here in vitro activity for the combination of azithromycin or terbinafine and benzalkonium, cetrimide, cetylpyridinium, mupirocin, triclosan, or potassium permanganate. With the exception of potassium permanganate, the remaining antimicrobial drugs were active and had an MIC90 between 2 and 32 μg∕ml. The greatest synergism was observed for the combination of terbinafine and cetrimide (71.4%). In vivo experimental evaluations will clarify the potential of these drugs for the topical treatment of lesions caused by Pythium insidiosum. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Relationship between the Level of Acquired Resistance to Gentamicin and Synergism with Amoxicillin in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Aslangul, Elisabeth; Ruimy, Raymond; Chau, Françoise; Garry, Louis; Andremont, Antoine; Fantin, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    In enterococci, intrinsic low-level resistance to gentamicin does not abolish synergism with a cell wall-active antibiotic while high-level resistance due to acquired aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes does. To study the impact of intermediate levels of resistance to gentamicin (64 < MIC < 500 μg/ml), we selected in vitro three consecutive generations of mutants of Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 with MICs of gentamicin at 128 μg/ml for G1-1477, 256 μg/ml for G2-1573, and 512 μg/ml for G3-1688. E. faecalis 102, which is highly resistant to gentamicin by enzymatic inactivation was used as control. In in vitro killing curves experiments, gentamicin concentrations allowing bactericidal activity and synergism in combination with amoxicillin increased from 4 μg/ml (1/16th the MIC), 16 μg/ml (one-eighth the MIC), 64 μg/ml (one-quarter the MIC), and 256 μg/ml (one-half the MIC) for strains JH2-2, G1-1477, G2-1573 and G3-1688, respectively. As expected, no bactericidal effect of the combination or synergism could be obtained with strain 102. In rabbits with aortic endocarditis caused by strain G1-1477 or G2-1573, combination therapy with amoxicillin and gentamicin was significantly more active than amoxicillin alone (P < 0.05) but not in those infected with the strains G3-1688 and 102. Thus, intermediate levels of resistance to gentamicin was not associated with a loss of a beneficial effect of the gentamicin-amoxicillin combination in vivo even though higher concentrations of gentamicin were necessary to achieve in vitro synergism. Therefore, the use of an MIC of 500 μg/ml as a clinical cutoff limit to predict in vivo benefit of the combination remains a simple and effective tool. PMID:16189091

  1. The Mechanism of Action of Unique Small Molecules that Inhibit the Pim Protein Kinase Blocking Prostate Cancer Cell Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    HeLa, HEK293T, Rat1, and MEFs). The triple knockout mouse of the Pim-1,- 2,-3 genes used to isolate MEFs were described previously (17). Mouse prostate...826 5. Shah, N., Pang, B., Yeoh, K. G., Thorn, S., Chen, C. S., Lilly, M. B., and Salto -Tellez, M. (2008) Eur J Cancer 44, 2144-2151 6. Speers, C...without K00135 treatment. (B) FACS analysis was performed on wild-type (WT) and Pim-1,2, 3 triple - knockout (TKO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (2) 50

  2. Enhancing the pH sensitivity by laterally synergic modulation in dual-gate electric-double-layer transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ning; Hui Liu, Yang; Qiang Zhu, Li; Feng, Ping Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2015-02-16

    The sensitivity of a standard ion-sensitive field-effect transistor is limited to be 59.2 mV/pH (Nernst limit) at room temperature. Here, a concept based on laterally synergic electric-double-layer (EDL) modulation is proposed in order to overcome the Nernst limit. Indium-zinc-oxide EDL transistors with two laterally coupled gates are fabricated, and the synergic modulation behaviors of the two asymmetric gates are investigated. A high sensitivity of ∼168 mV/pH is realized in the dual-gate operation mode. Laterally synergic modulation in oxide-based EDL transistors is interesting for high-performance bio-chemical sensors.

  3. Orphan kinases turn eccentric

    PubMed Central

    Mikolcevic, Petra; Rainer, Johannes; Geley, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    PCTAIRE kinases (PCTK) are a highly conserved, but poorly characterized, subgroup of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). They are characterized by a conserved catalytic domain flanked by N- and C-terminal extensions that are involved in cyclin binding. Vertebrate genomes contain three highly similar PCTAIRE kinases (PCTK1,2,3, a.k.a., CDK16,17,18), which are most abundant in post-mitotic cells in brain and testis. Consistent with this restricted expression pattern, PCTK1 (CDK16) has recently been shown to be essential for spermatogenesis. PCTAIREs are activated by cyclin Y (CCNY), a highly conserved single cyclin fold protein. By binding to N-myristoylated CCNY, CDK16 is targeted to the plasma membrane. Unlike conventional cyclin-CDK interactions, binding of CCNY to CDK16 not only requires the catalytic domain, but also domains within the N-terminal extension. Interestingly, phosphorylation within this domain blocks CCNY binding, providing a novel means of cyclin-CDK regulation. By using these functional characteristics, we analyzed “PCTAIRE” sequence containing protein kinase genes in genomes of various organisms and found that CCNY and CCNY-dependent kinases are restricted to eumetazoa and possibly evolved along with development of a central nervous system. Here, we focus on the structure and regulation of PCTAIREs and discuss their established functions. PMID:22895054

  4. Conserved herpesvirus protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gershburg, Edward; Pagano, Joseph S.

    2008-01-01

    Conserved herpesviral protein kinases (CHPKs) are a group of enzymes conserved throughout all subfamilies of Herpesviridae. Members of this group are serine/threonine protein kinases that are likely to play a conserved role in viral infection by interacting with common host cellular and viral factors; however along with a conserved role, individual kinases may have unique functions in the context of viral infection in such a way that they are only partially replaceable even by close homologues. Recent studies demonstrated that CHPKs are crucial for viral infection and suggested their involvement in regulation of numerous processes at various infection steps (primary infection, nuclear egress, tegumentation), although the mechanisms of this regulation remain unknown. Notwithstanding, recent advances in discovery of new CHPK targets, and studies of CHPK knockout phenotypes have raised their attractiveness as targets for antiviral therapy. A number of compounds have been shown to inhibit the activity of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-encoded UL97 protein kinase and exhibit a pronounced antiviral effect, although the same compounds are inactive against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-encoded protein kinase BGLF4, illustrating the fact that low homology between the members of this group complicates development of compounds targeting the whole group, and suggesting that individualized, structure-based inhibitor design will be more effective. Determination of CHPK structures will greatly facilitate this task. PMID:17881303

  5. A combination of additives can synergically decrease acrylamide content in gingerbread without compromising sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Komprda, Tomáš; Pridal, Antonin; Mikulíková, Renata; Svoboda, Zdeněk; Cwiková, Olga; Nedomová, Šárka; Sýkora, Vladimír

    2017-02-01

    The present study tested whether replacement of the leavening agent ammonium carbonate by sodium hydrogen carbonate in combination with calcium cation and acidifying agent will synergically decrease acrylamide (AA) content in gingerbread. The type of leavening agent and the presence of Ca(2+) and citric acid accounted for 33.6%, 13.2% and 53.2% of the explained variability of the AA content, respectively (P < 0.01). The AA content in gingerbread produced with (NH4 )2 CO3 alone was 186.5 µg kg(-1) . Irrespective of other tested additives, NaHCO3 decreased (P < 0.05) AA content to 42% compared to (NH4 )2 CO3 . Combination of NaHCO3 + CaCl2 + citric acid in dough reduced (P < 0.05) AA content below the limit of detection (25 µg kg(-1) ). The AA content in gingerbread (y; µg kg(-1) ) decreased with an increasing number of additives used (x) according to the equation y = 158.8 - 47.94x (r(2) = 0.42; P < 0.0001). A comprehensive sensory analysis did not indicate any significant deterioration (P > 0.05) in the organoleptic quality of gingerbread produced using calcium cation and citric acid. The present study demonstrates that the combination of additives NaHCO3 /Ca(2+) /citric acid synergically decreases AA content in gingerbread without compromising the sensory quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Cosolubilization synergism occurrence in codesorption of PAH mixtures during surfactant-enhanced remediation of contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xujun; Guo, Chuling; Wei, Yanfu; Lin, Weijia; Yi, Xiaoyun; Lu, Guining; Dang, Zhi

    2016-02-01

    Surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER) has been widely applied in decontaminating PAH-polluted soil. Most researches focus on evaluating washing efficiency without considering pollutants' mutual interaction. This study aims to investigate cosolubilization effect between phenanthrene (Phe) and pyrene (Pyr) in nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX100) solution on their codesorption performance from soil. Cosolubilization experiment showed that, when cosolubilized, solubility of Phe and Pyr in TX100 increased by 15.38% and 18.19%, respectively, as quantified by the deviation ratio of molar solubilization ratio in single and binary solute solubilization systems. The synergism may be due to the enlarged micelle volume caused by PAHs solubilized in the shell region of the micelle. The cosolubilization effect was further observed in the soil washing process. The strengthened TX100 solubilization capacity towards Phe and Pyr could increase the two PAHs' codesorption efficiency from soil, accompanied by synergistic extent of 6-15%. However, synergism in codesorption was weaker than that observed in the cosolubilization system, which may be related to surfactant loss to soil and PAH partition into soil organic matter and the sorbed surfactants. The improved remediation performance during codesorption of mixed PAHs implies the significance of combining PAHs' mutual interaction into evaluating SER, which may reduce the surfactant washing concentration and save remediation cost.

  7. An in silico erythropoiesis model rationalizing synergism between stem cell factor and erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Phan, Tran Hong Ha; Saraf, Pritha; Kiparissides, Alexandros; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Song, Hao; Lim, Mayasari

    2013-11-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and erythropoietin (EPO) are two most recognized growth factors that play in concert to control in vitro erythropoiesis. However, exact mechanisms underlying the interplay of these growth factors in vitro remain unclear. We developed a mathematical model to study co-signaling effects of SCF and EPO utilizing the ERK1/2 and GATA-1 pathways (activated by SCF and EPO) that drive the proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitors. The model was simplified and formulated based on three key features: synergistic contribution of SCF and EPO on ERK1/2 activation, positive feedback effects on proliferation and differentiation, and cross-inhibition effects of activated ERK1/2 and GATA-1. The model characteristics were developed to correspond with biological observations made known thus far. Our simulation suggested that activated GATA-1 has a more dominant cross-inhibition effect and stronger positive feedback response on differentiation than the proliferation pathway, while SCF contributed more to the activation of ERK1/2 than EPO. A sensitivity analysis performed to gauge the dynamics of the system was able to identify the most sensitive model parameters and illustrated a contribution of transient activity in EPO ligand to growth factor synergism. Based on theoretical arguments, we have successfully developed a model that can simulate growth factor synergism observed in vitro for erythropoiesis. This hypothesized model can be applied to further computational studies in biological systems where synergistic effects of two ligands are seen.

  8. [Synergic effect of alprostadil injection and ginaton in treating sudden deafness].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiping; Wang, Shuyun; Tong, Kang

    2011-07-01

    To explore synergic effect of Alprostadil injection and ginaton in treating sudden deafness. ninety one patients with sudden deafness were divided into group A, group B and group C at random; 33 ears of group A were treated with 70 mg ginaton by vein, 30 ears of group B were treated with 10 microg Alprostadil injection by vein, 31 ears of group C were treated with 10 microg Alprostadil injection and ginaton by vein,once a day, the time of treatment is 14 days. the effective rate of group A is 60.61%, the effective rate of group B is 60.00%, the effective rate of group C is 87.09% the treating effect was significantly different in the group A and C (P < 0.05), it was significantly different in the group B and C (P < 0.05)). It is effective for Alprostadil injection and ginaton to treat sudden deafness, and it has significantly Synergic effect in treating sudden deafness with Alprostadil injection and ginaton.

  9. The synergic effects of mirror therapy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation for hand function in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yun, Gi Jeong; Chun, Min Ho; Park, Ji Young; Kim, Bo Ryun

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the synergic effects of mirror therapy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for hand function in stroke patients. Sixty patients with hemiparesis after stroke were included (41 males and 19 females, average age 63.3 years). Twenty patients had NMES applied and simultaneously underwent mirror therapy. Twenty patients had NMES applied only, and twenty patients underwent mirror therapy only. Each treatment was done five days per week, 30 minutes per day, for three weeks. NMES was applied on the surface of the extensor digitorum communis and extensor pollicis brevis for open-hand motion. Muscle tone, Fugl-Meyer assessment, and power of wrist and hand were evaluated before and after treatment. There were significant improvements in the Fugl-Meyer assessment score in the wrist, hand and coordination, as well as power of wrist and hand in all groups after treatment. The mirror and NMES group showed significant improvements in the Fugl-Meyer scores of hand, wrist, coordination and power of hand extension compared to the other groups. However, the power of hand flexion, wrist flexion, and wrist extension showed no significant differences among the three groups. Muscle tone also showed no significant differences in the three groups. Our results showed that there is a synergic effect of mirror therapy and NMES on hand function. Therefore, a hand rehabilitation strategy combined with NMES and mirror therapy may be more helpful for improving hand function in stroke patients than NMES or mirror therapy only.

  10. Activation of Notch1 synergizes with multiple pathways in promoting castration-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanova, Tanya; Riedinger, Mireille; Lin, Shu; Faltermeier, Claire M.; Smith, Bryan A.; Zhang, Kelvin X.; Going, Catherine C.; Goldstein, Andrew S.; Lee, John K.; Drake, Justin M.; Rice, Meghan A.; Hsu, En-Chi; Nowroozizadeh, Behdokht; Castor, Brandon; Orellana, Sandra Y.; Blum, Steven M.; Cheng, Donghui; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Reiter, Robert E.; Pitteri, Sharon J.; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N.

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is the primary cause of prostate cancer-specific mortality. Defining new mechanisms that can predict recurrence and drive lethal CRPC is critical. Here, we demonstrate that localized high-risk prostate cancer and metastatic CRPC, but not benign prostate tissues or low/intermediate-risk prostate cancer, express high levels of nuclear Notch homolog 1, translocation-associated (Notch1) receptor intracellular domain. Chronic activation of Notch1 synergizes with multiple oncogenic pathways altered in early disease to promote the development of prostate adenocarcinoma. These tumors display features of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a cellular state associated with increased tumor aggressiveness. Consistent with its activation in clinical CRPC, tumors driven by Notch1 intracellular domain in combination with multiple pathways altered in prostate cancer are metastatic and resistant to androgen deprivation. Our study provides functional evidence that the Notch1 signaling axis synergizes with alternative pathways in promoting metastatic CRPC and may represent a new therapeutic target for advanced prostate cancer. PMID:27694579

  11. Phosphorylation of the Yeast Choline Kinase by Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Kurnov, Vladlen; Kersting, Michael C.; Sreenivas, Avula; Carman, George M.

    2005-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CKI1-encoded choline kinase catalyzes the committed step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. The enzyme is phosphorylated on multiple serine residues, and some of this phosphorylation is mediated by protein kinase A. In this work, we examined the hypothesis that choline kinase is also phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Using choline kinase as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was dose- and time-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of choline kinase (Km = 27 μg/ml) and ATP (Km = 15 μM). This phosphorylation, which occurred on a serine residue, was accompanied by a 1.6-fold stimulation of choline kinase activity. The synthetic peptide SRSSS25QRRHS (Vmax/Km = 17.5 mM-1 μmol min-1 mg-1) that contains the protein kinase C motif for Ser25 was a substrate for protein kinase C. A Ser25 to Ala (S25A) mutation in choline kinase resulted in a 60% decrease in protein kinase C phosphorylation of the enzyme. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of the S25A mutant enzyme confirmed that Ser25 was a protein kinase C target site. In vivo, the S25A mutation correlated with a decrease (55%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway whereas an S25D phosphorylation site mimic correlated with an increase (44%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Whereas the S25A (protein kinase C site) mutation did not affect the phosphorylation of choline kinase by protein kinase A, the S30A (protein kinase A site) mutation caused a 46% reduction in enzyme phosphorylation by protein kinase C. A choline kinase synthetic peptide (SQRRHS30LTRQ) containing Ser30 was a substrate (Vmax/Km = 3.0 mM−1 μmol min−1 mg−1) for protein kinase C. Comparison of phosphopeptide maps of the wild type and S30A mutant choline kinase enzymes phosphorylated by protein kinase C confirmed that Ser30 was also a target site for protein kinase C. PMID:15919656

  12. PAK family kinases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhuo-shen; Manser, Ed

    2012-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases that are represented by six genes in humans (PAK 1–6), and are found in all eukaryotes sequenced to date. Genetic and knockdown experiments in frogs, fish and mice indicate group I PAKs are widely expressed, required for multiple tissue development, and particularly important for immune and nervous system function in the adult. The group II PAKs (human PAKs 4–6) are more enigmatic, but their restriction to metazoans and presence at cell-cell junctions suggests these kinases emerged to regulate junctional signaling. Studies of protozoa and fungal PAKs show that they regulate cell shape and polarity through phosphorylation of multiple cytoskeletal proteins, including microtubule binding proteins, myosins and septins. This chapter discusses what we know about the regulation of PAKs and their physiological role in different model organisms, based primarily on gene knockout studies. PMID:23162738

  13. A Carbonaceous Membrane based on a Polymer of Intrinsic Microporosity (PIM-1) for Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Joong; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Lee, Kyuchul; Baek, Youngbin; Yoo, Youngjae; Kim, Yong Seok; Kim, Byoung Gak; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2016-01-01

    As insufficient access to clean water is expected to become worse in the near future, water purification is becoming increasingly important. Membrane filtration is the most promising technologies to produce clean water from contaminated water. Although there have been many studies to prepare highly water-permeable carbon-based membranes by utilizing frictionless water flow inside the carbonaceous pores, the carbon-based membranes still suffer from several issues, such as high cost and complicated fabrication as well as relatively low salt rejection. Here, we report for the first time the use of microporous carbonaceous membranes via controlled carbonization of polymer membranes with uniform microporosity for high-flux nanofiltration. Further enhancement of membrane performance is observed by O2 plasma treatment. The optimized membrane exhibits high water flux (13.30 LMH Bar−1) and good MgSO4 rejection (77.38%) as well as antifouling properties. This study provides insight into the design of microporous carbonaceous membranes for water purification. PMID:27782212

  14. A Carbonaceous Membrane based on a Polymer of Intrinsic Microporosity (PIM-1) for Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Joong; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Lee, Kyuchul; Baek, Youngbin; Yoo, Youngjae; Kim, Yong Seok; Kim, Byoung Gak; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2016-10-26

    As insufficient access to clean water is expected to become worse in the near future, water purification is becoming increasingly important. Membrane filtration is the most promising technologies to produce clean water from contaminated water. Although there have been many studies to prepare highly water-permeable carbon-based membranes by utilizing frictionless water flow inside the carbonaceous pores, the carbon-based membranes still suffer from several issues, such as high cost and complicated fabrication as well as relatively low salt rejection. Here, we report for the first time the use of microporous carbonaceous membranes via controlled carbonization of polymer membranes with uniform microporosity for high-flux nanofiltration. Further enhancement of membrane performance is observed by O2 plasma treatment. The optimized membrane exhibits high water flux (13.30 LMH Bar(-1)) and good MgSO4 rejection (77.38%) as well as antifouling properties. This study provides insight into the design of microporous carbonaceous membranes for water purification.

  15. A Carbonaceous Membrane based on a Polymer of Intrinsic Microporosity (PIM-1) for Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee Joong; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Lee, Kyuchul; Baek, Youngbin; Yoo, Youngjae; Kim, Yong Seok; Kim, Byoung Gak; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2016-10-01

    As insufficient access to clean water is expected to become worse in the near future, water purification is becoming increasingly important. Membrane filtration is the most promising technologies to produce clean water from contaminated water. Although there have been many studies to prepare highly water-permeable carbon-based membranes by utilizing frictionless water flow inside the carbonaceous pores, the carbon-based membranes still suffer from several issues, such as high cost and complicated fabrication as well as relatively low salt rejection. Here, we report for the first time the use of microporous carbonaceous membranes via controlled carbonization of polymer membranes with uniform microporosity for high-flux nanofiltration. Further enhancement of membrane performance is observed by O2 plasma treatment. The optimized membrane exhibits high water flux (13.30 LMH Bar‑1) and good MgSO4 rejection (77.38%) as well as antifouling properties. This study provides insight into the design of microporous carbonaceous membranes for water purification.

  16. PIM-1 mixed matrix membranes for gas separations using cost-effective hypercrosslinked nanoparticle fillers.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Tamoghna; Bhavsar, Rupesh S; Adams, Dave J; Budd, Peter M; Cooper, Andrew I

    2016-04-25

    High-free-volume glassy polymers, such as polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and poly(trimethylsilylpropyne), have attracted attention as membrane materials due to their high permeability. However, loss of free volume over time, or aging, limits their applicability. Introduction of a secondary filler phase can reduce this aging but either cost or instability rules out scale up for many fillers. Here, we report a cheap, acid-tolerant, nanoparticulate hypercrosslinked polymer 'sponge' as an alternative filler. On adding the filler, permeability is enhanced and aging is strongly retarded. This is accompanied by a CO2/N2 selectivity that increases over time, surpassing the Robeson upper bound.

  17. Bacterial expression, purification and preliminary kinetic description of the kinase domain of v-fps.

    PubMed

    Gish, G; McGlone, M L; Pawson, T; Adams, J A

    1995-06-01

    The gene coding for the tyrosine protein kinase domain of v-fps was subcloned into a plasmid vector expressing glutathione-S-transferase (GST). This new vector expresses a fusion protein in Escherichia coli composed of the kinase domain linked with GST at the N-terminus (GST-kin). A portion of the total expressed protein was soluble upon cell lysis and was purified by affinity chromatography using glutathione cross-linked agarose. GST-kin (M(r) 57,000) is a phosphoprotein as judged by 32P autoradiography, consistent with the known autophosphorylation site within the kinase core [Weinmaster et al. (1984) Cell, 37, 559-568]. Cleavage of the fusion protein with thrombin and purification on phosphocellulose resin yielded the pure kinase domain (M(r) 33,000). The activity of the kinase domain is indistinguishable from that of GST-kin using the peptide substrate EEEIYEEIE, indicating that N-terminal fusion has no effect on the kinase domain. GST-kin phosphorylates a second peptide, EAEIYEAIE, with improved catalytic efficiency. Initial velocity data are consistent with a random bireactant mechanism with no substrate synergism observed in the ternary complex. Steady-state kinetic analyses reveal that this peptide is phosphorylated, with a kcat of 3.6 s-1, a Kpeptide of 500 microM and a KATP of 250 microM. The expression, purification and preliminary kinetic analysis of the kinase domain of v-fps provide the first step in the application of structure-function studies for this oncoprotein.

  18. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Linn, Anning

    1996-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK.

  19. Pantothenate - kinase associated neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Alpana; Khare, Shruti; Srivastav, Vipul

    2012-04-01

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation is a group of disorders, the commonest of which is PKAN (Pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration). We present here, a case of 18 year old boy with progressive dementia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal involvement, dysarthria, seizures and myoclonus. The patient was diagnosed as PKAN (formerly Hallervorden Spatz disease) after "eye of tiger" appearance on neuro-imaging.

  20. Visualizing autophosphorylation in histidine kinases.

    PubMed

    Casino, Patricia; Miguel-Romero, Laura; Marina, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is the most widespread regulatory mechanism in signal transduction. Autophosphorylation in a dimeric sensor histidine kinase is the first step in two-component signalling, the predominant signal-transduction device in bacteria. Despite being the most abundant sensor kinases in nature, the molecular bases of the histidine kinase autophosphorylation mechanism are still unknown. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that autophosphorylation can occur in two directions, cis (intrasubunit) or trans (intersubunit) within the dimeric histidine kinase. Here, we present the crystal structure of the complete catalytic machinery of a chimeric histidine kinase. The structure shows an asymmetric histidine kinase dimer where one subunit is caught performing the autophosphorylation reaction. A structure-guided functional analysis on HK853 and EnvZ, two prototypical cis- and trans-phosphorylating histidine kinases, has allowed us to decipher the catalytic mechanism of histidine kinase autophosphorylation, which seems to be common independently of the reaction directionality.

  1. Kinase Inhibitors from Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Skropeta, Danielle; Pastro, Natalie; Zivanovic, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Protein kinases play a critical role in cell regulation and their deregulation is a contributing factor in an increasing list of diseases including cancer. Marine sponges have yielded over 70 novel compounds to date that exhibit significant inhibitory activity towards a range of protein kinases. These compounds, which belong to diverse structural classes, are reviewed herein, and ordered based upon the kinase that they inhibit. Relevant synthetic studies on the marine natural product kinase inhibitors have also been included. PMID:22073013

  2. Protection and synergism by recombinant fowl pox vaccines expressing multiple genes from Marek's disease virus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lucy E; Witter, R L; Reddy, S M; Wu, P; Yanagida, N; Yoshida, S

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant fowl poxviruses (rFPVs) were constructed to express genes from serotype 1 Marek's disease virus (MDV) coding for glycoproteins B, E, I, H, and UL32 (gB1, gE, gI, gH, and UL32). An additional rFPV was constructed to contain four MDV genes (gB1, gE, gI, and UL32). These rFPVs were evaluated for their ability to protect maternal antibody-positive chickens against challenge with highly virulent MDV isolates. The protection induced by a single rFPV/gB1 (42%) confirmed our previous finding. The protection induced by rFPV/gI (43%), rFPV/gB1UL32 (46%), rFPV/gB1gEgI (72%), and rFPV/gB1gEgIUL32 (70%) contributed to additional knowledge on MDV genes involved in protective immunity. In contrast, the rFPV containing gE, gH, or UL32 did not induce significant protection compared with turkey herpesvirus (HVT). Levels of protection by rFPV/gB1 and rFPV/gl were comparable with that of HVT. Only gB1 and gI conferred synergism in rFPV containing these two genes. Protection by both rFPV/gB1gEgI (72%) and rFPV/gB1gEgIUL32(70%) against Marek's disease was significantly enhanced compared with a single gB1 or gI gene (40%). This protective synergism between gB1 and gI in rFPVs may be the basis for better protection when bivalent vaccines between serotypes 2 and 3 were used. When rFPV/gB1gIgEUL32 + HVT were used as vaccine against Md5 challenge, the protection was significantly enhanced (94%). This synergism between rFPV/gB1gIgEUL32 and HVT indicates additional genes yet to be discovered in HVT may be responsible for the enhancement.

  3. Antibacterial activity of three newly-synthesized chalcones & synergism with antibiotics against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Božić, Dragana D.; Milenković, Marina; Ivković, Branka; Cirković, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Multidrug-resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious therapeutical problem. Chalcones belong to a group of naturally occurring flavonoids, usually found in various plant species, and have potent antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. The goal of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of three newly-synthesized chalcones against clinical isolates of MRSA, and their synergism with β-lactam and non- β-lactam antibiotics. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the three newly-synthesized chalcones was tested against 19 clinical isolates of MRSA and a laboratory control strain of MRSA (ATCC 43300). The synergism with β-lactams: cefotaxime (CFX), ceftriaxone (CTX), and non-β-lactam antibiotics: ciprofloxacin (CIP), gentamicin (GEN) and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was investigated by checkerboard method. Results: All evaluated compounds showed significant anti-MRSA activity with MIC values from 25-200 μg/ml. Observed synergism with antibiotics demonstrated that chalcones significantly enhanced the efficacy of CIP, GEN and TMP-SMX. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study demonstrated that three newly-synthesized chalcones exhibited significant anti-MRSA effect and synergism with non-β-lactam antibiotics. The most effective compound was 1,3-Bis-(2-hydroxy-phenyl)-propenone. Our results provide useful information for future research of possible application of chalcones in combination with conventional anti-MRSA therapy as promising new antimicrobial agents. PMID:25222788

  4. The promiscuous and synergic molecular interaction of polyphenols in bactericidal activity: an opportunity to improve the performance of antibiotics?

    PubMed

    Tomás-Menor, Laura; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Martí, Nuria; Saura, Domingo; Menéndez, Javier A; Joven, Jorge; Micol, Vicente

    2015-03-01

    Plant polyphenols are a potential source of new antimicrobial molecules against bacteria because most newly developed antimicrobial agents do not improve the clinical management of infectious diseases. The potential synergism between the major polyphenolic compounds present in a Cistus salviifolius extract, which was characterized by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, was investigated by the isobole method and the fractional inhibitory concentration index determination. Pairwise combinations of selected flavonoids and ellagitannins present in C. salviifolius extract were assayed against the in vitro growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Some combinations revealed synergic effects, resulting in a reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit 50% growth (MIC50 ) up to 20 times lower as compared with the individual compounds. Some of the combinations exhibited MIC50 values close to drug potency level (0.5-1 µg/mL). Punicalagin and myricetin were the major contributors in the combinations. The proportion between the compounds in the synergic mixtures is crucial and may explain the superior antimicrobial activity displayed by this extract when compared with other botanical extracts. The rational optimization of these combinations could lead to the design of potent antimicrobial phytopharmaceuticals, which may improve the performance of current antibiotics, taking advantage of the multi-targeted and synergic molecular interactions of selected polyphenols.

  5. Secondary kinase reactions catalyzed by yeast pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Leblond, D J; Robinson, J L

    1976-06-07

    1. Yeast pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) catalyzes, in addition to the primary, physiologically important reaction, three secondary kinase reactions, the ATP-dependent phosphorylations of fluoride (fluorokinase), hydroxylamine (hydroxylamine kinase) and glycolate (glycolate kinase). 2. These reactions are accelerated by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, the allosteric activator of the primary reaction. Wth Mg2+ as the required divalent cation, none of these reactions are observed in the absence of fructose-biphosphate. With Mn2+, fructose-bisphosphate is required for the glycolate kinase reaction, but merely stimulates the other reactions. 3. The effect of other divalent cations and pH on three secondary kinase reactions was also examined. 4. Results are compared with those obtained from muscle pyruvate kinase and the implications of the results for the mechanism of the yeast enzyme are discussed.

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.) Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production

    PubMed Central

    Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-Solano, Guadalupe; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6°GL) with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28°C, 200 rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA) permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains. PMID:25506606

  7. Synergic effect of carbon black and short carbon fiber on shape memory polymer actuation by electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Jinsong; Lv, Haibao; Liu, Yanju; Du, Shanyi

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of carbon black (CB) and short carbon fibers (SCFs) on shape memory polymer (SMP) actuation by applying electric current. The coexistence of CB and SCF electrically conductive networks, supporting each other, resulting in significant improvement of electrical properties, was supported by optical microscopy, while the roles of particulate and fibrous fillers were distinguished by scanning electron microscopy. In sequence, the volume resistivity curves of one filler systems and two fillers systems were figured out and compared. Moreover, experimental results substantiated that the actuation voltage of two-filler SMP composites' shape recovery was prominently lower in comparison with that of one-filler systems at the same filler content. Additional, the response of glass transition temperature (Tg) and thermomechanical properties to filler content and two fillers' synergic effect were characterized and illuminated experimentally.

  8. Gold(I)‐Mediated Thiourea Organocatalyst Activation: A Synergic Effect for Asymmetric Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Izaga, Anabel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Several group 11 metal complexes with chiral thiourea organocatalysts have been prepared and tested as organocatalysts. The promising results on the influence of metal‐assisted thiourea organocatalysts in the asymmetric Friedel–Crafts alkylation of indole with nitrostyrene are described. Better results with the metal complexes have been achieved because of the cooperative effects between the chiral thiourea and the metal. The synergic effect between both species is higher than the effect promoted by each one separately, especially for gold(I). These outcomes are attributed to a pioneering gold(I) activation of the thiourea catalysts, affording a more acidic and rigid catalytic complex than that provided by the thiourea alone. Furthermore, the use of the gold–thiourea organocatalyst allows reducing the catalyst loading to 1–3 mol %. This contribution could become an important starting point for further investigations opening a new line of research overlooked so far in the literature. PMID:28706568

  9. Synergic effect of tungstophosphoric acid and sonication for rapid synthesis of crystalline nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Zain, Siti Khadijah; Das, Rasel; Centi, Gabriele

    2016-03-15

    The utilization of sonication in combination with tungstophosphoric acid (PWA) catalyst reduces dramatically the time of operations from 30h to 10min by using an optimum sonication power of 225W. The basic cellulosic structure is maintained, allowing preparing high-quality nanocellulose. The size of the nanocellulose obtained was in the range from 15 to 35nm in diameter and several hundred nanometers in length, with a high crystallinity of about 88%. The nanocellulose shows a surface charge of -38.2mV which allows to obtaina stable colloidal suspension. The surface tension of the stable, swollen aqueous nanocellulose was close to that of water. These characteristics, together with the fast procedure allowed from the synergic combination of PWA and sonication, evidence the high potential of the proposed method for the industrial production of nanocellulose having the properties required in many applications.

  10. LMO1 Synergizes with MYCN to Promote Neuroblastoma Initiation and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shizhen; Zhang, Xiaoling; Weichert-Leahey, Nina; Dong, Zhiwei; Zhang, Cheng; Lopez, Gonzalo; Tao, Ting; He, Shuning; Wood, Andrew C; Oldridge, Derek; Ung, Choong Yong; van Ree, Janine H; Khan, Amish; Salazar, Brittany M; Lummertz da Rocha, Edroaldo; Zimmerman, Mark W; Guo, Feng; Cao, Hong; Hou, Xiaonan; Weroha, S John; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R; Neuberg, Donna S; Meves, Alexander; McNiven, Mark A; van Deursen, Jan M; Li, Hu; Maris, John M; Look, A Thomas

    2017-09-11

    A genome-wide association study identified LMO1, which encodes an LIM-domain-only transcriptional cofactor, as a neuroblastoma susceptibility gene that functions as an oncogene in high-risk neuroblastoma. Here we show that dβh promoter-mediated expression of LMO1 in zebrafish synergizes with MYCN to increase the proliferation of hyperplastic sympathoadrenal precursor cells, leading to a reduced latency and increased penetrance of neuroblastomagenesis. The transgenic expression of LMO1 also promoted hematogenous dissemination and distant metastasis, which was linked to neuroblastoma cell invasion and migration, and elevated expression levels of genes affecting tumor cell-extracellular matrix interaction, including loxl3, itga2b, itga3, and itga5. Our results provide in vivo validation of LMO1 as an important oncogene that promotes neuroblastoma initiation, progression, and widespread metastatic dissemination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Synergic Antibacterial Effect of Curcumin with Ampicillin; Free Drug Solutions in Comparison with SLN Dispersions

    PubMed Central

    Alihosseini, Faezeh; Azarmi, Shirzad; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Haghighat, Setareh; Rezayat Sorkhabadi, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate benefit of using nanotechnology on increasing of synergic antibacterial effect of natural and chemical antibacterial agents. Methods: At first the MIC and MBC of Curcumin and Ampicillin as selected antibacterial agents was determined, after that Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) of each active ingredients as well as Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs were prepared using high pressure homogenization technique. Characterization of prepared SLNs was done, then MIC, MBC and contact killing time were investigated for Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs in comparison with free Curcumin and Ampicillin solutions as well as Ampicillin and Curcumin SLNs. Results: Based on results nanoparticles with the size of 150 nm show much more decreased MIC and MBC when Ampicillin and Curcumin were loaded together on SLNs than solutions in which free Ampicillin and Curcumin were mixed. Conclusion: It seems that using nanotechnology could cause decrease the dosage of antibiotics and risk of having antibiotic resistance bacteria strains. PMID:27766232

  12. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed culture of blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.) juice: synergism in the aroma compounds production.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Rosales, Pedro Ulises; Ragazzo-Sánchez, Juan Arturo; Ruiz-Montañez, Gabriela; Ortiz-Basurto, Rosa Isela; Luna-Solano, Guadalupe; Calderón-Santoyo, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6°GL) with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at 28°C, 200 rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA) permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains.

  13. Effect of synergism in the mechanics of multilayer designs. 2. synthesis of optimal acoustic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urzhumtsev, Yu. S.; Babe, G. D.; Gusev, E. L.

    1985-07-01

    Use of the synergism effect in the mechanics of inhomogeneous systems, and algorithms constructed on the basis of the theory of optimal control makes it possible to synthesize multilayer designs that are optimum in terms of weight capacity, thermal stability, sound conduction, and sound insulation. The proposed approach to solution of the problem of the optimal design of multilayer acoustic systems makes it possible firstly to develop a rather effective method on the basis of this approach; this method reduces to a solution that is optimal in terms of the physical parameters of the layer materials, the layer thicknesses, and the number of layers; and, secondly, to establish a number of qualitative attributes of the parameters of optimal multilayer structures. This approach is also promising for the development of methods for the optimization of multilayer foundations and systems that dampen vibrational loadings, earthquake-resistant designs, and armor protection.

  14. Synergism and chemiluminescence of cerium ions and ruthenium complexes in the belousov-zhabotinskii reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karavaev, A.D.; Kazakov, V.P.; Tolstikov, G.A.

    1986-04-01

    This paper studies chemiluminescence (CL) in the system BrO/sup -//sub 3/-CH/sub 2/ (COOH)/sub 2/ -Ce/sup 3 +/,4+-RuPbipy)/sub 3/ /SUP 2+,/ /sub 3/. The tests were carried out in a CL/sup 3/ unit that included a light-tight chamber, a photoelectron multiplier (FEU-97), a VS-22 high voltage power pack, and an EPPV-60M recording potentiometer. The synergism in chemiluminescence at low concentrations of ruthenium complex does not appear in the oscillation parameters. The periodic CL of this two-catalyst system may be a convenient chemical model for the study of combined chemical reactions in more complicated biochemiluminescent processes, such as that by which the firefly flashes in the dark.

  15. Synergic Antibacterial Effect of Curcumin with Ampicillin; Free Drug Solutions in Comparison with SLN Dispersions.

    PubMed

    Alihosseini, Faezeh; Azarmi, Shirzad; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Haghighat, Setareh; Rezayat Sorkhabadi, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate benefit of using nanotechnology on increasing of synergic antibacterial effect of natural and chemical antibacterial agents. Methods: At first the MIC and MBC of Curcumin and Ampicillin as selected antibacterial agents was determined, after that Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) of each active ingredients as well as Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs were prepared using high pressure homogenization technique. Characterization of prepared SLNs was done, then MIC, MBC and contact killing time were investigated for Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs in comparison with free Curcumin and Ampicillin solutions as well as Ampicillin and Curcumin SLNs. Results: Based on results nanoparticles with the size of 150 nm show much more decreased MIC and MBC when Ampicillin and Curcumin were loaded together on SLNs than solutions in which free Ampicillin and Curcumin were mixed. Conclusion: It seems that using nanotechnology could cause decrease the dosage of antibiotics and risk of having antibiotic resistance bacteria strains.

  16. Synergism between polyamines and ROS in the induction of Ca2+ and K+ fluxes in roots

    PubMed Central

    Pottosin, Igor; Velarde-Buendía, Ana-María; Zepeda-Jazo, Isaac; Dobrovinskaya, Oxana; Shabala, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Stress conditions cause increases in ROS and polyamines levels, which are not merely collateral. There is increasing evidence for the ROS participation in signaling as well as for polyamine protective roles under stress. Polyamines and ROS, respectively, inhibit cation channels and induce novel cation conductance in the plasma membrane. Our new results indicate that polyamines and OH• also stimulate Ca2+ pumping across the root plasma membrane. Besides, polyamines potentiate the OH•-induced non-selective current and respective passive K+ and Ca2+ fluxes. In roots this synergism, however, is restricted to the mature zone, whereas in the distal elongation zone only the Ca2+ pump activation is observed. Remodeling the plasma membrane ion conductance by OH• and polyamines would impact K+ homeostasis and Ca2+ signaling under stress. PMID:22899073

  17. Synergism of herpes simplex virus and tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines in cell transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, N.H.; Dokko, H.; Li, S.L.; Cherrick, H.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that herpes simplex virus (HSV) enhances the carcinogenic activity of smokeless tobacco and tobacco-related chemical carcinogens in animals. Since tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines (TSNAs) such as N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-methyl-N'-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) are major chemical carcinogens of smokeless tobacco and are known to be responsible for the development of oral cancers in smokeless tobacco users, the combined effects of TSNAs and HSV in cell transformation were investigated. Exposure of cells to NNN or NNK followed by virus infection resulted in a significant enhancement of transformation frequency when compared with that observed with chemical carcinogens or virus alone. This study suggests that TSNAs and HSV can interact together and show synergism in cell transformation.

  18. Gold(I)-Mediated Thiourea Organocatalyst Activation: A Synergic Effect for Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Izaga, Anabel; Herrera, Raquel P; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2017-04-07

    Several group 11 metal complexes with chiral thiourea organocatalysts have been prepared and tested as organocatalysts. The promising results on the influence of metal-assisted thiourea organocatalysts in the asymmetric Friedel-Crafts alkylation of indole with nitrostyrene are described. Better results with the metal complexes have been achieved because of the cooperative effects between the chiral thiourea and the metal. The synergic effect between both species is higher than the effect promoted by each one separately, especially for gold(I). These outcomes are attributed to a pioneering gold(I) activation of the thiourea catalysts, affording a more acidic and rigid catalytic complex than that provided by the thiourea alone. Furthermore, the use of the gold-thiourea organocatalyst allows reducing the catalyst loading to 1-3 mol %. This contribution could become an important starting point for further investigations opening a new line of research overlooked so far in the literature.

  19. Synaptic mechanism for functional synergism between delta- and mu-opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi; Pan, Zhizhong Z.

    2010-01-01

    By sustained activation of mu-opioid receptors (MOR), chronic opioids cause analgesic tolerance, physical dependence and opioid addiction, common clinical problems for which an effective treatment is still lacking. Chronic opioids recruit delta-opioid receptors (DOR) to plasma membrane through exocytotic trafficking, but the role of this new DOR and its interaction with existing MOR in brain functions and in the clinical problems remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying synaptic and behavioral actions of chronic morphine-induced DOR and its interaction with MOR in Nucleus Raphe Magnus (NRM) neurons important for opioid analgesia. We found that the emerged DOR inhibited GABAergic IPSCs through both the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cAMP/PKA signaling pathways. MOR inhibition of IPSCs, normally mediated predominantly by the PLA2 pathway, was additionally mediated by the cAMP/PKA pathway, with MOR potency significantly increased after chronic morphine treatment. Isobologram analysis revealed a synergistic DOR-MOR interaction in their IPSC inhibition, which was dependent on upregulated activities of both the PLA2 and cAMP/PKA pathways. Furthermore, DOR and MOR agonists microinjected into the NRM in vivo also produced a PLA2–dependent synergism in their antinociceptive effects. These findings suggest that the cAMP/PKA pathway, upregulated by chronic opioids, becomes more important in the mechanisms of both MOR and DOR inhibition of GABA synaptic transmission after chronic opioid exposure, and DOR and MOR are synergic both synaptically and behaviorally in producing analgesic effects in a PLA2-dependent fashion, supporting the potential therapeutic use of DOR agonists in pain management under chronic opioid conditions. PMID:20357124

  20. Lethal synergism between organic and inorganic wood preservatives via formation of an unusual lipophilic ternary complex

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo; Li, Yan; Fan, Rui-Mei; Chao, Xi-Juan; Zhu, Ben-Zhan

    2013-02-01

    We have shown previously that exposing bacteria to wood preservatives pentachlorophenol (PCP) and copper-containing compounds together causes synergistic toxicity. However, it is not clear whether these findings also hold true in mammalian cells; and if so, what is the underlying molecular mechanism? Here we show that PCP and a model copper complex bis-(1,10-phenanthroline) cupric (Cu(OP){sub 2}), could also induce synergistic cytotoxicity in human liver cells. By the single crystal X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectroscopy assay, the synergism was found to be mainly due to the formation of a lipophilic ternary complex with unusual structural and composition characteristics and subsequent enhanced cellular copper uptake, which markedly promoted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, leading to apoptosis by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing pro-apoptotic protein expression, releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria and activating caspase-3, and -9. Analogous results were observed with other polychlorinated phenols (PCPs) and Cu(OP){sub 2}. Synergistic cytotoxicity could be induced by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} via formation of an unusual lipophilic complex in HepG2 cells. The formation of ternary complexes with similar lipophilic character could be of relevance as a general mechanism of toxicity, which should be taken into consideration especially when evaluating the toxicity of environmental pollutants found at currently-considered non- or sub-toxic concentrations. -- Highlights: ► The combination of PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces synergistic cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. ► The synergism is mainly due to forming a lipophilic ternary complex between them. ► The formation of lipophilic ternary complex enhances cellular copper uptake. ► PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} stimulates the cellular ROS production. ► The ROS promoted by PCP/Cu(OP){sub 2} induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis.

  1. Phene Synergism between Root Hair Length and Basal Root Growth Angle for Phosphorus Acquisition1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Magalhaes Amade

    2015-01-01

    Shallow basal root growth angle (BRGA) increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by enhancing topsoil foraging because in most soils, phosphorus is concentrated in the topsoil. Root hair length and density (RHL/D) increase phosphorus acquisition by expanding the soil volume subject to phosphorus depletion through diffusion. We hypothesized that shallow BRGA and large RHL/D are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition, meaning that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, phosphorus acquisition in the field in Mozambique was compared among recombinant inbred lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) having four distinct root phenotypes: long root hairs and shallow basal roots, long root hairs and deep basal roots, short root hairs and shallow basal roots, and short root hairs and deep basal roots. The results revealed substantial synergism between BRGA and RHL/D. Compared with short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes, long root hairs increased shoot biomass under phosphorus stress by 89%, while shallow roots increased shoot biomass by 58%. Genotypes with both long root hairs and shallow roots had 298% greater biomass accumulation than short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes. Therefore, the utility of shallow basal roots and long root hairs for phosphorus acquisition in combination is twice as large as their additive effects. We conclude that the anatomical phene of long, dense root hairs and the architectural phene of shallower basal root growth are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition. Phene synergism may be common in plant biology and can have substantial importance for plant fitness, as shown here. PMID:25699587

  2. Molecular mechanisms regulating the synergism between IL-32γ and NOD for the activation of eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chun-Kwok; Dong, Jie; Lam, Christopher Wai-Kei

    2014-04-01

    IL-32 is a proinflammatory cytokine associated with infections, autoimmune diseases, and allergic asthma. In the present study, we elucidated the synergistic effect of IL-32γ and NOD ligand on the activation of human eosinophils, principal effector cells for allergic inflammation, and the underlying mechanisms. Specific IL-32-binding protein, PR3, was found to localize on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm of eosinophils. IL-32γ was more capable of activating eosinophils than its isotype variant IL-32α and exhibited synergistic effect with NOD1 ligand iE-DAP and NOD2 ligand MDP on the induction of allergic inflammation-related IL-1β, TNF-α, and chemokines CXCL8, CCL3, and CCL4 (P<0.05). Moreover, IL-32γ and iE-DAP or MDP induced the significant up-regulation of the cell-surface expression of adhesion molecule CD18 and ICAM-1 on eosinophils. Synergism between IL-32γ and NOD ligands was dependent on the activation of intracellular caspase 1, ERKs, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB pathways in eosinophils. The further-enhanced CD18 and ICAM-1 expression and production of cytokines and chemokines were observed in eosinophils cocultured with human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, combined treatment of IL-32γ and NOD ligand could activate the release of eosinophil extracellular DNA traps, thereby implying the pathogen-defense mechanisms of eosinophils. Together, the above study provides pivotal immunological mechanisms by which bacterial infection-mediated activation of NOD1,2, together with IL-32γ, can synergize the activation of eosinophils interacting with bronchial epithelial cells.

  3. Epithelial chemokine CXCL14 synergizes with CXCL12 via allosteric modulation of CXCR4

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Paul J.; McCully, Michelle L.; Martínez-Muñoz, Laura; Santiago, César; Wheeldon, James; Caucheteux, Stephan; Thelen, Sylvia; Cecchinato, Valentina; Laufer, Julia M.; Purvanov, Vladimir; Monneau, Yoan R.; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Legler, Daniel F.; Uguccioni, Mariagrazia; Thelen, Marcus; Piguet, Vincent; Mellado, Mario; Moser, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The chemokine receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), is selective for CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), is broadly expressed in blood and tissue cells, and is essential during embryogenesis and hematopoiesis. CXCL14 is a homeostatic chemokine with unknown receptor selectivity and preferential expression in peripheral tissues. Here, we demonstrate that CXCL14 synergized with CXCL12 in the induction of chemokine responses in primary human lymphoid cells and cell lines that express CXCR4. Combining subactive concentrations of CXCL12 with 100–300 nM CXCL14 resulted in chemotaxis responses that exceeded maximal responses that were obtained with CXCL12 alone. CXCL14 did not activate CXCR4-expressing cells (i.e., failed to trigger chemotaxis and Ca2+ mobilization, as well as signaling via ERK1/2 and the small GTPase Rac1); however, CXCL14 bound to CXCR4 with high affinity, induced redistribution of cell-surface CXCR4, and enhanced HIV-1 infection by >3-fold. We postulate that CXCL14 is a positive allosteric modulator of CXCR4 that enhances the potency of CXCR4 ligands. Our findings provide new insights that will inform the development of novel therapeutics that target CXCR4 in a range of diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity, and HIV.—Collins, P. J., McCully, M. L., Martínez-Muñoz, L., Santiago, C., Wheeldon, J., Caucheteux, S., Thelen, S., Cecchinato, V., Laufer, J. M., Purvanov, V., Monneau, Y. R., Lortat-Jacob, H., Legler, D. F., Uguccioni, M., Thelen, M., Piguet, V., Mellado, M., Moser, B. Epithelial chemokine CXCL14 synergizes with CXCL12 via allosteric modulation of CXCR4. PMID:28360196

  4. Epithelial chemokine CXCL14 synergizes with CXCL12 via allosteric modulation of CXCR4.

    PubMed

    Collins, Paul J; McCully, Michelle L; Martínez-Muñoz, Laura; Santiago, César; Wheeldon, James; Caucheteux, Stephan; Thelen, Sylvia; Cecchinato, Valentina; Laufer, Julia M; Purvanov, Vladimir; Monneau, Yoan R; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Legler, Daniel F; Uguccioni, Mariagrazia; Thelen, Marcus; Piguet, Vincent; Mellado, Mario; Moser, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    The chemokine receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), is selective for CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), is broadly expressed in blood and tissue cells, and is essential during embryogenesis and hematopoiesis. CXCL14 is a homeostatic chemokine with unknown receptor selectivity and preferential expression in peripheral tissues. Here, we demonstrate that CXCL14 synergized with CXCL12 in the induction of chemokine responses in primary human lymphoid cells and cell lines that express CXCR4. Combining subactive concentrations of CXCL12 with 100-300 nM CXCL14 resulted in chemotaxis responses that exceeded maximal responses that were obtained with CXCL12 alone. CXCL14 did not activate CXCR4-expressing cells (i.e., failed to trigger chemotaxis and Ca(2+) mobilization, as well as signaling via ERK1/2 and the small GTPase Rac1); however, CXCL14 bound to CXCR4 with high affinity, induced redistribution of cell-surface CXCR4, and enhanced HIV-1 infection by >3-fold. We postulate that CXCL14 is a positive allosteric modulator of CXCR4 that enhances the potency of CXCR4 ligands. Our findings provide new insights that will inform the development of novel therapeutics that target CXCR4 in a range of diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity, and HIV.-Collins, P. J., McCully, M. L., Martínez-Muñoz, L., Santiago, C., Wheeldon, J., Caucheteux, S., Thelen, S., Cecchinato, V., Laufer, J. M., Purvanov, V., Monneau, Y. R., Lortat-Jacob, H., Legler, D. F., Uguccioni, M., Thelen, M., Piguet, V., Mellado, M., Moser, B. Epithelial chemokine CXCL14 synergizes with CXCL12 via allosteric modulation of CXCR4. © The Author(s).

  5. Bryostatin-1 synergizes with histone deacetylase inhibitors to reactivate HIV-1 from latency.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Moisés; de Vinuesa, Amaya García; Sanchez-Duffhues, Gonzalo; Marquez, Nieves; Bellido, M Luz; Muñoz-Fernandez, M Angeles; Moreno, Santiago; Castor, Trevor P; Calzado, Marco A; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2010-09-01

    The persistence of latent HIV-infected cellular reservoirs represents the major hurdle to virus eradication on patients treated with HAART. It has been suggested that successful depletion of such latent reservoirs will require a combination of therapeutic agents that can specifically and efficiently act on cells harboring latent HIV-1 provirus. Using Jurkat-LAT-GFP cells, a tractable model of HIV-1 latency, we have found that bryostatin -1 reactivates HIV-1 through a classical PKC-dependent pathway. Bryostatin-1 also activates MAPKs and NF-κB pathways and synergizes with HDAC inhibitors to reactivate HIV-1 from latency. Bryostatin-1 downregulates the expression of the HIV-1 co-receptors CD4 and CXCR4 and prevented de novo HIV-1 infection in susceptible cells. We applied proteomic methods to investigate major changes in protein expression in Jurkat-LAT-GFP under latency and reactivation conditions. We identified up-regulation of proteins that may be involved in the innate anti-HIV-1 response (NKEF-A and MHD2) and in different cell functions (i.e. cofilin-1 and transgelin-2) of the host cells. PKC agonists may represent a valuable pharmacological approach to purge latent HIV from cellular reservoirs and at the moment, the only clinically available PKC agonist is bryostatin-1. This drug has been tested in numerous clinical trials and its pharmacokinetics and toxicity in humans is well known. Moreover, bryostatin-1 potently synergizes with other HDAC inhibitors commonly used in the medical practice such as valproic acid. Therefore, bryostatin-1, alone or in combination with HDAC inhibitors, could be used in HAART treated patients to validate the hypothesis that reactivating HIV-1 from latency could purge HIV-1 reservoirs.

  6. Heavy metals species affect fungal-bacterial synergism during the bioremediation of fluoranthene.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Ding, Ning; Peterson, Eric Charles; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    The co-occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with heavy metals (HMs) is very common in contaminated soils, but the influence of HMs on fungal-bacterial synergism during PAH bioremediation has not been investigated. The bioremediation of fluoranthene-contaminated sand using co-cultures of Acremonium sp. P0997 and Bacillus subtilis showed increases of 109.4 and 9.8 % in degradation compared to pure bacterial and fungal cultures, respectively, removing 64.1 ± 1.4 % fluoanthene in total. The presence of Cu(2+) reduced fluoranthene removal to 53.7 ± 1.7 %, while inhibiting bacterial growth, and reducing translocation of bacteria on fungal hyphae by 49.5 %, in terms of the bacterial translocation ratio. Cu(2+) reduced bacterial diffusion by 46.8 and 31.9 %, as reflected by D (a bulk random motility diffusional coefficient) and D eff (the effective one-dimensional diffusion coefficient) compared to the control without HM supplementation, respectively. However, Mn(2+) resulted in a 78.2 ± 1.9 % fluoranthene degradation, representing an increase of 21.9 %, while enhancing bacterial growth and bacterial translocation on fungal hyphae, showing a 12.0 % increase in translocation ratio, with no observable impact on D and D eff. Hence, the presence of HMs has been shown to affect fungal-bacterial synergism in PAH degradation, and this effect differs with HM species.

  7. Synergism of the IGRs Methoprene and Pyriproxyfen Against Larval Cat Fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    PubMed

    Rust, Michael K; Lance, W; Hemsarth, H

    2016-05-01

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) methoprene and pyriproxyfen are widely used as topical treatments to pets or applied to the indoor environment to control cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché). The toxicity of methoprene, pyriproxyfen, and combinations of both IGRs to cat flea larvae was determined. The LC50 of methoprene and pyriproxyfen applied to larval rearing medium was 0.39 and 0.19 ppm, respectively. Combinations of methoprene:pyriproxyfen in ratios of 1:1, 5:1, 10:1, and 20:1 produced LC50s of 0.06, 0.09, 0.19, and 0.13 ppm, respectively. The pyriproxyfen synergized the activity of methoprene as indicated by the combination indices (CI). The ratio of methoprene:pyriproxyfen (40:1) provided an LC50 of 0.42 ppm and the pyriproxyfen was not synergistic. Combinations of pyriproxyfen:methoprene in ratios of 5:1, 10:1, and 20:1 provided LC50s of 0.14, 0.20, 0.20 ppm, respectively, and the methoprene did not synergize the activity of pyriproxyfen. The dose-reduction indices (DRIs) indicated that the concentrations of IGRs in the combinations of methoprene:pyriproxyfen (ratios of 20:1 or less) could be reduced by at least one-third of the amount required by methoprene alone to provide similar larval mortality. Combinations of methoprene and pyriproxyfen may be effective in increasing the residual activity on pets and assist in reducing the likelihood of insecticide resistance developing to IGRs. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. LIM-kinase1.

    PubMed

    Stanyon, C A; Bernard, O

    1999-01-01

    LIM-kinase1 (LIMK1) is a serine-only protein kinase that contains LIM and PDZ protein-protein interaction domains which is highly expressed in neurons. Overexpression of LIMK1 in cultured cells results in accumulation of filamentous (F-) actin. LIMK1 phosphorylates cofilin, an actin depolymerisation factor, which is then unable to bind and depolymerise F-actin. Rac-GTP enhances phosphorylation of LIMK1 and cofilin, which leads to accumulation of F-actin, while Rac-GDP and PMA reduce these effects. LIMK1 is therefore a key component of a signal transduction network that connects extracellular stimuli to changes in cytoskeletal structure. Control of cell morphology and mobility via LIMK1 activity may provide novel approaches to cancer therapy.

  9. The Tyrosine Kinase c-Abl Promotes Homeodomain-interacting Protein Kinase 2 (HIPK2) Accumulation and Activation in Response to DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Reuven, Nina; Adler, Julia; Porat, Ziv; Polonio-Vallon, Tilman; Hofmann, Thomas G; Shaul, Yosef

    2015-07-03

    The non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl is activated in response to DNA damage and induces p73-dependent apoptosis. Here, we investigated c-Abl regulation of the homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), an important regulator of p53-dependent apoptosis. c-Abl phosphorylated HIPK2 at several sites, and phosphorylation by c-Abl protected HIPK2 from degradation mediated by the ubiquitin E3 ligase Siah-1. c-Abl and HIPK2 synergized in activating p53 on apoptotic promoters in a reporter assay, and c-Abl was required for endogenous HIPK2 accumulation and phosphorylation of p53 at Ser(46) in response to DNA damage by γ- and UV radiation. Accumulation of HIPK2 in nuclear speckles and association with promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) in response to DNA damage were also dependent on c-Abl activity. At high cell density, the Hippo pathway inhibits DNA damage-induced c-Abl activation. Under this condition, DNA damage-induced HIPK2 accumulation, phosphorylation of p53 at Ser(46), and apoptosis were attenuated. These data demonstrate a new mechanism for the induction of DNA damage-induced apoptosis by c-Abl and illustrate network interactions between serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases that dictate cell fate. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, M.; Hibi, M.; Lin, A.

    1997-02-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE is disclosed. The polypeptide has serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences. The method of detection of JNK is also provided. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites. 44 figs.

  11. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2004-03-16

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  12. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Lin, Anning

    1999-11-30

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  13. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1998-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  14. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit; Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2005-01-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  15. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2003-02-04

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  16. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  17. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2005-03-08

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  18. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1999-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  19. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  20. Cyclin-dependent kinases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are protein kinases characterized by needing a separate subunit - a cyclin - that provides domains essential for enzymatic activity. CDKs play important roles in the control of cell division and modulate transcription in response to several extra- and intracellular cues. The evolutionary expansion of the CDK family in mammals led to the division of CDKs into three cell-cycle-related subfamilies (Cdk1, Cdk4 and Cdk5) and five transcriptional subfamilies (Cdk7, Cdk8, Cdk9, Cdk11 and Cdk20). Unlike the prototypical Cdc28 kinase of budding yeast, most of these CDKs bind one or a few cyclins, consistent with functional specialization during evolution. This review summarizes how, although CDKs are traditionally separated into cell-cycle or transcriptional CDKs, these activities are frequently combined in many family members. Not surprisingly, deregulation of this family of proteins is a hallmark of several diseases, including cancer, and drug-targeted inhibition of specific members has generated very encouraging results in clinical trials. PMID:25180339

  1. NVP-BKM120, a novel PI3K inhibitor, shows synergism with a STAT3 inhibitor in human gastric cancer cells harboring KRAS mutations

    PubMed Central

    PARK, EUNJU; PARK, JINAH; HAN, SAE-WON; IM, SEOCK-AH; KIM, TAE-YOU; OH, DO-YOUN; BANG, YUNG-JUE

    2012-01-01

    Aberrations of Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling are frequently observed in many types of cancer, promoting its emergence as a promising target for cancer treatment. PI3K can become activated by various pathways, one of which includes RAS. RAS can not only directly activate the PI3K/AKT pathway via binding to p110 of PI3K, but also regulates mTOR via ERK or RSK independently of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus, actively mutated RAS can constitutively activate PI3K signaling. Additionally, in RAS tumorigenic transformation, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been known also to be required. In this study, we examined the efficacy of NVP-BKM120, a pan-class I PI3K inhibitor in human gastric cancer cells and hypothesized that the combined inhibition of PI3K and STAT3 would be synergistic in KRAS mutant gastric cancer cells. NVP-BKM120 demonstrated anti-proliferative activity in 11 human gastric cancer cell lines by decreasing mTOR downstream signaling. But NVP-BKM120 treatment increased p-AKT by subsequent abrogation of feedback inhibition by stabilizing insulin receptor substrate-1. In KRAS mutant gastric cancer cells, either p-ERK or p-STAT3 was also increased upon treatment of NVP-BKM120. The synergistic efficacy study demonstrated that dual PI3K and STAT3 blockade showed a synergism in cells harboring mutated KRAS by inducing apoptosis. The synergistic effect was not seen in KRAS wild-type cells. Together, these findings suggest for the first time that the dual inhibition of PI3K and STAT3 signaling may be an effective therapeutic strategy for KRAS mutant gastric cancer patients. PMID:22159814

  2. Staurosporine, but not Ro 31-8220, induces interleukin 2 production and synergizes with interleukin 1alpha in EL4 thymoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, T M; Matthews, J S; O'Neill, L A

    1997-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) has been implicated in interleukin 1 (IL1) signal transduction in a number of cellular systems, either as a key event in IL1 action or as a negative regulator. Here we have examined the effects of two PKC inhibitors, staurosporine and the more selective agent Ro 31-8220, on IL1 responses in the murine thymoma line EL4.NOB-1. A 1 h pulse of staurosporine was found to strongly potentiate the induction of IL2 by IL1alpha in these cells. In contrast, neither a pulse nor prolonged incubation with Ro 31-8220 affected the response to IL1alpha. Both agents blocked the response to PMA, however. A 1 h pulse of staurosporine was also found to induce IL2 production on its own, activate the transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) and increase the expression of a NFkappaB-linked reporter gene. It synergized with IL1alpha in all of these responses. Ro 31-8220 was again without effect, although both staurosporine and Ro 31-8220 blocked the activation of NFkappaB by PMA. Finally, staurosporine caused the translocation of PKC-alpha and -epsilon, and to a lesser extent PKC-beta, but not PKC-θ or -zeta, from the cytosol to the membrane, although a similar effect was observed with Ro 31-8220. The results suggest that PKC is not involved in IL1alpha signalling in EL4 cells. Furthermore, the potentiating effect of staurosporine on IL1alpha action does not involve PKC inhibition, and is likely to be at the level of NFkappaB activation. PMID:9224627

  3. Selective elimination of neuroblastoma cells by synergistic effect of Akt kinase inhibitor and tetrathiomolybdate.

    PubMed

    Navrátilová, Jarmila; Karasová, Martina; Kohutková Lánová, Martina; Jiráková, Ludmila; Budková, Zuzana; Pacherník, Jiří; Šmarda, Jan; Beneš, Petr

    2017-09-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour of infancy. Pathological activation of glucose consumption, glycolysis and glycolysis-activating Akt kinase occur frequently in neuroblastoma cells, and these changes correlate with poor prognosis of patients. Therefore, several inhibitors of glucose utilization and the Akt kinase activity are in preclinical trials as potential anti-cancer drugs. However, metabolic plasticity of cancer cells might undermine efficacy of this approach. In this work, we identified oxidative phosphorylation as compensatory mechanism preserving viability of neuroblastoma cells with inhibited glucose uptake/Akt kinase. It was oxidative phosphorylation that maintained intracellular level of ATP and proliferative capacity of these cells. The oxidative phosphorylation inhibitors (rotenone, tetrathiomolybdate) synergized with inhibitor of the Akt kinase/glucose uptake in down-regulation of both viability of neuroblastoma cells and clonogenic potential of cells forming neuroblastoma spheroids. Interestingly, tetrathiomolybdate acted as highly specific inhibitor of oxygen consumption and activator of lactate production in neuroblastoma cells, but not in normal fibroblasts and neuronal cells. Moreover, the reducing effect of tetrathiomolybdate on cell viability and the level of ATP in the cells with inhibited Akt kinase/glucose uptake was also selective for neuroblastoma cells. Therefore, efficient elimination of neuroblastoma cells requires inhibition of both glucose uptake/Akt kinase and oxidative phosphorylation activities. The use of tetrathiomolybdate as a mitochondrial inhibitor contributes to selectivity of this combined treatment, preferentially targeting neuroblastoma cells. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  4. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia.

    PubMed

    Roth Flach, Rachel J; Danai, Laura V; DiStefano, Marina T; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C; Czech, Michael P

    2016-07-29

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia*

    PubMed Central

    Roth Flach, Rachel J.; Danai, Laura V.; DiStefano, Marina T.; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B.; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K.; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C.; Czech, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo. After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. PMID:27226575

  6. Calix[6]arene bypasses human pancreatic cancer aggressiveness: downregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases and induction of cell death by reticulum stress and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin Juliane; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo; Ruela-de-Sousa, Roberta Regina; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Reis, Fabiano Souza; de Fátima, Angelo; Ferreira-Halder, Carmen Veríssima

    2013-12-01

    Pancreatic cancer ranks fourth among cancer-related causes of death in North America. Minimal progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with late-stage tumors. Moreover, pancreatic cancer aggressiveness is closely related to high levels of pro-survival mediators, which can ultimately lead to rapid disease progression, resistance and metastasis. The main goal of this study was to define the mechanisms by which calix[6]arene, but not other calixarenes, efficiently decreases the aggressiveness of a drug resistant human pancreas carcinoma cell line (Panc-1). Calix[6]arene was more potent in reducing Panc-1 cell viability than gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil. In relation to the underlying mechanisms of cytotoxic effects, it led to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase through downregulation of PIM1, CDK2, CDK4 and retinoblastoma proteins. Importantly, calix[6]arene abolished signal transduction of Mer and AXL tyrosine kinase receptors, both of which are usually overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. Accordingly, inhibition of PI3K and mTOR was also observed, and these proteins are positively modulated by Mer and AXL. Despite decreasing the phosphorylation of AKT at Thr308, calix[6]arene caused an increase in phosphorylation at Ser473. These findings in conjunction with increased BiP and IRE1-α provide a molecular basis explaining the capacity of calix[6]arene to trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagic cell death. Our findings highlight calix[6]arene as a potential candidate for overcoming pancreatic cancer aggressiveness. Importantly, we provide evidence that calix[6]arene affects a broad array of key targets that are usually dysfunctional in pancreatic cancer, a highly desirable characteristic for chemotherapeutics. © 2013.

  7. RUNX1 regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway: role in chemotherapy sensitivity in acute megakaryocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Holly; Xie, Chengzhi; LaFiura, Katherine M.; Dombkowski, Alan A.; Buck, Steven A.; Boerner, Julie L.; Taub, Jeffrey W.; Matherly, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    RUNX1 (AML1) encodes the core binding factor α subunit of a heterodimeric transcription factor complex which plays critical roles in normal hematopoiesis. Translocations or down-regulation of RUNX1 have been linked to favorable clinical outcomes in acute leukemias, suggesting that RUNX1 may also play critical roles in chemotherapy responses in acute leukemias; however, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The median level of RUNX1b transcripts in Down syndrome (DS) children with acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMkL) were 4.4-fold (P < .001) lower than that in non-DS AMkL cases. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of RUNX1 in a non-DS AMkL cell line, Meg-01, resulted in significantly increased sensitivity to cytosine arabinoside, accompanied by significantly decreased expression of PIK3CD, which encodes the δ catalytic subunit of the survival kinase, phosphoinositide 3 (PI3)–kinase. Transcriptional regulation of PIK3CD by RUNX1 was further confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter reporter gene assays. Further, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002, and cytosine arabinoside synergized in antileukemia effects on Meg-01 and primary pediatric AMkL cells. Our results suggest that RUNX1 may play a critical role in chemotherapy response in AMkL by regulating the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Thus, the treatment of AMkL may be improved by integrating PI3-kinase or Akt inhibitors into the chemotherapy of this disease. PMID:19638627

  8. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  9. A high-throughput radiometric kinase assay

    PubMed Central

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C.; Peterson, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant kinase signaling has been implicated in a number of diseases. While kinases have become attractive drug targets, only a small fraction of human protein kinases have validated inhibitors. Screening libraries of compounds against a kinase or kinases of interest is routinely performed during kinase inhibitor development to identify promising scaffolds for a particular target and to identify kinase targets for compounds of interest. Screening of more focused compound libraries may also be conducted in the later stages of inhibitor development to improve potency and optimize selectivity. The dot blot kinase assay is a robust, high-throughput kinase assay that can be used to screen a number of small molecule compounds against one kinase of interest or several kinases. Here, a protocol for a dot blot kinase assay used for measuring insulin receptor kinase activity is presented. This protocol can be readily adapted for use with other protein kinases. PMID:26501904

  10. Aurora Kinases Throughout Plant Development.

    PubMed

    Weimer, Annika K; Demidov, Dmitri; Lermontova, Inna; Beeckman, Tom; Van Damme, Daniël

    2016-01-01

    Aurora kinases are evolutionarily conserved key mitotic determinants in all eukaryotes. Yeasts contain a single Aurora kinase, whereas multicellular eukaryotes have at least two functionally diverged members. The involvement of Aurora kinases in human cancers has provided an in-depth mechanistic understanding of their roles throughout cell division in animal and yeast models. By contrast, understanding Aurora kinase function in plants is only starting to emerge. Nevertheless, genetic, cell biological, and biochemical approaches have revealed functional diversification between the plant Aurora kinases and suggest a role in formative (asymmetric) divisions, chromatin modification, and genome stability. This review provides an overview of the accumulated knowledge on the function of plant Aurora kinases as well as some major challenges for the future.

  11. MAP kinase and pain

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Gereau, Robert W.; Malcangio, Marzia; Strichartz, Gary R.

    2008-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important for intracellular signal transduction and play critical roles in regulating neural plasticity and inflammatory responses. The MAPK family consists of three major members: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which represent three separate signaling pathways. Accumulating evidence shows that all three MAPK pathways contribute to pain sensitization after tissue and nerve injury via distinct molecular and cellular mechanisms. Activation (phosphorylation) of MAPKs under different persistent pain conditions results in the induction and maintenance of pain hypersensitivity via non-transcriptional and transcriptional regulation. In particular, ERK activation in spinal cord dorsal horn neurons by nociceptive activity, via multiple neurotransmitter receptors, and using different second messenger pathways plays a critical role in central sensitization by regulating the activity of glutamate receptors and potassium channels and inducing gene transcription. ERK activation in amygdala neurons is also required for inflammatory pain sensitization. After nerve injury, ERK, p38, and JNK are differentially activated in spinal glial cells (microglia vs astrocytes), leading to the synthesis of proinflammatory/pronociceptive mediators, thereby enhancing and prolonging pain. Inhibition of all three MAPK pathways has been shown to attenuate inflammatory and neuropathic pain in different animal models. Development of specific inhibitors for MAPK pathways to target neurons and glial cells may lead to new therapies for pain management. Although it is well documented that MAPK pathways can increase pain sensitivity via peripheral mechanisms, this review will focus on central mechanisms of MAPKs, especially ERK. PMID:19150373

  12. Src family kinases: at the forefront of platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Mazharian, Alexandra; Mori, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Src family kinases (SFKs) play a central role in mediating the rapid response of platelets to vascular injury. They transmit activation signals from a diverse repertoire of platelet surface receptors, including the integrin αIIbβ3, the immunoreceptor tyrosine–based activation motif–containing collagen receptor complex GPVI-FcR γ-chain, and the von Willebrand factor receptor complex GPIb-IX-V, which are essential for thrombus growth and stability. Ligand-mediated clustering of these receptors triggers an increase in SFK activity and downstream tyrosine phosphorylation of enzymes, adaptors, and cytoskeletal proteins that collectively propagate the signal and coordinate platelet activation. A growing body of evidence has established that SFKs also contribute to Gq- and Gi-coupled receptor signaling that synergizes with primary activation signals to maximally activate platelets and render them prothrombotic. Interestingly, SFKs concomitantly activate inhibitory pathways that limit platelet activation and thrombus size. In this review, we discuss past discoveries that laid the foundation for this fundamental area of platelet signal transduction, recent progress in our understanding of the distinct and overlapping functions of SFKs in platelets, and new avenues of research into mechanisms of SFK regulation. We also highlight the thrombotic and hemostatic consequences of targeting platelet SFKs. PMID:25115887

  13. Lovastatin induces apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells and synergizes with doxorubicin: potential therapeutic relevance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ovarian carcinoma is a rarely curable disease, for which new treatment options are required. As agents that block HMG-CoA reductase and the mevalonate pathway, the statin family of drugs are used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and have been shown to trigger apoptosis in a tumor-specific manner. Recent clinical trials show that the addition of statins to traditional chemotherapeutic strategies can increase efficacy of targeting statin-sensitive tumors. Our goal was to assess statin-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells, either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutics, and then determine these mechanisms of action. Methods The effect of lovastatin on ovarian cancer cell lines was evaluated alone and in combination with cisplatin and doxorubicin using several assays (MTT, TUNEL, fixed PI, PARP cleavage) and synergy determined by evaluating the combination index. The mechanisms of action were evaluated using functional, molecular, and pharmacologic approaches. Results We demonstrate that lovastatin induces apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells in a p53-independent manner and synergizes with doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat recurrent cases of ovarian cancer. Lovastatin drives ovarian tumor cell death by two mechanisms: first, by blocking HMG-CoA reductase activity, and second, by sensitizing multi-drug resistant cells to doxorubicin by a novel mevalonate-independent mechanism. This inhibition of drug transport, likely through inhibition of P-glycoprotein, potentiates both DNA damage and tumor cell apoptosis. Conclusions The results of this research provide pre-clinical data to warrant further evaluation of statins as potential anti-cancer agents to treat ovarian carcinoma. Many statins are inexpensive, off-patent generic drugs that are immediately available for use as anti-cancer agents. We provide evidence that lovastatin triggers apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells as a single agent by a mevalonate-dependent mechanism

  14. Pim Protein Kinase-Levels Correlate With Prostate Tumor Growth and Chemo Resistance-Potential Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    µg pcDNA3/ Pim-1 or Pim-2, Runx1 , and increasing amounts of pD30-PP2A-HA-C, 0.5 µg, 1 µg to 2 µg, as indicated. Control empty pcDNA3 vector was added...of the Runx1 control, and anti-GAPDH another control. To evaluate the effect of PP2A on the levels of Pim we transfected 293T cells and

  15. Optimization of synergism of a recombinant auxiliary activity 9 from Chaetomium globosum with cellulase in cellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Jung; Nam, Ki Hyun; Yun, Eun Ju; Kim, Sooah; Youn, Hak Jin; Lee, Hee Jin; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2015-10-01

    Auxiliary activity family 9 (AA9, formerly known as glycoside hydrolase family 61 or polysaccharide monooxygenase) is a group of fungal proteins that were recently found to have a significant synergism with cellulase in cellulose hydrolysis via the oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds of cellulose chains. In this study, we report the active expression of a recombinant fungal AA9 from Chaetomium globosum (CgAA9) in a bacterial host, Escherichia coli, and the optimization of its synergistic activity in cellulose hydrolysis by using cellulase. The recombinant CgAA9 (0.9 mg/g cellulose) exhibited 1.7-fold synergism in the hydrolysis of Avicel when incubated with 0.9 filter paper units of Celluclast 1.5 L/g cellulose. The first study of the active expression of AA9 using a bacterial host and its synergistic optimization could be useful for the industrial application of AA9 for the saccharification of lignocellulose.

  16. [The primary role of central region of HC-pro of potato Y potyvirus in synergism of plant viruses].

    PubMed

    Lu, R F; Li, W M; Wang, H Y; Guo, M; Peng, X X

    2001-05-01

    Five deleted mutants of HC-Pro gene of Chinese isolate of potato Y potyvirus (PVY-C) were obtained by PCR mutation, and their plant expression vectors were constructed. They were transformed into tobacco K326 (Nicotina tabacum cv. K326) mediated by Agrobacterium. PCR and Southern blot analysis revealed that PVY-C HC-Pro gene and its deleted mutants were integrated into tobacco genome, and Western blot analysis showed that they were all expressed in transgenic tobacco plants. Furthermore, infection test demonstrated that the central region of PVY-C HC-Pro can mediate synergism of PVY-C/cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) and PVY-C/potato X potexvirus (PVX), identifying that it is functional domain in synergism.

  17. Evidence for epidermal growth factor receptor-enhanced chemosensitivity in combinations of cisplatin and the new irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor CI-1033.

    PubMed

    Gieseg, M A; de Bock, C; Ferguson, L R; Denny, W A

    2001-09-01

    Irreversible inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are showing promise in clinical trials. This report is the first to show that inhibition of the EGFR tyrosine kinase by an irreversible binder synergizes with cisplatin, at least in EGFR-overexpressing tissue culture cell lines in vitro. Unlike previous synergies demonstrated between ErbB2 blockade and DNA-damaging drugs, the synergy between the irreversible EGFR inhibitor and cisplatin does not appear to involve the repair of DNA-cisplatin adducts. Given the current clinical data, this combination may be of more than theoretical interest.

  18. Acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase.

    PubMed

    Ferry, James G

    2011-01-01

    Most of the methane produced in nature derives from the methyl group of acetate, the major end product of anaerobes decomposing complex plant material. The acetate is derived from the metabolic intermediate acetyl-CoA via the combined activities of phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase. In Methanosarcina species, the enzymes function in the reverse direction to activate acetate to acetyl-CoA prior to cleavage into a methyl and carbonyl group of which the latter is oxidized providing electrons for reduction of the former to methane. Thus, phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase have a central role in the conversion of complex organic matter to methane by anaerobic microbial food chains. Both enzymes have been purified from Methanosarcina thermophila and characterized. Both enzymes from M. thermophila have also been produced in Escherichia coli permitting crystal structures and amino acid variants, the kinetic and biochemical studies of which have lead to proposals for catalytic mechanisms. The high identity of both enzymes to paralogs in the domain Bacteria suggests ancient origins and common mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Limitations of the rheological mucoadhesion method: the effect of the choice of conditions and the rheological synergism parameter.

    PubMed

    Hägerström, Helene; Edsman, Katarina

    2003-04-01

    This work demonstrates several limitations of the simple rheological method that is widely used to investigate mucoadhesion of polymer gels. We establish the importance of the choice of conditions and the synergism parameter for the results obtained in comparative studies. Dynamic rheological measurements were performed on gels based on four slightly different poly(acrylic acid) (Carbopol) polymers and their corresponding mixtures with porcine stomach mucin and bovine submaxillary gland mucin. The rationale for the comparison of the polymers had a large influence on the results obtained. The method does not give the same ranking order when two different comparison strategies are used. Moreover, we show that the results obtained are also sensitive to where in the 'rheological range' the comparison is made, e.g., at which value of G'. Positive values of the synergism parameters are, for example, only seen with weak gels. The choice of synergism parameter also has a bearing on the results obtained, and here we suggest a new refined relative parameter, the log ratio (log(G'(mix)/G'(p))). We also investigated the adhesion of the gel preparations to porcine nasal mucosa, using tensile strength measurements. Increased gel strength resulted in stronger adhesion, which is in contrast to the results from the rheological method, where the positive values of the synergism parameters were seen only with weak gels. On the basis of the limitations demonstrated and discussed, we recommend that the rheological method should not be used as a stand-alone method for the studying of mucoadhesive properties of polymer gels.

  20. A kinetic model of the synergism of endo- and exoglucanase and {beta}-glucosidase on hydrolysis of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Michihiro; Homma, Taira; Ooshima, Kazuhisa; Taniguchi, Masayuki

    1991-12-31

    A kinetic model representing the synergistic action of the three components that compose cellulose on hydrolysis of solid cellulose particles is proposed. The model consists of three simultaneous differential equations: one representing the action of the endoenzyme, another representing the action of the exoenzyme, and the third representing the action of the {Beta}-glucosidase. A simultaneous solution of these three equations expresses the synergism. The experimental data fit the theory well.

  1. Chemokines and other GPCR ligands synergize in receptor-mediated migration of monocyte-derived immature and mature dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Gouwy, Mieke; Struyf, Sofie; Leutenez, Lien; Pörtner, Noëmie; Sozzani, Silvano; Van Damme, Jo

    2014-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells, described as the initiators of adaptive immune responses. Immature monocyte-derived DCs (MDDC) showed decreased CD14 expression, increased cell surface markers DC-SIGN and CD1a and enhanced levels of receptors for the chemokines CCL3 (CCR1/CCR5) and CXCL8 (CXCR1/CXCR2) compared with human CD14⁺ monocytes. After further MDDC maturation by LPS, the markers CD80 and CD83 and the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 were upregulated, whereas CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 expression was reduced. CCL3 dose-dependently synergized with CXCL8 or CXCL12 in chemotaxis of immature MDDC. CXCL12 augmented the CCL3-induced ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in immature MDDC, although the synergy between CCL3 and CXCL12 in chemotaxis of immature MDDC was dependent on the Akt signaling pathway but not on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. CCL2 also synergized with CXCL12 in immature MDDC migration. Moreover, two CXC chemokines not sharing receptors (CXCL12 and CXCL8) cooperated in immature MDDC chemotaxis, whereas two CC chemokines (CCL3 and CCL7) sharing CCR1 did not. Further, the non-chemokine G protein-coupled receptor ligands chemerin and fMLP synergized with respectively CCL7 and CCL3 in immature MDDC signaling and migration. Finally, CXCL12 and CCL3 did not cooperate, but CXCL12 synergized with CCL21 in mature MDDC chemotaxis. Thus, chemokine synergy in immature and mature MDDC migration is dose-dependently regulated by chemokines via alterations in their chemokine receptor expression pattern according to their role in immune responses.

  2. In vitro and in vivo synergy of MCP compounds with mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway- and microtubule-targeting inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Skobeleva, Natalia; Menon, Sanjay; Weber, Lutz; Golemis, Erica A; Khazak, Vladimir

    2007-03-01

    An important clinical task is to coherently integrate the use of protein-targeted drugs into preexisting therapeutic regimens, with the goal of improving treatment efficacy. Constitutive activation of Ras-dependent signaling is important in many tumors, and agents that inhibit this pathway might be useful in numerous therapeutic combinations. The MCP compounds were identified as inhibitors of Ras-Raf interactions and previously shown to inhibit multiple Ras-dependent transformation phenotypes when used as monoagents in cell culture analyses. In this study, we investigate the ability of the MCP110 compound to synergistically enhance the activity of other therapeutic agents. In both a defined K-Ras-transformed fibroblast model and in human tumor cell lines with mutationally activated Ras, MCP110 selectively synergizes with other agents targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and with multiple agents (paclitaxel, docetaxel, and vincristine) targeting the microtubule network. The synergistic activity of MCP110 and paclitaxel was further established by experiments showing that in Kaposi's sarcoma oncogenically transformed cell lines, cellular models for tumors treated with taxanes in the clinic and in which Raf-dependent signaling plays an important role, MCP110 synergizes with paclitaxel and limit growth. Finally, in vivo testing indicate that MCP110 is bioavailable, inhibits the growth of LXFA 629 lung and SW620 colon carcinoma cells in xenograft models, and again strongly synergizes with paclitaxel. Together, these findings indicate that MCP compounds have potential to be effective in combination with other anticancer agents.

  3. Tramadol and Tramadol+Caffeine Synergism in the Rat Formalin Test Are Mediated by Central Opioid and Serotonergic Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Munguía, Norma; González-Trujano, Ma Eva; Huerta, Miguel; Trujillo, Xochitl; Díaz-Reval, M Irene

    2015-01-01

    Different analgesic combinations with caffeine have shown this drug to be capable of increasing the analgesic effect. Many combinations with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been carried out, but, in regard to opioids, only combinations with morphine and tramadol have been reported. The antinociceptive synergism mechanism of these combinations is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine the participation of spinal and supraspinal opioidergic and serotonergic systems in the synergic effect of the tramadol+caffeine combination in the rat formalin test. At the supraspinal level, the opioid antagonist, naloxone, completely reversed the effect of the drug combination, whereas ketanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, inhibited the effect by 60%; however, ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, did not alter the combination effect. When the antagonists were intrathecally administered, there was a significant reduction in all tramadol-caffeine combination effects. With respect to tramadol alone, there was significant participation of the opioid system at the supraspinal level, whereas it was the serotonergic system that participated at the spinal level by means of the two receptors studied. In conclusion, the tramadol+caffeine combination synergically activated the opioid and serotonergic systems at the supraspinal level, as well as at the spinal level, to produce the antinociception.

  4. Management of five stored-product insects in wheat with pirimiphos-methyl and pirimiphos-methyl plus synergized pyrethrins.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fangneng; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju

    2005-04-01

    Hard red winter wheat was treated with pirimiphos-methyl at 4, 6 and 8 mg kg(-1), synergized pyrethrins at 0.38, 0.75, 1.13 and 1.5 mg kg(-1), and combinations of the two insecticides, to conduct laboratory bioassays against four beetle pests of stored grain, red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), rusty grain beetle Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F), and rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L), and one moth pest, Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hubner). Beetle adults and P interpunctella larvae survived well on control wheat, producing a large number of progeny (65-1037 insects per container). Kernel damage in control wheat among the insect species ranged from 9 to 99%. On pirimiphos-methyl-treated wheat, mortality of R dominica adults was > or =72%, but that of the other beetle species and P interpunctella larvae was 100%. Progeny were not produced on pirimiphos-methyl-treated wheat, and the kernel damage was negligible (< or =1%). Synergized pyrethrins were ineffective against the five insect pests. Pirimiphos-methyl combined with synergized pyrethrins was not superior to pirimiphos-methyl alone against the five insect pests. Pirimiphos-methyl is not registered in the USA for use on wheat, but our results suggest that it could be a viable grain protectant at rates of 4-8 mg kg(-1).

  5. Tramadol and Tramadol+Caffeine Synergism in the Rat Formalin Test Are Mediated by Central Opioid and Serotonergic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Munguía, Norma; González-Trujano, Ma. Eva; Huerta, Miguel; Trujillo, Xochitl; Díaz-Reval, M. Irene

    2015-01-01

    Different analgesic combinations with caffeine have shown this drug to be capable of increasing the analgesic effect. Many combinations with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been carried out, but, in regard to opioids, only combinations with morphine and tramadol have been reported. The antinociceptive synergism mechanism of these combinations is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine the participation of spinal and supraspinal opioidergic and serotonergic systems in the synergic effect of the tramadol+caffeine combination in the rat formalin test. At the supraspinal level, the opioid antagonist, naloxone, completely reversed the effect of the drug combination, whereas ketanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, inhibited the effect by 60%; however, ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, did not alter the combination effect. When the antagonists were intrathecally administered, there was a significant reduction in all tramadol-caffeine combination effects. With respect to tramadol alone, there was significant participation of the opioid system at the supraspinal level, whereas it was the serotonergic system that participated at the spinal level by means of the two receptors studied. In conclusion, the tramadol+caffeine combination synergically activated the opioid and serotonergic systems at the supraspinal level, as well as at the spinal level, to produce the antinociception. PMID:26146627

  6. Systematic chemical-genetic and chemical-chemical interaction datasets for prediction of compound synergism.

    PubMed

    Wildenhain, Jan; Spitzer, Michaela; Dolma, Sonam; Jarvik, Nick; White, Rachel; Roy, Marcia; Griffiths, Emma; Bellows, David S; Wright, Gerard D; Tyers, Mike

    2016-11-22

    The network structure of biological systems suggests that effective therapeutic intervention may require combinations of agents that act synergistically. However, a dearth of systematic chemical combination datasets have limited the development of predictive algorithms for chemical synergism. Here, we report two large datasets of linked chemical-genetic and chemical-chemical interactions in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We screened 5,518 unique compounds against 242 diverse yeast gene deletion strains to generate an extended chemical-genetic matrix (CGM) of 492,126 chemical-gene interaction measurements. This CGM dataset contained 1,434 genotype-specific inhibitors, termed cryptagens. We selected 128 structurally diverse cryptagens and tested all pairwise combinations to generate a benchmark dataset of 8,128 pairwise chemical-chemical interaction tests for synergy prediction, termed the cryptagen matrix (CM). An accompanying database resource called ChemGRID was developed to enable analysis, visualisation and downloads of all data. The CGM and CM datasets will facilitate the benchmarking of computational approaches for synergy prediction, as well as chemical structure-activity relationship models for anti-fungal drug discovery.

  7. Biochemical basis of synergism between pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and insecticide chlorantraniliprole in Locusta migratoria (Meyen).

    PubMed

    Jia, Miao; Cao, Guangchun; Li, Yibo; Tu, Xiongbing; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Whitman, Douglas W; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-06-22

    We challenged Locusta migratoria (Meyen) grasshoppers with simultaneous doses of both the insecticide chlorantraniliprole and the fungal pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae. Our results showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on host mortality and enzyme activities. To elucidate the biochemical mechanisms that underlie detoxification and pathogen-immune responses in insects, we monitored the activities of 10 enzymes. After administration of insecticide and fungus, activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), general esterases (ESTs) and phenol oxidase (PO) decreased in the insect during the initial time period, whereas those of aryl acylamidase (AA) and chitinase (CHI) increased during the initial period and that of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) increased during a later time period. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) decreased at a later time period post treatment. Interestingly, treatment with chlorantraniliprole and M. anisopliae relieved the convulsions that normally accompany M. anisopliae infection. We speculate that locust mortality increased as a result of synergism via a mechanism related to Ca(2+) disruption in the host. Our study illuminates the biochemical mechanisms involved in insect immunity to xenobiotics and pathogens as well as the mechanisms by which these factors disrupt host homeostasis and induce death. We expect this knowledge to lead to more effective pest control.

  8. Indirect cooperative effects leading to synergism in bimetallic homogeneous catalysts containing azolates as bridging ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Esteruelas, M.A.; Garcia, M.P.; Lopez, A.M.; Oro, L.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The binuclear compounds (H(CO)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}Ru({mu}-bim)Ir(COD)) (1) (bim = 2,2{prime}-biimidazolate, COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene) and (H(CO)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}Ru({mu}-pz){sub 2}Ir(TFB)) (2) (pz = pyrazolate, TFB = tetrafluorobenzobarrelene) are more active catalysts for the hydrogenation of cyclohexene than the mononuclear parent compounds (RuH(Hbim)(CO)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}), (Ir(Hbim)(COD)), (RuH(pa)(CO)(Hpz)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}), and (Ir(TFB)(Hpz){sub 2})BF{sub 4}. In the presence of 1, the reaction rate is first order with respect to the concentration of 1 and cyclohexene, second order with respect to hydrogen pressure, and inversely proportional to the concentration of added phosphine. For the reaction catalyzed by 2, the experimental data are in accordance with a rate expression of the form {minus}d(cyclohexene)/dt = k(2)(cyclohexene)P(H{sub 2}) (P(H{sub 2}) = hydrogen pressure). On the basis of the kinetic results and experimental evidence, the origin of the catalytic synergism is assigned to indirect cooperative effects between the metallic centers of the binuclear complexes. The kinetic investigation of the hydrogenation of cyclohexene catalyzed by (Ir({mu}-pz)(TFB)){sub 2} (3) is also reported, suggesting that the full catalytic cycle involves binuclear species.

  9. Triethylenetetramine Synergizes with Pharmacologic Ascorbic Acid in Hydrogen Peroxide Mediated Selective Toxicity to Breast Cancer Cell

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lianlian; Luo, Xiaofang; Li, Cong; Huang, Yubing; Xu, Ping; Lloyd-Davies, Laetitia H.; Delplancke, Thibaut; Peng, Chuan; Qi, Hongbo; Baker, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is characterized by overexpression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and downregulation of catalase and more resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than normal cells. Thus, relatively high H2O2 promotes breast cancer cell growth and proliferation. However, excessive intracellular H2O2 leads to death of breast cancer cells. In cancer cells, high level ascorbic acid (Asc) is able to be autoxidized and thus provides an electron to oxygen to generate H2O2. In the present study, we demonstrated that triethylenetetramine (TETA) enhances Asc autoxidation and thus elevates H2O2 production in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, Asc/TETA combination significantly impaired cancer cell viability, while having much milder effects on normal cells, indicating Asc/TETA could be a promising therapy for breast cancer. Moreover, SOD1 and N-acetyl-L-cysteine failed to improve MCF-7 cells viability in the presence of Asc/TETA, while catalase significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity of Asc/TETA to breast cancer cells, strongly suggesting that the selective cytotoxicity of Asc/TETA to cancer cells is H2O2-dependent. In addition, Asc/TETA induces RAS/ERK downregulation in breast cancer cells. Animal studies confirmed that Asc/TETA effectively suppressed tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, TETA synergizes pharmacologic Asc autoxidation and H2O2 overproduction in breast cancer cells, which suppresses RAS/ERK pathway and results in apoptosis. PMID:28280522

  10. Triethylenetetramine Synergizes with Pharmacologic Ascorbic Acid in Hydrogen Peroxide Mediated Selective Toxicity to Breast Cancer Cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianlian; Luo, Xiaofang; Li, Cong; Huang, Yubing; Xu, Ping; Lloyd-Davies, Laetitia H; Delplancke, Thibaut; Peng, Chuan; Gao, Rufei; Qi, Hongbo; Tong, Chao; Baker, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is characterized by overexpression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and downregulation of catalase and more resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than normal cells. Thus, relatively high H2O2 promotes breast cancer cell growth and proliferation. However, excessive intracellular H2O2 leads to death of breast cancer cells. In cancer cells, high level ascorbic acid (Asc) is able to be autoxidized and thus provides an electron to oxygen to generate H2O2. In the present study, we demonstrated that triethylenetetramine (TETA) enhances Asc autoxidation and thus elevates H2O2 production in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, Asc/TETA combination significantly impaired cancer cell viability, while having much milder effects on normal cells, indicating Asc/TETA could be a promising therapy for breast cancer. Moreover, SOD1 and N-acetyl-L-cysteine failed to improve MCF-7 cells viability in the presence of Asc/TETA, while catalase significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity of Asc/TETA to breast cancer cells, strongly suggesting that the selective cytotoxicity of Asc/TETA to cancer cells is H2O2-dependent. In addition, Asc/TETA induces RAS/ERK downregulation in breast cancer cells. Animal studies confirmed that Asc/TETA effectively suppressed tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, TETA synergizes pharmacologic Asc autoxidation and H2O2 overproduction in breast cancer cells, which suppresses RAS/ERK pathway and results in apoptosis.

  11. Strong Delayed Interactive Effects of Metal Exposure and Warming: Latitude-Dependent Synergisms Persist Across Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Debecker, Sara; Dinh, Khuong V; Stoks, Robby

    2017-02-21

    As contaminants are often more toxic at higher temperatures, predicting their impact under global warming remains a key challenge for ecological risk assessment. Ignoring delayed effects, synergistic interactions between contaminants and warming, and differences in sensitivity across species' ranges could lead to an important underestimation of the risks. We addressed all three mechanisms by studying effects of larval exposure to zinc and warming before, during, and after metamorphosis in Ischnura elegans damselflies from high- and low-latitude populations. By integrating these mechanisms into a single study, we could identify two novel patterns. First, during exposure zinc did not affect survival, whereas it induced mild to moderate postexposure mortality in the larval stage and at metamorphosis, and very strongly reduced adult lifespan. This severe delayed effect across metamorphosis was especially remarkable in high-latitude animals, as they appeared almost insensitive to zinc during the larval stage. Second, the well-known synergism between metals and warming was manifested not only during the larval stage but also after metamorphosis, yet notably only in low-latitude damselflies. These results highlight that a more complete life-cycle approach that incorporates the possibility of delayed interactions between contaminants and warming in a geographical context is crucial for a more realistic risk assessment in a warming world.

  12. Synergism effects for Escherichia coli inactivation applying the combined ozone and chlorine disinfection method.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Jeanette Beber; Daniel, Luiz Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Water disinfection assays were carried out using ozone and chlorine in non-sequential steps--the individual method--and in sequential steps--the combined ozone/chlorine method. Escherichia coli strain ATCC 11229 was used as the indicator microorganism. For the assays using the individual method, the applied dosages of ozone were 2.0, 3.0 and 5.0 mg/L, and 2.0 and 5.0 mg/L of chlorine were used. For the assays applying the combined method, the dosages (dosage combination) were, in mg/L: 2.0 O3 + 2.0 Cl, 3.0 O3 + 2.0 Cl2, 5.0 O3 + 2.0 Cl2 and 2.0 O3 + 5.0 Cl2. The applied contact times were 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes for the individual method as well as for the combined method. For all used dosages and contact times, E. coli inactivation was superior to the inactivation obtained in the individual method, indicating the occurrence of synergism for E. coli inactivation in the combined method.

  13. Diurnal change in trees as observed by optical and microwave sensors - The EOS Synergism Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Jobea; Mcdonald, Kyle; Paris, Jack; Dobson, Myron C.; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Weber, James A.; Ustin, Susan L.; Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Kasischke, Eric S.

    1991-01-01

    The EOS (Earth Observing System) Synergism Study examined the temporal variability of the optical and microwave backscatter due to diurnal change in canopy properties of interest to ecosystem modelers. The experiment was designed to address diurnal changes in canopy water status that relate to transpiration. Multispectral optical and multifrequency, multipolarization microwave measurements were acquired using boom-truck-based systems over a two-week period. Sensor and canopy properties were collected around the clock. The canopy studied was a walnut orchard in the San Joaquin Valley of California. The results demonstrate a large diurnal variation in the dielectric properties of the tree that in turn produces significant diurnal changes in the microwave backscatter. The results suggest that permanently orbiting spaceborne sensors such as those on EOS should be placed in orbits that are optimized for the individual sensor and need not be tied together by a tight simultaneity requirement on the order of minutes to hours for the purpose of monitoring ecosystem properties.

  14. Biomimetic biodegradable artificial antigen presenting cells synergize with PD-1 blockade to treat melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kosmides, A K; Meyer, R A; Hickey, J W; Aje, K; Cheung, K N; Green, J J; Schneck, J P

    2017-02-01

    Biomimetic materials that target the immune system and generate an anti-tumor responses hold promise in augmenting cancer immunotherapy. These synthetic materials can be engineered and optimized for their biodegradability, physical parameters such as shape and size, and controlled release of immune-modulators. As these new platforms enter the playing field, it is imperative to understand their interaction with existing immunotherapies since single-targeted approaches have limited efficacy. Here, we investigate the synergy between a PLGA-based artificial antigen presenting cell (aAPC) and a checkpoint blockade molecule, anti-PD1 monoclonal antibody (mAb). The combination of antigen-specific aAPC-based activation and anti-PD-1 mAb checkpoint blockade induced the greatest IFN-γ secretion by CD8+ T cells in vitro. Combination treatment also acted synergistically in an in vivo murine melanoma model to result in delayed tumor growth and extended survival, while either treatment alone had no effect. This was shown mechanistically to be due to decreased PD-1 expression and increased antigen-specific proliferation of CD8+ T cells within the tumor microenvironment and spleen. Thus, biomaterial-based therapy can synergize with other immunotherapies and motivates the translation of biomimetic combinatorial treatments.

  15. Diurnal change in trees as observed by optical and microwave sensors - The EOS Synergism Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Jobea; Mcdonald, Kyle; Paris, Jack; Dobson, Myron C.; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Weber, James A.; Ustin, Susan L.; Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Kasischke, Eric S.

    1991-01-01

    The EOS (Earth Observing System) Synergism Study examined the temporal variability of the optical and microwave backscatter due to diurnal change in canopy properties of interest to ecosystem modelers. The experiment was designed to address diurnal changes in canopy water status that relate to transpiration. Multispectral optical and multifrequency, multipolarization microwave measurements were acquired using boom-truck-based systems over a two-week period. Sensor and canopy properties were collected around the clock. The canopy studied was a walnut orchard in the San Joaquin Valley of California. The results demonstrate a large diurnal variation in the dielectric properties of the tree that in turn produces significant diurnal changes in the microwave backscatter. The results suggest that permanently orbiting spaceborne sensors such as those on EOS should be placed in orbits that are optimized for the individual sensor and need not be tied together by a tight simultaneity requirement on the order of minutes to hours for the purpose of monitoring ecosystem properties.

  16. Aplidin synergizes with cytosine arabinoside: functional relevance of mitochondria in Aplidin-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Humeniuk, R; Menon, L G; Mishra, P J; Saydam, G; Longo-Sorbello, G S A; Elisseyeff, Y; Lewis, L D; Aracil, M; Jimeno, J; Bertino, J R; Banerjee, D

    2007-12-01

    Aplidin (plitidepsin) is a novel marine-derived antitumor agent presently undergoing phase II clinical trials in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Lack of bone marrow toxicity has encouraged further development of this drug for treatment of leukemia and lymphoma. Multiple signaling pathways have been shown to be involved in Aplidin-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in G1 and G2 phase. However, the exact mechanism(s) of Aplidin action remains to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that mitochondria-associated or -localized processes are the potential cellular targets of Aplidin. Whole genome gene-expression profiling (GEP) revealed that fatty acid metabolism, sterol biosynthesis and energy metabolism, including the tricarboxylic acid cycle and ATP synthesis are affected by Aplidin treatment. Moreover, mutant MOLT-4, human leukemia cells lacking functional mitochondria, were found to be resistant to Aplidin. Cytosine arabinoside (araC), which also generates oxidative stress but does not affect the ATP pool, showed synergism with Aplidin in our leukemia and lymphoma models in vitro and in vivo. These studies provide new insights into the mechanism of action of Aplidin. The efficacy of the combination of Aplidin and araC is currently being evaluated in clinical phase I/II program for the treatment of patients with relapsed leukemia and high-grade lymphoma.

  17. A PARP1-ERK2 synergism is required for the induction of LTP

    PubMed Central

    Visochek, L.; Grigoryan, G.; Kalal, A.; Milshtein-Parush, H.; Gazit, N.; Slutsky, I.; Yeheskel, A.; Shainberg, A.; Castiel, A.; Seger, R.; Langelier, M. F.; Dantzer, F.; Pascal, J. M.; Segal, M.; Cohen-Armon, M.

    2016-01-01

    Unexpectedly, a post-translational modification of DNA-binding proteins, initiating the cell response to single-strand DNA damage, was also required for long-term memory acquisition in a variety of learning paradigms. Our findings disclose a molecular mechanism based on PARP1-Erk synergism, which may underlie this phenomenon. A stimulation induced PARP1 binding to phosphorylated Erk2 in the chromatin of cerebral neurons caused Erk-induced PARP1 activation, rendering transcription factors and promoters of immediate early genes (IEG) accessible to PARP1-bound phosphorylated Erk2. Thus, Erk-induced PARP1 activation mediated IEG expression implicated in long-term memory. PARP1 inhibition, silencing, or genetic deletion abrogated stimulation-induced Erk-recruitment to IEG promoters, gene expression and LTP generation in hippocampal CA3-CA1-connections. Moreover, a predominant binding of PARP1 to single-strand DNA breaks, occluding its Erk binding sites, suppressed IEG expression and prevented the generation of LTP. These findings outline a PARP1-dependent mechanism required for LTP generation, which may be implicated in long-term memory acquisition and in its deterioration in senescence. PMID:27121568

  18. A PARP1-ERK2 synergism is required for the induction of LTP.

    PubMed

    Visochek, L; Grigoryan, G; Kalal, A; Milshtein-Parush, H; Gazit, N; Slutsky, I; Yeheskel, A; Shainberg, A; Castiel, A; Seger, R; Langelier, M F; Dantzer, F; Pascal, J M; Segal, M; Cohen-Armon, M

    2016-04-28

    Unexpectedly, a post-translational modification of DNA-binding proteins, initiating the cell response to single-strand DNA damage, was also required for long-term memory acquisition in a variety of learning paradigms. Our findings disclose a molecular mechanism based on PARP1-Erk synergism, which may underlie this phenomenon. A stimulation induced PARP1 binding to phosphorylated Erk2 in the chromatin of cerebral neurons caused Erk-induced PARP1 activation, rendering transcription factors and promoters of immediate early genes (IEG) accessible to PARP1-bound phosphorylated Erk2. Thus, Erk-induced PARP1 activation mediated IEG expression implicated in long-term memory. PARP1 inhibition, silencing, or genetic deletion abrogated stimulation-induced Erk-recruitment to IEG promoters, gene expression and LTP generation in hippocampal CA3-CA1-connections. Moreover, a predominant binding of PARP1 to single-strand DNA breaks, occluding its Erk binding sites, suppressed IEG expression and prevented the generation of LTP. These findings outline a PARP1-dependent mechanism required for LTP generation, which may be implicated in long-term memory acquisition and in its deterioration in senescence.

  19. Synergism between ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and anti-tuberculosis drugs on growth of mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Scheller, S; Dworniczak, S; Waldemar-Klimmek, K; Rajca, M; Tomczyk, A; Shani, J

    1999-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of propolis exerts a strong anti-bacterial activity, in addition to antifungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal properties. In previous studies from these laboratories we have demonstrated that the intensity of the bactericidal activity of EEP is correlated with the virulence of the mycobacteria tested, and that EEP has a synergistic effect with antibiotics on growth of staphylococcus aureus. In the present study we investigated whether the same synergism and correlation exists between EEP and some anti-tuberculosis drugs on tuberculosis mycobacteria with different degrees of virulence. Six standard strains and 11 wild strains of mycobacteria were exposed for 30 days to EEP, with or without streptomycin, rifamycin, isoniazid or ethambutol. Out of the 17 strains, 8 were resistant to at least two standard antibiotics, and were considered "multi-resistant strains". The rest were either susceptible or resistant to only one of the antimycobacterial drugs. Antagonism was recorded only in one case, when Staphylococcus aureus were treated with a mixture of EEP and ethambutol, suggesting that a chemical bond could have been formed between this anti-tuberculosis antibiotic and one of the active components of the ethanol extract of propolis.

  20. Biochemical basis of synergism between pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and insecticide chlorantraniliprole in Locusta migratoria (Meyen)

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Miao; Cao, Guangchun; Li, Yibo; Tu, Xiongbing; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Whitman, Douglas W.; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    We challenged Locusta migratoria (Meyen) grasshoppers with simultaneous doses of both the insecticide chlorantraniliprole and the fungal pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae. Our results showed synergistic and antagonistic effects on host mortality and enzyme activities. To elucidate the biochemical mechanisms that underlie detoxification and pathogen-immune responses in insects, we monitored the activities of 10 enzymes. After administration of insecticide and fungus, activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), general esterases (ESTs) and phenol oxidase (PO) decreased in the insect during the initial time period, whereas those of aryl acylamidase (AA) and chitinase (CHI) increased during the initial period and that of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) increased during a later time period. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) decreased at a later time period post treatment. Interestingly, treatment with chlorantraniliprole and M. anisopliae relieved the convulsions that normally accompany M. anisopliae infection. We speculate that locust mortality increased as a result of synergism via a mechanism related to Ca2+ disruption in the host. Our study illuminates the biochemical mechanisms involved in insect immunity to xenobiotics and pathogens as well as the mechanisms by which these factors disrupt host homeostasis and induce death. We expect this knowledge to lead to more effective pest control. PMID:27328936

  1. The synergic role of collagen and citrate in stabilizing amorphous calcium phosphate precursors with platy morphology.

    PubMed

    Delgado-López, José Manuel; Bertolotti, Federica; Lyngsø, Jeppe; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Cervellino, Antonio; Masciocchi, Norberto; Guagliardi, Antonietta

    2017-02-01

    Bioinspired in vitro collagen mineralization experiments have been performed in the presence of citrate and the combined role of the two bone organic matrix components in controlling mineral formation was investigated for the first time. Mineralized and non-mineralized collagen fibrils have been in depth characterized by combining small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imaging. A synergic effect of collagen and citrate in driving the formation of long-term stable amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) nanoparticles with platy morphology was found. AFM images on mineralized collagen fibrils revealed that some of the ACP nanoparticles were deposited on the intramolecular nanoscopic holes of collagen fibrils. Citrate is an important component of the bone organic matrix but its specific role in bone mineralization is presently unclear. In this work, bioinspired in vitro collagen mineralization experiments in the presence of citrate have been carried out and the combined role of collagen and citrate in controlling mineral formation has been addressed for the first time. Through X-ray scattering and Atomic Force Microscopy characterizations on mineralized and non-mineralized collagen fibrils, we have found that citrate in synergy with collagen stabilizes an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase with platy morphology over one week and controls its deposition on collagen fibrils. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synergism between two amphenicol of antibiotics, florfenicol and thiamphenicol, against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Wei, C-F; Chang, S-K; Shien, J-H; Kuo, H-C; Chen, W-Y; Chou, C-C

    2016-03-26

    Synergistic effects between the same class of antibiotics are rarely reported. In the current study, two amphenicols, namely florfenicol and thiamphenicol, exhibited both in vitro and in vivo synergism against clinical isolates ofStaphylococcus aureusfrom chickens, cattle and pigs. Checkerboard assays on 21S. aureusisolates showed that in 80 per cent of methicillin-susceptibleS. aureus(MSSA) and 82 per cent of methicillin-resistantS. aureus(MRSA) isolates tested, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of florfenicol could be reduced by 75 per cent (1/4 MIC) or more (up to 1/16 MIC) when combined with 1/2 MIC of thiamphenicol to exhibit antimicrobial activity comparable to the respective drugs at original strength (1×MIC). A synergistic effect (fractional inhibitory concentration index ≤0.5 or ≥2-log10decrease in colony-forming unit/ml in time-kill study) was evident against 30 per cent of MSSA and 45 per cent of MRSA strains tested. A study in mice revealed that the florfenicol/thiamphenicol combination at reduced dosages provided sufficient protection againstS. aureuschallenge. The possible mechanism warrants further study but likely includes the facilitated uptake of thiamphenicol via florfenicol action, and this facilitation was not limited to amphenicol class. The present study may offer new strategy for combination therapy and provide potential alternatives for effective treatment againstS. aureusinfections.

  3. Proneural and abdominal Hox inputs synergize to promote sensory organ formation in the Drosophila abdomen.

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, Lisa M; Witt, Lorraine M; Gresser, Amy L; Burns, Kevin A; Cook, Tiffany A; Gebelein, Brian

    2010-12-15

    The atonal (ato) proneural gene specifies a stereotypic number of sensory organ precursors (SOP) within each body segment of the Drosophila ectoderm. Surprisingly, the broad expression of Ato within the ectoderm results in only a modest increase in SOP formation, suggesting many cells are incompetent to become SOPs. Here, we show that the SOP promoting activity of Ato can be greatly enhanced by three factors: the Senseless (Sens) zinc finger protein, the Abdominal-A (Abd-A) Hox factor, and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. First, we show that expression of either Ato alone or with Sens induces twice as many SOPs in the abdomen as in the thorax, and do so at the expense of an abdomen-specific cell fate: the larval oenocytes. Second, we demonstrate that Ato stimulates abdominal SOP formation by synergizing with Abd-A to promote EGF ligand (Spitz) secretion and secondary SOP recruitment. However, we also found that Ato and Sens selectively enhance abdominal SOP development in a Spitz-independent manner, suggesting additional genetic interactions between this proneural pathway and Abd-A. Altogether, these experiments reveal that genetic interactions between EGF-signaling, Abd-A, and Sens enhance the SOP-promoting activity of Ato to stimulate region-specific neurogenesis in the Drosophila abdomen. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-Trichophyton Activity of Protocatechuates and Their Synergism with Fluconazole

    PubMed Central

    Gullo, Fernanda Patrícia; Sardi, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi; Costa-Orlandi, Caroline Barcelos; Sangalli-Leite, Fernanda; Scorzoni, Liliana; Regasini, Luis Octávio; Petrônio, Maicon Segalla; Souza, Patrícia Fernanda; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytosis and superficial mycosis are a major global public health problem that affects 20–25% of the world's population. The increase in fungal resistance to the commercially available antifungal agents, in conjunction with the limited spectrum of action of such drugs, emphasises the need to develop new antifungal agents. Natural products are attractive prototypes for antifungal agents due to their broad spectrum of biological activities. This study aimed to verify the antifungal activity of protocatechuic acid, 3,4-diacetoxybenzoic, and fourteen alkyl protocatechuates (3,4-dihydroxybenzoates) against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes and to further assess their activities when combined with fluconazole. Susceptibility and synergism assays were conducted as described in M38-A2 (CLSI), with modifications. Three strains of Trichophyton rubrum and three strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were used in this work. The pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, and decyl protocatechuates showed great fungicidal effects, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.97 to 7.8 mg/L. Heptyl showed a synergistic activity (FIC index = 0.49), reducing the MIC of fluconazole by fourfold. All substances tested were safe, especially the hexyl, heptyl, octyl, and nonyl compounds, all of which showed a high selectivity index, particularly in combination with fluconazole. These ester associations with fluconazole may represent a promising source of prototypes in the search for anti-Trichophyton therapeutic agents. PMID:25136374

  5. Synergism between endotoxin priming and exotoxin challenge in provoking severe vascular leakage in rabbit lungs.

    PubMed

    Schütte, H; Rosseau, S; Czymek, R; Ermert, L; Walmrath, D; Krämer, H J; Seeger, W; Grimminger, F

    1997-09-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria prime rabbit lungs for enhanced thromboxane-mediated vasoconstriction upon subsequent challenge with the exotoxin Escherichia coli hemolysin (HlyA) (Walmrath et al. J. Exp. Med. 1994;180:1437-1443). We investigated the impact of endotoxin priming and subsequent HlyA challenge on lung vascular permeability while maintaining constancy of capillary pressure. Rabbit lungs were perfused in a pressure-controlled mode in the presence of the thromboxane receptor antagonist BM 13.505, with continuous monitoring of flow. Perfusion for 180 min with 10 ng/ml LPS did not provoke vasoconstriction or alteration of capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) values. HlyA (0.021 hemolytic units/ml) induced thromboxane release and a transient decrease in perfusion flow in the absence of significant changes in Kfc. Similar results were obtained when LPS and HlyA were coapplied simultaneously. However, when the HlyA challenge was undertaken after 180 min of LPS priming, a manifold increase in Kfc values was noted, with concomitant severe lung edema formation, although capillary pressure remained unchanged. Thus, endotoxin primes the lung vasculature to respond with a severe increase in vascular permeability to a subsequent low-dose application of HlyA. Such synergism between endotoxin priming and exotoxin challenge in provoking lung vascular leakage may contribute to the pathogenesis of respiratory failure in sepsis and severe lung infection.

  6. Synergism at clinically attainable concentrations of aminoglycoside and beta-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Hooton, T M; Blair, A D; Turck, M; Counts, G W

    1984-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro synergistic activity at clinically attainable concentrations of combinations of aminoglycoside and beta-lactam antibiotics against 30 gentamicin-resistant clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli. All 56 pairs of 4 aminoglycosides and 14 beta-lactams were evaluated. Combinations with amikacin demonstrated inhibitory synergistic activity in 29% of the assays, as compared with 22% for netilmicin (P = 0.018), 17% for gentamicin (P less than 0.001), and 13% for tobramycin (P less than 0.001). Among the beta-lactams, combinations with cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, or cefpiramide (SM-1652) demonstrated inhibitory synergistic activity most often (39, 38, and 35% of the assays, respectively) and with ceforanide, cefsulodin, and imipenem least often (less than or equal to 8% each). The most active combination was amikacin and ceftriaxone, with which 67% of the assays demonstrated inhibitory synergism. Isolates with high-level resistance to either antibiotic in a combination were unlikely to be inhibited synergistically by the combination. Further, combinations generally demonstrated little synergistic activity against isolates highly susceptible to beta-lactams. PMID:6517544

  7. Systematic chemical-genetic and chemical-chemical interaction datasets for prediction of compound synergism

    PubMed Central

    Wildenhain, Jan; Spitzer, Michaela; Dolma, Sonam; Jarvik, Nick; White, Rachel; Roy, Marcia; Griffiths, Emma; Bellows, David S.; Wright, Gerard D.; Tyers, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The network structure of biological systems suggests that effective therapeutic intervention may require combinations of agents that act synergistically. However, a dearth of systematic chemical combination datasets have limited the development of predictive algorithms for chemical synergism. Here, we report two large datasets of linked chemical-genetic and chemical-chemical interactions in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We screened 5,518 unique compounds against 242 diverse yeast gene deletion strains to generate an extended chemical-genetic matrix (CGM) of 492,126 chemical-gene interaction measurements. This CGM dataset contained 1,434 genotype-specific inhibitors, termed cryptagens. We selected 128 structurally diverse cryptagens and tested all pairwise combinations to generate a benchmark dataset of 8,128 pairwise chemical-chemical interaction tests for synergy prediction, termed the cryptagen matrix (CM). An accompanying database resource called ChemGRID was developed to enable analysis, visualisation and downloads of all data. The CGM and CM datasets will facilitate the benchmarking of computational approaches for synergy prediction, as well as chemical structure-activity relationship models for anti-fungal drug discovery. PMID:27874849

  8. Pharmacologic ascorbate synergizes with gemcitabine in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Espey, Michael Graham; Chen, Ping; Chalmers, Brian; Drisko, Jeanne; Sun, Andrew Y.; Levine, Mark; Chen, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Conventional treatment approaches have had little impact on the course of pancreatic cancer, which has the highest fatality rate among cancers. Gemcitabine, the primary therapeutic agent for pancreatic carcinoma, produces minimal survival benefit as a single agent. Therefore, numerous efforts have focused on gemcitabine combination treatments. Using a ratio design, this study established that combining pharmacologically achievable concentrations of ascorbate with gemcitabine resulted in a synergistic cytotoxic response in eight pancreatic tumor cell lines. Sensitization was evident regardless of inherent gemcitabine resistance and epithelial–mesenchymal phenotype. Our analysis suggested that the promiscuous oxidative actions of H2O2 derived from pharmacologic ascorbate can culminate in synergism independent of the cancer cell's underlying phenotype and resistance to gemcitabine monotherapy. Gemcitabine–ascorbate combinations administered to mice bearing pancreatic tumor xenografts consistently enhanced inhibition of growth compared to gemcitabine alone, produced 50% growth inhibition in a tumor type not responsive to gemcitabine, and demonstrated a gemcitabine dose-sparing effect. These data support the testing of pharmacologic ascorbate in adjunctive treatments for cancers prone to high failure rates with conventional therapeutic regimens, such as pancreatic cancer. PMID:21402145

  9. A Newly Isolated Penicillium oxalicum 16 Cellulase with High Efficient Synergism and High Tolerance of Monosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi-Hua; Wang, Wei; Tong, Bin; Zhang, Su-Ping; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Compared to Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 cellulase (Trcel), Penicillium oxalicum 16 cellulase (P16cel) from the fermentation supernatant produced a 2-fold higher glucose yield when degrading microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), possessed a 10-fold higher β-glucosidase (BGL) activity, but obtained somewhat lower other cellulase component activities. The optimal temperature and pH of β-1,4-endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and filter paperase from P16cel were 50-60 °C and 4-5, respectively, but those of BGL reached 70 °C and 5. The cellulase cocktail of P16cel and Trcel had a high synergism when solubilizing MCC and generated 1.7-fold and 6.2-fold higher glucose yields than P16cel and Trcel at the same filter paperase loading, respectively. Additional low concentration of fructose enhanced the glucose yield during enzymatic hydrolysis of MCC; however, additional high concentration of monosaccharide (especially glucose) reduced cellulase activities and gave a stronger monosaccharide inhibition on Trcel. These results indicate that P16cel is a more excellent cellulase than Trcel.

  10. Development of the synergism between Fluxnet and global terrestrial remote sensing (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Running, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Coordination of Fluxnet sites worldwide with new global remote sensing data products has emerged as one of the finest successes of international collaboration in global change science. The concept of an organized and quality controlled network of flux towers evolved in the early 1990s concurrently as the foundation of a new generation of earth observing satellites was being developed. The idea of linking the ground based flux towers with the remote sensing platforms developed in an array of meetings within the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. Global remote sensing had an incentive to get connected to an international network of ground truth stations run by scientists, while fluxtower teams had the incentive of using the satellite based datasets for extrapolation of their tower measurements to broader regions. The new satellite datasets went beyond classic spectral vegetation indices to variables more relevant to the flux community such as for example; albedo, land surface temperature, Fraction of absorbed PAR, leaf area index, gross primary production and evapotranspiration. The credibility of these global ecosystem datasets has been dramatically improved by the synergism with Fluxnet.

  11. The electronic structure of alloxan monohydrate. Spectroscopic and density functional synergic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elroby, Shaaban A.; Aziz, Saadullah G.; Hilal, Rifaat H.

    2017-02-01

    In the present communication, quantitative interpretation and assignments of the electronic absorption spectra, vibrational and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra of alloxan, are detailed. A synergic analysis based on DFT and TD-DFT calculations and the experimental findings are performed. Attempt is made to relate these spectral findings to the electronic structure of alloxan. The computed electronic spectrum predicted three well defined bands. Natural transition orbital analysis indicate an intramolecular charge transfer from npπ orbital of the water oxygen atom resulting in the short wavelength nπ* at ∼200 nm. Furthermore, UV-photoabsorption cross section for alloxan and its monohydrate are simulated. The spectrum, composed of 10 excited states, was simulated with the nuclear ensemble approximation, sampling a Wigner distribution with 300 points. The FT-IR spectrum of alloxan, measured in the solid state as KBr pellets is reported and is computed at the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. All observed vibrations are assigned. The 600 MHz one- and two-dimensional COSY, 1H NMR spectra of alloxan, measured in DMSO, are reported and analyzed and computed theoretically using the GIAO method. Hydrogen-bond interactions are responsible for remarkable downfield shift of 1H NMR peaks for alloxan.

  12. Radiation-thermal degradation of PE and PVC: Mechanism of synergism and dose rate effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, Roger L.; Gillen, Kenneth T.

    Polyethylene insulation and polyvinyl chloride jacketing materials that had been in use in a nuclear application were recently found to be substantially deteriorated. The damage had occurred under conditions where both the total estimated dose (about 2.5 Mrad) and the operating temperatures (about 43°C average) seemed relatively moderate. These results prompted us to initiate a program to study polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene degradation under conditions of combined γ-radiation and elevated temperature environments. A number of interesting aging effects were observed, including 1) a striking synergism between radiation and temperature and 2) strong dose-rate dependent effects which occur over a wide range of dose rates. The aging effects are explained in terms of a chain branching degradation mechanism involving thermally induced breakdown of peroxides which are formed in reactions initiated by the radiation. Evidence for this mechanism is derived from infrared spectra, from sequential radiation-elevated temperature experiments including experiments under inert atmosphere, from activation energy estimates and from a new technique involving treatment of intact samples with PH 3 for chemical reduction of peroxides. The results of our studies raise significant doubts about the utility of earlier compilations which purportedly serve as radiation life expectancy guides by indicating "tolerable radiation doses" for a variety of polymers.

  13. HDAC and Proteasome Inhibitors Synergize to Activate Pro-Apoptotic Factors in Synovial Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Barrott, Jared J.; Yao, Ren Jie; Poulin, Neal M.; Brodin, Bertha A.; Jones, Kevin B.; Underhill, T. Michael; Nielsen, Torsten O.

    2017-01-01

    Conventional cytotoxic therapies for synovial sarcoma provide limited benefit, and no drugs specifically targeting its driving SS18-SSX fusion oncoprotein are currently available. Patients remain at high risk for early and late metastasis. A high-throughput drug screen consisting of over 900 tool compounds and epigenetic modifiers, representing over 100 drug classes, was undertaken in a panel of synovial sarcoma cell lines to uncover novel sensitizing agents and targetable pathways. Top scoring drug categories were found to be HDAC inhibitors and proteasomal targeting agents. We find that the HDAC inhibitor quisinostat disrupts the SS18-SSX driving protein complex, thereby reestablishing expression of EGR1 and CDKN2A tumor suppressors. In combination with proteasome inhibition, HDAC inhibitors synergize to decrease cell viability and elicit apoptosis. Quisinostat inhibits aggresome formation in response to proteasome inhibition, and combination treatment leads to elevated endoplasmic reticulum stress, activation of pro-apoptotic effector proteins BIM and BIK, phosphorylation of BCL-2, increased levels of reactive oxygen species, and suppression of tumor growth in a murine model of synovial sarcoma. This study identifies and provides mechanistic support for a particular susceptibility of synovial sarcoma to the combination of quisinostat and proteasome inhibition. PMID:28056055

  14. Smac mimetics synergize with immune checkpoint inhibitors to promote tumour immunity against glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Beug, Shawn T; Beauregard, Caroline E; Healy, Cristin; Sanda, Tarun; St-Jean, Martine; Chabot, Janelle; Walker, Danielle E; Mohan, Aditya; Earl, Nathalie; Lun, Xueqing; Senger, Donna L; Robbins, Stephen M; Staeheli, Peter; Forsyth, Peter A; Alain, Tommy; LaCasse, Eric C; Korneluk, Robert G

    2017-02-15

    Small-molecule inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) antagonists, called Smac mimetic compounds (SMCs), sensitize tumours to TNF-α-induced killing while simultaneously blocking TNF-α growth-promoting activities. SMCs also regulate several immunomodulatory properties within immune cells. We report that SMCs synergize with innate immune stimulants and immune checkpoint inhibitor biologics to produce durable cures in mouse models of glioblastoma in which single agent therapy is ineffective. The complementation of activities between these classes of therapeutics is dependent on cytotoxic T-cell activity and is associated with a reduction in immunosuppressive T-cells. Notably, the synergistic effect is dependent on type I IFN and TNF-α signalling. Furthermore, our results implicate an important role for TNF-α-producing cytotoxic T-cells in mediating the anti-cancer effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors when combined with SMCs. Overall, this combinatorial approach could be highly effective in clinical application as it allows for cooperative and complimentary mechanisms in the immune cell-mediated death of cancer cells.

  15. Phellinus linteus extract induces autophagy and synergizes with 5-fluorouracil to inhibit breast cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Ying; Hsu, Keng-Fu; Chiang, Tai-An; Chen, Chee-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus linteus (PL) is a medicinal mushroom due to its several biological properties, including anticancer activity. However, the mechanisms of its anticancer effect remain to be elucidated. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of the ethanolic extract from the PL combined with 5-FU on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line and to determine the mechanism of cell death. Individually, PL extract and 5-FU significantly inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner. PL extract (30 mg/mL) in combination with 5-FU (10 μg/mL) synergistically inhibited MDA-MB-231 cells by 1.8-fold. PL did not induce apoptosis, as demonstrated by the DNA fragmentation assay, the sub-G1 population, and staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. The exposure of MDA-MB-231 cells to PL extracts resulted in several confirmed characteristics of autophagy, including the appearance of autophagic vacuoles revealed by monodansylcadaverine staining, the formation of acidic vesicular organelles, autophagosome membrane association of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) characterized by cleavage of LC3 and its punctuate redistribution, and ultrastructural observation of autophagic vacuoles by transmission electron microscopy. We concluded that PL extracts synergized with low doses of 5-FU to inhibit triple-negative breast cancer cell growth and demonstrated that PL extract can induce autophagy-related cell death.

  16. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and nivalenol show in vivo synergism on jejunum enterocytes apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Cheat, Sophal; Pinton, Philippe; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Cognie, Juliette; Vilariño, Maria; Callu, Patrick; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Oswald, Isabelle P; Kolf-Clauw, Martine

    2016-01-01

    The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), worldwide cereal contaminants, raise concerns for human and animal gut health, following exposure through contaminated food and feed. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of DON and NIV, alone or associated, on the intestinal pig mucosa. Jejunal loops were used for testing DON and NIV individually and in combination (1:1) after a single exposure, for 24 h. For repeated exposure, piglets received a natural contaminated feed, with DON or with DON + NIV for 28 days. Histological investigations, proliferation and apoptosis assessments were conducted. Both experiments were concordant for the total-cell proliferation decreased at the villus tips after DON or DON + NIV at 10 μM acutely, or repeatedly, by 30-35% and 20-25%, respectively. In loops model, apoptotic enterocytes at villus tips increased dose-dependently after DON, NIV alone or DON + NIV in combination. The combination in loops at 10 μM showed higher effects on proliferation and apoptosis than DON alone, and synergism was shown for villus apoptotic enterocyte. These results are to be considered for NIV consumer risk assessment. Our results demonstrate the in vivo disruption of the intestinal balance proliferation/apoptosis explaining, at least partly, the disruption of intestinal barrier by these mycotoxins.

  17. ( sup 3 H)protein secretion in rat parotid gland: Substance P-. beta. -adrenergic synergism

    SciTech Connect

    Dreux, C.; Imhoff, V.; Rossignol, B. )

    1987-12-01

    In parotid fragment ({sup 3}H)protein, secretion induced by substance P was moderate, but strongly Ca dependent. However, secretion induced by isoproterenol was large and Ca independent. Potentiation of protein secretion was observed when substance P (SP) and isoproterenol (ISO) acted together. Addition of 10{sup {minus}8} M SP caused a shift to the left in the secretion dose-response curve caused by ISO, but did not enhance ISO-induced maximal response. The potentiating effect seems to be a postreceptor event, since it can be mimicked by forskolin (FK), known to induce directly cAMP accumulation, thus bypassing the {beta}-adrenergic receptor. The synergism described above was, therefore, investigated at the second messenger production level. Stimulation of parotid gland fragments by simultaneous addition of SP plus ISO or FK did not modify cAMP nor inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) accumulation induced independently by each secretagogue alone. The ionophore A23187 was also able to potentiate secretion induced by a {beta}-adrenergic agonist, this effect being totally abolished by external calcium omission, thus suggesting a role for external calcium in this potentiation phenomenon. These results suggest that the potentiation phenomenon observed is a postreceptor event that occurs at a step distal from the second messenger production.

  18. Innate and Adaptive Immunity Synergize to Trigger Inflammation in the Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Rainard, Pascal; Cunha, Patricia; Gilbert, Florence B.

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland is able to detect and react to bacterial intrusion through innate immunity mechanisms, but mammary inflammation can also result from antigen-specific adaptive immunity. We postulated that innate and adaptive immune responses could synergize to trigger inflammation in the mammary gland. To test this hypothesis, we immunized cows with the model antigen ovalbumin and challenged the sensitized animals with either Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as innate immunity agonist, ovalbumin as adaptive immunity agonist, or both agonists in three different udder quarters of lactating cows. There was a significant amplification of the initial milk leukocytosis in the quarters challenged with the two agonists compared to leukocytosis in quarters challenged with LPS or ovalbumin alone. This synergistic response occurred only with the cows that developed the ovalbumin-specific inflammatory response, and there were significant correlations between milk leukocytosis and production of IL-17A and IFN-γ in a whole-blood ovalbumin stimulation assay. The antigen-specific response induced substantial concentrations of IL-17A and IFN-γ in milk contrary to the response to LPS. Such a synergy at the onset of the reaction of the mammary gland suggests that induction of antigen-specific immune response with bacterial antigens could improve the initial immune response to infection, hence reducing the bacterial load and contributing to protection. PMID:27100324

  19. Synergisms among fire, land use, and climate change in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Mark A; Laurance, William F

    2008-12-01

    The Amazon is being rapidly transformed by fire. Logging and forest fragmentation sharply elevate fire incidence by increasing forest desiccation and fuel loads, and forests that have experienced a low-intensity surface fire are vulnerable to far more catastrophic fires. Satellites typically detect thermal signatures from 40 000 to 50 000 separate fires in the Amazon each year, and this number could increase as new highways and infrastructure expand across the basin. Many are concerned that large-scale deforestation, by reducing regional evapotranspiration and creating moisture-trapping smoke plumes, will make the basin increasingly vulnerable to fire. The Amazon may also be affected by future global warming and atmospheric changes, although much remains uncertain. Most models suggest the basin will become warmer throughout this century, although there is no consensus about how precipitation will be affected. The most alarming scenarios project a permanent disruption of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, leading to greatly increased drought or destructive synergisms between regional and global climate change in the Amazon.

  20. Alkaline pretreatment and the synergic effect of water and tetralin enhances the liquefaction efficiency of bagasse.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhixia; Cao, Jiangfei; Huang, Kai; Hong, Yaming; Li, Cunlong; Zhou, Xinxin; Xie, Ning; Lai, Fang; Shen, Fang; Chen, Congjin

    2015-02-01

    Bagasse liquefaction (BL) in water, tetralin, and water/tetralin mixed solvents (WTMS) was investigated, and effects of tetralin content in WTMS, temperature, and alkaline pretreatment of bagasse on liquefaction efficiency were studied. At 300°C, bagasse conversion in WTMS with tetralin content higher than 50 wt% was 86-87 wt%, whereas bagasse conversion in water or tetralin was 67 wt% or 84 wt%, respectively. Because the solid conversion from liquefaction in WTMS with tetralin content higher than 50 wt% was always higher than that in water or tetralin at temperatures between 250 and 300°C, a synergic effect between water and tetralin is suggested. Alkaline pretreatment of bagasse resulted in significantly higher conversion and heavy oil yield from BL in water or WTMS. The effect of deoxygenation by the present liquefaction method is demonstrated by lower oxygen contents (16.01-19.59 wt%) and higher heating values (31.9-34.8 MJ/kg) in the produced oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Smac mimetics synergize with immune checkpoint inhibitors to promote tumour immunity against glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Beug, Shawn T.; Beauregard, Caroline E.; Healy, Cristin; Sanda, Tarun; St-Jean, Martine; Chabot, Janelle; Walker, Danielle E.; Mohan, Aditya; Earl, Nathalie; Lun, Xueqing; Senger, Donna L.; Robbins, Stephen M.; Staeheli, Peter; Forsyth, Peter A.; Alain, Tommy; LaCasse, Eric C.; Korneluk, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Small-molecule inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) antagonists, called Smac mimetic compounds (SMCs), sensitize tumours to TNF-α-induced killing while simultaneously blocking TNF-α growth-promoting activities. SMCs also regulate several immunomodulatory properties within immune cells. We report that SMCs synergize with innate immune stimulants and immune checkpoint inhibitor biologics to produce durable cures in mouse models of glioblastoma in which single agent therapy is ineffective. The complementation of activities between these classes of therapeutics is dependent on cytotoxic T-cell activity and is associated with a reduction in immunosuppressive T-cells. Notably, the synergistic effect is dependent on type I IFN and TNF-α signalling. Furthermore, our results implicate an important role for TNF-α-producing cytotoxic T-cells in mediating the anti-cancer effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors when combined with SMCs. Overall, this combinatorial approach could be highly effective in clinical application as it allows for cooperative and complimentary mechanisms in the immune cell-mediated death of cancer cells. PMID:28198370

  2. Impaired Synergic Control of Posture in Parkinson’s Patients without Postural Instability

    PubMed Central

    Falaki, Ali; Huang, Xuemei; Lewis, Mechelle M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Postural instability is one of most disabling motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. Indices of multi-muscle synergies are new measurements of movement and postural stability. Objectives Multi-muscle synergies stabilizing vertical posture were studied in Parkinson’s disease patients without clinical symptoms of postural instability (Hoehn-Yahr- ≤ II) and age-matched controls. We tested the hypothesis that both synergy indices during quiet standing and synergy adjustments to self-triggered postural perturbations would be reduced in patients. Methods Eleven Parkinson’s disease patients and 11 controls performed whole-body tasks while standing. Surface electromyography was used to quantify synergy indices stabilizing center of pressure shifts in the anterior-posterior direction during a load-release task. Results Parkinson’s disease patients showed a significantly lower percentage of variance in the muscle activation space accounted for by the first four principal components, significantly reduced synergy indices during steady state, and significantly reduced anticipatory synergy adjustments (a drop in the synergy index prior to the self-triggered unloading). Conclusions The study demonstrates for the first time that impaired synergic control in Parkinson’s disease can be quantified in postural tasks, even in patients without clinical manifestations of postural instability. Synergy measurements may provide a biomarker sensitive for early problems with postural stability in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:27004660

  3. Synergism of Alkaline Extract of the Leaves of Sasa senanensis Rehder and Antiviral Agents.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Hiroshi; Fukuchi, Kunihiko; Kanamoto, Taisei; Terakubo, Shigemi; Nakashima, Hideki; Natori, Takenori; Suguro-Kitajima, Madoka; Oizumi, Hiroshi; Yasui, Toshikazu; Oizumi, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a much greater antiviral activity of alkaline extract of the leaves of Sasa senanensis Rehder (SE) against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), compared to lignin precursors, tannins and flavonoids, suggesting its possible application to oral diseases. Systematic comparative study with herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been limited compared to that with HIV. In the present study, we investigated whether combination of SE with other popular antiviral agents further enhances their individual activity. Cell viability of mock-infected, HIV-infected and HSV-infected cells was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. The antiviral activity was evaluated by the selectivity index, defined as the ratio of 50% cytotoxic concentration to 50% effective concentration. Synergy between SE and antiviral agents was evaluated by MacSynerg and CompuSyn software. SE showed potent anti-HIV activity, although its activity was two-orders lower than that of azidothymidine, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine dextran sulfate and curdlan sulfate. Combination of SE with these antiviral agents produced synergistic effects. Using a newly established MTT assay system for anti-HSV activity, SE and acyclovir were found to have synergistic anti-HSV activity. The present study suggests the possible efficacy of the clinical application of SE combined with antiviral agents. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Synergism between Medihoney and Rifampicin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Patrick; Alber, Dagmar G.; Turnbull, Lynne; Schlothauer, Ralf C.; Carter, Dee A.; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Harry, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Skin and chronic wound infections caused by highly antibiotic resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are an increasing and urgent health problem worldwide, particularly with sharp increases in obesity and diabetes. New Zealand manuka honey has potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, has been shown to inhibit the growth of MRSA strains, and bacteria resistant to this honey have not been obtainable in the laboratory. Combinational treatment of chronic wounds with manuka honey and common antibiotics may offer a wide range of advantages including synergistic enhancement of the antibacterial activity, reduction of the effective dose of the antibiotic, and reduction of the risk of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Medihoney in combination with the widely used antibiotic rifampicin on S. aureus. Using checkerboard microdilution assays, time-kill curve experiments and agar diffusion assays, we show a synergism between Medihoney and rifampicin against MRSA and clinical isolates of S. aureus. Furthermore, the Medihoney/rifampicin combination stopped the appearance of rifampicin-resistant S. aureus in vitro. Methylglyoxal (MGO), believed to be the major antibacterial compound in manuka honey, did not act synergistically with rifampicin and is therefore not the sole factor responsible for the synergistic effect of manuka honey with rifampicin. Our findings support the idea that a combination of honey and antibiotics may be an effective new antimicrobial therapy for chronic wound infections. PMID:23469049

  5. Antagonism and synergism in Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, G S; Soares-Brandão, K L K; Branco, K M G R; Sampaio, J L M; Nardi, R M D; Mendonça, M; Almeida, R B; Farias, L M; Carvalho, M A R; Nicoli, J R

    2010-08-01

    Antagonistic and synergistic substances are important for interactions between micro-organisms associated with human body surfaces, either in healthy or in diseased conditions. In the present study, such compounds produced by Gardnerella vaginalis strains isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) were detected in vitro and the antagonistic ones were partially characterized. Among 11 G. vaginalis strains tested, all showed antagonistic activity against at least one of the 22 indicator bacteria assayed. Interestingly, for some of these strains, antagonism reverted to synergism, favouring one of the indicator strains (Peptostreptococcus anaerobius) when the growth medium was changed. Partial characterization of antagonistic substances suggested a bacteriocin-like chemical nature. Depending on growth conditions, G. vaginalis isolated from women with BV produced antagonistic or synergistic compounds for other bacterial components of the vaginal ecosystem. This is the first report to our knowledge of the production of antagonistic and/or synergistic substances by G. vaginalis. This ability may be a pivotal factor in understanding BV and the ecological role of this bacterium in the vaginal environment.

  6. Synergic Effects of Rehabilitation and Intravenous Infusion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells After Stroke in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasaki, Masanori; Kataoka-Sasaki, Yuko; Nakazaki, Masahito; Nagahama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Junpei; Tateyama, Daiki; Oka, Shinichi; Namioka, Takahiro; Namioka, Ai; Onodera, Rie; Mikami, Takeshi; Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Kakizawa, Masafumi; Ishiai, Sumio; Kocsis, Jeffery D; Honmou, Osamu

    2016-11-01

    Intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adult bone marrow improves behavioral function in rat stroke models. Rehabilitation therapy through physical exercise also provides therapeutic efficacy for cerebral ischemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether synergic effects of daily rehabilitation and intravenous infusion of MSCs has therapeutic effects after stroke in rats. This was an experimental study. A permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced by intraluminal vascular occlusion with a microfilament. Four experimental groups were studied: group 1 (vehicle only, n=10), group 2 (vehicle + exercise, n=10), group 3 (MSCs only, n=10), and group 4 (MSCs + exercise, n=10). Rat MSCs were intravenously infused at 6 hours after MCAO, and the rats received daily rehabilitation with treadmill running exercise for 20 minutes. Lesion size was assessed at 1, 14, and 35 days using magnetic resonance imaging. Functional outcome was assessed using the Limb Placement Test. Both combined therapy and MSC infusion reduced lesion volume, induced synaptogenesis, and elicited functional improvement compared with the groups without MSC infusion, but the effect was greater in the combined therapy group. A limitation of this study is that the results were limited to an animal model and cannot be generalized to humans. The data indicate that the combined therapy of daily rehabilitation and intravenous infusion of MSCs improved functional outcome in a rat MCAO model. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  7. HIF1alpha synergizes with glucocorticoids to promote BFU-E progenitor self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Flygare, Johan; Rayon Estrada, Violeta; Shin, Chanseok; Gupta, Sumeet; Lodish, Harvey F

    2011-03-24

    With the aim of finding small molecules that stimulate erythropoiesis earlier than erythropoietin and that enhance erythroid colony-forming unit (CFU-E) production, we studied the mechanism by which glucocorticoids increase CFU-E formation. Using erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E) and CFU-E progenitors purified by a new technique, we demonstrate that glucocorticoids stimulate the earliest (BFU-E) progenitors to undergo limited self-renewal, which increases formation of CFU-E cells > 20-fold. Interestingly, glucocorticoids induce expression of genes in BFU-E cells that contain promoter regions highly enriched for hypoxia-induced factor 1α (HIF1α) binding sites. This suggests activation of HIF1α may enhance or replace the effect of glucocorticoids on BFU-E self-renewal. Indeed, HIF1α activation by a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (PHI) synergizes with glucocorticoids and enhances production of CFU-Es 170-fold. Because PHIs are able to increase erythroblast production at very low concentrations of glucocorticoids, PHI-induced stimulation of BFU-E progenitors thus represents a conceptually new therapeutic window for treating erythropoietin-resistant anemia.

  8. BCR and Endosomal TLR Signals Synergize to Increase AID Expression and Establish Central B Cell Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kuraoka, Masayuki; Snowden, Pilar B; Nojima, Takuya; Verkoczy, Laurent; Haynes, Barton F; Kitamura, Daisuke; Kelsoe, Garnett

    2017-02-14

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required to purge autoreactive immature and transitional-1 (immature/T1) B cells at the first tolerance checkpoint, but how AID selectively removes self-reactive B cells is unclear. We now show that B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and endosomal Toll-like receptor (TLR) signals synergize to elicit high levels of AID expression in immature/T1 B cells. This synergy is restricted to ligands for endocytic TLR and requires phospholipase-D activation, endosomal acidification, and MyD88. The first checkpoint is significantly impaired in AID- or MyD88-deficient mice and in mice doubly heterozygous for AID and MyD88, suggesting interaction of these factors in central B cell tolerance. Moreover, administration of chloroquine, an inhibitor of endosomal acidification, results in a failure to remove autoreactive immature/T1 B cells in mice. We propose that a BCR/TLR pathway coordinately establishes central tolerance by hyper-activating AID in immature/T1 B cells that bind ligands for endosomal TLRs.

  9. Evaluation of synergized pyrethrin aerosol for control of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Kharel, Kabita; Arthur, Frank H; Zhu, Kun Yan; Campbell, James F; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju

    2014-02-01

    Aerosol insecticides are being used in flour mill pest management programs, but there is limited information on their efficacy on different insect life stages. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of synergized pyrethrin applied as an aerosol against eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val. Effects of direct and indirect exposure were evaluated by exposing each life stage to the aerosol and then transferring to untreated flour, transferring untreated insects to treated flour, or exposing both the insects and the flour to the aerosol. The aerosol produced >88% mortality of both species and all life stages when insects were directly treated and transferred to either treated or untreated flour. Mortality was significantly reduced when insects were either treated together with flour or untreated insects were transferred to treated flour (indirect exposure to the aerosol). Larvae and adults of both species were more tolerant compared with eggs and pupae. Recovery of moribund adults in the indirect exposure treatments was greater compared with recovery of moribund insects in the direct exposure treatments. Good sanitation before aerosol application could facilitate direct exposure of insects and thus increase aerosol efficacy inside flour mills.

  10. Synergisms between microbial pathogens in plant disease complexes: a growing trend

    PubMed Central

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Venturi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Plant diseases are often thought to be caused by one species or even by a specific strain. Microbes in nature, however, mostly occur as part of complex communities and this has been noted since the time of van Leeuwenhoek. Interestingly, most laboratory studies focus on single microbial strains grown in pure culture; we were therefore unaware of possible interspecies and/or inter-kingdom interactions of pathogenic microbes in the wild. In human and animal infections, it is now being recognized that many diseases are the result of multispecies synergistic interactions. This increases the complexity of the disease and has to be taken into consideration in the development of more effective control measures. On the other hand, there are only a few reports of synergistic pathogen–pathogen interactions in plant diseases and the mechanisms of interactions are currently unknown. Here we review some of these reports of synergism between different plant pathogens and their possible implications in crop health. Finally, we briefly highlight the recent technological advances in diagnostics as these are beginning to provide important insights into the microbial communities associated with complex plant diseases. These examples of synergistic interactions of plant pathogens that lead to disease complexes might prove to be more common than expected and understanding the underlying mechanisms might have important implications in plant disease epidemiology and management. PMID:26074945

  11. Phenylacetate synergizes with retinoic acid in inducing the differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sidell, N; Wada, R; Han, G; Chang, B; Shack, S; Moore, T; Samid, D

    1995-02-08

    Phenylacetate, a natural metabolite of phenylalanine which was originally described as a plant growth hormone, has recently gained attention as a possible differentiation inducer for a variety of human tumor cell types. This interest prompted us to assess the ability of sodium phenylacetate (NaPA) to promote the differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells, both alone and in combination with retinoic acid (RA), a known inducer of neuroblastoma differentiation and maturation. Using the LA-N-5 cell line, we have determined that NaPA can stimulate the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells, as evidenced by dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, neurite outgrowth, increased acetylcholinesterase activity and reduction of N-myc expression. Furthermore, NaPA and RA synergized in inducing differentiation, in that combination treatment resulted in cessation of cell growth along with morphologic and biochemical changes indicative of the loss of malignant properties. We have determined that NaPA can markedly enhance mRNA levels of the nuclear RA receptor-beta (RAR beta) in LA-N-5 cells prior to morphologic or other phenotypic changes induced by this compound. This effect appeared to be distinct from the ability of NaPA to alter tumor cell lipid metabolism via inhibition of protein isoprenylation. Thus among its varied effects on LA-N-5 cells, NaPA appears to interact with the RA pathway at the nuclear level by up-regulating RAR beta expression.

  12. Synergism between ammonia and phenols for Hybomitra tabanids in northern and temperate Canada.

    PubMed

    Mihok, S; Lange, K

    2012-09-01

    Baits for tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae) were tested in the Northwest Territories (60 °N) and Ontario (45 °N) using Nzi traps. Tests targeted ammonia, phenols/cow urine and octenol. About 200 000 tabanids were captured in 15 experiments with a maximum capture of 4182 in one trap in 1 day. In the Northwest Territories, phenols, urine and octenol were effective single baits for only some species. At both locations, adding ammonia to an unbaited or an octenol-baited trap had no effect on catches. By contrast, catches were increased for several species when ammonia was combined with phenols or urine. In Ontario, including ammonia in various baits increased catches by 1.5- to 3.4-fold relative to octenol alone for three Hybomitra and one Tabanus species. Synergism between ammonia and phenols was clearly demonstrated for the dominant Hybomitra species in Ontario (Hybomitra lasiophthalma), but not for the dominant species in the Northwest Territories (Hybomitra epistates). In five other northern Hybomitra species, baits of ammonia and/or octenol in combination with phenols resulted in a 1.7- to 4.1-fold increase in catch relative to an unbaited trap. Further tests of ammonia as a synergist for biting flies may prove useful in, for example, tsetse, which respond strongly to phenols.

  13. Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase associates with an insulin receptor substrate-1 serine kinase distinct from its intrinsic serine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Cengel, K A; Kason, R E; Freund, G G

    1998-01-01

    Serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) has been proposed as a counter-regulatory mechanism in insulin and cytokine signalling. Here we report that IRS-1 is phosphorylated by a wortmannin insensitive phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI 3-kinase)-associated serine kinase (PAS kinase) distinct from PI 3-kinase serine kinase. We found that PI 3-kinase immune complexes contain 5-fold more wortmannin-insensitive serine kinase activity than SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) and IRS-1 immune complexes. Affinity chromatography of cell lysates with a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein for the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase showed that PAS kinase associated with the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase. This interaction required unoccupied SH2 domain(s) but did not require the PI 3-kinase p110 subunit binding domain. In terms of function, PAS kinase phosphorylated IRS-1 and, after insulin stimulation, PAS kinase phosphorylated IRS-1 in PI 3-kinase-IRS-1 complexes. Phosphopeptide mapping showed that insulin-dependent in vivo sites of IRS-1 serine phosphorylation were comparable to those of PAS kinase phosphorylated IRS-1. More importantly, PAS kinase-dependent phosphorylation of IRS-1 reduced by 4-fold the ability of IRS-1 to act as an insulin receptor substrate. Taken together, these findings indicate that: (a) PAS kinase is distinct from the intrinsic serine kinase activity of PI 3-kinase, (b) PAS kinase associates with the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase through SH2 domain interactions, and (c) PAS kinase is an IRS-1 serine kinase that can reduce the ability of IRS-1 to serve as an insulin receptor substrate. PMID:9761740

  14. Understanding the Polo Kinase machine.

    PubMed

    Archambault, V; Lépine, G; Kachaner, D

    2015-09-10

    The Polo Kinase is a central regulator of cell division required for several events of mitosis and cytokinesis. In addition to a kinase domain (KD), Polo-like kinases (Plks) comprise a Polo-Box domain (PBD), which mediates protein interactions with targets and regulators of Plks. In all organisms that contain Plks, one Plk family member fulfills several essential functions in the regulation of cell division, and here we refer to this conserved protein as Polo Kinase (Plk1 in humans). The PBD and the KD are capable of both cooperation and mutual inhibition in their functions. Crystal structures of the PBD, the KD and, recently, a PBD-KD complex have helped understanding the inner workings of the Polo Kinase. In parallel, an impressive array of molecular mechanisms has been found to mediate the regulation of the protein. Moreover, the targeting of Polo Kinase in the development of anti-cancer drugs has yielded several molecules with which to chemically modulate Polo Kinase to study its biological functions. Here we review our current understanding of the protein function and regulation of Polo Kinase as a fascinating molecular device in control of cell division.

  15. The orally active and bioavailable ATR kinase inhibitor AZD6738 potentiates the anti-tumor effects of cisplatin to resolve ATM-deficient non-small cell lung cancer in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vendetti, Frank P; Lau, Alan; Schamus, Sandra; Conrads, Thomas P; O'Connor, Mark J; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2015-12-29

    ATR and ATM are DNA damage signaling kinases that phosphorylate several thousand substrates. ATR kinase activity is increased at damaged replication forks and resected DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). ATM kinase activity is increased at DSBs. ATM has been widely studied since ataxia telangiectasia individuals who express no ATM protein are the most radiosensitive patients identified. Since ATM is not an essential protein, it is widely believed that ATM kinase inhibitors will be well-tolerated in the clinic. ATR has been widely studied, but advances have been complicated by the finding that ATR is an essential protein and it is widely believed that ATR kinase inhibitors will be toxic in the clinic. We describe AZD6738, an orally active and bioavailable ATR kinase inhibitor. AZD6738 induces cell death and senescence in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. AZD6738 potentiates the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and gemcitabine in NSCLC cell lines with intact ATM kinase signaling, and potently synergizes with cisplatin in ATM-deficient NSCLC cells. In contrast to expectations, daily administration of AZD6738 and ATR kinase inhibition for 14 consecutive days is tolerated in mice and enhances the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin in xenograft models. Remarkably, the combination of cisplatin and AZD6738 resolves ATM-deficient lung cancer xenografts.

  16. P21 activated kinases

    PubMed Central

    Rane, Chetan K; Minden, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    The p21 activated kinases (Paks) are well known effector proteins for the Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac. The Paks contain 6 members, which fall into 2 families of proteins. The first family consists of Paks 1, 2, and 3, and the second consists of Paks 4, 5, and 6. While some of the Paks are ubiquitously expressed, others have more restrictive tissue specificity. All of them are found in the nervous system. Studies using cell culture, transgenic mice, and knockout mice, have revealed important roles for the Paks in cytoskeletal organization and in many aspects of cell growth and development. This review discusses the basic structures of the Paks, and their roles in cell growth, development, and in cancer. PMID:24658305

  17. ERK kinases modulate the activation of PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs) in DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaozeng; Yan, Judy; Tang, Damu

    2013-12-01

    DNA damage response (DDR) is the critical surveillance mechanism in maintaining genome integrity. The mechanism activates checkpoints to prevent cell cycle progression in the presence of DNA lesions, and mediates lesion repair. DDR is coordinated by three apical PI3 kinase related kinases (PIKKs), including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR), and DNA-PKcs (the catalytic subunit of the DNA dependent protein kinase). These kinases are activated in response to specific DNA damage or lesions, resulting in checkpoint activation and DNA lesion repair. While it is clear that the pathways of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK are the core components of DDR, there is accumulating evidence revealing the involvement of other cellular pathways in regulating DDR; this is in line with the concept that in addition to being a nuclear event DDR is also a cellular process. One of these pathways is the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. ERK is a converging point of multiple signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Adding to this list of pathways is the recent development of ERK in DDR. The ERK kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) contribute to the proper execution of DDR in terms of checkpoint activation and the repair of DNA lesions. This review summarizes the contributions of ERK to DDR with emphasis on the relationship of ERK kinases with the activation of ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs.

  18. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, MEK-1 and p38 mediate leptin/interferon-gamma synergistic NOS type II induction in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Otero, Miguel; Lago, Rocío; Gómez, Rodolfo; Lago, Francisca; Gomez-Reino, Juan Jesús; Gualillo, Oreste

    2007-10-27

    In a previous study, we established that leptin acts synergistically with interferon-gamma in inducing nitric oxide synthase type II in cultured chondrocytes via Janus kinase-2 activation. However, the exact molecular mechanism that accounts for this synergism is not completely understood. The aim of the present study was to further delineate the signalling pathway used by leptin/interferon-gamma in the nitric oxide synthase type II induction in chondrocytes. Consequently, the roles of PI-3 kinase, MEK1 and p38 kinase were investigated using specific pharmacological inhibitors (Wortmannin, LY 294002, PD 098,059 and SB 203580). For this purpose, the amount of stable nitrite, the end product of NO generation by activated chondrocytes, has been evaluated by Griess colorimetric reaction in culture medium of human primary chondrocytes and in the murine ATDC5 cell line stimulated with leptin (400 nM) and interferon-gamma (1 ng/ml), alone or in combination. Specific inhibitors for PI-3K, MEK1 and p38 were added 1 h before stimulation. Nitric oxide synthase type II mRNA was investigated by real-time RT-PCR and NOS type II protein expression has been evaluated by western blot analysis. Our results showed that, as expected, leptin synergizes with IFN-gamma in inducing NO accumulation in the supernatant of co-stimulated cells. Pre-treatment with Wortmannin, LY 294002, PD 098,059 and SB 203580 caused a significant decrease in nitrite production, NOS type II protein expression and NOS type II mRNA expression induced by leptin and interferon-gamma co-stimulation. These findings were confirmed in 15 and 21-day differentiated ATDC5 cells, and in normal human primary chondrocytes. This is the first report showing that NOS type II induction triggered by co-stimulation with leptin and interferon-gamma is mediated by a signaling pathway involving PI-3K, MEK1 and p38.

  19. Toxoplasmosis complications and novel therapeutic synergism combination of diclazuril plus atovaquone

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of foodborne disease, congenital complication, and morbidity. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to encounter congenital and persisting toxoplasmosis. The hypothesis was: combination diclazuril plus atovaquone to exert a novel therapeutic synergy to prevent toxoplasmosis syndromes. Methods: Pregnant dams were treated with diclazuril and atovaquone monotherapy or combination therapy and infected i.p with Toxoplasma tachyzoites. Results: Infected dams developed severe toxoplasmosis associated syndrome with increases in the abdominal adiposity surrounding uteri, gansterointestinal and other internal organs and excessive weight gain. Numerous organisms along with infiltration of inflammatory cells were detected scattered into adipose tissues. Combination therapy (p < 0.01) and to a lesser extent diclazuril (p < 0.05) protected dams from inflammatory fat and excess weight gains. This was consistent with pancreatitis development in infected dams (versus normal p < 0.05) with infiltration of inflammatory cells, degeneration and necrosis of pancreatic cells followed by the degeneration and loss of islets. Combination and monotherapy protected dams from these inflammatory and pathological aspects of pancreatitis. Infected dams exhibited severe colitis, and colonic tissues significantly shortened in length. Brush border epithelial cells were replaced with infiltration of lymphocytes, granulocytes, and microabscess formations into cryptic microstructures. Combination therapy synergistically preserved colonic structure and normalized pathological damages (p < 0.001) and to a lesser degree diclazuril monotherapy protected dams from colitis (p < 0.05) and gastrointestinal toxoplasmosis. Other complications included severe splenitis (p < 0.001) and hepatitis (p < 0.001) which were normalized with combination therapy. Conclusion: Combination diclazuril plus atovaquone was safe and with a novel therapeutic synergism protected

  20. Direct in situ observation of synergism between cellulolytic enzymes during the biodegradation of crystalline cellulose fibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingpeng; Quirk, Amanda; Lipkowski, Jacek; Dutcher, John R; Clarke, Anthony J

    2013-12-03

    High-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image the real-time in situ degradation of crystalline by three types of T. reesei cellulolytic enzymes-TrCel6A, TrCel7A, and TrCel7B-and their mixtures. TrCel6A and TrCel7A are exo-acting cellobiohydrolases processing cellulose fibers from the nonreducing and reducing ends, respectively. TrCel7B is an endoglucanase that hydrolyzes amorphous cellulose within fibers. When acting alone on native cellulose fibers, each of the three enzymes is incapable of significant degradation. However, mixtures of two enzymes exhibited synergistic effects. The degradation effects of this synergism depended on the order in which the enzymes were added. Faster hydrolysis rates were observed when TrCel7A (exo) was added to fibers pretreated first with TrCel7B (endo) than when adding the enzymes in the opposite order. Endo-acting TrCel7B removed amorphous cellulose, softened and swelled the fibers, and exposed single microfibrils, facilitating the attack by the exo-acting enzymes. AFM images revealed that exo-acting enzymes processed the TrCel7B-pretreated fibers preferentially from one specific end (reducing or nonreducing). The most efficient (almost 100%) hydrolysis was observed with the mixture of the three enzymes. In this mixture, TrCel7B softened the fiber and TrCel6A and TrCel7A were directly observed to process it from the two opposing ends. This study provides high-resolution direct visualization of the nature of the synergistic relation between T. reesei exo- and endo-acting enzymes digesting native crystalline cellulose.

  1. 21st Century Extravehicular Activities: Synergizing Past and Present Training Methods for Future Spacewalking Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the the spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first space walk in June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill-set and subsequently the training methods, changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the Skylab, Space Shuttle; and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

  2. Comparative Toxicities and Synergism of Apple Orchard Pesticides to Apis mellifera (L.) and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski)

    PubMed Central

    Biddinger, David J.; Robertson, Jacqueline L.; Mullin, Chris; Frazier, James; Ashcraft, Sara A.; Rajotte, Edwin G.; Joshi, Neelendra K.; Vaughn, Mace

    2013-01-01

    The topical toxicities of five commercial grade pesticides commonly sprayed in apple orchards were estimated on adult worker honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and Japanese orchard bees, Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). The pesticides were acetamiprid (Assail 30SG), λ-cyhalothrin (Warrior II), dimethoate (Dimethoate 4EC), phosmet (Imidan 70W), and imidacloprid (Provado 1.6F). At least 5 doses of each chemical, diluted in distilled water, were applied to freshly-eclosed adult bees. Mortality was assessed after 48 hr. Dose-mortality regressions were analyzed by probit analysis to test the hypotheses of parallelism and equality by likelihood ratio tests. For A. mellifera, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD50 was imidacloprid, λ-cyhalothrin, dimethoate, phosmet, and acetamiprid. For O. cornifrons, the decreasing order of toxicity at LD50 was dimethoate, λ-cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and phosmet. Interaction of imidacloprid or acetamiprid with the fungicide fenbuconazole (Indar 2F) was also tested in a 1∶1 proportion for each species. Estimates of response parameters for each mixture component applied to each species were compared with dose-response data for each mixture in statistical tests of the hypothesis of independent joint action. For each mixture, the interaction of fenbuconazole (a material non-toxic to both species) was significant and positive along the entire line for the pesticide. Our results clearly show that responses of A. mellifera cannot be extrapolated to responses of O.cornifrons, and that synergism of neonicotinoid insecticides and fungicides occurs using formulated product in mixtures as they are commonly applied in apple orchards. PMID:24039783

  3. Synergic interactions between 2-deoxy-D-glucose and Candida saitoana enhances citrus green mould control.

    PubMed

    Arras, G; Pani, G; Molinu, M G; Dore, A; Venditti, T; Petretto, A; Marceddu, S; D'Hallewin, G

    2010-01-01

    The activity of 2-deoxy-D-gLucose (2-DG) alone or in combination with a biocontrol yeast (Candida saitoana, strain 8C) was evaluated in vitro and in vivo against citrus green mould (Penicillium digitatum Sacc.). The in vitro assays were performed on amended potato dextrose agar (PDA) containing 0, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 15.0, 30.0 or 60.0 mM of 2-DG. P. digitatum conidia were sown on the amended media and growth inhibition occurred starting from 6.0 mM. A nearly total inhibition of the growth and spore germination occurred with 60.0 mM of 2-DG. The antagonist was not affected by any of the 2-DG concentrations employed and the amended plates resulted well colonized within 2 d post-treatment. In vivo assays were carried out with 'Hamlin' oranges, inoculated with P. digitatum 24 h before treating with: the antagonist; the above reported concentrations of 2-DG, or by combining the two treatments. Seven days post-treatment the inhibition activity exerted by 3.0, 6.0, 15.0, 30.0 and 60.0 mM of 2-DG combined with the yeast was 15, 37, 42, 63 and 84%, respectively. While that exerted by the antagonist was 22% and that by the different concentrations of 2-DG were 7, 11, 27, 42 and 57%, respectively. Compared to single treatments, the co-application significantly and in a synergic mode improved the control of decay. Alterations to the hyphae were observed by SEM when the pathogen was cultured on amended media and into the wounds of inoculated oranges.

  4. Synergized antimicrobial activity of eugenol incorporated polyhydroxybutyrate films against food spoilage microorganisms in conjunction with pediocin.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Aarthi; Neera; Mallesha; Ramana, Karna Venkata

    2013-07-01

    Biopolymers and biopreservatives produced by microorganisms play an essential role in food technology. Polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacteriocins produced by bacteria are promising components to safeguard the environment and for food preservation applications. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-based antimicrobial films were prepared incorporating eugenol, from 10 to 200 μg/g of PHB. The films were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, spoilage bacteria, and fungi such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., and Rhizopus sp. The synergistic antimicrobial activity of the films in the presence of crude pediocin was also investigated. The broth system containing pediocin (soluble form) as well as antimicrobial PHB film demonstrated an extended lag phase and a significant growth reduction at the end of 24 h against the bacteria. Crude pediocin alone could not elicit antifungal activity, while inhibition of growth and sporulation were observed in the presence of antimicrobial PHB film containing eugenol (80 μg/g) until 7 days in the case of molds, i.e., A. niger, A. flavus, Penicillium sp., and Rhizopus sp. in potato dextrose broth. In the present study, we identified that use of pediocin containing broth in conjunction with eugenol incorporated PHB film could function in synergized form, providing effective hurdle toward food contaminating microorganisms. Furthermore, tensile strength, percent crystallinity, melting point, percent elongation to break, glass transition temperature, and seal strength of the PHB film with and without eugenol incorporation were investigated. The migration of eugenol on exposure to different liquid food simulants was also analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The study is expected to provide applications for pediocin in conjunction with eugenol containing PHB film to enhance the shelf life of foods in the

  5. A synergic simulation-optimization approach for analyzing biomolecular dynamics in living organisms.

    PubMed

    Sadegh Zadeh, Kouroush

    2011-01-01

    A synergic duo simulation-optimization approach was developed and implemented to study protein-substrate dynamics and binding kinetics in living organisms. The forward problem is a system of several coupled nonlinear partial differential equations which, with a given set of kinetics and diffusion parameters, can provide not only the commonly used bleached area-averaged time series in fluorescence microscopy experiments but more informative full biomolecular/drug space-time series and can be successfully used to study dynamics of both Dirac and Gaussian fluorescence-labeled biomacromolecules in vivo. The incomplete Cholesky preconditioner was coupled with the finite difference discretization scheme and an adaptive time-stepping strategy to solve the forward problem. The proposed approach was validated with analytical as well as reference solutions and used to simulate dynamics of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid receptor (GFP-GR) in mouse cancer cell during a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiment. Model analysis indicates that the commonly practiced bleach spot-averaged time series is not an efficient approach to extract physiological information from the fluorescence microscopy protocols. It was recommended that experimental biophysicists should use full space-time series, resulting from experimental protocols, to study dynamics of biomacromolecules and drugs in living organisms. It was also concluded that in parameterization of biological mass transfer processes, setting the norm of the gradient of the penalty function at the solution to zero is not an efficient stopping rule to end the inverse algorithm. Theoreticians should use multi-criteria stopping rules to quantify model parameters by optimization.

  6. Unsaturated cuticular hydrocarbons synergize responses to sex attractant pheromone in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Millar, Jocelyn G; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Four trienyl hydrocarbons, (Z3, Z6, Z9)-tricosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC), (Z3, Z6, Z9)-pentacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-25:HC), (Z3, Z6, Z9)-heptacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-27:HC), and (Z3, Z6, Z9)-nonacosatriene (Z3, Z6, Z9-29:HC) were identified in a non-polar fraction of the body wax of male and female yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis. The relative amounts and ratios of these hydrocarbons differed between sexes. In females, the ratios in body wax and pheromone gland extracts were similar, with lesser amounts found in gland extracts. Synergistic effects of these hydrocarbons when added to the known aldehyde pheromone components were assessed in wind tunnel tests. A blend of (E)-10-hexadecenal (E10-16: Ald) and (Z)-10-hexadecenal (Z10-16: Ald) elicited upwind flight and orientation of males to the pheromone source, but arriving males did not remain close to source for very long. Among the hydrocarbons identified, only Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC enhanced the activity of the aldehyde blend by increasing the time spent close to the source and the number of source contacts. Z3, Z6, Z9-23:HC and (Z9)-heptacosene (Z9-27:HC) also increased close-range responses to the aldehyde blend. The activity of the aldehyde blend plus these two hydrocarbons was similar to that of crude pheromone extract. Positive dose-response relationships between the aldehyde blend and two hydrocarbon mixtures were found. The lowest doses that elicited synergism were 10(-1) female equivalents (of body wax extracts) for the two hydrocarbons, and 10(-2) female equivalents for the total unsaturated hydrocarbon mixture.

  7. Selenium nanoparticles as a carrier of 5-fluorouracil to achieve anticancer synergism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Li, Xiaoling; Wong, Yum-Shing; Zheng, Wenjie; Zhang, Yibo; Cao, Wenqiang; Chen, Tianfeng

    2012-08-28

    A simple method for preparing 5-fluorouracil surface-functionalized selenium nanoparticles (5FU-SeNPs) with enhanced anticancer activity has been demonstrated in the present study. Spherical SeNPs were capped with 5FU through formation of Se-O and Se-N bonds and physical adsorption, leading to the stable structure of the conjugates. 5FU surface decoration significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of SeNPs through endocytosis. A panel of five human cancer cell lines was shown to be susceptible to 5FU-SeNPs, with IC(50) values ranging from 6.2 to 14.4 μM. Despite this potency, 5FU-SeNP possesses great selectivity between cancer and normal cells. Induction of apoptosis in A375 human melanoma cells by 5FU-SeNPs was evidenced by accumulation of sub-G1 cell population, DNA fragmentation, and nuclear condensation. The contribution of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway to the cell apoptosis was confirmed by activation of caspase-9 and depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential. Pretreatment of cells with a general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk significantly prevented 5FU-SeNP-induced apoptosis, indicating that 5FU-SeNP induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in A375 cells. Furthermore, 5FU-SeNP-induced apoptosis was found dependent on ROS generation. Our results suggest that the strategy to use SeNPs as a carrier of 5FU could be a highly efficient way to achieve anticancer synergism. 5FU-SeNPs may be a candidate for further evaluation as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent for human cancers, especially melanoma.

  8. Tannerella forsythia GroEL induces inflammatory bone resorption and synergizes with interleukin-17.

    PubMed

    Jung, Y-J; Choi, Y-J; An, S-J; Lee, H-R; Jun, H-K; Choi, B-K

    2016-08-03

    Tannerella forsythia is a major periodontal pathogen, and T. forsythia GroEL is a molecular chaperone homologous to human heat-shock protein 60. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and several systemic diseases. This study investigated the potential of T. forsythia GroEL to induce inflammatory bone resorption and examined the cooperative effect of IL-17 and T. forsythia GroEL on inflammatory responses. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts were stimulated with T. forsythia GroEL and/or IL-17. Gene expression of IL-6, IL-8, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. After stimulation of MG63 cells with T. forsythia GroEL and/or IL-17, gene expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) was examined. After subcutaneous injection of T. forsythia GroEL and/or IL-17 above the calvaria of BALB/c mice, calvarial bone resorption was assessed by micro-computed tomography and histological examination. Tannerella forsythia GroEL induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in HGFs and PDL cells, and IL-17 further promoted IL-6 and IL-8 production. Both T. forsythia GroEL and IL-17 synergistically increased PGE2 production and inhibited OPG gene expression. Calvarial bone resorption was induced by T. forsythia GroEL injection, and simultaneous injection of T. forsythia GroEL and IL-17 further increased bone resorption. These results suggest that T. forsythia GroEL is a novel virulence factor that can contribute to inflammatory bone resorption caused by T. forsythia and synergizes with IL-17 to exacerbate inflammation and bone resorption.

  9. p62/SQSTM1 synergizes with autophagy for tumor growth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Huijun; Wang, Chenran; Croce, Carlo M.; Guan, Jun-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is crucial for cellular homeostasis and plays important roles in tumorigenesis. FIP200 (FAK family-interacting protein of 200 kDa) is an essential autophagy gene required for autophagy induction, functioning in the ULK1–ATG13–FIP200 complex. Our previous studies showed that conditional knockout of FIP200 significantly suppressed mammary tumorigenesis, which was accompanied by accumulation of p62 in tumor cells. However, it is not clear whether FIP200 is also required for maintaining tumor growth and how the increased p62 level affects the growth in autophagy-deficient FIP200-null tumors in vivo. Here, we describe a new system to delete FIP200 in transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts as well as mammary tumor cells following their transplantation and show that ablation of FIP200 significantly reduced growth of established tumors in vivo. Using similar strategies, we further showed that either p62 knockdown or p62 deficiency in established FIP200-null tumors dramatically impaired tumor growth. The stimulation of tumor growth by p62 accumulation in FIP200-null tumors is associated with the up-regulated activation of the NF-κB pathway by p62. Last, we showed that overexpression of the autophagy master regulator TFEBS142A increased the growth of established tumors, which correlated with the increased autophagy of the tumor cells. Together, our studies demonstrate that p62 and autophagy synergize to promote tumor growth, suggesting that inhibition of both pathways could be more effective than targeting either alone for cancer therapy. PMID:24888590

  10. Synergism between exposure to mercury and use of iodine supplements on thyroid hormones in pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Murcia, Mario; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Vioque, Jesús; Aguinagalde, Xabier; Julvez, Jordi; and others

    2015-04-15

    Objective: To evaluate the association between mercury exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total triiodothyronine (TT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels during pregnancy as well as to explore if there is any synergic action between mercury and intake of iodine from different sources. Methods: The study population was 1407 pregnant women participating in the Spanish INMA birth cohort study. Total mercury concentrations were analyzed in cord blood. Thyroid hormones (THs) were measured in serum samples collected at 13.2±1.5 weeks of gestation. The association between mercury and TH levels was evaluated with multivariate linear regression models. Effect modification caused by iodine intake from supplements and diet was also evaluated. Results: The geometric means of TSH, TT3, FT4 and mercury were 1.1 μU/L, 2.4 nmol/L, 10.5 pmol/L and 7.7 μg/L, respectively. Mercury levels were marginally significantly associated with TT3 (β: −0.05; 95%CI: −0.10, 0.01), but were neither associated with TSH nor FT4. The inverse association between mercury and TT3 levels was stronger among the iodine supplement consumers (−0.08; 95%CI: −0.15, −0.02, interaction p-value=0.07). The association with FT4 followed the same pattern, albeit not significant. Conclusion: Prenatal mercury exposure was inversely associated with TT3 levels among women who took iodine supplements during pregnancy. These results could be of public health concern, although further research is needed. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between mercury and thyroid hormones among pregnant. • Mercury was marginally significantly associated with TT3, but not with TSH or FT4. • This association was stronger among the iodine supplement. • These results could be of public health concern, but further research is needed.

  11. Structural evidence for substrate-induced synergism and half-sites reactivity in biotin carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Mochalkin, Igor; Miller, J. Richard; Evdokimov, Artem; Lightle, Sandra; Yan, Chunhong; Stover, Charles Ken; Waldrop, Grover L.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial acetyl-CoA carboxylase is a multifunctional biotin-dependent enzyme that consists of three separate proteins: biotin carboxylase (BC), biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyltransferase (CT). Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is a potentially attractive target for novel antibiotics because it catalyzes the first committed step in fatty acid biosynthesis. In the first half-reaction, BC catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of BCCP. In the second half-reaction, the carboxyl group is transferred from carboxybiotinylated BCCP to acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA. A series of structures of BC from several bacteria crystallized in the presence of various ATP analogs is described that addresses three major questions concerning the catalytic mechanism. The structure of BC bound to AMPPNP and the two catalytically essential magnesium ions resolves inconsistencies between the kinetics of active-site BC mutants and previously reported BC structures. Another structure of AMPPNP bound to BC shows the polyphosphate chain folded back on itself, and not in the correct (i.e., extended) conformation for catalysis. This provides the first structural evidence for the hypothesis of substrate-induced synergism, which posits that ATP binds nonproductively to BC in the absence of biotin. The BC homodimer has been proposed to exhibit half-sites reactivity where the active sites alternate or “flip-flop” their catalytic cycles. A crystal structure of BC showed the ATP analog AMPPCF2P bound to one subunit while the other subunit was unliganded. The liganded subunit was in the closed or catalytic conformation while the unliganded subunit was in the open conformation. This provides the first structural evidence for half-sites reactivity in BC. PMID:18725455

  12. The synergism of natural compounds in the pursuit of safe and healthier food.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, S; Polanska, M; Van Assche, A; Moloney, R; Willems, K A

    2011-01-01

    Food producers apply modern processing techniques and use a variety of preservative additives to guarantee safe food and a longer shelflife. Regrettably many of these impact the sensory characteristics of the foodstuffs, such as colour, texture, and flavour, which can result in low consumer acceptance. Additionally, strategies used to reduce growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria are not selective enough and may inactivate also desired microbiota. Food is usually overdosed with antimicrobials that are supplemented 'just in case.' Consequently, food producers are searching for natural preservation methods that are not harmful to humans. Nature offers a wide spectrum of biologically active (phyto) chemicals that can be used as potential natural preservatives. Compounds with bacterial growth-limiting properties are detected in all parts of plants, including their leaves, flowers, fruits, roots, etc. These are mostly acids, alcohols, medium and long-chain organic acids, terpenic compounds, and their derivatives. This study focused on the effectiveness of plant extracts, i.e., synergism between terpenoids and medium chain fatty acids in cured cooked meat. Bacterial strains that were tested include typical members of the spoilage microflora in vacuum (Lactobacillus curvatus) and MA-packed meats (Brochothrix thermosphacta). These were isolated and identified in a separate study. L. curvatus was observed to be very resistant against either terpenoids or fatty acids when used separately, whereas its growth was strongly inhibited when both chemicals were combined. Growth of B. thermosphacta was significantly inhibited when antimicrobial compounds were solely applied, whereas a blend of terpenoids and fatty acids showed an almost bactericidal effect.

  13. Toxoplasmosis complications and novel therapeutic synergism combination of diclazuril plus atovaquone.

    PubMed

    Oz, Helieh S

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of foodborne disease, congenital complication, and morbidity. There is an urgent need for safe and effective therapies to encounter congenital and persisting toxoplasmosis. The hypothesis was: combination diclazuril plus atovaquone to exert a novel therapeutic synergy to prevent toxoplasmosis syndromes. Pregnant dams were treated with diclazuril and atovaquone monotherapy or combination therapy and infected i.p with Toxoplasma tachyzoites. Infected dams developed severe toxoplasmosis associated syndrome with increases in the abdominal adiposity surrounding uteri, gansterointestinal and other internal organs and excessive weight gain. Numerous organisms along with infiltration of inflammatory cells were detected scattered into adipose tissues. Combination therapy (p < 0.01) and to a lesser extent diclazuril (p < 0.05) protected dams from inflammatory fat and excess weight gains. This was consistent with pancreatitis development in infected dams (versus normal p < 0.05) with infiltration of inflammatory cells, degeneration and necrosis of pancreatic cells followed by the degeneration and loss of islets. Combination and monotherapy protected dams from these inflammatory and pathological aspects of pancreatitis. Infected dams exhibited severe colitis, and colonic tissues significantly shortened in length. Brush border epithelial cells were replaced with infiltration of lymphocytes, granulocytes, and microabscess formations into cryptic microstructures. Combination therapy synergistically preserved colonic structure and normalized pathological damages (p < 0.001) and to a lesser degree diclazuril monotherapy protected dams from colitis (p < 0.05) and gastrointestinal toxoplasmosis. Other complications included severe splenitis (p < 0.001) and hepatitis (p < 0.001) which were normalized with combination therapy. Combination diclazuril plus atovaquone was safe and with a novel therapeutic synergism protected dams and fetuses from

  14. Synergism and foaming properties in mixed nonionic/fatty acid soap surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Theander, Katarina; Pugh, Robert J

    2003-11-01

    The synergism and foaming behavior of a mixed surfactant system consisting of a nonionic surfactant (polyethoxylated alkyl ether C(n)E(m)) and a fatty acid soap (sodium oleate) were studied. The micellar interaction parameter (the beta-parameter) was determined from the cmc following the approach of Rubingh's regular solution theory. For both the C(12)E(6)/sodium oleate and the C(14)E(6)/sodium oleate mixtures, the results indicate a fairly strong attractive interaction (negative beta-values), which were in agreement with previous data reported for other nonionic/anionic surfactant systems. The characteristics of the foam produced from the surfactants were evaluated using a glass column equipped with a series of electrodes measuring the conductance of the foam, which enabled the water content of the foam to be determined. From these measurements, since the total foam volume was almost the same for all concentrations and surfactants, we compared the amount of liquid in the foam produced under dynamic foaming and the ability of the foam to entrain the liquid after the airflow was switched-off (static foam stability). The amount of liquid in the foam 100 s after the air was switched-off followed the order NaOl > C(12)E(6) > C(14)E(6). Also, the mixtures had the same foam volumes as the pure surfactants at the same concentration. However, both mixtures had higher concentrations of liquid in the foam when the mole fraction of the nonionic surfactant in the mixed surfactant system was greater than about >0.3 in the solution.

  15. 21st Century extravehicular activities: Synergizing past and present training methods for future spacewalking success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-10-01

    Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind" were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the true spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first spacewalk in the June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill set and subsequently the training methods changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the SkyLab, Space Shuttle, and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA's success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

  16. Structural evidence for substrate-induced synergism and half-sites reactivity in biotin carboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Mochalkin, Igor; Miller, J. Richard; Evdokimov, Artem; Lightle, Sandra; Yan, Chunhong; Stover, Charles Ken; Waldrop, Grover L.

    2008-10-24

    Bacterial acetyl-CoA carboxylase is a multifunctional biotin-dependent enzyme that consists of three separate proteins: biotin carboxylase (BC), biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyltransferase (CT). Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is a potentially attractive target for novel antibiotics because it catalyzes the first committed step in fatty acid biosynthesis. In the first half-reaction, BC catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of BCCP. In the second half-reaction, the carboxyl group is transferred from carboxybiotinylated BCCP to acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA. A series of structures of BC from several bacteria crystallized in the presence of various ATP analogs is described that addresses three major questions concerning the catalytic mechanism. The structure of BC bound to AMPPNP and the two catalytically essential magnesium ions resolves inconsistencies between the kinetics of active-site BC mutants and previously reported BC structures. Another structure of AMPPNP bound to BC shows the polyphosphate chain folded back on itself, and not in the correct (i.e., extended) conformation for catalysis. This provides the first structural evidence for the hypothesis of substrate-induced synergism, which posits that ATP binds nonproductively to BC in the absence of biotin. The BC homodimer has been proposed to exhibit half-sites reactivity where the active sites alternate or 'flip-flop' their catalytic cycles. A crystal structure of BC showed the ATP analog AMPPCF{sub 2}P bound to one subunit while the other subunit was unliganded. The liganded subunit was in the closed or catalytic conformation while the unliganded subunit was in the open conformation. This provides the first structural evidence for half-sites reactivity in BC.

  17. Lymphocyte activation by OKT3: cyclosporine sensitivity and synergism with phorbol ester.

    PubMed Central

    Kay, J E; Benzie, C R

    1986-01-01

    Lymphocyte activation by the mitogenic monoclonal antibody OKT3 is less effective than activation by mitogenic lectins such as phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A). Activation by OKT3 is also very sensitive to inhibition by cyclosporine (CSA), which selectively inhibits Ca2+-activated steps in the activation process. In addition, the magnitude of the OKT3 response can be raised to that seen with mitogenic lectins by coincubation with phorbol esters (which activate protein kinase C). These observations suggest that OKT3 may deliver efficiently the Ca2+ signal involved in the initiation of lymphocyte activation, and that the comparatively weak overall response is due to a failure to generate a second signal, probably the activation of protein kinase C, as efficiently as the mitogenic lectins. PMID:3485075

  18. NAK is an IkappaB kinase-activating kinase.

    PubMed

    Tojima, Y; Fujimoto, A; Delhase, M; Chen, Y; Hatakeyama, S; Nakayama, K; Kaneko, Y; Nimura, Y; Motoyama, N; Ikeda, K; Karin, M; Nakanishi, M

    2000-04-13

    Phosphorylation of IkappaB by the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex is a critical step leading to IkappaB degradation and activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB. The IKK complex contains two catalytic subunits, IKKalpha and IKKbeta, the latter being indispensable for NF-kappaB activation by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although IKK is activated by phosphorylation of the IKKbeta activation loop, the physiological IKK kinases that mediate responses to extracellular stimuli remain obscure. Here we describe an IKK-related kinase, named NAK (NF-kappaB-activating kinase), that can activate IKK through direct phosphorylation. NAK induces IkappaB degradation and NF-kappaB activity through IKKbeta. Endogenous NAK is activated by phorbol ester tumour promoters and growth factors, whereas catalytically inactive NAK specifically inhibits activation of NF-kappaB by protein kinase C-epsilon (PKCepsilon). Thus, NAK is an IKK kinase that may mediate IKK and NF-kappaB activation in response to growth factors that stimulate PKCepsilon activity.

  19. Neuronal migration and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the six-layered structure of the mammalian cortex via the inside-out pattern of neuronal migration is fundamental to neocortical functions. Extracellular cues such as Reelin induce intracellular signaling cascades through the protein phosphorylation. Migrating neurons also have intrinsic machineries to regulate cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion properties. Protein phosphorylation regulates these processes. Moreover, the balance between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is modified by extracellular cues. Multipolar-bipolar transition, radial glia-guided locomotion and terminal translocation are critical steps of radial migration of cortical pyramidal neurons. Protein kinases such as Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) involve these steps. In this review, I shall give an overview the roles of protein kinases in neuronal migration. PMID:25628530

  20. Isolation of chloroplastic phosphoglycerate kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Macioszek, J.; Anderson, L.E. ); Anderson, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    We report here a method for the isolation of high specific activity phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) from chloroplasts. The enzyme has been purified over 200-fold from pea (Pisum sativum L.) stromal extracts to apparent homogeneity with 23% recovery. Negative cooperativity is observed with the two enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase/glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13) couple restored from the purified enzymes when NADPH is the reducing pyridine nucleotide, consistent with earlier results obtained with crude chloroplastic extracts. Michaelis Menten kinetics are observed when 3-phosphoglycerate is held constant and phosphoglycerate kinase is varied, which suggests that phosphoglycerate kinase-bound 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate may be the preferred substrate for glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase in the chloroplast.

  1. WHO water quality standards Vs Synergic effect(s) of fluoride, heavy metals and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasana, Hewa M. S.; Perera, Gamage D. R. K.; Gunawardena, Panduka De S.; Fernando, Palika S.; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2017-02-01

    Despite WHO standards, waterborne diseases among the human being are rising alarmingly. It is known that the prolong exposure to contaminated water has major impact on public health. The effect of chemical contaminations in drinking water on human being is found to be chronic rather than acute and hence can be defined “consumption of contaminated drinking water could be a silent killer”. As the WHO recommended water quality standards are only for individual element and synergic effects of trace metals and anions have not been considered, investigation of synergic effects of trace metals and anions and their effect on human being is of prime important research. By an animal trial, we investigated the synergic effect(s) of heavy metals, aluminium, arsenic, fluoride and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues of mice. Our investigation strongly suggests existing of a synergic effect especially among Cd, F and hardness of water which could lead to severe kidney damage in mice, even at WHO maximum recommended levels. Hence, the synergic effect(s) of trace metals, fluoride and hardness present in drinking water should be investigated meticulously when stipulating the water quality at WHO maximum recommended levels.

  2. Farnesyltransferase inhibitor R115777 (Zarnestra, Tipifarnib) synergizes with paclitaxel to induce apoptosis and mitotic arrest and to inhibit tumor growth of multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kuichun; Gerbino, Elvira; Beaupre, Darrin M; Mackley, Paul A; Muro-Cacho, Carlos; Beam, Craig; Hamilton, Andrew D; Lichtenheld, Mathias G; Kerr, William G; Dalton, William; Alsina, Melissa; Sebti, Saïd M

    2005-06-15

    Despite major advances, multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable malignancy. Recently we have found that disease stabilization was achieved in 64% of patients with advanced MM treated with the farnesyltransferase inhibitor R115777 (Zarnestra) in a phase 2 clinical trial. In order to enhance R115777 antitumor activity in MM, we examined the combination of this novel agent with other anticancer drugs in MM cell lines. In this study, R115777 was found to synergize with paclitaxel and docetaxel, but not with other chemotherapy agents, including doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, cisplastin, melphalan, mitoxantrone, and dexamethasone. R115777 synergized with paclitaxel to inhibit MM cell proliferation and to induce apoptosis. Synergism in the induction of apoptosis was accompanied by increase in cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis also showed that paclitaxel and R115777 synergized to induce G(2)/M cell-cycle arrest. Importantly, synergism was observed in taxane- and R115777-resistant MM cells. In the human severe combined immunodeficient (SCID-hu) bone model of myeloma growth, the ability of paclitaxel to inhibit tumor growth in vivo was enhanced by R115777. Combination of paclitaxel or docetaxel with R115777 in the treatment of MM cells from patients with multiple myeloma was more beneficial than treatment with single agents. Our results provide the basis for combination therapy clinical trials with paclitaxel or docetaxel with R115777 in MM patients.

  3. WHO water quality standards Vs Synergic effect(s) of fluoride, heavy metals and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues.

    PubMed

    Wasana, Hewa M S; Perera, Gamage D R K; Gunawardena, Panduka De S; Fernando, Palika S; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2017-02-14

    Despite WHO standards, waterborne diseases among the human being are rising alarmingly. It is known that the prolong exposure to contaminated water has major impact on public health. The effect of chemical contaminations in drinking water on human being is found to be chronic rather than acute and hence can be defined "consumption of contaminated drinking water could be a silent killer". As the WHO recommended water quality standards are only for individual element and synergic effects of trace metals and anions have not been considered, investigation of synergic effects of trace metals and anions and their effect on human being is of prime important research. By an animal trial, we investigated the synergic effect(s) of heavy metals, aluminium, arsenic, fluoride and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues of mice. Our investigation strongly suggests existing of a synergic effect especially among Cd, F and hardness of water which could lead to severe kidney damage in mice, even at WHO maximum recommended levels. Hence, the synergic effect(s) of trace metals, fluoride and hardness present in drinking water should be investigated meticulously when stipulating the water quality at WHO maximum recommended levels.

  4. WHO water quality standards Vs Synergic effect(s) of fluoride, heavy metals and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wasana, Hewa M. S.; Perera, Gamage D. R. K.; Gunawardena, Panduka De S.; Fernando, Palika S.; Bandara, Jayasundera

    2017-01-01

    Despite WHO standards, waterborne diseases among the human being are rising alarmingly. It is known that the prolong exposure to contaminated water has major impact on public health. The effect of chemical contaminations in drinking water on human being is found to be chronic rather than acute and hence can be defined “consumption of contaminated drinking water could be a silent killer”. As the WHO recommended water quality standards are only for individual element and synergic effects of trace metals and anions have not been considered, investigation of synergic effects of trace metals and anions and their effect on human being is of prime important research. By an animal trial, we investigated the synergic effect(s) of heavy metals, aluminium, arsenic, fluoride and hardness in drinking water on kidney tissues of mice. Our investigation strongly suggests existing of a synergic effect especially among Cd, F and hardness of water which could lead to severe kidney damage in mice, even at WHO maximum recommended levels. Hence, the synergic effect(s) of trace metals, fluoride and hardness present in drinking water should be investigated meticulously when stipulating the water quality at WHO maximum recommended levels. PMID:28195172

  5. Differential Roles of AC2 and AC4 of Cassava Geminiviruses in Mediating Synergism and Suppression of Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Vanitharani, Ramachandran; Chellappan, Padmanabhan; Pita, Justin S.; Fauquet, Claude M.

    2004-01-01

    Posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants is a natural defense mechanism against virus infection. In mixed infections, virus synergism is proposed to result from suppression of the host defense mechanism by the viruses. Synergistic severe mosaic disease caused by simultaneous infection with isolates of the Cameroon strain of African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV-[CM]) and East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV) in cassava and tobacco is characterized by a dramatic increase in symptom severity and a severalfold increase in viral-DNA accumulation by both viruses compared to that in singly infected plants. Here, we report that synergism between ACMV-[CM] and EACMCV is a two-way process, as the presence of the DNA-A component of ACMV-[CM] or EACMCV in trans enhanced the accumulation of viral DNA of EACMCV and ACMV-[CM], respectively, in tobacco BY-2 protoplasts. Furthermore, transient expression of ACMV-[CM] AC4 driven by the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (p35S-AC4) enhanced EACMCV DNA accumulation by ∼8-fold in protoplasts, while p35S-AC2 of EACMCV enhanced ACMV-[CM] DNA accumulation, also by ∼8-fold. An Agrobacterium-based leaf infiltration assay determined that ACMV-[CM] AC4 and EACMCV AC2, the putative synergistic genes, were able to suppress PTGS induced by green fluorescent protein (GFP) and eliminated the short interfering RNAs associated with PTGS, with a correlated increase in GFP mRNA accumulation. In addition, we have identified AC4 of Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus and AC2 of Indian cassava mosaic virus as suppressors of PTGS, indicating that geminiviruses evolved differently in regard to interaction with the host. The specific and different roles played by these AC2 and AC4 proteins of cassava geminiviruses in regulating anti-PTGS activity and their relation to synergism are discussed. PMID:15308741

  6. Active ingredients in cade oil that synergize attractiveness of alpha-ionol to male Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Keum, Young Soo; Sylva, Charmaine D; Li, Qing X; Jang, Eric B

    2004-06-01

    Cade oil, a commercially available essential oil produced by destructive distillation of juniper, Juniperus oxycedrus L., twigs, is known to synergize the attractancy of alpha-ionol to male Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). Through chemical fractionation and outdoor olfactometer-based bioassays, seven compounds in cade oil were identified that potentially could provide some level of synergism. Tests with sterile laboratory flies showed that four of the seven compounds (eugenol, isoeugenol, 2-methoxy-4-ethylphenol, and 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol), together with a closely related compound not found in cade oil, 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol, are capable of synergizing the attractiveness of alpha-ionol to male B. latifrons under field conditions. The similarity in structures of these five synergistic compounds shows that there is a response to a core 2-methoxyphenol structure, with fly response little affected by some variation in the composition of the side chain on the number 4 carbon. Because identified synergists were structurally similar, only one compound, eugenol, was selected for further field studies. In an 8-wk weathering test, using released sterile flies, traps baited with alpha-ionol + eugenol had catches comparable with catches at traps baited with alpha-ionol + cade oil, with catches generally increased with a higher eugenol loading. For both eugenol and cade oil, catches tended to be better when these synergists were deployed on separate wicks from the alpha-ionol. Eugenol and alpha-ionol, however, were unable to provide attraction comparable with that of cade oil and alpha-ionol in tests with wild fly populations.

  7. CUL3 and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Thibaud; Kleiss, Charlotte; Sumara, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    Posttranslational mechanisms drive fidelity of cellular processes. Phosphorylation and ubiquitination of substrates represent very common, covalent, posttranslational modifications and are often co-regulated. Phosphorylation may play a critical role both by directly regulating E3-ubiquitin ligases and/or by ensuring specificity of the ubiquitination substrate. Importantly, many kinases are not only critical regulatory components of these pathways but also represent themselves the direct ubiquitination substrates. Recent data suggest the role of CUL3-based ligases in both proteolytic and non-proteolytic regulation of protein kinases. Our own recent study identified the mitotic kinase PLK1 as a direct target of the CUL3 E3-ligase complex containing BTB-KELCH adaptor protein KLHL22.1 In this study, we aim at gaining mechanistic insights into CUL3-mediated regulation of the substrates, in particular protein kinases, by analyzing mechanisms of interaction between KLHL22 and PLK1. We find that kinase activity of PLK1 is redundant for its targeting for CUL3-ubiquitination. Moreover, CUL3/KLHL22 may contact 2 distinct motifs within PLK1 protein, consistent with the bivalent mode of substrate targeting found in other CUL3-based complexes. We discuss these findings in the context of the existing knowledge on other protein kinases and substrates targeted by CUL3-based E3-ligases. PMID:24067371

  8. Benzimidazole derivatives as kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Garuti, Laura; Roberti, Marinella; Bottegoni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Benzimidazole is a common kinase inhibitor scaffold and benzimidazole-based compounds interact with enzymes by multiple binding modes. In some cases, the benzimidazole acts as part of the hinge-binding motif, in others it has a scaffolding role without evidence for direct hinge binding. Several of these compounds are ATP-competitive inhibitors and show high selectivity by exploiting unique structural properties that distinguish one kinase from the majority of other kinases. However, the high specificity for a single target is not always sufficient. Thus another approach, called multi-target therapy, has been developed over the last few years. The simultaneous inhibition of various kinases may be useful because the disease is attacked at several relevant targets. Moreover, if a kinase becomes drug-resistant, a multitargeted drug can act on the other kinases. Some benzimidazole derivatives are multi-target inhibitors. In this article benzimidazole inhibitors are reported with their mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationship (SAR) and biological properties.

  9. Functional Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Arbiser, Jack L.; Govindarajan, Baskaran; Bai, Xianhe; Onda, Hiroaki; Kazlauskas, Andrius; Lim, So Dug; Amin, Mahul B.; Claesson-Welsh, Lena

    2002-01-01

    Tumors often exhibit activation of specific tyrosine kinases, which may allow targeting of therapy through inhibition of tyrosine kinase signaling. This strategy has been used successfully in the development of STI571 (gleevec), an inhibitor of bcr-abl tyrosine kinase that has been used successfully in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. STI571 also shows activity against c-kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRβ) tyrosine kinase signaling, thus potentially expanding the number of tumors that may respond to it. We describe a simple and rapid method to assess functional activity of tyrosine kinase signaling that is broadly applicable to tumor types. As proof of principle, we have applied it to cells that serve as models of the autosomal-dominant tumor syndrome tuberous sclerosis (TS). We found that TS model cells derived from tuberin heterozygous mice and from a human renal angiomyolipoma are highly sensitive to PDGFR antagonists and that these cells express PDGFRβ. Given that PDGFRβ signaling is inhibited by STI571, we found that SV7tert human angiomyolipoma cells are sensitive to STI571. Thus, we describe a novel but simple method of determining the functional tyrosine kinase profile of a neoplastic cell and our results suggest that STI571 might be useful in the treatment of neoplasms commonly seen in patients with TS. PMID:12213705

  10. The protein kinase C family.

    PubMed

    Azzi, A; Boscoboinik, D; Hensey, C

    1992-09-15

    Protein kinase C represents a structurally homologous group of proteins similar in size, structure and mechanism of activation. They can modulate the biological function of proteins in a rapid and reversible manner. Protein kinase C participates in one of the major signal transduction systems triggered by the external stimulation of cells by various ligands including hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors. Hydrolysis of membrane inositol phospholipids by phospholipase C or of phosphatidylcholine, generates sn-1,2-diacylglycerol, considered the physiological activator of this kinase. Other agents, such as arachidonic acid, participate in the activation of some of these proteins. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters and related compounds is not physiological and may be responsible, at least in part, for their tumor-promoting activity. The cellular localization of the different calcium-activated protein kinases, their substrate and activator specificity are dissimilar and thus their role in signal transduction is unlike. A better understanding of the exact cellular function of the different protein kinase C isoenzymes requires the identification and characterization of their physiological substrates.

  11. Short, Synthetic Cationic Peptides Have Antibacterial Activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis by Forming Pores in Membrane and Synergizing with Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kajal; Singh, Sameer; van Hoek, Monique L.

    2015-01-01

    Multicellular organisms are constantly exposed to a multitude of pathogenic microbes. Infection is inhibited in vivo by the innate and adaptive immune system. Mycobacterium species have emerged that are resistant to most antibiotics. We identified several naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides that were active at low micromolar concentrations against Mycobacterium smegmatis. Human-derived cathelicidin LL-37 is well characterized and studied against M. smegmatis; we compared LL-37 with Chinese cobra-derived cathelicidin NA-CATH and mouse cathelicidin (mCRAMP). Two synthetic 11-residue peptides (ATRA-1A and ATRA-2) containing variations of a repeated motif within NA-CATH were tested for their activity against M. smegmatis along with a short synthetic peptide derivative from the human beta-defensin hBD3 (hBD3-Pep4). We hypothesized that these smaller synthetic peptides may demonstrate antimicrobial effectiveness with shorter length (and at less cost), making them strong potential candidates for development into broad-spectrum antimicrobial compounds or use in combination with antibiotics. These peptides have antimicrobial activity with EC50 ranging from 0.05 to 1.88 μg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The ATRA-1A short peptide was found to be the most effective antimicrobial peptide (AMP) (EC50 = 0.05 μg/mL). High bactericidal activity correlated with bacterial membrane depolarization and permeabilization activities. The efficacy of the peptides was further analyzed through Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) assays. The MICs were determined by the microdilution method. The peptide mCRAMP showed the best MIC activity at 15.6 μg/mL. Neither of the effective short synthetic peptides demonstrated synergy with the antibiotic rifampicin, although both demonstrated synergy with the cyclic peptide antibiotic polymyxin B. The peptides LL-37 and mCRAMP displayed synergism with rifampicin in MIC assays, whereas antibiotic polymyxin B displayed synergism

  12. TNF and MAP kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sabio, Guadalupe; Davis, Roger J.

    2014-01-01

    The binding of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) to cell surface receptors engages multiple signal transduction pathways, including three groups of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases: extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); the cJun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs); and the p38 MAP kinases. These MAP kinase signalling pathways induce a secondary response by increasing the expression of several inflammatory cytokines (including TNFα) that contribute to the biological activity of TNFα. MAP kinases therefore function both upstream and down-stream of signalling by TNFα receptors. Here we review mechanisms that mediate these actions of MAP kinases during the response to TNFα. PMID:24647229

  13. Proteolytic susceptibility of creatine kinase isozymes and arginine kinase.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Altan; Grossman, Steven H

    2003-07-11

    The time course and dose-response to proteolysis of three dimeric isozymes of creatine kinase, CK-MM (muscle), CK-BB (brain), and CK-MB (heart) and the homologous monomer, arginine kinase were compared. Chymotrypsin and trypsin cause a rapid and significant loss of intact CK-BB, but limited hydrolysis of CK-MM. After 1h of hydrolysis by chymotrypsin, 80% of CK-MM is intact as judged by quantification of monomers after electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. While 50% of the intact monomers of CK-MB remain under these conditions, no CK-BB monomers are detected. These results indicate that treatment with chymotrypsin leads to a CK-MB devoid of the B-subunit. When treated with trypsin for 1h, CK-MM is totally resistant to hydrolysis and all CK-BB is highly degraded. However, CK-MB exhibits approximately 90% intact monomers, indicating survival of intact B-subunit in CK-MB. This suggests that heterodimerization of a B-subunit with an M-subunit may have a protective effect against hydrolysis by trypsin. In view of the considerably larger number of potentially tryptic sensitive sites on the muscle isozyme, the resistance of CK-MM and susceptibility of CK-BB dimers to trypsin implies that differences in subunit tertiary structure are a factor in proteolysis of the homodimeric isozymes. Arginine kinase is rapidly degraded by trypsin, but is minimally affected by chymotrypsin. The finding that both a monomeric (arginine kinase) and dimeric (CK-BB) phosphagen kinase are highly susceptible to proteolysis by trypsin indicates that quaternary structure is not, in and of itself, an advantage in resistance to proteolysis. Since both arginine kinase and muscle creatine kinase are resistant to chymotryptic hydrolysis, it seems unlikely that in general, the increased packing density, which may result from dimerization can account for the stability of CK-MM towards trypsin.

  14. Interactions between glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, protein kinase B, and protein phosphatase 2A in tau phosphorylation in mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin-Wen; Winblad, Bengt; Guan, Zhizhong; Pei, Jin-Jing

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how tau phosphorylation is regulated by protein kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3 beta), protein kinase B (PKB), and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. Results showed that GSK3 beta overexpression significantly increased PKB phosphorylation at the S473 site but not the T308 site. Neither GSK3 beta nor PKB overexpression could reduce the PP2AC phosphorylation at the Y307 site. In contrast, either PKB or GSK3 beta knockdown could increase PP2A phosphorylation at the Y307 site. PP2AC knockdown increased GSK3 beta phosphorylation at the S9 site but not at the Y216 site, and PKB phosphorylation at the T308 site but not at the S473 site. Tau phosphorylation at the S396 site was increased by GSK3 beta or PKB overexpression. Tau phosphorylation at the S214 site was only induced by PKB overexpression in the study. While GSK3 beta knockdown decreased tau phosphorylation at the S396 site, PKB knockdown increased tau phosphorylation at both the S396 and S214 sites. PP2AC knockdown decreased tau phosphorylation at the S396 and S214 sites. These findings suggest that tau phosphorylation at the S396 and S214 sites is differentially regulated by GSK3 beta, PKB, and PP2A in N2a cells. The final phosphorylation state of tau is possibly caused by the synergic action of the three enzymes.

  15. PPAR-α and glucocorticoid receptor synergize to promote erythroid progenitor self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiang-Ying; Gao, Xiaofei; Barrasa, M Inmaculada; Li, Hu; Elmes, Russell R; Peters, Luanne L; Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-06-25

    Many acute and chronic anaemias, including haemolysis, sepsis and genetic bone marrow failure diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, are not treatable with erythropoietin (Epo), because the colony-forming unit erythroid progenitors (CFU-Es) that respond to Epo are either too few in number or are not sensitive enough to Epo to maintain sufficient red blood cell production. Treatment of these anaemias requires a drug that acts at an earlier stage of red cell formation and enhances the formation of Epo-sensitive CFU-E progenitors. Recently, we showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulate self-renewal of an early erythroid progenitor, burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), and increase the production of terminally differentiated erythroid cells. Here we show that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) by the PPAR-α agonists GW7647 and fenofibrate synergizes with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to promote BFU-E self-renewal. Over time these agonists greatly increase production of mature red blood cells in cultures of both mouse fetal liver BFU-Es and mobilized human adult CD34(+) peripheral blood progenitors, with a new and effective culture system being used for the human cells that generates normal enucleated reticulocytes. Although Ppara(-/-) mice show no haematological difference from wild-type mice in both normal and phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced stress erythropoiesis, PPAR-α agonists facilitate recovery of wild-type but not Ppara(-/-) mice from PHZ-induced acute haemolytic anaemia. We also show that PPAR-α alleviates anaemia in a mouse model of chronic anaemia. Finally, both in control and corticosteroid-treated BFU-E cells, PPAR-α co-occupies many chromatin sites with GR; when activated by PPAR-α agonists, additional PPAR-α is recruited to GR-adjacent sites and presumably facilitates GR-dependent BFU-E self-renewal. Our discovery of the role of PPAR-α agonists in stimulating self-renewal of early erythroid

  16. Ethanol and cocaine: environmental place conditioning, stereotypy and synergism in planarians

    PubMed Central

    Tallarida, Christopher S.; Bires, Kristopher; Avershal, Jacob; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Seo, Stephanie; Rawls, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    More than 90% of individuals who use cocaine also report concurrent ethanol use, but only a few studies, all conducted with vertebrates, have investigated pharmacodynamic interactions between ethanol and cocaine. Planaria, a type of flatworm often considered to have the simplest ‘brain’, is an invertebrate species especially amenable to the quantification of drug-induced behavioral responses and identification of conserved responses. Here, we investigated stereotypical and environmental place conditioning (EPC) effects of ethanol administered alone and in combination with cocaine. Planarians displayed concentration-related increases in C-shape movements following exposure to ethanol (0.01 – 1%) (maximal effect: 9.9 ± 1.1 C-shapes/5 min at 0.5%) or cocaine (0.1 – 5 mM) (maximal effect: 42.8 ± 4.1 C-shapes/5 min at 5 mM). For combined administration, cocaine (0.1 – 5 mM) were tested with submaximal ethanol concentrations (0.01, 0,1%), the observed effect for the combination was enhanced compared to its predicted effect, indicating synergism for the interaction. The synergy with ethanol was specific for cocaine, as related experiments revealed that combinations of ethanol and nicotine did not result in synergy. For EPC experiments, ethanol (0.0001 – 1%) concentration-dependently increased EPC, with significant environmental shifts detected at 0.01 and 1%. Cocaine (0.001 – 1 μM) produced an inverted U-shaped concentration-effect curve, with a significant environmental shift observed at 0.01 μM. For combined exposure, variable cocaine concentrations (0.001 – 1 μM) were administered with a statistically ineffective concentration of ethanol (0.0001%). For each concentration of cocaine, the environmental shift was enhanced by ethanol, with significance detected at 1 μM. Cocaethylene, a metabolite of cocaine and ethanol, also produced C-shapes and EPC. Lidocaine (0.001 – 10 μM), an anesthetic and analog of cocaine, did not produce EPC or C

  17. Ethanol and cocaine: environmental place conditioning, stereotypy, and synergism in planarians.

    PubMed

    Tallarida, Christopher S; Bires, Kristopher; Avershal, Jacob; Tallarida, Ronald J; Seo, Stephanie; Rawls, Scott M

    2014-09-01

    More than 90% of individuals who use cocaine also report concurrent ethanol use, but only a few studies, all conducted with vertebrates, have investigated pharmacodynamic interactions between ethanol and cocaine. Planaria, a type of flatworm often considered to have the simplest 'brain,' is an invertebrate species especially amenable to the quantification of drug-induced behavioral responses and identification of conserved responses. Here, we investigated stereotypical and environmental place conditioning (EPC) effects of ethanol administered alone and in combination with cocaine. Planarians displayed concentration-related increases in C-shaped movements following exposure to ethanol (0.01-1%) (maximal effect: 9.9±1.1 C-shapes/5 min at 0.5%) or cocaine (0.1-5 mM) (maximal effect: 42.8±4.1 C-shapes/5 min at 5 mM). For combined administration, cocaine (0.1-5 mM) was tested with submaximal ethanol concentrations (0.01, 0.1%); the observed effect for the combination was enhanced compared to its predicted effect, indicating synergism for the interaction. The synergy with ethanol was specific for cocaine, as related experiments revealed that combinations of ethanol and nicotine did not result in synergy. For EPC experiments, ethanol (0.0001-1%) concentration-dependently increased EPC, with significant environmental shifts detected at 0.01 and 1%. Cocaine (0.001-1 μM) produced an inverted U-shaped concentration-effect curve, with a significant environmental shift observed at 0.01 μM. For combined exposure, variable cocaine concentrations (0.001-1 μM) were administered with a statistically ineffective concentration of ethanol (0.0001%). For each concentration of cocaine, the environmental shift was enhanced by ethanol, with significance detected at 1 μM. Cocaethylene, a metabolite of cocaine and ethanol, also produced C-shapes and EPC. Lidocaine (0.001-10 μM), an anesthetic and analog of cocaine, did not produce EPC or C-shaped movements. Evidence from planarians

  18. Synergism between carvacrol or thymol increases the antimicrobial efficacy of soy sauce with no sensory impact.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyeree; Rhee, Min Suk

    2016-01-18

    Here, we examined the antimicrobial effects of soy sauce containing essential oils (EOs) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes at 22°C and 4°C. To screen a variety of combined effects, soy sauce was mixed with six different EOs (carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, trans-cinnamaldehyde, β-resorcylic acid, and vanillin), each at a concentration of 1mM for 10 min. None of the oils showed bactericidal activity when used alone. Soy sauce combined with carvacrol and thymol induced the greatest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria; therefore, these oils were further tested at 0.25, 0.5, and 1mM (0.0039%, 0.0078%, and 0.0157%) for 1, 5, and 10 min at 4°C and 22°C. In addition, sensory evaluation of soy sauce containing each EO at 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2mM was performed using the nine point hedonic test. Carvacrol or thymol (1mM) eliminated all the test bacteria (initial population, 7.0-7.5logCFU/ml) in 1-5 min at 22°C and within 10 min at 4°C. L. monocytogenes was slightly more tolerant at 4°C, which may be attributable to the ability of the cell membrane to adapt to low temperatures. The sensory scores for soy sauce containing EOs were not significantly different from that of soy sauce without EOs (P>0.05). The stability of EO efficacy in soy sauce was also verified. These results suggest that carvacrol and thymol act synergistically with other factors present in soy sauce to increase antimicrobial activity against major foodborne pathogens at both 4°C and 22°C. The synergism may be attributable to the combination of factors (mainly high salt concentration and low pH imparted by organic acids) present in soy sauce and the membrane attacking properties of carvacrol and thymol. This method will facilitate the production of microbiologically safe soy sauce, soy sauce-based marinades, and various marinated foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular mechanism of antioxidant synergism of tocotrienols and carotenoids in palm oil.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Maria T; Becker, Eleonora Miquel; Skibsted, Leif H

    2006-05-03

    . Regeneration of carotenes by the phenols also explains the synergism in liposomes. In the laser flash photolysis experiments, gamma-T3 was also found to be faster in regenerating carotenes than alpha-T3 and alpha-T.

  20. Synergized resmethrin and corticosterone alter the chicken's response to west nile virus

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, Mark David; Franson, J Christian; Mostl, Erich; Porter, Warren P; Hofmeister, Erik K

    2009-01-01

    Debate concerning arbovirus control strategies remains contentious because concern regarding the relative risk of viral infection and environmental toxicant exposure is high but inadequately characterized. Taking this into account, mosquito control agencies employ aerial insecticides only after arbovirus surveillance data indicate high local mosquito-infection-rates. Successfully mitigating the risk of adult-mosquito-control insecticides ('adulticides') to non-target species such as humans, domestic animals, fish, beneficial insects and wildlife, while increasing their efficacy to reduce arbovirus outbreak intensity requires targeted scientific data from animal toxicity studies and environmental monitoring activities. Wild birds are an important reservoir host for WNv and are potentially exposed to insecticides used for mosquito control. However, no risk assessments have evaluated whether insecticides augment or extend the potential transmissibility of West Nile virus (WNv) in birds. In order to augment existing resmethrin risk assessments, we aimed to determine whether synergized resmethrin (SR) may cause chickens to develop an elevated or extended WN viremia and if subacute stress may affect its immunotoxicity. We distributed 40 chickens into four groups then exposed them prior to and during WNv infection with SR (50 {mu}g/l resmethrin + 150 {mu}g/l piperonyl butoxide) and/or 20 mg/I corticosterone (CORT) in their drinking-water. Corticosterone was given for 10 continuous days and SR was given for 3 alternate days starting the 3rd day of CORT exposure, then chickens were subcutaneously inoculated with WNv on the 5th day of CORT treatment. Compared to controls, CORT treatment extended and elevated viremia, enhanced WNv-specific antibody and increased the percentage of birds that shed oral virus, whereas SR treatment extended viremia, depressed WNv-specific IgG, and increased the percentage of CORT-treated birds that shed oral virus. Corticosterone and SR

  1. Advantage of a Broad Focal Zone in SWL: Synergism Between Squeezing and Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Maxwell, Adam D.; MacConaghy, Brian; Cleveland, Robin O.; McAteer, James A.; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2007-04-01

    on the distal end but not with the point on the proximal end. In both cases, squeezing was the same, so if squeezing were dominant, both stones should have broken. But the pointed front edge prevents the shear wave. The squeezing wave and its product — the shear wave — are both needed and work synergistically in a way explained by the model. Conclusions: A broad focus enhances the synergism of squeezing and shear waves without altering cavitation's effects, and thus accelerates stone fracture in SWL.

  2. Rapid Fire Damage Assessment by Using a Synergic Approach with Radar and Optical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadau, Enrico G.; Burini, Alessandro; Putignano, Cosimo; Goryl, Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Miranda, Nuno; Laur, Henri

    2010-12-01

    burnt trunks). By means of multi-temporal SAR observation, it is possible to assess fire damage (burnt surface and burnt biomass estimation) and to monitor the forest regrown. A synergic approach of automatic rapid mapping fire scars is presented by the use of high-resolution optical imagery (ALOS-AVNIR, SPOT-5) and C and L band radar images (single and dual-pol) applied on the major forest fires occurred in Sardinia during the 2009 summer season.

  3. PPARα and glucocorticoid receptor synergize to promote erythroid progenitor self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsiang-Ying; Gao, Xiaofei; Barrasa, M. Inmaculada; Li, Hu; Elmes, Russell R.; Peters, Luanne L.; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Many acute and chronic anemias, including hemolysis, sepsis, and genetic bone marrow failure diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA), are not treatable with erythropoietin (Epo), because the colony-forming unit erythroid progenitors (CFU-Es) that respond to Epo are either too few in number or are not sensitive enough to Epo to maintain sufficient red blood cell production 1,2,3–5,6,7,8,9. Treatment of these anemias requires a drug that acts at an earlier stage of red cell formation and enhances the formation of Epo-sensitive CFU-E progenitors. Recently we showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulate self-renewal of the early erythroid progenitor, the burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), and increase the production of terminally differentiated erythroid cells 10,11. Here we demonstrate that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) by PPARα agonists, GW7647 and fenofibrate, synergizes with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to promote BFU-E self-renewal. Over time these agonists greatly increase production of mature red blood cells in cultures both of mouse fetal liver BFU-Es and of mobilized human adult CD34+ peripheral blood progenitors, the latter employing a new and effective culture system that generates normal enucleated reticulocytes. While PPARα−/− mice show no hematological difference from wild-type mice in both normal and phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced stress erythropoiesis, PPARα agonists facilitate recovery of wild-type mice, but not PPARα−/− mice, from PHZ-induced acute hemolytic anemia. We also showed that PPARα alleviates anemia in a mouse model of chronic anemia. Finally, both in control and corticosteroid-treated BFU-E cells PPARα co-occupies many chromatin sites with GR; when activated by PPARα agonists, additional PPARα is recruited to GR-adjacent sites and presumably facilitates GR-dependent BFU-E self-renewal. Our discovery of the role of PPARα agonists in stimulating self

  4. Synergism Between Halide Binding and Proton Transport in a CLC-type Exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Accardi,A.; Lobet, S.; Williams, C.; Miller, C.; Dutzler, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Cl{sup -}/H{sup +} exchange-transporter CLC-ec1 mediates stoichiometric transmembrane exchange of two Cl{sup -} ions for one proton. A conserved tyrosine residue, Y445, coordinates one of the bound Cl{sup -} ions visible in the structure of this protein and is located near the intersection of the Cl{sup -} and H{sup +} pathways. Mutants of this tyrosine were scrutinized for effects on the coupled transport of Cl{sup -} and H{sup +} determined electrophysiologically and on protein structure determined crystallographically. Despite the strong conservation of Y445 in the CLC family, substitution of F or W at this position preserves wild-type transport behavior. Substitution by A, E, or H, however, produces uncoupled proteins with robust Cl{sup -} transport but greatly impaired movement of H{sup +}+. The obligatory 2 Cl{sup -}/1 H{sup +} stoichiometry is thus lost in these mutants. The structures of all the mutants are essentially identical to wild-type, but apparent anion occupancy in the Cl{sup -} binding region correlates with functional H{sup +} coupling. In particular, as determined by anomalous diffraction in crystals grown in Br{sup -}, an electrophysiologically competent Cl{sup -} analogue, the well-coupled transporters show strong Br{sup -} electron density at the 'inner' and 'central' Cl{sup -} binding sites. However, in the uncoupled mutants, Br{sup -} density is absent at the central site, while still present at the inner site. An additional mutant, Y445L, is intermediate in both functional and structural features. This mutant clearly exchanges H{sup +} for Cl{sup -}, but at a reduced H{sup +}-to-Cl{sup -} ratio; likewise, both the central and inner sites are occupied by Br{sup -}, but the central site shows lower Br{sup -} density than in wild-type (or in Y445F,W). The correlation between proton coupling and central-site occupancy argues that halide binding to the central transport site somehow facilitates movement of H{sup +}, a synergism that is not

  5. DSCOVR: A New Perspective for Earth Observations from Space. Synergism and Complementarity with Existing Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, F. P.

    2011-12-01

    The Sun-Earth Lagrange points L-1 and L-2 mark positions where the gravitational pull of the Earth and Sun precisely equals the centripetal force required to rotate with the Earth about the Sun with the same orbital period as the Earth. Therefore, a satellite maintained at one of these Lagrange points would keep the same relative position to the Sun and the Earth and be able to observe most points on the planet as the Earth rotates during the day. L-1 and L-2 are of particular interest because a satellite at either location can easily be maintained near the Sun-Earth line and views the entire daytime hemisphere from L-1 and the entire nighttime hemisphere from L-2. Since L-1 and L-2 are in the ecliptic plane, synoptic, high temporal-resolution observations would be obtained as every point on the planet, including both polar regions, transits from sunrise to sunset (L-1) or from sunset to sunrise (L-2). In summary, a pair of deep-space observatories, one at L-1 (daytime) and one at L-2 (nighttime), could acquire minute by minute climate quality data for essentially every point on Earth, all observations simultaneously for the whole planet. Such unique attributes are incorporated in the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) that will systematically observe climate drivers (radiation, aerosols, ozone, clouds, oxygen A-band) from L-1 in ways not possible but synergistically complementary with platforms in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) or Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO). The combination of Solar Lagrange Points (located in the ecliptic plane) GEO (located in the equatorial plane) and LEO platforms would certainly provide a powerful observational tool as well as enriched data sets for Earth sciences. Such synergism is greatly enhanced when one considers the potential of utilizing LEO, GEO, and Lagrange point satellites as components of an integrated observational system. For example, satellites at L-1 and L-2 will view the Earth plus the Moon while simultaneously having in

  6. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Cole, Lyn; Revell, John; Manning, Lee-Anne; Twidle, Andrew; Knight, Alan L; Bus, Vincent G M; Suckling, David M

    2013-05-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major cosmopolitan pest of apple and other pome fruits. Ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) has been identified as a host-derived kairomone for female and male codling moths. However, pear ester has not performed similarly in different fruit production areas in terms of the relative magnitude of moth catch, especially the proportion of females caught. Our work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples, and to investigate whether these volatiles can be used to enhance the efficacy of host kairomone pear ester for monitoring female and male codling moths. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the field using dynamic headspace sampling during the active period of codling moth flight. Using gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC/EAD) analysis, six compounds elicited responses from antennae of females. These compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and comparisons to authentic standards as nonanal, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, (Z,E)-α-farnesene, and (E,E)-α-farnesene. When the EAD-active compounds were tested individually in the field, no codling moths were caught except for a single male with decanal. However, addition of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, or (E,E)-α-farnesene to pear ester in a binary mixture enhanced the efficacy of pear ester for attracting female codling moths compared to pear ester alone. Addition of the 6-component blend to the pear ester resulted in a significant increase in the number of males attracted, and enhanced the females captured compared to pear ester alone; the number of males and females caught was similar to that with the pear ester plus acetic acid combination lure. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to synergize the response of codling moth to host kairomone by using other host volatiles. The new apple-pear ester host kairomone blend

  7. Synergic Effect of Active Sites in Zinc-Modified ZSM-5 Zeolites as Revealed by High-Field Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guodong; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Jun; Trébosc, Julien; Lafon, Olivier; Wang, Chao; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Deng, Feng

    2016-12-19

    Understanding the nature of active sites in metal-supported catalysts is of great importance towards establishing their structure-property relationships. The outstanding catalytic performance of metal-supported catalysts is frequently ascribed to the synergic effect of different active sites, which is however not well spectroscopically characterized. Herein, we report the direct detection of surface Zn species and (1) H-(67) Zn internuclear interaction between Zn(2+) ions and Brønsted acid sites on Zn-modified ZSM-5 zeolites by high-field solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The observed promotion of C-H bond activation of methane is rationalized by the enhanced Brønsted acidity generated by synergic effects arising from the spatial proximity/interaction between Zn(2+) ions and Brønsted acidic protons. The concentration of synergic active sites is determined by (1) H-(67) Zn double-resonance solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

  8. Co-expression and synergism analysis of Vip3Aa29 and Cyt2Aa3 insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiumei; Liu, Tao; Sun, Zhiguang; Guan, Peng; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Shiquan; Li, Shuangcheng; Deng, Qiming; Wang, Lingxia; Zheng, Aiping; Li, Ping

    2012-04-01

    Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3) from Bacillus thuringiensis shows high activity against lepidopteran insects. Cytolytic δ-endotoxin (Cyt) also has high toxicity to dipteran larvae and synergism with other crystal proteins (Cry), but synergism between Cyt and Vip3 proteins has not been tested. We analyzed for synergism between Cyt2Aa3 and Vip3Aa29. Both cyt2Aa3 and vip3Aa29 genes were co-expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 carried on vector pCOLADuet-1. Vip3Aa29 showed insecticidal activity against Chilo suppressalis and Spodoptera exigua, with 50% lethal concentration (LC(50)) at 24.0 and 36.6 μg ml(-1), respectively. It could also inhibit Helicoverpa armigera growth, with 50% inhibition concentration at 22.6 μg ml(-1). While Cyt2Aa3 was toxic to Culex quinquefasciatus (LC(50): 0.53 μg ml(-1)) and Chironomus tepperi (LC(50): 36 μg ml(-1)), it did not inhibit C. suppressalis, S. exigua, and H. armigera. However, the co-expression of Cyt2Aa3 and Vip3Aa29 showed synergistic effect on C. suppressalis and S. exigua, and the individual activities were strengthened 3.35- and 4.34-fold, respectively. The co-expression had no synergism against C. tepperi and H. armigera, but exerted some antagonistic effect on Cx. quinquefasciatus. The synergism between Cyt2Aa and Vip3Aa was thus discovered for the first time, which confirmed that Cyt toxin can enhance the toxicity of other toxins against some non-target insects. By synergism analysis, the effectiveness of microbial insecticides can be verified.

  9. Synergism between insecticides permethrin and propoxur occurs through activation of presynaptic muscarinic negative feedback of acetylcholine release in the insect central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Vincent; Stankiewicz, Maria; Bonnet, Julien; Grolleau, Françoise; Hougard, Jean Marc; Lapied, Bruno

    2006-07-01

    Although synergism between pesticides has been widely documented, the physiological mechanisms by which an insecticide synergizes another remains unclear. Toxicological and electrophysiological studies were carried out on two susceptible pest species (the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus and the cockroach Periplaneta americana) to understand better the physiological process involved in pyrethroid and carbamate interactions. Larval bioassays were conducted with the susceptible reference strain SLAB of C. quinquefasciatus to assess the implication of multi-function oxidases and non-specific esterases in insecticide detoxification and synergism. Results showed that the general theory of synergism (competition between pesticides for a common detoxification enzyme) was unlikely to occur in the SLAB strain since the level of synergy recorded between permethrin and propoxur was unchanged in the presence of piperonyl butoxide and tribufos, two inhibitors of oxidases and esterases, respectively (synergism ratios were similar with and without synergists). We also showed that addition of a sub-lethal concentration of nicotine significantly increased the toxicity of permethrin and propoxur at the lower range of the dose-mortality regression lines, suggesting the manifestation of important physiological disruptions at synaptic level. The effects of both permethrin and propoxur were studied on the cercal-afferent giant-interneuron synapses in the terminal abdominal ganglion of the cockroach P. americana using the single-fibre oil-gap method. We demonstrated that permethrin and propoxur increased drastically the ACh concentration within the synaptic cleft, which thereby stimulated a negative feedback of ACh release. Atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, reversed the effect of permethrin and propoxur mixtures. This demonstrates the implication of the presynaptic muscarinic receptors in the negative feedback regulation process and in synergism. Based on these findings, we

  10. Small Molecule Inhibition of the Autophagy Kinase ULK1 and Identification of ULK1 Substrates.

    PubMed

    Egan, Daniel F; Chun, Matthew G H; Vamos, Mitchell; Zou, Haixia; Rong, Juan; Miller, Chad J; Lou, Hua Jane; Raveendra-Panickar, Dhanya; Yang, Chih-Cheng; Sheffler, Douglas J; Teriete, Peter; Asara, John M; Turk, Benjamin E; Cosford, Nicholas D P; Shaw, Reuben J

    2015-07-16

    Many tumors become addicted to autophagy for survival, suggesting inhibition of autophagy as a potential broadly applicable cancer therapy. ULK1/Atg1 is the only serine/threonine kinase in the core autophagy pathway and thus represents an excellent drug target. Despite recent advances in the understanding of ULK1 activation by nutrient deprivation, how ULK1 promotes autophagy remains poorly understood. Here, we screened degenerate peptide libraries to deduce the optimal ULK1 substrate motif and discovered 15 phosphorylation sites in core autophagy proteins that were verified as in vivo ULK1 targets. We utilized these ULK1 substrates to perform a cell-based screen to identify and characterize a potent ULK1 small molecule inhibitor. The compound SBI-0206965 is a highly selective ULK1 kinase inhibitor in vitro and suppressed ULK1-mediated phosphorylation events in cells, regulating autophagy and cell survival. SBI-0206965 greatly synergized with mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors to kill tumor cells, providing a strong rationale for their combined use in the clinic.

  11. Antibacterial and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activities of polyhydroxylated xanthones from Garcinia succifolia.

    PubMed

    Duangsrisai, Susawat; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Bessa, Lucinda J; Costa, Paulo M; Amat, Nurmuhammat; Kijjoa, Anake

    2014-11-28

    Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz (Clusiaceae) led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1), 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (3), 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone (4), 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6). All of the isolated xanthones were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against bacterial reference strains, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 25923, Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853), and environmental drug-resistant isolates (S. aureus B1, Enteroccoccus faecalis W1, and E. coli G1), as well as for their epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy-(4), 1,6,7-trihydroxy-(5), and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones (6) exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1) and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2) were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 90.34 and 223 nM, respectively.

  12. Valproate inhibits MAP kinase signalling and cell cycle progression in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Desfossés-Baron, Kristelle; Hammond-Martel, Ian; Simoneau, Antoine; Sellam, Adnane; Roberts, Stephen; Wurtele, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of action of valproate (VPA), a widely prescribed short chain fatty acid with anticonvulsant and anticancer properties, remains poorly understood. Here, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as model to investigate the biological consequences of VPA exposure. We found that low pH strongly potentiates VPA-induced growth inhibition. Transcriptional profiling revealed that under these conditions, VPA modulates the expression of genes involved in diverse cellular processes including protein folding, cell wall organisation, sexual reproduction, and cell cycle progression. We further investigated the impact of VPA on selected processes and found that this drug: i) activates markers of the unfolded protein stress response such as Hac1 mRNA splicing; ii) modulates the cell wall integrity pathway by inhibiting the activation of the Slt2 MAP kinase, and synergizes with cell wall stressors such as micafungin and calcofluor white in preventing yeast growth; iii) prevents activation of the Kss1 and Fus3 MAP kinases of the mating pheromone pathway, which in turn abolishes cellular responses to alpha factor; and iv) blocks cell cycle progression and DNA replication. Overall, our data identify heretofore unknown biological responses to VPA in budding yeast, and highlight the broad spectrum of cellular pathways influenced by this chemical in eukaryotes. PMID:27782169

  13. Small molecule inhibition of the autophagy kinase ULK1 and identification of ULK1 substrates

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Daniel F.; Chun, Matthew G.H.; Vamos, Mitchell; Zou, Haixia; Rong, Juan; Miller, Chad J.; Lou, Hua Jane; Raveendra-Panickar, Dhanya; Yang, Chih-Cheng; Sheffler, Douglas J.; Teriete, Peter; Asara, John M.; Turk, Benjamin E.; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.; Shaw, Reuben J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Many tumors become addicted to autophagy for survival, suggesting inhibition of autophagy as a potential broadly-applicable cancer therapy. ULK1/Atg1 is the only serine/threonine kinase in the core autophagy pathway and thus represents an excellent drug target. Despite recent advances in the understanding of ULK1 activation by nutrient deprivation, how ULK1 promotes autophagy remains poorly understood. Here, we screened degenerate peptide libraries to deduce the optimal ULK1 substrate motif and discovered fifteen phosphorylation sites in core autophagy proteins that were verified as in vivo ULK1 targets. We utilized these ULK1 substrates to perform a cell-based screen to identify and characterize a potent ULK1 small molecule inhibitor. The compound SBI-0206965 is a highly selective ULK1 kinase inhibitor in vitro and suppressed ULK1-mediated phosphorylation events in cells, regulating autophagy and cell survival. SBI-0206965 greatly synergized with mTOR inhibitors to kill tumor cells, providing a strong rationale for their combined use in the clinic. PMID:26118643

  14. Synergism between hydrogen peroxide and seventeen acids against five agri-food-borne fungi and one yeast strain.

    PubMed

    Martin, H; Maris, P

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate fungicidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide administered in combination with 17 mineral and organic acids authorized for use in the food industry. The assays were performed on a 96-well microplate using a microdilution technique based on the checkerboard titration method. The six selected strains (one yeast and five fungi) were reference strains and strains representative of contaminating fungi found in the food industry. Each synergistic hydrogen peroxide/acid combination found after fifteen minutes contact time at 20 °C in distilled water was then tested in conditions simulating four different use conditions. Twelve combinations were synergistic in distilled water, eleven of these remained synergistic with one or more of the four mineral and organic interfering substances selected. Hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination remained effective against four strains and was never antagonistic against the other two fungi. Combinations with propionic acid and acetic acid stayed synergistic against two strains. Those with oxalic acid and lactic acid kept their synergism only against Candida albicans. No synergism was detected against Penicillium cyclopium. Synergistic combinations of disinfectants were revealed, among them the promising hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination. A rapid screening method developed in our laboratory for bacteria was adapted to fungi and used to reveal the synergistic potential of disinfectants and/or sanitizers combinations. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Synergism between PGC-1α and estrogen in the survival of endometrial cancer cells via the mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Yang, Rui; Liu, Hao; Ren, Zhongqian; Kong, Fanfei; Li, Da; Ma, Xiaoxin

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is involved in the progression of hormone-related cancers, and there may exist an association between estrogen and PGC-1α. Notably, emerging evidence has led to considerable interest in the role of PGC-1α in endometrial cancer development. However, whether the synergism exists between PGC-1α and estrogen for regulating mitochondrial function to promote the development of endometrial cancer remains largely unknown. Here, we show that: 1) knockdown of PGC-1α attenuates the survival of endometrial cancer cells by inducing cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway; 2) estrogen remedies the PGC-1α efficiency-induced decline of endometrial cancer cell viability; and 3) estrogen modulates the mitochondrial function to inhibit the PGC-1α deficiency-induced apoptosis in endometrial cancer cells. Collectively, these results demonstrated that the synergism between PGC-1α and estrogen was required for the survival of endometrial cancer cells, which was dependent on the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:27418839

  16. Polyphenolic Secondary Metabolites Synergize the Activity of Commercial Antibiotics against Clinical Isolates of β-Lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Dey, Diganta; Ghosh, Subhalakshmi; Ray, Ratnamala; Hazra, Banasri

    2016-02-01

    Emergence of worldwide antimicrobial resistance prompted us to study the resistance modifying potential of plant-derived dietary polyphenols, mainly caffeic acid, ellagic acid, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and quercetin. These compounds were studied in logical combination with clinically significant antibiotics (ciprofloxacin/gentamicin/tetracycline) against Klebsiella pneumoniae, after conducting phenotypic screening of a large number of clinical isolates and selecting the relevant strains possessing extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-type carbapenemase enzymes only. The study demonstrated that EGCG and caffeic acid could synergize the activity of tested antibiotics within a major population of β-lactamase-producing K. pneumoniae. In spectrofluorimetric assay, ~17-fold greater ciprofloxacin accumulation was observed within K. pneumoniae cells pre-treated with EGCG in comparison with the untreated control, indicating its ability to synergize ciprofloxacin to restrain active drug-efflux. Further, electron micrograph of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae clearly demonstrated the prospective efficacy of EGCG towards biofilm degradation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Synergism between southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus and rice ragged stunt virus enhances their insect vector acquisition.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Wang, Han; Zhou, Guohui

    2014-07-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a tentative species in the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae, is a novel rice virus transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera). Since its discovery in 2001, SRBSDV has spread rapidly throughout eastern and southeastern Asia and caused large rice losses in China and Vietnam. Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) (genus Oryzavirus, family Reoviridae) is a common rice virus vectored by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens). RRSV is also widely distributed in eastern and southeastern Asia but has not previously caused serious problems in China owing to its low incidence. With SRBSDV's spread, however, RRSV has become increasingly common in China, and is frequently found in co-infection with SRBSDV. In this study, we show that SRBSDV and RRSV interact synergistically, the first example of synergism between plant viruses in the family Reoviridae. Rice plants co-infected with both viruses displayed enhanced stunting, earlier symptoms, and higher virus titers compared with singly infected plants. Furthermore, white-backed and brown planthoppers acquired SRBSDV and RRSV, respectively, from co-infected plants at higher rates. We propose that increased RRSV incidence in Chinese fields is partly due to synergism between SRBSDV and RRSV.

  18. Fibronectin EDA and CpG synergize to enhance antigen-specific Th1 and cytotoxic responses.

    PubMed

    Julier, Ziad; de Titta, Alexandre; Grimm, Alizée J; Simeoni, Eleonora; Swartz, Melody A; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2016-05-05

    Subunit vaccines, employing purified protein antigens rather than intact pathogens, require the addition of adjuvants for enhanced immunogenicity with a correct balance between strong activation of the immune system and low toxicity. Here we show that the endogenous (i.e., autologous) non-toxic TLR4 agonist extra domain A type III repeat of fibronectin (FNIII EDA) can synergize with the exogenous (i.e., bacterial), toxic-at-high-dose, TLR9 agonist CpG to induce efficient cellular immune responses while keeping the dose of CpG low. The efficacy of the combined TLR agonists, even at half-doses, led to stronger dendritic cell activation, enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation as well as stronger humoral response, compared to the individual agonists given at full doses. Immune cells induced after vaccination with the co-adjuvanted formulation could mediate tumor regression in an E.G7-OVA tumor model, and eradicate circulating hepatitis B virus (HBV) in a transgenic HBV model. Together, these results show that endogenous TLR agonists, such as variants of FNIII EDA, can synergize with exogenous TLR ligands, such as CpG, and strongly enhance cellular immune responses, while improving their safety profile. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Impacts of albumin synergized with hydroxyethyl starch on early microvascular albumin leakage after major abdominal surgery in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiming; Xu, Pengyuan; Cen, Yunyun; Sun, Dali; Yang, Ting; Xu, Qingwen; Li, Shumin; Li, Yijun; Ding, Bo

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the impacts of albumin synergized with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) on early microvascular albumin leakage after major abdominal surgery in rabbits. Forty male Japanese rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: the control group, the saline group, the albumin group, and the Syn group (hydroxyethyl starch+albumin). The latter three groups were performed gastrectomy plus resection of pancreatic body and tail and splenectomy. The serum albumin concentration was detected before and 48h after surgery, and the conditions of mesenteric microvascular leakage in these 4 groups were observed under microscope 48 h after surgery to calculate the leakage rate. Compared with the saline group, the albumin group and the Syn group exhibited significantly increased serum albumin concentrations 48h after surgery (P<0.05). The albumin leakage rate was the most obvious in the albumin group, followed by the saline group, while that in the Syn group was the minimal, and there existed significant differences among these groups (P<0.05) . Simple administration of albumin in the early stage after major abdominal surgery could increase the albumin leakage, while the synergization of albumin and hydroxyethyl starch could reduce the albumin leakage.

  20. Prehension Synergies in the Grasps With Complex Friction Patterns: Local Versus Synergic Effects and the Template Control

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xun; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    We studied adjustments of digit forces to changes in the friction. The subjects held a handle statically in a three-digit grasp. The friction under each digit was either high or low, resulting in eight three-element friction sets (such grasps were coined the grasps with complex friction pattern). The total load was also manipulated. It was found that digit forces were adjusted not only to the supported load and local friction, but also to friction at other digits (synergic effects). When friction under a digit was low, its tangential force decreased and the normal force increased (local effects). The synergic effects were directed to maintain the equilibrium of the handle. The relation between the individual digit forces and loads agreed with the triple-product model: fin=ki(2)ki(1)L, where fin is normal force of digit i, L is the load (newtons), ki(1) is a dimensionless coefficient representing sharing the total tangential force among the digits (Σki(1)=1.0), and ki(2) is a coefficient representing the relation between the tangential and normal forces of digit i (the overall friction equivalent, OFE). At each friction set, the central controller selected the grasping template—a three-element array of ki(2)ki(1) products—and then scaled the template with the load magnitude. PMID:17493928

  1. Prehension synergies in the grasps with complex friction patterns: local versus synergic effects and the template control.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xun; Latash, Mark L; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M

    2007-07-01

    We studied adjustments of digit forces to changes in the friction. The subjects held a handle statically in a three-digit grasp. The friction under each digit was either high or low, resulting in eight three-element friction sets (such grasps were coined the grasps with complex friction pattern). The total load was also manipulated. It was found that digit forces were adjusted not only to the supported load and local friction, but also to friction at other digits (synergic effects). When friction under a digit was low, its tangential force decreased and the normal force increased (local effects). The synergic effects were directed to maintain the equilibrium of the handle. The relation between the individual digit forces and loads agreed with the triple-product model: f(i)(n) = k(i)((2))k(i)((1))L, where f(i)(n) is normal force of digit i, L is the load (newtons), k(i)((1)) is a dimensionless coefficient representing sharing the total tangential force among the digits (summation operator k(i)((1)) = 1.0), and k(i)((2)) is a coefficient representing the relation between the tangential and normal forces of digit i (the overall friction equivalent, OFE). At each friction set, the central controller selected the grasping template -- a three-element array of k(i)((2))k(i)((1)) products -- and then scaled the template with the load magnitude.

  2. System-level Study on Synergism and Antagonism of Active Ingredients in Traditional Chinese Medicine by Using Molecular Imprinting Technology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tengfei; Gu, Jiangyong; Zhang, Xinzhuang; Ma, Yimin; Cao, Liang; Wang, Zhenzhong; Chen, Lirong; Xu, Xiaojie; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this work, synergism and antagonism among active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) were studied at system-level by using molecular imprinting technology. Reduning Injection (RDNI), a TCM injection, was widely used to relieve fever caused by viral infection diseases in China. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) synthesized by sol-gel method were used to separate caffeic acid (CA) and analogues from RDNI without affecting other compounds. It can realize the preparative scale separation. The inhibitory effects of separated samples of RDNI and sample combinations in prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells were studied. The combination index was calculated to evaluate the synergism and antagonism. We found that components which had different scaffolds can produce synergistic anti-inflammatory effect inside and outside the RDNI. Components which had similar scaffolds exhibited the antagonistic effect, and the antagonistic effects among components could be reduced to some extent in RDNI system. The results indicated MIPs with the characteristics of specific adsorption ability and large scale preparation can be an effective approach to study the interaction mechanism among active ingredients of complex system such as TCM at system-level. And this work would provide a new idea to study the interactions among active ingredients of TCM. PMID:25418048

  3. Design of an enzyme cocktail consisting of different fungal platforms for efficient hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse: Optimization and synergism studies.

    PubMed

    Méndez Arias, Johanna; Modesto, Luiz Felipe Amarante; Polikarpov, Igor; Pereira, Nei

    2016-09-01

    Lignocellulosic materials represent a very important and promising source of renewable biomass. In order to turn them into fermentable sugars, synergism among the different enzymes that carry out bioconversion of these materials is one of the main factors that should be considered. Experimental mixture design was performed to optimize the proportion of enzymes produced by native strains of Trichoderma harzianum IOC 3844, Penicillium funiculosum ATCC 11797, and Aspergillus niger ATCC 1004, resulting in a proportion of 15, 50, and 35%, respectively. This mixture was able to hydrolyze 25 g/L of pretreated sugarcane bagasse with 91% of yield after 48 h of enzymatic reaction. Synergism along the hydrolysis process, besides the influence of lignin, hemicellulose, and solids loading, were also studied. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on Central Composite Rotatable Design was used to optimize solids and protein loadings to increase glucose release and enzymatic hydrolysis yield. The optimum solid and protein loadings established with RSM were 196 g/L and 24 mg/g cellulose, respectively, and under these conditions (94.1 ± 8) g/L of glucose were obtained, corresponding to a hydrolysis yield of 64%. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1222-1229, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. Synergism effects of pioglitazone and Urtica dioica extract in streptozotocin-induced nephropathy via attenuation of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Sadat-Hosseini, Sara; Fallah, Marjan; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2017-05-01

    Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we investigated the synergism effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone (PIO) on the prevention of DN in streptozotocin induced-diabetic mice. Forty-two mice were divided into six groups as follows: non-diabetic control group, DMSO group (as solvent), diabetic group and four treatment groups which received U. dioica, pioglitazone, U. dioica plus pioglitazone and vitE. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (200 mg/kg body wt, IP) diluted in citrate buffer (pH= 4.6). After 4 weeks treatment, all animals were anaesthetized and blood was collected for serum urea and creatinine levels assessment in plasma and kidney tissue were excised for evaluation of oxidative stress markers. Treatment with U. dioica significantly inhibited increase in serum urea and creatinine in plasma that were observed in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the elevated level of oxidative stress markers (glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl) in renal supernatant of diabetic mice was inhibited by U. dioica treatment. Interestingly, U. dioica promoted beneficial effects of PIO in reducing STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage and oxidative stress markers. Our findings showed that PIO plus U. dioica have synergism protective effects against STZ-induced nephropathy that can be a candidate as a therapeutic approach in order to treatment of DN.

  5. Synergism effects of pioglitazone and Urtica dioica extract in streptozotocin-induced nephropathy via attenuation of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Sadat-hosseini, Sara; Fallah, Marjan; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we investigated the synergism effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone (PIO) on the prevention of DN in streptozotocin induced-diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Forty-two mice were divided into six groups as follows: non-diabetic control group, DMSO group (as solvent), diabetic group and four treatment groups which received U. dioica, pioglitazone, U. dioica plus pioglitazone and vitE. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (200 mg/kg body wt, IP) diluted in citrate buffer (pH= 4.6). After 4 weeks treatment, all animals were anaesthetized and blood was collected for serum urea and creatinine levels assessment in plasma and kidney tissue were excised for evaluation of oxidative stress markers. Results: Treatment with U. dioica significantly inhibited increase in serum urea and creatinine in plasma that were observed in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the elevated level of oxidative stress markers (glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl) in renal supernatant of diabetic mice was inhibited by U. dioica treatment. Interestingly, U. dioica promoted beneficial effects of PIO in reducing STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: Our findings showed that PIO plus U. dioica have synergism protective effects against STZ-induced nephropathy that can be a candidate as a therapeutic approach in order to treatment of DN. PMID:28656084

  6. Identification of the Molecular Mechanism by which TLR Ligation and IFN-γ Synergize to Induce Mig

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jonathan D.; Boodoo, Sada

    2004-01-01

    Monokine Induced by Interferon- (MIG), a CXC chemokine, is a potent inducer of T-cell chemotaxis and activation and has been implicated in the host response to viral infections and tumor immunity as well as in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and transplant rejection. Although it is known that the Toll-Like Receptor-4 (TLR-4) ligand LPS synergizes with IFN-γ to induce MIG expression in macrophages, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the synergy have yet to be elucidated. We determined that the marked synergy between LPS and IFN-γ on MIG mRNA expression in mouse macrophages is a result of LPS-induced NF-κB and IFN-γ-induced STAT. The synergy was not dependent on new protein synthesis, was independent of TNF-α, and occurred at the level of gene transcription. We identified 2 NF-κB sites located at -154 and -129 of the MIG promoter proximal to the -responsive element that mediated this effect. Finally, we demonstrated that other TLR ligands (zymosan, double stranded RNA and CpG) synergized with IFN-γ to induce MIG in an NF-κB dependent fashion. These data emphasize the ability of bacterial and viral products to activate/modify immune responses and promote adaptive T cell immunity through the NF-κB pathway. PMID:15154616

  7. Synergism between Enantiomers Creates Species-Specific Pheromone Blends and Minimizes Cross-Attraction for Two Species of Cerambycid Beetles.

    PubMed

    Meier, Linnea R; Zou, Yunfan; Millar, Jocelyn G; Mongold-Diers, Judith A; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2016-11-01

    Research over the last decade has revealed extensive parsimony among pheromones within the large insect family Cerambycidae, with males of many species producing the same, or very similar aggregation pheromones. Among some species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, interspecific attraction is minimized by temporal segregation, and/or by minor pheromone components that synergize attraction of conspecifics or inhibit attraction of heterospecifics. Less is known about pheromone-based mechanisms of reproductive isolation among species in the largest subfamily, the Lamiinae. Here, we present evidence that the pheromone systems of two sympatric lamiine species consist of synergistic blends of enantiomers of (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-ol (fuscumol) and the structurally related (E)-6,10-dimethyl-5,9-undecadien-2-yl acetate (fuscumol acetate), as a mechanism by which species-specific blends of pheromone components can minimize interspecific attraction. Male Astylidius parvus (LeConte) were found to produce (R)- and (S)-fuscumol + (R)-fuscumol acetate + geranylacetone, whereas males of Lepturges angulatus (LeConte) produced (R)- and (S)-fuscumol acetate + geranylacetone. Field experiments confirmed that adult beetles were attracted only by their species-specific blend of the enantiomers of fuscumol and fuscumol acetate, respectively, and not to the individual enantiomers. Because other lamiine species are known to produce single enantiomers or blends of enantiomers of fuscumol and/or fuscumol acetate, synergism between enantiomers, or inhibition by enantiomers, may be a widespread mechanism for forming species-specific pheromone blends in this subfamily.

  8. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson’s group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src–transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src–associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month. PMID:26130799

  9. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-06-30

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson's group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src-transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src-associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month.

  10. WNK kinases and essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chou-Long; Kuo, Elizabeth; Toto, Robert D

    2008-03-01

    The present review summarizes recent literature and discusses the potential roles of WNKs in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. WNKs (with-no-lysine [K]) are a recently discovered family of serine-threonine protein kinases with unusual protein kinase domains. The role of WNK kinases in the control of blood pressure was first revealed by the findings that mutations of two members, WNK1 and WNK4, cause Gordon's syndrome. Laboratory studies have revealed that WNK kinases play important roles in the regulation of sodium and potassium transport. Animal models have been created to unravel the pathophysiology of sodium transport disorders caused by mutations of the WNK4 gene. Potassium deficiency causes sodium retention and increases hypertension prevalence. The expression of WNK1 is upregulated by potassium deficiency, raising the possibility that WNK1 may contribute to salt-sensitive essential hypertension associated with potassium deficiency. Associations of polymorphisms of WNK genes with essential hypertension in the general population have been reported. Mutations of WNK1 and WNK4 cause hypertension at least partly by increasing renal sodium retention. The role of WNK kinases in salt-sensitive hypertension within general hypertension is suggested, but future work is required to firmly establish the connection.

  11. Endothelial Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 Is Critical for Lymphatic Vascular Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chang-An; Danai, Laura V.; Yawe, Joseph C.; Gujja, Sharvari; Edwards, Yvonne J. K.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying lymphatic vascular development and function are not well understood. Recent studies have suggested a role for endothelial cell (EC) mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) in developmental angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. Here, we show that constitutive loss of EC Map4k4 in mice causes postnatal lethality due to chylothorax, suggesting that Map4k4 is required for normal lymphatic vascular function. Mice constitutively lacking EC Map4k4 displayed dilated lymphatic capillaries, insufficient lymphatic valves, and impaired lymphatic flow; furthermore, primary ECs derived from these animals displayed enhanced proliferation compared with controls. Yeast 2-hybrid analyses identified the Ras GTPase-activating protein Rasa1, a known regulator of lymphatic development and lymphatic endothelial cell fate, as a direct interacting partner for Map4k4. Map4k4 silencing in ECs enhanced basal Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activities, and primary ECs lacking Map4k4 displayed enhanced lymphatic EC marker expression. Taken together, these results reveal that EC Map4k4 is critical for lymphatic vascular development by regulating EC quiescence and lymphatic EC fate. PMID:27044870

  12. Combined inhibition of MEK and mTOR has a synergic effect on angiosarcoma tumorgrafts

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSEN, NICHOLAS J.; BOGUSLAWSKI, ELISSA B.; KUK, CYNTHIA Y.; CHAMBERS, CHRISTOPHER M.; DUESBERY, NICHOLAS S.

    2015-01-01

    Angiosarcoma (AS) is a rare neoplasm of endothelial origin that has limited treatment options and poor five-year survival. Using tumorgraft models, we previously showed that AS is sensitive to small-molecule inhibitors that target mitogen-activated/extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase kinases 1 and 2 (MEK). The objective of this study was to identify drugs that combine with MEK inhibitors to more effectively inhibit AS growth. We examined the in vitro synergy between the MEK inhibitor PD0325901 and inhibitors of eleven common cancer pathways in melanoma cell lines and canine angiosarcoma cell isolates. Combination indices were calculated using the Chou-Talalay method. Optimized combination therapies were evaluated in vivo for toxicity and efficacy using canine angiosarcoma tumorgrafts. Among the drugs we tested, rapamycin stood out because it showed strong synergy with PD0325901 at nanomolar concentrations. We observed that angiosarcomas are insensitive to mTOR inhibition. However, treatment with nanomolar levels of mTOR inhibitor renders these cells as sensitive to MEK inhibition as a melanoma cell line with mutant BRAF. Similar results were observed in B-Raf wild-type melanoma cells as well as in vivo, where treatment of canine AS tumorgrafts with MEK and mTOR inhibitors was more effective than monotherapy. Our data show that a low dose of an mTOR inhibitor can dramatically enhance angiosarcoma and melanoma response to MEK inhibition, potentially widening the field of applications for MEK-targeted therapy. PMID:25955301

  13. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Anish; Rajan, Arun; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS ‘Driver mutations’ are essential for carcinogenesis as well as tumor progression as they confer a selective growth advantage to cancer cells. Identification of driver mutations in growth related protein kinases, especially tyrosine kinases have led to clinical development of an array of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in various malignancies, including lung cancer. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinases have proven to be of meaningful clinical benefit, while inhibition of several other tyrosine kinases have been of limited clinical benefit, thus far. An improved understanding of tyrosine kinase biology has also led to faster drug development, identification of resistance mechanisms and ways to overcome resistance. In this review, we discuss the clinical data supporting the use and practical aspects of management of patients on epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:22520981

  14. Targeting Focal Adhesion Kinase and Resistance to mTOR Inhibition in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    François, Rony A.; Maeng, Kyungah; Nawab, Akbar; Kaye, Frederic J.; Hochwald, Steven N.; Zajac-Kaye, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) mediates survival of normal pancreatic islets through activation of AKT. Upon malignant transformation of islet cells into pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs), AKT is frequently overexpressed and mutations in the AKT/mTOR pathway are detected. Because mTOR inhibitors rarely induce PanNET tumor regression, partly because of feedback activation of AKT, novel combination strategies are needed to target FAK/AKT/mTOR signaling. Methods: We characterized the activation of FAK in PanNETs using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis and tested the FAK inhibitor PF-04554878 in human PanNET cells in vitro and in vivo (at least three mice per group). In addition, we evaluated the effect of combined FAK and mTOR inhibition on PanNET viability and apoptosis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: We found that FAK is overexpressed and hyperphosphorylated in human PanNETs and that PF-04554878 strongly inhibited FAK (Tyr397) autophosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. We found that PF-04554878 inhibited cell proliferation and clonogenicity and induced apoptosis in PanNET cells. Moreover, oral administration of PF-04554878 statistically significantly reduced tumor growth in a patient-derived xenograft model of PanNET (P = .02) and in a human PanNET xenograft model of peritoneal carcinomatosis (P = .03). Importantly, PF-04554878 synergized with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus by preventing feedback AKT activation. Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that FAK is overexpressed in PanNETs and that inhibition of FAK activity induces apoptosis and inhibits PanNET proliferation. We found that the novel FAK inhibitor PF-04554878 synergizes with everolimus, a US Food and Drug Administration–approved agent for PanNETs. Our findings warrant the clinical investigation of combined FAK and mTOR inhibition in PanNETs. PMID:25971297

  15. Differential regulation of rice mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) by abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kundan; Rao, Kudupudi Prabhakara; Sharma, Pallavi; Sinha, Alok Krishna

    2008-10-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase cascade plays a crucial role in various biotic and abiotic stresses, hormones, cell division and developmental processes. MAP kinase kinase being integral part of this cascade performs an important function of integrating upstream signals to mitogen activated protein kinase for further appropriate cellular responses. We here report cloning of five MAP kinase kinase members from Oryza sativa indica cultivar var. Pusa Basmati 1, namely MAP kinase kinases 1, 3, 4, 6 and 10-2. All these members, except MKK10-2 possess fully canonical motif structures of MAP kinase kinase. The deduced amino acid sequence showed changes at certain position within japonica and indica variety of rice. Analysis of transcript regulation by quantitative real time PCR revealed that these five members are differentially regulated by cold, heat, salinity and drought stresses. MAP kinase kinases 4 and 6 are strongly regulated by cold and salt stresses while MAP kinase kinase 1 is regulated by salt and drought stresses. MAP kinase kinase 10-2 is regulated only by cold stress. The study provides the indication of involvement of specific MAP kinase kinase in different abiotic stress signaling and also possible cross talks that exist during the signaling processes.

  16. Leukotriene D4 and prostaglandin E2 signals synergize and potentiate vascular inflammation in a mast cell-dependent manner through cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 and E-prostanoid receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Kondeti, Vinay; Al-Azzam, Nosayba; Duah, Ernest; Thodeti, Charles K; Boyce, Joshua A; Paruchuri, Sailaja

    2016-01-01

    Although arachidonic acid metabolites, cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs; leukotriene [LT] C4, LTD4, and LTE4), and prostaglandin (PG) E2 are generated at the site of inflammation, it is not known whether crosstalk exists between these 2 classes of inflammatory mediators. We sought to determine the role of LTD4-PGE2 crosstalk in inducing vascular inflammation in vivo, identify effector cells, and ascertain specific receptors and pathways involved in vitro. Vascular (ear) inflammation was assessed by injecting agonists into mouse ears, followed by measuring ear thickness and histology, calcium influx with Fura-2, phosphorylation and expression of signaling molecules by means of immunoblotting, PGD2 and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β generation by using ELISA, and expression of transcripts by using RT-PCR. Candidate receptors and signaling molecules were identified by using antagonists and inhibitors and confirmed by using small interfering RNA. LTD4 plus PGE2 potentiated vascular permeability and edema, gearing the system toward proinflammation in wild-type mice but not in Kit(W-sh) mice. Furthermore, LTD4 plus PGE2, through cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLT1R) and E-prostanoid receptor (EP) 3, enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and c-fos phosphorylation, inflammatory gene expression, macrophage inflammatory protein 1β secretion, COX-2 upregulation, and PGD2 generation in mast cells. Additionally, we uncovered that this synergism is mediated through Gi, protein kinase G, and Erk signaling. LTD4 plus PGE2-potentiated effects are partially sensitive to CysLT1R or EP3 antagonists but completely abolished by simultaneous treatment both in vitro and in vivo. Our results unravel a unique LTD4-PGE2 interaction affecting mast cells through CysLT1R and EP3 involving Gi, protein kinase G, and Erk and contributing to vascular inflammation in vivo. Furthermore, current results also suggest an advantage of targeting both CysLT1R and EP3 in

  17. [Kinase inhibitors against hematological malignancies].

    PubMed

    Tojo, Arinobu

    2014-06-01

    Dysregulation of protein phosphorylation, especially on tyrosine residues, plays a crucial role in development and progression of hematological malignancies. Since remarkable success in imatinib therapy of CML and Ph+ALL, extensive efforts have made to explore candidate molecular targets and next breakthrough drugs. Now that next generation ABL kinase inhibitors are available for CML, the therapeutic algorithm has been revolutionized. As for AML and lymphoid malignancies, many kinase inhibitors targeting FLT3, BTK and aurora-A are on early and late clinical trials, and a number of promising drugs including ibrutinib are picked up for further evaluation.

  18. Cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Suhasini, M; Li, H; Lohmann, S M; Boss, G R; Pilz, R B

    1998-12-01

    Agents which increase the intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) concentration and cGMP analogs inhibit cell growth in several different cell types, but it is not known which of the intracellular target proteins of cGMP is (are) responsible for the growth-suppressive effects of cGMP. Using baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, which are deficient in cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase), we show that 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate and 8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate inhibit cell growth in cells stably transfected with a G-kinase Ibeta expression vector but not in untransfected cells or in cells transfected with a catalytically inactive G-kinase. We found that the cGMP analogs inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear translocation of MAP kinase in G-kinase-expressing cells but not in G-kinase-deficient cells. Ras activation by EGF was not impaired in G-kinase-expressing cells treated with cGMP analogs. We show that activation of G-kinase inhibited c-Raf kinase activation and that G-kinase phosphorylated c-Raf kinase on Ser43, both in vitro and in vivo; phosphorylation of c-Raf kinase on Ser43 uncouples the Ras-Raf kinase interaction. A mutant c-Raf kinase with an Ala substitution for Ser43 was insensitive to inhibition by cGMP and G-kinase, and expression of this mutant kinase protected cells from inhibition of EGF-induced MAP kinase activity by cGMP and G-kinase, suggesting that Ser43 in c-Raf is the major target for regulation by G-kinase. Similarly, B-Raf kinase was not inhibited by G-kinase; the Ser43 phosphorylation site of c-Raf is not conserved in B-Raf. Activation of G-kinase induced MAP kinase phosphatase 1 expression, but this occurred later than the inhibition of MAP kinase activation. Thus, in BHK cells, inhibition of cell growth by cGMP analogs is strictly dependent on G-kinase and G-kinase activation inhibits the Ras/MAP kinase pathway (i) by

  19. Evolutionary Ancestry of Eukaryotic Protein Kinases and Choline Kinases*

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shenshen; Safaei, Javad

    2016-01-01

    The reversible phosphorylation of proteins catalyzed by protein kinases in eukaryotes supports an important role for eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) in the emergence of nucleated cells in the third superkingdom of life. Choline kinases (ChKs) could also be critical in the early evolution of eukaryotes, because of their function in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is unique to eukaryotic membranes. However, the genomic origins of ePKs and ChKs are unclear. The high degeneracy of protein sequences and broad expansion of ePK families have made this fundamental question difficult to answer. In this study, we identified two class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases with high similarities to consensus amino acid sequences of human protein-serine/threonine kinases. Comparisons of primary and tertiary structures supported that ePKs and ChKs evolved from a common ancestor related to glutaminyl aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which may have been one of the key factors in the successful of emergence of ancient eukaryotic cells from bacterial colonies. PMID:26742849

  20. Characterization of PDZ-binding kinase, a mitotic kinase

    PubMed Central

    Gaudet, Suzanne; Branton, Daniel; Lue, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    hDlg, the human homologue of the Drosophila Discs-large (Dlg) tumor suppressor protein, is known to interact with the tumor suppressor protein APC and the human papillomavirus E6 transforming protein. In a two-hybrid screen, we identified a 322-aa serine/threonine kinase that binds to the PDZ2 domain of hDlg. The mRNA for this PDZ-binding kinase, or PBK, is most abundant in placenta and absent from adult brain tissue. The protein sequence of PBK has all the characteristic protein kinase subdomains and a C-terminal PDZ-binding T/SXV motif. In vitro, PBK binds specifically to PDZ2 of hDlg through its C-terminal T/SXV motif. PBK and hDlg are phosphorylated at mitosis in HeLa cells, and the mitotic phosphorylation of PBK is required for its kinase activity. In vitro, cdc2/cyclin B phosphorylates PBK. This evidence shows how PBK could link hDlg or other PDZ-containing proteins to signal transduction pathways regulating the cell cycle or cellular proliferation. PMID:10779557

  1. Combined targeting of SET and tyrosine kinases provides an effective therapeutic approach in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Richard, Nameeta P; Pippa, Raffaella; Cleary, Megan M; Puri, Alka; Tibbitts, Deanne; Mahmood, Shawn; Christensen, Dale J; Jeng, Sophia; McWeeney, Shannon; Look, A Thomas; Chang, Bill H; Tyner, Jeffrey W; Vitek, Michael P; Odero, María D; Sears, Rosalie; Agarwal, Anupriya

    2016-12-20

    Recent evidence suggests that inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) tumor suppressor activity via the SET oncoprotein contributes to the pathogenesis of various cancers. Here we demonstrate that both SET and c-MYC expression are frequently elevated in T-ALL cell lines and primary samples compared to healthy T cells. Treatment of T-ALL cells with the SET antagonist OP449 restored the activity of PP2A and reduced SET interaction with the PP2A catalytic subunit, resulting in a decrease in cell viability and c-MYC expression in a dose-dependent manner. Since a tight balance between phosphatases and kinases is required for the growth of both normal and malignant cells, we sought to identify a kinase inhibitor that would synergize with SET antagonism. We tested various T-ALL cell lines against a small-molecule inhibitor screen of 66 compounds targeting two-thirds of the tyrosine kinome and found that combined treatment of T-ALL cells with dovitinib, an orally active multi-targeted small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and OP449 synergistically reduced the viability of all tested T-ALL cell lines. Mechanistically, combined treatment with OP449 and dovitinib decreased total and phospho c-MYC levels and reduced ERK1/2, AKT, and p70S6 kinase activity in both NOTCH-dependent and independent T-ALL cell lines. Overall, these results suggest that combined targeting of tyrosine kinases and activation of serine/threonine phosphatases may offer novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of T-ALL.

  2. Synergic effects of 10°/s constant rotation and rotating background on visual cognitive processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Siyang; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Tan, Cheng; Niu, Dongbin

    accelerated the early process of visual cognition. There is a synergic effect between the effects of constant low-speed rotation and rotating speed of the background. Under certain conditions, they both served to facilitate the visual cognitive processing, and it had been started at the stage when extrastriate cortex perceiving the visual signal. Under the condition of constant low-speed rotation in higher cognitive load tasks, the rapid rotation of the background enhanced the magnitude of the signal transmission in the visual path, making signal to noise ratio increased and a higher signal to noise ratio is clearly in favor of target perception and recognition. This gave rise to the hypothesis that higher cognitive load tasks with higher top-down control had more power in counteracting the inhibition effect of higher velocity rotation background. Acknowledgements: This project was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30670715) and National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No.2007AA04Z254).

  3. Synergism in immunotoxicological effects due to repeated combined administration of arsenic and lead in mice.

    PubMed

    Bishayi, B; Sengupta, M

    2006-03-01

    evident from the decrease in myeloperoxidase release in multimetal group from that in control. That the structural integrity of splenic macrophages is decreased in the multimetal exposed group is also evident from the enhanced percentage of DNA fragmentation after multimetal exposure, suggesting apoptotic death of splenic macrophage. Intracellular viable bacteria in the splenic macrophage from multimetal exposed group was 89.16 +/- 3.54% while that from control group was 49.19 +/- 1.16%, whereas single metal exposed groups showed a bacterial viability of 69.6 +/- 2.45% and 71.71 +/- 1.89% in arsenic and lead treated groups respectively. What is essentially noteworthy from the observed results is that lead and arsenic causes a greater immunotoxic effect when administered together as multimetal than when singly administered. Simultaneous exposure to lead and arsenic appears to be additive as is further established from the isobologram constructed by plotting the concentration of arsenic against the concentration of lead at which effect (in this case myeloperoxidase release) remained constant, a convex line showing synergism was demonstrated. The present study reports a definite synergistic trend of immunotoxicity during simultaneous exposure to arsenic and lead, that is, a multimetal challenge, as compared to the effects of independent exposure to them.

  4. Structure of the pseudokinase-kinase domains from protein kinase TYK2 reveals a mechanism for Janus kinase (JAK) autoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Lupardus, Patrick J; Ultsch, Mark; Wallweber, Heidi; Bir Kohli, Pawan; Johnson, Adam R; Eigenbrot, Charles

    2014-06-03

    Janus kinases (JAKs) are receptor-associated multidomain tyrosine kinases that act downstream of many cytokines and interferons. JAK kinase activity is regulated by the adjacent pseudokinase domain via an unknown mechanism. Here, we report the 2.8-Å structure of the two-domain pseudokinase-kinase module from the JAK family member TYK2 in its autoinhibited form. We find that the pseudokinase and kinase interact near the kinase active site and that most reported mutations in cancer-associated JAK alleles cluster in or near this interface. Mutation of residues near the TYK2 interface that are analogous to those in cancer-associated JAK alleles, including the V617F and "exon 12" JAK2 mutations, results in increased kinase activity in vitro. These data indicate that JAK pseudokinases are autoinhibitory domains that hold the kinase domain inactive until receptor dimerization stimulates transition to an active state.

  5. Chloroquine synergizes sunitinib cytotoxicity via modulating autophagic, apoptotic and angiogenic machineries.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, Amal Kamal; Shouman, Samia; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Elgendy, Mohamed; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2014-06-25

    Tyrosine kinases play a pivotal role in oncogenesis. Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors as sunitinib malate are used in cancer therapy, emerging studies report compromised cytotoxicity when used as monotherapy and thus combinations with other anti-cancer agents is recommended. Chloroquine is a clinically available anti-malarial agent which has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer activity. In the current study, we questioned whether chloroquine can modulate sunitinib cytotoxicity. We found that chloroquine synergistically augmented sunitinib cytotoxicity on human breast (MCF-7 and T-47D), cervical (Hela), colorectal (Caco-2 and HCT116), hepatocellular (HepG2), laryngeal (HEp-2) and prostate (PC3) cancer cell lines as indicated by combination and concentration reduction indices. These results were also consistent with that of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) Swiss albino mice models as confirmed by tumor volume, weight, histopathological examination and PCNA expression. Sunitinib induced autophagy via upregulating beclin-1 expression which was blocked by chloroquine as evidenced by accumulated SQTSM1/p62 level. Furthermore, chloroquine augmented sunitinib-induced apoptosis by decreasing survivin level and increasing caspase 3 activity. Chloroquine also enhanced the antiangiogenic capacity of sunitinib as indicated by decreased CD34 expression and peritoneal/skin angiogenesis. Sunitinib when combined with chloroquine also increased reactive nitrogen species production via increasing inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide level whilst reduced reactive oxygen species production by increasing GSH level, activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase and reducing lipid peroxides compared to sunitinib-only treated group. Taken together, these findings suggest that chloroquine enhanced sunitinib cytotoxicity in a synergistic manner via inducing apoptosis while switching off autophagic and angiogenic machineries. Nevertheless, further studies are

  6. Pharmacologic blockade of FAK autophosphorylation decreases human glioblastoma tumor growth and synergizes with temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Golubovskaya, Vita M; Huang, Grace; Ho, Baotran; Yemma, Michael; Morrison, Carl D; Lee, Jisook; Eliceiri, Brian P; Cance, William G

    2013-02-01

    Malignant gliomas are characterized by aggressive tumor growth with a mean survival of 15 to 18 months and frequently developed resistance to temozolomide. Therefore, strategies that sensitize glioma cells to temozolomide have a high translational impact. We have studied focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a tyrosine kinase and emerging therapeutic target that is known to be highly expressed and activated in glioma. In this report, we tested the FAK autophosphorylation inhibitor, Y15, in DBTRG and U87 glioblastoma cells. Y15 significantly decreased viability and clonogenicity in a dose-dependent manner, increased detachment in a dose- and time-dependent manner, caused apoptosis, and inhibited cell invasion in both cell lines. In addition, Y15 treatment decreased autophosphorylation of FAK in a dose-dependent manner and changed cell morphology by causing cell rounding in DBTRG and U87 cells. Administration of Y15 significantly decreased subcutaneous DBTRG tumor growth with decreased Y397-FAK autophosphorylation, activated caspase-3 and PARP. Y15 was administered in an orthotopic glioma model, leading to an increase in mouse survival. The combination of Y15 with temozolomide was more effective than either agent alone in decreasing viability and activating caspase-8 in DBTRG and U87 cells in vitro. In addition, the combination of Y15 and temozolomide synergistically blocked U87 brain tumor growth in vivo. Thus, pharmacologic blockade of FAK autophosphorylation with the oral administration of a small-molecule inhibitor Y15 has a potential to be an effective therapy approach for glioblastoma either alone or in combination with chemotherapy agents such as temozolomide.

  7. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) and MEK1 inhibition synergize to induce apoptosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Lunghi, P; Tabilio, A; Lo-Coco, F; Pelicci, P G; Pelicci, P; Bonati, A

    2005-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that components of the prosurvival signal transduction pathways involving the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) can confer an aggressive, apoptosis-resistant phenotype to leukemia cells. In this study, we report that acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells exploit the Ras-MAPK activation pathway to phosphorylate at Ser112 and to inactivate the proapoptotic protein Bad, delaying arsenic trioxide (ATO)-induced apoptosis. Both in APL cell line NB4 and in APL primary blasts, the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Bad phosphorylation by MEK1 inhibitors enhanced apoptosis in ATO-treated cells. We isolated an arsenic-resistant NB4 subline (NB4-As(R)), which showed stronger ERK1/2 activity (2.7-fold increase) and Bad phosphorylation (2.4-fold increase) compared to parental NB4 cells in response to ATO treatment. Upon ATO exposure, both NB4 and NB4-As(R) cell lines doubled protein levels of the death antagonist Bcl-xL, but the amount of free Bcl-xL that did not heterodimerize with Bad was 1.8-fold greater in NB4-As(R) than in the parental line. MEK1 inhibitors dephosphorylated Bad and inhibited the ATO-induced increase of Bcl-xL, overcoming ATO resistance in NB4-As(R). These results may provide a rationale to develop combined or sequential MEK1 inhibitors plus ATO therapy in this clinical setting.

  8. FIZ1 is expressed during photoreceptor maturation, and synergizes with NRL and CRX at rod-specific promoters in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mali, Raghuveer S; Zhang, Xiao; Hoerauf, Widmann; Doyle, Danielle; Devitt, Jeffrey; Loffreda-Wren, Janice; Mitton, Kenneth P

    2007-02-01

    FIZ1 (Flt-3 Interacting Zinc-finger) interacts and co-purifies with the rod-specific transcription factor NRL (Neural Retina Leucine zipper). We hypothesize that FIZ1 is part of an interface between cell-specific factors, like NRL, and more ubiquitous regulatory networks that vary the absolute expression levels of some rod-specific genes (i.e. Rhodopsin). As part of an ongoing exploration of FIZ1's role in neural retina, in vivo, we have taken the first look at FIZ1 expression in the developing mouse retina during the retinal maturation period. Using the normal C57B6 mouse as a model, multiple approaches were used including: immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR. Functional implications of FIZ1/NRL interaction, on NRL- and CRX-mediated activation of the Rhodopsin (Rho) and cGMP-phosphodiesterase beta-subunit gene (PDE6B) promoters, were examined by co-transfection assays. Immunoblot analysis revealed that FIZ1 protein levels were lowest in immature mouse neural retina (P0). FIZ1 concentration increased at least ten-fold as the neural retina matured to the adult state (P21 and later). Immunohistochemical comparison of immature post-natal and mature adult retina revealed increasing FIZ1 protein in photoreceptors, the inner plexiform layer, and the ganglion cell layer. Total retinal Fiz1 mRNA content increased as the neural retina matured. The expected increase in Rho mRNA level was also monitored as a genetic marker of photoreceptor maturation. In transient co-transfection assays of CV1 cells, FIZ1 synergized with NRL to activate transcription from the Rho and PDE6B gene promoters with some differences. In the case of the Rho promoter, FIZ1 synergized when both NRL and CRX were present. With the PDE6B promoter, FIZ1 synergized with NRL alone, and the inclusion of CRX decreased this synergy. These findings support previous evidence that FIZ1 is present in rod-photoreceptors (co-immunoprecipitation from nuclear-protein extracts with rod

  9. Designing α-helical peptides with enhanced synergism and selectivity against Mycobacterium smegmatis: Discerning the role of hydrophobicity and helicity.

    PubMed

    Khara, Jasmeet Singh; Lim, Fang Kang; Wang, Ying; Ke, Xi-Yu; Voo, Zhi Xiang; Yang, Yi Yan; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Ee, Pui Lai Rachel

    2015-12-01

    Recently, we reported on a series of short amphipathic α-helical peptides, comprising the backbone sequence (LLKK)2, with the ability to kill susceptible and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, the effect of key physicochemical parameters including hydrophobicity and helicity of α-helical peptides on anti-mycobacterial activity and synergism with rifampicin was investigated. The most hydrophobic analogue, W(LLKK)2W, displayed low selectivity against mycobacteria while peptides with intermediate hydrophobicity were shown to be equally active, yet significantly less toxic. Furthermore, proline substitution impeded the formation of stable amphipathic structures, rendering P(LLKK)2P as one of the least active analogues. Terminal capping with isoleucine was found to promote α-helical folding and the resultant peptide demonstrated the highest selectivity and minimal cytotoxicity against mammalian macrophages. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that enhancements in hydrophobicity and α-helicity increased the rate and extent of peptide-mediated membrane permeabilization. This finding corroborated the hypothesis that synergism between the peptides and rifampicin was likely mediated via peptide-induced pore formation. The rapid, concentration-dependent membrane depolarization, leakage of intracellular ATP and calcein release from PE/PG LUVs supported the membrane-lytic mechanism of action of the peptides. Together, these findings suggest that hydrophobicity and α-helicity significantly impact anti-mycobacterial activity and optimization of both parameters is necessary to develop synthetic analogues with superior selectivity indices and enhanced synergistic potential with conventional antibiotics. There is an urgent clinical need for the discovery of new antimicrobials, effective not just for drug susceptible, but also rapidly emerging drug-resistant TB. Recently, we reported on a series of short amphipathic α-helical peptides, comprising the

  10. Separation and pre-concentration of glucocorticoids in water samples by ionic liquid supported vortex-assisted synergic microextraction and HPLC determination.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hui; Li, Bi; Liu, Mou Sheng; Yang, Ya Ling

    2013-04-01

    We have developed a synergic microextraction procedure based on ionic liquid for the pre-concentration and determination of glucocorticoids in water samples. Using nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 (TX-100) as synergic reagent, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexa-fluorophosphate accomplished extraction rapidly without heating in water bath. One key property of ionic liquids that highlights their potential is their wide liquid temperature range. The improved extraction was named as ionic liquid supported vortex-assisted synergic microextraction. Compared with the traditional liquid-liquid extraction and cloud point extraction, ionic liquid supported vortex-assisted synergic microextraction was accomplished in 8 min with considerably high recovery. The proposed method greatly improved the sensitivity of HPLC for the determination of glucocorticoids. The results obtained indicated a good linearity with the correlation coefficient of 0.997 over the range of 0.6-300 ng/mL and high sensitivity with LODs of 4.11, 9.19, and 7.50 ng/mL for hydrocortisone butyrate, beclomethasone dipropionate, and nandrolone phenylpropionate, respectively. The RSD of the method was 1.57-1.81% (n = 6) with enrichment factor of 99.85, and good recovery (≥97.24%). The method was successfully applied to the determination of glucocorticoids in mineral water, water of Dianchi lake, and tap water samples.

  11. Western spruce budworm outbreaks did not increase fire risk over the last three centuries: A dendrochronological analysis of inter-disturbance synergism

    Treesearch

    Aquila Flower; Daniel G. Gavin; Emily K. Heyerdahl; Russell A. Parsons; Gregory M. Cohn

    2014-01-01

    Insect outbreaks are often assumed to increase the severity or probability of fire occurrence through increased fuel availability, while fires may in turn alter susceptibility of forests to subsequent insect outbreaks through changes in the spatial distribution of suitable host trees. However, little is actually known about the potential synergisms between these...

  12. Kinase signalling in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Kathryn R; Jones, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in numerous signal transduction pathways and aberrant activity of specific kinases have been identified in multiple cell and mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD), as well as in human HD brain. The balance and integration of a network of kinase signalling pathways is paramount for the regulation of a wide range of cellular and physiological processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, inflammation, neuronal plasticity and apoptosis. Unbalanced activity within these pathways provides a potential mechanism for many of the pathological phenotypes associated with HD, such as transcriptional dysregulation, inflammation and ultimately neurodegeneration. The characterisation of aberrant kinase signalling regulation in HD has been inconsistent and may be a result of failure to consider integration between multiple signalling pathways, as well as alterations that may occur over time with both age and disease progression. Collating the information about the effect of mHTT on signalling pathways demonstrates that it has wide ranging effects on multiple pro- and anti-apoptotic kinases, resulting in the dysregulation of numerous complex interactions within a dynamic network.

  13. Case report: pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rothman, J M

    1995-09-01

    Pyruvate kinase deficiency is a rare cause of congenital hemolytic anemia. Despite a paucity of reports, splenectomy resulted in successful outcomes for two siblings with this disorder. The sisters were diagnosed at birth with profound jaundice and congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: mevalonate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... shape, leading to a reduction of mevalonate kinase enzyme activity. Despite this shortage (deficiency) of mevalonate kinase activity, ... who have less than 1 percent of normal enzyme activity usually develop MVA. Learn more about the gene ...

  15. Degradation of Activated Protein Kinases by Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhimin; Hunter, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Protein kinases are important regulators of intracellular signal transduction pathways and play critical roles in diverse cellular functions. Once a protein kinase is activated, its activity is subsequently downregulated through a variety of mechanisms. Accumulating evidence indicates that the activation of protein kinases commonly initiates their downregulation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Failure to regulate protein kinase activity or expression levels can cause human diseases. PMID:19489726

  16. Synergism between the potato glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine in inhibition of snail feeding.

    PubMed

    Smith, D B; Roddick, J G; Jones, J L

    2001-05-01

    Snails (Helix aspersa L.) were fed filter paper treated with the potato glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, singly or together. In pure form, both glycoalkaloids deterred feeding, with chaconine being the more active compound. In combination, authentic solanine and chaconine interacted synergistically in their inhibition of feeding. The antifeedant activities of methanolic extracts of tuber peel of the potato varieties Majestic and Sharpe's Express presented via filter paper discs did not differ significantly from those of authentic glycoalkaloid solutions of comparable concentration and ratio. In contrast, feeding inhibition by diluted tuber peel extracts of the variety Homeguard was greater than that elicited by comparable authentic glycoalkaloid solutions suggesting additional inhibitory compound(s) in the peel of this variety. Comparison of data from peel extracts of all three potato varieties and authentic glycoalkaloids indicated that the level of feeding inhibition by the extracts was, at least in part, a consequence of a synergism between solanine and chaconine.

  17. Synthesis, antifungal activity of caffeic acid derivative esters, and their synergism with fluconazole and nystatin against Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Sardi, Janaína de Cássia Orlandi; Gullo, Fernanda Patrícia; Freires, Irlan Almeida; Pitangui, Nayla de Souza; Segalla, Maicon Petrônio; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Regasini, Luís Octávio; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-12-01

    We tested the antifungal potential of caffeic acid and 8 of its derivative esters against Candidaalbicans ATCC 90028 and 9 clinical isolatesand carried out a synergism assay with fluconazole and nystatin. Propyl caffeate (C3) showed the best antifungal activity against the tested strains. When in combination, C3 markedly reduced the MIC of fluconazole and nystatin with synergistic effect up to 64-fold. Finally, C3 showed a high IC50 value and selective indexagainst oral keratinocytes, demonstrating low toxicity against this cell type and selectivity for yeast cells. Further research should confirm its antifungal potential for development of combined therapy to treat C. albicans infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Antimicrobial activity, synergism and inhibition of germ tube formation by Crocus sativus-derived compounds against Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Carradori, Simone; Chimenti, Paola; Fazzari, Marina; Granese, Arianna; Angiolella, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    The limited arsenal of synthetic antifungal agents and the emergence of resistant Candida strains have prompted the researchers towards the investigation of naturally occurring compounds or their semisynthetic derivatives in order to propose new innovative hit compounds or new antifungal combinations endowed with reduced toxicity. We explored the anti-Candida effects, for the first time, of two bioactive compounds from Crocus sativus stigmas, namely crocin 1 and safranal, and some semisynthetic derivatives of safranal obtaining promising biological results in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum fungicidal concentration (MIC/MFC) values, synergism and reduction in the germ tube formation. Safranal and its thiosemicarbazone derivative 5 were shown to display good activity against Candida spp.

  19. Synergism between NOAA-AVHRR and Meteosat data for studying vegetation development in semi-arid West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C. O.; Dugdale, G.; Narracott, A. S.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Kumar, M.

    1991-01-01

    Rainfall estimates, based on cold cloud duration estimated from Meteosat data, are compared with vegetation development depicted by data of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the NOAA AVHRR for part of the Sahel. Decadal data from the 1985 and 1986 growing seasons are examined to determine the synergism of the datasets for rangeland monitoring. There is a general correspondence between the two datasets with a marked lag between rainfall and NDVI of between 10 and 20 days. This time lag is particularly noticeable at the beginning of the rainy season and in the more northern areas where rainfall is the limiting factor for growth. Principal component analysis was used to examine deviations from the general relationship between rainfall and the NDVI. Areas of low NDVI values for a given input of rainfall were identified: at a regional scale, they give an indication o areas of low production potential and possible degradation of ecosystems.

  20. Melatonin synergizes the chemotherapeutic effect of 5-fluorouracil in colon cancer by suppressing PI3K/AKT and NF-κB/iNOS signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Xiao, Xiangsheng; Zhang, Changlin; Yu, Wendan; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Li, Zhenglin; Feng, Xu; Hao, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Kefang; Xiao, Bingyi; Chen, Miao; Huang, Wenlin; Xiong, Shunbin; Wu, Xiaojun; Deng, Wuguo

    2017-03-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents in colon cancer treatment, but has a narrow therapeutic index limited by its toxicity. Melatonin exerts antitumor activity in various cancers, but it has never been combined with 5-FU as an anticolon cancer treatment to improve the chemotherapeutic effect of 5-FU. In this study, we assessed such combinational use in colon cancer and investigated whether melatonin could synergize the antitumor effect of 5-FU. We found that melatonin significantly enhanced the 5-FU-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation, cell migration and invasion in colon cancer cells. We also found that melatonin synergized with 5-FU to promote the activation of the caspase/PARP-dependent apoptosis pathway and induce cell cycle arrest. Further mechanism study demonstrated that melatonin synergized the antitumor effect of 5-FU by targeting the PI3K/AKT and NF-κB/inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) signaling. Melatonin in combination with 5-FU markedly suppressed the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT, IKKα, IκBα, and p65 proteins, promoted the translocation of NF-κB p50/p65 from the nuclei to cytoplasm, abrogated their binding to the iNOS promoter, and thereby enhanced the inhibition of iNOS signaling. In addition, pretreatment with a PI3K- or iNOS-specific inhibitor synergized the antitumor effects of 5-FU and melatonin. Finally, we verified in a xenograft mouse model that melatonin and 5-FU exerted synergistic antitumor effect by inhibiting the AKT and iNOS signaling pathways. Collectively, our study demonstrated that melatonin synergized the chemotherapeutic effect of 5-FU in colon cancer through simultaneous suppression of multiple signaling pathways. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Synergism between elevated pCO2 and temperature on the Antarctic sea ice diatom Nitzschia lecointei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torstensson, A.; Hedblom, M.; Andersson, J.; Andersson, M. X.; Wulff, A.

    2013-04-01

    Polar oceans are particularly susceptible to ocean acidification and warming. Diatoms play a significant role in sea ice biogeochemistry and provide an important food source to grazers in ice-covered oceans, especially during early spring. However, the ecophysiology of ice living organisms has received little attention in terms of ocean acidification. In this study, the synergism between temperature and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) was investigated in relationship to the optimal growth temperature of the Antarctic sea ice diatom Nitzschia lecointei. Diatoms were kept in cultures at controlled levels of pCO2 (∼390 and ∼960 μatm}) and temperature (-1.8 and 2.5 °C) for 14 days. Synergism between temperature and pCO2 was detected in growth rate and acyl lipid fatty acid content. Carbon enrichment only promoted (3%) growth rate closer to the optimal growth, but not at the control temperature (-1.8 °C). Optimal growth rate was observed around 5 °C in a separate experiment. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) comprised up to 98% of the total acyl lipid fatty acid pool at -1.8 °C. However, the total content of fatty acids was reduced by 39% at elevated pCO2, but only at the control temperature. PUFAs were reduced by 30% at high pCO2. Effects of carbon enrichment may be different depending on ocean warming scenario or season, e.g. reduced food quality for higher trophic levels during spring. Synergy between temperature and pCO2 may be particularly important in polar areas since a narrow thermal window generally limits cold-water organisms.

  2. Plant viral synergism: the potyviral genome encodes a broad-range pathogenicity enhancer that transactivates replication of heterologous viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Pruss, G; Ge, X; Shi, X M; Carrington, J C; Bowman Vance, V

    1997-01-01

    Synergistic viral diseases of higher plants are caused by the interaction of two independent viruses in the same host and are characterized by dramatic increases in symptoms and in accumulation of one of the coinfecting viruses. In potato virus X (PVX)/potyviral synergism, increased pathogenicity and accumulation of PVX are mediated by the expression of potyviral 5' proximal sequences encoding P1, the helper component proteinase (HC-Pro), and a fraction of P3. Here, we report that the same potyviral sequence (termed P1/HC-Pro) enhances the pathogenicity and accumulation of two other heterologous viruses: cucumber mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus. In the case of PVX-potyviral synergism, we show that the expression of the HC-Pro gene product, but not the RNA sequence itself, is sufficient to induce the increase in PVX pathogenicity and that both P1 and P3 coding sequences are dispensable for this aspect of the synergistic interaction. In protoplasts, expression of the potyviral P1/HC-Pro region prolongs the accumulation of PVX (-) strand RNA and transactivates expression of a reporter gene from a PVX subgenomic promoter. Unlike the synergistic enhancement of PVX pathogenicity, which requires only expression of HC-Pro, the enhancement of PVX (-) strand RNA accumulation in protoplasts is significantly greater when the entire P1/HC-Pro sequence is expressed. These results indicate that the potyviral P1/HC-Pro region affects a step in disease development that is common to a broad range of virus infections and suggest a mechanism involving transactivation of viral replication. PMID:9212462

  3. Phenobarbital induction and chemical synergism demonstrate the role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in detoxification of naphthalophos by Haemonchus contortus larvae.

    PubMed

    Kotze, Andrew C; Ruffell, Angela P; Ingham, Aaron B

    2014-12-01

    We used an enzyme induction approach to study the role of detoxification enzymes in the interaction of the anthelmintic compound naphthalophos with Haemonchus contortus larvae. Larvae were treated with the barbiturate phenobarbital, which is known to induce the activity of a number of detoxification enzymes in mammals and insects, including cytochromes P450 (CYPs), UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UDPGTs), and glutathione (GSH) S-transferases (GSTs). Cotreatment of larvae with phenobarbital and naphthalophos resulted in a significant increase in the naphthalophos 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) compared to treatment of larvae with the anthelmintic alone (up to a 28-fold increase). The phenobarbital-induced drug tolerance was reversed by cotreatment with the UDPGT inhibitors 5-nitrouracil, 4,6-dihydroxy-5-nitropyrimidine, probenecid, and sulfinpyrazone. Isobologram analysis of the interaction of 5-nitrouracil with naphthalophos in phenobarbital-treated larvae clearly showed the presence of strong synergism. The UDPGT inhibitors 5-nitrouracil, 4,6-dihydroxy-5-nitropyrimidine, and probenecid also showed synergistic effects with non-phenobarbital-treated worms (synergism ratio up to 3.2-fold). This study indicates that H. contortus larvae possess one or more UDPGT enzymes able to detoxify naphthalophos. In highlighting the protective role of this enzyme group, this study reveals the potential for UDPGT enzymes to act as a resistance mechanism that may develop under drug selection pressure in field isolates of this species. In addition, the data indicate the potential for a chemotherapeutic approach utilizing inhibitors of UDPGT enzymes as synergists to increase the activity of naphthalophos against parasitic worms and to combat detoxification-mediated drug resistance if it arises in the field. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Phenobarbital Induction and Chemical Synergism Demonstrate the Role of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases in Detoxification of Naphthalophos by Haemonchus contortus Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Ruffell, Angela P.; Ingham, Aaron B.

    2014-01-01

    We used an enzyme induction approach to study the role of detoxification enzymes in the interaction of the anthelmintic compound naphthalophos with Haemonchus contortus larvae. Larvae were treated with the barbiturate phenobarbital, which is known to induce the activity of a number of detoxification enzymes in mammals and insects, including cytochromes P450 (CYPs), UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UDPGTs), and glutathione (GSH) S-transferases (GSTs). Cotreatment of larvae with phenobarbital and naphthalophos resulted in a significant increase in the naphthalophos 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) compared to treatment of larvae with the anthelmintic alone (up to a 28-fold increase). The phenobarbital-induced drug tolerance was reversed by cotreatment with the UDPGT inhibitors 5-nitrouracil, 4,6-dihydroxy-5-nitropyrimidine, probenecid, and sulfinpyrazone. Isobologram analysis of the interaction of 5-nitrouracil with naphthalophos in phenobarbital-treated larvae clearly showed the presence of strong synergism. The UDPGT inhibitors 5-nitrouracil, 4,6-dihydroxy-5-nitropyrimidine, and probenecid also showed synergistic effects with non-phenobarbital-treated worms (synergism ratio up to 3.2-fold). This study indicates that H. contortus larvae possess one or more UDPGT enzymes able to detoxify naphthalophos. In highlighting the protective role of this enzyme group, this study reveals the potential for UDPGT enzymes to act as a resistance mechanism that may develop under drug selection pressure in field isolates of this species. In addition, the data indicate the potential for a chemotherapeutic approach utilizing inhibitors of UDPGT enzymes as synergists to increase the activity of naphthalophos against parasitic worms and to combat detoxification-mediated drug resistance if it arises in the field. PMID:25288079

  5. Caffeine synergizes with another coffee component to increase plasma GCSF: linkage to cognitive benefits in Alzheimer's mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chuanhai; Wang, Li; Lin, Xiaoyang; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Zhang, Chi; Bai, Ge; Nong, Jasson; Sussman, Sam; Arendash, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies suggest that enhanced coffee/caffeine intake during aging reduces risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Underscoring this premise, our studies in AD transgenic mice show that long-term caffeine administration protects against cognitive impairment and reduces brain amyloid-β levels/deposition through suppression of both β- and γ-secretase. Because coffee contains many constituents in addition to caffeine that may provide cognitive benefits against AD, we examined effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on plasma cytokines, comparing their effects to caffeine alone. In both AβPPsw+PS1 transgenic mice and non-transgenic littermates, acute i.p. treatment with caffeinated coffee greatly and specifically increased plasma levels of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF), IL-10, and IL-6. Neither caffeine solution alone (which provided high plasma caffeine levels) or decaffeinated coffee provided this effect, indicating that caffeine synergized with some as yet unidentified component of coffee to selectively elevate these three plasma cytokines. The increase in GCSF is particularly important because long-term treatment with coffee (but not decaffeinated coffee) enhanced working memory in a fashion that was associated only with increased plasma GCSF levels among all cytokines. Since we have previously reported that long-term GCSF treatment enhances cognitive performance in AD mice through three possible mechanisms (e.g., recruitment of microglia from bone marrow, synaptogenesis, and neurogenesis), the same mechanisms could be complimentary to caffeine's established ability to suppress Aβ production. We conclude that coffee may be the best source of caffeine to protect against AD because of a component in coffee that synergizes with caffeine to enhance plasma GCSF levels, resulting in multiple therapeutic actions against AD.

  6. Honokiol synergizes chemotherapy drugs in multidrug resistant breast cancer cells via enhanced apoptosis and additional programmed necrotic death.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei; Deng, Yongchuan; Li, Ling; He, Haifei; Sun, Jie; Xu, Dong

    2013-02-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major challenge in cancer therapy. Apoptosis tolerance is one of the key mechanisms of MDR. Honokiol, a small-molecule pharmacologically active component, exhibits competent cytotoxic