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Sample records for pimelodus blochi siluriformes

  1. Metazoan parasites of Mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus and of Jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) of Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Venancio, Aline Cristine Pinto; de Aguiar, Gesilene Ribeiro; Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Alves, Dimitri Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Forty-one specimens of mandi-amarelo Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) and 54 specimens of jundiá Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) were collected from the Paraíba do Sul River, Volta Redonda, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil between November 2007 and October 2008. These fish underwent necropsy so their infracommunities of metazoan parasites could be studied. The same three species of parasites were collected in the two fish species studied. These were one monogenean, one nematode, and one hirudinean. Cucullanus pinnai (Travassos, Artiga, and Pereira, 1928) (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and Aphanoblastella sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) were the dominant species with the highest prevalence in P. maculatus and R. quelen. The parasite species of P. maculatus and R. quelen showed an atypical over-dispersed pattern of distribution. No parasite species showed significant correlation between the body total length of the siluriform hosts and their prevalence and abundance. The parasite species richness showed a mean value of 0.87 ± 0.67 (0-2) and 0.57 ± 0.56 (0-2) in P. maculatus and R. quelen, respectively, and no correlation with the body total length.

  2. Touch sensation by pectoral fins of the catfish Pimelodus pictus

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Adam R.; Steinworth, Bailey M.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanosensation is fundamental to many tetrapod limb functions, yet it remains largely uninvestigated in the paired fins of fishes, limb homologues. Here we examine whether membranous fins may function as passive structures for touch sensation. We investigate the pectoral fins of the pictus catfish (Pimelodus pictus), a species that lives in close association with the benthic substrate and whose fins are positioned near its ventral margin. Kinematic analysis shows that the pectoral fins are held partially protracted during routine forward swimming and do not appear to generate propulsive force. Immunohistochemistry reveals that the fins are highly innervated, and we observe putative mechanoreceptors at nerve fibre endings. To test for the ability to sense mechanical perturbations, activity of fin ray nerve fibres was recorded in response to touch and bend stimulation. Both pressure and light surface brushing generated afferent nerve activity. Fin ray nerves also respond to bending of the rays. These data demonstrate for the first time that membranous fins can function as passive mechanosensors. We suggest that touch-sensitive fins may be widespread in fishes that maintain a close association with the bottom substrate. PMID:26865307

  3. New species and geographical records of dactylogyrids (Monogenea) of catfish (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Kuchta, Roman

    2012-06-01

    Three new species of gill monogeneans (Dactylogyridae: Ancyrocephalinae) are described from siluriform catfish from Iquitos, Peru: Demidospermus mortenthaleri n. sp. from Brachyplatystoma juruense (Boulenger), Demidospermus brevicirrus n. sp. from Pimelodus sp., and Aphanoblastella aurorae n. sp. from Goeldiella eques (Müller & Troschel). Demidospermus mortenthaleri is characterized by a male copulatory organ (MCO) with a small loop at its middle portion; 2 types of hooks, of which pairs 5 and 6 are longer than the remaining hooks; a proximal subunit round and highly depressed thumb; and a sclerotized vagina with a round pad at the vaginal aperture. Demidospermus brevicirrus is distinguished from other congeners by the presence of a short, straight, and robust MCO and boot-shaped accessory piece with a hooked projection directed posteriorly. Aphanoblastella aurorae is the only species of the genus that possesses an arrow-shaped sclerotized vagina and a medial process on the dorsal bar. Another 6 dactylogyrids described previously are recorded for the first time from the Peruvian Amazonia: Cosmetocleithrum bulbocirrus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Vancleaveus fungulus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. janauacaensis Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. platyrhynchi Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Unilatus unilatus Mizelle and Kritsky, 1967 ; and U. brittani Mizelle, Kritsky and Crane, 1968 . Based on observations of specimens collected in the Peruvian Amazonia, new morphological data for these species are provided. Comparison of new specimens of U. unilatus and U. brittani with those of Unilatus brevispinus Suriano, 1985 and Unilatus longispinus Suriano, 1985 , both originally described from Brazil, has shown that they are conspecific. Therefore, the latter species were synonymized with U. unilatus and U. brittani , respectively. In addition, 56 undescribed monogeneans found in catfish from the Peruvian Amazonia, some of them probably belonging

  4. Reproduction and embryogenesis of the mandi-amarelo catfish, Pimelodus maculatus (Pisces, Pimelodidae), in captivity.

    PubMed

    Arantes, F P; Borçato, F L; Sato, Y; Rizzo, E; Bazzoli, N

    2013-02-01

    To study reproduction and embryogenesis, Pimelodus maculatus specimens were kept in captivity and captured bimonthly during 1 year. Gonads samples (211 specimens) were collected and submitted to routine histological techniques. Pimelodus maculatus prepared to reproduce when water temperature was high, and even reached advanced maturation but did not spawn in captivity. Spent fish gonads were not documented, and atretic follicles were frequent (60%) in late maturation females. When then submitted to hypophysation, 70% of the females responded positively to hormonal treatment. Oocyte extrusion occurred 8 h after a second hormonal injection at 26°C. The fertilisation rate was 65.1 ± 9.2% at 24°C. Recently spawned oocytes of P. maculatus were spherical, non-adhesive, yellow in colour, with an average diameter of 1113.92 ± 37.02 μm and covered by a thick gelatinous layer. Blastopore closure occurred 7 h and 30 min after fertilisation. Embryonic development was completed within 18 h after fertilisation. The results of this work provide important knowledge for the handling and cultivation of not only P. maculatus, but other species of potential value for fish culture.

  5. New species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) infecting the gills of catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    During a research on gill ectoparasites of siluriform fishes from the Peruvian Amazonia, the following monogeneans were found: Ameloblastella edentensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz; Ameloblastella peruensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus sp.; Ameloblastella formatrium n. sp. from Pimelodidae gen. sp. (type-host) and Duopalatinus cf. peruanus Eigenmann & Allen; Ameloblastella unapioides n. sp. from Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider) (type-host) and Pimelodus sp; Cosmetocleithrum tortum n. sp. from Nemadoras hemipeltis (Eigenmann); and Cosmetocleithrum bifurcum n. sp. from Hassar orestis (Steindachner) (both Doradidae). All new species described herein are mainly differentiated from their congeners based on the morphology of the copulatory complex. The pimelodids H. edentatus and S. lima, and the doradids N. hemipeltis and H. orestis represent new hosts species for species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986, respectively. The morphological diagnosis of the present species of Ameloblastella and Cosmetocleithrum also supported by a previous molecular analysis of these species is briefly discusssed herein.

  6. Infection of the heart of Pimelodus ornatus (Teleostei, Pimelodidae), by Myxobolus sp. (Myxozoa, Myxobolidae).

    PubMed

    Matos, Edilson; Videira, Marcela; Velasco, Michele; Sanches, Osimar; Clemente, Sergio Carmona de São; Matos, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The phylum Myxozoa Grassé, 1970, consists of a heterogenous group of around 50 genera that are worldwide disseminated in a wide variety of aquatic media. In the present study, 43 specimens of Pimelodus ornatus were collected from an adjacent area to the Cachoeira do Arari municipality on Marajó Island, in the Brazilian state of Pará, in 2013. Macroscopic analysis showed the presence of whitened plasmodia located in the cardiac muscle and also in the region between the bulbus arteriosus and atrium cordis. Microscopic analysis on the parasitized tissues revealed spores that were typically piriform, with the anterior portion slightly narrower than the posterior end. The spore valves were symmetrical. The present species is placed in the genus Myxobolus Butschli, 1882, because of the presence of a pair of equal polar capsules in each spore. The prevalence of parasitism observed was 13.9% (6/43). This research note reports the first occurrence of Myxobolus as a parasite of the heart in the teleostean fish P. ornatus in the Amazon region and confirms the occurrence of secondary myocarditis in this fish, caused by parasitism by Myxobolus sp. The rarity of this parasitic species of Myxobolus at this tissue site, associated with other spore morphology characteristics in the fish, suggests that it is an undescribed species.

  7. Mitochondrial genome of the Neotropical catfish Ageneiosus pardalis, Lütken 1874 (Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae).

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Escobar, Natalia; Alzate, Juan F; Márquez, Edna J

    2016-05-01

    Ageneiosus pardalis is a trans-Andean member of the Neotropical freshwater fish family Auchenipteridae (Siluriformes). In this work, the complete mitochondrial genome of A. pardalis was pyrosequenced by FLX 454 technology. The mitochondrial genome is 16,484 bp in length and encodes 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. Additionally, the synteny is conserved with others species of the Auchenipteridae family as well as other Siluriformes.

  8. A Time-Calibrated Mitogenome Phylogeny of Catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes)

    PubMed Central

    Kappas, Ilias; Vittas, Spiros; Pantzartzi, Chrysoula N.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Scouras, Zacharias G.

    2016-01-01

    A very significant part of the world’s freshwater ichthyofauna is represented by ancient, exceptionally diverse and cosmopolitan ray-finned teleosts of the order Siluriformes. Over the years, catfish have been established as an exemplary model for probing historical biogeography at various scales. Yet, several tantalizing gaps still exist in their phylogenetic history, timeline and mode of diversification. Here, we re-examine the phylogeny of catfish by assembling and analyzing almost all publicly available mitogenome data. We constructed an ingroup matrix of 62 full-length mitogenome sequences from 20 catfish families together with four cypriniform outgroups, spanning 15,557 positions in total. Partitioned maximum likelihood analyses and Bayesian relaxed clock dating using fossil age constraints provide some useful and novel insights into the evolutionary history of this group. Loricarioidei are recovered as the first siluriform group to diversify, rendering Neotropics the cradle of the order. The next deepest clade is the South American Diplomystoidei placed as a sister group to all the remaining Siluroidei. The two multifamilial clades of “Big Asia” and “Big Africa” are also recovered, albeit nodal support for the latter is poor. Within “Big Asia”, Bagridae are clearly polyphyletic. Other interfamilial relationships, including Clariidae + Heteropneustidae, Doradidae + Auchenipteridae and Ictaluridae + Cranoglanididae are robustly resolved. Our chronogram shows that siluriforms have a Pangaean origin, at least as far back as the Early Cretaceous. The inferred timeline of the basal splits corroborates the “Out-of-South America” hypothesis and accords well with the fossil record. The divergence of Siluroidei most likely postdated the final separation of Africa and South America. An appealing case of phylogenetic affinity elaborated by biogeographic dispersal is exemplified by the Early Paleogene split between the Southeast Asian Cranoglanididae

  9. Dactylogyridean monogeneans of the siluriform fishes of the Old World.

    PubMed

    Lim, L H; Timofeeva, T A; Gibson, D I

    2001-11-01

    This is a catalogue and discussion of the known dactylogyridean monogenean genera of siluriform fishes of the Old World. Of a total of 38 nominal genera, only 19 are considered valid. Seventeen of these 19 genera are currently in the Ancyrocephalidae (containing the Ancyrocephalinae and Ancylodiscoidinae), whilst the other two (Neocalceostoma and Neocalceostomoides) are in the Neocalceostomatidae. The 17 genera are Anchylodiscus, Ancylodiscoides, Bagrobdella, Bifurcohaptor, Bychowskyella, Chauhanellus, Cornudiscoides, Hamatopeduncularia, Mizelleus, Paraquadriacanthus, Pseudancylodiscoides, Protoancylodiscoides, Quadriacanthus, Schilbetrema, Schilbetrematoides, Synodontella and Thaparocleidus. Clariotrema Long, 1981 and Neobychowskyella Ma, Wang & Li, 1983 are considered synonyms of Bychowskyella Akhmerov, 1952, Anacornuatus Dubey, Gupta & Agarwal, 1992 is considered a synonym of Quadriacanthus Paperna, 1961, Mizellebychowskia Gupta & Sachdeva, 1990 is considered a synonym of Neocalceostoma Tripathi, 1959 and Hargitrema Tripathi, 1959 is treated as a synonym of Hamatopeduncularia Yamaguti, 1953. It is proposed that the Ancylodiscoidinae be raised to family status within the order Dactylogyridea to accommodate these 17 'ancyrocephalid' genera from siluriforms, together with Malayanodiscoides and Notopterodiscoides from notopterids. A key and the diagnostic characteristics of the 19 recognised dactylogyridean genera from catfishes plus two from notopterids, together with a list of species and synonyms, are included. New combinations made in this work are Thaparocleidus avicularia (Chen, 1987) n. comb., T. calyciflorus (Chen, 1987) n. comb., T. choanovagina (Luo & Lang, 1981) n. comb., T. dissimilis (Chen, 1988) n. comb., T. leiocassis (Reichenbach-Klinke, 1959) n. comb., T. meticulosa (Chen, 1987) n. comb., T. parasoti (Zhao & Ma, 1999) n. comb., T. persculpus (Chen, 1987) n. comb., T. valga (Chen, 1987) n. comb. and T. wulingensis (Yao & Wang, 1997) n. comb. [all

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Neotropical catfish Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Rangel-Medrano, Jose D; Alzate, Juan F; Márquez, Edna J

    2016-11-01

    The Neotropical freshwater fish Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum is a trans-Andean species that belongs to the family of long-whiskered catfishes (family Pimelodidae). In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of P. magdaleniatum was sequenced using the MiSeq Illumina platform. The complete circular mitogenome is 16,568 bp in length, exhibiting an average GC content of 44.19% and codes for 13 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. Additionally, it exhibits perfect synteny and similar length with the mitogenome of Pimelodus pictus.

  11. Neotropical Siluriformes as a Model for Insights on Determining Biodiversity of Animal Groups

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Renata Rúbia; Message, Hugo José; da Graça, Weferson Júnio; Pavanelli, Carla Simone

    2015-01-01

    We performed an analysis of the descriptions of new species of Neotropical Siluriformes (catfishes) to estimate the number of new species that remain to be described for a complete knowledge on biodiversity of this order, to verify the effectiveness of taxonomic support, and to identify trends and present relevant information for future policies. We conducted a literature review of species descriptions between January 1990 and August 2014. The following metadata were recorded from each article: year of publication, number of species, journal and impact factor, family(s) of the described species, number of authors, age of the authors and coauthors, country of the first author’s institution and ecoregion of the type-locality. From accumulation of descriptions, we built an estimate model for number of species remaining to be described. We found 595 described species in 402 articles. The data demonstrated that there has been an increased understanding of the diversity of Siluriformes over the last 25 years in the Neotropical region, although 35% of the species still remain to be described. The model estimated that with the current trends and incentives, the biodiversity will be known in almost seven decades. We have reinforced the idea that greater joint efforts should be made by society and the scientific community to obtain this knowledge in a shorter period of time through enhanced programs for promoting science, training and the advancement of professionals before undiscovered species become extinct. The model built in this study can be used for similar estimates of other groups of animals. PMID:26168270

  12. Gram-negative intestinal indigenous microbiota from two Siluriform fishes in a tropical reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Silvana; Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula e; Zauli, Danielle Alves Gomes; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of Hypostomus auroguttatus and Pimelodus maculatus, a detritivorous and an omnivorous fish species, respectively, were compared between fishes from the reservoir and the stretch of the river below the dam of the Funil hydroelectric plant, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Four selective culture media were used under aerobic and two under anaerobic conditions. The omnivorous species had microbiota with higher population levels compared to the detritivorous species. The number of morphotypes and population levels of total bacteria, vibrio and Bacteroides tended to be higher in summer and autumn in the reservoir, and not different in the river. The number of morphotypes of enterobacteria and total bacteria were higher in the lotic environment compared with the lentic one. The bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides and the obligate anaerobic Fusobacterium mortiferum were the most frequently identified microorganisms in the intestine of both H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Both season and habitat influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Environmental factors influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of both species with possible impact on the interrelationship between the fishes and their digestive ecosystem, although the gut microbiota composition of fishes may result from host-specific selective pressures within the gut. PMID:25763032

  13. A preliminary inventory of the catfishes of the lower Rio Nhamundá, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes)

    PubMed Central

    Duarte Ribeiro, Emanuell; Nogueira Machado, Valéria; Hrbek, Tomas; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Rio Nhamundá is a poorly-known clearwater river draining the southern Guiana Shield of Brazil. In this study we report the findings of a preliminary ichthyological survey, focusing on catfishes (Siluriformes). We identify a total of 36 species (31 genera, seven families) from the Nhamundá, including 11 species already recorded from the river. Overall, our survey results show that even rapid surveys can provide important information on Amazon fish biodiversity, suggesting potential new species, providing range extensions for nominal species, and additionally highlighting taxa in need of taxonomic revision and genetic study. As well as the traditional forms of data collected on biodiversity surveys (i.e. preserved specimen vouchers), our study also provides "new" types of data in the form of DNA barcodes and images of fishes exhibiting colouration in life, information that will be invaluable in future work addressing difficult groups. O Rio Nhamundá é um rio de água clara, pouco conhecido, que drena parte do Escudo das Guianas em território brasileiro. Nesse estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de um levantamento ictiofaunístico preliminar dessa área, tendo como foco os bagres (Siluriformes). Nós identificamos um total de 36 espécies (31 gêneros, sete famílias) provenientes de nossa coleta, e adicionamos 11 espécies já conhecidas para o rio. De maneira geral, os resultados de nossa pesquisa mostram que mesmo levantamentos rápidos podem gerar informações importantes sobre a biodiversidade de peixes amazônicos, sugerindo potenciais espécies novas, ampliando a área de distribuição de espécies, além de apontar a necessidade de revisões taxonômicas e estudos genéticos para alguns taxa. Para além das formas tradicionais de dados coletados em pesquisas de biodiversidade (i.e. espécimes preservados), nosso estudo fornece "novas" formas de dados, como DNA barcodes e imagens com o padrão de coloração dos espécimes vivos, informa

  14. A preliminary inventory of the catfishes of the lower Rio Nhamundá, Brazil (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Collins, Rupert A; Duarte Ribeiro, Emanuell; Nogueira Machado, Valéria; Hrbek, Tomas; Farias, Izeni Pires

    2015-01-01

    The Rio Nhamundá is a poorly-known clearwater river draining the southern Guiana Shield of Brazil. In this study we report the findings of a preliminary ichthyological survey, focusing on catfishes (Siluriformes). We identify a total of 36 species (31 genera, seven families) from the Nhamundá, including 11 species already recorded from the river. Overall, our survey results show that even rapid surveys can provide important information on Amazon fish biodiversity, suggesting potential new species, providing range extensions for nominal species, and additionally highlighting taxa in need of taxonomic revision and genetic study. As well as the traditional forms of data collected on biodiversity surveys (i.e. preserved specimen vouchers), our study also provides "new" types of data in the form of DNA barcodes and images of fishes exhibiting colouration in life, information that will be invaluable in future work addressing difficult groups. O Rio Nhamundá é um rio de água clara, pouco conhecido, que drena parte do Escudo das Guianas em território brasileiro. Nesse estudo, nós reportamos os resultados de um levantamento ictiofaunístico preliminar dessa área, tendo como foco os bagres (Siluriformes). Nós identificamos um total de 36 espécies (31 gêneros, sete famílias) provenientes de nossa coleta, e adicionamos 11 espécies já conhecidas para o rio. De maneira geral, os resultados de nossa pesquisa mostram que mesmo levantamentos rápidos podem gerar informações importantes sobre a biodiversidade de peixes amazônicos, sugerindo potenciais espécies novas, ampliando a área de distribuição de espécies, além de apontar a necessidade de revisões taxonômicas e estudos genéticos para alguns taxa. Para além das formas tradicionais de dados coletados em pesquisas de biodiversidade (i.e. espécimes preservados), nosso estudo fornece "novas" formas de dados, como DNA barcodes e imagens com o padrão de coloração dos espécimes vivos, informa

  15. Spine anatomy reveals the diversity of catfish through time: a case study of Synodontis (Siluriformes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinton, Aurélie; Fara, Emmanuel; Otero, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Synodontis (Mochokidae, Siluriformes) is a freshwater catfish endemic to Africa. The 118 extant species are present in almost all hydrographic basins. Some species are restricted to a single stream, whereas others have a vast distribution. Synodontis is known in the fossil record since the Miocene, and its history depends on the connections among African basins through time. The identification of species in the fossil record is essential to reconstruct this historical pattern. Catfish pectoral and dorsal spines are robust, they preserve well and they form most of the fossil remains for the genus Synodontis. Unfortunately, the criteria for the identification of extant Synodontis species are not applicable to fossil specimens. Here, we define 11 original morphological characters that permit to discriminate four extant species from the Chad-Chari hydrographic system. Six of these characters are defined on pectoral spines and five on dorsal spines. We then show that these characters can be used successfully for identifying fossil specimens. In particular, we present a case study in which we identify Synodontis cf. schall and Brachysynodontis cf. batensoda in the hominid-bearing sector Toros-Menalla (Late Miocene, northern Chad). We show that spine anatomy can be a powerful tool to recognise catfish species through time and thus to identify historical diversity pattern.

  16. Cytogenetic study of heptapterids (Teleostei, Siluriformes) with particular respect to the Nemuroglanis subclade

    PubMed Central

    Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Moreira Peres, Wellington Adriano; Moreira-Filho, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The catfish family Heptapteridae (order Siluriformes) is endemic to the Neotropics and is one of the most common of the fish families in small bodies of water. Although over 200 species have been identified in this family, very few have been characterized cytogenetically. Here, we analyze the chromosome genomes of four species of Heptapteridae: Cetopsorhamdia iheringi (Schubart & Gomes, 1959), 2n = 58, comprising 28 metacentric (m) + 26 submetacentric (sm) + 4 subtelomeric (st) chromosomes; Pimelodella vittata (Lütken, 1874), 2n = 46, comprising 16m + 22sm + 8st; Rhamdia prope quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824), 2n = 58 comprising 26m + 16sm + 14st + 2 acrocentric; and Rhamdiopsis prope microcephala (Lütken, 1874), 2n = 56, comprising 12m + 30sm + 14st. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were located in a single chromosome pair in all species. The two species that belonged to the subclade Nemuroglanis, Cetopsorhamdia iheringi and Rhamdia prope quelen, had a diploid chromosome number of 58 and an interstitial NOR adjacent to a C+ block located on one of the larger chromosome pairs in the complement. Our results from conventional cytogenetic techniques in combination with FISH using 18S and 5S rDNA probes corroborated the taxonomical hypothesis for the formation of the Nemuroglanis subclade. PMID:25893072

  17. Evidence of Niche Partitioning under Ontogenetic Influences among Three Morphologically Similar Siluriformes in Small Subtropical Streams

    PubMed Central

    Bonato, Karine Orlandi; Fialho, Clarice Bernhardt

    2014-01-01

    Ontogenetic influences in patterns of niche breadth and feeding overlap were investigated in three species of Siluriformes (Heptapterus sp., Rhamdia quelen and Trichomycterus poikilos) aiming at understanding the species coexistence. Samplings were conducted bimonthly by electrofishing technique from June/2012 to June/2013 in ten streams of the northwestern state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The stomach contents of 1,948 individuals were analyzed by volumetric method, with 59 food items identified. In general Heptapterus sp. consumed a high proportion of Aegla sp., terrestrial plant remains and Megaloptera; R. quelen consumed fish, and Oligochaeta, followed by Aegla sp.; while the diet of T. poikilos was based on Simuliidae, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera. Specie segregation was observed in the NMDS. Through PERMANOVA analysis feeding differences among species, and between a combination of species plus size classes were observed. IndVal showed which items were indicators of these differences. Niche breadth values were high for all species. The niche breadth values were low only for the larger size of R. quelen and Heptapterus sp. while T. poikilos values were more similar. Overall the species were a low feeding overlap values. The higher frequency of high feeding overlap was observed for interaction between Heptapterus sp. and T. poikilos. The null model confirmed the niche partitioning between the species. The higher frequency of high and intermediate feeding overlap values were reported to smaller size classes. The null model showed resource sharing between the species/size class. Therefore, overall species showed a resource partitioning because of the use of occasional items. However, these species share resources mainly in the early ontogenetic stages until the emphasized change of morphological characteristics leading to trophic niche expansion and the apparent segregation observed. PMID:25340614

  18. A new genus and species of proteocephalidean (Cestoda) from Clarias catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae) in Africa.

    PubMed

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomás; Beletew, Moges; Mariaux, Jean

    2009-02-01

    A new proteocephalidean cestode is described from 2 catfishes, Clarias gariepinus (type host) and C. cf. anguillaris (Siluriformes: Clariidae), from Ethiopia (type locality), Sudan, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe, and a new genus, Barsonella, is proposed to accommodate it. The genus belongs to the Proteocephalinae because its genital organs (testes, ovary, vitellarium, and uterus) are situated in the medulla. Barsonella lafoni, the type and only species of the new genus, is characterized mainly by the possession of an additional opening of each sucker; circular musculature on the anterior margin of suckers, serving as a sphincter; a small thin-walled glandular apical organ; absence of well-developed osmoregulatory canals in mature, pregravid, and gravid proglottids; and a large strobila, up to 173 mm long and 3.2 mm wide. Species of Marsypocephalus Wedl, 1861 (Marsypocephalinae), other large-sized proteocephalidean tapeworms occurring sympatrically in African catfishes (Clarias and Heterobranchus) and also possessing a sphincter-like, circular musculature on the anterior part of suckers, differ from B. lafoni in the absence of an additional sucker opening and glandular apical organ, the cortical position of the testes, well-developed osmoregulatory canals throughout the strobila, and a large cirrus sac. Proteocephalus glanduligerus (Janicki, 1928), another cestode parasitic in Clarias spp. in Africa, is much smaller than B. lafoni (maximum length 15 mm), has suckers without additional opening and circular musculature on the suckers, a large-sized glandular organ, much larger than suckers, and well-developed osmoregulatory canals. Comparison of partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene for 7 samples of B. lafoni from 2 different hosts and 4 localities in Ethiopia, Sudan, and Tanzania has shown a very low genetic variability. In a limited phylogenetic analysis, B. lafoni formed a clade with Corallobothrium solidum Fritsch, 1886 (Proteocephalidae: Corallobothriinae), an African

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome from South American catfish Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann) and its impact in Siluriformes phylogenetic tree.

    PubMed

    Villela, Luciana Cristine Vasques; Alves, Anderson Luis; Varela, Eduardo Sousa; Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza; Giachetto, Poliana Fernanda; da Silva, Naiara Milagres Augusto; Ponzetto, Josi Margarete; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Caetano, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2017-02-01

    The cachara (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) is a Neotropical freshwater catfish from family Pimelodidae (Siluriformes) native to Brazil. The species is of relative economic importance for local aquaculture production and basic biological information is under development to help boost efforts to domesticate and raise the species in commercial systems. The complete cachara mitochondrial genome was obtained by assembling Illumina RNA-seq data from pooled samples. The full mitogenome was found to be 16,576 bp in length, showing the same basic structure, order, and genetic organization observed in other Pimelodidae, with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rNA genes, 22 trNAs, and a control region. Observed base composition was 24.63% T, 28.47% C, 31.45% A, and 15.44% G. With the exception of NAD6 and eight tRNAs, all of the observed mitochondrial genes were found to be coded on the H strand. A total of 107 SNPs were identified in P. reticulatum mtDNA, 67 of which were located in coding regions. Of these SNPs, 10 result in amino acid changes. Analysis of the obtained sequence with 94 publicly available full Siluriformes mitogenomes resulted in a phylogenetic tree that generally agreed with available phylogenetic proposals for the order. The first report of the complete Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum mitochondrial genome sequence revealed general gene organization, structure, content, and order similar to most vertebrates. Specific sequence and content features were observed and may have functional attributes which are now available for further investigation.

  20. A new genus and species of proteocephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda) from Pangasius larnaudii (Siluriformes: Pangasiidae) in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, Alain

    2012-06-01

    A new proteocephalidean cestode is described from spot pangasius, Pangasius larnaudii (Siluriformes: Pangasiidae), from Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia and a new genus, Pangasiocestus , is proposed to accommodate it. The genus is placed in the Gangesiinae because its scolex possesses a large rostellum-like apical organ and its genital organs (testes, ovary, vitellarium, and uterus) are situated in the medulla, with some vitelline follicles paramuscular. Pangasiocestus romani n. gen. and n. sp., the type and only species of the new genus, is characterized mainly by its rosette-like scolex composed of 4 lobes bearing a small sucker in their center, and the apical part with a large, discoidal, rostellum-like apical organ devoid of hooks, by weakly developed inner longitudinal musculature formed by very few isolated muscle fibers, uneven size of testes in immature and mature proglottids, with lateral testes smaller and more dense than median ones, by very narrow lateral bands of vitelline follicles, formed usually by single follicles, and by the vagina anterior to the cirrus sac. This is the first proteocephalidean cestode from a pangasiid catfish identified to the species level (proteocephalidean cestodes from 3 Pangasius spp. reported in an unpublished account from Vietnam, misidentified as Proteocephalus osculatus (Goeze, 1782) [ =  Glanitaenia osculata ], are not considered).

  1. The Laterosensory Canal System in Epigean and Subterranean Ituglanis (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae), With Comments About Troglomorphism and the Phylogeny of the Genus.

    PubMed

    Rizzato, Pedro Pereira; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2017-01-01

    The laterosensory system is a mechanosensory modality involved in many aspects of fish biology and behavior. Laterosensory perception may be crucial for individual survival, especially in habitats where other sensory modalities are generally useless, such as the permanently aphotic subterranean environment. In the present study, we describe the laterosensory canal system of epigean and subterranean species of the genus Ituglanis (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae). With seven independent colonizations of the subterranean environment in a limited geographical range coupled with a high diversity of epigean forms, the genus is an excellent model for the study of morphological specialization to hypogean life. The comparison between epigean and subterranean species reveals a trend toward reduction of the laterosensory canal system in the subterranean species, coupled with higher intraspecific variability and asymmetry. This trend is mirrored in other subterranean fishes and in species living in different confined spaces, like the interstitial environment. Therefore, we propose that the reduction of the laterosensory canal system should be regarded as a troglomorphic (= cave-related) character for subterranean fishes. We also comment about the patterns of the laterosensory canal system in trichomycterids and use the diversity of this system among species of Ituglanis to infer phylogenetic relationships within the genus. J. Morphol. 278:4-28, 2017. ©© 2016 Wiley Periodicals,Inc.

  2. A large-scale phylogeny of Synodontis (Mochokidae, Siluriformes) reveals the influence of geological events on continental diversity during the Cenozoic.

    PubMed

    Pinton, Aurélie; Agnèse, Jean-François; Paugy, Didier; Otero, Olga

    2013-03-01

    To explain the spatial variability of fish taxa at a large scale, two alternative proposals are usually evoked. In recent years, the debate has centred on the relative roles of present and historical processes in shaping biodiversity patterns. In Africa, attempts to understand the processes that determine the large scale distribution of fishes and exploration of historical contingencies have been under-investigated given that most of the phylogenetic studies focus on the history of the Great Lakes. Here, we explore phylogeographic events in the evolutionary history of Synodontis (Mohokidae, Siluriformes) over Africa during the Cenozoic focusing on the putative role of historical processes. We discuss how known geological events together with hydrographical changes contributed to shape Synodontis biogeographical history. Synodontis was chosen on the basis of its high diversity and distribution in Africa: it consists of approximately 120 species that are widely distributed in all hydrographic basins except the Maghreb and South Africa. We propose the most comprehensive phylogeny of this catfish genus. Our results provide support for the 'hydrogeological' hypothesis, which proposes that palaeohydrological changes linked with the geological context may have been the cause of diversification of freshwater fish deep in the Tertiary. More precisely, the two main geological structures that participated to shape the hydrographical network in Africa, namely the Central African Shear zone and the East African rift system, appear as strong drivers of Synodontis diversification and evolution.

  3. Population Dynamics and Diet of the Madamango Sea Catfish Cathorops spixii (Agassiz, 1829) (Siluriformes: Ariidae) in a Tropical Bight in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Denadai, Márcia; Pombo, Maíra; Santos, Flávia Borges; Bessa, Eduardo; Ferreira, Adriana; Turra, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The madamango sea catfish, Cathorops spixii (Siluriformes: Ariidae), is often among the most abundant fishes on the South American Atlantic coast. In the present study, conducted in shallow, non-estuarine coastal areas of Caraguatatuba Bight in southeastern Brazil, collections of this species, the most abundant member of the ichthyofauna, included primarily medium-sized individuals, indicating that the area may play a specific role in their development. Although studies of the local ichthyofauna have been much neglected, the area is economically important and its ecological significance is undervalued. This study primarily treats habitat use by C. spixii, assessing certain population parameters and the dietary composition. Monthly samples were taken from August 2003 through October 2004, with three trawls in two areas, corresponding to depths of about 1 to 4 m. The catfish showed two main peaks of abundance in the area, in April/May and July 2004. A mode around 9 cm SL persisted through time, and the entrance of younger recruits peaked from January to April. The low estimate for body-growth parameters (K = 0.16) corroborates some K-strategist characteristics of the species. The asymptotic length was 27.3 cm SL and total mortality (Z) was 1.01 yr−1. Cathorops spixii showed an omnivorous feeding habit, preying mainly upon polychaetes, copepods and bivalves, with considerable seasonality in its diet. PMID:24282575

  4. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of walking catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae): new genus and species from the Mekong River (Vietnam) with comments on related catfish aporocotylids.

    PubMed

    Truong, Triet Nhat; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-07-01

    Nomasanguinicola canthoensis gen. et sp. n. infects the branchial vessels of bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Günther (Siluriformes: Clariidae), in the Mekong River near Can Tho, southern Vietnam. Nomasanguinicola differs from all other genera of fish blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) by the combination of lacking body spines and by having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, an intestine comprising several short papilla-like caeca, an inverse U-shaped uterus, and an ootype located near the separate genital pores. The new species has an ootype that is posterior to the level of the female genital pore. That feature most easily differentiates it from the only other putative aporocotylid species having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, Plehniella dentata Paperna, 1964 and Sanguinicola clarias Imam, Marzouk, Hassan et Itman, 1984, which have an ootype that is lateral (P. dentata) or anterior (S. clarias) to the level of the female genital pore. These two species apparently lack extant type materials, infect North African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and herein are considered incertae sedis, but likely comprise species of Nomasanguinicola. An updated list of hosts, sites of infection and geographic localities for the six species and three genera of blood flukes that mature in catfishes is provided. The new species is the first fish blood fluke recorded from Vietnam and only the third reported from a walking catfish (Clariidae).

  5. Karyotype and cytogenetic mapping of 9 classes of repetitive DNAs in the genome of the naked catfish Mystus bocourti (Siluriformes, Bagridae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the present study, conventional and molecular cytogenetic studies were performed in the naked catfish Mystus bocourti (Siluriformes, Bagridae). Besides the conventional Giemsa staining, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using nine classes of repetitive DNAs namely 5S and 18S rDNAs, U2 snRNA, the microsatellites (CA)15 and (GA)15, telomeric repeats, and the retrotransposable elements Rex1, 3 and 6. was also performed. Results M. bocourti had 2n = 56 chromosomes with a karyotype composed by 11 m + 11 sm + 6 st/a and a fundamental number (NF) equal to 100 in both sexes. Heteromorphic sex chromosome cannot be identified. The U2 snRNA, 5S and 18S rDNA were present in only one pair of chromosomes but none of them in a syntenic position. Microsatellites (CA)15 and (GA)15 showed hybridization signals at subtelomeric regions of all chromosomes with a stronger accumulation into one specific chromosomal pair. FISH with the telomeric probe revealed hybridization signals on each telomere of all chromosomes and interstitial telomeric sites (ITS) were not detected. The retrotransposable elements Rex1, 3 and 6 were generally spread throughout the genome. Conclusions In general, the repetitive sequences were not randomly distributed in the genome, suggesting a pattern of compartmentalization on the heterochromatic region of the chromosomes. Little is known about the structure and organization of bagrid genomes and the knowledge of the chromosomal distribution of repetitive DNA sequences in M. bocourti represents the first step for achieving an integrated view of their genomes. PMID:24266901

  6. A new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae) from the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, Wadi El-Hitan, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Wadi El-Hitan, the UNESCO World Heritage Site, of the Fayum Depression in the northeast part of the Western Desert of Egypt, has produced a remarkable collection of Eocene vertebrates, in particular the fossil whales from which it derives its name. Here we describe a new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae), Qarmoutus hitanensis, from the base of the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, based on a partial neurocranium including the complete left side, partial right dentary, left suspensorium, two opercles, left pectoral girdle and spine, nuchal plates, first and second dorsal spines, Weberian apparatus and a disassociated series of abdominal vertebrae. All of the elements belong to the same individual and some of them were found articulated. Qarmoutus gen. nov. is the oldest and the most complete of the Paleogene marine catfishes unearthed from the Birket Qarun Formation. The new genus exhibits distinctive features not seen in other African Paleogene taxa, such as different sculpturing on the opercle and pectoral girdle with respect to that on the neurocranium and nuchal plates, denticulate ornamentation on the skull bones arranged in longitudinal rows and forming a radiating pattern on the sphenotic, pterotic, extrascapular and the parieto-supraoccipital, indentations or pitted ornamentation on the nuchal plates as well as the parieto-supraoccipital process, strut-like radiating pattern of ornamentation on the opercle from the proximal articulation to margins, longitudinal, curved, reticulate ridges and tubercular ornamentations on the cleithrum, sinuous articulation between the parieto-supraoccipital process and the anterior nuchal plate, long, narrow, and arrowhead shaped nuchal shield, very small otic capsules restricted to the prootic. Multiple parsimony and Bayesian morphological phylogenetic analyses of Ariidae, run with and without “molecular scaffolds”, yield contradictory results for the placement of Qarmoutus; the genus is

  7. A morphological and molecular study of two species of Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda: Anisakidae), parasites of doradid catfish (Siluriformes) in South America, with a description of R. moraveci n. sp.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe B; Tavares, Luiz E R; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-05-01

    Nematodes of the genus Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 parasitising doradid catfishes (Siluriformes: Doradidae) in Brazil were studied based on morphological and molecular evaluation of newly collected material. A new species, Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp., is described from the intestine of Platydoras armatulus (Valenciennes) from River Miranda, River Paraguay basin, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul. The new species differs from all of the congeners in having short spicules (163-217 μm in length) representing less than 1% of the total body length and in the posterior region of cloacal opening covered by small rudimentary spines. In addition, it differs from the other congeneric species in the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae and the structure of lips and tail. Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp. is the third species described from freshwater fishes and the second one in the Neotropical Region. New morphological data on R. brasiliensis Moravec & Thatcher, 1997 from Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann) and Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus) (both new host records) from River Xingu, River Amazon basin, Pará, are provided including scanning electron micrographs of taxonomically important structures. The differentiation of the new species is supported by molecular data (partial sequences of the small and large subunits of the rRNA gene).

  8. A new multiple sex chromosome system X1X1X2X2/X1Y1X2Y2 in Siluriformes: cytogenetic characterization of Bunocephalus coracoideus (Aspredinidae).

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Milena; Garcia, Caroline; Matoso, Daniele Aparecida; de Jesus, Isac Silva; Feldberg, Eliana

    2016-10-01

    We analyzed one Bunocephalus coracoideus population from the Negro River basin using cytogenetic techniques. The results showed a diploid number of 42 chromosomes in both sexes, with the karyotypic formula 4m + 14sm + 24a and fundamental number (FN) = 60 for females and the formula 5m + 14sm + 23a and FN = 61 for males, constituting an X1X1X2X2/X1Y1X2Y2 multiple sex chromosome system. The constitutive heterochromatin is distributed in the pericentromeric regions of most of the chromosomes, except for the sex chromosomes, of which the X1, X2, and Y1 chromosomes were euchromatic and the Y2 chromosome was partially heterochromatic. 18S rDNA mapping confirmed the presence of nucleolar organizer regions on the short arms of the fifth chromosomal pair for both sexes. The 5S rDNA is present in the terminal regions of the short arms on the 2nd, 10th, and 12th pairs and on the X2 chromosome of both sexes; however, we observed variations in the presence of these ribosomal cistrons on the Y1 chromosome, on which the cistrons are pericentromeric, and on the Y2 chromosome, on which these cistrons are present in the terminal portions of the short and long arms. Telomeric sequences are located in the terminal regions of all of the chromosomes, particularly conspicuous blocks on the 10th and 12th pairs and internal telomeric sequences in the centromeric regions of the 1st, 6th, and 9th pairs for both sexes. This work describes an new sex chromosomes system for the Siluriformes and increases our genetic knowledge of the Aspredinidae family.

  9. Mitochondrial transcripts and associated heteroplasmies of Ancistrus spp. (Siluriformes: Loricariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Daniel A.; Furtado, Carolina; Parente, Thiago E.

    2015-01-01

    This data-set complements our paper entitled “The use of transcriptomic next-generation sequencing data to assembly mitochondrial genomes of Ancistrus spp. (Loricariidae)” [6]. Here, we present the nucleotide sequences of each transcript used for mitogenomes assembly, as well as tables presenting the location of each transcript in the mitogenomes; the frequency, location and codon position of the detected heteroplasmic sites; and the start/stop codons usage, UTR, CDS and poliA-tail length for each protein coding gene. Readers are referred to the paper cited above for data interpretation and discussion. PMID:26629496

  10. Cytogenetic analysis of five Hypostomus species (Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Emanuel Ricardo Monteiro; Zawadzki, Claudio Henrique; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed the karyotypes of five Hypostomus species. Hypostomus cf. heraldoi, from the Mogi-Guaçu River, had 2n = 72 chromosomes, with a nucleolar organizer region (NOR) in one chromosomal pair. Hypostomus regani, from the Mogi-Guaçu River had 2n = 72 chromosomes with NORs in two chromosomal pairs. Hypostomus sp., from the Mogi-Guaçu River basin, had 2n = 68 chromosomes, with NORs in two chromosomal pairs. Hypostomus aff. agna, from Cavalo Stream, had 2n = 74 chromosomes with NORs in two chromosomal pairs. Hypostomus cf. topavae, from Carrapato Stream, had 2n = 80 chromosomes, with NORs in two chromosomal pairs. Hypostomus species showed marked diversity in the karyotypic formula, which suggested the occurrence of several Robertsonian rearrangements and pericentric inversions during the evolutionary history of this genus. This hypothesis was supported by the occurrence of a large number of uniarmed chromosomes and multiple NORs in a terminal position in most species and may be a derived condition in the Loricariidae. PMID:22215958

  11. Ultrastructure of the ampullary organs of Plicofollis argyropleuron (Siluriformes: Ariidae).

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Darryl L; Gauthier, Arnault R G; Cameron, Rochae M E; Perutz, Marion; Tibbetts, Ian R

    2015-12-01

    The morphology of ampullary organs in Plicofollis argyropleuron, collected from a southeast Queensland estuary, was examined by light and electron microscopy to assess the morphological characteristics of teleost ampullary organs in environments with fluctuating salinities. This catfish possesses both macroampullae and microampullae. Both have the typical teleost arrangement of an ampullary pore linked by a canal to a single ampulla that is lined with receptor and supportive cells. The canal wall of macroampullae consists of a collagen sheath, a basement membrane, and two layers of squamous epithelial cells adjacent to the lumen, joined by desmosomes and tight junctions near the surface of the epithelium. Ampullary pore diameters are similar in range for both the macroampullae and the microampullae, with microampullae always arising from the larger pores within a single region of the head. Canal length of the macroampullae is longer than those of the microampullae. Macroampullae also contain approximately 10 times as many receptor cells compared with the microampullae. In both organs, these pear-shaped receptor cells alternate with supportive cells along the entire luminal surface of the ampulla. The apical region of receptor cells extends into the lumen and bears numerous microvilli. The basal region of receptor cells adjoins to either individual or multiple unmyelinated neural terminals. The coexistence of two markedly different ampullary organ morphologies within a single species support theories concerning the possible multifunctionality of these sensory organs.

  12. A new diminutive sisorid catfish (Actinopterygii: Siluriformes) from northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Ng, Heok Hee; Lalramliana, Lalramliana; Lalronunga, Samuel

    2016-04-26

    This study describes a new diminutive sisorid catfish from the upper reaches of the Karnaphuli River drainage in northeastern India. The new species can be distinguished from congeners in having a combination of: length of dorsal-fin spine 18.0-21.6% SL; 4-10 serrations on the anterior edge of the dorsal spine; length of pectoral-fin spine 20.7-26.1% SL; length of adipose-fin base 21.5-26.3% SL; body depth at anus 12.3-15.9% SL; caudal peduncle depth 7.5-9.8% SL; caudal peduncle length 17.0-20.5% SL; pale, y-shaped marking on dorsal surface of head; sides of body with pale yellowish patches and irregular bands.

  13. Evolutionary and biogeographic history of the subfamily Neoplecostominae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Roxo, Fábio F; Zawadzki, Cláudio H; Alexandrou, Markos A; Costa Silva, Guilherme J; Chiachio, Marcio C; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater fish evolution has been shaped by changes in the earth's surface involving changes in the courses of rivers and fluctuations in sea level. The main objective of this study is to improve our knowledge of the evolution of loricariids, a numerous and adaptive group of freshwater catfish species, and the role of geological changes in their evolution. We use a number of different phylogenetic methods to test the relationships among 52 representative taxa within the Neoplecostominae using 4676 bps of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Our analysis revealed that the subfamily Neoplecostominae is monophyletic, including Pseudotocinclus, with three lineages recognized. The first lineage is composed of part of Pareiorhina rudolphi, P. cf. rudolphi, and Pseudotocinclus; the second is composed of Isbrueckerichthys, Pareiorhaphis, Kronichthys, and the species Neoplecostomus ribeirensis; and the third is composed of Pareiorhina carrancas, P. cf. carrancas, Pareiorhina sp. 1, a new genus, and all the species of the genus Neoplecostomus, except N. ribeirensis. The relaxed molecular clock calibration provides a temporal framework for the evolution of the group, which we use for a likelihood-based historical biogeographic analysis to test relevant hypotheses on the formation of southeast Brazil. We hypothesize that headwater capture events and marine regressions have shaped the patterns of distribution within the subfamily Neoplecostominae throughout the distinct basins of southeast Brazil. PMID:23145330

  14. Larval and juvenile development of Tatia intermedia (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, L H A; Bialetzki, A; Bonecker, A C T

    2017-03-01

    This study describes the morphology, morphometry and meristic characters of larval and juvenile Tatia intermedia collected in the middle Tocantins River and some of its tributaries. Six larvae of T. intermedia were examined and they have a moderately elongate body, head slightly dorso-ventrally depressed with a convex snout, small and round eyes and a subterminal mouth. In five juvenile stages observed, the head and eye are relatively smaller than in the larval stage and the snout remains convex and mouth becomes terminal.

  15. Female germ cell renewal during the annual reproductive cycle in Ostariophysians fish.

    PubMed

    Wildner, Daniel Dantas; Grier, Harry; Quagio-Grassiotto, Irani

    2013-03-01

    The objective was to characterize female germ cell renewal during the annual reproductive cycle in two species of ostariophysian fish with distinct reproductive strategies: a siluriform, Pimelodus maculatus, in which oocyte development is group synchronous and the annual reproductive period is short; and a characiform, Serrasalmus maculatus, with asynchronous oocyte development and a prolonged reproductive period. These reproductive strategies result in fish determinate and indeterminate fecundity, respectively. Annual reproductive phases were determined by biometric and histologic analysis of gonads and interpreted according to new proposals for phase classification and stages of oocyte development (with special attention to germinal epithelium activity). Histologically, there were two types of oogonia in the germinal epithelium: single oogonia and those in mitotic proliferation. Oogonial proliferation and their entry into meiosis resulted in formation of cell nests (clusters of cells in the ovarian lamellae). Morphometric analysis was used to estimate germ cell renewal. Based on numbers of single oogonia in the lamellar epithelium, and nests with proliferating oogonia or early prophase oocytes throughout the annual reproductive cycle, oogonial proliferation and entrance into meiosis were more intense during the regenerating phase and developing phase, but decreased sharply (P < 0.05) during the spawning-capable phase. Oogonial proliferation gradually recovered during the regressing phase. We concluded that, independent of species or features of the reproductive cycle, germ cell renewal occurred during the regenerating phase, ensuring availability of eggs for the spawning event.

  16. Aspidoras mephisto, new species: The first troglobitic Callichthyidae (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from South America.

    PubMed

    Tencatt, Luiz Fernando Caserta; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2017-01-01

    Aspidoras mephisto n. sp. is described from the Anésio-Russão cave system, upper Tocantins River basin, Goiás, Brazil. The species can be readily distinguished from its congeners by troglomorphic features and also by presenting the following combination of features: infraorbital 1 generally with well-developed ventral laminar; or moderately developed; poorly-developed serrations on posterior margin of pectoral spine; nuchal plate not externally visible; dorsal fin, even in conspicuously colored specimens, with only dark brown or black chromatophores concentrated on rays, forming spots in some specimens; membranes hyaline; or sparse dark brown or black chromatophores on membranes, not forming any conspicuous pattern; and inner laminar expansion of infraorbital 1 moderately developed. Information about its habitat, ecology, behaviour and conservation status are provided and also a brief description of the juvenile stage.

  17. Description of a new genus and three new species of Otothyrinae (Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Roxo, Fábio F.; Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Ochoa, Luz E.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Hisonotus was resurrected as a member of the tribe Otothyrini (actually subfamily Otothyrinae). However, phylogenetic studies based on morphological and molecular data showed that Hisonotus is not monophyletic and independent lineages can be identified, such as the group composed of the species Hisonotus insperatus, Hisonotus luteofrenatus, Hisonotus oliveirai, Hisonotus paresi and Hisonotus piracanjuba, a lineage unrelated to that containing the type species of the genus Hisonotus (Hisonotus notatus). Herein, based in molecular and morphological data, a new genus is described to accommodate the lineage mentioned above, into which are also added three new species. This new genus can be distinguished from other genera of Otothyrinae by the following combination of characters: (1) a pair of rostral plates at the tip of the snout; (2) two large pre-nasal plates just posterior to the rostral plates; (3) a supra-opercular plate that receives the laterosensory canal from the compound pterotic before the preopercle; (4) a well developed membrane at anal opening in females; and (5) a V-shaped spinelet. A key to species of Curculionichthys is provided. PMID:26668550

  18. [The fish Trachelyopterus striatulus (Siluriforms: Auchenipteridae) used to sample insects in a tropical reservoir].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves; Racca-Filho, Francisco; dos Santos, Luciano Neves; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2009-12-01

    The study of aquatic environments is sometimes difficult to do with normal sampling methods that use gears. Insectivorous fishes represent good users of these ecosystems and analyzing the aquatic organisms present in fish stomachs, is an alternative way to determine resource abundance and utilization. In this paper, the potential of Trachelyopterus striatulus as an insect sampler was examined through dietary analyses of 383 individuals caught between April 1999 and March 2000 in Lajes Reservoir, a 30 km2 oligotrophic impoundment in Southeast Brazil. We estimated frequency of occurrence and Schoener's index of similarity. Diet changes among seasons and reservoir zones were addressed with DCA and ANOVA analyses. Its diet was 92.1% insects (ten orders and nine families). Hymenoptera (57.90%), Odonata (39.76%), Trichoptera (27.41%), Ephemeroptera (26.25%) and Coleoptera (28.96%) were the most common groups. Highest insect occurrence and richness were recorded in autumn-summer, a period of greater rainfall and insect activity. Formicidae, the dominant prey item in all seasons, appeared to be especially important in spring, a season marked by shortness of food resources. Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera were the most consumed prey items in the other seasons. Highest insect occurrence and richness were recorded in the middle and upper reservoir zones, respectively. Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera prevailed in the upper zone, where small pristine rivers and tributaries are abundant, whereas Formicidae and Belostomatidae predominated in the lower and middle zones. Because of its abundance in many freshwater ecosystems of Brazil, the ubiquity of insects in its digestive tract and the low level of prey degradation, T. striatulus has potential as an insect sampler of Neotropical reservoirs. However, conventional sampling in Lajes Reservoir is necessary to compare the effectiveness of T. striatulus with other insect sampling methods.

  19. Fecundity of the Hypostomus affinis (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) in the Lajes Reservoir, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Silvana; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2002-03-01

    The armored catfish Hypostomus affinis is a widespread Loricariidae fish in the Lajes Reservoir (22 degrees 42'-22 degrees 50' S; 43 degrees 53'-44 degrees 05' W), the largest lentic environment in the Rio de Janeiro State, but little is known about their reproductive biology. One hundred and twenty five females, captured from January 1996 to December 1997, were used to assess ovarian development (29 were used to determine fecundity). The oocyte distribution by size-diameter classes revealed the occurrence of two modes suggesting an asynchronic development of the ovaries. The total fecundity ranged from 1235 to 4304, averaging 2374. An exponential relationship between fecundity and total length was determined, and a direct linear relationship was found between fecundity and total weight and gonad weight.

  20. A New Species of Tiger Pleco Panaqolus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Xingu Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Christian Andreas; Melo de Sousa, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Panaqolus tankei is described from the Xingu River, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed from P. albomaculatus, P. dentex, P. nix, P. nocturnus, and P. koko by its color pattern consisting of dark and light diagonal bars on the body and bands on the fins (vs. body and fins without bars or bands); from P. albivermis, P. maccus, and P. purusiensis by the width of the dark bars being more or less the same of the light bars (vs. dark bars at least two or three times wider than light bars) and from P. changae by the absence of vermiculation on the head (vs. vermiculation present on head). The new species differs from P. gnomus by the orientation of the bars from posterodorsal to anteroventral direction (vs. anterodorsal to posteroventral direction), and from P. claustellifer by the orientation of the bands in the dorsal fin that are not parallel to the margin (vs. parallel to the margin). The barcoding region (COI) was sequenced for the new species, sequences were deposited in GenBank and were compared with congeners from other drainages. With regard to the current construction of a hydroelectric power plant (a so-called mega dam) in the Xingu River, herewith we increase knowledge of the river Xingu's ichthyofauna and, thus improve the assessment of the impacts of that construction on the river.

  1. Two new species of Pseudancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Amazon basin, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriel S C; Roxo, Fábio F; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Pseudancistrus, a genus diagnosed by non-evertible cheek plates and hypertrophied odontodes along the snout margin, are described from two drainages of the Brazilian Shield: Pseudancistruskayabi from the rio Teles Pires (rio Tapajós basin) and Pseudancistrusasurini from the rio Xingu. The new species are distinguished from congeners (Pseudancistrusbarbatus, Pseudancistruscorantijniensis, Pseudancistrusdepressus, Pseudancistrusnigrescens, Pseudancistrusreus, and Pseudancistruszawadzkii) by the coloration pattern. Pseudancistruskayabi has dark bars on the dorsal and caudal fins which are similar to that of Pseudancistrusreus from the Caroní River, Venezuela. Pseudancistrusasurini is unique among Pseudancistrus in having whitish tips of the dorsal and caudal fins in juveniles to medium-sized adults.

  2. Two new species of Pseudancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Amazon basin, northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Pseudancistrus, a genus diagnosed by non-evertible cheek plates and hypertrophied odontodes along the snout margin, are described from two drainages of the Brazilian Shield: Pseudancistrus kayabi from the rio Teles Pires (rio Tapajós basin) and Pseudancistrus asurini from the rio Xingu. The new species are distinguished from congeners (Pseudancistrus barbatus, Pseudancistrus corantijniensis, Pseudancistrus depressus, Pseudancistrus nigrescens, Pseudancistrus reus, and Pseudancistrus zawadzkii) by the coloration pattern. Pseudancistrus kayabi has dark bars on the dorsal and caudal fins which are similar to that of Pseudancistrus reus from the Caroní River, Venezuela. Pseudancistrus asurini is unique among Pseudancistrus in having whitish tips of the dorsal and caudal fins in juveniles to medium-sized adults. PMID:25709528

  3. Comparative cytogenetics of two species of genus Scobinancistrus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae, Ancistrini) from the Xingu River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Adauto Lima; Sales, Karline Alves Holanda; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Noronha, Renata Coelho Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    The family Loricariidae encompasses approximately 800 species distributed in six subfamilies. The subfamily Hypostominae consists of five tribes; of them, the tribe Ancistrini is relatively diverse, but it is not well known from the cytogenetic point of view. Genus Scobinancistrus Isbrücker et Nijssen, 1989, which is part of the tribe Ancistrini, has two species that occur in sympatry in the Xingu River, Brazil. In this work, we performed the first karyotypic characterizations of these two species and sought to identify the processes involved in their karyotypic evolution. Chromosomal preparations were subjected to Giemsa staining, silver nitrate impregnation, C-banding, CMA3 staining, DAPI staining, and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) with 18S rDNA and telomeric probes. We found that Scobinancistrus aureatus Burgess, 1994 and Scobinancistrus pariolispos Isbrücker et Nijssen, 1989 shared the diploid number, 2n=52, but differed in their karyotypic formulae (KFs), distribution of constitutive heterochromatin (CH), and the localizations of their nucleolus organizer regions (NORs), which were found on the interstitial and distal regions of the long arm of chromosome pair 3 in Scobinancistrus aureatus and Scobinancistrus pariolispos respectively. We suggest that these interspecific variations may have arisen via paracentric inversion or transposition of the NOR. The karyotypic differences found between these two Scobinancistrus species can be used to identify them taxonomically, and may have functioned as a mechanism of post-zygotic reproductive isolation during the speciation process.

  4. Karyotype Diversity and Evolutionary Trends in Armored Catfish Species of the Genus Harttia (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    PubMed

    Blanco, Daniel Rodrigues; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Lui, Roberto Laridondo; Traldi, Josiane Baccarin; Bueno, Vanessa; Martinez, Juliana de Fátima; Brandão, Heleno; Oyakawa, Osvaldo Takeshi; Moreira Filho, Orlando

    2017-04-01

    Most species of the genus Harttia inhabits the headwaters of small tributaries, but some species are restricted to the main channel of some rivers. This feature, combined with limited dispersal ability, leads to the formation of small isolated populations with reduced gene flow. Currently, there are 23 taxonomically defined and recognized species, and 17 of these are found in Brazil, distributed in several hydrographic basins. Despite this diversity, few chromosomal data for the species belonging to this genus are found in the literature. Thus, this study analyzed, by classical and molecular cytogenetics methodologies, the chromosomal diversity of this genus, to discuss the processes that are involved in the evolution and karyotype differentiation of the species of the group. Seven species of Harttia were analyzed: H. kronei, H. longipinna, H. gracilis, H. punctata, H. loricariformis, H. torrenticola, and H. carvalhoi. The chromosomal diversity found in these species includes different diploid and fundamental numbers, distinct distribution of several repetitive sequences, the presence of supernumerary chromosomes in H. longipinna and multiple sex chromosome systems of the type XX/XY1Y2 in H. carvalhoi and X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y in H. punctata. Lastly, our data highlight the genus Harttia as an excellent model for evolutionary studies.

  5. Geographical genetics of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer (Castelnau, 1855) (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae) in the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Telles, M P C; Collevatti, R G; Braga, R S; Guedes, L B S; Castro, T G; Costa, M C; Silva-Júnior, N J; Barthem, R B; Diniz-Filho, J A F

    2014-05-09

    Geographical genetics allows the evaluation of evolutionary processes underlying genetic variation within and among local populations and forms the basis for establishing more effective strategies for biodiversity conservation at the population level. In this study, we used explicit spatial analyses to investigate molecular genetic variation (estimated using 7 microsatellite markers) of Pseudoplatystoma punctifer, by using samples obtained from 15 localities along the Madeira River and Solimões, Amazon Basin. A high genetic diversity was observed associated with a relatively low FST (0.057; P < 0.001), but pairwise FST values ranged from zero up to 0.21 when some pairs of populations were compared. These FST values have a relatively low correlation with geographic distances (r = 0.343; P = 0.074 by Mantel test), but a Mantel correlogram revealed that close populations (up to 80 km) tended to be more similar than expected by chance (r = 0.360; P = 0.015). The correlogram also showed a exponential-like decrease of genetic similarity with distance, with a patch-size of around 200 km, compatible with isolation-by-distance and analogous processes related to local constraints of dispersal and spatially structured levels of gene flow. The pattern revealed herein has important implications for establishing strategies to maintain genetic diversity in the species, especially considering the threats due to human impacts caused by building large dams in this river system.

  6. A new species of Centromochlus (Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae, Centromochlinae) from the middle Rio Tocantins basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Birindelli, J L O; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Lima, F C T

    2015-10-01

    A new species of the catfish genus Centromochlus (Auchenipteridae, Centromochlinae) is described. The new species is diagnosed by having numerous dark rounded blotches over the body and fins, dorsal-fin spine with serrations anteriorly and smooth posteriorly, anal fin of mature males with three unbranched and seven branched rays, anterior nuchal plate absent and posterior nuchal plate not extended ventrally. The new species is described from a small stream in the Estação Ecológica Serra Geral de Tocantins, a natural reserve in the centre of the Brazilian Cerrado, close to the watershed between the Rio Tocantins and the Rio São Francisco basins. The new species is possibly the sister taxon to the recently described Centromochlus meridionalis from the upper Rio Tapajós. Those two species share with Centromochlus perugiae, from the upper Amazon and upper Paraguay, derived features associated with the modified anal fin in sexually mature males.

  7. Cytogenetic analysis of two locariid species (Teleostei, Siluriformes) from Iguatemi River (Parana River drainage) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Alves, Diandra Soares; Guterres, Zaira da Rosa; Martins-Santos, Isabel Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fishes of the Loricariidae family, known as “cascudos”, constitute an endemic group in Neotropical freshwaters. In this study, were cytogenetically examined two species of Loricariidae (Pterygoplichthys anisitsi Eigenmann & Kennedy, 1903 and Farlowella amazonum (Günther, 1864) belonging to Hypostominae and Loricariinae subfamilies respectively) from Iguatemi River. Our study provide the first description regarding C-band and fluorochromic analysis in Farlowella amazonum. In Farlowella amazonum, diploid number was 58 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric regions of some chromosomes and large subtelomeric blocks were evidenced on the long arm of the pair 27, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The Pterygoplichthys anisitsi showed diploid number equal 52 chromosomes, with single Ag-NOR and heterochromatic blocks in centromeric and telomeric regions of some chromosomes and conspicuous large telomeric blocks on the long arm of the pair 10, being this region CMA3+/DAPI-. The results show that karyotype formula is nonconservative in Pterygoplichthys anisitsi and Farlowella amazonum. PMID:25893075

  8. Heterochromatin heterogeneity in Hypostomus prope unae (Steindachner, 1878) (Siluriformes, Loricariidae)from Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bitencourt, J.A.; Affonso, P.R.A.M.; Giuliano-Caetano, L.; Dias, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetic analyses using C-banding and chromosomal digestion by several restriction enzymes were carried out in four populations (named A, B, C and D) of Hypostomus prope unae (Loricariidae, Hypostominae) from Contas river basin, northeastern Brazil. These populations share 2n=76 and single NORs on the second metacentric pair but exclusive karyotype forms for each locality. Populations A and B presented conspicuous terminal and interstitial heterochromatic blocks on most of acrocentric chromosomes and equivalent to NORs with differences in both position and bearing pair. Population D showed evident marks at interstitial regions and interspersed with nucleolar region while population C presented interstitial and terminal heterochromatin segments, non-coincident with NORs. The banding pattern after digestion with the endonucleases Alu I, Bam HI, Hae III and Dde I revealed a remarkable heterogeneity within heterochromatin, allowing the identification of distinctive clusters of repeated DNA in the studied populations, besides specific patterns along euchromatic regions. The analysis using restriction enzymes has proved to be highly informative, characterizing population differences and peculiarities in the genome organization of Hypostomus prope unae. PMID:24260639

  9. Mitochondrial genome of the Trans-Andean shovelnose catfish Sorubim cuspicaudus (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Escobar, Natalia; Alzate, Juan F; Márquez, Edna J

    2016-11-01

    The Trans-Andean shovelnose catfish Sorubim cuspicaudus is the largest species within the genus Sorubim. In this work, the pyrosequencing technology was used to obtain the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of S. cuspicaudus. The 16,544 bp molecule contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and exhibit perfect synteny with other South-American catfishes.

  10. Phylogenetics and population genetics of Plotosus canius (Siluriformes: Plotosidae) from Malaysian coastal waters

    PubMed Central

    Esa, Yuzine; Amin, S.M. Nurul

    2016-01-01

    Plotosus canius (Hamilton, 1822) is a significant marine species in Malaysia from nutritional and commercial perspectives. Despite numerous fundamental research on biological characteristics of P. canius, there are various concerns on the level of population differentiation, genomic structure, and the level of genetic variability among their populations due to deficiency of genetic-based studies. Deficiency on basic contexts such as stock identification, phylogenetic relationship and population genetic structure would negatively impact their sustainable conservation. Hence, this study was conducted to characterize the genetic structure of P. canius for the first time through the application of mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene, cross amplification of Tandanus tandanus microsatellites, and a total of 117 collected specimens across five selected populations of Malaysia. The experimental results of the mitochondrial analysis revealed that the haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity varied from 0.395–0.771 and 0.033–0.65 respectively. Moreover, the statistical analysis of microsatellites addressed a considerable heterozygote insufficiency in all populations, with average observed heterozygosity (Ho) value of 0.2168, which was lower than the standard heterozygosity in marine populations (Ho = 0.79). This alongside the high Fis values estimation, high pairwise differentiation among populations and low within population variations are supposed to be associated with small sample size, and inbreeding system. Besides, the significant finding of this study was the sharing of common haplotype KR086940, which reflects a historical genetic connectivity between Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo populations due to the geological history of Southeast Asia during Pleistocene era. Demographic analyses showed that all populations were in an equilibrium state with no significant evidence of population expansion. To put it briefly, the current study has managed to provide an initial genomic database toward understanding of the genetic characterization, phylogenetic, molecular diversification and population structure in P. canius, and should be necessary highlighted for appropriate management and conservation of species. Further studies must be carried out involving more geographical and sampling sites, larger population size per site, and utilization of species specific microsatellites loci. PMID:27231645

  11. A new species of Amaralia Fowler (Siluriformes: Aspredinidae) from the Paraná-Paraguay River Basin.

    PubMed

    Friel, John P; Carvalho, Tiago P

    2016-03-11

    A new species of the banjo catfish genus Amaralia is described from the Paraná-Paraguay River Basin in central-western Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina. Amaralia oviraptor is distinguished from its single and allopatric congener, Amaralia hypsiura, by the greater number of dorsal-fin rays (3 vs. 2); by the absence of lateral contact between middle and posterior nuchal plates (vs. middle and posterior nuchal plates contacting each other laterally); and by a longer cleithral process (17.4-19.5 % of SL, mean 18.2 % vs. 14.0-17.2 % of SL, mean=15.5 %). Comments on the peculiar oophagic diet of Amaralia and an extended diagnosis of the genus are provided.

  12. Aspidoras mephisto, new species: The first troglobitic Callichthyidae (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from South America

    PubMed Central

    Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2017-01-01

    Aspidoras mephisto n. sp. is described from the Anésio-Russão cave system, upper Tocantins River basin, Goiás, Brazil. The species can be readily distinguished from its congeners by troglomorphic features and also by presenting the following combination of features: infraorbital 1 generally with well-developed ventral laminar; or moderately developed; poorly-developed serrations on posterior margin of pectoral spine; nuchal plate not externally visible; dorsal fin, even in conspicuously colored specimens, with only dark brown or black chromatophores concentrated on rays, forming spots in some specimens; membranes hyaline; or sparse dark brown or black chromatophores on membranes, not forming any conspicuous pattern; and inner laminar expansion of infraorbital 1 moderately developed. Information about its habitat, ecology, behaviour and conservation status are provided and also a brief description of the juvenile stage. PMID:28248959

  13. Morphology and Small-Subunit Ribosomal DNA Sequence of Henneguya Adiposa (Myxosporea) From Ictalurus punctatus (Siluriformes)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The original description of Henneguya adiposa, a myxozoan parasitizing channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, is supplemented with new data on spore morphology, including photomicrographs and line drawings, as well as 18S small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence. Elongate, translucent, linear...

  14. A new species of Peckoltia from the Upper Orinoco (Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, Jonathan W.; Lujan, Nathan K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the suckermouth armored catfish genus Peckoltia is described from the lower Ventuari River, a tributary of the upper Orinoco River in Amazonas State, Venezuela. Specimens of this species were formerly included in the wide-ranging Amazonian species Peckoltia vittata, but a recent molecular phylogeny found Orinoco individuals to be distantly related to Amazon Basin individuals spanning the range of Peckoltia vittata syntypes. Detailed morphological examination confirmed distinctiveness of Orinoco specimens, and found them to be diagnosable from true Peckoltia vittata by having generally greater than 25 teeth (vs. less), spots on the nape (vs. nape lacking spots), the upper lip with two to three black bar-shaped markings in a line like a moustache (vs. lips generally with a hyaline wash), and by the snout having a medial black line disconnected from the moustache markings (vs. medial snout stripe connected to a bar just above the lip). Peckoltia wernekei displays remarkable genetic similarity to its sister species, Peckoltia lujani, but differs morphologically by having dentary tooth rows meet at an angle less than 90° (vs. >90°), by having large faint blotches on the abdomen (vs. abdomen with no blotches), by a smaller internares width (21.2–26.6% vs. 28.5–46.5% of interorbital width), and a larger dorsal spine (148.1–178.6% vs. 80.1–134.5% of abdominal length). PMID:27110153

  15. A New Species of Tiger Pleco Panaqolus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Xingu Basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Melo de Sousa, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Panaqolus tankei is described from the Xingu River, Brazil. The new species is diagnosed from P. albomaculatus, P. dentex, P. nix, P. nocturnus, and P. koko by its color pattern consisting of dark and light diagonal bars on the body and bands on the fins (vs. body and fins without bars or bands); from P. albivermis, P. maccus, and P. purusiensis by the width of the dark bars being more or less the same of the light bars (vs. dark bars at least two or three times wider than light bars) and from P. changae by the absence of vermiculation on the head (vs. vermiculation present on head). The new species differs from P. gnomus by the orientation of the bars from posterodorsal to anteroventral direction (vs. anterodorsal to posteroventral direction), and from P. claustellifer by the orientation of the bands in the dorsal fin that are not parallel to the margin (vs. parallel to the margin). The barcoding region (COI) was sequenced for the new species, sequences were deposited in GenBank and were compared with congeners from other drainages. With regard to the current construction of a hydroelectric power plant (a so-called mega dam) in the Xingu River, herewith we increase knowledge of the river Xingu’s ichthyofauna and, thus improve the assessment of the impacts of that construction on the river. PMID:27828981

  16. Chromosomal polymorphism in two species of Hypancistrus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae): an integrative approach for understanding their biodiversity.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Maelin; Ribeiro, Emanuell D; Matoso, Daniele A; Sousa, Leandro M; Hrbek, Tomas; Py-Daniel, Lucia Rapp; Feldberg, Eliana

    2014-04-01

    Structural chromosome changes are widely described in different vertebrate groups and generate genetic, phenotypic and behavioral diversity. During the evolution of loricariids, several rearrangements (fissions, fusions, inversions) seem to have occurred. Hypancistrus, tribe Ancistrini, are highly demanded for fishkeeping around the world. In this tribe, the diploid chromosome number 2n = 52 is considered a synapomorphy, and paracentric-type inversions appear to be involved in the chromosomal evolution of the tribe. The present study investigated the karyotypes of H. zebra and H. cf. debilittera using cytogenetic, classical and molecular tools, as well as DNA barcoding. Data reveal that, although diploid number in both species corroborates the proposed synapomorphy for the tribe, there is a complex karyotype dynamics, reflected in the intense chromosomal polymorphism, resulting from rearrangements involving ribosomal regions (5S and 18S rDNA), which are suggested to be paracentric inversions. Besides, DNA barcode confirms reciprocal monophyletism between the species, validating the existence of two species, only. This scenario, coupled with genomic instability caused by exogenous sequences such as Rex-3 retrotransposons and the species' sedentary lifestyle, which helps the fast polymorphism fixation, may reflect different phenotypic color patterns in natural populations, as observed in H. cf. debilittera.

  17. Revision of Tympanopleura Eigenmann (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) with description of two new species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Stephen J.; Ribeiro, Frank R.V.; Rapp Py-Daniel, Lúcia H.

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical catfish genus Tympanopleura, previously synonymized within Ageneiosus, is revalidated and included species are reviewed. Six species are recognized, two of which are described as new. Tympanopleura is distinguished from Ageneiosus by having an enlarged gas bladder not strongly encapsulated in bone; a prominent pseudotympanum consisting of an area on the side of the body devoid of epaxial musculature where the gas bladder contacts the internal coelomic wall; short, blunt head without greatly elongated jaws; and smaller adult body size. Species of Tympanopleura are distinguished from each other on the basis of unique meristic, morphometric, and pigmentation differences. Ageneiosus melanopogon and Tympanopleura nigricollis are junior synonyms ofTympanopleura atronasus. Tympanopleura alta is a junior synonym of Tympanopleura brevis. A lectotype is designated for T. brevis. Ageneiosus madeirensis is a junior synonym of Tympanopleura rondoni. Tympanopleura atronasus, T. brevis, T. longipinna, and T. rondoni are relatively widespread in the middle and upper Amazon River basin. Tympanopleura cryptica is described from relatively few specimens collected in the upper portion of the Amazon River basin in Peru and the middle portion of that basin in Brazil. Tympanopleura piperata is distributed in the upper and middle Amazon River basin, as well as in the Essequibo River drainage of Guyana.

  18. Karyotypic variation of Glanidium ribeiroi Haseman, 1911 (Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae) along the Iguazu river basin.

    PubMed

    Lui, R L; Blanco, D R; Traldi, J B; Margarido, V P; Moreira-Filho, O

    2015-11-01

    The Iguazu river is a tributary of the left margin of the Paraná river, isolated from this basin about 22 million years ago with the appearance of the Iguazu Falls. The Iguazu river is characterized by high endemism due to two factors: its rugged topography and the old isolation caused by formation of the Iguazu Falls. This study analyzed cytogenetically a population of Glanidium ribeiroi collected in a region at the final stretch of this basin, by Giemsa staining, C-banding, impregnation by silver nitrate, and FISH with probes of 5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequence [TTAGGG]n, and [GATA]n repeats. The diploid number was equal to 58 chromosomes. The heterochromatin was present in the terminal region of almost all chromosomes. The Ag-NORs were simple and presented interstitially on the short arm of the submetacentric pair 14, which was confirmed by FISH with 18S rDNA probe. The 5S rDNA-FISH marked only the submetacentric pair 16 on the long arm in interstitial position. The FISH with [TTAGGG]n probe presented all telomeres labeled as expected, with an absence of Interstitial Telomeric Sequence (ITS). The repetitive [GATA]n sequence was dispersed throughout the genome, with preferential location in the terminal region of all chromosomes. The data obtained are discussed herein with other species of Auchenipteridae, and other previously analyzed populations of G. ribeiroi from the Iguazu river, verifying differences among these populations, which should be mainly related to the rugged topography of this basin.

  19. Sharpilosentis peruviensis n. g., n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Diplosentidae) from freshwater catfishes (Siluriformes) in the Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Lisitsyna, Olga; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-06-01

    Sharpilosentis peruviensis n. g., n. sp. is described from the catfishes Duopalatinus cf. peruanus Eigenmann & Allen (type-host) and Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes) in the River Amazon basin, Peru. The new species belongs to the subfamily Diplosentinae Tubangui & Masilungan, 1937 of the family Diplosentidae Tubangui & Masilungan, 1937 because of its possession of an unarmed trunk, a cylindrical proboscis, proboscis hooks arranged in longitudinal rows and two tubular cement glands of the same length in males. Sharpilosentis n. g. differs from the other genera of the Diplosentidae in the morphology of the reproductive system: males have a large muscular penis covered with small tubercles and the vulva of females is devoid of muscular sphincters and the cephalic ganglion is located between the second and third part of the proboscis receptacle. In addition, proboscis hooks are of three types: large hooks with simple roots in the anterior part of the proboscis, transitional 6th hook in one from two adjacent rows with bifurcated root in the distal part and small hooks without roots in the posterior part of the proboscis. A partial sequence for the mitochondrial cox1 gene is provided for this new taxon. The taxonomic composition of the family Diplosentidae is discussed.

  20. Phylogenetic Relationships of Five Asian Schilbid Genera Including Clupisoma (Siluriformes: Schilbeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Ruiguang; Chai, Jing; Ma, Wei; Jin, Wei; Duan, Rongyao; Luo, Jing; Murphy, Robert W.; Xiao, Heng; Chen, Ziming

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Asian schilbid catfishes of the genera Clupisoma, Ailia, Horabagrus, Laides and Pseudeutropius are poorly understood, especially those of Clupisoma. Herein, we reconstruct the phylogeny of 38 species of catfishes belonging to 28 genera and 14 families using the concatenated mitochondrial genes COI, cytb, and 16S rRNA, as well as the nuclear genes RAG1 and RAG2. The resulting phylogenetic trees consistently place Clupisoma as the sister taxon of Laides, and the five representative Asian schilbid genera form two monophyletic groups with the relationships (Ailia (Laides, Clupisoma)) and (Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius). The so-called “Big Asia” lineage relates distantly to African schilbids. Independent analyses of the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data yield differing trees for the two Asian schilbid groups. Analyses of the mitochondrial gene data support a sister-group relationship for (Ailia (Laides, Clupisoma)) and the Sisoroidea and a sister-taxon association of (Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius) and the Bagridae. In contrast, analyses of the combined nuclear data indicate (Ailia (Laides, Clupisoma)) to be the sister group to (Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius). Our results indicate that the Horabagridae, recognized by some authors as consisting of Horabagrus, Pseudeutropius and Clupisoma does not include the latter genus. We formally erect a new family, Ailiidae fam. nov. for a monophyletic Asian group comprised of the genera Ailia, Laides and Clupisoma. PMID:26751688

  1. Mitochondrial phylogeny and phylogeography of East African squeaker catfishes (Siluriformes: Synodontis)

    PubMed Central

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Sturmbauer, Christian; Verheyen, Erik; Meyer, Axel; Salzburger, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Background Squeaker catfishes (Pisces, Mochokidae, Synodontis) are widely distributed throughout Africa and inhabit a biogeographic range similar to that of the exceptionally diverse cichlid fishes, including the three East African Great Lakes and their surrounding rivers. Since squeaker catfishes also prefer the same types of habitats as many of the cichlid species, we hypothesized that the East African Synodontis species provide an excellent model group for comparative evolutionary and phylogeographic analyses. Results Our analyses reveal the existence of six major lineages of Synodontis in East Africa that diversified about 20 MYA from a Central and/or West African ancestor. The six lineages show a clear geographic patterning. Two lineages are endemic to Lake Tanganyika (plus one non-endemic representative), and these are the only two Synodontis lineages that diversified further into a small array of species. One of these species is the cuckoo catfish (S. multipunctatus), a unique brood parasite of mouthbrooding haplochromine cichlids, which seems to have evolved in parallel with the radiation of its cichlid host lineage, the Tropheini. We also detect an accelerated rate of molecular evolution in S. multipunctatus, which might be the consequence of co-evolutionary dynamics. Conclusion We conclude that the ancestral lineage of today's East African squeaker catfish fauna has colonized the area before the Great Lakes have formed. This ancestor diversified rapidly into at least six lineages that inhabit lakes and rivers in East Africa. Lake Tanganyika is the only lake harboring a small species flock of squeaker catfishes. PMID:16784525

  2. Tapeworms (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of Clarias batrachus (Pisces: Siluriformes) in the Indomalayan region.

    PubMed

    Ash, Anirban; Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, Mikuláš; Kar, Pradip Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Revision of monozoic cestodes (Caryophyllidea) parasitic in commercially important walking catfish Clarias batrachus (L.) in tropical Asia (Indomalayan zoogeographical region) was carried out, based on the evaluation of newly collected material from India, Indonesia, and Thailand, as well as a study of type specimens. Instead of the 59 nominal taxa of 15 genera from 3 caryophyllidean families previously described, only 8 species of the Lytocestidae are considered to be valid: Bovienia indica (Niyogi, Gupta and Agarwal, 1982) n. comb.; Bovienia raipurensis (Satpute and Agarwal, 1980) Mackiewicz, 1994; Bovienia serialis (Bovien, 1926) Fuhrmann, 1931; Djombangia penetrans Bovien, 1926; Lucknowia microcephala (Bovien, 1926) n. comb.; Lytocestus indicus (Moghe, 1925) Woodland 1926; Pseudocaryophyllaeus ritai Gupta and Singh, 1983; and Pseudocaryophyllaeus tenuicollis (Bovien, 1926) n. comb. All valid species are redescribed and SEM photomicrographs of their scolices and photomicrographs of their eggs are provided for the first time. Crescentovitus Murhar, 1963, Heeradevina Srivastav and Khare, 2005, Pseudobatrachus Pathak and Srivastav, 2005, Pseudobilobulata Srivastav and Lohia, 2002, Pseudoclariasis Pathak, 2002, and Pseudoinverta Pathak, 2002 are invalidated and 50 nominal species are newly synonymized, including 4 species described from other fish hosts. Taxonomic status of the remaining caryophyllidean taxa reported from C. batrachus (at least 6 taxa) could not be clarified because of the unavailability of their original descriptions. A key to identification of caryophyllidean tapeworms parasitic in C. batrachus is provided. To avoid current inflation of descriptions of invalid taxa, researchers are strongly encouraged to work only with well-fixed material; damaged, decomposed, or strongly flattened specimens should not be used for taxonomic studies, and type specimens must always be deposited in internationally recognized collections.

  3. Revision of Wenyonia Woodland, 1923 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) from catfishes (Siluriformes) in Africa.

    PubMed

    Schaeffner, Bjoern C; Jirků, Miloslav; Mahmoud, Zuheir N; Scholz, Tomáš

    2011-06-01

    Tapeworms of the genus Wenyonia Woodland, 1923 (Caryophyllidea: Caryophyllaeidae), parasites of catfishes in Africa, are revised. This revision is based on material from large-scale sampling, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Senegal and the Sudan between 2006 and 2009, and the examination of all of the type-specimens available. The following six species are considered valid and their redescriptions are provided: Wenyonia virilis Woodland, 1923 (type-species; new synonym W. kainjii Ukoli, 1972); W. acuminata Woodland, 1923; W. longicauda Woodland, 1937; W. minuta Woodland, 1923 (new synonym W. mcconnelli Ukoli, 1972); W. synodontis Ukoli, 1972; and W. youdeoweii Ukoli, 1972. A key to the identification of Wenyonia spp. is provided and numerous new hosts and geographical records are reported. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene of four species divided the monophyletic genus into two lineages, one represented by W. acuminata and W. minuta and another one composed of W. virilis and W. youdeoweii.

  4. Tapeworms (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) of firewood catfish Sorubimichthys planiceps (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from the Amazon River.

    PubMed

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomás

    2008-03-01

    A survey of proteocephalidean cestodes found in the firewood catfish Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix et Agassiz) from the Amazon River is provided. The following taxa parasitic in S. planiceps are redescribed on the basis of their type specimens and material collected recently in the Amazon River, near the type localities in Brazil, and in Iquitos, Peru: Monticellia lenha Woodland, 1933; Nomimoscolex lenha (Woodland, 1933) (syn. Proteocephalus lenha Woodland, 1933); and Monticellia megacephala Woodland, 1934, for which a new genus, Lenhataenia, is proposed, with L. megacephala (Woodland, 1934) comb. n. as its type and only species. The new genus is a member of the Monticelliinae, i.e. has all genital organs in the cortex, and is most similar to Chambriella in possessing biloculate suckers and lacking a metascolex. It differs in the morphology of the cirrus-sac that contains a strongly coiled, thick-walled internal sperm duct (vas deferens) and a muscular cirrus of the appearance typical of most proteocephalideans, whereas that of Chambriella is sigmoid, with voluminous, tightly sinuous thick-walled internal sperm duct. In addition, Lenhataenia possesses a well developed internal musculature, whereas the internal musculature of Chambriella is weakly developed, formed by a low number of muscle fibres. The scolex morphology and distribution of microtriches of Peltidocotyle lenha (Woodland, 1933) (syn. Othinoscolex lenha Woodland, 1933 and Othinoscolex myzofer Woodland, 1933), Chambriella sp. and Choanoscolex sp. are described using scanning electron microscopy. The two latter taxa may be new for science and are reported from S. planiceps for the first time.

  5. Ovarian structure and oogenesis of catfish Pimelodella vittata (Lütken, 1874) (Siluriformes, Heptapteridae).

    PubMed

    Sales, N G; dos Santos, S A; Arantes, F P; Hojo, R E S; dos Santos, J E

    2013-06-01

    The morphology of the ovaries and oogenesis of Pimelodella vittata were studied using anatomical and histological techniques to provide information of its reproductive biology. Eighty adult females were captured trimonthly during the period November 2005 to October 2006. The ovaries are paired, saculiform organs, which are coated with tunica albuginea and contain ovigerous lamellae, where the oocytes develop before being released into the ovarian lumen and following the ovarian duct until reaching the genital papilla. Oogenesis was divided into stages based on the alterations to the nucleus, ooplasm and surrounding follicular layers. Oogonia form groups from the germinal epithelium have asynchronous development and differentiate into initial perinucleolar oocytes. The formation of the zona pellucida is initiated in the advanced perinucleolar oocytes reaching a thickness of 1.46±0.58 μm in the vitellogenic oocytes. The follicular cells are squamous in perinucleolar oocytes, become cubical in the pre-vitellogenic oocytes and prismatic in the vitellogenic oocytes with a height of 11.20±4.74 μm. The histochemical reactions indicate that zona pellucida, cortical alveoli and yolk globules contain neutral glycoproteins and the follicular cells contain neutral glycoproteins in association with carboxylated and sulphated glycoconjugates. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in the diameter of the oocytes and follicular cells height as oocytes matured. This study represents the first data about the ovarian structure and oogenesis of this species.

  6. Adaptive significance of venom glands in the tadpole madtom Noturus gyrinus (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae).

    PubMed

    Wright, Jeremy J

    2012-06-01

    Piscine venom glands have implicitly been assumed to be anti-predatory adaptations, but direct examinations of the potential fitness benefits provided by these structures are relatively sparse. In previous experiments examining this question, alternative phenotypes have not been presented to ecologically relevant predators, and the results are thus potentially confounded by the presence of sharp, bony fin spines in these species, which may also represent significant deterrents to predation. Here, I present the results of experiments exposing Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) to tadpole madtoms (Noturus gyrinus) with one of several fin spine phenotypes (intact, stripped, absent), which indicate that the venom glands of this species do provide a significant fitness benefit, relative to individuals having fin spines without venom glands or no spines at all. Intact madtoms were repeatedly rejected by the bass and were almost never consumed, while alternative phenotypes were always consumed. Madtoms with stripped fin spines showed increases in predator rejections relative to spineless madtoms and control minnows, but non-significant increases in handling time, contrasting with previous results and predictions regarding the adaptive benefit of these structures. Comparisons with a less venomous catfish species (Ameiurus natalis) indicate that a single protein present in the venom of N. gyrinus may be responsible for providing the significant selective advantage observed in this species. These results, considered in conjunction with other studies of ictalurid biology, suggest that venom evolution in these species is subject to a complex interplay between predator behavior, phylogenetic history, life history strategy and adaptive responses to different predatory regimes.

  7. On the type locality of Sorubim trigonocephalus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Ohara, Willian Massaharu; Neuhaus, Emanuel Bruno

    2016-07-11

    Sorubim trigonocephalus was described in 1920 by Alípio de Miranda Ribeiro, based on a single specimen collected in a locality identified as "Porto Velho", during the "Comissão das Linhas Telegráficas Estratégicas de Mato Grosso ao Amazonas" (more commonly known as Rondon Commission). Given that the type locality is Porto Velho, the species has been referred to the Madeira River basin (Lundberg & Littmann, 2003; Littmann, 2007; Eschmeyer et al., 2016). Nevertheless, after its description, no additional specimens were collected in the Madeira basin despite several ichthyological expeditions undertaken to the area (Santos, 1996; Camargo & Giarrizzo, 2007; Rapp Py-Daniel et al., 2007; Perin et al., 2007; Pedroza et al., 2012; Casatti et al., 2013; Queiroz et al., 2013a), some of them including region of Porto Velho (Fowler, 1913; Araújo et al., 2009; Torrente-Vilara et al., 2011; Queiroz et al., 2013b).

  8. A new species of Hisonotus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from rio São Francisco basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Roxo, Fábio F.; Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Hisonotus is described from the rio São Francisco basin. The new species can be distinguished from congeners by having (1) a unique coloration pattern of caudal fin with one black spot extending from its origin to the ventral lobe and two dark spots at the end of the lobe’s rays; (2) odontodes forming longitudinally aligned rows on head and trunk; (3) a functional V-shaped spinelet; (4) a single rostral plate at the tip of the snout; (5) by lacking contrasting dark geometric spots on the anterodorsal region of the body; (6) a lower caudal-peduncle depth; and (7) lower counts of the lateral median plates and (8) higher premaxillary and dentary teeth. The new species is the second described species of the genus Hisonotus in the rio São Francisco basin. It was found inhabiting the marginal vegetation of the rio São Francisco and three of its tributary, rio das Velhas, rio Paraopeba and rio Formoso. PMID:25931967

  9. Molecular phylogeny of the highly diversified catfish subfamily Loricariinae (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) reveals incongruences with morphological classification.

    PubMed

    Covain, Raphaël; Fisch-Muller, Sonia; Oliveira, Claudio; Mol, Jan H; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I; Dray, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The Loricariinae belong to the Neotropical mailed catfish family Loricariidae, the most species-rich catfish family. Among loricariids, members of the Loricariinae are united by a long and flattened caudal peduncle and the absence of an adipose fin. Despite numerous studies of the Loricariidae, there is no comprehensive phylogeny of this morphologically highly diversified subfamily. To fill this gap, we present a molecular phylogeny of this group, including 350 representatives, based on the analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear genes (8426 positions). The resulting phylogeny indicates that Loricariinae are distributed into two sister tribes: Harttiini and Loricariini. The Harttiini tribe, as classically defined, constitutes a paraphyletic assemblage and is here restricted to the three genera Harttia, Cteniloricaria, and Harttiella. Two subtribes are distinguished within Loricariini: Farlowellina and Loricariina. Within Farlowellina, the nominal genus formed a paraphyletic group, as did Sturisoma and Sturisomatichthys. Within Loricariina, Loricaria, Crossoloricaria, and Apistoloricaria are also paraphyletic. To solve these issues, and given the lack of clear morphological diagnostic features, we propose here to synonymize several genera (Quiritixys with Harttia; East Andean members of Crossoloricaria, and Apistoloricaria with Rhadinoloricaria; Ixinandria, Hemiloricaria, Fonchiiichthys, and Leliella with Rineloricaria), to restrict others (Crossoloricaria, and Sturisomatichthys to the West Andean members, and Sturisoma to the East Andean species), and to revalidate the genus Proloricaria.

  10. Riggia puyensis n. sp. (Isopoda: Cymothoidae) parasitizing Chaetostoma breve and Chaetostoma microps (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Haro, C Rodríguez; Montes, M M; Marcotegui, P; Martorelli, S R

    2017-02-01

    A new isopod was found parasitizing Chaetostoma breve and Chaetostoma microps from the Puyo and Bobonaza rivers. The parasite found belongs to the Cymothoidae family and could be located within the genus Riggia instead of Artystone by the presence of abdominal plates fused with the telson. The specimens found represent a new species, Riggia puyensis n. sp., and could be distinguished from Riggia cryptocularis by the presence of developed eyes. The main difference of the new specie from Riggia nana and Riggia brasiliensis is the size, bigger compared with the first and smaller compared with the last species. Riggia acuticaudata have the maxilliped with simple setae, the palp without spination, and maxillule with five spines (two terminal and three subterminal) instead in R. puyensis n. sp. the maxilliped have plumose setae, the palp have spination (with one apical spine, two setae on middle article and one in the basal article) and the maxillule have five spines: two terminal, two subterminal and other spine lower to the others. Riggia paranaensis have similar size, same number of segments in the antena, and similar maxilla to R. puyensis n. sp., but the antennule in the new specie have seven segments instead 6 in R. paranaensis, the antennule and antenna present spines not mentioned in R. paranaensis. Besides, the relative position of the mandible in R. puyensis n. sp. is different compared with R. paranaensis, the maxillule have the same number of spines but with different disposition, and the maxilliped have simple setae in R. paranaensis but those are plumose in the new specie.

  11. Riggia puyensis n. sp. (Isopoda: Cymothoidae) parasitizing Chaetostoma breve and Chaetostoma microps (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Haro, C; Montes, M M; Marcotegui, P; Martorelli, S R

    2017-03-01

    A new isopod was found parasitizing Chaetostoma breve and Chaetostoma microps from the Puyo and Bobonaza rivers. The parasite found belongs to the Cymothoidae family and could be located within the genus Riggia instead of Artystone by the presence of abdominal plates fused with the telson. The specimens found represent a new species, Riggia puyensis n. sp., and could be distinguished from Riggia cryptocularis by the presence of developed eyes. The main difference of the new specie from Riggia nana and Riggia brasiliensis is the size, bigger compared with the first and smaller compared with the last species. Riggia acuticaudata have the maxilliped with simple setae, the palp without spination, and maxillule with five spines (two terminal and three subterminal) instead in R. puyensis n. sp. the maxilliped have plumose setae, the palp have spination (with one apical spine, two setae on middle article and one in the basal article) and the maxillule have five spines: two terminal, two subterminal and other spine lower to the others. Riggia paranaensis have similar size, same number of segments in the antena, and similar maxilla to R. puyensis n. sp., but the antennule in the new specie have seven segments instead 6 in R. paranaensis, the antennule and antenna present spines not mentioned in R. paranaensis. Besides, the relative position of the mandible in R. puyensis n. sp. is different compared with R. paranaensis, the maxillule have the same number of spines but with different disposition, and the maxilliped have simple setae in R. paranaensis but those are plumose in the new specie.

  12. Next generation sequencing yields the complete mitochondrial genome of the striped raphael catfish, Platydoras armatulus (Siluriformes: Doradidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shikai; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Jiaren; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-05-01

    Striped raphael catfish, Platydoras armatulus, belongs to catfish family Doradidae, which are endemic to South America and featured by a single row of thorny scutes along the lateral line. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of P. armatulus by next generation sequencing of genomic DNA without prior sample processing or primer design. Bioinformatics analysis provided the full-length mitogenome sequence of 16,470 bp. The P. armatulus mitogenome is composed of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region, showing typical circular molecule structure as in other vertebrates. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 30.9% A, 25.2% T, 15.9% G and 28.0% C, with A/T bias of 56.1%. The generation of P. armatulus mitogenome sequence enriched catfish molecular resources that are valuable for phylogenetic analysis and species identification studies.

  13. Cytogenetic data on Ancistrus sp. (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) of the Paraguay River basin (MS) sheds light on intrageneric karyotype diversification

    PubMed Central

    Prizon, Ana Camila; Borin-Carvalho, Luciana Andreia; Bruschi, Daniel Pacheco; Ribeiro, Marcos Otávio; Barbosa, Ligia Magrinelli; Ferreira, Greicy Ellen de Brito; Cius, Andréa; Zawadzki, Claudio Henrique; Portela-Castro, Ana Luiza de Brito

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ancistrus Kner, 1854 is a diverse catfish genus, currently comprising 66 valid species, but karyotype data were recorded for 33 species, although only ten have their taxonomic status defined. Considerable karyotype diversity has been found within this genus, with 2n varying from 34 to 54 and structural variability including heteromorphic sex chromosomes. In many cases, uncertainty on the taxonomic status of the study populations hampers reliable interpretation of the complex chromosomal evolutionary history of the group. This study aims to present the first karyotype data for a population of the Ancistrus sp. collected in Criminoso stream (tributary of the Paraguay River Basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil) in which a combination of different chromosomal markers was used and results integrated in broad discussion on karyotype evolution in the genus. The specimens presented 2n=42 with 18m+16sm+8st and a single NOR revealed by silver nitrate and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA probe, located in pair No. 10. Clusters of 5S rDNA were located in the pericentromeric region of three chromosomes: pair No. 1 (metacentric) and one of the homologues of the nucleolar pair No. 10. Heterogeneity in the molecular composition of the heterochromatin was confirmed by the association of C-banding and fluorochrome CMA3/DAPI-staining. Exploring the differential composition of constitutive heterochromatin in Ancistrus may provide an important perspective to understand genome organization and evolution within this group. Our data reinforce the chromosomal diversity present in Ancistrus genus and we discuss the potential sources these variation. The karyotype structure of Ancistrus sp. “Criminoso stream” appears to be consistent with the existence of a new candidate species. PMID:28123683

  14. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of a hepcidin gene from yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Siluriformes: Bagridae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Zhang, Dai-Zhen; Jiang, Sen-Hao; Chai, Xin-Yue; Wang, Zheng-Fei; Li, Chao-Feng; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Hepcidin is a small, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide with a highly conserved β-sheet structure that plays a vital role in innate host immunity against pathogenic organisms. In this study, a hepcidin gene was identified in Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, an economically important freshwater fish in China. The gene is named PfHep. The complete PfHep cDNA was 723 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 102 bp, a 3'-UTR of 339 bp and an open reading frame of 282 bp encoding a polypeptide of 93 amino acids, which includes a predicted signal peptide and the Hepcidin domain. The predicted mature, cationic PfHep protein has a typical hepcidin RX (K/R)R motif and eight conserved cysteine residues. The deduced PfHep protein sequence has 70%, 54% and 39% percent identity with hepcidins from Ictalurus punctatus, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens, respectively. The predicted tertiary structure of PfHep is very similar to that of hepcidin in other animals. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PfHep is closely related to the hepcidins of I. punctatus and I. furcatus. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that the PfHep gene was expressed most in liver of healthy P. fulvidraco, and expressed to some extent in all the tissues tested. After challenge with lipopolysaccharide and polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C), respectively, the expression levels of PfHep were markedly upregulated in liver, spleen, head kidney and blood at different time points. Together these results imply that PfHep may be an important component of the innate immune system and be involved in immune defense against invading pathogens.

  15. Functional and evolutionary anatomy of the African suckermouth catfishes (Siluriformes: Mochokidae): convergent evolution in Afrotropical and Neotropical faunas

    PubMed Central

    Geerinckx, Tom; De Kegel, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Of those fishes scraping food off substrates and using head parts in substrate attachment for station-holding, the catfish families Loricariidae, Astroblepidae and Mochokidae display the most dramatically adapted morphologies. Loricariidae and Astroblepidae, living in the Neotropical freshwaters, exclusively contain suckermouth catfish species, and their anatomy and head kinematics have already been studied into detail. Among Mochokidae, living in the tropical freshwaters of Africa, only the chiloglanidine subfamily has a sucker mouth, and occupies similar niches in Africa as both Neotropical families do in South America. Having derived from relatively unrelated catfish ancestors, their anatomy is poorly known, and the nature of their scraping and station-holding capabilities is not known at all. This paper provides details on the chiloglanidine head anatomy and function (relating their anatomy to that of the non-suckermouth Mochokidae), and compares this Afrotropical suckermouth taxon with both Neotropical suckermouth families. It identifies both convergences and differing anatomical and kinematic solutions to the same key needs of food-scraping and station-holding suckermouth fishes. Chiloglanidine mochokids differ from both Neotropical families in having less mobile jaws, with an upper jaw assisting more in station-holding than in feeding. They share the highly mobile lower lip with both Neotropical taxa, although the configuration of the intermandibular/protractor hyoidei muscle system, changing the volume of the sucker-disc cavity, differs in all three taxa. Chiloglanidines have a single, posterior inflow opening into this cavity, whereas Loricariidae have two lateral openings, and Astroblepidae have none, using an opercular incurrent opening instead. The chiloglanidine buccal valve system consists of two passive valves, as in Astroblepidae. Although less diverse in number of genera and species, this Afrotropical suckermouth taxon possesses the anatomical and kinematic key elements allowing a successful occupation of a niche similar to the one found in the Loricariidae + Astroblepidae clade. PMID:24842829

  16. A review of the glyptosternine catfish genus Exostoma Blyth 1860 from Thailand, with descriptions of two new species (Teleostei: Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Ng, Heok Hee; Vidthayanon, Chavalit

    2014-10-02

    We review members of the sisorid catfish genus Exostoma known from Thailand. Three species are recognized, of which two from the headwaters of the Chao Phraya River drainage in northwestern Thailand, are described here as new: E. effrenum and E. peregrinator. In addition to the two new species, E. berdmorei (which is here redescribed) is also known from the Salween River drainage in western Thailand. The three species can be distinguished from each other and other congeners by the morphologies of the adipose and caudal fins, as well as morphometric data for the eye diameter, head width, dorsal-to-adipose distance, body depth at anus, caudal-peduncle length, caudal-peduncle depth, and numbers of branched pectoral-fin rays and preanal vertebrae. 

  17. Functional morphology of the Andean climbing catfishes (Astroblepidae, Siluriformes): alternative ways of respiration, adhesion, and locomotion using the mouth.

    PubMed

    De Crop, Wannes; Pauwels, Elin; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Geerinckx, Tom

    2013-10-01

    Astroblepidae or "climbing catfishes" encompass a single genus of species living in high altitude rivers in the Andes of South America. They are characterized by a specialized head morphology closely resembling their better known, widely radiated sister family Loricariidae, or armored suckermouth catfishes. Existent data show that even though both families share important traits, there are some striking differences as well. Albeit poorly known, Astroblepus species possess a duplicated gill opening, and have the ability to climb vertical rocks or waterfalls. In this study, morphological and kinematic data are combined to yield insights into the functions of the mobile elements of the astroblepid head, and to compare head morphology and biomechanics with those of Loricariidae. We found that, even though there is substantial similarity in head structure of both families, there are major differences in functionally important structures. These include a different lower lip muscle configuration, an alternative oral valve system, and an incurrent gill opening only found in astroblepids. Kinematic analyses confirm that the astroblepid suckermouth, freed from its inhalatory function, offers advantages for climbing in the high-altitude environment, and is used alternately with the extremely mobile pelvic girdle, in a crawling, nonundulatory motion.

  18. Genetic structure and historical diversification of catfish Brachyplatystoma platynemum (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in the Amazon basin with implications for its conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Luz Eneida; Pereira, Luiz Henrique G; Costa-Silva, Guilherme Jose; Roxo, Fábio F; Batista, Jacqueline S; Formiga, Kyara; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Brachyplatystoma platynemum is a catfish species widely distributed in the Amazon basin. Despite being considered of little commercial interest, the decline in other fish populations has contributed to the increase in the catches of this species. The structure, population genetic variability, and evolutionary process that have driven the diversification of this species are presently unknown. Considering that, in order to better understand the genetic structure of this species, we analyzed individuals from seven locations of the Amazon basin using eight molecular markers: control region and cytochrome b mtDNA sequences, and a set of six nuclear microsatellite loci. The results show high levels of haplotype diversity and point to the occurrence of two structured populations (Amazon River and the Madeira River) with high values for FST. Divergence time estimates based on mtDNA indicated that these populations diverged about 1.0 Mya (0.2–2.5 Mya 95% HPD) using cytochrome b and 1.4 Mya (0.2–2.7 Mya 95% HPD) using control region. During that time, the influence of climate changes and hydrological events such as sea level oscillations and drainage isolation as a result of geological processes in the Pleistocene may have contributed to the current structure of B. platynemum populations, as well as of differences in water chemistry in Madeira River. The strong genetic structure and the time of genetic divergence estimated for the groups may indicate the existence of strong structure populations of B. platynemum in the Amazon basin. PMID:26045952

  19. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeographic History of the Armored Neotropical Catfish Subfamilies Hypoptopomatinae, Neoplecostominae and Otothyrinae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Roxo, Fábio F.; Albert, James S.; Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Zawadzki, Cláudio H.; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives of this study are estimate a species-dense, time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of Hypoptopomatinae, Neoplecostominae, and Otothyrinae, which together comprise a group of armoured catfishes that is widely distributed across South America, to place the origin of major clades in time and space, and to demonstrate the role of river capture on patterns of diversification in these taxa. We used maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to estimate a time-calibrated phylogeny of 115 loricariid species, using three mitochondrial and one nuclear genes to generate a matrix of 4,500 base pairs, and used parametric biogeographic analyses to estimate ancestral geographic ranges and to infer the effects of river capture events on the geographic distributions of these taxa. Our analysis recovered Hypoptopomatinae, Neoplecostominae, and Otothyrinae as monophyletic with strong statistical support, and Neoplecostominae as more closely related to Otothyrinae than to Hypoptopomatinae. Our time-calibrated phylogeny and ancestral-area estimations indicate an origin of Hypoptopomatinae, Neoplecostominae, and Otothyrinae during the Lower Eocene in the Atlantic Coastal Drainages, from which it is possible to infer several dispersal events to adjacent river basins during the Neogene. In conclusion we infer a strong influence of river capture in: (1) the accumulation of modern clade species-richness values; (2) the formation of the modern basin-wide species assemblages, and (3) the presence of many low-diversity, early-branching lineages restricted to the Atlantic Coastal Drainages. We further infer the importance of headwater stream capture and marine transgressions in shaping patterns in the distributions of Hypoptopomatinae, Neoplecostominae and Otothyrinae throughout South America. PMID:25148406

  20. [Food and reproductive biology of Farlowella vittata (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) in Güejar River Basin, Orinoco, Colombia].

    PubMed

    García-Alzate, Carlos A; Román-Valencia, César; Barrero, Ana M

    2012-12-01

    Neotropical fish live in streams with considerable spatial and temporal variability of their food items. Food availability depends on different factors such as discharge, channel morphology, physicochemical conditions and interactions with other species, as well as their food habits. On the other side, good food availability results in reproductive success. Because the study of those changes contributes to a better understanding of trophic interactions in fish populations, the present work describes and evaluates aspects of diet and reproduction of Farlowella vittata in Pringamosal Creek, Güejar River drainage, Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Five collecting expeditions were done during both high and low rain seasons of 2008 and 2009. Physical and chemical water parameters were measured, and fish were captured from several points along the total length of the 7km stream, to characterize their biometry and stomach contents. Our results showed that Pringamosal creek is a first order stream, about 3.5m wide and with an average depth of 1m in our study area. Dissolved oxygen values were 6.2mg/L during low water and 2.7mg/L during high water phase. The creek is classified as oligotrophic but with a tendency to eutrophication. A total of 130 fish samples were analyzed. Fishes were assigned to seven size range categories between 86.0 and 175.5mm standard length (SL). Stomach contents revealed that the diet of this species consisted mainly of algae (Bacillariophyceae) (84.6% Abundance Relative), but we observed a variation in the diet according to season; during low rainfall it feeds on phytoplankton (86.47% A.R.) and during high rainfall on zooplankton as well as plant material and organic material (0.685% A.R. and 18.83% A.R., respectively). A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed statistically significant differences in food items between sexes. The condition factor (K) indicated that the species was well fed. Size at sexual maturity was 154mm SL for males and 124mm SL for females. The gonadosomatic index (RGS) showed that this fish reproduced during high water (April-May) season, and females showed a fecundity of 1 819 ovocites, with an average diameter of 1.4mm. Although parental care was not observed during this study, it is well known that males protect their eggs and juveniles, making them easy to capture during the breeding periods identified in this study, and at the same time, vulnerable to overexploitation. We recommend an urgent management plan for the conservation of this species, since at this time, no fishing controls are enforced even though it is harvested as an ornamental species.

  1. New species of the Pseudancistrus barbatus group (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) with comments on its biogeography and dispersal routes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriel de Souza da Costa E; Roxo, Fábio Fernandes; Britzke, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Pseudancistrus is described from the Tapajós Basin, and assigned to the P. barbatus group by having hypertrophied odontodes along the snout and lacking evertible cheek plates. The new species is distinguished from other species in that group (P. barbatus, P. corantijniensis, P. depressus and P. nigrescens) by its pattern of spots, length and color of snout odontodes, greater head depth, cleithral width, anal-fin spine length, peduncle depth and internares width. Molecular phylogenetic results corroborate placement of the new species in the Pseudancistrus barbatus group which is otherwise distributed in the Xingu Basin and rivers draining the Guyana Shield into the Atlantic Ocean. Topology tests strongly reject alternative hypotheses supporting close relationships with Guyanancistrus, Lithoxancistrus or the species Pseudancistrus pectegenitor, P. sidereus and P. genisetiger. Additionally, we propose two hypotheses on the distribution of the new species in the rio Tapajós, a Brazilian Shield drainage. The first one proposes that ancestral stock of the P. barbatus group was widely distributed throughout rivers draining the Guyana and Brazilian shields, and the species P. zawadzkii and Pseudancistrus sp. L17 are in the limit of the distribution for the group in Tapajós and Xingu rivers. The second hypothesis proposes that ancestral stock of the P. barbatus group was restricted to Guyana Shield rivers, and that headwater capture events permitted several dispersal routs through Guyana and Amazon rivers, permitted that the ancestral lineages of Pseudancistrus sp. L17 and P. zawadzkii reached the rivers of Amazon basin.

  2. A new species of Aspidoras Ihering (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae: Corydoradinae) from the Rio Xingu Basin, Pará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leão, Manuela D V; Britto, Marcelo R; Wosiacki, Wolmar B

    2015-07-21

    A new species of Aspidoras is described from an unnamed stream in the Rio Xingu Basin, Castelo de Sonhos municipality, Pará State, representing the northernmost record of the genus along the edge of the Brazilian Shield in the Amazon Basin. Aspidoras marianae is easily distinguished from all congeners in having minute odontode-bearing platelets scattered over the surface of the snout region, minute platelets between the parieto-supraoccipital process and the nuchal plate, and other shared features related to color pattern, morphometrics, meristics and morphological data. Comments about exclusive and shared features are presented.

  3. Metazoan endoparasites diversity of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) as an indicator of environmental alterations on a tropical aquatic system.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Thamy S; Lizama, Maria A P; Takemoto, Ricardo M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect the alterations of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans parasite infracommunity structure, after the construction of the Porto Primavera dam on the high Paraná River floodplain. The execution of this research was based on 119 host specimens collected between March 2011 and September 2012, and the results were compared to studies performed on periods before the reservoir's construction, when 110 fishes were collected between March 1992 and February 1993. Five parasite species still remain on the environment, despite the environmental modifications: Choanoscolex abscissus, Spasskyelina spinulifera, Nomimoscolex pertierrae, Harriscolex kaparari and Contracaecum sp 2. The Berger-Parker dominance index, calculated to the parasite fauna of 1992, did not show the dominance of any species, while, on the present days, this same index accused the dominance of Nomimoscolex pertierrae (49%) and Choanoscolex abscissus (50%). The present study reports the disappearance of Megathylacus travassosi, Contracaecum sp. 1, Contracaecum sp. 3, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. and Cucullanus pseudoplatystomae, suggesting the possibility of a local extinction or a host switch of these species. It has also been registered an Acanthocephala specimen, a genus not observed on this host yet. The results here presented show that the antropic influences on natural systems alter the environmental conditions, what is reflected on the richness and diversity parasite levels.

  4. Description of Notoglanidium pembetadi new species (Siluriformes: Claroteidae) from the Kouilou-Niari River, Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Vreven, Emmanuel; Zamba, Armel Ibala; Mamonekene, Victor; Geerinckx, Tom

    2013-01-01

    A new claroteid catfish, Notoglanidium peinbetadi, is described from the Kouilou-Niari River basin (Republic of the Congo). This species can be distinguished from all other currently known Notoglanidium species as well as from the very similar Anaspidoglanis boutchangai, to which two specimens have erroneously been attributed in the past, by the following combination of characters: II, 10-13 dorsal-fin rays; long dorsal-fin base (21.1-24.4% SL); short predorsal distance (30.1-33.5% SL); and short prepelvic distance (40.1-45.4% SL).

  5. Genetic structure and historical diversification of catfish Brachyplatystoma platynemum (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in the Amazon basin with implications for its conservation.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Luz Eneida; Pereira, Luiz Henrique G; Costa-Silva, Guilherme Jose; Roxo, Fábio F; Batista, Jacqueline S; Formiga, Kyara; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    Brachyplatystoma platynemum is a catfish species widely distributed in the Amazon basin. Despite being considered of little commercial interest, the decline in other fish populations has contributed to the increase in the catches of this species. The structure, population genetic variability, and evolutionary process that have driven the diversification of this species are presently unknown. Considering that, in order to better understand the genetic structure of this species, we analyzed individuals from seven locations of the Amazon basin using eight molecular markers: control region and cytochrome b mtDNA sequences, and a set of six nuclear microsatellite loci. The results show high levels of haplotype diversity and point to the occurrence of two structured populations (Amazon River and the Madeira River) with high values for F ST. Divergence time estimates based on mtDNA indicated that these populations diverged about 1.0 Mya (0.2-2.5 Mya 95% HPD) using cytochrome b and 1.4 Mya (0.2-2.7 Mya 95% HPD) using control region. During that time, the influence of climate changes and hydrological events such as sea level oscillations and drainage isolation as a result of geological processes in the Pleistocene may have contributed to the current structure of B. platynemum populations, as well as of differences in water chemistry in Madeira River. The strong genetic structure and the time of genetic divergence estimated for the groups may indicate the existence of strong structure populations of B. platynemum in the Amazon basin.

  6. Taxonomic revision of the South American catfish genus Ageneiosus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) with the description of four new species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ribeiro, Frank R.V.; Rapp Py-Daniel, Lúcia H.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    The catfish genus Ageneiosus in the exclusively Neotropical family Auchenipteridae is revised. Species of Ageneiosus are widely distributed in all major South American continental drainages except the São Francisco River basin and small rivers along the Brazilian east coast. The taxonomic revision was based on examination of available type specimens, additional museum material and comparisons of original descriptions. A suite of morphometric, meristic and qualitative characters of internal and external anatomy were used to diagnose valid species and determine synonyms. Thirteen valid species are recognized in the genus Ageneiosus, some of which are widely distributed across South America. Ageneiosus pardalis is the only trans-Andean species in the genus. Ageneiosus polystictus and Ageneiosus uranophthalmus are more widely distributed than previously reported. Ageneiosus marmoratus is a junior synonym of Ageneiosus inermis. Ageneiosus dentatus is a valid species and its name is removed from the synonymy of Ageneiosus ucayalensis. Four new species are described: Ageneiosus akamai, Ageneiosus apiaka, Ageneiosus intrusus and Ageneiosus lineatus, all from the Amazon River basin. A dichotomous key for all 13 valid species of Ageneiosus species is provided.

  7. Karyotype Diversity in Doradidae (Siluriformes, Doradoidea) and Presence of the Heteromorphic ZZ/ZW Sex Chromosome System in the Family.

    PubMed

    Hiroshi Takagui, Fábio; de Moura, Lucas Ferreira; Ferreira, Daniela Cristina; Centofante, Liano; de Andrade Vitorino, Carla; Bueno, Vanessa; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan; Venere, Paulo Cesar

    2017-02-13

    Karyotypes and other chromosomal markers as revealed by conventional and molecular cytogenetic protocols in four species of the catfish family Doradidae from the Araguaia-Tocantins river basin, namely Hassar wilderi, Leptodoras cataniae, Tenellus leporhinus and Tenellus trimaculatus were examined. All species had diploid chromosome number 2n = 58 and karyotypes dominated by biarmed chromosomes, simple NOR phenotype, that is, one chromosome pair bearing this site in terminal position, but some differences in karyotypes and distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, position of rDNA sites. Such characteristics appeared species-specific. A ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system was found in Tenellus trimaculatus, resulting likely from the amplification of the heterochromatin, followed by a paracentric inversion. Our results confirmed low karyotype differentiation observed until now among representatives of this endemic catfish family.

  8. Pareiorhaphis vetula, a new armored catfish from the headwaters of the Rio Doce basin, Brazil (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edson H L; Lehmann, Pablo A; Reis, Roberto E

    2016-07-28

    A new species of Pareiorhaphis is described from the upper Rio Doce basin. The description is based on a series of specimens recently collected in small headwater tributaries to the Rio Guanhães, a tributary of the Rio Santo Antonio, left bank of the Rio Doce in Minas Gerais State, eastern Brazil. Pareiorhaphis vetula, new species, is a small loricariid catfish with dark brown spots irregularly scattered over a brown background on the dorsal surface of body and along flanks. The new species differs from all other Pareiorhaphis species by having the maxillary barbel completely adnate to the lower lip and by adult males possessing a particularly elongate, sharply pointed, conical urogenital papilla. In addition, Pareiorhaphis vetula is further distinguished from most congeners by having a shorter pelvic-fin spine, or by possessing more numerous premaxillary teeth, and by lacking a dorsal-fin spinelet. A comparison with congeners P. nasuta, P. scutula and P. proskynita, which also occur in headwater streams of the Rio Doce basin is also presented.

  9. Understanding morphological variability in a taxonomic context in Chilean diplomystids (Teleostei: Siluriformes), including the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Following study of the external morphology and its unmatched variability throughout ontogeny and a re-examination of selected morphological characters based on many specimens of diplomystids from Central and South Chile, we revised and emended previous specific diagnoses and consider Diplomystes chilensis, D. nahuelbutaensis, D. camposensis, and Olivaichthys viedmensis (Baker River) to be valid species. Another group, previously identified as Diplomystes sp., D. spec., D. aff. chilensis, and D. cf. chilensis inhabiting rivers between Rapel and Itata Basins is given a new specific name (Diplomystes incognitus) and is diagnosed. An identification key to the Chilean species, including the new species, is presented. All specific diagnoses are based on external morphological characters, such as aspects of the skin, neuromast lines, and main lateral line, and position of the anus and urogenital pore, as well as certain osteological characters to facilitate the identification of these species that previously was based on many internal characters. Diplomystids below 150 mm standard length (SL) share a similar external morphology and body proportions that make identification difficult; however, specimens over 150 mm SL can be diagnosed by the position of the urogenital pore and anus, and a combination of external and internal morphological characters. According to current knowledge, diplomystid species have an allopatric distribution with each species apparently endemic to particular basins in continental Chile and one species (O. viedmensis) known only from one river in the Chilean Patagonia, but distributed extensively in southern Argentina. PMID:28224053

  10. Infection by Henneguya sp. (Myxozoa) in the bone tissue of the gill filaments of the Amazonian catfish Hypophthalmus marginatus (Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Velasco, Michele; Videira, Marcela; Sindeaux-Neto, José Ledamir; Santos, Patrícia Dos; Sanches, Osimar; Matos, Patrícia; Matos, Edilson

    2015-01-01

    This study describes aspects of the infection caused by the myxosporean genus Henneguya, which forms cysts in the bony portion of the gill filaments of Hypophthalmusmarginatus. Specimens of this catfish were acquired dead from artisanal fishermen near the town of Cametá, state of Pará, northern Brazil, between July 2011 and May 2012. They were transported in refrigerated containers to the Carlos Azevedo Research Laboratory at the Federal Rural University of Amazonia, in Belém, where analyses were performed. After confirmation of parasitism by the genus Henneguya, observation were made using optical and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The histological technique of embedment in paraffin was used. Ziehl-Neelsen staining was applied to the histological sections. Necropsy analyses on specimens of H. marginatus showed that 80% of them (40/50) had cysts of whitish coloration inside the bony portion of the gill filaments, filled with Henneguya spores. The present study found inflammatory infiltrate in the vicinity of the cysts. Furthermore, the special Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique made it possible to mark the Henneguya sp. cysts in the bone tissue and in spore isolates in the gill tissue structure. The descriptions of these histopathological findings show that this parasite is very invasive and causes damage to its host tissues.

  11. Description of a new species of Parotocinclus (Siluriformes, Hypoptopomatinae) from the rio Tapajós basin

    PubMed Central

    Roxo, Fábio F.; Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Parotocinclus is described from three small tributaries of the rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by presenting the following characters: (1) a triangular dark blotch at the anterior base of the dorsal fin, (2) the absence of an adipose fin but presence of one small platelet at typical adipose-fin region, (3) the abdomen completely covered by dermal plates, (4) a pectoral girdle totally exposed, (5) a single series of bicuspid teeth, and (6) the higher number of bicuspid premaxillary and dentary teeth. PMID:27917053

  12. Functional and evolutionary anatomy of the African suckermouth catfishes (Siluriformes: Mochokidae): convergent evolution in Afrotropical and Neotropical faunas.

    PubMed

    Geerinckx, Tom; De Kegel, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Of those fishes scraping food off substrates and using head parts in substrate attachment for station-holding, the catfish families Loricariidae, Astroblepidae and Mochokidae display the most dramatically adapted morphologies. Loricariidae and Astroblepidae, living in the Neotropical freshwaters, exclusively contain suckermouth catfish species, and their anatomy and head kinematics have already been studied into detail. Among Mochokidae, living in the tropical freshwaters of Africa, only the chiloglanidine subfamily has a sucker mouth, and occupies similar niches in Africa as both Neotropical families do in South America. Having derived from relatively unrelated catfish ancestors, their anatomy is poorly known, and the nature of their scraping and station-holding capabilities is not known at all. This paper provides details on the chiloglanidine head anatomy and function (relating their anatomy to that of the non-suckermouth Mochokidae), and compares this Afrotropical suckermouth taxon with both Neotropical suckermouth families. It identifies both convergences and differing anatomical and kinematic solutions to the same key needs of food-scraping and station-holding suckermouth fishes. Chiloglanidine mochokids differ from both Neotropical families in having less mobile jaws, with an upper jaw assisting more in station-holding than in feeding. They share the highly mobile lower lip with both Neotropical taxa, although the configuration of the intermandibular/protractor hyoidei muscle system, changing the volume of the sucker-disc cavity, differs in all three taxa. Chiloglanidines have a single, posterior inflow opening into this cavity, whereas Loricariidae have two lateral openings, and Astroblepidae have none, using an opercular incurrent opening instead. The chiloglanidine buccal valve system consists of two passive valves, as in Astroblepidae. Although less diverse in number of genera and species, this Afrotropical suckermouth taxon possesses the anatomical and kinematic key elements allowing a successful occupation of a niche similar to the one found in the Loricariidae + Astroblepidae clade.

  13. Morphology and histology of male and female reproductive systems in the inseminating species Scoloplax distolothrix (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes: Scoloplacidae).

    PubMed

    Spadella, Maria Angélica; Oliveira, Claudio; Quagio-Grassiotto, Irani

    2008-09-01

    The morphology and histology of male and female reproductive systems were examined in Scoloplax distolothrix. Internal insemination was documented in this species by the presence of sperm within the ovaries. Mature males and females have elongated genital papillae, exhibiting a tubular shape in males and a plain heart-shape with two median protuberances in females. The testes are two elongated structures that converge ventrally, under the intestine, towards the genital papilla. They are joined at the caudal end, forming an ovoid single chamber for sperm storage. Secretory regions were not observed. In the lumen of the testicular tubules, spermatozoa can be tightly packed along their lengths, but do not constitute a spermatozeugmata. The lumen of the sperm storage chamber and spermatic duct are filled with free spermatozoa without the accompanying secretions. The ovaries are bird-wing shaped, saccular structures that converge ventrally under the intestine, towards the genital papilla. They are joined at the caudal end, forming a tubular chamber possibly destined for oocyte storage. An oviduct with an irregular outline connects the chamber to the tubular region of the genital papilla. No distinct sperm storage structure was found in the ovaries. The unique male and female genital papillae suggest that these structures are associated with the reproductive mode in scoloplacids, representing evidence for insemination. The occurrence of free spermatozoa, without the accompanying secretions and not arranged in a spermatozeugmata can be associated with the presence of a tubular male genital papilla for sperm transfer to the female genital tract. This reinforces the idea that sperm packets are not necessary for all inseminating species. The male reproductive system in scoloplacids is very different from that in auchenipterids, a second catfish family with insemination, which indicates that the occurrence of insemination is not connected to the internal morphology of reproductive organs.

  14. Amblyceps waikhomi, a New Species of Catfish (Siluriformes: Amblycipitidae) from the Brahmaputra Drainage of Arunachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Darshan, Achom; Kachari, Akash; Dutta, Rashmi; Ganguly, Arijit; Das, Debangshu Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Amblyceps waikhomi sp. nov. is described from the Nongkon stream which drains into the Noa Dehing River, a tributary of the Brahmaputra River, in Arunachal Pradesh, India. The new species can be distinguished from congeners (except A. torrentis) in having a deeper body depth at anus. It further differs from congeners (except A. mangois and A. serratum) in having fewer vertebrae, from A. mangois in lacking (vs. having) strongly-developed projections on the proximal lepidotrichia of the median caudal-fin rays, and in having a longer, wider, and deeper head; and from A. serratum in having a posteriorly smooth (vs. with 4–5 serrations) pectoral spine, and unequal jaw length (lower jaw longer and weakly-projecting anteriorly vs. equal upper and lower jaws). It additionally differs from A. murraystuarti, A. torrentis, A. apangi, A. laticeps, and A. cerinum in having a deeply forked (vs. emarginate or truncate) caudal fin. This species is the seventh amblycipitid species known to occur in the Ganga-Brahmaputra River system. PMID:26840400

  15. Neoplecostomus doceensis: a new loricariid species (Teleostei, Siluriformes) from the rio Doce basin and comments about its putative origin.

    PubMed

    Roxo, Fábio F; Silva, Gabriel S C; Zawadzki, Cláudio H; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Neoplecostomus is described from the rio Doce basin representing the first species of this genus in the basin. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by having enlarged, fleshy folds between dentaries, two or three series of developed papillae anterior to premaxillary teeth and a adipose-fin membrane present, and by lacking enlarged odontodes along snout lateral margins in mature males, a well-developed dorsal-fin spinelet wider than dorsal-fin spine base, lower number of lateral-line figs and developed membrane on the dorsal portion of the first, second and third pelvic-fin branched rays. Additionally, we present a brief discussion of biogeographic scenarios that may explain the distribution of the new species in the rio Doce basin. We suggested that the ancestral lineage of the new species reached the rio Doce from the upper portions of rio Paraná drainages about 3.5 Mya (95% HPD: 1.6-5.5) indicating a colonization route of the N. doceensis ancestral lineage from the south end of Serra do Espinhaço, probably as a result of headwater capture processes between the upper rio Paraná and rio Doce basins.

  16. A southern species of the tropical catfish genus Phractocephalus (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in the Miocene of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azpelicueta, María de las Mercedes; Cione, Alberto Luis

    2016-04-01

    Catfish bones from Tortonian (Miocene) freshwater beds of central Argentina are here identified as pertaining to a new species of the tropical pimelodid genus Phractocephalus. The new species differs from the other recent and fossil species of the genus in skull, pectoral girdle and spine characters. The material was found in different localities near the city of Paraná, Entre Ríos Province. The bearing horizon is the so-called "Conglomerado osífero" which constitutes the lowermost beds of the fluvial Ituzaingó Formation. The aquatic vertebrate fauna occurring in the bearing bed shows a similar generic composition to several northern South American Miocene units where Phractocephalus remains were found. This report extends the range of Phractocephalus more than 2000 km to the South. The record is in agreement with higher global temperatures and putative ample hydrographic connections of the river basins in the Paraná area with the Amazon basin until at least the early late Miocene.

  17. Age, growth and mortality of Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae) in the Mid-Cross River-Floodplain ecosystem, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okogwu, Okechukwu Idumah

    2011-12-01

    Clarias gariepinus is a threatened highly prized species used for some elite ceremonies by the local communities. Artisanal fishers take advantage of this species annual breeding migration from the lower Cross River to the floodplain lakes in Mid-Cross River during the rainy season, and some migrant stocks are not able to spawn. Since there is a lack of information on this species population dynamics in the Mid-Cross area, this study aimed to evaluate the age, growth and mortality to support the development of effective management plans. For this, monthly overnight gill net catches (from 6 to 72mm mesh sizes) were developed between March 2005 and February 2007. Growth parameters were determined using the FiSAT II length-frequency distribution. A total of 1 421 fish were collected during the survey. The asymptotic growth (L(infinity)) was 80.24cm, growth rate (K) was 0.49/year while the longevity was 6.12 years. The annual instantaneous rate of total mortality (Z) was 2.54/year and the natural mortality (M) was 0.88. Fishing mortality (1.66/year) was higher than the biological reference points (F(opt) = 0.83 and F(limit) = 1.11) and the exploitation rate (0.66) was higher than the predicted value (E(max) = 0.64) indicating that C. gariepinus was over exploited in the Mid-Cross River-Floodplain ecosystem. Some recommended immediate management actions are to strengthen the ban of ichthyocide fishing, closure of the floodplain lakes for most of the year, restricted access to the migratory path of the fish during the flood period and vocational training to the fishers. In order to recover and maintain a sustainable harvest, I suggest that a multi-sector stakeholder group should be formed with governmental agents, community leaders, fishers, fisheries scientists and non-governmental organizations. These short and long term measures, if carefully applied, will facilitate recovery of the fishery.

  18. A new species of Pseudocrepidobothrium (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) from Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Pisces: Siluriformes) in the Paraná River basin (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Nathalia J; De Pertierra, Alicia A Gil; De Chambrier, Alain

    2014-10-01

    This study describes the proteocephalidean tapeworm Pseudocrepidobothrium chanaorum sp. n. (Proteocephalidae: Proteocephalinae), which was found in the intestine of Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eigenmann et Eigenmann) from the Colastiné River, a tributary of the Paraná River. The new species differs from the two other species of the genus, P. eirasi (Rego et de Chambrier, 1995) and P. ludovici Ruedi et de Chambrier, 2012, parasites of Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Bloch et Schneider) from the Amazon River in Brazil, in having fewer proglottides (4-8 without ventral appendages vs 7-12 with ventral appendages and 20-36 without ventral appendages, respectively), a smaller scolex (350-450 μm wide vs 495-990 μm and 515-1020 μm wide, respectively), in the total number of testes (21-25 vs 21-51 and 37-79, respectively), a cirrus-sac usually directed anteriorly if the vagina is posterior to the cirrus-sac vs transversely situated in the known species. The study of the tegumental surface of Pseudocrepidobothrium spp. revealed the presence of four types of microtriches: papilliform, acicular and capilliform filitriches, and gladiate spinitriches. The three species have a similar microthrix pattern, with minor differences on the immature proglottis surface. Pseudocrepidobothrium chanaorum sp. n. is the ninth proteocephalid reported from P. reticulatum.

  19. Chromosomal characterization of armored catfish Harttia longipinna (Siluriformes, Loricariidae): first report of B chromosomes in the genus.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Daniel Rodrigues; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Traldi, Josiane Baccarin; Moreira-Filho, Orlando

    2012-09-01

    The B chromosomes are accessory elements that are widely distributed among eukaryotic genomes and often show non-Mendelian inheritance. They are considered dispensable for the growth, development, and reproduction of organisms. Some studies have suggested that these elements may affect sex determination. Harttia is a small armored catfish genus that shows sexual dimorphism, including hypertrophied odontodes on the pectoral fin spines and along the margins of the snout in mature males. They exhibit considerable karyotypic diversity with diploid number (2n) variation and heteromorphic sex system in H. carvalhoi. To date, no occurrences of B chromosomes in the Harttia genus were detected and no relation to sexual differentiation in Neotropical fish has been determined. To determine the validity of this claim, the present paper characterized specimens of Harttia longipinna by classical and molecular cytogenetic methods. The 2n found was 58 (16m + 12sm + 16st + 14a), but of the 50 specimens analyzed (30 male and 20 female), 23 specimens (16 males and seven females) show an intra-individual from 0 to 2 micro B chromosomes. The B chromosomes were completely heterochromatic. The single NORs were shown in the first acrocentric pair with silver staining and 18S rDNA probing. FISH performed with 5S rDNA probe showed a single cistron in the proximal region of the short arm of a small metacentric pair. Thus, the cytogenetic data obtained in this study of H. longipinna highlight the karyotypic diversity found within the genus Harttia, and represent the first description of B chromosomes for this genus.

  20. Morphology and 18S rDNA of Henneguya gurlei (Myxosporea) from Ameiurus nebulosus (Siluriformes) in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Iwanowicz, D.D.; Pote, L.M.; Blazer, V.S.; Schill, W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Henneguya gurlei was isolated from Ameiurus nebulosus captured in North Carolina and redescribed using critical morphological features and 18S small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rDNA) gene sequence. Plasmodia are white, spherical, or subspherical, occur in clusters, measure up to 1.8 mm in length, and are located on the dorsal, pectoral, and anal fins. Histologically, plasmodia are located in the dermis and subdermally, and the larger cysts disrupt the melanocyte pigment layer. The spore body is lanceolate, 18.2 ?? 0.3 ??m (range 15.7-20.3) in length, and 5.4 ?? 0.1 ??m (range 3.8-6.1) in width in valvular view. The caudal appendages are 41.1 ?? 1.1 ??m (range 34.0-49.7) in length. Polar capsules are pyriform and of unequal size. The longer polar capsule measures 6.2 ?? 0.1 ??m (range 5.48-7.06), while the shorter is 5.7 ?? 0.1 ??m (range 4.8-6.4) in length. Polar capsule width is 1.2 ?? 0.03 ??m (range 1.0-1.54). The total length of the spore is 60.9 ?? 1.2 ??m (range 48.7-68.5). Morphologically, this species is similar to other species of Henneguya that are known to infect ictalurids. Based on SSU rDNA sequences, this species is most closely related to H. exilis and H. ictaluri, which infect Ictalurus punctatus. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2008.

  1. Chromosome Mapping of 18S Ribosomal RNA Genes in Eleven Hypostomus Species (Siluriformes, Loricariidae): Diversity Analysis of the Sites.

    PubMed

    Rubert, Marceléia; da Rosa, Renata; Zawadzki, Claudio H; Mariotto, Sandra; Moreira-Filho, Orlando; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the chromosomal distribution of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in different populations of 11 species of Hypostomus collected in important Brazilian basins, namely South Atlantic, Upper Paraná, and Paraguay applying the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Hypostomus cochliodon, Hypostomus commersoni, Hypostomus hermanni, Hypostomus regani, Hypostomus albopunctatus, Hypostomus paulinus, Hypostomus aff. paulinus, Hypostomus iheringii, and Hypostomus mutucae presented multiple 18S rDNA sites while Hypostomus strigaticeps and Hypostomus nigromaculatus exhibited a single pair of chromosomes with 18S rDNA sites. The studied species presented variations in the number and position of these sites. The results accomplished were similar to those obtained by the analysis of AgNORs, revealing the same interspecific variability. Each species exhibited distinctive patterns of AgNOR and 18S rDNA distribution, which can be considered cytogenetic markers in each species of the genus and help improve the discussions on the phylogeny of the group.

  2. New species of the Pseudancistrus barbatus group (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) with comments on its biogeography and dispersal routes

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Gabriel de Souza da Costa e; Roxo, Fábio Fernandes; Britzke, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Pseudancistrus is described from the Tapajós Basin, and assigned to the P. barbatus group by having hypertrophied odontodes along the snout and lacking evertible cheek plates. The new species is distinguished from other species in that group (P. barbatus, P. corantijniensis, P. depressus and P. nigrescens) by its pattern of spots, length and color of snout odontodes, greater head depth, cleithral width, anal-fin spine length, peduncle depth and internares width. Molecular phylogenetic results corroborate placement of the new species in the Pseudancistrus barbatus group which is otherwise distributed in the Xingu Basin and rivers draining the Guyana Shield into the Atlantic Ocean. Topology tests strongly reject alternative hypotheses supporting close relationships with Guyanancistrus, Lithoxancistrus or the species Pseudancistrus pectegenitor, P. sidereus and P. genisetiger. Additionally, we propose two hypotheses on the distribution of the new species in the rio Tapajós, a Brazilian Shield drainage. The first one proposes that ancestral stock of the P. barbatus group was widely distributed throughout rivers draining the Guyana and Brazilian shields, and the species P. zawadzkii and Pseudancistrus sp. L17 are in the limit of the distribution for the group in Tapajós and Xingu rivers. The second hypothesis proposes that ancestral stock of the P. barbatus group was restricted to Guyana Shield rivers, and that headwater capture events permitted several dispersal routs through Guyana and Amazon rivers, permitted that the ancestral lineages of Pseudancistrus sp. L17 and P. zawadzkii reached the rivers of Amazon basin. PMID:24843279

  3. Three new species of saddled loricariid catfishes, and a review of Hemiancistrus, Peckoltia, and allied genera (Siluriformes)

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, Jonathan W.; Werneke, David C.; Tan, Milton

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of saddled hypostomine loricariids are described. According to a recent phylogenetic analysis, these species are members of the genus Peckoltia. The species differ from all described Peckoltia except Peckoltia furcata and Peckoltia sabaji by having the dentaries meet at an angle greater than 90°. The species also have similarities to Hemiancistrus, and can be separated from all described species by having dorsal saddles. We discuss the taxonomy of Peckoltia, Hemiancistrus, and allied genera and recognize Ancistomus as valid for Peckoltia feldbergae, Hemiancistrus micrommatos, Ancistrus snethlageae, Hemiancistrus spilomma, and Hemiancistrus spinosissimus. We recommend descriptions of genera for several clades of Hemiancistrus and restriction of Hemiancistrus to the type species of the genus, Hemiancistrus medians. Chaetostomus macrops is transferred to Pseudancistrus and recognized as a junior synonym of Pseudancistrus megacephalus. The Hemiancistrus annectens group of species (Hemiancistrus annectens, Hemiancistrus argus, Hypostomus aspidolepis, Hemiancistrus fugleri, Hemiancistrus holostictus, Hemiancistrus maracaiboensis, Hemiancistrus panamensis, Hemiancistrus wilsoni) are recognized in Hypostomus. Multivariate analysis reveals that the newly described species differ from one another in shape space, but overlap broadly with other Peckoltia (Peckoltia lujani), narrowly with other Peckoltia (Peckoltia greedoi), or broadly with Etsaputu (Peckoltia ephippiata). PMID:25685026

  4. Pareuchiloglanis hupingshanensis, a new species of the glyptosternine catfish (Siluriformes: Sisoridae) from the middle Yangtze River, China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zujie; Chen, Yongxia; He, Dekui

    2016-02-18

    A new glyptosterniod catfish, Pareuchiloglanis hupingshanensis, is described on the basis of 29 specimens, which were collected from Hunan Hupingshan National Nature Reserve (HHNNR) in the Yangtze River basin, China. It can be distinguished from all congeners by morphology and sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Morphometric and molecular data show that the new species is closely related to P. sinensis Hora et Silas but differs from it in possessing a premaxillary tooth band with a deeper median indentation; a dentary tooth band which consists of two shorter and wider patches; a lower angle of gill opening, opposite to the base of the 4th or 5th (vs. second or third) branched pectoral-fin ray; an upper lip edged with dense papillae; the posterior end of the ventral fin falling distinctly short of (vs. almost reaching ) anus; a shorter dorsal fin; and a greater caudal-fin base depth.

  5. Hisonotus acuen, a new and phenotypically variable cascudinho (Siluriformes, Loricariidae, Hypoptopomatinae) from the upper rio Xingu basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Hisonotus is described from the headwaters of the rio Xingu. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by having a functional V-shaped spinelet, odontodes not forming longitudinal aligned rows on the head and trunk, lower counts of the lateral and median series of abdominal figs, presence of a single rostral fig at the tip of the snout, absence of the unpaired figlets at typical adipose fin position, yellowish-tipped teeth, absence of conspicuous dark saddles and stripe on the body and higher number of teeth on the premaxillary and dentary. The new species, Hisonotus acuen, is restricted to headwaters of the rio Xingu basin, and is the first species of the genus Hisonotus described from the rio Xingu basin. Hisonotus acuen is highly variable in aspects of external body proportions, including body depth, snout length, and abdomen length. This variation is partly distributed within and among populations, and is not strongly correlated with body size. PCA of 83 adult specimens from six allopatric populations indicates the presence of continuous variation. Therefore, the available morphological data suggest that the individuals inhabiting the six localities of rio Xingu represent different populations of a single species. Low intraspecific variation in mitochondrial Cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) provides corroborative evidence. PMID:25349492

  6. Geographical differentiation of the Euchiloglanis fish complex (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in the Hengduan Mountain Region, China: Phylogeographic evidence of altered drainage patterns.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanping; Ludwig, Arne; Peng, Zuogang

    2017-02-01

    The uplift of the Tibetan Plateau caused significant ecogeographical changes that had a major impact on the exchange and isolation of regional fauna and flora. Furthermore, Pleistocene glacial oscillations were linked to temporal large-scale landmass and drainage system reconfigurations near the Hengduan Mountain Region and might have facilitated speciation and promoted biodiversity in southwestern China. However, strong biotic evidence supporting this role is lacking. Here, we use the Euchiloglanis fish species complex as a model to demonstrate the compound effects of the Tibetan Plateau uplift and Pleistocene glacial oscillations on species formation in this region. The genetic structure and geographical differentiation of the Euchiloglanis complex in four river systems within the Hengduan Mountain Region were deduced using the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene and 10 microsatellite loci from 360 to 192 individuals, respectively. The results indicated that the populations were divided into four independently evolving lineages, in which the populations from the Qingyi River and Jinsha River formed two sub-lineages. Phylogenetic relationships were structured by geographical isolation, especially near drainage systems. Divergence time estimation analyses showed that the Euchiloglanis complex diverged from its sister clade Pareuchiloglanis sinensis at around 1.3 Million years ago (Ma). Within the Euchiloglanis complex, the divergence time between the Dadu-Yalong and Jinsha-Qingyi River populations occurred at 1.0 Ma. This divergence time was in concordance with recent geological events, including the Kun-Huang Movement (1.2-0.6 Ma) and the lag time (<2.0 Ma) of river incision in the Hengduan Mountain Region. Population expansion signals were detected from mismatched distribution analyses, and the expansion times were concurrent with Pleistocene glacier fluctuations. Therefore, current phylogeographic patterns of the Euchiloglanis fish complex in the Hengduan Mountain Region were influenced by the uplift event of the Tibetan Plateau and were subsequently altered by paleo-river transitions during the late Pleistocene glacial oscillations.

  7. Delimiting species by reproductive isolation: the genetic structure of epigean and hypogean Trichomycterus spp. (Teleostei, Siluriformes) in the restricted area of Torotoro (Upper Amazon, Bolivia).

    PubMed

    Renno, Jean-François; Gazel, Claude; Miranda, Guido; Pouilly, Marc; Berrebi, Patrick

    2007-11-01

    Genetic variability of Trichomycterus from the region of Torotoro (Bolivia, Upper Amazon), distributed in the same watershed where the habitat is structured by waterfalls, canyons and a cave, was studied by allozyme (twelve putative loci) and RFLP-mtDNA (DLoop and cytochrome b) analyses. Alloenzymatic variation studied by Correspondence Analysis and Maximum Likelihood Analysis revealed a four-group structure, which was largely congruent with the distribution of the 14 mtDNA haplotypes. Two of these four clusters (I and II) were differentiated by two diagnostic loci (IDH and G3PDH), two semi-diagnostic loci (PGM and 6PGDH) and consequently a very high F(st )value (estimator theta = 0.77). Therefore, clusters I and II are reproductively isolated. The distribution limit of these two (sibling) species does not correspond to those of the morphological species of Trichomycterus identified in this region: the epigean T. cf. barbouri and the hypogean T. chaberti. However, hypogean fish exhibited two mtDNA haplotypes, a private one and another shared with the epigean Trichomycterus from upstream reaches.

  8. Pareiorhina hyptiorhachis, a new catfish species from Rio Paraíba do Sul basin, southeastern Brazil (Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Gabriel de Souza da Costa e; Roxo, Fábio Fernandes; Oliveira, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Pareiorhina hyptiorhachis is described from Ribeirão Fernandes and Rio Pomba, Rio Paraíba do Sul basin, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners (Pareiorhina brachyrhyncha, Pareiorhina carrancas, Pareiorhina cepta, and Pareiorhina rudolphi) by the presence of a conspicuous ridge on the trunk posterior to the dorsal fin (postdorsal ridge), simple teeth, a completely naked abdomen, a round dorsal profile of the head, greater suborbital depth and greater head width. We discuss the distributional pattern of the new species and its congeners and hypothesize that headwater capture is responsible for the distribution of Pareiorhina species across different watersheds in southeastern of Brazil. PMID:23878510

  9. Histological and ultrastructural characteristics of the testis of the invasive suckermouth sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Siluriformes: loricariidae) from Marikina River, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Jumawan, Joycelyn C; Herrera, Annabelle A

    2015-02-01

    The histological and ultrastructural features of the testis of the invasive suckermouth sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus rapidly proliferating in Marikina River, Philippines were characterized during the fish's 2010-2011 reproductive season. The germinal compartment of the testes was composed of anastomosing tubules with cysts undergoing synchronous development. Spermatogenic cells were along the length of the testes indicate it to be of the unrestricted spermatogonial type. The spermatozoon is classified as type 1 ect aquasperm devoid of acrosome, has rounded nucleus, and a long flagellum - characteristics necessary for external fertilization. Male P. disjunctivus was reproductively active during half of the year-long study with peak spawning during the most rainy months (June-August) and prolonged recrudescence during the dry months (February-May). Results from this study form a histological baseline to describe the gonad dynamics and reproduction of this invasive fish species as well as provide possible means of mechanical control to curb the population of the fish in this river.

  10. Allozyme comparison of two populations of Rineloricaria (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Ivaí River, upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Two allopatric morphotypes of the genus Rinelocaria were compared through the allozyme electrophoresis technique: one morphotype, R. pentamaculata, from the Keller River in the middle stretch of the Ivaí River basin and the other, R. aff. pentamaculata, from the São João River in the upper portion of the Ivaí River basin. The morphotype from the São João River was collected upstream from the São João waterfall, which is about 80 m deep. Twelve enzymatic systems (AAT, ADH, EST, GCDH, G3PDH, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and SOD) were analyzed, which allowed to score 22 loci. Only lociAat-2, Est-3 and Mdh-C showed polymorphism. The two samples differed in allele frequencies at the three polymorphic loci. The average expected heterozygosity for all loci was 0.0806 ± 0.0447 in the Keller River sample. For the São João River morphotype, this value was 0.0489 ± 0.0350. Nei' s genetic identity and distance between the two populations were respectively 0.9789 and 0.0213. Wright's FIS , FIT and FST over all loci were estimated as 0.3121, 0.4021 and 0.1309, respectively. We consider that the two morphotypes represent species in statunascendi. PMID:21637702

  11. Biochemical comparison of two Hypostomus populations (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Atlântico Stream of the upper Paraná River basin, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Two syntopic morphotypes of the genus Hypostomus - H. nigromaculatus and H. cf. nigromaculatus (Atlântico Stream, Paraná State) - were compared through the allozyme electrophoresis technique. Twelve enzymatic systems (AAT, ADH, EST, GCDH, G3PDH, GPI, IDH, LDH, MDH, ME, PGM and SOD) were analyzed, attributing the score of 20 loci, with a total of 30 alleles. Six loci were diagnostic (Aat-2, Gcdh-1, Gpi-A, Idh-1, Ldh-A and Mdh-A), indicating the presence of interjacent reproductive isolation. The occurrence of few polymorphic loci acknowledge two morphotypes, with heterozygosity values He = 0.0291 for H. nigromaculatus and He = 0.0346 for H. cf. nigromaculatus. FIS statistics demonstrated fixation of the alleles in the two morphotypes. Genetic identity (I) and distance (D) of Nei (1978) values were I = 0.6515 and D = 0.4285. The data indicate that these two morphotypes from the Atlântico Stream belong to different species. PMID:21637646

  12. A new species of Ituglanis from the Rio Xingu Basin, Brazil, and the evolution of pelvic fin loss in trichomycterid catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae).

    PubMed

    Datovo, Aléssio

    2014-04-22

    A new species of the trichomycterid catfish genus Ituglanis is described from the Rio Curuá, Rio Xingu basin, Rio Amazonas drainage, Brazil. Ituglanis apteryx, new species, is promptly distinguished from congeners, except some specimens of I. parahybae (Eigenmann), by the absence of pelvic fins, girdle, and muscles. The new species differs from I. parahybae in the pattern of the cephalic laterosensory system; the absence of a posterior cranial fontanel; the presence of an epural; and the number of branchiostegal rays, ribs, and vertebrae. Ituglanis apteryx is one among the several trichomycterids lacking pelvic fins. Analysis reveals that pelvic fin loss independently evolved several times during the trichomycterid radiation.

  13. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 53. Gyrodactylus corydori sp. n. and redescription of Gyrodactylus anisopharynx (Gyrodactylidea: Gyrodactylidae), parasites of Corydoras spp. (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Silva, Marlus; Boeger, Walter A

    2009-03-01

    Morphometric analyses are used to evaluate the taxonomic status of two sympatric variants of Gyrodactylus anisopharynx Popazoglo et Boeger, 2000 (forma "large-pharynx" and forma "small-pharynx"). The parasites were collected from the Piraquara River and the Miringuava River, State of Paraná, Brazil, between February 2005 and May 2006. A total of 132 parasites were measured from two hosts, Corydoras ehrhardti Steindachner and Corydoras paleatus (Jenyns). Eleven morphological features of the haptoral sclerites and pharynx were measured and analysed by discriminant analysis and principal components analysis. The results indicate that the observed morphological variation cannot be associated to intraspecific variation or phenotypic plasticity (P < 0.0001). Consequently, the two variants previously allocated in G. anisopharynx represent two independent species. Since the holotype was defined as the variant "large-pharynx", Gyrodactylus corydori sp. n. is proposed to accommodate specimens previously reported as "small-pharynx" variant of G. anisopharynx. Morphometric analyses showed that the hook, the anchor, and the pharyngeal bulb are significantly distinct (P < 0.0001) between G. corydori sp. n. and G. anisopharynx (s.s.). The new species is characterized by having hooks with point moderately curved, robust convex heel, convex shelf, toe concave moderately pointed with depression; deep bar with two submedial, posterior projections; anchors with robust superficial root; superficial bar with two small anterolateral projections; and male copulatory organ armed with two rows of spinelets.

  14. Multi-scale Spatial Analysis Of Physical Habitat Of Pseudobagrus ichikawai (Siluriformes: Bagridae) In Third Order Stream Landscapes, Mie Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, T.; Sagawa, S.; Kayaba, Y.; Saiki, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Amano, K.

    2005-05-01

    The bagrid catfish, Pseudobagrus ichikawai, is threatened with extinction, occurring only in the rivers flowing into Ise and Mikawa Bays. P. ichikawai is perceived to use the interstices of boulder clusters in backwaters. However, its ecology remains unclear owing to its nocturnal habits and unique habitat features. Recently, several river improvement works for controlling floods such as bank revetment, channel shortening and dam construction have decreased such environments in many rivers, and have also been considered to cause the reduction of catfish populations. The conservation of the remaining populations is fundamental not only for preserving species / genetic diversity, but also for sustaining the river landscape with its various environments. In other words, P. ichikawai can be utilized as an indicator species for this original river landscape. Therefore, in order to conserve a tiny population of the catfish, habitat restorations are planned in the 3rd order stream, a small branch of the Inabe River system in Mie Prefecture. The objectives of this study are to clarify the physical characteristics of P. ichikawai habitats and to help implementing habitat restoration in this small branch. This study consists of stratified analysis from the viewpoints of three kinds of spatial scale as follows: (1) landscape scale which includes physical land shape characteristics of the valley with each stream investigated before, (2) reach scale of the longitudinal 100 m length including the riparian zone with the multiple observed points of catfish and (3) micro-habitat scale of the quadrates (2m X 2m) where we observed the catfish individuals. At first, cluster analysis for scale (1) was conducted using variables such as sinuosity of channel, channel / valley width, and longitudinal / cross-sectional valley gradient. These parameters were obtained from general topographic maps and the 3rd order streams where local P. icihikawai populations survived in Mie Prefecture were covered in this analysis. The clustering determined one stream of the Miya River system as the reference stream. Thus, field investigations in scales (2) and (3) were conducted in both the target and reference streams. The inhabitation research for the P. ichikawai individuals with observation by snorkeling was carried out in the two streams at the beginning of the investigation. And then, the physical parameters (velocity, water depth, substrata and so on) were measured not only in the micro-habitat (3), but also in the reach scale (2). Furthermore, the topographic surveys in scale (2) were also exploited. According to these analyses, the individuals of P. ichikawai hided in the interstices of loose boulder clusters in backwaters during daytime. Particularly, this tendency became notable as they grew and gathered. In addition, the potential habitat area of catfish could be simulated in both streams, and thereby the difference of habitat conditions was quantitatively revealed. These results can be beneficial for rehabilitating the habitat of endangered bagrid catfish, P. ichikawai.

  15. Cytogenetic analysis of three sea catfish species (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Ariidae) with the first report of Ag-NOR in this fish family.

    PubMed

    Nirchio, Mauro; Martinez, Emanuel Ricardo Monteiro; Foresti, Fausto; Oliveira, Claudio

    2010-04-01

    Despite their ecological and economical importance, fishes of the family Ariidae are still genetically and cytogenetically poorly studied. Among the 133 known species of ariids, only eight have been karyotyped. Cytogenetic analyses performed on Genidens barbus and Sciades herzbergii revealed that both species have 2n = 56 chromosomes and Cathorops aff. mapale has 2n = 52 chromosomes: Genidens barbus has 10 Metacentrics (M), 14 Submetacentrics (SM), 26 Subtelocentrics (ST), and 6 Acrocentrics (A), Sciades herzbergii has 14M, 20SM, 18ST and 4A, whereas Cathorops aff. mapale has 14M, 20SM, and 18ST. The nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were found in a single chromosome pair on the short arm of a large-sized ST pair in Genidens barbus and on the short arm of a middle-size SM pair in Cathorops aff. mapale. Multiple NORs on the short arms of two large-sized ST pairs were found in Sciades herzbergii. The occurrence of diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 52 through 56 chromosomes and the presence of different karyotypic compositions, besides the number and position of NORs suggest that several numeric and structural chromosome rearrangements were fixed during the evolutionary history of this fish family.

  16. Cytogenetic characterization of four species of the genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) with comments on its chromosomal diversity

    PubMed Central

    Rubert, Marceléia; da Rosa, Renata; Jerep, Fernando Camargo; Bertollo, Luiz Antônio Carlos; Giuliano-Caetano, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetic analyses were performed on fishes of the genus Hypostomus (Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering, 1911), Hypostomus strigaticeps (Regan, 1908), Hypostomus regani (Ihering, 1905), and Hypostomus paulinus (Ihering, 1905)) from the seven tributaries of the Paranapanema River Basin (Brazil) by means of different staining techniques (C-, Ag-, CMA3- and DAPI-banding) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect 18S rDNA sites. All species showed different diploid numbers: 2n=68 (10m+26sm+32st-a) in Hypostomus ancistroides, 2n=72 (10m+16sm+46st-a) in Hypostomus strigaticeps, 2n=72 (10m+18sm+44st-a) in Hypostomus regani and 2n=76 (6m+16sm+54st-a) in Hypostomus paulinus. Ag-staining and FISH revealed various numbers and locations of NORs in the group. NORs were usually located terminally on the subtelocentric/acrocentric chromosomes: on the long arm in Hypostomus strigaticeps (2 to 4) and Hypostomus paulinus (2); and on the short arm in Hypostomus ancistroides (2 to 8) and Hypostomus regani (2 to 4). Conspicuous differences in heterochromatin distribution and composition were found among the species, terminally located in some st-a chromosomes in Hypostomus ancistroides, Hypostomus strigaticeps, and Hypostomus paulinus, and interstitially dispersed in most st-a chromosomes, in Hypostomus regani. The fluorochrome staining indicated that different classes of GC and/or AT-rich repetitive DNA evolved in this group. Our results indicate that chromosomal rearrangements and heterochromatin base-pair composition were significant events during the course of differentiation of this group. These features emerge as an excellent cytotaxonomic marker, providing a better understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the chromosomal diversity in Hypostomus species. PMID:24260644

  17. Localization of 18S ribosomal genes in suckermouth armoured catfishes Loricariidae (Teleostei, Siluriformes) with discussion on the Ag-NOR evolution

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Anderson Luis; de Borba, Rafael Splendore; Pozzobon, Allan Pierre Bonetti; Oliveira, Claudio; Nirchio, Mauro; Granado, Angel; Foresti, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The family Loricariidae with about 690 species divided into six subfamilies, is one of the world’s largest fish families. Cytogenetic studies conducted in the family showed that among 90 species analyzed the diploid number ranges from 2n=38 in Ancistrus sp. to 2n=96 in Hemipsilichthys gobio Luetken, 1874. In the present study, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed to determine the chromosomal localization of the 18S rDNA gene in four suckermouth armoured catfishes: Kronichthys lacerta (Nichols, 1919), Pareiorhaphis splendens (Bizerril, 1995), Liposarcus multiradiatus (Hancock, 1828) and Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758). All species analyzed showed one chromosome pair with 18S rDNA sequences, as observed in the previous Ag-NORs analyses. The presence of size and numerical polymorphism was observed and discussed, with proposing a hypothesis of the Ag-NOR evolution in Loricariidae. PMID:24260671

  18. Karyotypic diversity and evolutionary trends in the Neotropical catfish genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803 (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Anderson Luis; de Borba, Rafael Splendore; Oliveira, Claudio; Mauro Nirchio; Granado, Angel; Foresti, Fausto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The family Loricariidae with 813 nominal species is one of the largest fish families of the world. Hypostominae, its more complex subfamily, was recently divided into five tribes. The tribe Hypostomini is composed of a single genus, Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, which exhibits the largest karyotypic diversity in the family Loricariidae. With the main objective of contributing to a better understanding of the relationship and the patterns of evolution among the karyotypes of Hypostomus species, cytogenetic studies were conducted in six species of the genus from Brazil and Venezuela. The results show a great chromosome variety with diploid numbers ranging from 2n=68 to 2n=76, with a clear predominance of acrocentric chromosomes. The Ag-NORs are located in terminal position in all species analyzed. Three species have single Ag-NORs (Hypostomus albopunctatus (Regan, 1908), Hypostomus prope plecostomus (Linnaeus, 1758), and Hypostomus prope paulinus (Ihering, 1905)) and three have multiple Ag-NORs (Hypostomus ancistroides (Ihering, 1911), Hypostomus prope iheringi (Regan, 1908), and Hypostomus strigaticeps (Regan, 1908)). In the process of karyotype evolution of the group, the main type of chromosome rearrangements was possibly centric fissions, which may have been facilitated by the putative tetraploid origin of Hypostomus species. The relationship between the karyotype changes and the evolution in the genus is discussed. PMID:24260683

  19. Description of a new catfish genus (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) from the Tocantins River basin in central Brazil, with comments on the historical zoogeography of the new taxon

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Gabriel S. C.; Roxo, Fábio F.; Ochoa, Luz E.; Oliveira, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study presents the description of a new genus of the catfish subfamily Neoplecostominae from the Tocantins River basin. It can be distinguished from other neoplecostomine genera by the presence of (1) three hypertrophied bicuspid odontodes on the lateral portion of the body (character apparently present in mature males); (2) a large area without odontodes around the snout; (3) a post-dorsal ridge on the caudal peduncle; (4) a straight tooth series in the dentary and premaxillary rows; (5) the absence of abdominal plates; (6) a conspicuous series of enlarged papillae just posterior to the dentary teeth; and (7) caudal peduncle ellipsoid in cross section. We used maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods to estimate a time-calibrated tree with the published data on 116 loricariid species using one nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, and we used parametric biogeographic analyses (DEC and DECj models) to estimate ancestral geographic ranges and to infer the colonization routes of the new genus and the other neoplecostomines in the Tocantins River and the hydrographic systems of southeastern Brazil. Our phylogenetic results indicate that the new genus and species is a sister taxon of all the other members of the Neoplecostominae, originating during the Eocene at 47.5 Mya (32.7–64.5 Mya 95% HPD). The present distribution of the new genus and other neoplecostomines may be the result of a historical connection between the drainage basins of the Paraguay and Paraná rivers and the Amazon basin, mainly through headwater captures. PMID:27408594

  20. A new species of Unilatus (Platyhelminthes: Monogenoidea) from the gills of Leporacanthicus galaxias Isbrücker et Nijssen (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Branches, Bárbara; Domingues, Marcus V

    2014-03-01

    Unilatus irae sp. nov. (Dactylogyridae) is described from the gills of the armored catfish, Leporacanthicus galaxias Isbrücker et Nijssen (Loricariidae: Ancistrinae), from Guamá river, Pará State, Brazil. The new species can be differentiated from its cogeneners by the combination of the following features: anterior anchor with well-developed superficial root, inconspicuous deep root, shaft bent at midpoint, forming angle of approximately 60°, evenly short curved point; posterior anchor with inconspicuous roots, sclerotized cap of base with small protuberance for articulation to posterior bar; evenly curved shaft and short point; anterior bar broadly V-shaped, with small posteromedial projection; and posterior bar anteriorly expanded on it midportion, with expanded ends slightly curved in posterior direction.

  1. Multilocus molecular phylogeny of the ornamental wood-eating catfishes (Siluriformes, Loricariidae, Panaqolus and Panaque) reveals undescribed diversity and parapatric clades.

    PubMed

    Lujan, Nathan K; Cramer, Christian A; Covain, Raphael; Fisch-Muller, Sonia; López-Fernández, Hernán

    2017-04-01

    Approximately two-dozen species in three genera of the Neotropical suckermouth armored catfish family Loricariidae are the only described fishes known to specialize on diets consisting largely of wood. We conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 10 described species and 14 undescribed species or morphotypes assigned to the wood-eating catfish genus Panaqolus, and four described species and three undescribed species or morphotypes assigned to the distantly related wood-eating catfish genus Panaque. Our analyses included individuals and species from both genera that are broadly distributed throughout tropical South America east of the Andes Mountains and 13 additional genera hypothesized to have also descended from the most recent common ancestor of Panaqolus and Panaque. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci totaling 4293bp confirmed respective monophyly of Panaqolus, exclusive of the putative congener 'Panaqolus' koko, and Panaque. Members of Panaqolus sensu stricto were distributed across three strongly monophyletic clades: a clade of 10 generally darkly colored, lyretail species distributed across western headwaters of the Amazon Basin, a clade of three irregularly and narrowly banded species from the western Orinoco Basin, and a clade of 11 generally brown, broadly banded species that are widely distributed throughout the Amazon Basin. We erect new subgenera for each of these clades and a new genus for the morphologically, biogeographically and ecologically distinct species 'Panaqolus' koko. Our finding that perhaps half of the species-level diversity in the widespread genus Panaqolus remains undescribed illustrates the extent to which total taxonomic diversity of small and philopatric, yet apparently widely distributed, Amazonian fishes may remain underestimated. Ranges for two Panaqolus subgenera and the genus Panaque overlap with the wood-eating genus Cochliodon in central Andean tributaries of the upper Amazon Basin, which appear to be a global epicenter of wood-eating catfish diversity.

  2. Chromosomal variation in the tropical armoured catfish Callichthys callichthys (Siluriformes, Callichthyidae): implications for conservation and taxonomy in a species complex from a Brazilian hotspot.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Josivanda Santos; Affonso, Paulo Roberto Antunes de Mello; Diniz, Débora; Carneiro, Paulo Luiz Souza; Dias, Ana Lúcia

    2013-12-01

    The Neotropical catfish family Callichthyidae is characterized by wide karyotype variation, although reports are restricted to a few species/populations. This work provides new chromosomal information in two populations of armoured catfish (Callichthys callichthys) within the Atlantic forest boundaries in northeastern Brazil. Both populations of C. callichthys presented 2n=54 (16 metacentric, 24 submetacentric, 6 subtelocentric, and 8 acrocentric chromosomes) with occurrence of a metacentric B macrochromosome, reported for the first time in "2n=54" karyomorph. The lack of heterochromatin in the supernumerary chromosome suggests a recent origin of Bs with a significant difference in their frequency (p<0.05) between localities. Contrasting to the predominance of single nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) in other populations from South America, a remarkable polymorphism of 18S rDNA and GC-rich sites was detected, inasmuch as NOR phenotypes were unique for each individual, comprising up to 13 NOR-bearing chromosomes. The 5S rDNA was also mapped onto multiple chromosomes nonsyntenic to NORs. Such divergence in a number of NORs and occurrence of an euchromatic B chromosome in relation to other karyomorphs reinforces the divergent evolution of C. callichthys populations. Furthermore, these results also support central and drier Atlantic forest areas in northeastern Brazil as a biodiversity hotspot.

  3. The yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Siluriformes) metallothionein cDNA: molecular cloning and transcript expression level in response to exposure to the heavy metals Cd, Cu, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Lee, Young-Mi; Han, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2012-10-01

    Metallothionein (MT) has been used extensively as a potential molecular biomarker to detect heavy metal pollution in aquatic organisms. In order to investigate the modulation effect of heavy metals and to establish suitable biomarkers for the monitoring of heavy metal pollution, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco metallothionein gene was characterized as the first report in the family Bagridae. Pf-MT transcript was detected at high levels in liver, gonad, kidney, and brain compared to other tissues. A time-course study in response to waterborne Cd (5 ppm) revealed that a significant increase in the Pf-MT transcript abundance was observed at 6 h in gill, kidney, and liver. These elevated levels were kept for 96 h, implying that Cd distributed fast into different organs and was involved in the tissue-specific induction pattern. We observed a significant Pf-MT transcript increase in liver tissues at 48 h, followed by gill at 12 h and intestine at 48 h after Cd exposure. This indicates hepatic MT expression as a potential biomarker of acute Cd exposure in this species. Cd-binding ability of recombinant Pf-MT protein provided evidence for sensitivity to Cd and other heavy metal exposure. In the case of Zn exposure (1 ppm), a significant increase in Pf-MT transcript abundance was observed at 12 h, and a peak induction level reaching sixfold at 24 h was kept until 48 h, showing similar transcript induction patterns with Cd. A high level of Pf-MT mRNA after exposure to Cu (1 ppm) was observed at 12 h that gradually increased until 96 h with a 12-fold induction, revealing a long-lasting induction and somewhat dissimilar pattern compared to other metals in liver. Our results demonstrate that Pf-MT can be induced by heavy metals in a tissue-specific and metal-specific manner and plays probably a conserved role in metal detoxification. This study provides new information on P. fulvidraco metallothionein gene for the use of biomarkers indicating metal pollution in fish.

  4. Karyotypic Evolution and Chromosomal Organization of Repetitive DNA Sequences in Species of Panaque, Panaqolus, and Scobinancistrus (Siluriformes and Loricariidae) from the Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Ayres-Alves, Thayana; Cardoso, Adauto Lima; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; de Sousa, Leandro Melo; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Noronha, Renata Coelho Rodrigues

    2017-03-09

    Loricariidae family comprises the greatest variability of Neotropical catfish species, with more than 800 valid species. This family shows significant chromosomal diversity. Mapping of repetitive DNA sequences can be very useful in exploring such diversity, especially among groups that appear to share a preserved karyotypic macrostructure. We describe the karyotypes of Panaque armbrusteri and Panaqolus sp., as assessed using classical cytogenetic methods. Moreover, we offer a map of their repetitive sequences, including 18S and 5S ribosomal DNAs, the Rex1 and Rex3 retrotransposons, and the Tc1-mariner transposon in P. armbrusteri, Panaqolus sp., Scobinancistrus aureatus, and Scobinancistrus pariolispos. Those species share chromosome numbers of 2n = 52, but are divergent in their chromosome structures and the distributions of their repetitive DNA sequences. In situ hybridization with 18S and 5S rDNA probes confirms chromosome location in different pairs; in Panaqolus sp. these sites are in synteny. This multigene family organization can be explained by the occurrence of chromosome rearrangements, and possible events, such as transposition and unequal crossing-over. Rex1 and Rex3 retrotransposons and the Tc1-mariner transposon appeared predominantly dispersed and in small clusters in some chromosome regions. These data emphasize the importance of repetitive sequences in promoting the karyotypic evolution of these species.

  5. External Morphology of Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner, 1876 during Early Stages of Development, and Its Implications for the Evolution of Pseudopimelodidae (Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Assega, Fernando Massayuki; Birindelli, José Luís Olivan; Bialetzki, Andréa; Shibatta, Oscar Akio

    2016-01-01

    Pseudopimelodidae are Neotropical catfishes characterized by having slightly to strongly depressed body in fully developed specimens. The largest species of the family with 500 mm SL, Lophiosilurus alexandri, experiences impressive changes in body shape during development, becoming extremely depressed when fully developed. Accordingly, Lophiosilurus alexandri is an ideal species to observe the morphological changes during ontogeny, and to seek solid interpretations on the polarity of characters. Specimens of distinct larval periods (yolk sac, flexion and postflexion; n = 186 specimens) and juvenile stages (n = 20) were analyzed. Changes in body shape, position of mouth and eye, morphology of fins and pigmentation were observed during the development of Lophiosilurus. Larvae (5.7-11.2 mm standard length) had pigmentation concentrated on the head and parts of body, eyes small and pigmented, short barbels, and well-developed finfold. Juveniles (15.9-28.1 mm standard length) had body shape similar to adult, with head depressed and bearing bony ridges, large mouth, dorsally-oriented eyes, small barbels and well-developed shoulder bulges (cleithral width). The greatest morphological changes in the development of L. alexandri occurred during the postflexion larval stage. Relative to standard length, measurements of snout length, head depth and body depth are smaller in juveniles than in larvae, but body width is larger. New interpretations on the phylogenetic characters related to these changes are provided in view of the two alternative hypotheses of the evolution of Pseudopimelodidae.

  6. Analysis of heterochromatin by combination of C-banding and CMA3 and DAPI staining in two fish species (Pimelodidae, Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Swarça, Ana C; Fenocchio, Alberto S; Cestari, Marta M; Dias, Ana L

    2003-09-01

    The chromosomes of Steindachneridion sp. (2n = 56) and Rhamdia quelen (2n = 58) were analyzed by C-banding (CB) and Chromomycin A3 (CMA3) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, separately and consecutively, in order to understand the role of base-specific fluorochrome treatment after CB. Both species' chromosomes shared common staining profiles as follows. CB with Giemsa (CBG) revealed weak heterochromatic blocks in the telomeric regions of some chromosomes and conspicuous bands on the short arms of one chromosome pair, where nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) were evidenced by silver-staining. Without CB pretreatment, the NORs were stained conspicuously with CMA3, but not with DAPI. The latter uniformly stained all chromosomes, but leaving the NORs pale. Combination of CMA3 or DAPI staining with CB showed distinctive fluorescent blocks in the NOR-bearing short arms of the single chromosome pair along with several bright fluorescent signals on other chromosomes, which were not evidenced by single CMA3 or DAPI staining. These results suggest a modification of chromatin structure by CB treatment, which may increase the stainability of CMA3 and DAPI.

  7. Gonadotropins and Growth Hormone Family Characterization in an Endangered Siluriform Species, Steindachneridion parahybae (Pimelodidae): Relationship With Annual Reproductive Cycle and Induced Spawning in Captivity.

    PubMed

    Honji, Renato Massaaki; Caneppele, Danilo; Pandolfi, Matias; Nostro, Fabiana Laura Lo; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize pituitary cells of Steindachneridion parahybae females in captivity, highlighting the possible relationship with reproductive disorders at this level, since this species shows oocyte final maturation, ovulation and spawning dysfunction in captivity. The localization and distribution of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), somatolactin (SL), β-luteinizing hormone (β-LH), and β-follicle stimulating hormone (β-FSH) immunoreactive (-ir) cells in the adenohypophysis was studied by immunohistochemical and Western blot methods. In addition, cellular morphometric analyses and semi-quantification of ir-cells optical density (OD) during the annual reproductive cycle and after artificial induced spawning (AIS) were performed. Results showed that the distribution and general localization of pituitary cell types were similar to that of other teleost species. However, the morphometrical study of adenohypophysial cells showed differences along the reproductive cycle and following AIS. In general, females at the vitellogenic stage presented greater OD values for GH, PRL and SL than at other maturation stages (previtellogenic and regression stages), probably indicating an increased cellular activity during this stage. Conversely, β-LH OD did not vary during the annual reproductive cycle. After AIS, β-LH, SL and GH ir-cells showed an increase in OD values suggesting a possible involvement on oocyte final maturation, ovulation and spawning or a feedback control on the brain-pituitary-gonads axis. Reproductive dysfunction in S. parahybae females in captivity may be due to alteration of the synthesis pathways of β-LH. In addition, GH family of hormones could modulate associated mechanisms that influence the reproductive status in this species.

  8. A new genus and species of proteocephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda), first parasite found in the driftwood catfish Tocantinsia piresi (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Philippe Vieira; Chambrier, Alain de; Scholz, Tomas; Luque, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Frezella gen. n. is proposed to accommodate Frezella vaucheri sp. n. from poorly known auchenipterid fish, Tocantinsia piresi (Miranda Ribeiro), from the Xingú River, one of the principal tributaries of the lower Amazon River in Brazil. The new genus belongs to the Proteocephalinae because of the medullary position of the testes, ovary (yet some follicles penetrate to the cortex on the dorsal side), vitelline follicles and uterus. It differs from other proteocephaline genera in the morphology of the scolex, which includes a metascolex composed of two distinct zones: anterior, strongly wrinkled part posterior to the suckers, and posterior, sparsely folded zone. Frezella can also be differentiated by having the internal longitudinal musculature hypertrophied laterally on both sides, the presence of some ovarian follicles in the cortex on the dorsal side and the presence of additional pair of tiny, thin-walled osmoregulatory canals situated slightly dorsomedian to ventral canals. Frezella vaucheri is the first helminth parasite reported from T. piresi, which occurs in the lower reaches of the Amazon and Tocantins River basins in Brazil.

  9. Description of a new species of the genus Chaetostoma from the Orinoco River drainage with comments on Chaetostoma milesi Fowler, 1941 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    PubMed

    Ballen, Gustavo A; Urbano-Bonilla, Alexander; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A

    2016-04-20

    Chaetostoma joropo n. sp. is described from the piedmont of the Orinoco River drainage in Colombia. The new species has been long confused with Chaetostoma milesi, a species with similar overall morphology and color pattern that is restricted to the Magdalena-Cauca River Basin. We diagnose the new species on the basis of morphology as well as a precise description of the color pattern. Chaetostoma joropo n. sp. is also easily distinguished from C. formosae the most similar species and other species inhabiting the Orinoco River drainage in Colombia. Data on ontogenetic variation and sexual dimorphism are provided, as well as natural history notes and remarks on the usage of the name Chaetostoma milesi for specimens from both the Orinoco and Magdalena-Cauca drainages. A discussion on the usage of the name Chaetostoma platyrhynchus is also provided given its current instability in the literature.

  10. External Morphology of Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner, 1876 during Early Stages of Development, and Its Implications for the Evolution of Pseudopimelodidae (Siluriformes)

    PubMed Central

    Assega, Fernando Massayuki; Birindelli, José Luís Olivan; Bialetzki, Andréa; Shibatta, Oscar Akio

    2016-01-01

    Pseudopimelodidae are Neotropical catfishes characterized by having slightly to strongly depressed body in fully developed specimens. The largest species of the family with 500 mm SL, Lophiosilurus alexandri, experiences impressive changes in body shape during development, becoming extremely depressed when fully developed. Accordingly, Lophiosilurus alexandri is an ideal species to observe the morphological changes during ontogeny, and to seek solid interpretations on the polarity of characters. Specimens of distinct larval periods (yolk sac, flexion and postflexion; n = 186 specimens) and juvenile stages (n = 20) were analyzed. Changes in body shape, position of mouth and eye, morphology of fins and pigmentation were observed during the development of Lophiosilurus. Larvae (5.7–11.2 mm standard length) had pigmentation concentrated on the head and parts of body, eyes small and pigmented, short barbels, and well-developed finfold. Juveniles (15.9–28.1 mm standard length) had body shape similar to adult, with head depressed and bearing bony ridges, large mouth, dorsally-oriented eyes, small barbels and well-developed shoulder bulges (cleithral width). The greatest morphological changes in the development of L. alexandri occurred during the postflexion larval stage. Relative to standard length, measurements of snout length, head depth and body depth are smaller in juveniles than in larvae, but body width is larger. New interpretations on the phylogenetic characters related to these changes are provided in view of the two alternative hypotheses of the evolution of Pseudopimelodidae. PMID:27082430

  11. Two new species of African suckermouth catfishes, genus Chiloglanis (Siluriformes: Mochokidae), from Kenya with remarks on other taxa from the area.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ray C; Bart, Henry L; Nyingi, Wanja Dorothy

    2015-11-17

    Recent expeditions in Kenya and examination of existing collections confirmed the presence of two undescribed Chiloglanis species and revealed previously unknown diversity within the Athi River system. The two new species are easily distinguished from described congeners in the area by external morphology, allopatric distributions, and genetic markers. Chiloglanis kerioensis sp. nov., is restricted to the Kerio River system and is the only known suckermouth catfish from the Lake Turkana basin. Chiloglanis devosi sp. nov., is known only from the type locality, the Northern Ewaso Nyiro (Ng'iro) below Chanler's Falls. In addition to these two new species, this study confirmed the presence of an undescribed Chiloglanis sp. occurring sympatrically with Chiloglanis brevibarbis in the Tsavo River. A dichotomous key for identifying all described Chiloglanis species found within Kenya is presented along with comments.

  12. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... FSIS Forms Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Strategic ... resources and information on Siluriformes fish, including catfish Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Strategic ...

  13. Energy sources for detritivorous fishes in the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Lima, C A; Forsberg, B R; Victoria, R; Martinelli, L

    1986-12-05

    Detritivorous fishes form an important part of the ichthyomass in the Amazon basin. Most of these fishes are contained in the orders Characiformes and Siluriformes (catfishes). The Characiformes constitute more than 30% of the total fish yield in the Amazon basin, whereas the catfishes are of minor importance. Stable isotope data indicate that Characiformes species receive most of their carbon through food chains originating with phytoplankton, while the Siluriformes receive a significant part of their energy from other plant sources.

  14. An uncommon co-localization of rDNA 5S with major rDNA clusters in Callichthyidae (Siluriformes): a report case in Corydoras carlae Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1983

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Rafael Henrique; Baumgärtner, Lucas; Paiz, Leonardo Marcel; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan; Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Gubiani, Éder André

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Corydoras Lacepède, 1803 is the most specious genus of Corydoradinae subfamily and many of its species are still unknown in relation to molecular cytogenetic markers. However, the diploid number and karyotypic formula were recorded for many species of this group. In current study, we provided the first cytogenetic information of Corydoras carlae Nijssen & Isbrücker, 1983, an endemic fish species from Iguassu River basin, Paraná State, Brazil. The individuals were collected in Florido River, a tributary of Iguassu River and analysed with respect to diploid number, heterochromatin distribution pattern, Ag-NORs and mapping of 5S and 18S ribosomal genes. The karyotype of this species comprises 46 chromosomes arranged in 22m+22sm+2st. The heterochromatin is distributed in centromeric and pericentromeric positions in most of the chromosomes, and also associated with NORs. The Ag-NORs were detected in the terminal position on the long arm of the metacentric pair 6. The double-FISH technique showed that 5S rDNA and 18S rDNA were co-localized in the terminal portion on the long arm of the metacentric pair 6. This condition of co-localization of ribosomal genes in Corydoras carlae seems to represent a marker for this species. PMID:28123681

  15. Physical Mapping of the 5S and 18S rDNA in Ten Species of Hypostomus Lacépède 1803 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae): Evolutionary Tendencies in the Genus

    PubMed Central

    César Venere, Paulo; Thums Konerat, Jocicléia; Henrique Zawadzki, Cláudio; Ricardo Vicari, Marcelo; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Hypostomus is a diverse group with unclear aspects regarding its biology, including the mechanisms that led to chromosome diversification within the group. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 18S rDNA probes was performed on ten Hypostomini species. Hypostomus faveolus, H. cochliodon, H. albopunctatus, H. aff. paulinus, and H. topavae had only one chromosome pair with 18S rDNA sites, while H. ancistroides, H. commersoni, H. hermanni, H. regani, and H. strigaticeps had multiple 18S rDNA sites. Regarding the 5S rDNA genes, H. ancistroides, H. regani, H. albopunctatus, H. aff. paulinus, and H. topavae had 5S rDNA sites on only one chromosome pair and H. faveolus, H. cochliodon, H. commersoni, H. hermanni, and H. strigaticeps had multiple 5S rDNA sites. Most species had 18S rDNA sites in the telomeric region of the chromosomes. All species but H. cochliodon had 5S rDNA in the centromeric/pericentromeric region of one metacentric pair. Obtained results are discussed based on existent phylogenies for the genus, with comments on possible dispersion mechanisms to justify the variability of the rDNA sites in Hypostomus. PMID:25405240

  16. Physical mapping of the 5S and 18S rDNA in ten species of Hypostomus Lacépède 1803 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae): evolutionary tendencies in the genus.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Vanessa; Venere, Paulo César; Thums Konerat, Jocicléia; Zawadzki, Cláudio Henrique; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo; Margarido, Vladimir Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Hypostomus is a diverse group with unclear aspects regarding its biology, including the mechanisms that led to chromosome diversification within the group. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 18S rDNA probes was performed on ten Hypostomini species. Hypostomus faveolus, H. cochliodon, H. albopunctatus, H. aff. paulinus, and H. topavae had only one chromosome pair with 18S rDNA sites, while H. ancistroides, H. commersoni, H. hermanni, H. regani, and H. strigaticeps had multiple 18S rDNA sites. Regarding the 5S rDNA genes, H. ancistroides, H. regani, H. albopunctatus, H. aff. paulinus, and H. topavae had 5S rDNA sites on only one chromosome pair and H. faveolus, H. cochliodon, H. commersoni, H. hermanni, and H. strigaticeps had multiple 5S rDNA sites. Most species had 18S rDNA sites in the telomeric region of the chromosomes. All species but H. cochliodon had 5S rDNA in the centromeric/pericentromeric region of one metacentric pair. Obtained results are discussed based on existent phylogenies for the genus, with comments on possible dispersion mechanisms to justify the variability of the rDNA sites in Hypostomus.

  17. A new trans-Andean Stick Catfish of the genus Farlowella Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) with the first record of the genus for the río Magdalena Basin in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ballen, Gustavo A; Mojica, José Iván

    2014-02-17

    A new species of Farlowella is described from El Carmen de Chucurí in the Departamento de Santander, western flank of the Cordillera Oriental, río Magdalena Basin, Colombia. Farlowella yarigui n. sp. differs from its congeners in lateral body plate morphology, abdominal cover, cephalic hypertrophied odontodes, and details of coloration. This is the first verifiable record of the genus in the Magdalena drainage. Aspects of natural history and implications of this finding are provided concerning the state of knowledge of the fishes of the río Magdalena Basin. Previous records of Farlowella gracilis in the río Cauca basin are examined and herein considered erroneous, rendering the new species the only representative of the genus in the Magdalena-Cauca system. A key to species of Farlowella from Colombia is provided.

  18. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2010-30 November 2010.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Cecilia; Agudelo, P A; Bâ, K; Barber, P A; Bisol, Paolo Maria; Brouat, C; Burgess, Treena I; Calves, I; Carrillo Avila, Mauricio; Chow, S; Cordes, Lisa; Da Silva, D; Dalecky, A; De Meester, L; Doadrio, Ignacio; Dobigny, G; Duplantier, J M; Evison, Sophie E F; Ford, Rebecca; Fresneau, Dominique; Galetti, Pedro M; Gauthier, P; Geldof, S; Granjon, L; Guérin, F; St J Hardy, Giles E; Hernandez Escobar, Carlos; Hima, K; Hu, Juan; Huang, Luqi; Humeau, L; Jansen, B; Jaquemet, S; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Jung, Sung-Ju; Kim, Bong-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Jong-Oh; Lai, Choay-Hoong; Laroche, J; Lavergne, E; Lawton-Rauh, A; Le Corre, M; Leach, M M; Lee, Jehee; Leo, Audrey E; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lin, Lin; Linde, Celeste C; Liu, Shu-Fang; Marino, Ilaria A M; McKeown, Niall J; Nohara, K; Oh, Myung-Joo; Okamoto, H; Oliver, Richard; Olivera Angel, Martha; Ornelas-García, Claudia Patricia; Orsini, L; Ostos Alfonso, Henry; Othman, A S; Papetti, Chiara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Piller, Kyle R; Poteaux, Chantal; Requier, J-B; Roziana, M K; Semba, Y; Sembene, M; Shah, Ramisah M; Shahril, A R; Shao, Aijuan; Shaw, Paul W; Song, Liangke; Souza Ferreira, Ronara; Su, Yong-Quan; Suzuki, N; Tatard, C; Taylor, Katherine M; Taylor, Paul W J; Thiam, M; Valbuena, Ruben; Wang, He; Yang, Byung-Gyoo; Yuan, Qingjun; Zajonz, U; Zane, Lorenzo; Zhu, Ling; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Zulaiha, A R

    2011-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 277 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Ascochyta rabiei, Cambarellus chapalanus, Chionodraco hamatus, Coptis omeiensis, Cynoscion nebulosus, Daphnia magna, Gerbillus nigeriae, Isurus oxyrinchus, Lates calcarifer, Metacarcinus magister, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Pachycondyla verenae, Phaethon lepturus, Pimelodus grosskopfii, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Scomberomorus niphonius, Sepia esculenta, Terapon jarbua, Teratosphaeria cryptica and Thunnus obesus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Austropotamobius italicus, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus puer, Cambarellus shufeldtii, Cambarellus texanus, Chionodraco myersi, Chionodraco rastrospinosus, Coptis chinensis, Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala, Coptis deltoidea, Coptis teeta, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Pimelodus bochii, Procambarus clarkii, Pseudopimelodus bufonius, Rhamdia quelen, Sepia andreana, Sepiella maindroni, Thunnus alalunga, Thunnus albacares, Thunnus maccoyii, Thunnus orientalis, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus tonggol.

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen) and Chinese catfish (S. asotus Linnaeus): Structure, phylogeny, and intraspecific variation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q R; Xu, C; Xu, C R; Wang, R J

    2015-12-28

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) and the Chinese catfish (S. asotus), was determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction (LA-PCR) method. The mitochondrial DNA nucleotide sequences of S. meridionalis and S. asotus were compared with those of 47 other catfish species in the same order. The total length of mitochondrial DNA for S. meridionalis and S. asotus was 16,526 and 16,525 bp, respectively, and included 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region. This mitochondrial gene arrangement is identical to that observed in other Siluriformes. To determine the relative phylogenetic positions of S. meridionalis and S. asotus, and to discover phylogenetic relationships among 24 families of Siluriformes, analyses were conducted, based on mitochondrial DNA, 12S ribosomal RNA, 16S ribosomal RNA, and 13 protein-coding gene sequence data sets. Phylogenetic analyses were congruent with a basal split of the order into Clupeiformes, Characiformes, Cypriniformes, and Siluriformes, and supported a closer relationship of the Southern catfish (family Siluridae) and the Chinese catfish (family Siluridae) to Pimelodidae than to Bagridae. We concluded that these two species are part of a molecular clade that is different from that proposed in recent studies, in which Amblycipitidae appears as a sister group. Our results showed Amblycipitidae appearing as the most basal extant, and Bagridae appearing as a sister group of Cranoglanididae and Pangasiidae. The Siluriformes showed close phylogenetic relationship to the Characiformes.

  20. Diversity, phylogenetic distribution, and origins of venomous catfishes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The study of venomous fishes is in a state of relative infancy when compared to that of other groups of venomous organisms. Catfishes (Order Siluriformes) are a diverse group of bony fishes that have long been known to include venomous taxa, but the extent and phylogenetic distribution of this venomous species diversity has never been documented, while the nature of the venoms themselves also remains poorly understood. In this study, I used histological preparations from over 100 catfish genera, basic biochemical and toxicological analyses of fin spine extracts from several species, and previous systematic studies of catfishes to examine the distribution of venom glands in this group. These results also offer preliminary insights into the evolutionary history of venom glands in the Siluriformes. Results Histological examinations of 158 catfish species indicate that approximately 1250-1625+ catfish species should be presumed to be venomous, when viewed in conjunction with several hypotheses of siluriform phylogeny. Maximum parsimony character optimization analyses indicate two to three independent derivations of venom glands within the Siluriformes. A number of putative toxic peptides were identified in the venoms of catfish species from many of the families determined to contain venomous representatives. These peptides elicit a wide array of physiological effects in other fishes, though any one species examined produced no more than three distinct putative toxins in its venom. The molecular weights and effects produced by these putative toxic peptides show strong similarities to previously characterized toxins found in catfish epidermal secretions. Conclusion Venom glands have evolved multiple times in catfishes (Order Siluriformes), and venomous catfishes may outnumber the combined diversity of all other venomous vertebrates. The toxic peptides found in catfish venoms may be derived from epidermal secretions that have been demonstrated to accelerate the

  1. Mercury concentrations in muscle and liver tissue of fish from marshes along the Magdalena River, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Santiago; Kolok, Alan S; Jimenez, Luz Fernanda; Granados, Carlos; Palacio, Jaime A

    2012-10-01

    The present research determined the total mercury concentrations in muscle and liver tissue in fish collected from the Magdalena River watershed. A total of 378 muscle samples and 102 liver samples were included in the analysis. The highest mean mercury level in muscle tissue was found in the noncarnivore, Pimelodus blochii. However, as a group, carnivores had significantly higher (p < 0.05) mercury levels in their muscle tissue than noncarnivores. A significant correlation (p < 0.05) was obtained between fish mass and mercury concentrations in muscle or liver in four species. No differences were observed in total mercury concentration based either on species or gender.

  2. New data on species of Demidospermus (Dactylogyridae: Monogenea) parasitizing fishes from the reservoir of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Station, Paraná State, Brazil, with new synonymies.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Simone C; Kohn, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Eight known species of Demidospermus (Dactylogyridae, Monogenea) were collected from siluriform fishes from reservoir of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Station, Paraná, Brazil. Four of them are recorded for the first time in Brazil, enlarging their geographical distribution: Demidospermus armostus, Demidospermus anus, Demidospermus bidiverticulatum and Demidospermus valenciennesi. Demidospermus labrosi is synonymized with Demidospermus cornicinus and Demidospermus mandi with Demidospermus leptosynophallus and reported from two new hosts. Demidospermus paravalenciennesi and Demidospermus uncusvalidus were also collected.

  3. Diel variation of larval fish abundance in the Amazon and Rio Negro.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Lima, C A; da Silva, V V; Petry, P; Oliveira, E C; Moura, S M

    2001-08-01

    Many streams and large rivers present higher ichthyoplankton densities at night. However, in some rivers this does not occur and larvae are equally abundant during the day. Larval drift diel variation is an important information for planning sampling programs for evaluating larval distribution and production. The aim of this study was to test whether the abundance of larval fish was different at either period. We tested it by comparing day and night densities of characiform, clupeiform and siluriform larvae during five years in the Amazon and one year in Rio Negro. We found that larvae of three species of characiform and larvae of siluriform were equally abundant during day and night in the Amazon. Conversely, the catch of Pellona spp. larvae was significantly higher during the day. In Rio Negro, however, larval abundance was higher during the night. These results imply that day samplings estimate adequately the abundance of these characiform and siluriform larvae in the Amazon, but not Pellona larvae. Evaluations of larved densities of Rio Negro will have to consider night sampling.

  4. Seasonal and organ variations in antioxidant capacity, detoxifying competence and oxidative damage in freshwater and estuarine fishes from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Da Rocha, A M; Salomão de Freitas, D P; Burns, M; Vieira, J P; de la Torre, F R; Monserrat, J M

    2009-11-01

    This study analyzed biochemical biomarkers of freshwater and estuarine fish species from Southern Brazil. It analyzed three organs (muscle, liver and gills), in four fish species (Micropogonias furnieri, Pimelodus pintado, Loricariichthys anus and Parapimelodus nigribarbis) in order to perform an environmental diagnosis. Obtained results showed that liver of L. anus and gills of M. furnieri presented higher total antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals during fall, whereas a clear seasonality was found for gill reduced glutathione (GSH) levels of all studied species, with higher concentration during spring. In terms of oxidative damage (TBARS), liver of M. furnieri and gills of P. nigribarbis showed higher TBARS levels during fall, whereas P. pintado showed the lowest TBARS value. Finally, a conspicuous seasonal effect was observed for purified and non-purified glutathione-S-transferase (GST), where minimum values were registered during fall, pointing to this season as one where fish species are less competent to perform detoxifying reactions.

  5. Reproductive biology of freshwater fishes from the Venezuelan floodplains.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, H Y; Cardillo, E; Poleo, G; Marcano, D

    2009-03-01

    This review describes the endocrine changes that occur during the annual reproductive cycle of Pygocentrus cariba, Pimelodus blochii, and Oxydoras sifontesi and their relationships with the environmental characteristics of Venezuelan floodplains. Most reproductive studies of teleosts have focused on changes that occur during annual cycles in temperate species but, in tropical fish, this has been examined less frequently. P. cariba, P. blochii, and O. sifontesi are seasonal breeders widely distributed along the Orinoco River. Under natural conditions they have an annual gonadal cycle closely related to changes in the annual hydrology cycle of the Orinoco River which defines two seasons on the floodplain: inundation and isolation. The reproductive cycle of these species seems to be controlled by cues from the external environment. Relevant data about gonadal maturation, for example gonadosomatic index and sexual hormones secretion, are contrasted. The role of catecholamines in neuroendocrine control of the reproductive axis is also considered in this work.

  6. Evidence for meiotic drive as an explanation for karyotype changes in fishes.

    PubMed

    Molina, Wagner Franco; Martinez, Pablo A; Bertollo, Luiz Antônio C; Bidau, Claudio Juan

    2014-06-01

    The process of preferential chromosome segregation during meiosis has been suggested to be responsible for the predominance of certain chromosome types in the karyotypes of mammals, birds and insects. We developed an extensive analysis of the fixation of mono- or bibrachial chromosomes in the karyotypes of the large Actinopterygii fish group, a key link in the evolution of terrestrial vertebrates, in order to investigate the generality of meiotic drive in determining karyotypic macrotrends. Unlike mammals, fishes have markedly undergone several types of preferential chromosomal rearrangements throughout evolution. Data from the analyzed orders indicate a prevalence of karyotypes with few (<33%) or many (>66%) acrocentric chromosomes and a low number of karyotypes with balanced numbers of mono- and bi-brachial elements. Parallel trends towards a higher number of karyotypes with prevalence of monobrachial chromosomes occurred in phylogenetically close orders (e.g. Perciformes and Tetraodontiformes, and in the order Mugiliformes) and in clades with prevalence of bibrachial elements (e.g. Characiformes, Gymnotiformes, Siluriformes, and Cypriniformes). Some orders where fewer species were available for study, such as Atheriniformes and Anguilliformes, showed karyotype assemblages where both trends were present. Our results strongly suggest a primary role of meiotic drive in karyotypic evolution as indicated by the accumulation of monobrachial chromosomes in Perciformes and Cypriniformes, or bibrachial chromosomes in Siluriformes and Characiformes. Further examinations of the interaction between life history traits, environmental characteristics, and the fixation of chromosomal rearrangements would be exceedingly valuable.

  7. Phylogeny of suckermouth catfishes (Mochokidae: Chiloglanis) from Kenya: the utility of Growth Hormone introns in species level phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ray C; Bart, Henry L; Nyingi, Dorothy Wanja; Gichuki, Nathan Ndegwa

    2014-10-01

    African suckermouth catfishes (Mochokidae: Chiloglanis) occur in freshwater throughout tropical Africa. Specimens from all major drainages across Kenya were collected over three field seasons. Here we present a phylogeny inferred from both mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) and introns of the nuclear Growth Hormone gene (GH). The phylogeny inferred from introns is largely congruent with the results from an analysis of cyt b. The length and variability of GH introns make them ideal species level nuclear markers without the problem of introgression commonly encountered with mitochondrial genes. This analysis confirmed the presence of two previously known undescribed Chiloglanis species and also suggests the presence of previously unknown diversity within the Athi River system. The resulting phylogeny also indicates the presence of two separate lineages within C. brevibarbis. The historical biogeography of Chiloglanis within Kenya is discussed. The utility of GH intron for species level phylogenies of Siluriformes is compared to that in other groups.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the threatened Neotropical catfish Lophiosilurus alexandri (Silurifomes: Pseudopimelodidae) and phylogenomic analysis indicate monophyly of Pimelodoidea.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Daniel Cardoso; Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Bastos, Alex Schomaker; Costa, Igor Rodrigues da; Luz, Ronald Kennedy; Furtado, Carolina; Prosdocimi, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Lophiosilurus alexandri is an endemic catfish from the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil) popularly known as pacamã, which has economic potential for aquaculture farming. The mitochondrial genome was sequenced for the threatened Neotropical catfish L. alexandri. Assembly into scaffolds using MIRA and MITObim software produced the whole, circularized mitochondrial genome, which comprises 16,445 bp and presents the typical gene arrangement of Teleostei mitochondria. A phylogenomic analysis was performed after the concatenation of all proteins obtained from whole mitogenomes of 20 Siluriformes and two outgroups. The results confirmed the monophyly of nine families of catfishes and also clustered L. alexandri as a sister group to the family Pimelodidae, thus confirming the monophyly of the superfamily Pimelodoidea. This is the first mitochondrial phylogenomics study for Pimelodoidea and the first mitogenome described for the Pseudopimelodidae family, representing an important resource for phylogeography, evolutionary biology, and conservation genetics studies in Neotropical fishes.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the threatened Neotropical catfish Lophiosilurus alexandri (Silurifomes: Pseudopimelodidae) and phylogenomic analysis indicate monophyly of Pimelodoidea

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Daniel Cardoso; Perini, Violeta da Rocha; Bastos, Alex Schomaker; da Costa, Igor Rodrigues; Luz, Ronald Kennedy; Furtado, Carolina; Prosdocimi, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lophiosilurus alexandri is an endemic catfish from the São Francisco River Basin (Brazil) popularly known as pacamã, which has economic potential for aquaculture farming. The mitochondrial genome was sequenced for the threatened Neotropical catfish L. alexandri. Assembly into scaffolds using MIRA and MITObim software produced the whole, circularized mitochondrial genome, which comprises 16,445 bp and presents the typical gene arrangement of Teleostei mitochondria. A phylogenomic analysis was performed after the concatenation of all proteins obtained from whole mitogenomes of 20 Siluriformes and two outgroups. The results confirmed the monophyly of nine families of catfishes and also clustered L. alexandri as a sister group to the family Pimelodidae, thus confirming the monophyly of the superfamily Pimelodoidea. This is the first mitochondrial phylogenomics study for Pimelodoidea and the first mitogenome described for the Pseudopimelodidae family, representing an important resource for phylogeography, evolutionary biology, and conservation genetics studies in Neotropical fishes. PMID:27648766

  10. New occurrences of microvertebrate fossil accumulations in Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous of western São Paulo state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alveş, Y. M.; Bergqvist, L. P.; Brito, P. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present the results of several palaeontological expeditions to four Upper Cretaceous fossil microsites of the Adamantina and Presidente Prudente formations in western São Paulo State, Brazil. Despite the fragmentary condition of the fossils recovered, they represent an important record of vertebrate microremains. The material, recovered through screen washing, comprises teeth and scales of Lepisosteidae; two morphotypes of Halecostomi teeth with similarities to Characiformes and Amiiformes; a Teleostei tooth of molariform shape; fin spines of Siluriformes; teeth of possible Baurusuchidae, Notosuchia (probably Adamantinasuchus or Mariliasuchus), Neosuchia (probably Itasuchus or Goniopholis), and other Mesoeucrocodylia indet.; probable teeth of Abelisauroidea, other Theropoda indet., and a phalanx of Aves. The comparative microvertebrate fossil accumulation from western São Paulo State provides evidence that: 1) floodplain channels accumulate large concentrations of microremains; 2) coarse sandstone privileges enamel tissues like teeth and scales; 3) new vertebrate fossil records have been discovered in Florida Paulista, Alfredo Marcondes, and Alvares Machado outcrops.

  11. Electric Organ Discharges of Mormyrid Fish as a Possible Cue for Predatory Catfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanika, S.; Kramer, B.

    During reproductive migration the electroreceptive African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes), preys mainly on a weakly electric fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae; Merron 1993). This is puzzling because the electric organ discharges of known Marcusenius species are pulses of a duration (<1ms) too short for being detected by the catfishes' low-frequency electroreceptive system (optimum sensitivity, 10-30Hz Peters and Bretschneider 1981). On the recent discovery that M. macrolepidotus males emit discharges lasting approximately ten times longer than those of females (Kramer 1997a) we determined behavioral thresholds for discharges of both sexes, using synthetic playbacks of field-recorded discharges. C. gariepinus detected M. macrolepidotus male discharges down to a field gradient of 103μVpeak-peak/cm and up to a distance of 1.5m at natural field conditions. In contrast, thresholds for female discharges were not reached with our setup, and we presume the bulldogs eaten by catfish are predominantly male.

  12. Rhabdochona longleyi sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from blind catfishes, Trogloglanis pattersoni and Satan eurystomus (Ictaluridae) from the subterranean waters of Texas.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Huffman, D G

    1988-01-01

    A new nematode species, Rhabdochona longleyi sp. n. is described from the intestine of two species of blind catfishes, Trogloglanis pattersoni Eigenmann (type host) and Satan eurystomus Hubbs et Bailey (both fam. Ictaluridae, Siluriformes) from the subterranean waters (artesian wells penetrating San Antonio pool of Edwards Aquifer) of Texas, USA. It is characterized largely by the presence of only six anterior teeth in the prostom, simple deirids, by the shape and length of spicules (0.42 to 0.50 mm and 0.093-0.102 mm), shape of the tail tip (rounded), and by filamented eggs. R. longleyi probably adapted to the environment of the aquifer by utilizing available troglobitic crustaceans instead of aquatic insects as an intermediate host.

  13. Structural features of cytochrome P450 1A associated with the absence of EROD activity in liver of the of the loricariid catfish Pterygoplichthys sp

    PubMed Central

    Parente, T.E.M.; Rebelo, M.F.; da-Silva, M.L.; Woodin, B.R.; Goldstone, J. V.; Bisch, P.M.; Paumgartten, F.J.R.; Stegeman, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Amazon catfish genus Pterygoplichthys (Loricariidae, Siluriformes) is closely related to the loricariid genus Hypostomus, in which at least two species lack detectable ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, typically catalyzed by cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) enzymes. Pterygoplichthys sp. liver microsomes also lacked EROD, as well as activity with other substituted resorufins, but aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists induced hepatic CYP1A mRNA and protein suggesting structural/functional differences in Pterygoplichthys CYP1s from those in other vertebrates. Comparing the sequences of CYP1As of Pterygoplichthys sp. and of two phylogenetically-related siluriform species that do catalyze EROD (Ancistrus sp., Loricariidae and Corydoras sp., Callichthyidae) showed that these three proteins share amino acids at 17 positions that are not shared by any fish in a set of 24 other species. Pterygoplichthys and Ancistrus (the loricariids) have an additional 22 amino acid substitutions in common that are not shared by Corydoras or by other fish species. Pterygoplichthys has six exclusive amino acid substitutions. Molecular docking and dynamics simulations indicate that Pterygoplichthys CYP1A has a weak affinity for ER, which binds infrequently in a productive orientation, and in a less stable conformation than in CYP1As of species that catalyze EROD. ER also binds with the carbonyl moiety proximal to the heme iron. Pterygoplichthys CYP1A has amino acids substitutions that reduce the frequency of correctly oriented ER in the AS preventing the detection of EROD activity. The results indicate that loricariid CYP1As may have a peculiar substrate selectivity that differs from CYP1As of most vertebrates. PMID:21840383

  14. Factors influencing movement of two migratory fishes within the tailrace of a large neotropical dam and their implications for hydropower impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suzuki, F. M.; Dunham, Jason; Silva, L. G. M.; Alves, C. B. M.; Pompeu, P.S.

    2016-01-01

    Fish attempting to move upstream through hydroelectric dams can be trapped and killed in turbines. Understanding fish movement patterns can provide useful insights for how to manage dam operations to minimize fish kill in turbines. We evaluated the movements of two migratory fish (Curimba—Prochilodus argenteus and Mandi—Pimelodus maculatus) using acoustic telemetry in the tailrace of Três Marias Dam (São Francisco River, Brazil) from 31 October 2011 to 16 February 2012. The majority of tagged fish left the tailrace in less than one week; however, some individuals returned, performing several visits to the tailrace. Mandi remained longer in the tailrace than Curimba. The number of visits was influenced by diel period, turbine and spillway discharge. Although the diel period was the only important contributor to the visits performed by Curimba, the movements of Mandi were significantly influenced by three factors. We found that whereas Curimba was predominantly diurnal, Mandi showed nocturnal habits. Additionally, visits of Mandi were significantly greater during higher turbine and spillway discharge. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding fish movements in the Três Marias Dam tailrace and their potential implications for adapting hydroelectric operations to minimize fish kills.

  15. The influence of ambient temperature and thermal acclimation on hearing in a eurythermal and a stenothermal otophysan fish.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Lidia Eva; Montey, Karen; Popper, Arthur N

    2009-10-01

    Being ectothermic, fish body temperature generally depends on ambient water temperature. Thus, ambient temperature might affect various sensory systems, including hearing, as a result of metabolic and physiological processes. However, the maintenance of sensory functions in a changing environment may be crucial for an animal's survival. Many fish species rely on hearing for acoustic orientation and communication. In order to investigate the influence of temperature on the auditory system, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was chosen as a model for a eurytherm species and the tropical catfish Pimelodus pictus as a model for a stenotherm fish. Hearing sensitivity was measured with animals acclimated or unacclimated to different water temperatures. Ambient water temperature significantly influenced hearing thresholds and the shape of auditory evoked potentials, especially at higher frequencies in I. punctatus. Hearing sensitivity of I. punctatus was lowest at 10 degrees C and increased by up to 36 dB between 10 degrees C and 26 degrees C. Significant differences were also revealed between acclimated and unacclimated animals after an increase in water temperature but not a decrease. By contrast, differences in hearing thresholds were smaller in P. pictus, even if a similar temperature difference (8 degrees C) was considered. However, P. pictus showed a similar trend as I. punctatus in exhibiting higher hearing sensitivity at the highest tested temperature, especially at the highest frequency tested. The results therefore suggest that the functional temperature dependence of sensory systems may differ depending upon whether a species is physiologically adapted to tolerate a wide or narrow temperature range.

  16. Adaptative features of ectothermic enzymes. III--Studies on phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) from five species of tropical fishes of the superorder Ostariophysi.

    PubMed

    Coppes de Achaval, Z; Schwantes, M L; Schwantes, A R; De Luca, P H; Val, A L

    1982-01-01

    1. The electrokinetic and thermostability properties of phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) in five species of tropical fish (Ostariophysi)-Leporinus friderici, L. silverstrii, Schizodon nasuttus, Hypostomus sp and Pimelodus maculatus--have been studied in order to study the adaptative nature of protein heterogeneity found in ectotherms. 2. Unlike most diploid fishes, the PGI of these species seemed to be encoded by three, four or five loci. 3. The subunits encoded by these loci occurred at different levels in the different tissues and organs analyzed. 4. Genetic variants at the three PGI loci were detected in two species of the family Anostomidae (L. friderici and S. nasuttus). In the family Pimelodidae, P. Maculatus showed a genetic variant as the Pgi-1 locus. 5. The product of these loci could be separated in three PGI regions based on their electrophoretic mobility, tissue distribution and thermostability properties. 6. The more anodal region (including isozymes and allozymes) was more thermolabile then the less anodal one, which is predominant in a single tissue-skeletal muscle.

  17. Seasonal reproductive biology of two species of freshwater catfish from the Venezuelan floodplains.

    PubMed

    Marcano, Dayssi; Cardillo, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Christian; Poleo, Germán; Gago, Nathalie; Guerrero, Hilda Y

    2007-01-01

    Oxydoras sifontesi and Pimelodus blochii are seasonal breeder fish. Spawn occurs once a year over a short interval of time, at the beginning of the rainy season. The gonadosomatic index (GSI), and plasma levels of steroid hormones of P. blochii and O. sifontesi were studied from fish samples, collected from the Portuguesa River (Portuguesa State, Venezuela) in 1998 and 2004-2005, respectively. Gonadal tissue samples were obtained and processed for histology. A macroscopic classification of the degree of gonadal maturation was performed using a six-stage maturity scale. Data was analyzed and compared as a function of the gonadal maturation stage. The GSI of both O. sifontesi and P. blochii increases from stages II to V (preparatory and prespawning periods) and decreases in the stage VI (postspawning). In males, the GSI was usually lower than in females. In both species, the higher plasmatic concentration of 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E) and testosterone (T) were obtained from specimens in stages IV or V. A significant decrease in both hormones was observed in stage VI, except for the males of P. blochii where T concentration did not change between gonadal stages IV-VI. The relevance of these results is discussed in relation to the seasonality and the particular hydrological conditions of the region.

  18. Diversity in noise-induced temporary hearing loss in otophysine fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoser, Sonja; Ladich, Friedrich

    2003-04-01

    The effects of intense white noise (158 dB re 1 μPa for 12 and 24 h) on the hearing abilities of two otophysine fish species-the nonvocal goldfish Carassius auratus and the vocalizing catfish Pimelodus pictus-were investigated in relation to noise exposure duration. Hearing sensitivity was determined utilizing the auditory brainstem response (ABR) recording technique. Measurements in the frequency range between 0.2 and 4.0 kHz were conducted prior and directly after noise exposure as well as after 3, 7, and 14 days of recovery. Both species showed a significant loss of sensitivity (up to 26 dB in C. auratus and 32 dB in P. pictus) immediately after noise exposure, with the greatest hearing loss in the range of their most sensitive frequencies. Hearing loss differed between both species, and was more pronounced in the catfish. Exposure duration had no influence on hearing loss. Hearing thresholds of C. auratus recovered within three days, whereas those of P. pictus only returned to their initial values within 14 days after exposure in all but one frequency. The results indicate that hearing specialists are affected differently by noise exposure and that acoustic communication might be restricted in noisy habitats.

  19. Characterization of gonadotropic cells during continuous and seasonal spermatogenesis of two freshwater fish species: a histochemical and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique; de Jesus, Lázaro Wender Oliveira; Honji, Renato Massaaki; Borella, Maria Inês

    2017-02-01

    This work describes gonadotropic (GtH) cells and their morphological and immunohistochemical changes during the spermatogenic cycle of Serrasalmus maculatus (continuous spermatogenesis) and Pimelodus maculatus (seasonal spermatogenesis). GtH cells, widely distributed in the proximal pars distalis of the adenohypophysis, were characterized as round-shaped cells with eccentric nucleus, and cytoplasm with basophilic secretory granules and a variable number of vacuoles for both species. Immunohistochemistry against β-follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh) and β-luteinizing hormone (Lh) in adjacent sections showed two separated GtH-producing cell populations, and a third population where both GtHs are expressed in the same cell for both species. In the seasonal spermatogenesis of P. maculatus, GtH cells seemed to be more abundant during developing and spawning capable phases. In contrast, no cyclic changes were detected in the continuous spermatogenesis of S. maculatus, except for the strong immunoreaction for Fsh and Lh in males with intense spermiogenesis. We conclude that changes reported here might reflect the type of spermatogenic cycle (seasonal or continuous) which are under different regulatory mechanisms (environmental and internal cues) controlling the reproduction in these species.

  20. Influence of seasonal, diel, lunar, and other environmental factors on upstream fish passage in the igarapava fish ladder, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bizzotto, P.M.; Godinho, Alexandre L.; Vono, V.; Kynard, B.; Godinho, Hugo P.

    2009-01-01

    Upstream fish passage was evaluated during 12 months in the vertical-slot Igarapava Fish Ladder constructed around Igarapava Dam, in the heavily dammed Grande River, Southeast Brazil. A video monitoring system was used to observe 61,621 fish that passed the ladder, of which 93.5% were identified to 15 taxa. Among the migratory species, the most abundant were Pimelodus maculatus (33.6% of all fish), Leporinus octofasciatus (31.4%), Leporinus friderici (4.5%), and Prochilodus lineatus (3.1%). Seven taxa were classified as nonmigratory, and of these taxa, the small Bryconamericus stramineus was the most abundant (12.7%) of all fishes. Passage of the 'nonmigratory' taxa upstream in the ladder shows they are migratory in this system and have a strong behavioural drive to move to upstream habitat. Passage of most taxa had a strong seasonal pattern. While some species passed primarily during the day, others showed a distinct nocturnal pattern. Lunar phase and water temperature also strongly affected passage of some taxa. Rainfall and dam discharge had a small or null influence on most taxa; perhaps due to the fairly small catchment area of the reservoir and the highly regulated discharge at Igarapava Dam. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Diet and feeding of fish from Grande River, located below the Volta Grande Reservoir, MG-SP.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P M; Braga, F M S

    2005-08-01

    We compare the classic model of feeding of tropical fish by means of six bimonthly samplings using gillnets of varying mesh sizes that were inspected every twelve hours throughout a forty-eight hour period. The stomachs of the fish caught were classified in three categories according to quantity of food found. The amount of fat in the visceral cavity with respect to the energetic reserve deposition was also studied. The relative frequencies of the different categories of stomach repletion and fat deposition were examined for patterns of feeding seasonality. The stomachs considered full were examined to record diet composition. To assess the relative importance of the different food resources, we applied Feeding Importance Degree (FID), which is a useful index when difficulties exist in determining a common basis for volume, number, or weight of a given food item in different species, a common problem when dealing with fish species having different feeding habits. The fish species whose stomach contents were analyzed using the FID index were Serrasalmus spilopleura (Characidae), L. prolixa (Loricaridae), Schizodon nasutus (Anostomidae), and Pimelodus maculatus (Pimelodidae). Our findings indicate some contrasting elements, in dietary composition in relation to the classic model for tropical rivers. These factors include the importance of aquatic macrophytes, the lack of piscivorous species, and a lesser presence of allochthonous vegetation in the diet of the species studied.

  2. Evolutionary history of Otophysi (Teleostei), a major clade of the modern freshwater fishes: Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Freshwater harbors approximately 12,000 fish species accounting for 43% of the diversity of all modern fish. A single ancestral lineage evolved into about two-thirds of this enormous biodiversity (≈ 7900 spp.) and is currently distributed throughout the world's continents except Antarctica. Despite such remarkable species diversity and ubiquity, the evolutionary history of this major freshwater fish clade, Otophysi, remains largely unexplored. To gain insight into the history of otophysan diversification, we constructed a timetree based on whole mitogenome sequences across 110 species representing 55 of the 64 families. Results Partitioned maximum likelihood analysis based on unambiguously aligned sequences (9923 bp) confidently recovered the monophyly of Otophysi and the two constituent subgroups (Cypriniformes and Characiphysi). The latter clade comprised three orders (Gymnotiformes, Characiformes, Siluriformes), and Gymnotiformes was sister to the latter two groups. One of the two suborders in Characiformes (Characoidei) was more closely related to Siluriformes than to its own suborder (Citharinoidei), rendering the characiforms paraphyletic. Although this novel relationship did not receive strong statistical support, it was supported by analyzing independent nuclear markers. A relaxed molecular clock Bayesian analysis of the divergence times and reconstruction of ancestral habitats on the timetree suggest a Pangaean origin and Mesozoic radiation of otophysans. Conclusions The present timetree demonstrates that survival of the ancestral lineages through the two consecutive mass extinctions on Pangaea, and subsequent radiations during the Jurassic through early Cretaceous shaped the modern familial diversity of otophysans. This evolutionary scenario is consistent with recent arguments based on biogeographic inferences and molecular divergence time estimates. No fossil otophysan, however, has been recorded before the Albian, the early Cretaceous 100

  3. Phylogeography of the ancient catfish family Diplomystidae: biogeographic, systematic, and conservation implications.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Ramírez, C P; Unmack, P J; Habit, E; Johnson, J B; Cussac, V E; Victoriano, P

    2014-04-01

    The catfish family Diplomystidae is one of the earliest branching lineages within the diverse order Siluriformes and shows a deep phylogenetic split from all other extant and extinct major catfish groups. Despite its relevance in the evolution of siluriforms, phylogenetic relationships within the Diplomystidae are poorly understood, and prior to this study, no phylogenetic hypotheses using molecular data had been published. By conducting a phylogeographic study across the entire distribution of the family, that encompasses river systems from Central-South Chile and Argentina, we provide the first molecular phylogenetic hypothesis among all known species of Diplomystidae, and in addition, investigate how their evolutionary history relates to major historical events that took place in southern South America. Our phylogenetic analyses show four main lineages and nine sub-lineages strongly structured geographically. All Pacific basin populations, with one exception (those found in the Baker basin) clustered within three of the four main lineages (clades I-III), while all populations from Atlantic basins and those from the Baker basin clustered in a single main clade (clade IV). There was a tendency for genetic diversity to decrease from north to south for Pacific basins consistent with an increasing north-south ice coverage during the last glacial maximum. However, we did not find a statistically significant correlation between genetic diversity and latitude. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that river basins and the barrier created by the Andes Mountains explained a high percentage of the genetic variation. Interestingly, most of the genetic variation among drainages was explained among Pacific basins. Molecular phylogenetic analyses agree only partially with current systematics. The geographical distribution of main lineages did not match species distribution and suggests a new taxonomic hypothesis with support for four species of Diplomystes, three

  4. Monitoring water quality in reservoirs for human supply through multi-biomarker evaluation in tropical fish.

    PubMed

    de Andrade Brito, Izabella; Arruda Freire, Carolina; Yamamoto, Flávia Yoshie; Silva de Assis, Helena Cristina; Rodrigues Souza-Bastos, Luciana; Cestari, Marta Margarete; de Castilhos Ghisi, Nédia; Prodocimo, Viviane; Filipak Neto, Francisco; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto

    2012-02-01

    Paraíba do Sul River is located at a very densely inhabited region of Brazil crossing the three most industrialized states of the country (São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states). As a result, industrial and farming residues as well as urban sewage are frequently disposed without appropriate treatment. The current study aimed at investigating the water quality in three reservoirs along the Paraíba do Sul River (Ilha dos Pombos, Santa Cecília and Santa Branca), through physiological, morphological, biochemical, and genetic biomarkers. The bioindicator chosen was the catfish Pimelodus maculatus, sampled during the dry (June 2008) and rainy (February 2009) seasons. Also, some water physicochemical parameters were analyzed from the sampling sites, but displayed no alterations according to the Brazilian Agency for Water Quality Legislation. Branchial carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in the dry season, while renal carbonic anhydrase activity was inhibited in the rainy season in the Santa Branca reservoir, indicating disturbance of osmoregulatory and acid-base regulation processes. Histopathological alterations were observed in the gills (neoplasic and tissue hyperplasia processes) and liver (necrosis), indicating serious damage to the functional integrity of these organs. A high incidence of melanomacrophage centers was observed in the liver, suggesting an intense immune response in all reservoirs. Acetylcholinesterase and catalase activity showed also differences corroborating some morphological results. Likewise, the induction of the micronucleus and DNA damage indicate genotoxicity, but mainly in the Santa Branca reservoir. Thus, the health status of P. maculatus warrants caution in the use of the water from the 3 reservoirs for direct human consumption, particularly after the accidental spill of endosulfan in November 2008, three months before the rainy season sampling.

  5. Organochlorines and metals induce changes in the mitochondria-rich cells of fish gills: an integrative field study involving chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, M N; Paulino, M G; Sakuragui, M M; Ramos, C A; Pereira, C D S; Sadauskas-Henrique, H

    2013-01-15

    Through integrating chemical, biochemical and morphological analyses, this study investigated the effects of multiple pollutants on the gill mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) in two fish species, Astyanax fasciatus and Pimelodus maculatus, collected from five sites (FU10, FU20, FU30, FU40 and FU50) in the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir. Water analyses revealed aluminum, iron and zinc as well as organochlorine (aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan, heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide and metolachlor) contamination at all of the sites, with the exception of FU10. Copper, chrome, iron and zinc were detected in the gills of both species, and aldrin/dieldrin, endosulfan and heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide were detected in the gills of fish from all of the sites, with the exception of FU10. Fish collected at FU20, FU30 and FU50 exhibited numerous alterations in the surface architecture of their pavement cells and MRCs. The surface MRC density and MRC fractional area were lower in fish from FU20, FU30, FU40 and FU50 than in those from the reference site (FU10) in the winter, and some variability between the sites was observed in the summer. The organochlorine contamination at FU20 and FU50 was associated with variable changes in the MRCs and inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity, especially in P. maculatus. At FU30, the alterations in the MRCs were associated with the contaminants present, especially metals. A multivariate analysis demonstrated a positive association between the biological responses of both species and environmental contamination, indicating that under realistic conditions, a mixture of organochlorines and metals affected the MRCs by inhibiting NKA activity and inducing morphological changes, which may cause an ionic imbalance.

  6. Body size–trophic position relationships among fishes of the lower Mekong basin

    PubMed Central

    Montaña, Carmen G.; Winemiller, Kirk O.

    2017-01-01

    Body size is frequently claimed to be a major determinant of animal trophic interactions, yet few studies have explored relationships between body size and trophic interactions in rivers, especially within the tropics. We examined relationships between body size and trophic position (TP) within fish assemblages in four lowland rivers of the Lower Mekong Basin in Cambodia. Stable isotope analysis (based on δ15N) was used to estimate TP of common fish species in each river, and species were classified according to occupation of benthic versus pelagic habitats and major feeding guilds. Regression analysis yielded strong correlations between body size and TP among fishes from the Sesan and Sreprok rivers, but not those from the Mekong and Sekong rivers. The Mekong fish assemblage had higher average TP compared with those of other rivers. The relationship between body size and TP was positive and significantly correlated for piscivores and omnivores, but not for detritivores and insectivores. The body size–TP relationship did not differ between pelagic and benthic fishes. Body size significantly predicted TP within the orders Siluriformes and Perciformes, but not for Cypriniformes, the most species-rich and ecologically diverse order in the Lower Mekong River. We conclude that for species-rich, tropical fish assemblages with many detritivores and invertivores, body size would not be an appropriate surrogate for TP in food web models and other ecological applications. PMID:28280563

  7. Body size-trophic position relationships among fishes of the lower Mekong basin.

    PubMed

    Ou, Chouly; Montaña, Carmen G; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2017-01-01

    Body size is frequently claimed to be a major determinant of animal trophic interactions, yet few studies have explored relationships between body size and trophic interactions in rivers, especially within the tropics. We examined relationships between body size and trophic position (TP) within fish assemblages in four lowland rivers of the Lower Mekong Basin in Cambodia. Stable isotope analysis (based on δ(15)N) was used to estimate TP of common fish species in each river, and species were classified according to occupation of benthic versus pelagic habitats and major feeding guilds. Regression analysis yielded strong correlations between body size and TP among fishes from the Sesan and Sreprok rivers, but not those from the Mekong and Sekong rivers. The Mekong fish assemblage had higher average TP compared with those of other rivers. The relationship between body size and TP was positive and significantly correlated for piscivores and omnivores, but not for detritivores and insectivores. The body size-TP relationship did not differ between pelagic and benthic fishes. Body size significantly predicted TP within the orders Siluriformes and Perciformes, but not for Cypriniformes, the most species-rich and ecologically diverse order in the Lower Mekong River. We conclude that for species-rich, tropical fish assemblages with many detritivores and invertivores, body size would not be an appropriate surrogate for TP in food web models and other ecological applications.

  8. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera.

    PubMed

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37-39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera.

  9. The evolution of the Proteocephalidea (Platyhelminthes, Eucestoda) based on an enlarged molecular phylogeny, with comments on their uterine development.

    PubMed

    de Chambrier, Alain; Zehnder, Marc; Vaucher, Claude; Mariaux, Jean

    2004-03-01

    We present a molecular phylogeny of the Proteocephalidea based on 28S rDNA sequence data that is a follow-up to the paper by Zehnder & Mariaux (1999). Twenty-three new sequences, including three outgroups are added in our new data-set. The Gangesiinae Mola, 1929 and the Acanthotaeniinae Freze, 1963 appear to be the most primitive clades. They are followed by a robust clade comprising the Palaearctic Proteocephalinae Mola, 1929 from freshwater fishes. The structure of the more derived clades, comprising most Neotropical and Nearctic species, is less resolved. At the nomenclatural level, we erect a new genus, Glanitaenia n. g. for G. osculata (Goeze, 1782) n. comb., previously Proteocephalus osculatus, and define an aggregate for the Palaearctic Proteocephalus Weinland, 1858. After a re-examination of all of the studied taxa, we identify two types of uterine development and show the importance of this character for the systematics of the order. Our phylogeny does not support the classical view of a Neotropical origin for the Proteocephalidea but rather favours an Old World origin of the group either in saurians or Palaearctic Siluriformes.

  10. Gene structure and functional characterization of growth hormone in dogfish, Squalus acanthias.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Shunsuke; Oda, Mayumi; Yamazaki, Tomohide; Yamaguchi, Kiyoko; Amiya, Noriko; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Amano, Masafumi; Goto, Tomoaki; Nozaki, Masumi; Meguro, Hiroshi; Kawauchi, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) growth hormone (GH) was identified by cDNA cloning and protein purification from the pituitary gland. Dogfish GH cDNA encoded a prehormone of 210 amino acids (aa). Sequence analysis of purified GH revealed that the prehormone is composed of a signal peptide of 27 aa and a mature protein of 183 aa. Dogfish GH showed 94% sequence identity with blue shark GH, and also showed 37-66%, 26%, and 48-67% sequence identity with GH from osteichtyes, an agnathan, and tetrapods. The site of production was identified through immunocytochemistry to be cells of the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary gland. Dogfish GH stimulates both insulin-like growth factor-I and II mRNA levels in dogfish liver in vitro. The dogfish GH gene consisted of five exons and four introns, the same as in lamprey, teleosts such as cypriniforms and siluriforms, and tetrapods. The 5'-flanking region within 1082 bp of the transcription start site contained consensus sequences for the TATA box, Pit-1/GHF-1, CRE, TRE, and ERE. These results show that the endocrine mechanism for growth stimulation by the GH-IGF axis was established at an early stage of vertebrate evolution, and that the 5-exon-type gene organization might reflect the structure of the ancestral gene for the GH gene family.

  11. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera

    PubMed Central

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37–39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera. PMID:26674637

  12. Prediction of Toxin Genes from Chinese Yellow Catfish Based on Transcriptomic and Proteomic Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bing; Li, Xiaofeng; Lin, Zhilong; Ruan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Min; Liu, Jie; Tong, Ting; Li, Jia; Huang, Yu; Wen, Bo; Sun, Ying; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Fish venom remains a virtually untapped resource. There are so few fish toxin sequences for reference, which increases the difficulty to study toxins from venomous fish and to develop efficient and fast methods to dig out toxin genes or proteins. Here, we utilized Chinese yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) as our research object, since it is a representative species in Siluriformes with its venom glands embedded in the pectoral and dorsal fins. In this study, we set up an in-house toxin database and a novel toxin-discovering protocol to dig out precise toxin genes by combination of transcriptomic and proteomic sequencing. Finally, we obtained 15 putative toxin proteins distributed in five groups, namely Veficolin, Ink toxin, Adamalysin, Za2G and CRISP toxin. It seems that we have developed a novel bioinformatics method, through which we could identify toxin proteins with high confidence. Meanwhile, these toxins can also be useful for comparative studies in other fish and development of potential drugs. PMID:27089325

  13. Morphology of the Epidermis of the Neotropical Catfish Pimelodella lateristriga (Lichtenstein, 1823) with Emphasis in Club Cells

    PubMed Central

    Damasceno, Eduardo Medeiros; Monteiro, Juliana Castro; Duboc, Luiz Fernando; Dolder, Heidi; Mancini, Karina

    2012-01-01

    The epidermis of Ostariophysi fish is composed of 4 main cell types: epidermal cells (or filament containing cells), mucous cells, granular cells and club cells. The morphological analysis of the epidermis of the catfish Pimelodella lateristriga revealed the presence of only two types of cells: epidermal and club cells. The latter were evident in the middle layer of the epidermis, being the largest cells within the epithelium. Few organelles were located in the perinuclear region, while the rest of the cytoplasm was filled with a non-vesicular fibrillar substance. Club cells contained two irregular nuclei with evident nucleoli and high compacted peripheral chromatin. Histochemical analysis detected prevalence of protein within the cytoplasm other than carbohydrates, which were absent. These characteristics are similar to those described to most Ostariophysi studied so far. On the other hand, the epidermal cells differ from what is found in the literature. The present study described three distinct types, as follows: superficial, abundant and dense cells. Differences among them were restricted to their cytoplasm and nucleus morphology. Mucous cells were found in all Ostariophysi studied so far, although they were absent in P. lateristriga, along with granular cells, also typical of other catfish epidermis. The preset study corroborates the observations on club cells' morphology in Siluriformes specimens, and shows important differences in epidermis composition and cell structure of P. lateristriga regarding the literature data. PMID:23226253

  14. Seed dispersal by fishes in tropical and temperate fresh waters: The growing evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Michael H.; Correa, Sandra Bibiana; Parolin, Pia; Pollux, B. J. A.; Anderson, Jill T.; Lucas, Christine; Widmann, Peter; Tjiu, Albertus; Galetti, Mauro; Goulding, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Fruit-eating by fishes represents an ancient (perhaps Paleozoic) interaction increasingly regarded as important for seed dispersal (ichthyochory) in tropical and temperate ecosystems. Most of the more than 275 known frugivorous species belong to the mainly Neotropical Characiformes (pacus, piranhas) and Siluriformes (catfishes), but cypriniforms (carps, minnows) are more important in the Holarctic and Indomalayan regions. Frugivores are among the most abundant fishes in Neotropical floodplains where they eat the fruits of a wide variety of trees and shrubs. By consuming fruits, fishes gain access to rich sources of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins and act as either seed predators or seed dispersers. With their often high mobility, large size, and great longevity, fruit-eating fishes can play important roles as seed dispersers and exert strong influences on local plant-recruitment dynamics and regional biodiversity. Recent feeding experiments focused on seed traits after gut passage support the idea that fishes are major seed dispersers in floodplain and riparian forests. Overfishing, damming, deforestation and logging potentially diminish ichthyochory and require immediate attention to ameliorate their effects. Much exciting work remains in terms of fish and plant adaptations to ichthyochory, dispersal regimes involving fishes in different ecosystems, and increased use of nondestructive methods such as stomach lavage, stable isotopes, genetic analyses and radio transmitters to determine fish diets and movements.

  15. Cloning and tissue distribution of appetite-regulating peptides in pirapitinga (Piaractus brachypomus).

    PubMed

    Volkoff, H

    2015-10-01

    Pirapitinga (or red-bellied pacu, Piaractus brachypomus, Characiforme, Serrasalmidae) is an economically important South American fish for which the endocrine mechanism of the regulation of feeding has never been examined. To better understand these mechanisms, cDNAs encoding the appetite-regulating peptides orexin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), apelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), leptin and ghrelin were isolated in pirapitinga and their mRNA distributions examined in peripheral tissues and brain. When compared to other fish, the sequences obtained for all peptides were most similar to those of other Characiforme fish (i.e. Mexican cavefish) and Siluriformes (catfish) as well as Cypriniformes (i.e. goldfish, zebrafish). All peptides were widely expressed within the brain. With the exception of CART, which was only expressed in brain, the mRNAs of all peptides were present in several peripheral tissues, including gastrointestinal tract, kidneys and gills. The widespread and peptide-specific distributions suggest that each peptide might have distinct physiological actions in the brain and on peripheral tissues, in particular on the gastrointestinal tract, which include feeding regulation. This preliminary study opens new avenues for further functional studies on the endocrine regulation of feeding in Serrasalmidae fish, including pirapitinga.

  16. The fish fauna in tropical rivers: the case of the Sorocaba River basin, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Smith, Welber Senteio; Petrere Júnior, Miguel; Barrella, Walter

    2003-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpio.

  17. Isolation of the pituitary gonadotrophic α-subunit hormone of the giant amazonian fish: pirarucu (Arapaima gigas).

    PubMed

    Faria, M T; Carvalho, R F; Sevilhano, T C A; Oliveira, N A J; Silva, C F P; Oliveira, J E; Soares, C R J; Garcez, R; Santo, P R E; Bartolini, P

    2013-06-01

    The cDNAs of the α-subunit of the pituitary gonadotrophic hormones (GTHα) of fish of the order Osteoglossiformes or the superorder Osteoglossomorpha have never been sequenced. For a better understanding the phylogenetic diversity and evolution of PGHα in fish and for future biotechnological synthesis of the gonadotrophic hormones (ag-FSH and ag-LH), of Arapaima gigas, one of the largest freshwater fishes of the world, its GTHα cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcriptase and the polymerase chain reaction starting from total pituitary RNA. The ag-GTHα-subunit was found to be encoded by 348 bp, corresponding to a protein of 115 amino acids, with a putative signal peptide of 24 amino acids and a mature peptide of 91 amino acids. Ten cysteine residues, responsible for forming 5 disulfide linkages, 2 putative N-linked glycosylation sites and 3 proline residues, were found to be conserved on the basis of the known sequences of vertebrate gonadotrophic hormones. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the amino acid sequences of 38 GTHα-subunits, revealed the highest identity of A. gigas with members of the Acipenseriformes, Anguilliformes, Siluriformes and Cypriniformes (87.1-89.5 %) and the lowest with Gadiformes and Cyprinodontiformes (55.0 %). The obtained phylogenetic tree agrees with previous analysis of teleostei, since A. gigas, of the order of Osteoglossiformes, appears as the sister group of Clupeocephala, while Elopomorpha forms the most basal group of all other teleosts.

  18. The ichthyofauna of limnic systems in Quaternary deposits of extreme southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Cindy M; Quintela, Fernando M; Corrêa, Fabiano; Loebmann, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Quaternary in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, is geologically represented by the coastal plain and was originated by successive events of Pleistocene-Holocene marine transgressions and the occurrence of alluvial deposits. This paper aimed to characterize the fish assemblage occurring in a swampy Quaternary area adjacent to Lagoa Pequena, a lacustrine system connected to the west margin of the Laguna dos Patos estuary. A checklist is also provided of the ichthyofauna so far recorded in limnic systems of Quaternary deposits in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 42 species was recorded, distributed in nine orders, 18 families and 31 genera. Characidae and Cichlidae were the most representative families, comprising 15 and 4 species respectively. A bibliographic revision associated to our sample data revealed the occurrence of 156 species in limnic systems inserted in RS Quaternary deposits (114 limnic, 15 marine/estuarine/limnic, ten marine/estuarine, nine estuarine/limnic and eight marine). Characiformes and Siluriformes are the most diverse orders, corroborating the Neotropical pattern. Seven species can be considered endemic to RS Quaternary deposits.

  19. Evolution of Venomous Cartilaginous and Ray-Finned Fishes.

    PubMed

    Smith, W Leo; Stern, Jennifer H; Girard, Matthew G; Davis, Matthew P

    2016-11-01

    Venom and its associated delivery systems have evolved in numerous animal groups ranging from jellyfishes to spiders, lizards, shrews, and the male platypus. Building off new data and previously published anatomical and molecular studies, we explore the evolution of and variation within venomous fishes. We show the results of the first multi-locus, ordinal-level phylogenetic analysis of cartilaginous (Chondrichthyes) and ray-finned (Actinopterygii) fishes that hypothesizes 18 independent evolutions of this specialization. Ancestral-states reconstruction indicates that among the 2386-2962 extant venomous fishes, envenomed structures have evolved four times in cartilaginous fishes, once in eels (Anguilliformes), once in catfishes (Siluriformes), and 12 times in spiny-rayed fishes (Acanthomorpha). From our anatomical studies and phylogenetic reconstruction, we show that dorsal spines are the most common envenomed structures (∼95% of venomous fish species and 15 independent evolutions). In addition to envenomed spines, fishes have also evolved venomous fangs (2% of venomous fish species, two independent evolutions), cleithral spines (2% of venomous fish species, one independent evolution), and opercular or subopercular spines (1% of venomous fish species, three independent evolutions).

  20. The ichthyofauna of limnic systems in Quaternary deposits of extreme southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Assumpção, Cindy M.; Quintela, Fernando M.; Corrêa, Fabiano; Loebmann, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Quaternary in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, is geologically represented by the coastal plain and was originated by successive events of Pleistocene-Holocene marine transgressions and the occurrence of alluvial deposits. This paper aimed to characterize the fish assemblage occurring in a swampy Quaternary area adjacent to Lagoa Pequena, a lacustrine system connected to the west margin of the Laguna dos Patos estuary. A checklist is also provided of the ichthyofauna so far recorded in limnic systems of Quaternary deposits in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 42 species was recorded, distributed in nine orders, 18 families and 31 genera. Characidae and Cichlidae were the most representative families, comprising 15 and 4 species respectively. A bibliographic revision associated to our sample data revealed the occurrence of 156 species in limnic systems inserted in RS Quaternary deposits (114 limnic, 15 marine/estuarine/limnic, ten marine/estuarine, nine estuarine/limnic and eight marine). Characiformes and Siluriformes are the most diverse orders, corroborating the Neotropical pattern. Seven species can be considered endemic to RS Quaternary deposits. PMID:28174498

  1. Phenoscape: Identifying Candidate Genes for Evolutionary Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Richard C.; Su, Baofeng; Balhoff, James P.; Eames, B. Frank; Dahdul, Wasila M.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Vision, Todd J.; Dunham, Rex A.; Mabee, Paula M.; Westerfield, Monte

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypes resulting from mutations in genetic model organisms can help reveal candidate genes for evolutionarily important phenotypic changes in related taxa. Although testing candidate gene hypotheses experimentally in nonmodel organisms is typically difficult, ontology-driven information systems can help generate testable hypotheses about developmental processes in experimentally tractable organisms. Here, we tested candidate gene hypotheses suggested by expert use of the Phenoscape Knowledgebase, specifically looking for genes that are candidates responsible for evolutionarily interesting phenotypes in the ostariophysan fishes that bear resemblance to mutant phenotypes in zebrafish. For this, we searched ZFIN for genetic perturbations that result in either loss of basihyal element or loss of scales phenotypes, because these are the ancestral phenotypes observed in catfishes (Siluriformes). We tested the identified candidate genes by examining their endogenous expression patterns in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. The experimental results were consistent with the hypotheses that these features evolved through disruption in developmental pathways at, or upstream of, brpf1 and eda/edar for the ancestral losses of basihyal element and scales, respectively. These results demonstrate that ontological annotations of the phenotypic effects of genetic alterations in model organisms, when aggregated within a knowledgebase, can be used effectively to generate testable, and useful, hypotheses about evolutionary changes in morphology. PMID:26500251

  2. Phylogenomic Systematics of Ostariophysan fishes: Ultraconserved Elements Support the Surprising Non-monophyly of Characiformes.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Faircloth, Brant C; Alda, Fernando; Ludt, William B; McMahan, Caleb D; Near, Thomas J; Dornburg, Alex; Albert, James S; Arroyave, Jairo; Stiassny, Melanie L J; Sorenson, Laurie; Alfaro, Michael E

    2017-02-27

    Ostariophysi is a superorder of bony fishes including more than 10,300 species in 1,100 genera and 70 families. This superorder is traditionally divided into five major groups (orders): Gonorynchiformes (milkfishes and sandfishes), Cypriniformes (carps and minnows), Characiformes (tetras and their allies), Siluriformes (catfishes), and Gymnotiformes (electric knifefishes). Unambiguous resolution of the relationships among these lineages remains elusive, with previous molecular and morphological analyses failing to produce a consensus phylogeny. In this study, we use over 350 ultraconserved element (UCEs) loci comprising five million base pairs collected across thirty-five representative ostariophysan species to compile one of the most data-rich phylogenies of fishes to date. We use these data to infer higher-level (interordinal) relationships among ostariophysan fishes, focusing on the monophyly of the Characiformes- one the most contentiously debated groups in fish systematics. As with most previous molecular studies, we recover a non-monophyletic Characiformes with the two monophyletic suborders, Citharinoidei and Characoidei, more closely related to other ostariophysan clades than to each other. We also explore incongruence between results from different UCE datasets, issues of orthology, and the use of morphological characters in combination with our molecular data.

  3. Spermatological characters of monozoic tapeworms (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), including first data on a species from the Indomalayan catfish.

    PubMed

    Yoneva, Aneta; Levron, Céline; Ash, Anirban; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-04-01

    The ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and mature spermatozoon in Lytocestus indicus (Cestoda: Lytocestidae) is described; this is the first representative of this group of monozoic, presumably most basal, tapeworms (Eucestoda) from the Indomalayan region to be documented in this manner. Similarly, as in other caryophyllideans, its spermiogenesis involves the formation of a conical differentiation zone with 2 centrioles associated with striated roots and an intercentriolar body. In the course of the process, 1 of the centrioles develops a free flagellum, which fuses with a cytoplasmic protrusion, whereas the other remains oriented in a cytoplasmic bud. Spermiogenesis is also characterized by the presence of electron-dense material in the early stages of spermiogenesis and a slight rotation of the flagellar bud. The mature spermatozoon of L. indicus is a filiform cell tapered at both extremities that lacks mitochondria; its nucleus has parallel disposition to the axoneme and does not reach up to the posterior extremity of the spermatozoon, which is typical for spermatozoa of the type III pattern. The new data confirm that caryophyllideans share the same type of spermiogenesis that is considered to be plesiomorphic in the Eucestoda. The existing information on spermatological ultrastructure of 8 members for 3 of 4 caryophyllidean families from different host groups (cyprinids and catostomids, both Cypriniformes, and mochokids and clariids, both Siluriformes) from 4 zoogeographical regions (Palearctic, Neotropic, Ethiopian, and Indomalayan regions) demonstrates great uniformity in spermiogenesis and sperm ultrastructure, which does not reflect different taxonomic position of the species studied.

  4. The future of research on electroreception and electrocommunication

    PubMed

    Bullock

    1999-05-01

    Beyond continuation of currently active areas, some less studied ones are selected for predictions of marked advance. (1) Most discoveries will be in cellular components and molecular mechanisms for different classes of receptor or central pathways. (2) More major taxa, possibly birds, reptiles or invertebrates, will be found to have electroreceptive species representing independent evolutionary 'inventions'. (3) Electric organs with weak and episodic electric discharges will be found in new taxa; first, among siluriforms. (4) New examples are to be expected, such as lampreys, where synchronized muscle action potentials sum to voltages in the range of weakly electric fish. Some of these will look like intermediates in the evolution of electric organs. (5) Ethological significance will be found for a variety of known physiological features; e.g. uranoscopids, skates and weakly electric catfish with episodic electric discharges; electroreceptive ability of animals such as lampreys, chimaeras, lungfish, sturgeons, paddlefish and salamanders with Lorenzinian-type ampullae; gymnotiform and mormyrid detection of the capacitative component of impedance. (6) The organization of some higher functions in the cerebellum and forebrain will gradually come to light.

  5. Molecular phylogeny and ultrastructure of Myxobolus cf. cuneus, a parasite of patinga hybrid and Henneguya pseudoplatystoma, a parasite of pintado hybrid.

    PubMed

    Milanin, Tiago; Maia, Antônio Augusto Mendes; Silva, Márcia Ramos Monteiro; Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson Aparecido

    2015-09-01

    Through morphological, histopathological and ultrastructural analysis of Myxobolus cuneus Adriano, Arana et Cordeiro, 2006 and Henneguya pseudoplatystoma Naldoni, Arana, Maia, Ceccarelli, Tavares, Borges, Pozo et Adriano, 2009 were identified infecting pacu respectively (Piaractus mesopotamicus) and hybrid pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans x Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum) taken from Brazilian fish farms. The present study describes 18S rDNA sequencing of Myxobolus cf. cuneus infecting the spleen of farmed patinga, a hybrid fish resulting from the crossing of P. mesopotamicus x Piaractus brachypomus, and H. pseudoplatystoma found in farmed hybrid pintado from the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study also provides new details of the host-parasite interface of M. cf. cuneus, which reveal that the plasmodial wall is composed of a single membrane connected to the plasmodium ectoplasm by numerous pinocytic canals. The plasmodia also displayed asynchronous development but had disporic pansporoblasts at different developmental stages; immature and mature spores were found at different depth levels of the plasmodium. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis showed that M. cf. cuneus appeared as a sister species of Henneguya pellucida Adriano, Arana et Cordeiro, 2005 in a sub-clade composed mainly of myxosporean parasites of characiforms, and that H. pseudoplatystoma clustered in a sub-clade composed of Henneguya/Myxobolus spp. parasites of siluriform fish.

  6. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of Hunterella nodulosa (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), a monozoic parasite of suckers (Catostomidae) in North America.

    PubMed

    Yoneva, Aneta; Levron, Celine; Oros, Mikulás; Orosová, Martina; Scholz, Tomás

    2012-09-01

    Spermiogenesis and ultrastructure of mature spermatozoon of the caryophyllidean cestode Hunterella nodulosa, a parasite of suckers (Catostomidae), have been studied by transmission electron microscopy. This monozoic tapeworm is unique in its mode of attachment and represents the second North American species studied. The process of spermiogenesis of H. nodulosa follows the general pattern already described in other caryophyllideans. The most characteristic feature is the presence of a slight rotation of the flagellar bud, which seems to be a typical character of spermiogenesis in this cestode group. The mature spermatozoon of H. nodulosa is characterized by the presence of one axoneme of 9 + "1" type of the trepaxonematan flatworms surrounded by a semi-arc of cortical microtubules in its anterior extremity, parallel nucleus and cortical microtubules arranged in a parallel pattern, which corresponds to the Type III pattern of cestode spermatozoa according to Levron et al. (2010). Comparison of the present data with those available for other caryophyllideans did not reveal substantial differences, even though they belong to different families, infect different hosts (catostomid, cyprinid and siluriform fishes) and occur in distant zoogeographical regions. This indicates uniformity of the process of sperm formation and spermatozoon ultrastructure in one of the evolutionarily most ancient groups of tapeworms.

  7. Distribution pattern of crustacean ectoparasites of freshwater fish from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Dias-Júnior, Miguel Benedito Ferreira; Florentino, Alexandro Cezar; Silva, Luís Mauricio Abdon; da Cunha, Alan Cavalcanti

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the informations relating to parasite crustaceans species that was published over the course of one century (1913 to 2013), in order to search for infestation and distribution patterns among these ectoparasites in Brazilian freshwater fish species. This search was carried out on 445 samples of 119 host fish of 27 families within the orders Characiformes, Perciformes, Clupeiformes, Mugiliformes, Osteoglossiformes, Symbranchiformes, Tetraodontiformes and Siluriformes from various regions of Brazil. We organized different host-parasite systems into matrices grouping species at different taxonomic and infestation levels and according to host parameters. Five families of parasites (Ergasilidae, Argulidae, Lernaeidae, Lernaeopodidae and Cymothoidae) distributed into 76 species of 27 genera were analyzed in the host samples, which presented dominance of Ergasilidae species, mainly from the genus Ergasilus. Some crustaceans are host and site-specific, especially in relation to fish in particular habitats and lifestyles (e.g. Perulernaea gamitanae, Anphira branchialis and Riggia paranensis), while other parasites frequently have no preference (e.g. Lernaea cyprinacea and Braga patagonica). We found broadly similar distribution patterns for some crustacean species among the different localities, whereas other species showed well-defined geographical patterns, and these findings were discussed.

  8. Observations on cucullanid nematodes from freshwater fishes in Mexico, including Dichelyne mexicanus sp. n.

    PubMed

    Caspeta-Mandujano, J M; Moravec, F; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    1999-01-01

    A new cucullanid nematode, Dichelyne mexicanus sp. n., is described from the intestine of three species of fishes, Agonostomus monticola (Bancroft) (Mugilidae, Perciformes) (type host), Ictalurus balsanus (Jordan et Snyder) (Ictaluridae, Siluriformes) and Cichlasoma beani (Jordan) (Cichlidae, Perciformes), from three rivers (La Maquina River, Veracruz; Chontalcoatlán River, Guerrero and Santiago River, Nayarit) in central Mexico. This species is characterised by the absence of a ventral sucker in the male (subgenus Dichelyne) and it differs from its congeners mainly in possessing very unequal and dissimilar spicules (left 0.465-0.768 mm and right 293-548 mm long), an asymmetrical gubernaculum, and two intestinal caeca. Another cucullanid nematode, Cucullanus caballeroi Petter, 1977, is reported from Dormitator maculatus (Bloch) (Eleotridae, Perciformes) from the La Palma and La Maquina Rivers and Balzapote stream, Veracruz, being briefly described and illustrated; this represents a new host record. Findings of D. mexicanus and C. caballeroi represent a new record of cucullanid nematodes from fishes in Mexican fresh waters.

  9. Development of predictive models for predicting binding affinity of endocrine disrupting chemicals to fish sex hormone-binding globulin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huihui; Yang, Xianhai; Yin, Cen; Wei, Mengbi; He, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Disturbing the transport process is a crucial pathway for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exerting disrupting endocrine function. However, this mechanism has not received enough attention compared with that of hormones receptors and synthetase. Recently, we have explored the interaction between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of human (hSHBG). In this study, interactions between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of eight fish species (fSHBG) were investigated by employing classification methods and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). In the modeling, the relative binding affinity (RBA) of a chemical with 17β-estradiol binding to fSHBG was selected as the endpoint. Classification models were developed for two fish species, while QSAR models were established for the other six fish species. Statistical results indicated that the models had satisfactory goodness of fit, robustness and predictive ability, and that application domain covered a large number of endogenous and exogenous steroidal and non-steroidal chemicals. Additionally, by comparing the log RBA values, it was found that the same chemical may have different affinities for fSHBG from different fish species, thus species diversity should be taken into account. However, the affinity of fSHBG showed a high correlation for fishes within the same Order (i.e., Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes and Siluriformes), thus the fSHBG binding data for one fish species could be used to extrapolate other fish species in the same Order.

  10. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Six Catfish Species from an Altitude Gradient Reveals Adaptive Evolution in Tibetan Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiuhui; Dai, Wei; Kang, Jingliang; Yang, Liandong; He, Shunping

    2015-01-01

    Glyptosternoid fishes (Siluriformes), one of the three broad fish lineages (the two other are schizothoracines and Triplophysa), have a limited distribution in the rivers in the Tibetan Plateau and peripheral regions. To investigate the genetic mechanisms underlying adaptation to the Tibetan Plateau in several fish species from gradient altitudes, a total of 20,659,183–37,166,756 sequence reads from six species of catfish were generated by Illumina sequencing, resulting in six assemblies. Analysis of the 1,656 orthologs among the six assembled catfish unigene sets provided consistent evidence for genome-wide accelerated evolution in the three glyptosternoid lineages living at high altitudes. A large number of genes refer to functional categories related to hypoxia and energy metabolism exhibited rapid evolution in the glyptosternoid lineages relative to yellowhead catfish living in plains areas. Genes showing signatures of rapid evolution and positive selection in the glyptosternoid lineages were also enriched in functions associated with energy metabolism and hypoxia. Our analyses provide novel insights into highland adaptation in fishes and can serve as a foundation for future studies aiming to identify candidate genes underlying the genetic basis of adaptation in Tibetan fishes. PMID:26564948

  11. Fish assemblage structure of the Ipanema River, a small lotic environment partially protected by a Conservation Unit in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A K; Apone, F; Birindelli, J L O; Garavello, J C

    2013-05-01

    A study on the fish assemblage of the Ipanema River, a small affluent of the Tietê River basin in southeastern Brazil, was performed aiming to look for structural patterns of species diversity in small lowland lotic environments. Fish samplings were performed every two months from June 2003 to April 2004 at four sample sites located on the lower stretch of the river. Local assemblage showed to be species rich, with fifty-two species belonging to Characiformes (25 spp.), Siluriformes (19 spp.), Cyprinodontiformes (3 spp.), Gymnotiformes (2 spp.), Perciformes (2 spp.), and Synbranchiformes (1 sp.). Fish fauna was composed of small-sized species (<200 mm SL) and by individuals of medium (up to 400 mm SL) to large (more than 400 mm SL) sized species. The Ipanema River, such as other small lotic transitional environments in the upper Paraná River drainage, is considered important for conservation of fish fauna because they cover available habitats for persistent populations of small-sized species and for non-persistent individuals or shoals of medium and large-sized fish species, which occupy other habitats along their life-history (e. g. floodplains, oxbow lakes, main channel of great rivers). The importance of the Ipanema River basin for fish fauna conservation is also reinforced by the fact that it is located in a highly impacted region of southeastern Brazil, near the São Paulo metropolitan area.

  12. First description of a Pliocene ichthyofauna from Central Africa (site KL2, Kolle area, Eastern Djurab, Chad): What do we learn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-06-01

    This is the first extensive study of a freshwater fish fauna from a Pliocene site in Central Africa, based on fossils collected at the KL2 site in the fossiliferous area of Kolle (Lower Pliocene, Chad). A relatively high fish diversity is revealed, confirming the presence of 19 taxa: Polypteriformes, Polypteridae ( Polypterus sp.); Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossidae ( Heterotis sp.), Mormyriformes, Gymnarchidae ( Gymnarchus sp. cf. niloticus); Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae ( Labeo sp.); Characiformes, Alestidae ( Hydrocynus; Alestinae type Alestes/ Brycinus; Sindacharax sp. cf. deserti, Sindacharax sp.), Distichodontidae ( Distichodus sp.); Siluriformes, Ariidae (cf. Calarius), ?Bagridae (cf. Bagrus), Claroteidae (cf. Clarotes), Mochokidae ( Synodontis sp.), Clariidae ( Clarias sp. or Heterobranchus sp.); Perciformes family indet. ( Semlikiichthys sp. cf. darsao), Latidae ( Lates sp. cf. niloticus), Cichlidae indet., and Perciformes indet.; Tetraodontiformes Tetraodontidae ( Tetraodon sp.). The aquatic environment corresponding to the fossil fish assemblage might be a floodplain crossed by well-oxygenated open waters. Compared with a contemporaneous East African region, the mid-Pliocene Chadian fish diversity reveals a certain endemicity, while connections between the Niger and the Chadian basin are suspected because of the presence of a freshwater ariid fish in Kolle.

  13. L-Rhamnose-binding lectins (RBLs) in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus: Characterization and expression profiling in mucosal tissues.

    PubMed

    Thongda, Wilawan; Li, Chao; Luo, Yupeng; Beck, Benjamin H; Peatman, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Rhamnose-binding lectins (RBLs) have recently emerged as important molecules in the context of innate immunity in teleost fishes. Previously, using RNA-seq technology, we observed marked up-regulation of a RBL in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) gill following a challenge with the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare. Furthermore, the magnitude of RBL up-regulation positively correlated with disease susceptibility. Moving forward from these findings, we wished to more broadly understand RBL function, diversity, and expression kinetics in channel catfish. Therefore, in the present study we characterized the RBL gene family present in select channel catfish tissues and profiled family member expression after challenge with two different Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Here, six RBLs were identified from channel catfish and were designated IpRBL1a, IpRBL1b, IpRBL1c, IpRBL3a, IpRBL3b, and IpRBL5a. These RBLs contained carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) ranging from one to three domains and each CRD contained the conserved motifs of -YGR- and -DPC-. Despite a level of structural conservation, the catfish RBLs showed low full-length identity with RBLs from outside the order Siluriformes. IpRBL expression after bacterial infection varied depending on both pathogen and tissue type, suggesting that IpRBLs may exert disparate functions or exhibit distinct tissue-selective roles in the host immune response to bacterial pathogens.

  14. Structural and ultrastructural description of larval development in Zungaro jahu.

    PubMed

    Marques, Camila; Faustino, Francine; Bertolucci, Bruno; Paes, Maria do Carmo Faria; Valentin, Fernanda Nogueira; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada

    2017-01-31

    The Zungaro jahu is an important large catfish of the order Siluriformes that is in danger of extinction due to habitat destruction. Studies on its biology are scarce and the majority relates only to nutrition or parasitology. In order to provide greater information on its morphology and aid husbandry and larviculture studies, the aim of this study was to characterize larval development in Z. jahu from hatching to total yolk absorption. Samples were collected at pre-established times, processed, stained, and analyzed under stereomicroscopy, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Total yolk absorption was observed by 60 hours post-hatching (hph) at 28.75 ± 0.59°C. The newly hatched larvae showed slightly pigmented body, the outline of the digestive tract, evident eyes, and the first swimming movements. Mouth opening took place at 12 hph and the connection between the oral cavity and the rudimentary intestine was observed at 24 hph. Were analyzed the main larval organs and systems: digestive organs, heart, gill arches, sensory system, thyroid, kidney, and swim bladder. As the larvae grew, these organs became more mature and functional. The development of the sensory and feeding structures was observed at the start of larval development, and thus before depletion of endogenous energy reserves, the strategy for this species is to increase its chances of survival in the environment.

  15. [Species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Zhong, Jin-Xin

    2013-05-01

    Based on the related published papers, and by using Geographic Information System (ArcGIS 9.3), this paper analyzed the species composition and geographical distribution of threatened fishes in Yunnan Province of Southwest China. There were 83 threatened species living in the Province, belonging to 5 orders, 13 families, and 47 genera. Cypriniformes was absolutely dominant, with 64 species, followed by Siluriformes, with 16 species. Cyprinidae fishes had 51 species, accounting for 79.7% of Cypriniformes. The most species of Cyprinid fishes were of Barbinae (14 species), Cyprininae (10 species), and Cultrinae (10 species). The threatened fishes could be divided into two zoogeographical regions, i. e., Tibetan Plateau region and Oriental region, and their species composition and geographical distribution were resulted from the historical evolution adapted to the related environments. Whatever in rivers and in lakes, the Cyprinid fishes were both absolutely dominant, occupying 36.1% and 31.3% of the total, respectively. The Cyprinid fishes in rivers were mostly of endangered species, while those in lakes were mostly of vulnerable species. The factors affecting the threatened fishes in the Province were discussed from the two aspects of geodynamic evolution and present situation.

  16. Metals and metalloid in eight fish species consumed by citizens of Bogota D.C., Colombia, and potential risk to humans.

    PubMed

    López-Barrera, Ellie Anne; Barragán-Gonzalez, Rafael G

    2016-01-01

    The risk imposed upon society by consumption of foods contaminated with metals and metalloids is an environmental problem attributed to the increasing number of mining extraction activities currently underway in Colombia. The aim of the current study was to determine concentrations of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and a metalloid arsenic (As) found in the species of most consumed fish species by citizens of Bogota D.C. (Colombia), and the consequent potential risk to human health was also calculated. Muscle samples of 8 fish species were obtained from 203 individuals collected through 2014. The highest metal concentrations detected were as follows: Pb in Oncorhynchus sp. (0.0595 mg/kg), Cd and Hg in Pimelodus sp. (0.0072 and 0.0579 mg/kg, respectively), and As in Scomberomorus sp (0.0471 mg/kg). Further, the levels of metal accumulation from consumption of fish were calculated utilizing the metal pollution index (MPI), with elevated values noted in Pseudoplatystoma sp (0.06 mg/kg), followed by Scomberomorus sp. and Centropomus sp. (0.05 and 0.04 mg/kg, respectively). The multiple species exposure index (Em.j) denotes the level of exposure associated with consumption of various contaminated fish species, and this level occurred in decreasing order as follows: As > Pb > Cd > Hg. The multiple chemical exposure index (Ej.m), which accounts for exposure to multiple metals, identified Prochilodus sp. as the species displaying the highest level of exposure per consumption (8 × 10(-6) mg/kg-d). The target hazard quotient (THQ) for human health indicated high levels for Hg and Cd in Prochilodus sp. (0.026 and 0.005, respectively), Pb in Oncorhynchus sp (0.025), and As in Pseudoplatistoma sp. and Centropomus sp. (0.023). Data emphasize the need for adequate nationwide public policies that promote assessment of exposure levels and potential adverse health risks associated with dietary consumption of different fish species in Colombia.

  17. Novel relationships among ten fish model species revealed based on a phylogenomic analysis using ESTs.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Dirk; Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    2006-06-01

    The power of comparative phylogenomic analyses also depends on the amount of data that are included in such studies. We used expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from fish model species as a proof of principle approach in order to test the reliability of using ESTs for phylogenetic inference. As expected, the robustness increases with the amount of sequences. Although some progress has been made in the elucidation of the phylogeny of teleosts, relationships among the main lineages of the derived fish (Euteleostei) remain poorly defined and are still debated. We performed a phylogenomic analysis of a set of 42 of orthologous genes from 10 available fish model systems from seven different orders (Salmoniformes, Siluriformes, Cypriniformes, Tetraodontiformes, Cyprinodontiformes, Beloniformes, and Perciformes) of euteleostean fish to estimate divergence times and evolutionary relationships among those lineages. All 10 fish species serve as models for developmental, aquaculture, genomic, and comparative genetic studies. The phylogenetic signal and the strength of the contribution of each of the 42 orthologous genes were estimated with randomly chosen data subsets. Our study revealed a molecular phylogeny of higher-level relationships of derived teleosts, which indicates that the use of multiple genes produces robust phylogenies, a finding that is expected to apply to other phylogenetic issues among distantly related taxa. Our phylogenomic analyses confirm that the euteleostean superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii are monophyletic and the Protacanthopterygii and Ostariophysi are sister clades. In addition, and contrary to the traditional phylogenetic hypothesis, our analyses determine that killifish (Cyprinodontiformes), medaka (Beloniformes), and cichlids (Perciformes) appear to be more closely related to each other than either of them is to pufferfish (Tetraodontiformes). All 10 lineages split before or during the fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangea in the

  18. Systematic variation in the pattern of gene paralog retention between the teleost superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii.

    PubMed

    Garcia de la Serrana, Daniel; Mareco, Edson A; Johnston, Ian A

    2014-04-01

    Teleost fish underwent whole-genome duplication around 450 Ma followed by diploidization and loss of 80-85% of the duplicated genes. To identify a deep signature of this teleost-specific whole-genome duplication (TSGD), we searched for duplicated genes that were systematically and uniquely retained in one or other of the superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii. TSGD paralogs comprised 17-21% of total gene content. Some 2.6% (510) of TSGD paralogs were present as pairs in the Ostariophysi genomes of Danio rerio (Cypriniformes) and Astyanax mexicanus (Characiformes) but not in species from four orders of Acanthopterygii (Gasterosteiformes, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodon nigroviridis; Perciformes, Oreochromis niloticus; and Beloniformes, Oryzias latipes) where a single copy was identified. Similarly, 1.3% (418) of total gene number represented cases where TSGD paralogs pairs were systematically retained in the Acanthopterygian but conserved as a single copy in Ostariophysi genomes. We confirmed the generality of these results by phylogenetic and synteny analysis of 40 randomly selected linage-specific paralogs (LSPs) from each superorder and completed with the transcriptomes of three additional Ostariophysi species (Ictalurus punctatus [Siluriformes], Sinocyclocheilus species [Cypriniformes], and Piaractus mesopotamicus [Characiformes]). No chromosome bias was detected in TSGD paralog retention. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed significant enrichment of GO terms relative to the human GO SLIM database for "growth," "Cell differentiation," and "Embryo development" in Ostariophysi and for "Transport," "Signal Transduction," and "Vesicle mediated transport" in Acanthopterygii. The observed patterns of paralog retention are consistent with different diploidization outcomes having contributed to the evolution/diversification of each superorder.

  19. Gonadotropin subunits of the characiform Astyanax altiparanae: Molecular characterization, spatiotemporal expression and their possible role on female reproductive dysfunction in captivity.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Lázaro Wender O; Bogerd, Jan; Vieceli, Felipe M; Branco, Giovana S; Camargo, Marília P; Cassel, Mônica; Moreira, Renata G; Yan, Chao Y I; Borella, Maria I

    2016-12-08

    To better understand the endocrine control of reproduction in Characiformes and the reproductive dysfunctions that commonly occur in migratory fish of this order when kept in captivity, we chose Astyanax altiparanae, which has asynchronous ovarian development and multiple spawning events, as model species. From A. altiparanae pituitary total RNA, we cloned the full-length cDNAs coding for the follicle-stimulating hormone β subunit (fshb), the luteinizing hormone β subunit (lhb), and the common gonadotropin α subunit (gpha). All three sequences showed the highest degree of amino acid identity with other homologous sequences from Siluriformes and Cypriniformes. Real-time, quantitative PCR analysis showed that gpha, fshb and lhb mRNAs were restricted to the pituitary gland. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, using specific-developed and characterized polyclonal antibodies, revealed that both gonadotropin β subunits mRNAs/proteins are expressed by distinct populations of gonadotropic cells in the proximal pars distalis. No marked variations for lhb transcripts levels were detected during the reproductive cycle, and 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one plasma levels were also constant, suggesting that the reproductive dysfunction seen in A. altiparanae females in captivity are probably due to a lack of increase of Lh synthesis during spawning season. In contrast, fshb transcripts changed significantly during the reproductive cycle, although estradiol-17β (E2) levels remained constant during the experiment, possibly due to a differential regulation of E2 synthesis. Taken together, these data demonstrate the putative involvement of gonadotropin signaling on the impairment of the reproductive function in a migratory species when kept in captivity. Future experimental studies must be carried to clarify this hypothesis. All these data open the possibility for further basic and applied studies related to reproduction in this fish model.

  20. Two new species of Rhabdochona (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from freshwater fishes in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Yooyen, Thanapon

    2011-09-01

    Two new species ofrhabdochonid nematodes are described from the intestine of freshwater fishes in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand: Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) pseudomysti sp. n. from the catfish Pseudomystus siamensis (Regan) (Bagridae, Siluriformes) in the Fang Brook, a tributary of the Kok River (the Mekong River basin), Fang District and Rhabdochona (Globochona) thaiensis sp. n. from the cyprinid Mystacoleucus marginatus (Valenciennes) (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes) in the Ping River (the Chao Phraya River basin), Muang District. Rhabdochona pseudomysti is mainly characterized by simple, leaf-like oval deirids (a unique feature among Rhabdochona spp.), a prostom with 14 anterior teeth, the presence of basal prostomal teeth, the length ratio of the muscular and glandular portions of oesophagus (1:2.1-2.6), an unusually long left spicule (1.10-1.22 mm), length ratio of spicules (1:11.5-14.7), arrangement of genital papillae, and conspicuously elevated vulval lips. Rhabdochona thaiensis differs from other representatives of the subgenus Globochona Moravec, 1972 possessing caudal projections on the tail tip in that it has only 2 claw-shaped projections located ventrally on the tail tip of both males and females; the species is mainly characterized by the presence of distinct pseudolabia, 8 anterior prostomal teeth, absence of basal teeth, bifurcated deirids, length ratio of the muscular and glandular portions of oesophagus (1:11.3-11.9), conspicuously short (135-141 microm) left spicule, arrangement of genital papillae, and somewhat elevated vulval lips. Fully developed eggs of R. pseudomysti and R. thaiensis remain unknown. These are the first nominal species of Rhabdochona reported from Thailand.

  1. Prosthenystera oonastica n. sp. (Digenea: Callodistomidae) from ictalurid catfishes in southeastern United States and molecular evidence differentiating species in the genus across Americas.

    PubMed

    Tkach, Vasyl V; Curran, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    Prosthenhystera oonastica n. sp. is described as a cryptic species from the gall bladder of three ictalurid catfishes, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), Ictalurus furcatus (Valenciennes), and Pylodictis olivaris (Rafinesque), in rivers in the southeastern United States. The species was originally named by Wilmer A. Rogers in 1979 but never formally described. Material used for the description consists of two specimens of Roger's original material and ten new specimens. We found no significant morphological features that are useful for discriminating between the new species and its closest relative Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing, 1850) Travassos, 1922 that occurs in the gall bladders of freshwater characiform, perciform and siluriform fishes, ranging from South America to southern Mexico. However, we found substantial differences in the large subunit ribosomal DNA (partial 28S rRNA gene) between the two species justifying the naming of the new species. Prosthenhystera oonastica n. sp. is readily differentiated from Prosthenhystera caballeroi Jiménez-Guzmán, 1973 that occurs in the gall bladders of characid fishes in Central America and Mexico, by having a relatively straight or bent rather than highly convoluted oesophagus, a relatively smaller ovary, smaller and less coalesced vitelline follicles, narrower caeca and smaller eggs. Comparison of ribosomal DNA (partial ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, and partial 28S gene) between P. oonastica n. sp. and P. caballeroi revealed large differences between the two species. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial 28S rRNA gene sequences from the three studied species of Prosthenhystera Travassos, 1922 and related digenean taxa revealed a closer relationship between P. oonastica n. sp. and P. obesa than either has had with P. caballeroi.

  2. Impact assessment of the introduction of Cichla kelberi in a large Neotropical reservoir and its lateral lagoons (Upper Paraná River Basin, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G

    2015-11-10

    AbstractThis study aimed to understand how the introduction of Cichla kelberi in Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River) affected the native ichthyofauna. Data on the structure of the small fish fauna assemblage were obtained before and after the introduction of this carnivorous species. Samplings were carried out in February and September of 2004, previously to the register of Cichla kelberi in the reservoir, and after its introduction, November of 2004, January, March, May and August of 2005, February and June of 2006, February and July of 2007, February and October of 2008 and February of 2009. A total of 4,693 fish, belonging to 43 different species was sampled between 2004 and 2009. The order Characiformes was the most abundant, followed by Perciformes and Siluriformes. Comparative analyses, before and after the introduction, could not demonstrate significant changes in composition, richness, abundance, biomass, mean length and diversity of fish. Aquatic insects were the main feeding item of C. kelberi, followed by tetragonopterinae fish. Cannibalism was recorded during the whole study period. The results showed that Cichla cannot deeply affect the ichthyofauna assemblages of a large Neotropical reservoir, at least in a short or medium term period after its introduction. The results also allowed concluding that the introduction of C. kelberi in the reservoir is in the phase 3. In this phase, the specie can survive and reproduce in the new environment; however it is not totally established and disseminated. The reasons for the fact that Cichla is still not dominant in Rosana Reservoir could be related to feeding competition, high rate of cannibalism and the presence of large amount of aquatic macrophytes (refuge zones). In spite of the results, the continuous monitoring of the role of non-native species on the local fish fauna is absolutely necessary because the impacts caused by colonization of this undesirable species can be magnified by complex processes

  3. Impact assessment of the introduction of Cichla kelberi in a large Neotropical reservoir and its lateral lagoons (Upper Paraná River Basin, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to understand how the introduction of Cichla kelberi in Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River) affected the native ichthyofauna. Data on the structure of the small fish fauna assemblage were obtained before and after the introduction of this carnivorous species. Samplings were carried out in February and September of 2004, previously to the register of Cichla kelberi in the reservoir, and after its introduction, November of 2004, January, March, May and August of 2005, February and June of 2006, February and July of 2007, February and October of 2008 and February of 2009. A total of 4,693 fish, belonging to 43 different species was sampled between 2004 and 2009. The order Characiformes was the most abundant, followed by Perciformes and Siluriformes. Comparative analyses, before and after the introduction, could not demonstrate significant changes in composition, richness, abundance, biomass, mean length and diversity of fish. Aquatic insects were the main feeding item of C. kelberi, followed by tetragonopterinae fish. Cannibalism was recorded during the whole study period. The results showed that Cichla cannot deeply affect the ichthyofauna assemblages of a large Neotropical reservoir, at least in a short or medium term period after its introduction. The results also allowed concluding that the introduction of C. kelberi in the reservoir is in the phase 3. In this phase, the specie can survive and reproduce in the new environment; however it is not totally established and disseminated. The reasons for the fact that Cichla is still not dominant in Rosana Reservoir could be related to feeding competition, high rate of cannibalism and the presence of large amount of aquatic macrophytes (refuge zones). In spite of the results, the continuous monitoring of the role of non-native species on the local fish fauna is absolutely necessary because the impacts caused by colonization of this undesirable species can be magnified by complex processes, usually

  4. Untangling convoluted taxonomy of Chambriella Rego, Chubb & Pavanelli, 1999 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae), with erection of Riggenbachiella n. g. and the description of a new species from pimelodid catfishes in the Neotropical Region.

    PubMed

    Alves, Philippe Vieira; de Chambrier, Alain; Luque, José Luis; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-03-01

    As part of a complex revision of proteocephalid cestodes parasitic in freshwater bony fishes of the Neotropical Region, the genus Chambriella Rego, Chubb & Pavanelli, 1999 is redefined based on detailed examination of type-specimens and newly collected material of both nominal species of the genus. This examination revealed that the type-species C. agostinhoi (Pavanelli & Santos, 1992) from Zungaro jahu (Ihering) (type-host) and Z. zungaro (Humboldt) is indistinguishable from Lenhataenia megacephala (Woodland, 1934) from Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix & Agassiz) (all hosts Siluriformes: Pimelodidae), the type- and only species of the genus. New molecular data (partial sequences of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene) support the conspecificity of these taxa. As a result, Lenhataenia de Chambrier & Scholz, 2008 becomes a junior synonym of Chambriella and its type-species, C. agostinhoi, a junior synonym of C. megacephala (Woodland, 1934) n. comb. The second species of Chambriella, C. paranaensis (Pavanelli & Rego, 1989) from Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes), is transferred to a new genus, Riggenbachiella n. g., as R. paranaense (Pavanelli & Rego, 1989) n. comb. Riggenbachiella amazonense n. sp. (syn. Chambriella sp. of de Chambrier & Scholz, 2008) from S. planiceps (type-host), Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Bloch & Schneider) and Z. zungaro is described and designated as the type-species of the new genus. Riggenbachiella n. g. is placed in the subfamily Monticelliinae Mola, 1929, because of the cortical position of the testes, ovary, vitelline follicles and uterus, and is mainly characterised by the possession of a sigmoid cirrus-sac with voluminous, chambered internal seminal vesicle, and bi-loculate suckers.

  5. Testing for the Occurrence of Selective Episodes During the Divergence of Otophysan Fishes: Insights from Mitogenomics.

    PubMed

    D'Anatro, Alejandro; Giorello, Facundo; Feijoo, Matías; Lessa, Enrique P

    2017-04-04

    How natural selection shapes biodiversity constitutes a topic of renewed interest during the last few decades. The division Otophysi comprises approximately two-thirds of freshwater fish diversity and probably underwent an extensive adaptive radiation derived from a single invasion of the supercontinent Pangaea, giving place to the evolution of the main five Otophysan lineages during a short period of time. Little is known about the factors involved in the processes that lead to lineage diversification among this group of fishes and identifying directional selection acting over protein-coding genes could offer clues about the processes acting on species diversification. The main objective of this study was to explore the otophysan mitochondrial genome evolution, in order to account for the possible signatures of selective events in this lineage, and to explore for the functional connotations of these molecular substitutions. Mainly, three different approaches were used: the "ω-based" BS-REL and MEME methods, implemented in the DATAMONKEY web server, and analysis of selection on amino acid properties, implemented in the software TreeSAAP. We found evidence of selective episodes along several branches of the evolutionary history of othophysan fishes. Analyses carried out using the BS-REL algorithm suggest episodic diversifying selection at basal branches of the otophysan lineage, which was also supported by analyses implemented in MEME and TreeSAAP. These results suggest that throughout the Siluriformes radiation, an important number of adaptive changes occurred in their mitochondrial genome. The metabolic consequences and ecological correlates of these molecular substitutions should be addressed in future studies.

  6. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda)

    PubMed Central

    de Chambrier, Alain; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Fisseha, Makda; Scholz, Tomáš; Mariaux, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes), a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new), including representatives from 54 genera (80%) and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera) appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained

  7. The phylogenetic distribution of electroreception: evidence for convergent evolution of a primitive vertebrate sense modality.

    PubMed

    Bullock, T H; Bodznick, D A; Northcutt, R G

    1983-08-01

    Specializations for electroreception in sense organs and brain centers are found in a wide variety of fishes and amphibians, though probably in a small minority of teleost taxa. No other group of vertebrates or invertebrates is presently suspected to have adaptations for electroreception in the definition given here. The distribution among fishes is unlike any other sense modality in that it has apparently been invented, lost completely and reinvented several times independently, using distinct receptors and central nuclei in the medulla. There are so far no clearly borderline or transitional fishes, either physiologically or anatomically. We rather expect a few new electroreceptive taxa to be found. The evoked potential method and the newly validated central anatomical criteria provide two useful tools for searching. Although Myxiniformes probably lack electroreception, it is well developed in Petromyzoniformes and in all other non-teleost fishes except Holostei. Thus Elasmobranchia, Holocephala, Dipneusti, Crossopterygii, Polypteriformes and Chondrostei have the physiological and anatomical specializations in a common form consistent with a single origin in primitive vertebrates. Amphibian ancestors probably inherited the system from a stem similar to one of these and passed it on at least to the ambystomatoid and salamandroid urodeles, apparently after losing the kinocilium of the sense cell. The suggestion of electroreception in ichthyophid apodans from skin histology has not been confirmed physiologically, behaviorally or by brain anatomy. With respect to more advanced fishes the most parsimonious interpretation is that the entire system, peripheral and central was lost in ancestors of holostean and teleostean fishes and new systems reinvented in Siluriformes, in Gymnotiformes, in Xenomystinae and in Mormyriformes. These 4 taxa must represent at least two, and probably 3 or 4 independent inventions, presumably from mechanoreceptive lateral line organs and

  8. Regionally nested patterns of fish assemblages in floodplain lakes of the Magdalena river (Colombia).

    PubMed

    Granado-Lorencio, Carlos; Serna, Andrés Hernández; Carvajal, Juan David; Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda; Gulfo, Alejandra; Alvarez, Frank

    2012-06-01

    We investigated if fish assemblages in neotropical floodplain lakes (cienagas) exhibit nestedness, and thus offer support to the managers of natural resources of the area for their decision making. The location was floodplain lakes of the middle section of the Magdalena river, Colombia. We applied the nested subset analysis for the series of 30 cienagas (27 connected to the main river and three isolated). All fish were identified taxonomically in the field and the matrix for presence-absence in all the lakes was used for the study of the pattern of nestedness. The most diverse order was Characiformes (20 species), followed by Siluriformes (19 species). Characidae and Loricaridae were the richest families. The species found in all the lakes studied were migratory species (17), and sedentary species (33). Two species (Caquetaia kraussii and Cyphocharax magdalenae) were widespread across the cienagas archipelago (100% of incidence). Nestedness analysis showed that the distribution of species over the spatial gradient studied (840 km) is significantly nested. The cienagas deemed the most hospitable were Simiti, El Llanito, and Canaletal. Roughly, 13 out of the 50 species caught show markedly idiosyncratic distributions. The resulting dataset showed a strong pattern of nestedness in the distribution of Magdalenese fishes, and differed significantly from random species assemblages. Out of all the measurements taken in the cienagas, only the size (area) and local richness are significantly related to the range of order of nested subset patterns (r=-0.59 and -0.90, respectively, at p < 0.01). Differential species extinction is suggested as the cause of a nested species assemblage, when the reorganized matrix of species occurring in habitat islands is correlated with the island area. Our results are consistent with this hypothesis.

  9. Systematic Variation in the Pattern of Gene Paralog Retention between the Teleost Superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii

    PubMed Central

    Garcia de la serrana, Daniel; Mareco, Edson A.; Johnston, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Teleost fish underwent whole-genome duplication around 450 Ma followed by diploidization and loss of 80–85% of the duplicated genes. To identify a deep signature of this teleost-specific whole-genome duplication (TSGD), we searched for duplicated genes that were systematically and uniquely retained in one or other of the superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii. TSGD paralogs comprised 17–21% of total gene content. Some 2.6% (510) of TSGD paralogs were present as pairs in the Ostariophysi genomes of Danio rerio (Cypriniformes) and Astyanax mexicanus (Characiformes) but not in species from four orders of Acanthopterygii (Gasterosteiformes, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodon nigroviridis; Perciformes, Oreochromis niloticus; and Beloniformes, Oryzias latipes) where a single copy was identified. Similarly, 1.3% (418) of total gene number represented cases where TSGD paralogs pairs were systematically retained in the Acanthopterygian but conserved as a single copy in Ostariophysi genomes. We confirmed the generality of these results by phylogenetic and synteny analysis of 40 randomly selected linage-specific paralogs (LSPs) from each superorder and completed with the transcriptomes of three additional Ostariophysi species (Ictalurus punctatus [Siluriformes], Sinocyclocheilus species [Cypriniformes], and Piaractus mesopotamicus [Characiformes]). No chromosome bias was detected in TSGD paralog retention. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed significant enrichment of GO terms relative to the human GO SLIM database for “growth,” “Cell differentiation,” and “Embryo development” in Ostariophysi and for “Transport,” “Signal Transduction,” and “Vesicle mediated transport” in Acanthopterygii. The observed patterns of paralog retention are consistent with different diploidization outcomes having contributed to the evolution/diversification of each superorder. PMID:24732281

  10. Molecular cloning, sequencing and tissue expression of vasotocin and isotocin precursor genes from Ostariophysian catfishes: phylogeny and evolutionary considerations in teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Putul; Chaube, Radha; Joy, Keerikkattil P.

    2015-01-01

    Basic and neutral neurohypophyseal (NH) nonapeptides have evolved from vasotocin (VT) by a gene duplication at the base of the gnathostome lineage. In teleosts, VT and IT are the basic and neutral peptides, respectively. In the present study, VT and IT precursor genes of Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus (Siluriformes, Ostariophysi) were cloned and sequenced. The channel catfish Icatalurus punctatus NH precursor sequences were obtained from EST database. The catfish NH sequences were used along with the available Acanthopterygii and other vertebrate NH precursor sequences to draw phylogenetic inference on the evolutionary history of the teleost NH peptides. Synteny analysis of the NH gene loci in various teleost species was done to complement the phylogenetic analysis. In H. fossilis, the NH transcripts were also sequenced from the ovary. The cloned genes and the deduced precursor proteins showed conserved characteristics of the NH nonapeptide precursors. The genes are expressed in brain and ovary (follicular envelope) of H. fossilis with higher transcript abundance in the brain. The addition of the catfish sequences in the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the VT and IT precursors of the species-rich superorders of teleosts have a distinct phylogenetic history with the Acanthopterygii VT and IT precursors sharing a less evolutionary distance and the Ostariophysi VT and IT having a greater evolutionary distance. The genomic location of VT and IT precursors, and synteny analysis of the NH loci lend support to the phylogenetic inference and suggest a footprint of fish- specific whole genome duplication (3R) and subsequent diploidization in the NH loci. The VT and IT precursor genes are most likely lineage-specific paralogs resulting from differential losses of the 3R NH paralogs in the two superorders. The independent yet consistent retention of VT and IT in the two superorders might be directed by a stringent ligand-receptor selectivity. PMID:26029040

  11. Ovarian differentiation and development in cachara Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum.

    PubMed

    Valentin, F N; Batlouni, S R; Nascimento, N F; Silva, R C; Manzini, B; Hilbig, C C; Pereira-Santos, M; Nakaghi, L S O

    2016-07-01

    One thousand five hundred cachara or tiger shovelnose catfish Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, obtained from induced reproduction, were used to determine the onset of ovarian differentiation and development and to record the main characteristics of this process. Samples were collected from 0 to 240 days post-fertilization (dpf) and the results classified into stages I-XII. Ovarian formation was histologically detected for the first time when juveniles measured mean ± s.d. 51·5 ± 8·3 mm total length (LT ) at 39-45 dpf (stages I-V), with intense somatic cell proliferation originating in the ovarian cavity. Both LT and age of fish had a positive correlation (P < 0·001) with ovarian differentiation, but LT showed a greater correlation (r(2)  = 0·95) than age (r(2)  = 0·85), especially during the initial stages of development. From stages VI to VII, the ovarian cavity was enlarged and undifferentiated oogonia were present. At stage VIII, small projections formed in the ovarian stroma towards the ventral region of the gonad (future ovarian lamellae) and the basal membrane and differentiated oogonia nests could be seen. At stages IX and X, the germ cells entered meiosis and folliculogenesis was completed by stages XI and XII, which can be considered late in comparison to other Siluriformes. This study has demonstrated that ovarian differentiation in P. fasciatum begins with an intense proliferation of squamous epithelial cells (somatic cells) during the early stages of development and that sex inversion protocols could, thus, be applied successfully before this period. Furthermore, the results have demonstrated that both size and age can influence gonad differentiation and development in this species.

  12. Patterns of interaction between Neotropical freshwater fishes and their gill Monogenoidea (Platyhelminthes).

    PubMed

    Braga, Mariana P; Araújo, Sabrina B L; Boeger, Walter A

    2014-02-01

    Using network analysis, we looked for broad patterns of distribution of Monogenoidea gill parasites on Neotropical freshwater fishes within a host phylogenetic framework. We analyzed a database of Monogenoidea parasitizing fishes from Neotropical rivers, from 23 watersheds, based on species descriptions published until 2011. Host-parasite interactions were organized into five matrices grouping species at different taxonomic levels. The network of interactions between host families and parasite genera was significantly modular and revealed that each fish order has a unique composition of parasite genera. Hence, interactions between lower taxa were analyzed separately for the largest fish orders (Perciformes, Siluriformes, and Characiformes). Networks tended to be loosely connected and organized in modules. Despite the putative high host specificity of monogenoids, some have a wider host range that includes distantly related host species. Among the hosts, the clade composed by the piranhas (Serrasalmus spp. and related species, Serrasalmidae) stands out in terms of parasite richness per host species, resulting in a more connected network. The history of the lineages of each host order within Neotropical freshwaters seems to have a great influence on the extent of parasite sharing. The observed modularity was influenced by both spatial structure and phylogenetic relatedness of species. In average, 37 % of modules of networks between host species and parasite genera were associated with a particular river basin and 63 % of modules were associated with a host family. Hence, spatial structure determines the co-occurrence of host and parasite species, but their evolutionary history is the main factor defining which interactions are possible.

  13. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda).

    PubMed

    de Chambrier, Alain; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Fisseha, Makda; Scholz, Tomáš; Mariaux, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes), a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new), including representatives from 54 genera (80%) and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera) appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained unresolved and

  14. An annotated list of the species of Gangesia Woodland, 1924 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea), parasites of catfishes in Asia, with new synonyms and a key to their identification.

    PubMed

    Ash, Anirban; de Chambrier, Alain; Shimazu, Takeshi; Ermolenko, Alexey; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-05-01

    An annotated list of tapeworms of the genus Gangesia Woodland, 1924 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea), parasites of siluriform fishes in Asia, is provided. Based on the morphological examination of museum specimens and newly collected material from China, Japan and Russia, as well as the results of a previous revision of the Indomalayan species, only eight of more than 50 nominal taxa are considered to be valid. These are: from India and neighbouring countries, Gangesia bengalensis (Southwell, 1913) (type-species), G. agraensis Verma, 1928, both from Wallago attu (Bloch & Schneider) (Siluridae), G. macrones Woodland, 1924 from Sperata seenghala (Sykes) (Bagridae) and G. vachai (Gupta & Parmar, 1988) from different catfishes (type-host Eutropiichthys vacha (Hamilton); Schilbeidae), and, from the Palaearctic, G. margolisi Shimazu, 1994, a parasite of Silurus biwaensis (Tomoda) (Siluridae) in Japan, G. oligonchis Roitman & Freze, 1964 from Tachysurus fulvidraco (Richardson) (Bagridae) in Russia, and G. parasiluri Yamaguti, 1934 and G. polyonchis Roitman & Freze, 1964, both from Silurus asotus L. (Siluridae) in Japan and Russia, respectively. The poorly known G. oligonchis is redescribed. Seven new synonyms are proposed: G. chauhani Mathur & Srivastav, 2000, G. wallaguae Pradhan, Kulkarni, Kale & Wakle, 2010 and G. shivajiraoi Dhole, Waghmare & Chavan, 2012 are synonymised with G. agraensis; G. striatusii Bhure & Nanaware, 2012 and Silurotaenia govindii Sawarkar, 2013 with G. macrones; G. spasskajae Demshin, 1987 with G. polyonchis; and Silurotaenia spinula Chen, 1984 with Postgangesia orientalis Akhmerov, 1969. Gangesia pseudobagrae Chen, 1962 is considered to be a species inquirenda, whereas G. chauhani Mathur, 1992 and G. dineshei Jaysingpure, 2002 are recognised as unavailable names. An amended generic diagnosis of Gangesia and a key to the identification of its recognised species are also provided.

  15. A new monozoic tapeworm, Lobulovarium longiovatum n. g., n. sp. (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), from barbs Puntius spp. (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in the Indomalayan region.

    PubMed

    Oros, Mikuláš; Ash, Anirban; Brabec, Jan; Kar, Pradip Kumar; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-09-01

    A new caryophyllidean cestode is described from barbs Puntius spp. (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), with P. sophore (Hamilton) as its type-host, in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins in India and Bangladesh, and a new genus, Lobulovarium n. g., is proposed to accommodate it. The genus belongs to the Lytocestidae because its vitelline follicles are situated in the cortex. It is typified by: (i) a peculiar ovary, which is roughly H-shaped, but with asymmetrical, irregular lobes on its ventral and dorsal sides; (ii) an extensive vitellarium formed by numerous vitelline follicles scattered throughout the cortex; (iii) a long, conical postovarian part of the body with numerous vitelline follicles; (iv) a broadly digitate scolex with a slightly protrusible central cone; (v) a single gonopore (male and female genital ducts open via a single pore and a common genital atrium is absent); and (vi) a small number of testes (< 60). Molecular data (partial sequences of the lsrDNA) indicate that Lobulovarium longiovatum n. sp. belongs among the most basal caryophyllidean cestodes, being unrelated to species from siluriform catfishes in the Indomalayan region. Paracaryophyllaeus osteobramensis (Gupta & Sinha, 1984) Hafeezullah, 1993 (syn. Pliovitellaria osteobramensis Gupta & Sinha, 1984) from another cyprinid fish, Osteobrama cotio (Hamilton), in Uttar Pradesh, India, is tentatively transferred to Lobulovarium as L. osteobramense (Gupta & Sinha, 1984) n. comb. It differs from L. longiovatum by having much smaller eggs (length <50 μm versus >90 μm in L. longiovatum), which are spherical (length/width ratio 1:1 versus 2.5-3:1 in the new species), and the presence of vitelline follicles alongside the ovarian lobes (almost completely absent in L. longiovatum).

  16. Regionally nested patterns of fish assemblages in floodplain lakes of the Magdalena river (Colombia)

    PubMed Central

    Granado-Lorencio, Carlos; Serna, Andrés Hernández; Carvajal, Juan David; Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda; Gulfo, Alejandra; Alvarez, Frank

    2012-01-01

    We investigated if fish assemblages in neotropical floodplain lakes (cienagas) exhibit nestedness, and thus offer support to the managers of natural resources of the area for their decision making. The location was floodplain lakes of the middle section of the Magdalena river, Colombia. We applied the nested subset analysis for the series of 30 cienagas (27 connected to the main river and three isolated). All fish were identified taxonomically in the field and the matrix for presence–absence in all the lakes was used for the study of the pattern of nestedness. The most diverse order was Characiformes (20 species), followed by Siluriformes (19 species). Characidae and Loricaridae were the richest families. The species found in all the lakes studied were migratory species (17), and sedentary species (33). Two species (Caquetaia kraussii and Cyphocharax magdalenae) were widespread across the cienagas archipelago (100% of incidence). Nestedness analysis showed that the distribution of species over the spatial gradient studied (840 km) is significantly nested. The cienagas deemed the most hospitable were Simiti, El Llanito, and Canaletal. Roughly, 13 out of the 50 species caught show markedly idiosyncratic distributions. The resulting dataset showed a strong pattern of nestedness in the distribution of Magdalenese fishes, and differed significantly from random species assemblages. Out of all the measurements taken in the cienagas, only the size (area) and local richness are significantly related to the range of order of nested subset patterns (r=–0.59 and –0.90, respectively, at p < 0.01). Differential species extinction is suggested as the cause of a nested species assemblage, when the reorganized matrix of species occurring in habitat islands is correlated with the island area. Our results are consistent with this hypothesis. PMID:22833801

  17. Homology of the Fifth Epibranchial and Accessory Elements of the Ceratobranchials among Gnathostomes: Insights from the Development of Ostariophysans

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Murilo; Bockmann, Flávio Alicino; de Carvalho, Marcelo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Epibranchials are among the main dorsal elements of the gill basket in jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Among extant fishes, chondrichthyans most resemble the putative ancestral condition as all branchial arches possess every serially homologous piece. In osteichthyans, a primitive rod-like epibranchial 5, articulated to ceratobranchial 5, is absent. Instead, epibranchial 5 of many actinopterygians is here identified as an accessory element attached to ceratobranchial 4. Differences in shape and attachment of epibranchial 5 in chondrichthyans and actinopterygians raised suspicions about their homology, prompting us to conduct a detailed study of the morphology and development of the branchial basket of three ostariophysans (Prochilodus argenteus, Characiformes; Lophiosilurus alexandri and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Siluriformes). Results were interpreted within a phylogenetic context of major gnathostome lineages. Developmental series strongly suggest that the so-called epibranchial 5 of actinopterygians does not belong to the epal series because it shares the same chondroblastic layer with ceratobranchial 4 and its ontogenetic emergence is considerably late. This neomorphic structure is called accessory element of ceratobranchial 4. Its distribution among gnathostomes indicates it is a teleost synapomorphy, occurring homoplastically in Polypteriformes, whereas the loss of the true epibranchial 5 is an osteichthyan synapomorphy. The origin of the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 appears to have occurred twice in osteichthyans, but it may have a single origin; in this case, the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 would represent a remnant of a series of elements distally attached to ceratobranchials 1–4, a condition totally or partially retained in basal actinopterygians. Situations wherein a structure is lost while a similar neomorphic element is present may lead to erroneous homology assessments; these can be avoided by detailed morphological and

  18. Molecular identification and expression analysis of a goose-type lysozyme (LysG) gene in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Zhang, Dai-Zhen; Jiang, Sen-Hao; Chai, Xin-Yue; Li, Chao-Feng; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Lysozymes, innate immunity molecules, play a vital role in immune response to pathogens. The yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Siluriformes: Bagridae) is an economically important fish in China. The aim of this study was to quantify expression of the P. fulvidraco LysG gene (a g-type lysozyme) in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) challenge. First, the P. fulvidraco LysG gene (PfLysG) was cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA of PfLysG is 1323 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 131 bp, a 3'-UTR of 634 bp, and an open reading frame of 558 bp encoding a polypeptide of 185 amino acids, which contains a transglycosylase SLT domain (Pfam01464). The predicted molecular weight of the protein is 20.52 kDa with a pI of 9.08. Two catalytic residues and seven N-acetyl-D-glucosamine binding sites are conserved in the sequence and there is no predicted signal peptide. The deduced PfLysG protein sequence has 84%, 76% and 69% percent identity with the LysGs from Ictalurus furcatus, Danio rerio, and Salmo salar, respectively. The predicted tertiary structure of PfLysG is very similar to that from other animals. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PfLysG is closely related to those from Teleostei. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that PfLysG was expressed in all examined tissues and most highly expressed in head kidney, spleen, and intestine. After simulated pathogen challenge with lipopolysaccharide and polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid, respectively, the mRNA expression of PfLysG was upregulated significantly at different time points. The results suggest that the identified g-type lysozyme of P. fulvidraco is involved in innate immune responses.

  19. Can DNA barcoding accurately discriminate megadiverse Neotropical freshwater fish fauna?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The megadiverse Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna is the richest in the world with approximately 6,000 recognized species. Interestingly, they are distributed among only 17 orders, and almost 80% of them belong to only three orders: Characiformes, Siluriformes and Perciformes. Moreover, evidence based on molecular data has shown that most of the diversification of the Neotropical ichthyofauna occurred recently. These characteristics make the taxonomy and identification of this fauna a great challenge, even when using molecular approaches. In this context, the present study aimed to test the effectiveness of the barcoding methodology (COI gene) to identify the mega diverse freshwater fish fauna from the Neotropical region. For this purpose, 254 species of fishes were analyzed from the Upper Parana River basin, an area representative of the larger Neotropical region. Results Of the 254 species analyzed, 252 were correctly identified by their barcode sequences (99.2%). The main K2P intra- and inter-specific genetic divergence values (0.3% and 6.8%, respectively) were relatively low compared with similar values reported in the literature, reflecting the higher number of closely related species belonging to a few higher taxa and their recent radiation. Moreover, for 84 pairs of species that showed low levels of genetic divergence (<2%), application of a complementary character-based nucleotide diagnostic approach proved useful in discriminating them. Additionally, 14 species displayed high intra-specific genetic divergence (>2%), pointing to at least 23 strong candidates for new species. Conclusions Our study is the first to examine a large number of freshwater fish species from the Neotropical area, including a large number of closely related species. The results confirmed the efficacy of the barcoding methodology to identify a recently radiated, megadiverse fauna, discriminating 99.2% of the analyzed species. The power of the barcode sequences to identify

  20. Patterns of commercial fish landings in the Loreto region (Peruvian Amazon) between 1984 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Aurea; Tello, Salvador; Vargas, Gladis; Duponchelle, Fabrice

    2009-03-01

    Patterns of commercial fish catches over the period from 1984 to 2006 were studied in the Loreto region and in Iquitos, which is the most important town of the region and the principal fish marketplace of the Peruvian Amazon. Despite important inter-annual variations, the overall fish landings have significantly increased in the region during this period. The same three species dominated the catches during the whole period (Prochilodus nigricans, Potamorhina altamazonica and Psectrogaster amazonica), making up about 62% of the catches. However, the number of species exploited by commercial fisheries increased considerably during the 22 years of this study (from about 21 species in 1984 to over 65 in 2006), although part of the difference may be accounted for by a better identification of individual species nowadays. At the same time, the large high-valued species, such as Arapaima gigas, Colossoma macropomum and Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, declined significantly and were replaced by smaller, short-lived and lower-valued species. Catches of the silver Arahuana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum) also declined significantly during the studied period, strengthening recent warnings about the species' conservation status (Moreau and Coomes, Oryx 40:152-160, 2006). The relative proportions of the trophic groups (detritivores, omnivores and piscivores) remained relatively constant over the study period, but there were significant changes in the relative abundances of the species groups. The proportion of the dominant group, the Characiformes, which averaged about 81% of the catches, increased between 1984 and 2006, whereas the proportion of the Siluriformes and Perciformes remained constant. On the other hand, the proportion of Osteoglossiformes, represented only by two well known species (Arapaima gigas and Osteoglossum bicirrhosum), declined sharply during the same period. Important differences were observed between the landings of Iquitos and the landing of the whole Loreto

  1. Salinity tolerance of non-native suckermouth armoured catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) in south-eastern Mexico: implications for invasion and dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Capps, Krista A.; Nico, Leo G.; Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Arevalo-Frias, Wendi; Ropicki, Andrew J.; Heilpern, Sebastian A.; Rodiles-Hernandez, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    1. Salinity tolerance is one of several important physiological attributes that determine invasion success and the pattern of dispersal of introduced aquatic organisms. Introduced freshwater fishes able to tolerate elevated salinities have the potential to invade and exploit brackish-water (mixohaline) environments and use estuaries and coastal waters as 'bridges' for dispersing from one coastal river system to another. 2. Several members of the neotropical suckermouth armoured catfish genus Pterygoplichthys (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) have established non-native populations in inland waters of North and Central America, Asia and islands in the Caribbean, and Pacific and Indian oceans. Loricariids are generally considered to be strictly freshwater; but a few naturally occur in mesohaline habitats. 3.Catch and habitat data from 2004–2005 and 2009–2011 fish surveys in the Grijalva–Usumacinta River delta region (south-eastern Mexico) confirmed that introduced Pterygoplichthys populations established in upstream freshwater sites (where these catfish are abundant) have recently dispersed into downstream oligohaline and mesohaline estuarine habitats. During 2009–2011 surveys, these non-native catfish — tentatively identified as P. pardalis or its hybrids — were found in sites with salinities ranging from 1 to 8 ppt (mean 5.2 ppt). 4.Acute-salinity experiments were conducted with Pterygoplichthys (110–302 mm standard length, N=140) captured in the Grijalva–Usumacinta Basin to determine upper salinity tolerance levels. Tests demonstrated that individuals maintained in salinities of 0.2 ppt were able to survive abrupt (acute) exposure to salinities up to 10 ppt with little mortality over 10 days (240 h experimental endpoint). A few individuals survived abrupt exposure to 11 and 12 ppt for 20 or more hours, although none survived more than a few hours at 16 ppt or greater. 5.These field and experimental results provide quantitative evidence that non

  2. Cloning and characterization of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus growth hormone gene and its heterologous expression.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Megarajan; Singh, Shiva Dhar; Gupta, Subodh

    2014-07-01

    Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is one of the fast-growing catfish of freshwater origin, and its growth is attributed by the action of growth hormone (GH). In this study, the growth hormone gene (PhGH) of 3.0 kb was characterized, and it is composed of five exons and four introns and having characteristics of an upstream region that contains TATA, CAAT boxes, and binding sites of important transcription factors like Pit-1a, CRE, CREB, CREBP, Ap-1, SP1, and TBP. The full-length cDNA sequence of 1,069 bp was isolated using RACE technique, and it is composed of untranslated regions of 60 and 403 bp at 5' and 3', respectively, with an open reading frame of 603 bp that encodes a putative polypeptide of 200 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 22.57 kDa. The precursor of PhGH is composed of 22 amino acid signal peptides and 178 amino acid mature peptides. Five conserved Cys residues (Cys(71), Cys(135), Cys(173), Cys(190), and Cys(198)) and two possible sites of N-glycosylation (145th and 197th) were detected on GH polypeptide. The PhGH gene showed more than 90 % sequence similarity with other catfishes, and the phylogeny constructed revealed the close proximity of Siluriformes fishes with Cypriniformes fishes. The PhGH gene was observed to be expressed predominantly in pituitary tissues while weekly expressed in extrapituitary tissues. Further, the recombinant PhGH was expressed in Escherichia coli using His-tag expression vector pET 32(a), and the recombinant protein of ~23 kDa was confirmed by western blotting. Our findings suggest that the identified functional GH gene would provide basic information in transgenic studies aiming for faster growth rate. This recombinant growth hormone (GH) may be produced in large scale to exploit its growth-promoting function in other cultured fishes.

  3. A review of estuarine fish research in South America: what has been achieved and what is the future for sustainability and conservation?

    PubMed

    Blaber, S J M; Barletta, M

    2016-07-01

    Estuarine fish research in South America began in the early 20th Century, but it is only within the last 40 years that detailed studies have been undertaken. This review firstly summarizes research results from South American estuaries by geographic area, starting with the temperate south-east, then the temperate-sub-tropical transition zone in Brazil, then the semi-arid and tropical estuaries of north and north-east Brazil including the Amazon complex, then the north and Caribbean coasts and finally down the Pacific coast of the continent. They include almost all types of estuarine systems, from large open systems (e.g. the temperate Rio de La Plata and tropical Amazon) to extensive coastal lakes (e.g. the temperate Patos Lagoon and tropical Cienega Grande de Santa Marta). They encompass a broad range of climatic and vegetation types, from saltmarsh systems in the south-east and fjords in the south-west to both arid and humid tropical systems, dominated by mangroves in the north. Their tidal regimes range from microtidal (e.g. Mar Chiquita, Argentina) through mesotidal (e.g. Goiana, Brazil) to macrotidal in the Amazon complex where they can exceed 7 m. The review uses where possible the recent standardization of estuarine fish categories and guilds, but the ways that fishes use tropical South American systems may necessitate further refinements of the categories and guilds, particularly in relation to freshwater fishes, notably the Siluriformes, which dominate many north and north-east South American systems. The extent to which South American studies contribute to discussions and paradigms of connectivity and estuarine dependence is summarized, but work on these topics has only just begun. The anthropogenic issue of pollution, particularly in relation to heavy metals and fishes and fisheries in estuaries is more advanced, but the possible effects of climate change have barely been addressed. Studies around conservation and management are briefly reviewed and

  4. The fate of the duplicated androgen receptor in fishes: a late neofunctionalization event?

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Based on the observation of an increased number of paralogous genes in teleost fishes compared with other vertebrates and on the conserved synteny between duplicated copies, it has been shown that a whole genome duplication (WGD) occurred during the evolution of Actinopterygian fish. Comparative phylogenetic dating of this duplication event suggests that it occurred early on, specifically in teleosts. It has been proposed that this event might have facilitated the evolutionary radiation and the phenotypic diversification of the teleost fish, notably by allowing the sub- or neo-functionalization of many duplicated genes. Results In this paper, we studied in a wide range of Actinopterygians the duplication and fate of the androgen receptor (AR, NR3C4), a nuclear receptor known to play a key role in sex-determination in vertebrates. The pattern of AR gene duplication is consistent with an early WGD event: it has been duplicated into two genes AR-A and AR-B after the split of the Acipenseriformes from the lineage leading to teleost fish but before the divergence of Osteoglossiformes. Genomic and syntenic analyses in addition to lack of PCR amplification show that one of the duplicated copies, AR-B, was lost in several basal Clupeocephala such as Cypriniformes (including the model species zebrafish), Siluriformes, Characiformes and Salmoniformes. Interestingly, we also found that, in basal teleost fish (Osteoglossiformes and Anguilliformes), the two copies remain very similar, whereas, specifically in Percomorphs, one of the copies, AR-B, has accumulated substitutions in both the ligand binding domain (LBD) and the DNA binding domain (DBD). Conclusion The comparison of the mutations present in these divergent AR-B with those known in human to be implicated in complete, partial or mild androgen insensitivity syndrome suggests that the existence of two distinct AR duplicates may be correlated to specific functional differences that may be connected to the well

  5. Supplemental description and molecular characterization of Myxobolus miyarii Kudo, 1919 (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) infecting intestine of Amur catfish (Silurus asotus).

    PubMed

    Liu, X H; Zhang, J Y; Batueva, M D; Voronin, V N

    2016-04-01

    Myxobolus miyairii Kudo, 1919 was first reported from the intestines of the Amur catfish (Silurus asotus) in Japan and then in China and Russia, but with incomplete description. During the investigation of fish myxosporean diversity in Poyang Lake, the biggest lake along the Yangtze River, China, two Amur catfish highly infected with M. miyairii in the intestine wall were sampled. So, the complete description of this species with morphological and molecular data was presented here. A large number of whitish, round or ellipsoidal pseudocysts 0.32-0.78 mm in diameter could be found in the external intestinal wall after dissecting the infected fish. Mature spores of M. miyairii were elongated and ellipsoidal in the frontal view and narrow fusiform in the lateral view, with a slightly pointed anterior end and a bluntly rounded posterior end and measured 13.3 ± 0.49 (12.5-14.7) μm × 6.6 ± 0.27 (6.2-7.4) μm × 5.0 ± 0.26 (4.4-5.7) μm in size. Spore surface was smooth and two spore valves symmetrical, with a thin and straight sutural ridge. Interestingly, two types of caudal appendage (single or bifurcated) were occasionally present on the posterior end of some spores which has not previously been reported. The two equal pyriform polar capsules measured 6.5 ± 0.30 (6.2-7.5) μm long and 1.9 ± 0.14 (1.5-2.3) μm wide and situated at the anterior end of the spore. Polar filaments coiled with eight to nine turns, perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the polar capsules. Histopathological analysis showed that the plasmodium developed in the circular muscle layer of intestinal wall of Amur catfish, but no obvious inflammatory responses were observed. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial 18S small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences indicates that M. miyairii cluster within a clade of Siluriforme-infecting Henneguya species with the support of a high bootstrap value, but also evolutionarily independent from the Henneguya

  6. Fish as a proxy for African paleogeography: results from both extant and fossil taxa and prospects to constrain faunal exchange pathway through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Olga; Joordens, Josephine; Dettai, Agnès; Christ, Leemans; Pinton, Aurélie

    2016-04-01

    reveal ancient distributions. The further we are going back in time the more they will constitute most of or the whole relevant sample. Our results also suggest that information on the (paleo)ecology of the fish provides useful data notably to qualify the aquatic systems that have prevailed at the time of connection between basins. So, changes in basin geomorphology constrain fish evolution, and thus we are able to reconstruct and date these changes thanks to fish evolution studies. Since it is widely agreed that the identification of corridors and barriers is critical to understand faunal exchange, we are convinced that for each case study, we can identify the fish (either fossil or extant) that will provide a relevant "geomorphological model". To validate this approach, our current project aims to identify the exchange corridor that may have intermittently existed between the Chad and Turkana basins during the last 3 million years [6]. These corridors may have constituted possible pathways for interbasinal exchange of large mammals at a key time period of Australopithecine evolution. We will end our presentation with preliminary results concerning phylogeography of the extant catfish Synodontis schall, one of our three model species. [1] Pinton A., Otero O. in progress - How much do fish distribution depend on drainage system history? the case study of continental Africa. [2] Pinton A., Agnèse J.F., Paugy D., Otero O. 2013 - A large-scale phylogeny of Synodontis (Mochokidae, Siluriformes) reveals the influence of geological events on continental diversity during the Cenozoic. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 66 (2013): 1027-1040. [3] Otero O. 2011 - Current knowledge and new assumptions on the evolutionary history of the African lungfish, Protopterus, based on a review of its fossil record. Fish & Fisheries, 2011(12): 235-255. [4] Otero O., Pinton A., Mackaye H.T., Likius A., Vignaud P., Brunet M. 2009 - Fishes and palaeogeography of the African drainage basins