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Sample records for pin irradiation test

  1. Thermal analysis of the FSP-1 fuel pin irradiation test. [for SP-100 space power reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, William F., III

    1991-01-01

    Thermal analysis of a pin from the FSP-1 fuels irradiation test has been completed. The purpose of the analysis was to provide predictions of fuel pin temperatures, determine the flow regime within the lithium annulus of the test assembly, and provide a standardized model for a consistent basis of comparison between pins within the test assembly. The calculations have predicted that the pin is operating at slightly above the test design temperatures and that the flow regime within the lithium annulus is a laminar buoyancy driven flow.

  2. Comparison of proton microbeam and gamma irradiation for the radiation hardness testing of silicon PIN diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakšić, M.; Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Majer, M.; Jung, H. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, N. H.

    2013-09-01

    Simple and cost-effective solutions using Si PIN diodes as detectors are presently utilized in various radiation-related applications in which excessive exposure to radiation degrades their charge transport properties. One of the conventional methods for the radiation hardness testing of such devices is time-consuming irradiation with electron beam or gamma-ray irradiation facilities, high-energy proton accelerators, or with neutrons from research reactors. Recently, for the purpose of radiation hardness testing, a much faster nuclear microprobe based approach utilizing proton irradiation has been developed. To compare the two different irradiation techniques, silicon PIN diodes have been irradiated with a Co-60 gamma radiation source and with a 6 MeV proton microbeam. The signal degradation in the silicon PIN diodes for both irradiation conditions has been probed by the IBIC (ion beam induced charge) technique, which can precisely monitor changes in charge collection efficiency. The results presented are reviewed on the basis of displacement damage calculations and NIEL (non-ionizing energy loss) concept.

  3. Design, fabrication, and operation of capsules for the irradiation testing of candidate advanced space reactor fuel pins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thoms, K. R.

    1975-01-01

    Fuel irradiation experiments were designed, built, and operated to test uranium mononitride (UN) fuel clad in tungsten-lined T-111 and uranium dioxide fuel clad in both tungsten-lined T-111 and tungsten-lined Nb-1% Zr. A total of nine fuel pins was irradiated at average cladding temperatures ranging from 931 to 1015 C. The UN experiments, capsules UN-4 and -5, operated for 10,480 and 10,037 hr, respectively, at an average linear heat generation rate of 10 kW/ft. The UO2 experiment, capsule UN-6, operated for 8333 hr at an average linear heat generation rate of approximately 5 kW/ft. Following irradiation, the nine fuel pins were removed from their capsules, externally examined, and sent to the NASA Plum Brook Facility for more detailed postirradiation examination. During visual examination, it was discovered that the cladding of the fuel pin containing dense UN in each of capsules UN-4 and -5 had failed, exposing the UN fuel to the NaK in which the pins were submerged and permitting the release of fission gas from the failed pins. A rough analysis of the fission gas seen in samples of the gas in the fuel pin region indicated fission gas release-to-birth rates from these fuel pins in the range of .00001.

  4. First Tests for the Detection of the LINAC Irradiation Field Using PIN Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, C. E. Ojeda; Ramirez-Jimenez, F. J.; Navarro, L. F. Villasenor; Cruz, M. Duran

    2008-08-11

    The employment of the technology of semiconductor detectors, in the medical physics environment is of great importance due to its versatility and dependability. In this work we present the first results and the experimental arrangement employed with PIN diodes that are conditioned for the measurement of the field of irradiation of a lineal accelerator (LINAC) used in radiotherapy. In our tests we used a PIN photodiode. In former experiments, this diode presented a response to the intensity of the applied field when it was exposed to an X-ray beam in medical and industrial radiography equipments. This diode is a low cost and easy acquisition one in the field. These characteristics transform it into a serious candidate as detector to be used in electronic arrangements for the detection of radiation fields in radio-therapy with X-rays. Experiments were designed to obtain the response of this diode when it was exposed to X-ray beams of a LINAC used in radiotherapy. Firstly the tests were carried out for a 6 MeV photon beam with a source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm, obtaining very encouraging results. We seek to carry out tests for more energy values in order to obtain the energy response of this detector as a radiation sensor device. This device could be applied in the design of working tools, for example, for the quality control in procedures of radiotherapy.

  5. Paddle-pin alinement test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, D. M.; Foster, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Segmented insulated test bar speeds up patch distributor paddle-pin test. Device eliminates need to disconnect cables or remove distributor. Printed circuit cable and connector reduces weight on bar, adding to tester portability.

  6. Metallography and fuel cladding chemical interaction in fast flux test facility irradiated metallic U-10Zr MFF-3 and MFF-5 fuel pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmack, W. J.; Chichester, H. M.; Porter, D. L.; Wootan, D. W.

    2016-05-01

    The Mechanistic Fuel Failure (MFF) series of metal fuel irradiations conducted in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) provides an important comparison between data generated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) and that expected in a larger-scale fast reactor. The MFF fuel operated with a peak cladding temperature at the top of the fuel column, but developed peak burnup at the centerline of the core. This places the peak fuel temperature midway between the core center and the top of fuel, lower in the fuel column than in EBR-II experiments. Data from the MFF-3 and MFF-5 assemblies are most comparable to the data obtained from the EBR-II X447 experiment. The two X447 pin breaches were strongly influenced by fuel/cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) at the top of the fuel column. Post irradiation examination data from MFF-3 and MFF-5 are presented and compared to historical EBR-II data.

  7. Design of unique pins for irradiation of higher actinides in a fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Basmajian, J.A.; Birney, K.R.; Weber, E.T.; Adair, H.L.; Quinby, T.C.; Raman, S.; Butler, J.K.; Bateman, B.C.; Swanson, K.M.

    1982-03-01

    The actinides produced by transmutation reactions in nuclear reactor fuels are a significant factor in nuclear fuel burnup, transportation and reprocessing. Irradiation testing is a primary source of data of this type. A segmented pin design was developed which provides for incorporation of multiple specimens of actinide oxides for irradiation in the UK's Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay Scotland. Results from irradiation of these pins will extend the basic neutronic and material irradiation behavior data for key actinide isotopes.

  8. Metallography and fuel cladding chemical interaction in fast flux test facility irradiated metallic U-10Zr MFF-3 and MFF-5 fuel pins

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, W. J.; Chichester, H. M.; Porter, D. L.; Wootan, D. W.

    2016-05-01

    Abstract The Mechanistic Fuel Failure (MFF) series of metal fuel irradiations conducted in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) provides an important potential comparison between data generated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) and that expected in a larger-scale fast reactor. The irradiations were the beginning tests to qualify U-10wt%Zr as a driver fuel for FFTF. The FFTF core, with a 91.4 cm tall fuel column and a chopped cosine neutron flux profile, operated with a peak cladding temperature at the top of the fuel column, but developed peak burnup at the centerline of the core. This places the peak fuel temperature midway between the core center and the top of fuel, lower in the fuel column than in previous EBR-II experiments that had a 32-cm height core. The MFF-3 and MFF-5 qualification assemblies operated in FFTF to >10 at% burnup, and performed very well with no cladding breaches. The MFF-3 assembly operated to 13.8 at% burnup with a peak inner cladding temperature of 643°C, and the MFF-5 assembly operated to 10.1 at% burnup with a peak inner cladding temperature of 651°C. Because of the very high operating temperatures for both the fuel and the cladding, data from the MFF assemblies are most comparable to the data obtained from the EBR-II X447 experiment, which experienced two pin breaches. The X447 breaches were strongly influenced by a large amount of fuel/cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). The MFF pins benefitted from different axial locations of high burnup and peak cladding temperature, which helped to reduce interdiffusion between rare earth fission products and stainless steel cladding. Post-irradiation examination evidence illustrates this advantage. Comparing other performance data of the long MFF pins to prior EBR-II test data, the MFF fuel inside the cladding grew less axially, and the gas release data did not reveal a definitive difference.

  9. Irradiation of TZM: Uranium dioxide fuel pin at 1700 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    A fuel pin clad with TZM and containing solid pellets of uranium dioxide was fission heated in a static helium-cooled capsule at a maximum surface temperature of 1700 K for approximately 1000 hr and to a total burnup of 2.0 percent of the uranium-235. The results of the postirradiation examination indicated: (1) A transverse, intergranular failure of the fuel pin occurred when the fuel pin reached 2.0-percent burnup. This corresponds to 1330 kW-hr/cu cm, where the volume is the sum of the fuel, clad, and void volumes in the fuel region. (2) The maximum swelling of the fuel pin was less than 1.5 percent on the fuel-pin diameter. (3) There was no visible interaction between the TZM clad and the UO2. (4) Irradiation at 1700 K produced a course-grained structure, with an average grain diameter of 0.02 centimeter and with some of the grains extending one-half of the thickness of the clad. (5) Below approximately 1500 K, the irradiation of the clad produced a moderately fine-grained structure, with an average grain diameter of 0.004 centimeter.

  10. Remote weighing of irradiated fuel pins at FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Anglesey, M.O.; Romrell, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the testing and operations of a remotely operated fuel pin weighing system developed to identify fuel pins with breached cladding in the interim examination and maintenance (IEM) cell at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) located near Richland, Washington. The IEM cell is a vertical hot cell located within the FFTF containment building that was designed for disassembly and reassembly of experiments and fuel assemblies.

  11. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2011-09-01

    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  12. Thermal analysis of the FSP-1RR irradiation test

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, R.H.; Lyon, W.F. III

    1992-10-14

    The thermal analysis of four unirradiated fuel pins to be tested in the FSP-1RR fuels irradiation experiment was completed. This test is a follow-on experiment in the series of fuel pin irradiation tests conducted by the SP-100 Program in the Fast Flux Test Facility. One of the pins contains several meltwire temperature monitors within the fuel and the Li annulus. A post-irradiation examination will verify the accuracy of the pre-irradiation thermal analysis. The purpose of the pre-irradiation analysis was to determine the appropriate insulating gap gas compositions required to provide the design goal cladding operating temperatures and to ensure that the meltwire temperature ranges in the temperature monitored pin bracket peak irradiation temperatures. This paper discusses the methodology and summarizes the results of the analysis.

  13. Thermal analysis of the FSP-1RR irradiation test

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, R.H.; Lyon, W.F. III )

    1993-01-10

    The thermal analysis of four unirradiated fuel pins to be tested in the FSP-1RR fuels irradiation experiment was completed. This test is a follow-on experiment in the series of fuel pin irradiation tests conducted by the SP-100 Program in the Fast Flux Test Facility. One of the pins contains several meltwire temperature monitors within the fuel and the Li annulus. A post-irradiation examination will verify the accuracy of the pre-irradiation thermal analysis. The purpose of the pre-irradiation analysis was to determine the appropriate insulating gap gas compositions required to provide the design goal cladding operating temperatures and to ensure that the meltwire temperature ranges in the temperature monitored pin bracket peak irradiation temperatures. This paper discusses the methodology and summarizes the results of the analysis.

  14. Lightning Pin Injection Testing on MOSFETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Sankalita

    2009-01-01

    Lightning transients were pin-injected into metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to induce fault modes. This report documents the test process and results, and provides a basis for subsequent lightning tests. MOSFETs may be present in DC-DC power supplies and electromechanical actuator circuits that may be used on board aircraft. Results show that unprotected MOSFET Gates are susceptible to failure, even when installed in systems in well-shielded and partial-shielded locations. MOSFET Drains and Sources are significantly less susceptible. Device impedance decreased (current increased) after every failure. Such a failure mode may lead to cascading failures, as the damaged MOSFET may allow excessive current to flow through other circuitry. Preliminary assessments on a MOSFET subjected to 20-stroke pin-injection testing demonstrate that Breakdown Voltage, Leakage Current and Threshold Voltage characteristics show damage, while the device continues to meet manufacturer performance specifications. The purpose of this research is to develop validated tools, technologies, and techniques for automated detection, diagnosis and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight, such as from lightning transients; and to understand the interplay between lightning-induced surges and aging (i.e. humidity, vibration thermal stress, etc.) on component degradation.

  15. FFTF/IEM (Fast Flux Test Facility/Interim Examination and Maintenance) cell fuel pin removal equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwell, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a fuel pin removal device used for pin removal from irradiated fuel assemblies at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). After irradiation in the FFTF, selected fuel assemblies are remotely disassembled in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell. The remote disassembly, following sodium removal, consists of slitting and removing the duct and then removing the fuel pins one-at-a-time by sliding the pins from parallel attachment rails. All pins are removed from one rail before starting on the next. The new pin removal equipment has been used very successfully on the last three fuel experiments disassembled in the IEM cell, including one assembly containing residual sodium. Pin removal time has been cut in half, and this once tedious and time-consuming activity has been turned into an almost effortless evolution.

  16. Retractable pin dual in-line package test clip

    DOEpatents

    Bandzuch, Gregory S.; Kosslow, William J.

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a Dual In-Line Package (DIP) test clip for use when troubleshooting circuits containing DIP integrated circuits. This test clip is a significant improvement over existing DIP test clips in that it has retractable pins which will permit troubleshooting without risk of accidentally shorting adjacent pins together when moving probes to different pins on energized circuits or when the probe is accidentally bumped while taking measurements.

  17. Retractable pin dual in-line package test clip

    SciTech Connect

    Bandzuch, G.S.; Kosslow, W.J

    1993-12-31

    This invention is a Dual In-line Package (DIP) test clip for use when troubleshooting circuits containing DIP integrated circuits. This test clip is a significant improvement over existing DIP test clips in that it has retractable pins which will permit troubleshooting without risk of accidentally shorting adjacent pins together when moving probes to different pins on energized circuits or when the probe is accidentally bumped while taking measurements.

  18. EXFILE: A program for compiling irradiation data on UN and UC fuel pins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, J. T.; Smith, R. L.; Weinstein, M. B.; Davison, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    A FORTRAN-4 computer program for handling fuel pin data is described. Its main features include standardized output, easy access for data manipulation, and tabulation of important material property data. An additional feature allows simplified preparation of input decks for a fuel swelling computer code (CYGRO-2). Data from over 300 high temperature nitride and carbide based fuel pin irradiations are listed.

  19. Irradiation of three T-111 clad uranium nitride fuel pins for 8070 hours at 990 C (1815 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaby, J. G.; Siegel, B. L.; Gedeon, L.; Galbo, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The design and successful operation of three tantalum alloy (Ta-8W-2Hf) clad uranium mononitride (UN) fuel pins irradiated for 8070 hr at 990 C (1815 F) is described. Two pin diameters having measured burnups of 0.47 and 0.90 uranium atom percent were tested. No clad failures or swelling was detected; however, postirradiation clad samples tested failed with 1 percent strain. The fuel density decrease was 2 percent, and the fission gas release was less than 0.05 percent. Isotropic fuel swelling, which averaged about 0.5 percent, was less than fuel pin assembly clearances. Thus the clad was not strained. Thermocouples with a modified hot zone operated at average temperatures to 1100 C (2012 F) without failure. Factors that influence the ability to maintain uniform clad temperature as well as the results of the heat transfer calculations are discussed.

  20. Flux Pinning Phenomena in Electron Irradiated Yttrium BARIUM(2) COPPER(3) OXYGEN(7-DELTA) Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giapintzakis, John Konstantinos

    1992-01-01

    It has been shown that 1 MeV electron irradiation to a typical dose Phi~ 1times 10^{19} cm^{ -2} results in an enhancement of the critical current density in twinned and untwinned YBa_2 Cu_3O_{7 -delta} single crystals. Values up to two times the preirradiation J_{c} at 10 K and 1 T are observed. The J _{c} enhancement is accompanied by a dramatic increase of the irreversibility field. A threshold incident electron energy (E_{ t}~ 0.5 MeV) is found above which flux pinning enhancement is observed. The data indicated that the electron radiation-induced defects are effective pinning centers only for the orientation H parallel c-axis. In-situ TEM studies in the HVEM suggest that the pinning centers must be smaller than 20 A. A comparison of the electron irradiation results with those of proton irradiation experiments indicate a lower magnitude of enhancement of J_{c} at 10 K and 2 T for the electron case. The probable explanation is the difference in the energy spectra of the PKAs produced by the two types of irradiation. GdBa_2Cu_3O_{7-delta } and EuBa_2Cu_3O _{7-delta} single crystals irradiated with 0.6 MeV electrons displayed similar flux pinning enhancements as YBa_2Cu _3O_{7-delta} crystals, indicating that Y displacements are not primary flux pinners. The evidence from annealing studies suggests that the primary pinning center produced by the electron irradiation is not associated with the oxygen in the Cu-O chains. Instead, a consistent interpretation of the data suggests that the primary pinning defect is most likely based on the displacement of a copper atom from the CuO_2 plane. In order to account for the complete enhancement of J_{c} other pinning mechanisms aside from point defects, such as small point defect clusters, should be considered.

  1. Microstructural examination of high temperature creep failure of Zircaloy-2 cladding in irradiated PHWR fuel pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Prerna; Sah, D. N.; Kumar, Sunil; Anantharaman, S.

    2012-10-01

    Cladding samples taken from the ballooned region of the irradiated Zircaloy-2 cladded PHWR fuel pins which failed during isothermal heating tests carried out at 800-900 °C were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The examination of samples from the fuel pin tested at 900 °C showed an intergranular mode of failure in the cladding due to formation of cracks, cavities and zirconium hydride precipitates on the grain boundaries in the cladding material. A thin hard α-Zr(O) layer was observed on outer surface due to dissolution of the oxide layer formed during reactor operation. Grain boundary sliding was identified to be the main mode of creep deformation of Zircaloy-2 at 900 °C. Examination of the cladding tested at 800 °C showed absence of cracks or cavities in the deformed material and no localisation of hydrides was observed at the grain boundaries. The failure of the cladding occurred after necking followed by extensive wall thinning of the cladding tube.

  2. Examination of T-111 clad uranium nitride fuel pins irradiated up to 13,000 hours at a clad temperature of 990 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaby, J. G.; Siegel, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    The examination of 27 fuel pins irradiated for up to 13,000 hours at 990 C is described. The fuel pin clad was a tantalum alloy with uranium nitride as the nuclear fuel. Two nominal fuel pin diameters were tested with a maximum burnup of 2.34 atom percent. Twenty-two fuel pins were tested for fission gas leaks; thirteen pins leaked. Clad ductility tests indicated clad embrittlement. The embrittlement is attributed to hydrogen from an n,p reaction in the fuel. Fuel swelling was burnup dependent, and the amount of fission gas release was low, generally less than 0.5 percent. No incompatibilities between fuel, liner, and clad were in evidence.

  3. Performance and breakdown characteristics of irradiated vertical power GaN P-i-N diodes

    DOE PAGES

    King, M. P.; Armstrong, A. M.; Dickerson, J. R.; ...

    2015-10-29

    Electrical performance and defect characterization of vertical GaN P-i-N diodes before and after irradiation with 2.5 MeV protons and neutrons is investigated. Devices exhibit increase in specific on-resistance following irradiation with protons and neutrons, indicating displacement damage introduces defects into the p-GaN and n- drift regions of the device that impact on-state device performance. The breakdown voltage of these devices, initially above 1700 V, is observed to decrease only slightly for particle fluence <; 1013 cm-2. Furthermore, the unipolar figure of merit for power devices indicates that while the on-resistance and breakdown voltage degrade with irradiation, vertical GaN P-i-Ns remainmore » superior to the performance of the best available, unirradiated silicon devices and on-par with unirradiated modern SiC-based power devices.« less

  4. Magnetization and flux pinning in high-Tc cuprates: Irradiated and oxygen deficient materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. R.; Sun, Yang Ren; Ossandon, J. G.; Christen, D. K.; Kerchner, H. R.; Sales, B. C.; Chakoumakos, B. C.; Civale, L.; Marwick, A. C.; Holtzberg, F.

    1992-11-01

    Recent studies of the intragrain current density J and vortex pinning in high Tc superconductors are surveyed. Materials include Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8 single crystals and aligned polycrystals. To probe the flux pinning, the strength, number, and morphology of defects were modified. Varying the oxygen content (7-delta) in YBa2Cu3O(7-delta) or irradiating the materials with ions, having either light or heavy masses, gives systematic changes in the character of the all-important defects.

  5. Lightning Pin Injection Test: MOSFETS in "ON" State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Saha, Sankalita; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    The test objective was to evaluate MOSFETs for induced fault modes caused by pin-injecting a standard lightning waveform into them while operating. Lightning Pin-Injection testing was performed at NASA LaRC. Subsequent fault-mode and aging studies were performed by NASA ARC researchers using the Aging and Characterization Platform for semiconductor components. This report documents the test process and results, to provide a basis for subsequent lightning tests. The ultimate IVHM goal is to apply prognostic and health management algorithms using the features extracted during aging to allow calculation of expected remaining useful life. A survey of damage assessment techniques based upon inspection is provided, and includes data for optical microscope and X-ray inspection. Preliminary damage assessments based upon electrical parameters are also provided.

  6. Strong periodic flux pinning in oxygen-ion-irradiated high-TC superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas, Javier; Swiecicki, I.; Briatico, J.; Bernard, R.; Crassous, A.; Wolf, T.; Bergeal, N.; Lesueur, J.; Ulysse, C.; Faini, G.; Hallet, X.; Piraux, L.

    2012-02-01

    We used oxygen ion irradiation to transfer into high-TC superconducting thin films the nanoscale pattern of different types of masks (alumina [1] and [2] PMMA templates with ordered arrays of holes). This causes a nanoscale spatial modulation of superconductivity, and strongly affects the magneto-transport in the mixed-state. By tuning the irradiation dose and the array parameters, it is possible to engineer vortex energy landscapes sufficiently strong to govern flux dynamics. This is evidenced by a periodic series of strong magneto-resistance oscillations, the well-known fingerprint of periodic flux pinning. Interestingly, this irradiation technique allows tuning the geometry and the strength of the pinning potential wells at the nanoscale. This allows the observation of unusually strong matching effects at relatively high fields (up to several kOe). We show that the amplitude of the magneto-resistance oscillations is intimately connected with vortex channeling effects. [1] J.E. Villegas et al. Nanotechnology 22 075302 (2011). [2] I. Swiecicki et al. submitted

  7. Carbide fuel pin and capsule design for irradiations at thermionic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, B. L.; Slaby, J. G.; Mattson, W. F.; Dilanni, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    The design of a capsule assembly to evaluate tungsten-emitter - carbide-fuel combinations for thermionic fuel elements is presented. An inpile fuel pin evaluation program concerned with clad temperture, neutron spectrum, carbide fuel composition, fuel geometry,fuel density, and clad thickness is discussed. The capsule design was a compromise involving considerations between heat transfer, instrumentation, materials compatibility, and test location. Heat-transfer calculations were instrumental in determining the method of support of the fuel pin to minimize axial temperature variations. The capsule design was easily fabricable and utilized existing state-of-the-art experience from previous programs.

  8. Control of domain wall pinning by localised focused Ga {sup +} ion irradiation on Au capped NiFe nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Burn, D. M. Atkinson, D.

    2014-10-28

    Understanding domain wall pinning and propagation in nanowires are important for future spintronics and nanoparticle manipulation technologies. Here, the effects of microscopic local modification of the magnetic properties, induced by focused-ion-beam intermixing, in NiFe/Au bilayer nanowires on the pinning behavior of domain walls was investigated. The effects of irradiation dose and the length of the irradiated features were investigated experimentally. The results are considered in the context of detailed quasi-static micromagnetic simulations, where the ion-induced modification was represented as a local reduction of the saturation magnetization. Simulations show that domain wall pinning behavior depends on the magnitude of the magnetization change, the length of the modified region, and the domain wall structure. Comparative analysis indicates that reduced saturation magnetisation is not solely responsible for the experimentally observed pinning behavior.

  9. FFTF/IEM (Fast Flux Test Facility/Interim Examination and Maintenance) cell fuel pin weighing system

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is used for remote dissassembly of irradiated fuel and materials experiments. For those fuel experiments where the FFTF tag-gas detection system has indicated a fuel pin cladding breach, a weighing system is used in identifying that fuel pin with a reduced weight due to the escape of gaseous and volatile fission products. A fuel pin weighing machine, originally purchased for use in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), was the basis for the IEM cell system. Design modifications to the original equipment were centered around adapting the machine to the differences between the two facilities and correcting deficiencies discovered during functional testing in the IEM cell mock-up.

  10. Evaluation of the advanced mixed oxide fuel test FO-2 irradiated in Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpin, L.L.; Baker, R.B.; Chastain, S.A.

    1989-05-01

    The advanced mixed-oxide (UO/sub 2/-PuO/sub 2/) test assembly, FO-2, irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), is undergoing postirradiation examination (PIE). This is one of the first FFTF tests examined that used the advanced ferrite-martensite alloy, HT9, which is highly resistant to irradiation swelling. The FO-2 includes the first annular fueled pins irradiated in FFTF to undergo destructive examination. The FO-2 is a lead assembly for the ongoing FFTF Core Demonstration Experiment (CDE) (Leggett and Omberg 1987) and was designed to evaluate the effects of fuel design variables, such as pellet density, smeared density, and fuel form (annular or solid fuel), on advanced pin performance. The assembly contains a total of 169 fuel pins of twelve different types. The test was irradiated for 312 equivalent full power days (EFPD) in FFTF. It had a peak pin power of 13.7 kW/ft and reached a peak burnup of 65.2 MWd/kgM with a peak fast fluence of 9.9 /times/ 10/sup 22/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). This document discusses the test and its results. 6 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Engineering test plan for US/UK higher actinides irradiations tests

    SciTech Connect

    Basmajian, J A

    1981-03-01

    The objective of the Higher Actinides Irradiations Program is to verify the neutronic and irradiation performance of americium and curium oxides in a fast reactor. The data obtained from the irradiation will be used to assess the basic neutronics parameters for actinide elements and determine the irradiation potential of the oxides of {sup 241}Am and {sup 244}Cm. This information has application in breeder reactor physics, fuel cycle analysis and assessment of waste management options. The irradiation test program is a cooperative effort wherein the US is supplying the completed irradiation test pins, while the UK will perform the irradiation in their Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). Postirradiation examination and data analyses will be conducted on a cooperative basis, with some examinations performed in the UK and others in the US. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Evaluation of refractory-metal-clad uranium nitride and uranium dioxide fuel pins after irradiation for times up to 10 450 hours at 990 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.; Gluyas, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of some materials variables on the irradiation performance of fuel pins for a lithium-cooled space power reactor design concept were examined. The variables studied were UN fuel density, fuel composition, and cladding alloy. All pins were irradiated at about 990 C in a thermal neutron environment to the design fuel burnup. An 85-percent dense UN fuel gave the best overall results in meeting the operational goals. The T-111 cladding on all specimens was embrittled, possibly by hydrogen in the case of the UN fuel and by uranium and oxygen in the case of the UO2 fuel. Tests with Cb-1Zr cladding indicate potential use of this cladding material. The UO2 fueled specimens met the operational goals of less than 1 percent cladding strain, but other factors make UO2 less attractive than low-density UN for the contemplated space power reactor use.

  13. Evaluation of the advanced mixed-oxide fuel test FO-2 irradiated in the FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Burley Gilpin, L.L.; Chastain, S.A.; Baker, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    The advanced mixed-oxide (UO{sub 2}-PuO{sub 2}) test assembly, FO-2, irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is undergoing postirradiation examination. This is one of the first FFTF tests examined that used the advanced ferrite-martensite alloy, HT9, which is highly resistant to irradiation swelling. The FO-2 includes the first annular fueled pins irradiated in FFTF to undergo destructive examination. The FO-2 is a lead assembly for the ongoing FFTF Core Demonstration Experiment (CDE) and was designed to evaluate the effects of fuel design variables, such as pellet density, smeared density, and fuel form (annular or solid fuel), on advanced pin performance. The assembly contains a total of 169 fuel pins of 12 different types. Two L (annular) fuel pins, GF02L04 (FFTF and transient tested) and GF02L09 (FFTF only), were destructively examined. Evaluation of the FO-2 fuel pins and assembly shows the excellent and predictable performance of the mixed-oxide fuels with HT9 structural material. This, combined with the robust behavior of the pins in transient tests, and the continued excellent performance of the CDE indicate this is a superior fuel system for liquid-metal reactors. It offers greatly reduced deformation during irradiation, while maintaining good operating characteristics.

  14. The real structure of columnar pinning centers in heavy-ion-irradiated cuprate superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D.O.; Zhu, Y.; Budhani, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    There has been considerable recent interest in the use of columnar defects produced by irradiation with energetic heavy ions to raise the irreversibility line and improve the critical current density of cuprate superconductors. In the interpretation and theoretical modeling of the flux-pinning characteristics of heavy-ion tracks, it is generally assumed that they are simply columns of non-superconducting material. In this paper we present a more realistic description, based both on resistivity measurements and on detailed, quantitative transmission electron microscope methods (both imaging and analytical studies), of the nature of heavy-ion damage, including defects, disorder, strain fields, and oxygen deficiencies in the matrix of the superconductor surrounding the amorphous columns. The presence of such disorder appears to be a consequence of the mechanism of track formation, which involves partial epitaxial regrowth of a molten region which follows the passage of sufficiently energetic ions.

  15. FFTF utilization for irradiation testing

    SciTech Connect

    Corrigan, D.C.; Julyk, L.J.; Hoth, C.W.; McGuire, J.C.; Sloan, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    FFTF utilization for irradiation testing is beginning. Two Fuels Open Test Assemblies and one Vibration Open Test Assembly, both containing in-core contact instrumentation, are installed in the reactor. These assemblies will be used to confirm plant design performance predictions. Some 100 additional experiments are currently planned to follow these three. This will result in an average core loading of about 50 test assemblies throughout the early FFTF operating cycles.

  16. Advances in tribological testing of artificial joint biomaterials using multidirectional pin-on-disk testers

    PubMed Central

    Baykal, D.; Siskey, R.S.; Haider, H.; Saikko, V.; Ahlroos, T.; Kurtz, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of numerous formulations of Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), which is widely used as a bearing material in orthopedic implants, necessitated screening of bearing couples to identify promising iterations for expensive joint simulations. Pin-on-disk (POD) testers capable of multidirectional sliding can correctly rank formulations of UHMWPE with respect to their predictive in vivo wear behavior. However, there are still uncertainties regarding POD test parameters for facilitating clinically relevant wear mechanisms of UHMWPE. Studies on the development of POD testing were briefly summarized. We systematically reviewed wear rate data of UHMWPE generated by POD testers. To determine if POD testing was capable of correctly ranking bearings and if test parameters outlined in ASTM F732 enabled differentiation between wear behavior of various formulations, mean wear rates of non-irradiated, conventional (25–50 kGy) and highly crosslinked (≥90 kGy) UHMWPE were grouped and compared. The mean wear rates of non-irradiated, conventional and highly crosslinked UHMWPEs were 7.03, 5.39 and 0.67 mm3/MC. Based on studies that complied with the guidelines of ASTM F732, the mean wear rates of non-irradiated, conventional and highly crosslinked UHMWPEs were 0.32, 0.21 and 0.04 mm3/km, respectively. In both sets of results, the mean wear rate of highly crosslinked UHMPWE was smaller than both conventional and non-irradiated UHMWPEs (p<0.05). Thus, POD testers can compare highly crosslinked and conventional UHMWPEs despite different test parameters. Narrowing the allowable range for standardized test parameters could improve sensitivity of multi-axial testers in correctly ranking materials. PMID:23831149

  17. Testing of the KRI-developed Silicon PIN Radioxenon Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Foxe, Michael P.; McIntyre, Justin I.

    2015-01-23

    Radioxenon detectors are used for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) in a network of detectors throughout the world called the International Monitoring System (IMS). The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) has tasked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with testing a V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) and Lares Ltd-developed Silicon PIN detector for radioxenon detection. PNNL measured radioxenon with the silicon PIN detector and determined its potential compared to current plastic scintillator beta cells. While the PNNL tested Si detector experienced noise issues, a second detector was tested in Russia at Lares Ltd, which did not exhibit the noise issues. Without the noise issues, the Si detector produces much better energy resolution and isomer peak separation than a conventional plastic scintillator cell used in the SAUNA systems in the IMS. Under the assumption of 1 cm3 of Xe in laboratory-like conditions, 24-hr count time (12-hr count time for the SAUNA), with the respective shielding the minimum detectable concentrations for the Si detector tested by Lares Ltd (and a conventional SAUNA system) were calculated to be: 131mXe – 0.12 mBq/m3 (0.12 mBq/m3); 133Xe – 0.18 mBq/m3 (0.21 mBq/m3); 133mXe – 0.07 mBq/m3 (0.15 mBq/m3); 135Xe – 0.45 mBq/m3 (0.67 mBq/m3). Detection limits, which are one of the important factors in choosing the best detection technique for radioxenon in field conditions, are significantly better than for SAUNA-like detection systems for 131mXe and 133mXe, but similar for 133Xe and 135Xe. Another important factor is the amount of “memory effect” or carry over signal from one radioxenon measurement to the subsequent sample. The memory effect is

  18. Irradiation Test of Fuel Containing Minor Actinides in the Experimental Fast Reactor Joyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soga, Tomonori; Sekine, Takashi; Tanaka, Kosuke; Kitamura, Ryoichi; Aoyama, Takafumi

    The mixed oxide containing minor actinides (MA-MOX) fuel irradiation program is being conducted using the experimental fast reactor Joyo of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency to research early thermal behavior of MA-MOX fuel. Two irradiation experiments were conducted in the Joyo MK-III 3rd operational cycle. Six prepared fuel pins included MOX fuel containing 3% or 5% americium (Am-MOX), MOX fuel containing 2% americium and 2% neptunium (Np/Am-MOX), and reference MOX fuel. The first test was conducted with high linear heat rates of approximately 430 W/cm maintained during only 10 minutes in order to confirm whether or not fuel melting occurred. After 10 minutes irradiation in May 2006, the test subassembly was transferred to the hot cell facility and an Am-MOX pin and a Np/Am-MOX pin were replaced with dummy pins including neutron dosimeters. The test subassembly loaded with the remaining four fuel pins was re-irradiated in Joyo for 24-hours in August 2006 at nearly the same linear power to obtain re-distribution data on MA-MOX fuel. Linear heat rates for each pin were calculated using MCNP accounting for both prompt and delayed heating components, and then adjusted using E/C for 10B (n, α) reaction rates measured in the MK-III core neutron field characterization test. Post irradiation examination of these pins to confirm the fuel melting and the local concentration under irradiation of NpO2-x or AmO2-x in the (U, Pu)O2-x fuel are underway. The test results are expected to reduce uncertainties on the design margin in the thermal design for MA-MOX fuel.

  19. Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Palmer, Joe; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Keller, Paul; Montgomery, Robert; Chien, Hual-Te; Kohse, Gordon; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Rempe, Joy

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high-accuracy and -resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other ongoing efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an ATR NSUF project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2. The goal of this research is to characterize and demonstrate magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer operation during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation-tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data is collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. To date, one piezoelectric

  20. Reduction of Fermi level pinning and recombination at polycrystalline CdTe surfaces by laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Simonds, Brian J.; Kheraj, Vipul; Palekis, Vasilios; Ferekides, Christos; Scarpulla, Michael A.

    2015-06-14

    Laser processing of polycrystalline CdTe is a promising approach that could potentially increase module manufacturing throughput while reducing capital expenditure costs. For these benefits to be realized, the basic effects of laser irradiation on CdTe must be ascertained. In this study, we utilize surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) to investigate the changes to the electronic properties of the surface of polycrystalline CdTe solar cell stacks induced by continuous-wave laser annealing. The experimental data explained within a model consisting of two space charge regions, one at the CdTe/air interface and one at the CdTe/CdS junction, are used to interpret our SPS results. The frequency dependence and phase spectra of the SPS signal are also discussed. To support the SPS findings, low-temperature spectrally-resolved photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence were also measured. The data show that a modest laser treatment of 250 W/cm{sup 2} with a dwell time of 20 s is sufficient to reduce the effects of Fermi level pinning at the surface due to surface defects.

  1. Flux pinning and flux creep in neutron irradiated (Y,Gd)Ba sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, J.O. Superconductivity Research Lab., Tokyo ); Sickafus, K.E.; Peterson, D.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Powder samples of Y{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} were irradiated with mixed spectrum ({approximately}50% E<0.5eV, 50% E>0.5eV) neutrons with most interactions expected to occur at the Gd site. As a function of fluence the samples showed increased ({approximately}X3-X8) magnetically measured critical current densities J{sub c} at low fluences, falling off at the highest values. An analysis of magnetic relaxation data, which allows for a nonlinear pinning potential U vs J relationship, revealed substantial increases in U at constant J, indicating that the irradiation introduced more effective pinning centers than those originally present. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Fuel/cladding compatibility in irradiated metallic fuel pins at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Hanchung.

    1990-04-01

    Over fifty fuel/cladding compatibility tests on irradiated metallic fuel specimens have been conducted in an in-cell facility at elevated temperatures. At temperatures below 700--725{degree}C, no fuel/cladding interaction was noted in tests up to 7 h. Liquid-phase cladding penetration occurred in some of the tests at temperatures greater than 725--750{degree}C. The effective rates of liquid- phase cladding penetration of six different fuel/cladding combinations during 1-h testing are reported. After the initial liquefaction at the fuel/cladding interface, which may be affected by the solid-state diffusional interaction during the steady-state irradiation, the rate of further cladding penetration stays constant or decreases with time. There was no runaway cladding penetration in the latter part of a heating cycle.

  3. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Kohse, Gordon E.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Montgomery, Robert O.; Chien, Hual-Te; Villard, Jean-Francois; Palmer, Joe; Rempe, Joy

    2014-07-30

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2 (E> 0.1 MeV). The goal of this research is to characterize magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test will be an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers.

  4. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Kohse, Gordon E.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Montgomery, Robert O.; Chien, Hual-Te; Villard, Jean-Francois; Palmer, Joe; Rempe, Joy

    2013-12-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2 (E> 0.1 MeV). The goal of this research is to characterize magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test will be an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers.

  5. Magnetic studies of current conduction and flux pinning in high-T(sub c) cuprates: Virgin, irradiated, and oxygen deficient materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. R.; Sun, Yang Ren; Ossandon, J. G.; Christen, D. K.; Kerchner, H. R.; Sles, B. C.; Chakoumakos, B. C.; Civale, L.; Marwick, A. D.; Holtzberg, F.

    1992-09-01

    To increase the current density and pinning of magnetic flux in high temperature superconductors, defects with point-like and line-like geometries were created in controlled numbers using ion irradiation methods. Single crystals of Y1Ba2Cu3O7 and Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8 superconductors were studied using dc magnetic methods. These studies showed greatly increased irreversibility in the vortex state magnetization and enhanced intragrain current density J(sub c) following irradiation. Linear defects, created by irradiation with energetic heavy ions, are particularly effective in pinning vortices at higher temperatures and magnetic fields. Further investigations of 'flux creep' (the time dependence of magnetization) are well described by recent vortex glass and collective pinning theories. Complementary investigations have delineated the role of oxygen deficiency (delta) on pinning in aligned Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) materials.

  6. Identification of a breached fuel pin in the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell

    SciTech Connect

    McGuiness, P.W.; Kalk, J.J.; Hicks, D.F.

    1987-09-01

    At the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell, experiments are routinely disassembled and examined following irradiation in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Recently and for the first time, a fueled experiment which had breached its cladding during irradiation was disassembled in the cell. The processing objective was to locate and identify the one pin (out of 217 pins) with breached cladding, and recover selected test pins for further examination. Identification of the breached pin proved to be challenging. After all pins were weighed the data were inconclusive, and alternate procedures had to be developed and implemented. Ultimately, four independent methods were used to pinpoint the breached pin.

  7. Development of a Fast Breeder Reactor Fuel Bundle Deformation Analysis Code - BAMBOO: Development of a Pin Dispersion Model and Verification by the Out-of-Pile Compression Test

    SciTech Connect

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ito, Masahiro; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2004-02-15

    To analyze the wire-wrapped fast breeder reactor fuel pin bundle deformation under bundle/duct interaction conditions, the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute has developed the BAMBOO computer code. This code uses the three-dimensional beam element to calculate fuel pin bowing and cladding oval distortion as the primary deformation mechanisms in a fuel pin bundle. The pin dispersion, which is disarrangement of pins in a bundle and would occur during irradiation, was modeled in this code to evaluate its effect on bundle deformation. By applying the contact analysis method commonly used in the finite element method, this model considers the contact conditions at various axial positions as well as the nodal points and can analyze the irregular arrangement of fuel pins with the deviation of the wire configuration.The dispersion model was introduced in the BAMBOO code and verified by using the results of the out-of-pile compression test of the bundle, where the dispersion was caused by the deviation of the wire position. And the effect of the dispersion on the bundle deformation was evaluated based on the analysis results of the code.

  8. HRB-22 irradiation phase test data report

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, F.C.; Acharya, R.T.; Baldwin, C.A.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Thoms, K.R.; Wallace, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    Irradiation capsule HRB-22 was a test capsule containing advanced Japanese fuel for the High Temperature Test Reactor (HTTR). Its function was to obtain fuel performance data at HTTR operating temperatures in an accelerated irradiation environment. The irradiation was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The capsule was irradiated for 88.8 effective full power days in position RB-3B of the removable beryllium (RB) facility. The maximum fuel compact temperature was maintained at or below the allowable limit of 1300{degrees}C for a majority of the irradiation. This report presents the data collected during the irradiation test. Included are test thermocouple and gas flow data, the calculated maximum and volume average temperatures based on the measured graphite temperatures, measured gaseous fission product activity in the purge gas, and associated release rate-to-birth rate (R/B) results. Also included are quality assurance data obtained during the test.

  9. AGR-1 Irradiation Experiment Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    John T. Maki

    2009-10-01

    This document presents the current state of planning for the AGR-1 irradiation experiment, the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment will be irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The test will contain six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule will contain a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. The irradiation is planned for about 700 effective full power days (approximately 2.4 calendar years) with a time-averaged, volume-average temperature of approximately 1050 °C. Average fuel burnup, for the entire test, will be greater than 17.7 % FIMA, and the fuel will experience fast neutron fluences between 2.4 and 4.5 x 1025 n/m2 (E>0.18 MeV).

  10. FFTF/IEM cell fuel pin removal equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwell, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a fuel pin removal device used for pin removal from irradiated fuel assemblies at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). After irradiation in the FFTF, selected fuel assemblies are remotely disassembled in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell. The remote disassembly, following sodium removal, consists of slitting and removing the duct and then removing the fuel pins one-at-a-time by sliding the pins from parallel attachment rails. All pins are removed from one rail before starting on the next. The new pin removal equipment has been used very successfully on the last three fuel experiments disassembled in the IEM cell, including one assembly containing residual sodium. Pin removal time has been cut in half, and this once tedious and time-consuming activity has been turned into an almost effortless evolution.

  11. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program: Criticality experiments with fast test reactor fuel pins in an organic moderator

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, S.R.

    1986-12-01

    The results obtained in a series of criticality experiments performed as part of a joint program on criticality data development between the United States Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are presented in this report along with a complete description of the experiments. The experiments involved lattices of Fast Test Reactor (FTR) fuel pins in an organic moderator mixture similar to that used in the solvent extraction stage of fuel reprocessing. The experiments are designed to provide data for direct comparison with previously performed experimental measurements with water moderated lattices of FTR fuel pins. The same lattice arrangements and FTR fuel pin types are used in these organic moderated experimental assemblies as were used in the water moderated experiments. The organic moderator is a mixture of 38 wt % tributylphosphate in a normal paraffin hydrocarbon mixture of C{sub 11}H{sub 24} to C{sub 15}H{sub 32} molecules. Critical sizes of 1054.8, 599.2, 301.8, 199.5 and 165.3 fuel pins were obtained respectively for organic moderated lattices having 0.761 cm, 0.968 cm, 1.242 cm, 1.537 cm and 1.935 cm square lattice pitches as compared to 1046.9, 571.9, 293.9, 199.7 and 165.1 fuel pins for the same lattices water moderated.

  12. Imaging atomic-scale effects of high-energy ion irradiation on superconductivity and vortex pinning in Fe(Se,Te).

    PubMed

    Massee, Freek; Sprau, Peter Oliver; Wang, Yong-Lei; Davis, J C Séamus; Ghigo, Gianluca; Gu, Genda D; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2015-05-01

    Maximizing the sustainable supercurrent density, J C, is crucial to high-current applications of superconductivity. To achieve this, preventing dissipative motion of quantized vortices is key. Irradiation of superconductors with high-energy heavy ions can be used to create nanoscale defects that act as deep pinning potentials for vortices. This approach holds unique promise for high-current applications of iron-based superconductors because J C amplification persists to much higher radiation doses than in cuprate superconductors without significantly altering the superconducting critical temperature. However, for these compounds, virtually nothing is known about the atomic-scale interplay of the crystal damage from the high-energy ions, the superconducting order parameter, and the vortex pinning processes. We visualize the atomic-scale effects of irradiating FeSe x Te1-x with 249-MeV Au ions and find two distinct effects: compact nanometer-sized regions of crystal disruption or "columnar defects," plus a higher density of single atomic site "point" defects probably from secondary scattering. We directly show that the superconducting order is virtually annihilated within the former and suppressed by the latter. Simultaneous atomically resolved images of the columnar crystal defects, the superconductivity, and the vortex configurations then reveal how a mixed pinning landscape is created, with the strongest vortex pinning occurring at metallic core columnar defects and secondary pinning at clusters of point-like defects, followed by collective pinning at higher fields.

  13. Imaging atomic-scale effects of high-energy ion irradiation on superconductivity and vortex pinning in Fe(Se,Te)

    PubMed Central

    Massee, Freek; Sprau, Peter Oliver; Wang, Yong-Lei; Davis, J. C. Séamus; Ghigo, Gianluca; Gu, Genda D.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing the sustainable supercurrent density, JC, is crucial to high-current applications of superconductivity. To achieve this, preventing dissipative motion of quantized vortices is key. Irradiation of superconductors with high-energy heavy ions can be used to create nanoscale defects that act as deep pinning potentials for vortices. This approach holds unique promise for high-current applications of iron-based superconductors because JC amplification persists to much higher radiation doses than in cuprate superconductors without significantly altering the superconducting critical temperature. However, for these compounds, virtually nothing is known about the atomic-scale interplay of the crystal damage from the high-energy ions, the superconducting order parameter, and the vortex pinning processes. We visualize the atomic-scale effects of irradiating FeSexTe1−x with 249-MeV Au ions and find two distinct effects: compact nanometer-sized regions of crystal disruption or “columnar defects,” plus a higher density of single atomic site “point” defects probably from secondary scattering. We directly show that the superconducting order is virtually annihilated within the former and suppressed by the latter. Simultaneous atomically resolved images of the columnar crystal defects, the superconductivity, and the vortex configurations then reveal how a mixed pinning landscape is created, with the strongest vortex pinning occurring at metallic core columnar defects and secondary pinning at clusters of point-like defects, followed by collective pinning at higher fields. PMID:26601180

  14. Ontario Pins Hopes on Practices, Not Testing, to Achieve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on Ontario's way of school improvement which focuses less on test-score results and more on engaging teachers and principals. Like the United States, the Canadian province of Ontario has committed itself to reaching key numeric targets: at least 75 percent of 6th graders able to read, write, and do mathematics at the…

  15. BPX insulation irradiation program test results

    SciTech Connect

    McManamy, T.J. ); Kanemoto, G. ); Snook, P.G. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1991-01-01

    The toroidal field coil insulation for the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) is expected to receive a radiation dose of nearly 10{sup 10} rad and to withstand significant mechanical stresses. An irradiation test program was performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) using the Advanced Technology Reactor (ATR) for irradiations to doses on the order of 3 {times} 10{sup 10} rad. The flexure and shear strength with compression of commercially procured sheet material were reported earlier. A second series of tests has been performed to slightly higher dose levels with vacuum impregnated materials, glass strand material, and Spaulrad-S sheet samples. Vacuum impregnation with a Shell 9405 resin and 9470 hardener was used to produce bonded copper squares and flexure samples of both pure resin and resin with S-glass. A new test fixture was developed to test the bonded samples in shear without applied compression. The Spaulrad-S flexure samples demonstrated a loss of strength with irradiation, similar to previous results. The pure resin lost nearly all flexibility, while the S-glass-reinforced samples retained between 30% and 40% of the initial flexure strength. The S-glass strands showed a 30% loss of strength at the higher dose level when tested in tension. The bonded copper squares had a low room-temperature shear strength of approximately 17 MPa before irradiation, which was unchanged in the irradiated samples. Shear testing of unirradiated bonded copper squares with ten different types of surface treatment revealed that the low shear strength resulted from the polyurethane primer used. In the later series of test, the epoxy-based primers and DZ-80 from Ciba-Geigy did much better, with shear strengths on the order of 40 MPa. These samples also demonstrated a resistance to cryogenic shock. One irradiated bonded sample was tested up 10 210 MPa in compression, the limit of the test fixture, without failure.

  16. Measurement of Diameter Changes during Irradiation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K. L.; Knudson, D. L.; Crepeau, J. C.; Solstad, S.

    2015-03-01

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in advanced and existing nuclear reactors. Such materials can experience significant dimensional and physical changes during irradiation. Currently in the US, such changes are measured by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The time and labor to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and handling may disturb the phenomena of interest. In-pile detection of changes in geometry is sorely needed to understand real-time behavior during irradiation testing of fuels and materials in high flux US Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). This paper presents development results of an advanced Linear Variable Differential Transformer-based test rig capable of detecting real-time changes in diameter of fuel rods or material samples during irradiation in US MTRs. This test rig is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory and will provide experimenters with a unique capability to measure diameter changes associated with fuel and cladding swelling, pellet-clad interaction, and crud buildup.

  17. Development of a linear pin wear test machine. [304 ss on 3. 50 maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Schmale, D.T.; Bourcier, R.J.

    1987-04-01

    In support of a study of the mechanical properties of amorphous alloys produced by laser surface melting, a linear pin wear test machine has been developed and constructed. The machine repeatedly follows a single straight path in one direction through the use of simple kinematic principles. The wear pin is held in a tone arm-like assembly which rides on an off-center rotating bearing. Wear track length can be adjusted by varying bearing eccentricity and tone-arm offset, while wear track location may be changed by specimen translation via two micrometer mounted ball slides. Frictional force is measured by using a load cell mounted on precision bearings while displacement is monitored by using a precalibrated LVDT. The specimen holder is designed to hold irregular specimens up to 0.46 x 1.90 x 2.54 cm. Selected frictional load and displacement data are recorded using a digital oscilloscope. Results of tests performed on an annealed 304 stainless steel specimen using a 350 maraging steel pin are presented.

  18. Effects of proton irradiation on flux-pinning properties of underdoped Ba(Fe0.96Co0.04)2As2 pnictide superconductor

    DOE PAGES

    Salem-Sugui, S.; Moseley, D.; Stuard, S. J.; ...

    2016-10-13

    We study the effect of proton irradiation on Ba(Fe0.96Co0.04)2As2 superconducting single crystals from combined magnetisation and magnetoresistivity measurements. The study allows the extraction of the values of the apparent pinning energy U0 of the samples prior to and after irradiation, as well as comparison of the values of U0 obtained from the flux-flow reversible region with those from the flux-creep irreversible region. Irradiation reduces Tc modestly, but significantly reduces U0 in both regimes: the critical current density Jc is modified, most strikingly by the disappearance of the second magnetisation peak after irradiation. Analysis of the functional form of the pinningmore » force and of the temperature dependence of Jc for zero field, indicates that proton irradiation in this case has not changed the pinning regime, but has introduced a high density of shallow point-like defects. Lastly, by considering a model that takes into account the effect of disorder on the irreversibility line, the data suggests that irradiation produced a considerable reduction in the average effective disorder overall, consistent with the changes observed in U0 and Jc.« less

  19. Irradiation performance of full-length metallic IFR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Neimark, L.A.

    1992-07-01

    An assembly irradiation of 169 full-length U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel pins was successfully completed in FFTF to a goal burnup of 10 at.%. All test fuel pins maintained their cladding integrity during the irradiation. Postirradiation examination showed minimal fuel/cladding mechanical interaction and excellent stability of the fuel column. Fission-gas release was normal and consistent with the existing data base from irradiation testing of shorter metallic fuel pins in EBR-II.

  20. Simulation of the β-voltaic effect in silicon pin structures irradiated with electrons from a nickel-63 β source

    SciTech Connect

    Nagornov, Yu. S.; Murashev, V. N.

    2016-01-15

    The prospects of β voltaics as electric-power sources for semiconductor circuits are considered. Experimental studies show that charging of the surface and a decrease in the electrovoltaic power are important. Simulation of the β-voltaic effect induced by electrons from a nickel-63 source on silicon pin structures is performed; it is shown that the coefficient of the collection of generated charge carriers can be as high as 13%. The dose dependences of the performance efficiency of silicon β-voltaic structures are determined for the case of irradiation with α particles and γ-ray photons; it is shown that 1.3 × 10{sup 14} and 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2}, respectively, are the threshold doses, above which a rapid decrease in efficiency occurs. The optimal parameters of microchannel structures in β-voltaic electronics, in which the width of the channels and the distance between them correspond to 3 and 10 μm, are determined.

  1. Nuclear fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Bramblett, Richard L.; Preskitt, Charles A.

    1987-03-03

    Systems and methods for inspection of nuclear fuel pins to determine fiss loading and uniformity. The system includes infeed mechanisms which stockpile, identify and install nuclear fuel pins into an irradiator. The irradiator provides extended activation times using an approximately cylindrical arrangement of numerous fuel pins. The fuel pins can be arranged in a magazine which is rotated about a longitudinal axis of rotation. A source of activating radiation is positioned equidistant from the fuel pins along the longitudinal axis of rotation. The source of activating radiation is preferably oscillated along the axis to uniformly activate the fuel pins. A detector is provided downstream of the irradiator. The detector uses a plurality of detector elements arranged in an axial array. Each detector element inspects a segment of the fuel pin. The activated fuel pin being inspected in the detector is oscillated repeatedly over a distance equal to the spacing between adjacent detector elements, thereby multiplying the effective time available for detecting radiation emissions from the activated fuel pin.

  2. Reusable Mechanical Pin Puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Son; Farley, Rodger; Devine, ED

    1991-01-01

    Reusable mechanical pin puller relatively simple spring-loaded trigger mechanism. Designed to save money and increase safety as substitute for costly and potentially dangerous pyrotechnic pin pullers used in development and testing of deployment mechanisms.

  3. Updated Results of Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, Joshua; Palmer, Joe; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Keller, Paul; Montgomery, Robert; Chien, Hual-Te; Tittmann, Bernhard; Reinhardt, Brian; Kohse, Gordon; Rempe, Joy; Villard, J.F.

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. To address this need, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2}. A multi-National Laboratory collaboration funded by the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation (NEET-ASI) program also provided initial support for this effort. This irradiation, which started in February 2014, is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data are collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The irradiation is ongoing and will continue to approximately mid-2015. To date, very encouraging results have been attained as several transducers continue to operate under irradiation. (authors)

  4. Irradiation Environment of the Materials Test Station

    SciTech Connect

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2012-06-21

    Conceptual design of the proposed Materials Test Station (MTS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is now complete. The principal mission is the irradiation testing of advanced fuels and materials for fast-spectrum nuclear reactor applications. The neutron spectrum in the fuel irradiation region of MTS is sufficiently close to that of fast reactor that MTS can match the fast reactor fuel centerline temperature and temperature profile across a fuel pellet. This is an important characteristic since temperature and temperature gradients drive many phenomena related to fuel performance, such as phase stability, stoichiometry, and fission product transport. The MTS irradiation environment is also suitable in many respects for fusion materials testing. In particular, the rate of helium production relative to atomic displacements at the peak flux position in MTS matches well that of fusion reactor first wall. Nuclear transmutation of the elemental composition of the fusion alloy EUROFER97 in MTS is similar to that expected in the first wall of a fusion reactor.

  5. Enhancement of the critical current density by increasing the collective pinning energy in heavy ion irradiated Co-doped BaFe2As2 single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Haberkorn, N.; Kim, Jeehoon; Gofryk, K.; ...

    2015-04-08

    Here, we investigate the effect of heavy ion irradiation (1.4 GeV Pb) on the vortex matter in Ba(Fe0.92Co0.08)2As2 single crystals by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. The defects created by the irradiation are discontinuous amorphous tracks, resulting in an effective track density smaller than 25% of the nominal doses. In this study, we observe large increases in the critical current density (Jc), ranging from a factor of ~3 at low magnetic fields to a factor of ~10 at fields close to 1 T after irradiation with a nominal fluence of BΦ = 3.5 T. From the normalized flux creepmore » rates (S) and the Maley analysis, we determine that the Jc increase can be mainly attributed to a large increment in the pinning energy, from <50 K to ≈500 K, while the glassy exponent μ changes from ~1.5 to <1. Even though the enhancement of Jc is substantial in the entire temperature range and S is strongly suppressed, the artificial pinning landscape induced by the irradiation does not modify significantly the crossover to fast creep in the field-temperature vortex phase diagram.« less

  6. Verification of the FBR fuel bundle-duct interaction analysis code BAMBOO by the out-of-pile bundle compression test with large diameter pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Ito, Masahiro; Nemoto, Junichi; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Katsuyama, Kozo

    2014-09-01

    The BAMBOO computer code was verified by results for the out-of-pile bundle compression test with large diameter pin bundle deformation under the bundle-duct interaction (BDI) condition. The pin diameters of the examined test bundles were 8.5 mm and 10.4 mm, which are targeted as preliminary fuel pin diameters for the upgraded core of the prototype fast breeder reactor (FBR) and for demonstration and commercial FBRs studied in the FaCT project. In the bundle compression test, bundle cross-sectional views were obtained from X-ray computer tomography (CT) images and local parameters of bundle deformation such as pin-to-duct and pin-to-pin clearances were measured by CT image analyses. In the verification, calculation results of bundle deformation obtained by the BAMBOO code analyses were compared with the experimental results from the CT image analyses. The comparison showed that the BAMBOO code reasonably predicts deformation of large diameter pin bundles under the BDI condition by assuming that pin bowing and cladding oval distortion are the major deformation mechanisms, the same as in the case of small diameter pin bundles. In addition, the BAMBOO analysis results confirmed that cladding oval distortion effectively suppresses BDI in large diameter pin bundles as well as in small diameter pin bundles.

  7. LWRS ATR Irradiation Testing Readiness Status

    SciTech Connect

    Kristine Barrett

    2012-09-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program was established by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors. The LWRS Program is divided into four R&D Pathways: (1) Materials Aging and Degradation; (2) Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels; (3) Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control Systems; and (4) Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization. This report describes an irradiation testing readiness analysis in preparation of LWRS experiments for irradiation testing at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) under Pathway (2). The focus of the Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuels Pathway is to improve the scientific knowledge basis for understanding and predicting fundamental performance of advanced nuclear fuel and cladding in nuclear power plants during both nominal and off-nominal conditions. This information will be applied in the design and development of high-performance, high burn-up fuels with improved safety, cladding integrity, and improved nuclear fuel cycle economics

  8. Irradiation performance of Fast Flux Test Facility drivers using D9 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.; Gneiting, B.C.; Bard, F.E.

    1995-11-01

    In comparison with the Fast Flux Test Facility Type 316 stainless steel driver design, six test assemblies employing D9 alloy in place of stainless steel for duct, cladding, and wire wrap material were irradiated to demonstrate the improved performance and lifetime capability of an advanced D9 alloy driver design. A single pinhole-type breach occurred in one of the high-exposure tests after a peak fuel burnup of 155 MWd/kg metal (M) and peak fast neutron fluence of 25 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV). Postirradiation examinations were performed on four of the test assemblies and measured results were compared with analytical evaluations. A revised swelling correlation for D9 alloy was developed to provide improved agreement between calculated and measured cladding deformation results. A fuel pin lifetime design criterion of 5% calculated hoop strain was derived from these results. Alternatively, fuel pin lifetimes were developed for two irradiation parameters using statistical failure analyses. For a 99.99% reliability, the analyses indicated a peak fast-fluence lifetime of 21.0 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, or a peak fuel burnup >120 MWd/kg M. In comparison with the Fast Flux Test Facility reference driver design, the extended lifetime capability of D9 alloy would reduce fuel supply requirements for the liquid-metal reactor by a third.

  9. Instrumentation to Enhance Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; J. E. Daw; S. C. Taylor

    2009-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to prove new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors has been completed. Based on this review, recommendations are made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR and a strategy has been developed for obtaining these sensors. Progress toward implementing this strategy is reported in this document. It is anticipated that this report will be updated on an annual basis.

  10. A model for the influence of microstructure, precipitate pinning and fission gas behavior on irradiation-induced recrystallization of nuclear fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rest, J.

    2004-03-01

    Irradiation-induced recrystallization appears to be a general phenomenon in that it is observed to occur in a variety of nuclear fuel types, e.g. U-xMo, UO2, and U3O8. For temperatures below that where significant thermal annealing of defects occurs, an expression is derived for the fission density at which irradiation-induced recrystallization is initiated that is athermal and weakly dependent on fission rate. The initiation of recrystallization is to be distinguished from the subsequent progression and eventual consumption of the original fuel grain. The formulation takes into account the observed microstructural evolution of the fuel, the role of precipitate pinning and fission gas bubbles, and the triggering event for recrystallization. The calculated dislocation density, fission gas bubble-size distribution, and fission density at which recrystallization first appears are compared to measured quantities.

  11. Irradiation performance of Fast Flux Test Facility drivers using D9 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.; Gneiting, B.C.; Bard, F.E.

    1994-06-01

    Six test assemblies similar in design to the FFTF driver assembly but employing the advanced alloy D9 in place of Type 316 stainless steel for duct, cladding, and wire wrap material were irradiated to demonstrate the improved performance and lifetime capability of this design. A single pinhole-type breach was incurred in one of the high exposure tests after a peak fuel burnup of 155 MWd/kgM and peak fast neutron fluence of 25 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV). Postirradiation examinations were performed on four of the test assemblies and measured results were compared to analytical evaluations. A revised swelling correlation for D9 Alloy was developed to provide improved agreement between calculated and measured cladding deformation results. A fuel pin lifetime design criterion of 5% calculated hoop strain was derived. Alternatively, fuel pin lifetimes were developed for two irradiation parameters using statistical failure analyses. For a 99.99% reliability, the analyses indicated a peak fast fluence lifetime of 21.0 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2}, or a peak fuel burnup greater than 120 MWd/kgM. The extended lifetime capability of this design would reduce fuel supply requirements for the FFTF by a third relative to the reference driver design.

  12. Flux pinning properties in YBCO films with growth-controlled nano-dots and heavy-ion irradiation defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueyoshi, T.; Kotaki, T.; Uraguchi, Y.; Suenaga, M.; Makihara, T.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Ishikawa, N.

    2016-11-01

    In order to clarify the influence of size and spatial distribution of three-dimensional pinning centres (3D-PCs) on hybrid flux pinning, columnar defects (CDs) were installed by using 200 MeV Xe ions along the c-axis direction into quasi-multilayered films consisting of YBa2Cu3Oy layers and pseudo layers of BaSnO3. The positive effect of the BaSnO3 doping on the hybrid flux pinning stands out for the critical current density Jc around B || c in high magnetic field and/or inclined magnetic field off the c-axis, which is more remarkable for the multilayered film grown at higher temperature, possibly due to larger BaSnO3 nano-dots. In the case of the in-plane distributed BaSnO3 nano-dots, the Jc around B || ab is remarkably enhanced, whereas there is a detrimental effect on the Jc around B || c. These imply that the tuning of 3D-PCs is one of the keys to improve the Jc at all magnetic field orientations for the hybrid flux pinning.

  13. The biochemical characteristics of wear testing lubricants affect polyethylene wear in orthopaedic pin-on-disc testing.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Leah E; Turgeon, Thomas R; Bohm, Eric R; Brandt, Jan-M

    2015-01-01

    Lubricant protein concentration is known to affect crosslinked polyethylene wear in in vitro testing; however, the biochemical nature of these lubricants may also have a significant effect on wear and dictate its clinical relevance. A modified approach to pin-on-disc testing was implemented to explore the effect of four biochemically different lubricants on the wear of two types of crosslinked polyethylene materials (XLK™ and Marathon™; DePuy Synthes, Warsaw, IN, USA). XLK was associated with higher wear rates than Marathon. In comparison to lubricants containing deionized water, lubricants containing phosphate buffered saline solution and hyaluronic acid increased osmolality by up to 1.2 times and thermal stability by up to 1.4 times. This biochemical change reduced wear by up to 12.5 times. Wear rates for XLK and Marathon differed by a factor of 3.2 using lubricants with phosphate buffered saline solution as the dilutive media, but only 2.0 for lubricants with deionized water. Interestingly, varying the concentration of hyaluronic acid did not have a significant effect on wear, and differences between XLK and Marathon wear rates were not found to be statistically significant when hyaluronic acid was added to the lubricant. The findings of this study showed that increasing the osmolality and thermal stability of lubricants to more clinical levels decreased wear; however, the effect of hyaluronic acid on wear may not be apparent in simplistic pin-on-disc testing. It was suggested that phosphate buffered saline solution be used as the dilutive media of choice in order to better differentiate the ranking of materials while maintaining some clinical relevance.

  14. Identification to a breached fuel pin in the IEM cell

    SciTech Connect

    McGuinness, P.W.; Kalk, J.J.; Hicks, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    Novel methods were successfully employed to identify one breached fuel pin in a 217-pin fuel assembly. The assembly was an experiment that had been irradiated at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), an experimental liquid-metal reactor operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Dept. of Energy. A fuel assembly known to contain breached fuel pins was removed from the sodium-cooled FFTF reactor in November 1984. Later, this assembly was brought into the FFTF's Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell to be disassembled and, for the first time ever at FFTF, to identify a breached fuel pin. The synergistic evaluation of the four different verification techniques - visual examination, cladding swipe activity, wash water radiochemistry, and pin weight - provided rapid and positive identification. The capability to perform future detective work of this kind has been conclusively demonstrated.

  15. Measured and Simulated Dark J-V Characteristics of a-Si:H Single Junction p-i-n Solar Cells Irradiated with 40 keV Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Kenneth; Woodyard, James R.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of 40 keV electron irradiation on a-Si:H p-i-n single-junction solar cells was investigated using measured and simulated dark J-V characteristics. EPRI-AMPS and PC-1D simulators were explored for use in the studies. The EPRI-AMPS simulator was employed and simulator parameters selected to produce agreement with measured J-V characteristics. Three current mechanisms were evident in the measured dark J-V characteristics after electron irradiation, namely, injection, shunting and a term of the form CV(sup m). Using a single discrete defect state level at the center of the band gap, good agreement was achieved between measured and simulated J-V characteristics in the forward-bias voltage region where the dark current density was dominated by injection. The current mechanism of the form CV(sup m) was removed by annealing for two hours at 140 C. Subsequent irradiation restored the CV(sup m) current mechanism and it was removed by a second anneal. Some evidence of the CV(sup m) term is present in device simulations with a higher level of discrete density of states located at the center of the bandgap.

  16. Effects of proton irradiation on flux-pinning properties of underdoped Ba(Fe0.96Co0.04)2As2 pnictide superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Salem-Sugui, S.; Moseley, D.; Stuard, S. J.; Alvarenga, A. D.; Sefat, A. S.; Cohen, L. F.; Ghivelder, L.

    2016-10-13

    We study the effect of proton irradiation on Ba(Fe0.96Co0.04)2As2 superconducting single crystals from combined magnetisation and magnetoresistivity measurements. The study allows the extraction of the values of the apparent pinning energy U0 of the samples prior to and after irradiation, as well as comparison of the values of U0 obtained from the flux-flow reversible region with those from the flux-creep irreversible region. Irradiation reduces Tc modestly, but significantly reduces U0 in both regimes: the critical current density Jc is modified, most strikingly by the disappearance of the second magnetisation peak after irradiation. Analysis of the functional form of the pinning force and of the temperature dependence of Jc for zero field, indicates that proton irradiation in this case has not changed the pinning regime, but has introduced a high density of shallow point-like defects. Lastly, by considering a model that takes into account the effect of disorder on the irreversibility line, the data suggests that irradiation produced a considerable reduction in the average effective disorder overall, consistent with the changes observed in U0 and Jc.

  17. Pin puller impact shock attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auclair, G. F.; Leonard, B. S.; Robbins, R. E.; Proffitt, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Design of a pin arresting mechanism for a pyrotechnically actuated pin puller is reviewed. The investigative approach is discussed and the impact shock test results for various candidate designs are presented. The selected pin arresting design reduced the peak value of the shock response spectrum by five to one.

  18. AC-3-irradiation test of sphere-pac and pellet (U,Pu)C fuel in the US Fast Flux Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bart, G.; Botta, F. B.; Hoth, C. W.; Ledergerber, G.; Mason, R. E.; Stratton, R. W.

    2008-05-01

    The objective of the AC-3 bundle experiment in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was to evaluate a fuel fabrication method by 'direct conversion' of nitrate solutions into spherical uranium-plutonium carbide particles and to compare the irradiation performance of 'sphere-pac' fuel pins prepared at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) with standard pellet fuel pins fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The irradiation and post test examination results show that mixed carbide pellet fuel produced by powder methods and sphere-pac particle fuel developed by internal gelation techniques are both valuable advanced fuel candidates for liquid metal reactors. The PSI fabrication process with direct conversion of actinide nitrate solutions into various sizes of fuel spheres by internal gelation and direct filling of spheres into cladding tubes is seen as more easily transferable to remote operation, showing a significant reduction of process steps. The process is also adaptable for the fabrication of carbonitrides and nitrides (still based on a uranium matrix), as well as for actinides diluted in a (uranium-free) yttrium stabilized zirconium oxide matrix. The AC-3 fuel bundle was irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) during the years 1986-1988 for 630 full power days to a peak burn up of ˜8 at.% fissile material. All of the pins, irradiated at linear powers of up to 84 kW/m, with cladding outer temperatures of 465 °C appeared to be in good condition when removed from the assembly. The rebirth of interest for fast reactor systems motivated the earlier teams to report about the excellent, still perfectly relevant results reached; this paper focusing on the sphere-pac fuel behaviour.

  19. Delamination Strength of WC-Co Thermal-Sprayed Coating Under Combined Stresses by Torsion-Tension Pin-Test Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Kenji; Higaki, Keitaro

    2014-08-01

    In this report, the delamination strength of WC -Co thermal-sprayed coatings under combined torsion and tension is evaluated using a newly developed method, which is called the torsion -tension pin-test. First, the effects of both the pin diameter and the coating thickness on the apparent delamination strength were investigated experimentally. Second, the stress distributions around the interface edge between the pin and the coating were numerically obtained by using the finite element analysis program "MARC." It was confirmed that the fractured plane of the torsion pin coincides with the interfacial plane between the coating and the pin. The apparent delamination strength obtained experimentally decreased linearly with increasing pin diameter and increased with increasing coating thickness t, but it was stable at t of 400 μm or more. The shear delamination strength decreased with increasing tensile stress. Similar stress distributions were observed at the interface when delaminations occurred for rather thick coatings, independent of the pin diameter. The critical combination of the strength of shear stress fields ( Ks) with that of tensile stress fields ( Ka), i.e., the delamination criteria of the coating under combined shear and tensile loadings, was obtained for a WC-12Co thermal-sprayed coating. These combinations were found to be independent of pin diameter and coating thickness.

  20. Status of the irradiation test vehicle for testing fusion materials in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.; Palmer, A.J.; Ingram, F.W.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1998-09-01

    The design of the irradiation test vehicle (ITV) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been completed. The main application for the ITV is irradiation testing of candidate fusion structural materials, including vanadium-base alloys, silicon carbide composites, and low-activation steels. Construction of the vehicle is underway at the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO). Dummy test trains are being built for system checkout and fine-tuning. Reactor insertion of the ITV with the dummy test trains is scheduled for fall 1998. Barring unexpected difficulties, the ITV will be available for experiments in early 1999.

  1. Technical Review Report for the Justification for Shipment of Sodium-Bonded Carbide Fuel Pins in the T-3 Cask

    SciTech Connect

    West, M; DiSabatino, A

    2008-01-04

    This report documents the review of the Fluor Submittal (hereafter, the Submittal), prepared by Savannah River Packaging Technology (SRPT) of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), at the request of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office, for the shipment of unirradiated and irradiated sodium-bonded carbide fuel pins. The sodium-bonded carbide fuel pins are currently stored at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) awaiting shipment to Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Normally, modified contents are included into the next revision of the SARP. However, the contents, identified to be shipped from FFTF to Idaho National Laboratory, are a one-way shipment of 18 irradiated fuel pins and 7 unirradiated fuel pins, where the irradiated and unirradiated fuel pins are shipped separately, and can be authorized with a letter amendment to the existing Certificate of Compliance (CoC).

  2. Discuss the testing problems of ultraviolet irradiance meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jun'an; Lin, Fangsheng

    2014-09-01

    Ultraviolet irradiance meters are widely used in many areas such as medical treatment, epidemic prevention, energy conservation and environment protection, computers, manufacture, electronics, ageing of material and photo-electric effect, for testing ultraviolet irradiance intensity. So the accuracy of value directly affects the sterile control in hospital, treatment, the prevention level of CDC and the control accuracy of curing and aging in manufacturing industry etc. Because the display of ultraviolet irradiance meters is easy to change, in order to ensure the accuracy, it needs to be recalibrated after being used period of time. By the comparison with the standard ultraviolet irradiance meters, which are traceable to national benchmarks, we can acquire the correction factor to ensure that the instruments working under accurate status and giving the accurate measured data. This leads to an important question: what kind of testing device is more accurate and reliable? This article introduces the testing method and problems of the current testing device for ultraviolet irradiance meters. In order to solve these problems, we have developed a new three-dimensional automatic testing device. We introduce structure and working principle of this system and compare the advantages and disadvantages of two devices. In addition, we analyses the errors in the testing of ultraviolet irradiance meters.

  3. Irradiation testing of high density uranium alloy dispersion fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, S.L.; Trybus, C.L.; Meyer, M.K.

    1997-10-01

    Two irradiation test vehicles have been designed, fabricated, and inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor in Idaho. Irradiation of these experiments began in August 1997. These irradiation tests were designed to obtain irradiation performance information on a variety of potential new, high-density dispersion fuels. Each of the two irradiation vehicles contains 32 microplates. Each microplate is aluminum clad, having an aluminum matrix phase and containing one of the following compositions as the fuel phase: U-10Mo, U-8Mo, U-6Mo, U-4Mo, U-9Nb-3Zr, U-6Nb-4Zr, U-5Nb-3Zr, U-6Mo-1Pt, U-6Mo-0.6Ru, U-10Mo-0.05Sn, U{sub 2}Mo, or U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. These experiments will be discharged at peak fuel burnups of 40% and 80%. Of particular interest is the fission gas retention/swelling characteristics of these new fuel alloys. This paper presents the design of the irradiation vehicles and the irradiation conditions.

  4. Design and Status of RERTR Irradiation Tests in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Wachs; Richard G. Ambrosek; Gray Chang; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2006-10-01

    Irradiation testing of U-Mo based fuels is the central component of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program fuel qualification plan. Several RERTR tests have recently been completed or are planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory in Idaho Falls, ID. Four mini-plate experiments in various stages of completion are described in detail, including the irradiation test design, objectives, and irradiation conditions. Observations made during and after the in-reactor RERTR-7A experiment breach are summarized. The irradiation experiment design and planned irradiation conditions for full-size plate test are described. Progress toward element testing will be reviewed.

  5. Reusable fuel test assembly for the FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.; Dittmer, J.O. )

    1992-01-01

    A fuel test assembly that provides re-irradiation capability after interim discharge and reconstitution of the test pin bundle has been developed for use in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This test vehicle permits irradiation test data to be obtained at multiple exposures on a few select test pins without the substantial expense of fabricating individual test assemblies as would otherwise be required. A variety of test pin types can be loaded in the reusable test assembly. A reusable test vehicle for irradiation testing in the FFTF has long been desired, but a number of obstacles previously prevented the implementation of such an experimental rig. The MFF-8A test assembly employs a 169-pin bundle using HT-9 alloy for duct and cladding material. The standard driver pins in the fuel bundle are sodium-bonded metal fuel (U-10 wt% Zr). Thirty-seven positions in the bundle are replaceable pin positions. Standard MFF-8A driver pins can be loaded in any test pin location to fill the bundle if necessary. Application of the MFF-8A reusable test assembly in the FFTF constitutes a considerable cost-saving measure with regard to irradiation testing. Only a few well-characterized test pins need be fabricated to conduct a test program rather than constructing entire test assemblies.

  6. USE OF SILICON CARBIDE MONITORS IN ATR IRRADIATION TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Davis; B. Chase; T. Unruh; D. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

    2012-07-01

    In April 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to advance US leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development and help address the nation's energy security needs. In support of this new program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced temperature sensors for irradiation testing. Although most efforts emphasize sensors capable of providing real-time data, selected tasks have been completed to enhance sensors provided in irradiation locations where instrumentation leads cannot be included, such as drop-in capsule and Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) or 'rabbit' locations. For example, silicon carbide (SiC) monitors are now available to detect peak irradiation temperatures between 200°C and 800°C. Using a resistance measurement approach, specialized equipment installed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL) and specialized procedures were developed to ensure that accurate peak irradiation temperature measurements are inferred from SiC monitors irradiated at the ATR. Comparison examinations were completed by INL to demonstrate this capability, and several programs currently rely on SiC monitors for peak temperature detection. This paper discusses the use of SiC monitors at the ATR, the process used to evaluate them at the HTTL, and presents representative measurements taken using SiC monitors.

  7. Pin care

    MedlinePlus

    There are different types of pin-cleaning solutions. The 2 most common solutions are: Sterile water A mixture of half normal saline and half hydrogen peroxide Use the solution that your surgeon recommends. Supplies you will need to ...

  8. X-Ray-Diffraction Tests Of Irradiated Electronic Devices: I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, David C.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Barnes, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    X-ray-diffraction tests performed on aluminum conductors in commercial HI1-507A complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit analog multiplexers, both before and after circuits exposed to ionizing radiation from Co(60) source, and after postirradiation annealing at ambient and elevated temperatures. Tests in addition to electrical tests performed to determine effects of irradiation and of postirradiation annealing on electrical operating characteristics of circuits. Investigators sought to determine whether relationship between effects of irradiation on devices and physical stresses within devices. X-ray diffraction potentially useful for nondestructive measurement of stresses.

  9. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-01-01

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  10. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  11. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-10-03

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  12. SIMULATE-4 pin power calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bahadir, T.; Lindahl, S. Oe

    2006-07-01

    A new pin power reconstruction module has been implemented in Studsvik Scandpower's next generation nodal code, SIMULATE-4. Heterogeneous pin powers are calculated by modulating multi-group pin powers from the sub-mesh solver of SIMULATE-4 with pin form factors from single-assembly CASMO-5 lattice calculations. The multi-group pin power model captures instantaneous spectral effects, and actinide tracking on the assembly sub-mesh describes exposure-induced pin power variations. Model details and verification tests against high order multi-assembly transport methods are presented. The accuracy of the new methods is also demonstrated by comparing SIMULATE-4 calculations with measured critical experiment pin powers. (authors)

  13. Irradiation Facilities at the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2005-12-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is the third generation and largest test reactor built in the Reactor Technology Complex (RTC – formerly known as the Test Reactor Area), located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), to study the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The RTC was established in the early 1950s with the development of the Materials Testing Reactor (MTR), which operated until 1970. The second major reactor was the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR), which operated from 1957 to 1981, and finally the ATR, which began operation in 1967 and will continue operation well into the future. These reactors have produced a significant portion of the world’s data on materials response to reactor environments. The wide range of experiment facilities in the ATR and the unique ability to vary the neutron flux in different areas of the core allow numerous experiment conditions to co-exist during the same reactor operating cycle. Simple experiments may involve a non-instrumented capsule containing test specimens with no real-time monitoring or control capabilities1. More sophisticated testing facilities include inert gas temperature control systems and pressurized water loops that have continuous chemistry, pressure, temperature, and flow control as well as numerous test specimen monitoring capabilities. There are also apparatus that allow for the simulation of reactor transients on test specimens.

  14. FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) as an irradiation test bed for fusion materials and components

    SciTech Connect

    Greenslade, D.L.; Puigh, R.J.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Grover, J.M.

    1986-03-01

    The relatively large irradiation volume, instrumentation capabilities, and fast neutron flux associated with the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) make this reactor an ideal test bed for fusion materials and components irradiations. Significant fusion materials irradiations are presently being performed in the Materials Open Test Assembly (MOTA) in FFTF. The MOTA is providing a controlled temperature and high neutron flux environment for such materials as the low activation alloys, copper alloys, ceramic insulators, and high heat flux materials. Conceptual designs utilizing the versatile MOTA irradiation vehicle have been developed to investigate irradiation effects on the mechanical and tritium breeding behaviors of solid breeder materials. More aggressive conceptual designs have also been developed to irradiate solid breeder blanket submodules in the FFTF. These specific component test designs will be presented and their potential roles in the development of fusion technology discussed.

  15. Meso-scale modeling of irradiated concrete in test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Giorla, Alain B.; Vaitová, M.; Le Pape, Yann; Štemberk, P.

    2015-10-18

    In this paper, we detail a numerical model accounting for the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete at the mesoscale. Irradiation experiments in test reactor (Elleuch et al.,1972), i.e., in accelerated conditions, are simulated. Concrete is considered as a two-phase material made of elastic inclusions (aggregate) subjected to thermal and irradiation-induced swelling and embedded in a cementitious matrix subjected to shrinkage and thermal expansion. The role of the hardened cement paste in the post-peak regime (brittle-ductile transition with decreasing loading rate), and creep effects are investigated. Radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) of the aggregate cause the development and propagation of damage around the aggregate which further develops in bridging cracks across the hardened cement paste between the individual aggregate particles. The development of damage is aggravated when shrinkage occurs simultaneously with RIVE during the irradiation experiment. The post-irradiation expansion derived from the simulation is well correlated with the experimental data and, the obtained damage levels are fully consistent with previous estimations based on a micromechanical interpretation of the experimental post-irradiation elastic properties (Le Pape et al.,2015). In conclusion, the proposed modeling opens new perspectives for the interpretation of test reactor experiments in regards to the actual operation of light water reactors.

  16. Meso-scale modeling of irradiated concrete in test reactor

    DOE PAGES

    Giorla, Alain B.; Vaitová, M.; Le Pape, Yann; ...

    2015-10-18

    In this paper, we detail a numerical model accounting for the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete at the mesoscale. Irradiation experiments in test reactor (Elleuch et al.,1972), i.e., in accelerated conditions, are simulated. Concrete is considered as a two-phase material made of elastic inclusions (aggregate) subjected to thermal and irradiation-induced swelling and embedded in a cementitious matrix subjected to shrinkage and thermal expansion. The role of the hardened cement paste in the post-peak regime (brittle-ductile transition with decreasing loading rate), and creep effects are investigated. Radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) of the aggregate cause the development and propagation of damagemore » around the aggregate which further develops in bridging cracks across the hardened cement paste between the individual aggregate particles. The development of damage is aggravated when shrinkage occurs simultaneously with RIVE during the irradiation experiment. The post-irradiation expansion derived from the simulation is well correlated with the experimental data and, the obtained damage levels are fully consistent with previous estimations based on a micromechanical interpretation of the experimental post-irradiation elastic properties (Le Pape et al.,2015). In conclusion, the proposed modeling opens new perspectives for the interpretation of test reactor experiments in regards to the actual operation of light water reactors.« less

  17. AGR-2 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2014-08-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-2 irradiation experiment. AGR-2 is the second of the planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technical Development Office (TDO) program. The objectives of the AGR-2 experiment are to: (a) Irradiate UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Fuel attributes are based on results obtained from the AGR-1 test and other project activities. (b) Provide irradiated fuel samples for post-irradiation experiment (PIE) and safety testing. (c) Support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. The primary objective of the test was to irradiate both UCO and UO2 TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) fuel produced from prototypic scale equipment to obtain normal operation and accident condition fuel performance data. The UCO compacts were subjected to a range of burnups and temperatures typical of anticipated prismatic reactor service conditions in three capsules. The test train also includes compacts containing UO2 particles produced independently by the United States, South Africa, and France in three separate capsules. The range of burnups and temperatures in these capsules were typical of anticipated pebble bed reactor service conditions. The results discussed in this report pertain only to U.S. produced fuel.

  18. AGR-2 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2014-08-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-2 irradiation experiment. AGR-2 is the second of the planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office (TDO) program. The objectives of the AGR-2 experiment are to: 1. Irradiate UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Fuel attributes are based on results obtained from the AGR-1 test and other project activities. 2. Provide irradiated fuel samples for post-irradiation experiment (PIE) and safety testing. 3. Support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. The primary objective of the test was to irradiate both UCO and UO2 TRISO (tristructural isotropic) fuel produced from prototypic scale equipment to obtain normal operation and accident condition fuel performance data. The UCO compacts were subjected to a range of burnups and temperatures typical of anticipated prismatic reactor service conditions in three capsules. The test train also includes compacts containing UO2 particles produced independently by the United States, South Africa, and France in three separate capsules. The range of burnups and temperatures in these capsules were typical of anticipated pebble bed reactor service conditions. The results discussed in this report pertain only to U.S.-produced fuel.

  19. TEST RESULTS FROM GAMMA IRRADIATION OF ALUMINUM OXYHYDROXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.; Westbrook, M.; Sindelar, R.

    2012-02-01

    Hydrated metal oxides or oxyhydroxides boehmite and gibbsite that can form on spent aluminum-clad nuclear fuel assemblies during in-core and post-discharge wet storage were exposed as granular powders to gamma irradiation in a {sup 60}Co irradiator in closed laboratory test vessels with air and with argon as separate cover gases. The results show that boehmite readily evolves hydrogen with exposure up to a dose of 1.8 x 10{sup 8} rad, the maximum tested, in both a full-dried and moist condition of the powder, whereas only a very small measurable quantity of hydrogen was generated from the granular powder of gibbsite. Specific information on the test setup, sample characteristics, sample preparation, irradiation, and gas analysis are described.

  20. In situ nano-compression testing of irradiated copper

    PubMed Central

    Kiener, D.; Hosemann, P.; Maloy, S. A.; Minor, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing demand for energy and reduction of CO2 emissions has revived interest in nuclear energy. Designing materials for radiation environments necessitates fundamental understanding of how radiation-induced defects alter mechanical properties. Ion beams create radiation damage efficiently without material activation, but their limited penetration depth requires small-scale testing. However, strength measurements of nano-scale irradiated specimens have not been previously performed. Here we show that yield strengths approaching macroscopic values are measured from irradiated ~400 nm diameter copper specimens. Quantitative in situ nano-compression testing in a transmission electron microscope reveals that the strength of larger samples is controlled by dislocation-irradiation defect interactions, yielding size-independent strengths. Below ~400 nm, size-dependent strength results from dislocation source limitation. This transition length-scale should be universal, but depend on material and irradiation conditions. We conclude that for irradiated copper, and presumably related materials, nano-scale in situ testing can determine bulk-like yield strengths and simultaneously identify deformation mechanisms. PMID:21706011

  1. Temperature controlled material irradiation in the advanced test reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, F. W.; Palmer, A. J.; Stites, D. J.

    1998-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) has initiated the development of an Irradiation Test Vehicle (ITV) for fusion materials irradiation at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA. The ITV is capable of providing neutron spectral tailoring and individual temperature control for up to 15 experiment capsules simultaneously. The test vehicle consists of three In-Pile Tubes (IPTs) running the length of the reactor vessel. These IPTs are kept dry and test trains with integral instrumentation are inserted and removed through a transfer shield plate above the reactor vessel head. The test vehicle is designed to irradiate specimens as large as 2.2 cm in diameter, at temperatures of 250-800°C, achieving neutron damage rates as high as 10 displacements per atom per year. The high fast to thermal neutron flux ratio required for fusion materials testing is accomplished by using an aluminum filler to displace as much water as possible from the flux trap and surrounding the filler piece with a ring of replaceable neutron absorbing material. The gas blend temperature control system remains in place from test to test, thus hardware costs for new tests are limited to the experiment capsule train and integral instrumentation.

  2. Production of LEU Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Irradiation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, Kurt A; Kiggans Jr, James O; McMurray, Jake W; Jolly, Brian C; Hunt, Rodney Dale; Trammell, Michael P; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated (FCM) fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles embedded inside a SiC matrix. This fuel inherently possesses multiple barriers to fission product release, namely the various coating layers in the TRISO fuel particle as well as the dense SiC matrix that hosts these particles. This coupled with the excellent oxidation resistance of the SiC matrix and the SiC coating layer in the TRISO particle designate this concept as an accident tolerant fuel (ATF). The FCM fuel takes advantage of uranium nitride kernels instead of oxide or oxide-carbide kernels used in high temperature gas reactors to enhance heavy metal loading in the highly moderated LWRs. Production of these kernels with appropriate density, coating layer development to produce UN TRISO particles, and consolidation of these particles inside a SiC matrix have been codified thanks to significant R&D supported by US DOE Fuel Cycle R&D program. Also, surrogate FCM pellets (pellets with zirconia instead of uranium-bearing kernels) have been neutron irradiated and the stability of the matrix and coating layer under LWR irradiation conditions have been established. Currently the focus is on production of LEU (7.3% U-235 enrichment) FCM pellets to be utilized for irradiation testing. The irradiation is planned at INL s Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This is a critical step in development of this fuel concept to establish the ability of this fuel to retain fission products under prototypical irradiation conditions.

  3. Dowel pin

    DOEpatents

    Wojcik, Thaddeus A.

    1978-01-01

    Two abutting members are locked together by reaming a hole entirely through one member and at least partly through the other, machining a circular groove in each through hole just below the surface of the member, press fitting a dowel pin having a thin wall extension on at least one end thereof into the hole in both members, a thin wall extension extending into each through hole, crimping or snapping the thin wall extension into the grooves to positively lock the dowel pin in place and, if necessary, tack welding the end of the thin-wall extension in place.

  4. AGR-1 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Blaise P. Collin

    2012-06-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-1 irradiation experiment. AGR-1 is the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment was irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total duration of 620 effective full power days of irradiation. Irradiation began on December 24, 2006 and ended on November 6, 2009 spanning 13 ATR cycles and approximately three calendar years. The test contained six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule contained 12 compacts of a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. No fuel particles failed during the AGR-1 irradiation. Final burnup values on a per compact basis ranged from 11.5 to 19.6 %FIMA, while fast fluence values ranged from 2.21 to 4.39 ?1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV). We’ll say something here about temperatures once thermal recalc is done. Thermocouples performed well, failing at a lower rate than expected. At the end of the irradiation, nine of the originally-planned 19 TCs were considered functional. Fission product release-to-birth (R/B) ratios were quite low. In most capsules, R/B values at the end of the irradiation were at or below 10-7 with only one

  5. X-Ray-Diffraction Tests Of Irradiated Electronic Devices: II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, David C.; Lowry, Lynn E.; Barnes, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes research on use of x-ray diffraction to measure stresses in metal conductors of complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits exposed to ionizing radiation. Expanding upon report summarized in "X-Ray-Diffraction Tests Of Irradiated Electronic Devices: I" (NPO-18803), presenting data further suggesting relationship between electrical performances of circuits and stresses and strains in metal conductors.

  6. Enhancement of the critical current density by increasing the collective pinning energy in heavy ion irradiated Co-doped BaFe2As2 single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Haberkorn, N.; Kim, Jeehoon; Gofryk, K.; Ronning, F.; Sefat, Athena Safa; Fang, L.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W. K.; Civale, L.

    2015-04-08

    Here, we investigate the effect of heavy ion irradiation (1.4 GeV Pb) on the vortex matter in Ba(Fe0.92Co0.08)2As2 single crystals by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. The defects created by the irradiation are discontinuous amorphous tracks, resulting in an effective track density smaller than 25% of the nominal doses. In this study, we observe large increases in the critical current density (Jc), ranging from a factor of ~3 at low magnetic fields to a factor of ~10 at fields close to 1 T after irradiation with a nominal fluence of BΦ = 3.5 T. From the normalized flux creep rates (S) and the Maley analysis, we determine that the Jc increase can be mainly attributed to a large increment in the pinning energy, from <50 K to ≈500 K, while the glassy exponent μ changes from ~1.5 to <1. Even though the enhancement of Jc is substantial in the entire temperature range and S is strongly suppressed, the artificial pinning landscape induced by the irradiation does not modify significantly the crossover to fast creep in the field-temperature vortex phase diagram.

  7. FFTF/IEM cell fuel pin weighing system - remote maintenance design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    The interim examination and maintenance (IEM) cell in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is used for remote disassembly of irradiated fuel and material experiments. For those fuel experiments where the FFTF tag-gas detection system has indicated a fuel pin cladding breach, a fuel pin weighing system is needed to detect the reduced weight of an individual pin due to the escape of fission gases. Such as system has recently been developed for use in the IEM cell. The weighing machine, supporting equipment, and mounting and transfer systems are described.

  8. The materials test station: a fast spectrum irradiation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pitcher, Eric J.

    2007-07-01

    The Materials Test Station is a fast-neutron spectrum irradiation facility under design at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in support of the United States Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. The facility will be capable of rodlets-scale irradiations of candidate fuel forms being developed to power the next generation of fast reactors. Driven by a powerful proton beam, the fuel irradiation region exhibits a neutron spectrum similar to that seen in a fast reactor, with a peak neutron flux of 1.6 x 10{sup 15} n.cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1}. Site preparation and construction are estimated to take four years, with a cost range of $60 M to $90 M. (author)

  9. Identification of a breached fuel pin in the IEM (Interim Examination and Maintenance) cell

    SciTech Connect

    McGuinness, P.W.; Kalk, J.J.; Hicks, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    Novel methods were successfully employed to identify one breached fuel pin in a 217-pin fuel assembly. The assembly was an experiment that had been irradiated at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), an experimental liquid-metal reactor operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. A fuel assembly known to contain breached fuel pins was removed from the sodium-cooled FFTF reactor in November 1984. Later, this assembly was brought into the FFTF's Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell to be disassembled and, for the first time ever at FFTF, to identify a breached fuel pin. The synergistic evaluation of the four different verification techniques - visual examination, cladding swipe activity, wash water radiochemistry, and pin weight - provided rapid and positive identification. The capability to perform future detective work of this kind has been conclusively demonstrated.

  10. FFTF/IEM cell fuel pin weighing system

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is used for remote disassembly of irradiated fuel and materials experiments. For those fuel experiments where the FFTF tag-gas detection system has indicated a fuel pin cladding breach, a weighing system is used in identifying that fuel pin with a reduced weight due to the escape of gaseous and volatile fission products. A fuel pin weighing machine, originally purchased for use in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), was the basis for the IEM cell system. Design modifications to the original equipment were centered around adapting the machine to the differences between the two facilities and correcting deficiencies discovered during functional testing in the IEM cell mock-up.

  11. Evaluation of irradiated fuel during RIA simulation tests. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, R.O.; Rashid, Y.R.

    1996-08-01

    A critical assessment of the RIA-simulation experiments performed to date on previously irradiated test rods is presented. Included in this assessment are the SPERT-CDC, the NSRR, and the CABRI REP Na experimental programs. Information was collected describing the base irradiation, test rod characterization, and test procedures and conditions. The representativeness of the test rods and test conditions to anticipated LWR RIA accident conditions was evaluated using analysis results from fuel behavior and three-dimensional spatial kinetics simulations. It was shown that the pulse characteristics and coolant conditions are significantly different from those anticipated in an LWR-Furthermore, the unrepresentative test conditions were found to exaggerate the mechanisms that caused cladding failure. The data review identified several test rods which contained unusual cladding damage incurred prior to the RIA-simulation test that produced the observed failures. The mechanisms responsible for the observed test rod failures have been shown to result from processes that have a second order effect of burnup. A correlation with burnup could not be appropriately established for the fuel enthalpy at failure. However, the successful test rods can be used to construct a conservative region of success for fuel rod behavior during an RIA event.

  12. Design of a Compact Fatigue Tester for Testing Irradiated Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hartsell, Brian; Campbell, Michael; Fitton, Michael; Hurh, Patrick; Ishida, Taku; Nakadaira, Takeshi

    2015-06-01

    A compact fatigue testing machine that can be easily inserted into a hot cell for characterization of irradiated materials is beneficial to help determine relative fatigue performance differences between new and irradiated material. Hot cell use has been carefully considered by limiting the size and weight of the machine, simplifying sample loading and test setup for operation via master-slave manipulator, and utilizing an efficient design to minimize maintenance. Funded from a US-Japan collaborative effort, the machine has been specifically designed to help characterize titanium material specimens. These specimens are flat cantilevered beams for initial studies, possibly utilizing samples irradiated at other sources of beam. The option to test spherically shaped samples cut from the T2K vacuum window is also available. The machine is able to test a sample to $10^7$ cycles in under a week, with options to count cycles and sense material failure. The design of this machine will be presented along with current status.

  13. Test of radiation hardness of CMOS transistors under neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Rowe, W.A.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Hoffman, C.M.; Holtkamp, D.; Kinnison, W.W.; Sommer, W.F. Jr.; Ziock, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    We have tested 2 micron CMOS test structures from various foundries in the LAMPF Beam stop for radiation damage under prolongued neutron irradiation. The fluxes employed covered the region expected to be encountered at the SSC and led to fluences of up to 10/sup 14/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/ in about 500 hrs of running. We show that test structures which have been measured to survive ionizing radiation of the order MRad also survive these high neutron fluences. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Photopatch and UV-irradiated patch testing in photosensitive dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Reena; Thomas, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: The photopatch test is used to detect photoallergic reactions to various antigens such as sunscreens and drugs. Photosensitive dermatitis can be caused due to antigens like parthenium, fragrances, rubbers and metals. The photopatch test does not contain these antigens. Therefore, the Indian Standard Series (ISS) along with the Standard photopatch series from Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden was used to detect light induced antigens. Aim: To detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. Methods: This study was done in a descriptive, observer blinded manner. Photopatch test and ISS were applied in duplicate on the patient's back by the standard method. After 24 hours, readings were recorded according to ICDRG criteria. One side was closed and other side irradiated with 14 J/cm2 of UVA and a second set of readings were recorded after 48 hrs. Result: The highest positivity was obtained with parthenium, with 18 out of 35 (51%) patients showing a positive patch test reaction with both photoallergic contact dermatitis and photoaggravation. Four patients (11%) showed positive patch test reaction suggestive of contact dermatitis to potassium dichromate and fragrance mix. Six patients had contact dermatitis to numerous antigens such as nickel, cobalt, chinoform and para-phenylenediamine. None of these patients showed photoaggravation on patch testing. Conclusion: Parthenium was found to cause photoallergy, contact dermatitis with photoaggravation and contact allergy. Hence, photopatch test and UV irradiated patch test can be an important tool to detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. PMID:26955581

  15. Anisotropy and Vortex Pinning of Heavy Ion irradiated SmFeAsO0.8F0.15 and BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Fang, Lei; Chaparro, Carlos; Jia, Ying; Welp, Ulrich; Koshelev, Alexei; Xu, Shaofei; Crabtree, George; Karpinski, Janusz

    2012-02-01

    We report specific heat and magnetization measurements on SmFeAsO0.8F0.15 and BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 single crystals irradiated with high energy heavy ions of 1.4GeV Pb to dose matching fields up to 4 Tesla. We find a nearly one half reduction in the superconducting anisotropy and doubling of the irreversibility field in SmFeAsO0.8F0.15 after irradiation and virtually no change in the zero-field superconducting transition temperature. In both SmFeAsO0.8F0.15 and BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 crystals, we find a substantial increase in the critical current determined from SQUID and micro-Hall probe magnetization measurements. Pinning force analysis on proton and heavy ion irradiated pristine overdoped BaFe2(As1-xPx)2 crystals indicates presence of induced δTc-type pinning defects in these samples.

  16. Retractable Trunnion Pin Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jermstad, Wayne; Landeck, Mark

    2001-01-01

    The X-38 is a technology demonstration project for the proposed International Space Station Crew Return Vehicle. The project consists of several atmospheric flight vehicles and an unmanned spacecraft. This paper will discuss the design, development, and testing of a Retractable Trunnion Pin Mechanism used to mount the spacecraft in the payload bay of the space shuttle orbiter for launch.

  17. AGR 3/4 Irradiation Test Final As Run Report

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-06-01

    Several fuel and material irradiation experiments have been planned for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Reactor Technologies Technology Development Office Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Program (referred to as the INL ART TDO/AGR fuel program hereafter), which supports the development and qualification of tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel for use in HTGRs. The goals of these experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination and safety testing (INL 05/2015). AGR-3/4 combined the third and fourth in this series of planned experiments to test TRISO coated low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide fuel. This combined experiment was intended to support the refinement of fission product transport models and to assess the effects of sweep gas impurities on fuel performance and fission product transport by irradiating designed-to-fail fuel particles and by measuring subsequent fission metal transport in fuel-compact matrix material and fuel-element graphite. The AGR 3/4 fuel test was successful in irradiating the fuel compacts to the burnup and fast fluence target ranges, considering the experiment was terminated short of its initial 400 EFPD target (Collin 2015). Out of the 48 AGR-3/4 compacts, 42 achieved the specified burnup of at least 6% fissions per initial heavy-metal atom (FIMA). Three capsules had a maximum fuel compact average burnup < 10% FIMA, one more than originally specified, and the maximum fuel compact average burnup was <19% FIMA for the remaining capsules, as specified. Fast neutron fluence fell in the expected range of 1.0 to 5.5×1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV) for all compacts. In addition, the AGR-3/4 experiment was globally successful in keeping the

  18. Energy efficient engine pin fin and ceramic composite segmented liner combustor sector rig test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubiel, D. J.; Lohmann, R. P.; Tanrikut, S.; Morris, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Energy Efficient Engine program, Pratt and Whitney has successfully completed a comprehensive test program using a 90-degree sector combustor rig that featured an advanced two-stage combustor with a succession of advanced segmented liners. Building on the successful characteristics of the first generation counter-parallel Finwall cooled segmented liner, design features of an improved performance metallic segmented liner were substantiated through representative high pressure and temperature testing in a combustor atmosphere. This second generation liner was substantially lighter and lower in cost than the predecessor configuration. The final test in this series provided an evaluation of ceramic composite liner segments in a representative combustor environment. It was demonstrated that the unique properties of ceramic composites, low density, high fracture toughness, and thermal fatigue resistance can be advantageously exploited in high temperature components. Overall, this Combustor Section Rig Test program has provided a firm basis for the design of advanced combustor liners.

  19. Updated FY12 Ceramic Fuels Irradiation Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Andrew T.

    2012-05-24

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program is currently devoting resources to study of numerous fuel types with the aim of furthering understanding applicable to a range of reactors and fuel cycles. In FY11, effort within the ceramic fuels campaign focused on planning and preparation for a series of rabbit irradiations to be conducted at the High Flux Isotope Reactor located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The emphasis of these planned tests was to study the evolution of thermal conductivity in uranium dioxide and derivative compositions as a function of damage induced by neutron damage. Current fiscal realities have resulted in a scenario where completion of the planned rabbit irradiations is unlikely. Possibilities for execution of irradiation testing within the ceramic fuels campaign in the next several years will thus likely be restricted to avenues where strong synergies exist both within and outside the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program. Opportunities to augment the interests and needs of modeling, advanced characterization, and other campaigns present the most likely avenues for further work. These possibilities will be pursued with the hope of securing future funding. Utilization of synthetic microstructures prepared to better understand the most relevant actors encountered during irradiation of ceramic fuels thus represents the ceramic fuel campaign's most efficient means to enhance understanding of fuel response to burnup. This approach offers many of the favorable attributes embraced by the Separate Effects Testing paradigm, namely production of samples suitable to study specific, isolated phenomena. The recent success of xenon-imbedded thick films is representative of this approach. In the coming years, this strategy will be expanded to address a wider range of problems in conjunction with use of national user facilities novel characterization techniques to best utilize programmatic resources to support a science-based research program.

  20. Characterization of nuclear transmutations in materials irradiated test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents a comparison of nuclear transmutation rates for candidate fusion first wall/blanket structural materials in available, fission test reactors with those produced in a typical fusion spectrum. The materials analyzed in this study include a vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti), a reduced activation martensitic steel (Fe-9Cr-2WVTa), a high conductivity copper alloy (Cu-Cr-Zr), and the SiC compound. The fission irradiation facilities considered include the EBR-II fast reactor, and two high flux mixed spectrum reactors, HFIR (High Flux Irradiation Reactor) and SM-3 (Russian reactor). The transmutation and dpa rates that occur in these test reactors are compared with the calculated transmutation and dpa rates characteristic of a D-T fusion first wall spectrum. In general, past work has shown that the displacement damage produced in these fission reactors can be correlated to displacement damage in a fusion spectrum; however, the generation of helium and hydrogen through threshold reactions [(n,x,{alpha}) and (n,xp)] are much higher in a fusion spectrum. As shown in this study, the compositional changes for several candidate structural materials exposed to a fast fission reactor spectrum are very low, similar to those for a characteristic fusion spectrum. However, the relatively high thermalized spectrum of a mixed spectrum reactor produces transmutation rates quite different from the ones predicted for a fusion reactor, resulting in substantial differences in the final composition of several candidate alloys after relatively short irradiation time.

  1. Temperature controlled material irradiation in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Furstenau, R.V.; Ingrahm, F.W.

    1995-12-31

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA and is owned and regulated by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE). The ATR is operated for the US DOE by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies. In recent years, prime irradiation space in the ATR has been made available for use by customers having irradiation service needs in addition to the reactor`s principal user, the U.S. Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program. To enhance the reactor`s capabilities, the US DOE has initiated the development of an Irradiation Test Vehicle (ITV) capable of providing neutron spectral tailoring and temperature control for up to 28 experiments. The ATR-ITV will have the flexibility to simultaneously support a variety of experiments requiring fast, thermal or mixed spectrum neutron environments. Temperature control is accomplished by varying the thermal conductivity across a gas gap established between the experiment specimen capsule wall and the experiment `in-pile tube (IPT)` inside diameter. Thermal conductivity is adjusted by alternating the control gas mixture ratio of two gases with different thermal conductivities.

  2. Shock characterization of TOAD pins

    SciTech Connect

    Weirick, L.J.; Navarro, N.J.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this program was to characterize Time Of Arrival Detectors (TOAD) pins response to shock loading with respect to risetime, amplitude, repeatability and consistency. TOAD pins were subjected to impacts of 35 to 420 kilobars amplitude and approximately 1 ms pulse width to investigate the timing spread of four pins and the voltage output profile of the individual pins. Sets of pins were also aged at 45{degrees}, 60{degrees}, and 80{degrees}C for approximately nine weeks before shock testing at 315 kilobars impact stress. Four sets of pins were heated to 50.2{degrees}C (125{degrees}F) for approximately two hours and then impacted at either 50 or 315 kilobars. Also, four sets of pins were aged at 60{degrees}C for nine weeks and then heated to 50.2{degrees}C before shock testing at 50 and 315 kilobars impact stress, respectively. Particle velocity measurements at the contact point between the stainless steel targets and TOAD pins were made using a Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) to monitor both the amplitude and profile of the shock waves.

  3. Shock characterization of toad pins

    SciTech Connect

    Weirick, L.J.; Navarro, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this program was to characterize Time Of Arrival Detectors (TOAD) pins response to shock loading with respect to risetime, amplitude, repeatability and consistency. TOAD pins were subjected to impacts of 35 to 420 kilobars amplitude and approximately 1 ms pulse width to investigate the timing spread of four pins and the voltage output profile of the individual pins. Sets of pins were also aged at 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 80{degree}C for approximately nine weeks before shock testing at 315 kilobars impact stress. Four sets of pins were heated to 50.2{degree}C (125{degree}F) for approximately two hours and then impacted at either 50 or 315 kilobars. Also, four sets of pins were aged at 60{degree}C for nine weeks and then heated to 50.2{degree}C before shock testing at 50 and 315 kilobars impact stress, respectively. Particle velocity measurements at the contact point between the stainless steel targets and TOAD pins were made using a Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) to monitor both the amplitude and profile of the shock waves. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Design considerations of the irradiation test vehicle for the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    An irradiation test vehicle (ITV) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is being jointly developed by the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMIT) and the U.S. Fusion Program. The vehicle is intended for neutron irradiation testing of candidate structural materials, including vanadium-based alloys, silicon carbide composites, and low activation steels. It could possibly be used for U.S./Japanese collaboration in the Jupiter Program. The first test train is scheduled to be completed by September 1998. In this report, we present the functional requirements for the vehicle and a preliminary design that satisfies these requirements.

  5. Nondestrucive analysis of fuel pins

    DOEpatents

    Stepan, I.E.; Allard, N.P.; Suter, C.R.

    1972-11-03

    Disclosure is made of a method and a correspondingly adapted facility for the nondestructive analysis of the concentation of fuel and poison in a nuclear reactor fuel pin. The concentrations of fuel and poison in successive sections along the entire length of the fuel pin are determined by measuring the reactivity of a thermal reactor as each successive small section of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux of the reactor core and comparing the measured reactivity with the reactivities measured for standard fuel pins having various known concentrations. Only a small section of the length of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux at any one time while the remainder of the fuel pin is shielded from the neutron flux. In order to expose only a small section at any one time, a boron-10-lined dry traverse tube is passed through the test region within the core of a low-power thermal nuclear reactor which has a very high fuel sensitivity. A narrow window in the boron-10 lining is positioned at the core center line. The fuel pins are then systematically traversed through the tube past the narrow window such that successive small sections along the length of the fuel pin are exposed to the neutron flux which passes through the narrow window.

  6. Transcriptome profiling of mice testes following low dose irradiation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy is used routinely to treat testicular cancer. Testicular cells vary in radio-sensitivity and the aim of this study was to investigate cellular and molecular changes caused by low dose irradiation of mice testis and to identify transcripts from different cell types in the adult testis. Methods Transcriptome profiling was performed on total RNA from testes sampled at various time points (n = 17) after 1 Gy of irradiation. Transcripts displaying large overall expression changes during the time series, but small expression changes between neighbouring time points were selected for further analysis. These transcripts were separated into clusters and their cellular origin was determined. Immunohistochemistry and in silico quantification was further used to study cellular changes post-irradiation (pi). Results We identified a subset of transcripts (n = 988) where changes in expression pi can be explained by changes in cellularity. We separated the transcripts into five unique clusters that we associated with spermatogonia, spermatocytes, early spermatids, late spermatids and somatic cells, respectively. Transcripts in the somatic cell cluster showed large changes in expression pi, mainly caused by changes in cellularity. Further investigations revealed that the low dose irradiation seemed to cause Leydig cell hyperplasia, which contributed to the detected expression changes in the somatic cell cluster. Conclusions The five clusters represent gene expression in distinct cell types of the adult testis. We observed large expression changes in the somatic cell profile, which mainly could be attributed to changes in cellularity, but hyperplasia of Leydig cells may also play a role. We speculate that the possible hyperplasia may be caused by lower testosterone production and inadequate inhibin signalling due to missing germ cells. PMID:23714422

  7. Irradiation Testing Vehicles for Fast Reactors from Open Test Assemblies to Closed Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, James J.; Grandy, Christopher

    2016-12-15

    A review of irradiation testing vehicle approaches and designs that have been incorporated into past Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) or envisioned for incorporation has been carried out. The objective is to understand the essential features of the approaches and designs so that they can inform test vehicle designs for a future U.S. Fast Test Reactor. Fast test reactor designs examined include EBR-II, FFTF, JOYO, BOR-60, PHÉNIX, JHR, and MBIR. Previous designers exhibited great ingenuity in overcoming design and operational challenges especially when the original reactor plant’s mission changed to an irradiation testing mission as in the EBRII reactor plant. The various irradiation testing vehicles can be categorized as: Uninstrumented open assemblies that fit into core locations; Instrumented open test assemblies that fit into special core locations; Self-contained closed loops; and External closed loops. A special emphasis is devoted to closed loops as they are regarded as a very desirable feature of a future U.S. Fast Test Reactor. Closed loops are an important technology for irradiation of fuels and materials in separate controlled environments. The impact of closed loops on the design of fast reactors is also discussed in this report.

  8. TEMPERATURE DEPENDANT BEHAVIOUR OBSERVED IN THE AFIP-6 IRRADIATION TEST

    SciTech Connect

    A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs; P. Medvedev; S.J. Miller; F. J. Rice; M. K. Meyer; D. M. Perez

    2012-03-01

    The AFIP-6 test assembly was irradiated for one cycle in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory. The experiment was designed to test two monolithic fuel plates at power and burn-ups which bounded the operating conditions of both ATR and HFIR driver fuel. Both plates contained a solid U-Mo fuel foil with a zirconium diffusion barrier between 6061-aluminum cladding plates bonded by hot isostatic pressing. The experiment was designed with an orifice to restrict the coolant flow in order to obtain prototypic coolant temperature conditions. While these coolant temperatures were obtained, the reduced flow resulted in a sufficiently low heat transfer coefficient that failure of the fuel plates occurred. The increased fuel temperature led to significant variations in the fission gas retention behaviour of the U-Mo fuel. These variations in performance are outlined herein.

  9. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  10. Irradiation testing of a niobium-molybdenum developmental thermocouple

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.C.; Greenslade, D.L.

    1991-10-01

    A need exists for a radiation-resistant thermocouple capable of monitoring temperatures in excess of the limits of the chromel/alumel system. Tungsten/rhenium and platinum/rhodium thermocouples have sufficient temperature capability but have proven to be unstable because of irradiation-induced decalibration. The niobium/molybdenum system is believed to hold great potential for nuclear applications at temperatures up to 2000 K. However, the fragility of pure niobium and fabrication problems with niobium/molybdenum alloys have limited development of this system. Utilizing the Fast Flux Test Facility, a developmental thermocouple with a thermoelement pair consisting of a pure molybdenum and a niobium-1%zirconium alloy wire was irradiated fro 7200 hours at a temperature of 1070 K. The thermocouple performed flawlessly for the duration of the experiment and exhibited stability comparable to a companion chromel/alumel unit. A second thermocouple, operating at 1375 K, is currently being employed to monitor a fusion materials experiment in the Fast Flux Test Facility. This experiment, also scheduled for 7200 hours, will serve to further evaluate the potential of the niobium-1%zirconium/molybdenum thermoelement system. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Proposed Design and Operation of a Heat Pipe Reactor using the Sandia National Laboratories Annular Core Test Facility and Existing UZrH Fuel Pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Pandya, Tara; Peters, Curtis

    2005-02-01

    Heat Pipe Reactors (HPR) for space power conversion systems offer a number of advantages not easily provided by other systems. They require no pumping, their design easily deals with freezing and thawing of the liquid metal, and they can provide substantial levels of redundancy. Nevertheless, no reactor has ever been operated and cooled with heat pipes, and the startup and other operational characteristics of these systems remain largely unknown. Signification deviations from normal reactor heat removal mechanisms exist, because the heat pipes have fundamental heat removal limits due to sonic flow issues at low temperatures. This paper proposes an early prototypic test of a Heat Pipe Reactor (using existing 20% enriched nuclear fuel pins) to determine the operational characteristics of the HPR. The proposed design is similar in design to the HOMER and SAFE-300 HPR designs (Elliot, Lipinski, and Poston, 2003; Houts, et. al, 2003). However, this reactor uses existing UZrH fuel pins that are coupled to potassium heat pipes modules. The prototype reactor would be located in the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor Facility where the fuel pins currently reside. The proposed reactor would use the heat pipes to transport the heat from the UZrH fuel pins to a water pool above the core, and the heat transport to the water pool would be controlled by adjusting the pressure and gas type within a small annulus around each heat pipe. The reactor would operate as a self-critical assembly at power levels up to 200 kWth. Because the nuclear heated HPR test uses existing fuel and because it would be performed in an existing facility with the appropriate safety authorization basis, the test could be performed rapidly and inexpensively. This approach makes it possible to validate the operation of a HPR and also measure the feedback mechanisms for a typical HPR design. A test of this nature would be the world's first operating Heat Pipe Reactor. This reactor is therefore called "HPR-1".

  12. High frequency circular translation pin-on-disk method for accelerated wear testing of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene as a bearing material in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Saikko, Vesa

    2015-01-21

    The temporal change of the direction of sliding relative to the ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) component of prosthetic joints is known to be of crucial importance with respect to wear. One complete revolution of the resultant friction vector is commonly called a wear cycle. It was hypothesized that in order to accelerate the wear test, the cycle frequency may be substantially increased if the circumference of the slide track is reduced in proportion, and still the wear mechanisms remain realistic and no overheating takes place. This requires an additional slow motion mechanism with which the lubrication of the contact is maintained and wear particles are conveyed away from the contact. A three-station, dual motion high frequency circular translation pin-on-disk (HF-CTPOD) device with a relative cycle frequency of 25.3 Hz and an average sliding velocity of 27.4 mm/s was designed. The pins circularly translated at high frequency (1.0 mm per cycle, 24.8 Hz, clockwise), and the disks at low frequency (31.4mm per cycle, 0.5 Hz, counter-clockwise). In a 22 million cycle (10 day) test, the wear rate of conventional gamma-sterilized UHMWPE pins against polished CoCr disks in diluted serum was 1.8 mg per 24 h, which was six times higher than that in the established 1 Hz CTPOD device. The wear mechanisms were similar. Burnishing of the pin was the predominant feature. No overheating took place. With the dual motion HF-CTPOD method, the wear testing of UHMWPE as a bearing material in total hip arthroplasty can be substantially accelerated without concerns of the validity of the wear simulation.

  13. Functional Analysis of the Hydrophilic Loop in Intracellular Trafficking of Arabidopsis PIN-FORMED Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Anindya; Park, Minho; Kesawat, Mahipal Singh; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2014-04-01

    Different PIN-FORMED proteins (PINs) contribute to intercellular and intracellular auxin transport, depending on their distinctive subcellular localizations. Arabidopsis thaliana PINs with a long hydrophilic loop (HL) (PIN1 to PIN4 and PIN7; long PINs) localize predominantly to the plasma membrane (PM), whereas short PINs (PIN5 and PIN8) localize predominantly to internal compartments. However, the subcellular localization of the short PINs has been observed mostly for PINs ectopically expressed in different cell types, and the role of the HL in PIN trafficking remains unclear. Here, we tested whether a long PIN-HL can provide its original molecular cues to a short PIN by transplanting the HL. The transplanted long PIN2-HL was sufficient for phosphorylation and PM trafficking of the chimeric PIN5:PIN2-HL but failed to provide the characteristic polarity of PIN2. Unlike previous observations, PIN5 showed clear PM localization in diverse cell types where PIN5 is natively or ectopically expressed and even polar PM localization in one cell type. Furthermore, in the root epidermis, the subcellular localization of PIN5 switched from PM to internal compartments according to the developmental stage. Our results suggest that the long PIN-HL is partially modular for the trafficking behavior of PINs and that the intracellular trafficking of PIN is plastic depending on cell type and developmental stage.

  14. Antibiotic-coated pins for prevention of pin-tract infection: a rabbit study.

    PubMed

    Rahimnia, A R; Abbaspour, A; Rezaei, Yadollah; Khodadadi, A; Alizadeh, A M; Mohagheghi, M A; Semeyari, H; Imani Fooladi, A A; Izadi, M; Keshavarz, P; Yasui, N

    2013-08-01

    PURPOSE. To evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic-coated pins for prevention of pin tract infection in a rabbit model. METHODS. 10 rabbits were divided into 2 groups. A unilateral external fixator was applied to the tibia with 4 self-taping 1.8-mm pins. In the test group, pins were coated with hydroxyapatite and antibiotic. In the control group, pins were not coated. All pins were then placed in Staphylococcus aureus- containing media. At postoperative day 5, all 40 pin sites were subcutaneously inoculated with S aureus. The sites were clinically examined for signs of pin tract infection. Nine days later, a piece of soft tissue around the pin site was harvested for microbiologic examination. RESULTS. In the test group, all except one pin sites appeared clean and without clinical infection, and the culture media remained clear. In the control group, all pin sites showed evidence of clinical infection and yielded positive cultures, and the culture media became dark indicating growth of S aureus. CONCLUSION. Antibiotic-coated pins were effective in preventing pin tract infection.

  15. Can pin-on-disk testing be used to assess the wear performance of retrieved UHMWPE components for total joint arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Steven M; MacDonald, Daniel W; Kocagöz, Sevi; Tohfafarosh, Mariya; Baykal, Doruk

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of using multidirectional pin-on-disk (POD) testing to characterize wear behavior of retrieved ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). The POD wear behavior of 25 UHMWPE components, retrieved after 10 years in vivo, was compared with 25 that were shelf aged for 10-15 years in their original packaging. Components were gamma sterilized (25-40 kGy) in an air or reduced oxygen (inert) package. 9 mm diameter pins were fabricated from each component and evaluated against CoCr disks using a super-CTPOD with 100 stations under physiologically relevant, multidirectional loading conditions. Bovine serum (20 g/L protein concentration) was used as lubricant. Volumetric wear rates were found to vary based on the aging environment, as well as sterilization environment. Volumetric wear rates were the lowest for the pins in the gamma inert, shelf aged cohort. These results support the utility of using modern, multidirectional POD testing with a physiologic lubricant as a novel method for evaluating wear properties of retrieved UHMWPE components. The data also supported the hypothesis that wear rates of gamma-inert liners were lower than gamma-air liners for both retrieved and shelf aging conditions. However, this difference was not statistically significant for the retrieved condition.

  16. Irradiation response of commercial, high-Tc superconducting tapes: Electromagnetic transport properties

    DOE PAGES

    Gapud, A. A.; Greenwood, N. T.; Alexander, J. A.; ...

    2015-07-01

    Effects of low dose irradiation on the electrical transport current properties of commercially available high-temperature superconducting, coated-conductor tapes were investigated, in view of potential applications in the irradiative environment of fusion reactors. Three different tapes, each with unique as-grown flux-pinning structures, were irradiated with Au and Ni ions at energies that provide a range of damage effects, with accumulated damage levels near that expected for conductors in a fusion reactor environment. Measurements using transport current determined the pre- and post-irradiation resistivity, critical current density, and pinning force density, yielding critical temperatures, irreversibility lines, and inferred vortex creep rates. Results showmore » that at the irradiation damage levels tested, any detriment to as-grown pre-irradiation properties is modest; indeed in one case already-superior pinning forces are enhanced, leading to higher critical currents.« less

  17. Irradiation response of commercial, high-Tc superconducting tapes: Electromagnetic transport properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gapud, A. A.; Greenwood, N. T.; Alexander, J. A.; Khan, A.; Leonard, K. J.; Aytug, T.; List III, F. A.; Rupich, M. W.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Effects of low dose irradiation on the electrical transport current properties of commercially available high-temperature superconducting, coated-conductor tapes were investigated, in view of potential applications in the irradiative environment of fusion reactors. Three different tapes, each with unique as-grown flux-pinning structures, were irradiated with Au and Ni ions at energies that provide a range of damage effects, with accumulated damage levels near that expected for conductors in a fusion reactor environment. Measurements using transport current determined the pre- and post-irradiation resistivity, critical current density, and pinning force density, yielding critical temperatures, irreversibility lines, and inferred vortex creep rates. Results show that at the irradiation damage levels tested, any detriment to as-grown pre-irradiation properties is modest; indeed in one case already-superior pinning forces are enhanced, leading to higher critical currents.

  18. Calculation of the Fast Flux Test Facility fuel pin tests with the WIMS-E and MCNP codes

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.; Wittekind, W.D.; Toffer, H.

    1991-10-01

    The Fuel Assembly Area (FAA) at the Fast Flux Test Facility site on the Hanford Site at Richland, Washington currently is being prepared to fabricate mixed oxide fuel (U, Pu) for the FFTF. Calculational tools are required to perform criticality safety analyses for various process locations and to establish safe limits for fissile material handling at the FAA. These codes require validation against experimental data appropriate for the compositions that will be handled. Critical array experiments performed by Bierman provide such data for mixed oxide fuel in the range Pu/(U+Pu) = 22 wt %, and with Pu-240 contents equal to 12 wt %. Both the Monte Carlo Neutron Photon (MCNP) and the Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme (WIMS-E) computer codes were used to calculate the neutron multiplication factor for explicit models of the various critical arrays. The W-CACTUS modules within the WIMS-E code system was used to calculate k{infinity} for the explicit array configuration, as well as few-group cross sections that were then used in a three-dimensional diffusion theory code for the calculation of k{sub eff} for the finite array. 10 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Irradiation Test of Advanced PWR Fuel in Fuel Test Loop at HANARO

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yong Sik; Bang, Je Geon; Kim, Sun Ki; Song, Kun Woo; Park, Su Ki; Seo, Chul Gyo

    2007-07-01

    A new fuel test loop has been constructed in the research reactor HANARO at KAERI. The main objective of the FTL (Fuel Test Loop) is an irradiation test of a newly developed LWR fuel under PWR or Candu simulated conditions. The first test rod will be loaded within 2007 and its irradiation test will be continued until a rod average their of 62 MWd/kgU. A total of five test rods can be loaded into the IPS (In-Pile Section) and fuel centerline temperature, rod internal pressure and fuel stack elongation can be measured by an on-line real time system. A newly developed advanced PWR fuel which consists of a HANA{sup TM} alloy cladding and a large grain UO{sub 2} pellet was selected as the first test fuel in the FTL. The fuel cladding, the HANA{sup TM} alloy, is an Nb containing Zirconium alloy that has shown better corrosion and creep resistance properties than the current Zircaloy-4 cladding. A total of six types of HANA{sup TM} alloy were developed and two or three of these candidate alloys will be used as test rod cladding, which have shown a superior performance to the others. A large-grain UO{sub 2} pellet has a 14{approx}16 micron 2D diameter grain size for a reduction of a fission gas release at a high burnup. In this paper, characteristics of the FTL and IPS are introduced and the expected operation and irradiation conditions are summarized for the test periods. Also the preliminary fuel performance analysis results, such as the cladding oxide thickness, fission gas release and rod internal pressure, are evaluated from the test rod safety analysis aspects. (authors)

  20. Recent Accomplishments in the Irradiation Testing of Engineering-Scale Monolithic Fuel Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; D.M. Wachs; M.K. Meyer; H.W. Glunz; R.B. Nielson

    2012-10-01

    The US fuel development team is focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum monolithic fuel including irradiation testing of engineering-scale specimens. The team has recently accomplished the successful irradiation of the first monolithic multi-plate fuel element assembly within the AFIP-7 campaign. The AFIP-6 MKII campaign, while somewhat truncated by hardware challenges, exhibited successful irradiation of a large-scale monolithic specimen under extreme irradiation conditions. The channel gap and ultrasonic data are presented for AFIP-7 and AFIP-6 MKII, respectively. Finally, design concepts are summarized for future irradiations such as the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiment campaigns.

  1. Failure Analysis of Electrical Pin Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Baughman, James M.; Smith, Stephen W.; Herath, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the root cause of failure for circuit board electrical connection pins that failed during vibRatory testing. The circuit board is part of an unmanned space probe, and the vibratory testing was performed to ensure component survival of launch loading conditions. The results of this study show that the pins failed as a result of fatigue loading.

  2. Graphite irradiation testing for HTR technology at the High Flux Reactor in Petten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreeling, J. A.; Wouters, O.; Laan, J. G. van der

    2008-10-01

    In 2001 the Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group started a large graphite irradiation program for the development of High Temperature Reactor technology in the European framework. The irradiation experiments, containing present day available graphite grades, are performed at the High Flux Reactor in Petten. The grades are NBG-10, NBG-17, NBG-18, NBG-20, NBG-25, PCEA, PPEA, PCIB, LPEB, IG-110 and IG-430. In the fifth framework programme (2001-2004) and sixth framework programme (2005-2009) four irradiation experiments are foreseen, resulting in design curves at irradiation temperatures between 650 °C and 950 °C. The post-irradiation testing is focused on dimensional changes, dynamic Young's modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion and coefficient of thermal conductivity. The irradiation programme and preliminary results from the first irradiation experiment at 750 °C to 8 dpa will be discussed in this paper.

  3. Ion irradiation testing of Improved Accident Tolerant Cladding Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Anderoglu, Osman; Tesmer, Joseph R.; Maloy, Stuart A.

    2014-01-14

    This report summarizes the results of ion irradiations conducted on two FeCrAl alloys (named as ORNL A&B) for improving the accident tolerance of LWR nuclear fuel cladding. After irradiation with 1.5 MeV protons to ~0.5 to ~1 dpa and 300°C nanoindentations were performed on the cross-sections along the ion range. An increase in hardness was observed in both alloys. Microstructural analysis shows radiation induced defects.

  4. Initiate test loop irradiations of ALSEP process solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, Dean R.; Olson, Lonnie G.; McDowell, Rocklan G.

    2014-09-01

    This report describes the initial results of the study of the impacts of gamma radiolysis upon the efficacy of the ALSEP process and is written in completion of milestone M3FT-14IN030202. Initial irradiations, up to 100 kGy absorbed dose, of the extraction section of the ALSEP process have been completed. The organic solvent used for these experiments contained 0.05 M TODGA and 0.75 M HEH[EHP] dissolved in n-dodecane. The ALSEP solvent was irradiated while in contact with 3 M nitric acid and the solutions were sparged with compressed air in order to maintain aerated conditions. The irradiated phases were used for the determination of americium and europium distribution ratios as a function of absorbed dose for the extraction and stripping conditions. Analysis of the irradiated phases in order to determine solvent composition as a function of absorbed dose is ongoing. Unfortunately, the failure of analytical equipment necessary for the analysis of the irradiated samples has made the consistent interpretation of the analytical results difficult. Continuing work will include study of the impacts of gamma radiolysis upon the extraction of actinides and lanthanides by the ALSEP solvent and the stripping of the extracted metals from the loaded solvent. The irradiated aqueous and organic phases will be analyzed in order to determine the variation in concentration of solvent components with absorbed gamma dose. Where possible, radiolysis degradation product will be identified.

  5. AFCI Fuel Irradiation Test Plan, Test Specimens AFC-1Æ and AFC-1F

    SciTech Connect

    D. C. Crawford; S. L. Hayes; B. A. Hilton; M. K. Meyer; R. G. Ambrosek; G. S. Chang; D. J. Utterbeck

    2003-11-01

    The U. S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposition and the long-term radiotoxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository (DOE, 2003). One important component of the technology development is actinide-bearing transmutation fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes. There are little irradiation performance data available on non-fertile fuel forms, which would maximize the destruction rate of plutonium, and low-fertile (i.e., uranium-bearing) fuel forms, which would support a sustainable nuclear energy option. Initial scoping level irradiation tests on a variety of candidate fuel forms are needed to establish a transmutation fuel form design and evaluate deployment of transmutation fuels.

  6. Shaking table test and numerical analysis of a 1:12 scale model of a special concentrically braced steel frame with pinned connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haifeng; Zhang, Wenyuan; Zhang, Yaochun; Sun, Yusong

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes shaking table tests of a 1:12 scale model of a special concentrically braced steel frame with pinned connections, which was fabricated according to a one-bay braced frame selected from a typical main factory building of a large thermal power plant. In order to investigate the seismic performance of this type of structure, several ground motion accelerations with different levels for seismic intensity VIII, based on the Chinese Code for Seismic Design of Buildings, were selected to excite the model. The results show that the design methods of the members and the connections are adequate and that the structural system will perform well in regions of high seismicity. In addition to the tests, numerical simulations were also conducted and the results showed good agreement with the test results. Thus, the numerical model is shown to be accurate and the beam element can be used to model this structural system.

  7. Irradiation Programs and Test Plans to Assess High-Fluence Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility.

    SciTech Connect

    Teysseyre, Sebastien

    2015-03-01

    . Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is a known issue in current reactors. In a 60 year lifetime, reactor core internals may experience fluence levels up to 15 dpa for boiling water reactors (BWR) and 100+ dpa for pressurized water reactors (PWR). To support a safe operation of our fleet of reactors and maintain their economic viability it is important to be able to predict any evolution of material behaviors as reactors age and therefore fluence accumulated by reactor core component increases. For PWR reactors, the difficulty to predict high fluence behavior comes from the fact that there is not a consensus of the mechanism of IASCC and that little data is available. It is however possible to use the current state of knowledge on the evolution of irradiated microstructure and on the processes that influences IASCC to emit hypotheses. This report identifies several potential changes in microstructure and proposes to identify their potential impact of IASCC. The susceptibility of a component to high fluence IASCC is considered to not only depends on the intrinsic IASCC susceptibility of the component due to radiation effects on the material but to also be related to the evolution of the loading history of the material and interaction with the environment as total fluence increases. Single variation type experiments are proposed to be performed with materials that are representative of PWR condition and with materials irradiated in other conditions. To address the lack of IASCC propagation and initiation data generated with material irradiated in PWR condition, it is proposed to investigate the effect of spectrum and flux rate on the evolution of microstructure. A long term irradiation, aimed to generate a well-controlled irradiation history on a set on selected materials is also proposed for consideration. For BWR, the study of available data permitted to identify an area of concern for long term performance of component. The efficiency of

  8. Optical fuel pin scanner. [Patent application; for reading identifications

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

    1980-12-09

    This patent relates to an optical identification system developed for post-irradiation disassembly and analysis of fuel bundle assemblies. The apparatus is designed to be lowered onto a stationary fuel pin to read identification numbers or letters imprinted on the circumference of the top fuel pin and cap. (DLC)

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 371: Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-07-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 371, Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe, located within Areas 11 and 18 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 371 comprises two corrective action sites (CASs): • 11-23-05, Pin Stripe Contamination Area • 18-45-01, U-18j-2 Crater (Johnnie Boy) The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 371 based on the implementation of corrective actions. The corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls was implemented at both CASs. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 8, 2009, through February 16, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 371: Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 371 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Radiological doses exceeding the FAL of 25 millirem per year were not found to be present in the surface soil. However, it was assumed that radionuclides are present in subsurface media within the Johnnie Boy crater and the fissure at Pin Stripe. Due to the assumption of radiological dose exceeding the FAL, corrective actions were undertaken

  10. Development of New Irradiation Facilities for Material Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eck, J.; Lavielle, D.; Millera, T.

    2014-06-01

    JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) and Solar Orbiter are very challenging from scientific and technical point of views.These two spacecrafts will have to face harsh environmental conditions (particle and UV radiation, wide temperature ranges,...) and considered materials have to withstand these constraints to ensure the proper operation of the instruments of the payload.New facilities are currently under development at TRAD, in order to evaluate the behavior of the candidate materials in representative conditions. VEISpa (Vacuum Electron Irradiation facility for Spatialization) will allow electron irradiations up to an energy of 4 MeV, under high vacuum whereas SWiPI (Solar Wind Proton Irradiation) facility will focus on the effects of solar wind protons.Both facilities will allow the study of synergistic effects of radiation and temperature constraints (typically -150/+200°C) that can lead to different material behaviour compared to cumulative effects.

  11. Pediatric safety pin ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sarihan, H; Kaklikkaya, I; Ozcan, F

    1998-08-01

    Fifteen consecutive children with ingested safety pins were evaluated retrospectively. Eight patients were males and seven were girls. The mean age of the patients was 5.4 years ranging from 7 months to 16 years. Two of 15 patients were mentally retarded Seven safety pins ingestion were noted by parents, three older children applied with safety pin swallowing. Three infants referred with hypersalivation and swallowing difficulty. One of two mentally retarded patients had recurrent aspiration pneumonia, the other had neck abscess. These patients' lesions were detected incidentally by thoracic X-ray. Nine safety pins were at the level of the cricopharyngeus, one at the level of the aortic arch and five at the esophagogastric junction. A right esophagoscopy was used for extraction of safety pins under general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation were used. Before esophagoscopy control plain X-ray was obtained for location of safety pin. Nine safety pins were extracted by esophagoscopy. Three safety pins spontaneously and three during anesthesia induction passed through the esophagus falling down the stomach. Five of these six safety pins were spontaneously extracted without complication. However one open safety pin lodged at the duodenum and laparotomy was required. In this article, etiology and management of safety pin ingestion in children are discussed.

  12. IRRADIATION TESTING OF THE RERTR FUEL MINIPLATES WITH BURNABLE ABSORBERS IN THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    I. Glagolenko; D. Wachs; N. Woolstenhulme; G. Chang; B. Rabin; C. Clark; T. Wiencek

    2010-10-01

    Based on the results of the reactor physics assessment, conversion of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) can be potentially accomplished in two ways, by either using U-10Mo monolithic or U-7Mo dispersion type plates in the ATR fuel element. Both designs, however, would require incorporation of the burnable absorber in several plates of the fuel element to compensate for the excess reactivity and to flatten the radial power profile. Several different types of burnable absorbers were considered initially, but only borated compounds, such as B4C, ZrB2 and Al-B alloys, were selected for testing primarily due to the length of the ATR fuel cycle and fuel manufacturing constraints. To assess and compare irradiation performance of the U-Mo fuels with different burnable absorbers we have designed and manufactured 28 RERTR miniplates (20 fueled and 8 non-fueled) containing fore-mentioned borated compounds. These miniplates will be tested in the ATR as part of the RERTR-13 experiment, which is described in this paper. Detailed plate design, compositions and irradiations conditions are discussed.

  13. PIE on Safety-Tested Loose Particles from Irradiated Compact 4-4-2

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D.; Gerczak, Tyler J.; Morris, Robert Noel; Baldwin, Charles A.; Montgomery, Fred C.

    2016-04-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). This work is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) through the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Office under the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program. The AGR-1 experiment was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation tests initiated in 2006. The AGR-1 TRISO particles and fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 using laboratory-scale equipment and irradiated for 3 years in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. Post-irradiation examination was performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to test fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing and post-safety testing PIE conducted at ORNL on loose particles extracted from irradiated AGR-1 Compact 4-4-2.

  14. Microstructure and fracture behavior of F82H steel under different irradiation and tensile test conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Dai, Y.; Spätig, P.

    2016-01-01

    Specimens of martensitic steel F82H were irradiated to doses ranging from 10.7 dpa/850 appm He to 19.6 dpa/1740 appm He at temperatures between 165 and 305 °C in the second experiment of SINQ Target Irradiation Program (STIP-II). Tensile tests were conducted at different temperatures and various fracture modes were observed. Microstructural changes including irradiation-induced defect clusters, dislocation loops and helium bubbles under different irradiation conditions were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The deformation microstructures of tensile tested specimens were carefully examined to understand the underlying deformation mechanisms. Deformation twinning was for the first time observed in irradiated martensitic steels. A change of deformation mechanism from dislocation channeling to deformation twinning was observed when the fracture mode changed from rather ductile (quasi-cleavage) to brittle (intergranular or cleavage and intergranular mixed).

  15. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite Creep Experiment Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2010-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six gas reactor graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These graphite irradiations are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six stacks will have differing compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be the capability of sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during initial start-up of

  16. Proposed new damp heat test standards for commercial CIGS modules with bias application or light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Keiichiro; Tomita, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Kinichi; Schmitz, Darshan; Shibata, Hajime; Tokuda, Shuuji; Masuda, Atsushi

    2016-09-01

    Based on our results that conventional damp-heat (DDH) test on a commercial CCIGS (a.k.a. CCIS, CIGSS) module causes an irreversible "Test-specific" degradation (TSD) that is not observed in modules deployed in fields, we propose a new option for DDH testing of CIGS modules. We have tested full-size CIGS modules with/without forward bias, light irradiation and humidity during heat tests. The results clearly show that adding forward bias, or white light irradiation during DH tests suppresses this irreversible degradation. Based on these results, we have proposed to add forward bias and/or light irradiation during DH tests of CIGS modules, to make the test condition closer to real fields and suppress degradations not observed in the field.

  17. Test system accurately determines tensile properties of irradiated metals at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, P. J.; Skalka, R. J.; Vandergrift, E. F.

    1967-01-01

    Modified testing system determines tensile properties of irradiated brittle-type metals at cryogenic temperatures. The system includes a lightweight cryostat, split-screw grips, a universal joint, and a special temperature control system.

  18. Status of the NGNP Fuel Experiment AGR-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2012-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2), which utilized the same experiment design as well as control and monitoring systems as AGR-1, started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2013. The design of this experiment and support systems will be briefly discussed, followed by the progress and status of the experiment to date.

  19. Status of the NGNP fuel experiment AGR-2 irradiated in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover; David A. Petti

    2014-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also undergo on-line fission product monitoring to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2), which utilized the same experiment design as well as control and monitoring systems as AGR-1, started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2013. The design of this experiment and sup

  20. Statistics of dislocation pinning at localized obstacles

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Bhattacharya, M. Barat, P.

    2014-10-14

    Pinning of dislocations at nanosized obstacles like precipitates, voids, and bubbles is a crucial mechanism in the context of phenomena like hardening and creep. The interaction between such an obstacle and a dislocation is often studied at fundamental level by means of analytical tools, atomistic simulations, and finite element methods. Nevertheless, the information extracted from such studies cannot be utilized to its maximum extent on account of insufficient information about the underlying statistics of this process comprising a large number of dislocations and obstacles in a system. Here, we propose a new statistical approach, where the statistics of pinning of dislocations by idealized spherical obstacles is explored by taking into account the generalized size-distribution of the obstacles along with the dislocation density within a three-dimensional framework. Starting with a minimal set of material parameters, the framework employs the method of geometrical statistics with a few simple assumptions compatible with the real physical scenario. The application of this approach, in combination with the knowledge of fundamental dislocation-obstacle interactions, has successfully been demonstrated for dislocation pinning at nanovoids in neutron irradiated type 316-stainless steel in regard to the non-conservative motion of dislocations. An interesting phenomenon of transition from rare pinning to multiple pinning regimes with increasing irradiation temperature is revealed.

  1. Unified Scaling Law for flux pinning in practical superconductors: II. Parameter testing, scaling constants, and the Extrapolative Scaling Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekin, Jack W.; Cheggour, Najib; Goodrich, Loren; Splett, Jolene; Bordini, Bernardo; Richter, David

    2016-12-01

    (ɛ). The pinning-force shape parameters p and q are also preferably fitted (simultaneously with the other parameters), but default values p = 0.5 and q = 2.0 also give high fitting accuracy when the range of relative magnetic fields is not extensive. Default values are also essential when the magnetic field data range is insufficient to determine p and q. The scaling constants are remarkably stable (changes less than ˜1%) with respect to different values of p and q, Nb3Sn conductor configurations, magnetic self-field corrections, and pinning-force trim values. The results demonstrate that the scaling of transport critical current holds down to the lowest temperatures measured ˜2.2 K, for both magnetic self-field corrected and uncorrected data. An initial comparison is also made between transport and magnetization scaling data in matched Nb3Sn samples and significant differences are found, especially for the upper critical field B c2*(T,ɛ), which may be a result of inhomogeneous shielding currents. In Part 3 of this topical review series (Ekin J W 2017 Supercond. Sci. Technol. at press), the smallest practical minimum dataset for extrapolating full I c(B,T,ɛ) datasets is derived. Application of the ESE relation is illustrated in several new areas, including full characterization of Nb3Sn conductors from as little as a single I c(B) curve when a few core parameters have been determined for similar conductors.

  2. Pin-Height Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Daniel R.; Nichols, Vincent P.

    1992-01-01

    Gauge aligns itself and retains indication for later reading. Measuring tool indicates height of protrusion of pin from flat surface. Tool surrounds pin and holds itself square with flat surface, ensuring proper alignment and accuracy of measurement. Used in hard-to-see and hard-to-reach places. Holds indication of height until read. Metal scale slides in and out through slot in top plate. Scale value at slot gives height of pin under piston. Dimensions in inches.

  3. Development of a small specimen test machine to evaluate irradiation embrittlement of fusion reactor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, T.; Ohmi, M.; Saito, J.; Hoshiya, T.; Ooka, N.; Jitsukawa, S.; Eto, M.

    2000-12-01

    Small specimen test techniques (SSTT) are essential to use an accelerator-driven deuterium-lithium stripping reaction neutron source for the study of fusion reactor materials because of the limitation of the available irradiation volume. A remote-controlled small punch (SP) test machine was developed at the hot laboratory of the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). This report describes the SP test method and machine for use in a hot cell, and test results on irradiated ferritic steels. The specimen was either a coupon 10×10×0.25 mm 3 or a TEM disk 3 mm in diameter by 0.25 mm in thickness. Tests can be performed at temperatures ranging from 93 to 1123 K in a vacuum or in an inert gas environment. The ductile to brittle transition temperature of the irradiated ferritic steel as determined by the SP test is also evaluated.

  4. JOYO-1 Irradiation Test Campaign Technical Close-out, For Information

    SciTech Connect

    G. Borges

    2006-01-31

    The JOYO-1 irradiation testing was designed to screen the irradiation performance of candidate cladding, structural and reflector materials in support of space reactor development. The JOYO-1 designation refers to the first of four planned irradiation tests in the JOYO reactor. Limited irradiated material performance data for the candidate materials exists for the expected Prometheus-1 duration, fluences and temperatures. Materials of interest include fuel element cladding and core materials (refractory metal alloys and silicon carbide (Sic)), vessel and plant structural materials (refractory metal alloys and nickel-base superalloys), and control and reflector materials (BeO). Key issues to be evaluated were long term microstructure and material property stability. The JOYO-1 test campaign was initiated to irradiate a matrix of specimens at prototypical temperatures and fluences anticipated for the Prometheus-1 reactor [Reference (1)]. Enclosures 1 through 9 describe the specimen and temperature monitors/dosimetry fabrication efforts, capsule design, disposition of structural material irradiation rigs, and plans for post-irradiation examination. These enclosures provide a detailed overview of Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) progress in specific areas; however, efforts were in various states of completion at the termination of NRPCT involvement with and restructuring of Project Prometheus.

  5. Reweldability test of irradiated SS316 by the TIG welding method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Oyamada, Rokuro

    1996-10-01

    Stainless steel is a candidate material for the structural material in fusion reactors. Rewelding of irradiated materials will have a large impact on the design and the maintenance of in-vessel components. In the present work, the welding specimens made of type 316 stainless steel were irradiated in JMTR (Japan materials testing reactor) to a fast neutron fluence of ˜2.0 × 10 20 n/cm 2 ( E > 1 MeV) at a temperature of ˜200°C. The rewelding of unirradiated and/or irradiated stainless steel was performed by the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding method and the weldments of unirradiated and/or irradiated SS316 were characterized by tensile testing (test temp.: 20°C and 200°C), hardness, metallographical observation and SEM/XMA analyses.

  6. Pre-irradiation testing of actively cooled Be-Cu divertor modules

    SciTech Connect

    Linke, J.; Duwe, R.; Kuehnlein, W.

    1995-09-01

    A set of neutron irradiation tests is prepared on different plasma facing materials (PFM) candidates and miniaturized components for ITER. Beside beryllium the irradiation program which will be performed in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, includes different carbon fiber composites (CFQ) and tungsten alloys. The target values for the neutron irradiation will be 0.5 dpa at temperatures of 350{degrees}C and 700{degrees}C, resp.. The post irradiation examination (PIE) will cover a wide range of mechanical tests; in addition the degradation of thermal conductivity will be investigated. To determine the high heat flux (HHF) performance of actively cooled divertor modules, electron beam tests which simulate the expected heat loads during the operation of ITER, are scheduled in the hot cell electron beam facility JUDITH. These tests on a selection of different actively cooled beryllium-copper and CFC-copper divertor modules are performed before and after neutron irradiation; the pre-irradiation testing is an essential part of the program to quantify the zero-fluence high heat flux performance and to detect defects in the modules, in particular in the brazed joints.

  7. Straight SU-8 pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavieh, R.; Pla Roca, M.; Qasaimeh, M. A.; Mirzaei, M.; Juncker, D.

    2010-05-01

    SU-8 can be patterned with high resolution, is flexible and tough. These characteristics qualify SU-8 as a material for making spotting pins for printing DNA and protein microarrays, and it can potentially replace the commonly used silicon and steel pins that are expensive, brittle in the case of silicon and can damage the substrate during the printing process. SU-8, however, accumulates large internal stress during fabrication and, as a consequence, thin and long SU-8 structures bend and coil up, which precludes using it for long, freestanding structures such as pins. Here we introduce (i) a novel fabrication process that allows the making of 30 mm long, straight spotting pins that feature (ii) a new design and surface chemistry treatments for better capillary flow control and more homogeneous spotting. A key innovation for the fabrication is a post-processing annealing step with slow temperature ramping and mechanical clamping between two identical substrates to minimize stress buildup and render it symmetric, respectively, which together yield a straight SU-8 structure. SU-8 pins fabricated using this process are compliant and resilient and can buckle without damage during printing. The pins comprise a novel flow stop valve for accurate metering of fluids, and their surface was chemically patterned to render the outside of the pin hydrophobic while the inside of the slit is hydrophilic, and the slit thus spontaneously fills when dipped into a solution while preventing droplet attachment on the outside. A single SU-8 pin was used to print 1392 protein spots in one run. SU-8 pins are inexpensive, straightforward to fabricate, robust and may be used as disposable pins for microarray fabrication. These pins serve as an illustration of the potential application of ultralow stress SU-8 for making freestanding microfabricated polymer microstructures.

  8. Neutron-Irradiated Samples as Test Materials for MPEX

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Ronald James; Rapp, Juergen

    2015-10-09

    Plasma Material Interaction (PMI) is a major concern in fusion reactor design and analysis. The Material-Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) will explore PMI under fusion reactor plasma conditions. Samples with accumulated displacements per atom (DPA) damage produced by fast neutron irradiations in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be studied in the MPEX facility. This paper presents assessments of the calculated induced radioactivity and resulting radiation dose rates of a variety of potential fusion reactor plasma-facing materials (such as tungsten). The scientific code packages MCNP and SCALE were used to simulate irradiation of the samples in HFIR including the generation and depletion of nuclides in the material and the subsequent composition, activity levels, gamma radiation fields, and resultant dose rates as a function of cooling time. A challenge of the MPEX project is to minimize the radioactive inventory in the preparation of the samples and the sample dose rates for inclusion in the MPEX facility.

  9. Neutron-Irradiated Samples as Test Materials for MPEX

    DOE PAGES

    Ellis, Ronald James; Rapp, Juergen

    2015-10-09

    Plasma Material Interaction (PMI) is a major concern in fusion reactor design and analysis. The Material-Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) will explore PMI under fusion reactor plasma conditions. Samples with accumulated displacements per atom (DPA) damage produced by fast neutron irradiations in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be studied in the MPEX facility. This paper presents assessments of the calculated induced radioactivity and resulting radiation dose rates of a variety of potential fusion reactor plasma-facing materials (such as tungsten). The scientific code packages MCNP and SCALE were used to simulate irradiation of themore » samples in HFIR including the generation and depletion of nuclides in the material and the subsequent composition, activity levels, gamma radiation fields, and resultant dose rates as a function of cooling time. A challenge of the MPEX project is to minimize the radioactive inventory in the preparation of the samples and the sample dose rates for inclusion in the MPEX facility.« less

  10. Photoactive TiO2 antibacterial coating on surgical external fixation pins for clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Villatte, Guillaume; Massard, Christophe; Descamps, Stéphane; Sibaud, Yves; Forestier, Christiane; Awitor, Komla-Oscar

    2015-01-01

    External fixation is a method of osteosynthesis currently used in traumatology and orthopedic surgery. Pin tract infection is a common problem in clinical practice. Infection occurs after bacterial colonization of the pin due to its contact with skin and the local environment. One way to prevent such local contamination is to create a specific coating that could be applied in the medical field. In this work, we developed a surface coating for external fixator pins based on the photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide, producing a bactericidal effect with sufficient mechanical strength to be compatible with surgical use. The morphology and structure of the sol-gel coating layers were characterized using, respectively, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The resistance properties of the coating were investigated by mechanical testing. Photodegradation of acid orange 7 in aqueous solution was used as a probe to assess the photocatalytic activity of the titanium dioxide layers under ultraviolet irradiation. The bactericidal effect induced by the process was evaluated against two strains, ie, Staphylococcus aureus and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. The coated pins showed good mechanical strength and an efficient antibacterial effect after 1 hour of ultraviolet irradiation. PMID:26005347

  11. Photoactive TiO₂ antibacterial coating on surgical external fixation pins for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Villatte, Guillaume; Massard, Christophe; Descamps, Stéphane; Sibaud, Yves; Forestier, Christiane; Awitor, Komla-Oscar

    2015-01-01

    External fixation is a method of osteosynthesis currently used in traumatology and orthopedic surgery. Pin tract infection is a common problem in clinical practice. Infection occurs after bacterial colonization of the pin due to its contact with skin and the local environment. One way to prevent such local contamination is to create a specific coating that could be applied in the medical field. In this work, we developed a surface coating for external fixator pins based on the photocatalytic properties of titanium dioxide, producing a bactericidal effect with sufficient mechanical strength to be compatible with surgical use. The morphology and structure of the sol-gel coating layers were characterized using, respectively, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The resistance properties of the coating were investigated by mechanical testing. Photodegradation of acid orange 7 in aqueous solution was used as a probe to assess the photocatalytic activity of the titanium dioxide layers under ultraviolet irradiation. The bactericidal effect induced by the process was evaluated against two strains, ie, Staphylococcus aureus and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. The coated pins showed good mechanical strength and an efficient antibacterial effect after 1 hour of ultraviolet irradiation.

  12. Influence of Through-Thickness Pinning on Composite Shear Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurin, Romain; Baley, Christophe; Cartié, Denis D. R.; Davies, Peter

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes results from tests to examine the influence of through-thickness pinning on in-plane shear behaviour, measured by tensile loading of ±45° specimens. Samples were produced by both aeronautical and marine manufacturing processes. As few previous studies have investigated pinning of marine composites these were also subjected to out-of-plane shear delamination tests. For both carbon/epoxy laminates the pins reduce the apparent in-plane shear modulus and strength. Pins modify the strain field measured by full-field image analysis, and slow damage development. A new damage mechanism, transverse pin cracking, was observed.

  13. Advanced Test Reactor In-Canal Ultrasonic Scanner: Experiment Design and Initial Results on Irradiated Plates

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Wachs; J. M. Wight; D. T. Clark; J. M. Williams; S. C. Taylor; D. J. Utterbeck; G. L. Hawkes; G. S. Chang; R. G. Ambrosek; N. C. Craft

    2008-09-01

    An irradiation test device has been developed to support testing of prototypic scale plate type fuels in the Advanced Test Reactor. The experiment hardware and operating conditions were optimized to provide the irradiation conditions necessary to conduct performance and qualification tests on research reactor type fuels for the RERTR program. The device was designed to allow disassembly and reassembly in the ATR spent fuel canal so that interim inspections could be performed on the fuel plates. An ultrasonic scanner was developed to perform dimensional and transmission inspections during these interim investigations. Example results from the AFIP-2 experiment are presented.

  14. Evaluation of irradiation effects of 16 MeV proton-irradiated 12Cr-1MoV steel by small punch (SP) tests

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, S.H.; Hong, J.H. ); Kim, I.S. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1994-06-15

    Recently, interest in small-scale specimens for testing irradiated materials has arisen in conjunction with the need to develop materials for fusion reactor materials and to study irradiation effects using an ion irradiation facility. Several attempts have been made to evaluate material property changes due to irradiation using a small specimen technique. The SP (small punch) test is an example of small-scale specimen test techniques, originally developed by Baik et al. to estimate DBTT (ductile-to-brittle transition temperature) using broken standard CVN (Charpy 5-notch) specimens. The objective of the present study is to evaluate 16 MeV proton irradiation effects on a fusion reactor candidate material in terms of changes in energy up to failure and J[sub IC] fracture toughness (SP J[sub IC]) by using a SP test technique and a J[sub IC] - [bar [epsilon

  15. A new integrated test structure for on-chip post-irradiation annealing in MOS devices

    SciTech Connect

    Chabrerie, C.; Flament, O.; Boudenot, J.C.

    1998-06-01

    The authors have developed a prototype test structure (named THERMOS) demonstrating the feasibility and the interest of the on-chip heating in a Silicon-On-Insulator technology. This circuit has been specially designed for the study of post-irradiation effects in a radiation-hardened CMOS technology. Preliminary results are presented here for the on-chip annealing of irradiated n-channel transistors.

  16. Properties of precipitation hardened steel irradiated at 323 K in the Japan materials testing reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimi, M.; Matsui, Y.; Jitsukawa, S.; Hoshiya, T.; Tsukada, T.; Ohmi, M.; Mimura, H.; Ooka, N.; Hide, K.

    A precipitation hardening type 630 stainless steel was irradiated in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) in contact with the reactor primary coolant. The temperature of the irradiated specimens was about 330 K. The fast neutron ( E > 1 MeV) fluence for the specimens ranged from 10 24 to 10 26 m -2. Tension tests and fracture toughness tests were carried out at room temperature, while Charpy impact tests were done at temperatures of 273-453 K. Tensile strength data showed a peak of 1600 MPa at around 7 × 10 24 m -2, then gradually decreased to about 1500 MPa at 1.2 × 10 26 m -2. The elongation decreased with irradiation from 12% for unirradiated material to 6% at 1.2 × 10 26 m -2. The fractography after the tension test revealed that the fracture was ductile. Fracture toughness decreased to about a half of the value for unirradiated material with irradiation. The cleavage fracture was dominant on the fractured surface. Charpy impact tests showed an increase of ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) by 60 K with irradiation.

  17. MELT WIRE SENSORS AVAILABLE TO DETERMINE PEAK TEMPERATURES IN ATR IRRADIATION TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Davis; D. Knudson; J. Daw; J. Palmer; J. L. Rempe

    2012-07-01

    In April 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to advance US leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development and help address the nation's energy security needs. In support of this new program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced temperature sensors for irradiation testing. Although most efforts emphasize sensors capable of providing real-time data, selected tasks have been completed to enhance sensors provided in irradiation locations where instrumentation leads cannot be included, such as drop-in capsule and Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) or 'rabbit' locations. To meet the need for these locations, the INL has developed melt wire temperature sensors for use in ATR irradiation testing. Differential scanning calorimetry and environmental testing of prototypical sensors was used to develop a library of 28 melt wire materials, capable of detecting peak irradiation temperatures ranging from 85 to 1500°C. This paper will discuss the development work and present test results.

  18. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-5/6/7 Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    A. Joseph Palmer; David A. Petti; S. Blaine Grover

    2014-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which each consist of at least five separate capsules, are being irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gases also have on-line fission product monitoring the effluent from each capsule to track performance of the fuel during irradiation. The first two experiments (designated AGR-1 and AGR-2), have been completed. The third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single experiment designated AGR-3/4, which started its irradiation in December 2011 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2014. The design of the fuel qualification experiment, designated AGR-5/6/7, is well underway and incorporates lessons learned from the three previous experiments. Various design issues will be discussed with particular details related to selection of thermometry.

  19. TEM in situ micropillar compression tests of ion irradiated oxide dispersion strengthened alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, K. H.; Swenson, M. J.; Wu, Y.; Wharry, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    The growing role of charged particle irradiation in the evaluation of nuclear reactor candidate materials requires the development of novel methods to assess mechanical properties in near-surface irradiation damage layers just a few micrometers thick. In situ transmission electron microscopic (TEM) mechanical testing is one such promising method. In this work, microcompression pillars are fabricated from a Fe2+ ion irradiated bulk specimen of a model Fe-9%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy. Yield strengths measured directly from TEM in situ compression tests are within expected values, and are consistent with predictions based on the irradiated microstructure. Measured elastic modulus values, once adjusted for the amount of deformation and deflection in the base material, are also within the expected range. A pillar size effect is only observed in samples with minimum dimension ≤100 nm due to the low inter-obstacle spacing in the as received and irradiated material. TEM in situ micropillar compression tests hold great promise for quantitatively determining mechanical properties of shallow ion-irradiated layers.

  20. Test plan for the irradiation of nonmetallic materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, Laurence H.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Gelbard, Fred; Dahl, M.; Joslyn, C. C.; Venetz, T. J.

    2013-03-01

    A comprehensive test program to evaluate nonmetallic materials use in the Hanford Tank Farms is described in detail. This test program determines the effects of simultaneous multiple stressors at reasonable conditions on in-service configuration components by engineering performance testing.

  1. Test plan for the irradiation of nonmetallic materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, Laurence H.; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Dahl, M.; Joslyn, C. C.; Venetz, T. J.

    2013-05-01

    A comprehensive test program to evaluate nonmetallic materials use in the Hanford tank farms is described in detail. This test program determines the effects of simultaneous multiple stressors at reasonable conditions on in-service configuration components by engineering performance testing.

  2. SUMMARY OF ‘AFIP’ FULL SIZED PLATE IRRADIATIONS IN THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Adam B; Wachs, Daniel M

    2010-03-01

    Recent testing at the Idaho National Laboratory has included four AFIP (ATR Full Size plate In center flux trap Position) experiments. These experiments included both dispersion plates and monolithic plates fabricated by both hot isostatic pressing and friction bonding utilizing both thermally sprayed inter-layers and zirconium barriers. These plates were tested between 100 and 350 w/cm2 at low temperatures and high burn-ups. The post irradiation exams performed have indicated good performance under the conditions tested and a summary of the findings and irradiation history are included herein.

  3. PINS Spectrum Identification Guide

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Caffrey

    2012-03-01

    The Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy—PINS, for short—system identifies the chemicals inside munitions and containers without opening them, a decided safety advantage if the fill chemical is a hazardous substance like a chemical warfare agent or an explosive. The PINS Spectrum Identification Guide is intended as a reference for technical professionals responsible for the interpretation of PINS gamma-ray spectra. The guide is divided into two parts. The three chapters that constitute Part I cover the science and technology of PINS. Neutron activation analysis is the focus of Chapter 1. Chapter 2 explores PINS hardware, software, and related operational issues. Gamma-ray spectral analysis basics are introduced in Chapter 3. The six chapters of Part II cover the identification of PINS spectra in detail. Like the PINS decision tree logic, these chapters are organized by chemical element: phosphorus-based chemicals, chlorine-based chemicals, etc. These descriptions of hazardous, toxic, and/or explosive chemicals conclude with a chapter on the identification of the inert chemicals, e.g. sand, used to fill practice munitions.

  4. Irradiation test of tungsten clad uranium carbide-zirconium carbide ((U,Zr)C) specimens for thermionic reactor application at conditions conductive to long-term performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creagh, J. W. R.; Smith, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Uranium carbide fueled, thermionic emitter configurations were encapsulated and irradiated. One capsule contained a specimen clad with fluoride derived chemically vapor deposited (CVD) tungsten. The other capsule used a duplex clad specimen consisting of chloride derived on floride derived CVD tungsten. Both fuel pins were 16 millimeters in diameter and contained a 45.7-millimeter length of fuel.

  5. Fuel or irradiation subassembly

    DOEpatents

    Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

    1975-12-23

    A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

  6. Post-irradiation mechanical tests on F82H EB and TIG welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensman, J.; van Osch, E. V.; Horsten, M. G.; d'Hulst, D. S.

    2000-12-01

    The irradiation behaviour of electron beam (EB) and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded joints of the reduced-activation martensitic steel IEA heat F82H-mod. was investigated by neutron irradiation experiments in the high flux reactor (HFR) in Petten. Mechanical test specimens, such as tensile specimens and KLST-type Charpy impact specimens, were neutron irradiated up to a dose level of 2-3 dpa at a temperature of 300°C in the HFR reactor in Petten. The tensile results for TIG and EB welds are as expected with practically no strain hardening capacity left. Considering impact properties, there is a large variation in impact properties for the TIG weld. The irradiation tends to shift the DBTT of particularly the EB welds to very high values, some cases even above +250°C. PWHT of EB-welded material gives a significant improvement of the DBTT and USE compared to the as-welded condition.

  7. Application of half-embryo test to irradiated apples and cherries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Miura, Aya; Sugita, Takiko; Yamada, Takashi; Saito, Yukio

    1995-09-01

    The half-embryo test was applied to irradiated apples and cherries. The optimum incubation temperature for apples and cherries was 30°C and 25°C, respectively. Benzyladenine stimulated the shooting of cherry half-embryos, therefore, they were incubated with 10 μM benzyladenine. The irradiation of apples and cherries caused obvious changes in the growth of the half-embryos. A dose of 0.15 kGy or more almost totally retarded shoot elongation. If shooting is less than 50%, the apples and cherries are identified as "irradiated". An assessment could be made after I to 4 days and the detection limit of the irradiation dose is 0.15 kGy.

  8. The Advanced Test Reactor Irradiation Capabilities Available as a National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2008-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. The ATR is a very versatile facility with a wide variety of experimental test capabilities for providing the environment needed in an irradiation experiment. These capabilities include simple capsule experiments, instrumented and/or temperature-controlled experiments, and pressurized water loop experiment facilities. Monitoring systems have also been utilized to monitor different parameters such as fission gases for fuel experiments, to measure specimen performance during irradiation. ATR’s control system provides a stable axial flux profile throughout each reactor operating cycle, and allows the thermal and fast neutron fluxes to be controlled separately in different sections of the core. The ATR irradiation positions vary in diameter from 16 mm to 127 mm over an active core height of 1.2 m. This paper discusses the different irradiation capabilities with examples of different experiments and the cost/benefit issues related to each capability. The recent designation of ATR as a national scientific user facility will make the ATR much more accessible at very low to no cost for research by universities and possibly commercial entities.

  9. Irradiation capsule for testing magnetic fusion reactor first-wall materials at 60 and 200/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect

    Conlin, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    A new type of irradiation capsule has been designed, and a prototype has been tested in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) for low-temperature irradiation of Magnetic Fusion Reactor first-wall materials. The capsule meets the requirements of the joint US/Japanese collaborative fusion reactor materials irradiation program for the irradiation of first-wall fusion reactor materials at 60 and 200/sup 0/C. The design description and results of the prototype capsule performance are presented.

  10. Status of the Combined Third and Fourth NGNP Fuel Irradiations In the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover; David A. Petti; Michael E. Davenport

    2013-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is irradiating up to seven low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The experiments will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of several independent capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and was completed in November 2009. The second experiment (AGR-2) started irradiation in June 2010 and is currently scheduled to be completed in September 2013. The third and fourth experiments have been combined into a single experiment designated (AGR-3/4), which started its irradiation in December 2011 and is currently scheduled to be completed in April 2014. Since the purpose of this combined experiment is to provide data on fission product migration and retention in the NGNP reactor, the design of this experiment is

  11. Clinical neuropathology practice news 2-2013: immunohistochemistry pins IDH in glioma - molecular testing procedures under scrutiny.

    PubMed

    Preusser, Matthias; Bent, Martin van den

    2013-01-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene mutations occur in ~ 60 - 90% of diffuse and anaplastic gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. IDH status is strongly associated with patient survival times and IDH testing is relevant for clinical patient management and for stratification in clinical trials. A recent interlaboratory ring trial shows that immunohistochemistry is a highly reliable method to detect the most common IDH mutation (R132H), while IDH gene sequencing is less robust. These results support initial immunohistochemistry and subsequent gene sequencing in cases with negative or inconclusive immunostaining result as valid algorithm for IDH testing. Furthermore, they highlight the need for strict quality control of DNA-based biomarker analyses on formalinfixed and paraffin-embedded tumor samples.

  12. Wire Retrieves Broken Pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burow, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    Safety wire retains pieces of broken tool. Retrieval wire running through shaft of tool used to pull pieces of tool out of hole, should tool break during use. Safety wire concept suitable for pins subject to deflection or breakage.

  13. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01

    Abstract –Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000°C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  14. AGR-2 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report, Rev 2

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2014-08-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-2 irradiation experiment. AGR-2 is the second of the planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technical Development Office (TDO) program. The objectives of the AGR-2 experiment are to: (a) Irradiate UCO (uranium oxycarbide) and UO2 (uranium dioxide) fuel produced in a large coater. Fuel attributes are based on results obtained from the AGR-1 test and other project activities. (b) Provide irradiated fuel samples for post-irradiation experiment (PIE) and safety testing. (c) Support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. The primary objective of the test was to irradiate both UCO and UO2 TRISO (tri-structural isotropic) fuel produced from prototypic scale equipment to obtain normal operation and accident condition fuel performance data. The UCO compacts were subjected to a range of burnups and temperatures typical of anticipated prismatic reactor service conditions in three capsules. The test train also includes compacts containing UO2 particles produced independently by the United States, South Africa, and France in three separate capsules. The range of burnups and temperatures in these capsules were typical of anticipated pebble bed reactor service conditions. The results discussed in this report pertain only to U.S. produced fuel. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-2 experiment was irradiated in the B-12 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total irradiation duration of 559.2 effective full power days (EFPD). Irradiation began on June 22, 2010, and ended on October 16, 2013, spanning 12 ATR power cycles and approximately three and a

  15. Identification of irradiated wheat by germination test, DNA comet assay and electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, Adilson C.; Freund, Maria Teresa L.; Villavicencio, Ana Lúcia C. H.; Delincée, Henry; Arthur, Valter

    2002-03-01

    In several countries, there has been an increase in the use of radiation for food processing thus improving the quality and sanitary conditions, inhibiting pathogenic microorganisms, delaying the natural aging process and so extending product lifetime. The need to develop analytical methods to detect these irradiated products is also increasing. The goal of this research was to identify wheat irradiated using different radiation doses. Seeds were irradiated with a gamma 60Co source (Gammacell 220 GC) in the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura and the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares. Dose rate used were 1.6 and 5.8kGy/h. Applied doses were 0.0, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 2.0kGy. After irradiation, seeds were analysed over a 6 month period. Three different detection methods were employed to determine how irradiation had modified the samples. Screening methods consisted of a germination test measuring the inhibition of shooting and rooting and analysis of DNA fragmentation. The method of electron spin resonance spectroscopy allowed a better dosimetric evaluation. These techniques make the identification of irradiated wheat with different doses possible.

  16. Irradiation testing of 316L(N)-IG austenitic stainless steel for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Osch, E. V.; Horsten, M. G.; de Vries, M. I.

    1998-10-01

    In the frame work of the European Fusion Technology Programme and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), ECN is investigating the irradiation behaviour of the structural materials for ITER. The main structural material for ITER is austenitic stainless steel Type 316L(N)-IG. The operating temperatures of (parts of) the components are envisaged to range between 350 and 700 K. A significant part of the dose-temperature domain of irradiation conditions relevant for ITER has already been explored, there is, however, very little data at about 600 K. Available data tend to indicate a maximum in the degradation of the mechanical properties after irradiation at this temperature, e.g. a minimum in ductility and a maximum of hardening. Therefore an irradiation program for plate material 316L(N)-IG, its Electron Beam (EB) weld and Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) weld metal, and also including Hot Isostatically Pressed (HIP) 316L(N) powder and solid-solid joints, was set up in 1995. Irradiations have been carried out in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten at a temperature of 600 K, at dose levels from 1 to 10 dpa. The paper presents the currently available post-irradiation test results. Next to tensile and fracture toughness data on plate, EB and TIG welds, first results of powder HIP material are included.

  17. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, Todd A.; White, James P.

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  18. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  19. Pinning properties of quenched and melt growth method-YBCO bulk samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayasu, S.; Sasase, M.; Kuroda, N.; Iwase, A.; Kazumata, Y.; Kambara, T.

    2001-09-01

    A comparison between two different irradiation effects was accomplished on bulk YBCO samples synthesized with the quenched and melt growth method (QMG-YBCO) to investigate strong pinning properties. High-energy proton-irradiation introduces small defects comparable to unit cell size into the sample, and they act as effective pinning centers for all temperature range in low field around 1 T. No enhancement, however, can be seen in higher field range. The defects introduced with the irradiation reinforce the pinning properties of preexisting pinning centers randomly distributing in the sample. Column-like defects with 3.5 GeV Xe-irradiation were introduced but the pinning properties show no significant enhancement except higher temperature region. This indicates that pre-existing pinning centers are strong enough than the columnar defects. In higher field region, the contribution of columnar defects for pinning becomes relatively large. For both irradiation cases, almost pinning properties are determined by the pre-existing pinning centers.

  20. Tensile tests and metallography of brazed AISI 316L specimens after irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groot, P.; Franconi, E.

    1994-08-01

    Stainless steel type 316L tensile specimens were vacuum brazed with three kinds of alloys: BNi-5, BNi-6, and BNi-7. The specimens were irradiated up to 0.7 dpa at 353 K in the High Flux Reactor at JRC Petten, the Netherlands. Tensile tests were performed at a constant displacement rate of 10 -3 s -1 at room temperature in the ECN hot cell facility. BNi-5 brazed specimens showed ductile behaviour. Necking and fractures were localized in the plate material. BNi-6 and BNi-7 brazed specimens failed brittle in the brazed zone. This was preceded by uniform deformation of the plate material. Tensile test results of irradiated specimens showed higher stresses due to radiation hardening and a reduction of the elongation of the plate material compared to the reference. SEM examination of the irradiated BNi-6 and BNi-7 fracture surfaces showed nonmetallic phases. These phases were not found in the reference specimens.

  1. Gamma-irradiation tests of IR optical fibres for ITER thermography--a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Reichle, R.; Pocheau, C.; Jouve, M.

    2008-03-12

    In the course of the development of a concept for a spectrally resolving infrared thermography diagnostic for the ITER divertor we have tested 3 types of infrared (IR) fibres in Co{sup 60} irradiation facilities under {gamma} irradiation. The fibres were ZrF{sub 4} (and HfF{sub 4}) fibres from different manufacturers, hollow fibres (silica capillaries with internal Ag/AgJ coating) and a sapphire fibre. For the IR range, only the latter fibre type encourages to go further for neutron tests in a reactor. If one restricted the interest onto the near infrared range, high purity core silica fibres could be used. This study might be seen as a typical example of the relation between diagnostic development for a nuclear environment and irradiation experiments.

  2. Gamma-irradiation tests of IR optical fibres for ITER thermography—a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichle, R.; Brichard, B.; Pocheau, C.; Jouve, M.; van Ierschot, S.; Martinez, S.; Ooms, H.; Berghmans, F.; Decréton, M.

    2008-03-01

    In the course of the development of a concept for a spectrally resolving infrared thermography diagnostic for the ITER divertor we have tested 3 types of infrared (IR) fibres in Co60 irradiation facilities under γ irradiation. The fibres were ZrF4 (and HfF4) fibres from different manufacturers, hollow fibres (silica capillaries with internal Ag/AgJ coating) and a sapphire fibre. For the IR range, only the latter fibre type encourages to go further for neutron tests in a reactor. If one restricted the interest onto the near infrared range, high purity core silica fibres could be used. This study might be seen as a typical example of the relation between diagnostic development for a nuclear environment and irradiation experiments.

  3. LIGHT WATER REACTOR ACCIDENT TOLERANT FUELS IRRADIATION TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Carmack, William Jonathan; Barrett, Kristine Eloise; Chichester, Heather Jean MacLean

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) experiments is to test novel fuel and cladding concepts designed to replace the current zirconium alloy uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The objective of this Research and Development (R&D) is to develop novel ATF concepts that will be able to withstand loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer time period than the current fuel system while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, design basis, and beyond design basis events. It was necessary to design, analyze, and fabricate drop-in capsules to meet the requirements for testing under prototypic LWR temperatures in Idaho National Laboratory's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Three industry led teams and one DOE team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory provided fuel rodlet samples for their new concepts for ATR insertion in 2015. As-built projected temperature calculations were performed on the ATF capsules using the BISON fuel performance code. BISON is an application of INL’s Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE), which is a massively parallel finite element based framework used to solve systems of fully coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. Both 2D and 3D models were set up to examine cladding and fuel performance.

  4. Validation of the Physics Analysis used to Characterize the AGR-1 TRISO Fuel Irradiation Test

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, James W.; Harp, Jason M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Hawkes, Grant L.; Chang, Gray S.

    2015-05-01

    The results of a detailed physics depletion calculation used to characterize the AGR-1 TRISO-coated particle fuel test irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory are compared to measured data for the purpose of validation. The particle fuel was irradiated for 13 ATR power cycles over three calendar years. The physics analysis predicts compact burnups ranging from 11.30-19.56% FIMA and cumulative neutron fast fluence from 2.21?4.39E+25 n/m2 under simulated high-temperature gas-cooled reactor conditions in the ATR. The physics depletion calculation can provide a full characterization of all 72 irradiated TRISO-coated particle compacts during and post-irradiation, so validation of this physics calculation was a top priority. The validation of the physics analysis was done through comparisons with available measured experimental data which included: 1) high-resolution gamma scans for compact activity and burnup, 2) mass spectrometry for compact burnup, 3) flux wires for cumulative fast fluence, and 4) mass spectrometry for individual actinide and fission product concentrations. The measured data are generally in very good agreement with the calculated results, and therefore provide an adequate validation of the physics analysis and the results used to characterize the irradiated AGR-1 TRISO fuel.

  5. FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) cobalt test assembly results

    SciTech Connect

    Rawlins, J.A.; Wootan, D.W.; Carter, L.L.; Brager, H.R.; Schenter, R.E.

    1987-10-01

    A cobalt test assembly containing yttrium hydride pins for neutron moderation was irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility during Cycle 9A for 137.7 equivalent full power days at a power level of 291 MW. The 36 test pins consisted of a batch of 32 pins containing cobalt metal to produce Co-60, and a set of 4 pins with europium oxide to produce Gd-153, a radioisotope used in detection of the bone disease Osteoporosis. Post-irradiation examination of the cobalt pins determined the Co-60 produced with an accuracy of about 5%. The measured Co-60 spatially distributed concentrations were within 20% of the calculated concentrations. The assembly average Co-60 measured activity was 4% less than the calculated value. The europium oxide pins were gamma scanned for the europium isotopes Eu-152 and Eu-154 to an absolute accuracy of about 10%. The measured europium radioisotope and Gd-153 concentrations were within 20% of calculated values. In conclusion, the hydride assembly performed well and is an excellent vehicle for many Fast Flux Test Facility isotope production applications. The results also demonstrate that the calculational methods developed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company are very accurate. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. AGR-1 Irradiation Test Final As-Run Report, Rev. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.

    2015-01-01

    This document presents the as-run analysis of the AGR-1 irradiation experiment. AGR-1 is the first of eight planned irradiations for the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program. Funding for this program is provided by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. The objectives of the AGR-1 experiment are: 1. To gain experience with multi-capsule test train design, fabrication, and operation with the intent to reduce the probability of capsule or test train failure in subsequent irradiation tests. 2. To irradiate fuel produced in conjunction with the AGR fuel process development effort. 3. To provide data that will support the development of an understanding of the relationship between fuel fabrication processes, fuel product properties, and irradiation performance. In order to achieve the test objectives, the AGR-1 experiment was irradiated in the B-10 position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for a total duration of 620 effective full power days of irradiation. Irradiation began on December 24, 2006 and ended on November 6, 2009 spanning 13 ATR cycles and approximately three calendar years. The test contained six independently controlled and monitored capsules. Each capsule contained 12 compacts of a single type, or variant, of the AGR coated fuel. No fuel particles failed during the AGR-1 irradiation. Final burnup values on a per compact basis ranged from 11.5 to 19.6 %FIMA, while fast fluence values ranged from 2.21 to 4.39 x 1025 n/m2 (E >0.18 MeV). We’ll say something here about temperatures once thermal recalc is done. Thermocouples performed well, failing at a lower rate than expected. At the end of the irradiation, nine of the originally-planned 19 TCs were considered functional. Fission product release-to-birth (R/B) ratios were quite low. In most capsules, R/B values at the end of the irradiation were at or below

  7. Flexural strength of proof-tested and neutron-irradiated silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, R. J.; Hopkins, G. R.

    1982-08-01

    Proof testing before service is a valuable method for ensuring the reliability of ceramic structures. Silicon carbide has been proposed as a very low activation first-wall and blanket structural material for fusion devices, where it would experience a high flux of fast neutrons. Strips of three types of silicon carbide were loaded in four-point bending to a stress sufficient to break about a third of the specimens. Groups of 16 survivors were irradiated to 2 × 10 26n/ m2 ( E>0.05 MeV) at 740°C and bend tested to failure. The strength distribution of chemically vapor-deposited silicon carbide (Texas Instruments) was virtually unchanged by irradiation. The mean strength of sintered silicon carbide (Carborundum Alpha) was reduced 34% by irradiation, while the Weibull modulus and the truncated strength distribution characteristic of proof-tested material were retained. Irradiation reduced the mean strength of reaction-bonded silicon carbide (Norton NC-430) by 58%, and the spread in strength values was increased. We conclude that for the chemically vapor-deposited and the sintered silicon carbide the benefits of proof testing to eliminate low strength material are retained after high neutron exposures.

  8. Evaluation of irradiated pressure vessel steel by mechanical tests and positron annihilation lineshape analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Noriko; Ohta, Yoshio; Yoshida, Kazuo; Maeda, Noriyoshi

    1999-10-01

    Mechanical test and positron annihilation lineshape analysis have been performed on neutron irradiated pressure vessel steels, A533B1 steel and the weld metal. Marked changes in the mechanical properties were observed for both metals after the neutron exposure. S-parameters, the positron annihilation parameters, also increased after the neutron irradiation but only the small change was observed in the different levels of neutron fluence. The change in S-parameter and the mechanical properties were well correlated. It is concluded that changes in embrittlement induced by radiation can be monitored by positron annihilation lineshape analysis but detectability is dependent on the materials.

  9. Test Temperature Dependence of Transesterification of Triolein under Low-Frequency Ultrasonic Irradiation Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanh, Hoang Duc; Dong, Nguyen The; Okitsu, Kenji; Maeda, Yasuaki; Nishimura, Rokuro

    2007-07-01

    The test temperature dependence of the transesterification of triolein with methanol and a base catalyst (NaOH and KOH) was investigated using a molar ratio of methanol to triolein of 6:1, a catalyst concentration of 1% and a temperature range of 3-50 °C under a low-frequency ultrasonic irradiation condition (40 kHz). It was found that the methyl ester concentration at an irradiation time of 5 min increased with increasing temperature, where it tended to level off at temperatures higher than 20 °C. Furthermore, apparent activation energy was estimated from the relationship between the rate and the reciprocal of temperature.

  10. Charpy impact test results for low activation ferritic alloys irradiated to 30 dpa

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1996-04-01

    Miniature specimens of six low activation ferritic alloys have been impact field tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 30 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens and specimens irradiated to 10 dpa indicates that degradation in the impact behavior appears to have saturated by {approx}10 dpa in at least four of these alloys. The 7.5Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X appears most promising for further consideration as a candidate structural material in fusion reactor applications, although the 9Cr-1V alloy may also warrant further investigation.

  11. Strength of the pin-bone interface of external fixation pins in the iliac crest. A biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Lai, K A; Chou, Y L

    1995-01-01

    The iliac crest is a frequent insertion site for external fixation pins in treating unstable pelvic or acetabular fractures and in iliofemoral distraction for superiorly dislocated hips. The pin-bone interface is critical for the success of treatment, but studies of the iliac crest are lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the strength of the pin-bone interface of different pins and different insertion methods. Four types of commercial pins, Wagner pins, Orthofix cortical and cancellous screws, and AO pins, were driven into sheep iliac crests by 2 methods: the intercortical and the transcortical. Specimens were tested for pullout and bending with an Instron testing machine (Model 1343) at a extension rate of 0.02 mm/sec to failure. The results revealed that the intercortical method had a stronger pullout force than the transcortical in all types of screws (p < 0.05), probably caused by longer insertion in the bone. In the pullout tests, the Wagner pins were the strongest and the Orthofix cancellous screws were the weakest. There were no differences in bending. In the iliac crest, the intercortical method was the better way of driving pins, and the new Orthofix screws were not proven to be stronger than the Wagner pins, nor were the cancellous screws more suitable than the cortical ones.

  12. A double tuned rail damper—increased damping at the two first pinned-pinned frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, J.; Sol, H.

    2003-10-01

    Railway-induced vibrations are a growing matter of environmental concern. The rapid development of transportation, the increase of vehicle speeds and vehicle weights have resulted in higher vibration levels. In the meantime vibrations that were tolerated in the past are now considered to be a nuisance. Numerous solutions have been proposed to remedy these problems. The majority only acts on a specific part of the dynamic behaviour of the track. This paper presents a possible solution to reduce the noise generated by the 'pinned-pinned' frequencies. Pinned-pinned frequencies correspond with standing waves whose nodes are positioned exactly at the sleeper supports. The two first pinned-pinned frequencies are situated approximately at 950 and 2200 Hz (UIC60-rail and sleeper spacing of 0.60 m). To attenuate these vibrations, the Department of MEMC at the VUB has developed a dynamic vibration absorber called the Double Tuned Rail Damper (DTRD). The DTRD is mounted between two sleepers on the rail and is powered by the motion of the rail. The DTRD consists of two major parts: a steel plate which is connected to the rail with an interface of an elastic layer, and a rubber mass. The two first resonance frequencies of the steel plate coincide with the targeted pinned-pinned frequencies of the rail. The rubber mass acts as a motion controller and energy absorber. Measurements at a test track of the French railway company (SNCF) have shown considerable attenuation of the envisaged pinned-pinned frequencies. The attenuation rate surpasses 5 dB/m at certain frequency bands.

  13. Status of the Norwegian thorium light water reactor (LWR) fuel development and irradiation test program

    SciTech Connect

    Drera, S.S.; Bjork, K.I.; Kelly, J.F.; Asphjell, O.

    2013-07-01

    Thorium based fuels offer several benefits compared to uranium based fuels and should thus be an attractive alternative to conventional fuel types. In order for thorium based fuel to be licensed for use in current LWRs, material properties must be well known for fresh as well as irradiated fuel, and accurate prediction of fuel behavior must be possible to make for both normal operation and transient scenarios. Important parameters are known for fresh material but the behaviour of the fuel under irradiation is unknown particularly for low Th content. The irradiation campaign aims to widen the experience base to irradiated (Th,Pu)O{sub 2} fuel and (Th,U)O{sub 2} with low Th content and to confirm existing data for fresh fuel. The assumptions with respect to improved in-core fuel performance are confirmed by our preliminary irradiation test results, and our fuel manufacture trials so far indicate that both (Th,U)O{sub 2} and (Th,Pu)O{sub 2} fuels can be fabricated with existing technologies, which are possible to upscale to commercial volumes.

  14. Results of the Irradiation of R6R018 in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Adam B Robinson; Daniel Wachs; Pavel Medvedev; Curtis Clark; Gray Chang; Misti Lillo; Jan-Fong Jue; Glenn Moore; Jared Wight

    2010-04-01

    For over 30 years the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has worked to provide the fuel technology and analytical support required to convert research and test reactors from nuclear fuels that utilize highly enriched uranium (HEU) to fuels based on low-enriched uranium (LEU) (defined as <20% U-235). This effort is driven by a desire to minimize international civilian commerce in weapons usable materials. The RERTR fuel development program has executed a wide array of fuel tests over the last decade that clearly established the viability of research reactor fuels based on uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloys. Fuel testing has included a large number of dispersion type fuels capable of providing uranium densities up to approximately 8.5 g U/cc (~1.7 g U-235/cc at 20% enrichment). The dispersion fuel designs tested are very similar to existing research test reactor fuels in that the U-Mo particles simply replace the current fuel phase within the matrix. In 2003 it became evident that the first generation U-Mo-based dispersion fuel within an aluminum matrix exhibited significant fuel performance problems at high power and burn-up. These issues have been successfully addressed with a modest modification to the matrix material composition. Testing has shown that small additions of silicon (2–5 wt%) to the aluminum (Al) matrix stabilizes the fuel performance. The fuel plate R6R018 which was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as part of the RERTR-9B experiment was part of an investigation into the role of the silicon content in the matrix. This plate consisted of a U-7Mo fuel phase dispersed in an Al-3.5Si matrix clad in Al-6061. This report outlines the fabrication history, the as fabricated analysis performed prior to irradiation, the irradiation conditions, the post irradiation examination results, and an analysis of the plates behavior.

  15. Small-Scale Mechanical Testing on Proton Beam-Irradiated 304 SS from Room Temperature to Reactor Operation Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, H.; Reichardt, A.; Howard, C.; Abad, M. D.; Kaoumi, D.; Chou, P.; Hosemann, P.

    2015-12-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are common structural components in light water reactors. Because reactor components are subjected to harsh conditions such as high operating temperatures and neutron radiation, they can undergo irradiation-induced embrittlement and related failure, which compromises reliable operation. Small-scale mechanical testing has seen widespread use as a testing method for both ion- and reactor-irradiated materials because it allows access to the mechanical properties of the ion beam-irradiated region, and for safe handling of a small amount of activated material. In this study, nanoindentation and microcompression testing were performed on unirradiated and 10 dpa proton-irradiated 304 SS, from 25°C to 300°C. Increases in yield stress (YS), critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) and hardness ( H) were seen in the irradiated region relative to the unirradiated region. Relationships between H, YS, and CRSS of irradiated and unirradiated materials are discussed over this temperature range.

  16. Assessment of Initial Test Conditions for Experiments to Assess Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, Jeremy T; Gussev, Maxim N

    2011-04-01

    Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking is a key materials degradation issue in today s nuclear power reactor fleet and affects critical structural components within the reactor core. The effects of increased exposure to irradiation, stress, and/or coolant can substantially increase susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking of austenitic steels in high-temperature water environments. . Despite 30 years of experience, the underlying mechanisms of IASCC are unknown. Extended service conditions will increase the exposure to irradiation, stress, and corrosive environment for all core internal components. The objective of this effort within the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program is to evaluate the response and mechanisms of IASCC in austenitic stainless steels with single variable experiments. A series of high-value irradiated specimens has been acquired from the past international research programs, providing a valuable opportunity to examine the mechanisms of IASCC. This batch of irradiated specimens has been received and inventoried. In addition, visual examination and sample cleaning has been completed. Microhardness testing has been performed on these specimens. All samples show evidence of hardening, as expected, although the degree of hardening has saturated and no trend with dose is observed. Further, the change in hardening can be converted to changes in mechanical properties. The calculated yield stress is consistent with previous data from light water reactor conditions. In addition, some evidence of changes in deformation mode was identified via examination of the microhardness indents. This analysis may provide further insights into the deformation mode under larger scale tests. Finally, swelling analysis was performed using immersion density methods. Most alloys showed some evidence of swelling, consistent with the expected trends for this class of alloy. The Hf-doped alloy showed densification rather than swelling. This observation may be

  17. Post irradiation examination of thermal reactor fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sah, D. N.; Viswanathan, U. K.; Ramadasan, E.; Unnikrishnan, K.; Anantharaman, S.

    2008-12-01

    The post irradiation examination (PIE) facility at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) has been in operation for more than three decades. Over these years this facility has been utilized for examination of experimental fuel pins and fuels from commercial power reactors operating in India. In a program to assess the performance of (U,Pu)O 2 MOX fuel prior to its introduction in commercial reactors, three experimental MOX fuel clusters irradiated in the pressurized water loop (PWL) of CIRUS up to burnup of 16 000 MWd/tU were examined. Fission gas release from these pins was measured by puncture test. Some of these fuel pins in the cluster contained controlled porosity pellets, low temperature sintered (LTS) pellets, large grain size pellets and annular pellets. PIE has also been carried out on natural UO 2 fuel bundles from Indian PHWRs, which included two high burnup (˜15 000 MWd/tU) bundles. Salient investigations carried out consisted of visual examination, leak testing, axial gamma scanning, fission gas analysis, microstructural examination of fuel and cladding, β, γ autoradiography of the fuel cross-section and fuel central temperature estimation from restructuring. A ThO 2 fuel bundle irradiated in Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) up to a nominal fuel burnup of ˜11 000 MWd/tTh was also examined to evaluate its in-pile performance. The performance of the BWR fuel pins of Tarapur Atomic Power Stations (TAPS) was earlier assessed by carrying out PIE on 18 fuel elements selected from eight fuel assemblies irradiated in the two reactors. The burnup of these fuel elements varied from 5000 to 29 000 MWd/tU. This paper provides a brief review of some of the fuels examined and the results obtained on the performance of natural UO 2, enriched UO 2, MOX, and ThO 2 fuels.

  18. Impact of Pin-by-Pin Thermal-Hydraulic Feedback Modeling on Steady-State Core Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Akio; Ikeno, Tsutomu

    2005-02-15

    In this paper, the effect of a pin-by-pin thermal-hydraulic feedback treatment on the core characteristics at a steady-state condition is investigated using a three-dimensional fine-mesh core calculation code. Currently, advanced nodal codes treat the inside of an assembly as homogeneous, and the temperature distribution inside a node is usually ignored. Namely, the fuel temperature is estimated from the assembly average power density, and the moderator temperature is calculated from the nodewise closed-channel model. However, the validity of a flat temperature distribution inside a node has not yet been investigated, because a three-dimensional pin-by-pin whole-core calculation must be done for comparison. A three-dimensional pin-by-pin nodal-transport code for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) core analysis, SCOPE2, was used in this study since it can directly treat the pin-by-pin feedback effect. A whole-core subchannel analysis code was developed to enhance the thermal-hydraulic capability of SCOPE2. The pin-by-pin feedback models for fuel and moderator temperature were established, and their impact on the core characteristics was investigated in a 3 x 3 multiassembly and the whole PWR core geometries. The calculations showed that modeling of the pin-by-pin temperature distribution revealed a negligible effect on core reactivity and only a slight impact on the radial peaking factor. The difference in the radial peaking factor that is exposed by the pin-by-pin temperature modeling is less than 0.005 in the test calculations.

  19. PINS-3X Operations

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury

    2013-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS) non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. The PINS-3X variant of the system is used to identify explosives and uses a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) as the neutron source. Use of the system, including possession and use of the neutron generator and shipment of the system components requires compliance with a number of regulations. This report outlines some of these requirements as well as some of the requirements in using the system outside of INL.

  20. Doses from external irradiation to Marshall Islanders from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    PubMed

    Bouville, André; Beck, Harold L; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Annual doses from external irradiation resulting from exposure to fallout from the 65 atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted in the Marshall Islands at Bikini and Enewetak between 1946 and 1958 have been estimated for the first time for Marshallese living on all inhabited atolls. All tests that deposited fallout on any of the 23 inhabited atolls or separate reef islands have been considered. The methodology used to estimate the radiation doses at the inhabited atolls is based on test- and location-specific radiation survey data, deposition density estimates of 137Cs, and fallout times-of-arrival provided in a companion paper (Beck et al.), combined with information on the radionuclide composition of the fallout at various times after each test. These estimates of doses from external irradiation have been combined with corresponding estimates of doses from internal irradiation, given in a companion paper (Simon et al.), to assess the cancer risks among the Marshallese population (Land et al.) resulting from exposure to radiation from the nuclear weapons tests.

  1. Charpy impact tests on martensitic/ferritic steels after irradiation in SINQ target-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yong; Marmy, Pierre

    2005-08-01

    Charpy impact tests were performed on martensitic/ferritic (MF) steels T91, F82H, Optifer-V and Optimax-A/-C irradiated in SINQ Target-3 up to 7.5 dpa and 500 appm He in a temperature range of 120-195 °C. Results demonstrate that for all the four kinds of steels, the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) increases with irradiation dose. The difference in the DBTT shifts (ΔDBTT) of the different steels is not significant after irradiation in the SINQ target. The ΔDBTT data from the previous small punch (Δ DBTT SP) and the present Charpy impact (ΔDBTT CVN) tests can be correlated with the expression: Δ DBTT SP = 0.4ΔDBTT CVN. All the ΔDBTT data fall into a linear band when they are plotted versus helium concentration. The results indicate that helium effects on the embrittlement of MF steels are significant, particularly at higher concentrations. It suggests that MF steels may not be very suitable for applications at low temperatures in spallation irradiation environments where helium production is high.

  2. Studies on the methods of identification of irradiated food I. Seedling growth test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiongying, Liu; Yanhua, Kuang; Yuemei, Zheng

    1993-07-01

    A seedling growth test for the identification of gamma irradiated edible vegetable seeds was described. The identification of gamma irradiated grape and the other seeds has been investigated. The purpose of this study was to develop an easy, rapid and practical technique for the identification of irradiated edible vegetable seeds. Seven different irradiated edible vegetable seeds as: rice ( Oryza sativa), peanut ( Arachis hypogaea), maize ( Zeamays), soybean ( Glycine max), red bean ( Phaseolus angularis), mung bean ( Phaseolus aureus) and catjang cowpea ( Vigna cylindrica) were tested by using the method of seedling growth. All of the edible vegetable seeds were exposed to gamma radiation on different doses, O(CK), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0 kGy. After treatment with above 1.0 kGy dose to the seeds, the seedling rate was less than 50% compared with the control. Although the seedling rate of rice seeds can reached 58%, the seedling growth was not normal and the seedling leaves appeared deformed. The results by this method were helpful to identify gamma treatment of the edible vegetable seeds with above 1.0 kGy dose.

  3. Optimization of pin bearing joint strength for segmented graphite/epoxy filament wound case in Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munjal, A. K.; Wilks, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt is made to demonstrate the feasibility of a composite joint in a segmented, graphite/epoxy filament-wound composite case for the Space Shuttle's Solid Rocket Motors. The joint's required ultimate line load is of the of 82,000 lb/in. By optimizing composite layup, and the ratios of pin diameter/specimen thickness, edge distance/pin diameter, and specimen width/pin diameter, a pin bearing joint strength of 85 ksi was obtained. Double pin testing disclosed that the pin close to the composite joint carries a higher load than the outboard pin. Pin bearing strength is noted to vary with matrix resin system.

  4. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Garrison, L M; Zenobia, S J; Egle, B J; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 10(14) ions/(cm(2) s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  5. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, S. J.; Egle, B. J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  6. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, Samuel J.; Egle, Brian J.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Santarius, John F.

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000°C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. In conclusion, the MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  7. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, Samuel J.; Egle, Brian J.; ...

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000°C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ionmore » gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. In conclusion, the MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.« less

  8. Independent Review of AFC 2A, 2B, and 2E ATR Irradiation Tests

    SciTech Connect

    M. Cappiello; R. Hobbins; K. Penny; L. Walters

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle program, a series of fuels development irradiation tests have been performed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. These tests are providing excellent data for advanced fuels development. The program is focused on the transmutation of higher actinides which best can be accomplished in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Because a fast test reactor is no longer available in the US, a special test vehicle is used to achieve near-prototypic fast reactor conditions (neutron spectra and temperature) for use in ATR (a water-cooled thermal reactor). As part of the testing program, there were many successful tests of advanced fuels including metals and ceramics. Recently however, there have been three experimental campaigns using metal fuels that experienced failure during irradiation. At the request of the program, an independent review committee was convened to review the post-test analyses performed by the fuels development team, to assess the conclusions of the team for the cause of the failures, to assess the adequacy and completeness of the analyses, to identify issues that were missed, and to make recommendations for improvements in the design and operation of future tests. Although there is some difference of opinion, the review committee largely agreed with the conclusions of the fuel development team regarding the cause of the failures. For the most part, the analyses that support the conclusions are sufficient.

  9. Irradiation tests of ITER candidate Hall sensors using two types of neutron spectra.

    PubMed

    Ďuran, I; Bolshakova, I; Viererbl, L; Sentkerestiová, J; Holyaka, R; Lahodová, Z; Bém, P

    2010-10-01

    We report on irradiation tests of InSb based Hall sensors at two irradiation facilities with two distinct types of neutron spectra. One was a fission reactor neutron spectrum with a significant presence of thermal neutrons, while another one was purely fast neutron field. Total neutron fluence of the order of 10(16) cm(-2) was accumulated in both cases, leading to significant drop of Hall sensor sensitivity in case of fission reactor spectrum, while stable performance was observed at purely fast neutron spectrum. This finding suggests that performance of this particular type of Hall sensors is governed dominantly by transmutation. Additionally, it further stresses the need to test ITER candidate Hall sensors under neutron flux with ITER relevant spectrum.

  10. Irradiation tests of ITER candidate Hall sensors using two types of neutron spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, I.; Viererbl, L.; Lahodova, Z.; Sentkerestiova, J.; Bem, P.

    2010-10-15

    We report on irradiation tests of InSb based Hall sensors at two irradiation facilities with two distinct types of neutron spectra. One was a fission reactor neutron spectrum with a significant presence of thermal neutrons, while another one was purely fast neutron field. Total neutron fluence of the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} was accumulated in both cases, leading to significant drop of Hall sensor sensitivity in case of fission reactor spectrum, while stable performance was observed at purely fast neutron spectrum. This finding suggests that performance of this particular type of Hall sensors is governed dominantly by transmutation. Additionally, it further stresses the need to test ITER candidate Hall sensors under neutron flux with ITER relevant spectrum.

  11. Status of the NGNP Graphite Creep Experiments AGC-1 and AGC-2 Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover

    2012-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six nuclear graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six peripheral stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six peripheral stacks will have different compressive loads applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during irradiation of the experiment. The first experiment, AGC-1, started its irradiation in September 2009, and the irradiation was completed in January 2011. The second experiment, AGC-2, started its irradiation in April 2011 and completed its irradiation in May 2012. This paper will briefly discuss the design of the experiment and control systems, and then present the irradiation results for each experiment to date.

  12. Submission of FeCrAl Feedstock for Support of AFC ATR-2 Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Barrett, Kristine E.; Sun, Zhiqian; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2016-09-16

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is currently being used to test accident tolerant fuel (ATF) forms destined for commercial nuclear power plant deployment. One irradiation program using the ATR for ATF concepts, Accident Tolerant Fuel-2 (ATF-2), is a water loop irradiation test using miniaturized fuel pins as test articles. This complicated testing configuration requires a series of pre-test experiments and verification including a flowing loop autoclave test and a sensor qualification test (SQT) prior to full test train deployment within the ATR. In support of the ATF-2 irradiation program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has supplied two different Generation II FeCrAl alloys in rod stock form to Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These rods will be machined into dummy pins for deployment in the autoclave test and SQT. Post-test analysis of the dummy pins will provide initial insight into the performance of Generation II FeCrAl alloys in the ATF-2 irradiation experiment as well as within a commercial nuclear reactor.

  13. Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) Recently Installed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR)

    SciTech Connect

    A. Joseph Palmer; Gerry L. McCormick; Shannon J. Corrigan

    2010-06-01

    2010 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP’10) ANS Annual Meeting Imbedded Topical San Diego, CA June 13 – 17, 2010 Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) Recently Installed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Author: A. Joseph Palmer, Mechanical Engineer, Irradiation Test Programs, 208-526-8700, Joe.Palmer@INL.gov Affiliation: Idaho National Laboratory P.O. Box 1625, MS-3840 Idaho Falls, ID 83415 INL/CON-10-17680 ABSTRACT Most test reactors are equipped with shuttle facilities (sometimes called rabbit tubes) whereby small capsules can be inserted into the reactor and retrieved during power operations. With the installation of Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) this capability has been restored to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The general design and operating principles of this system were patterned after the hydraulic rabbit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), which has operated successfully for many years. Using primary coolant as the motive medium the HSIS system is designed to simultaneously transport fourteen shuttle capsules, each 16 mm OD x 57 mm long, to and from the B-7 position of the reactor. The B-7 position is one of the higher flux positions in the reactor with typical thermal and fast (>1 Mev) fluxes of 2.8E+14 n/cm2/sec and 1.9E+14 n/cm2/sec respectively. The available space inside each shuttle is approximately 14 mm diameter x 50 mm long. The shuttle containers are made from titanium which was selected for its low neutron activation properties and durability. Shuttles can be irradiated for time periods ranging from a few minutes to several months. The Send and Receive Station (SRS) for the HSIS is located 2.5 m deep in the ATR canal which allows irradiated shuttles to be easily moved from the SRS to a wet loaded cask, or transport pig. The HSIS system first irradiated (empty) shuttles in September 2009 and has since completed

  14. Long-term laser irradiation tests of optical elements for ESA mission ADM-Aeolus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinhos, Uwe; Mann, Klaus; Bayer, Armin; Endemann, Martin; Wernham, Denny; Pettazzi, Federico; Thibault, Dominique

    2010-08-01

    The European Space Agency ESA is running a series of earth observation missions. In order to perform global windprofile observation based on Doppler-LIDAR, the satellite ADM-Aelolus will be launched in April 2011 and injected into an orbit 400 km above Earth's surface. ADM-Aeolus will be the first satellite ever that is equipped with a UV-laser (emitting at 355 nm) and a reflector telescope. At LLG, a setup was developed that allows monitoring transmission, reflection and fluorescence of laser-irradiated optical components, in order to assess their possible optical degradation due to radiation-induced contaminant deposition in orbit. For both a high-reflecting mirror and an anti-reflective coated window long-term irradiation tests (up to 500 million laser pulses) were performed at a base pressure < 10-9 mbar, using a XeF excimer laser (wavelength 351 nm, repetition rate 1kHz). At this, samples of polymers used inside the satellite (insulators for cabling, adhesives, etc.) were installed into the chamber, and the interaction of their degassing with the sample surfaces under laser irradiation was investigated. Various paramters were varied including pulse repetition rate, view factor and coatings. Optical degradation associated with contaminant adsorption was detected on the irradiated sample sites.

  15. Results of crack-arrest tests on two irradiated high-copper welds

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, S.K.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstead, R.K. )

    1990-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the lower-bound curve to crack-arrest data. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Crack-arrest specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288{degree}C to an average fluence of 1.9 {times} 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV). Evaluation of the results shows that the neutron-irradiation-induced crack-arrest toughness temperature shift is about the same as the Charpy V-notch impact temperature shift at the 41-J energy level. The shape of the lower-bound curves (for the range of test temperatures covered) did not seem to have been altered by irradiation compared to those of the ASME K{sub Ia} curve. 9 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Radiation effects on rat testes. IX. Studies on oxidative enzymes after partial body gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G S; Bawa, S R

    1975-08-01

    Oxidative enzymes in the rat testes have been studied after gamma irradiation. The role of these enzymes in relation to spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis after radiation injury to testis has been discussed. Loss of succinic dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase reflects the losts of germ cell population. Malic enzyme and malic dehydrogenase seem to the related to the deficiency of steroid hormones, whereas increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP isocitric dehydrogenase is due to secondary stimulation of pituitary.

  17. Minimum bar size for flexure testing of irradiated SiC/SiC composite

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, G.E.; Jones, R.H.

    1998-03-01

    This report covers material presented at the IEA/Jupiter Joint International Workshop on SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion structural Applications held in conjunction with ICFRM-8, Sendai, Japan, Oct. 23-24, 1997. The minimum bar size for 4-point flexure testing of SiC/SiC composite recommended by PNNL for irradiation effects studies is 30 {times} 6 {times} 2 mm{sup 3} with a span-to-depth ratio of 10/1.

  18. Lever-Arm Pin Puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Malcolm

    1994-01-01

    Mechanism holds retaining pins in place except when actuated to release pins quickly. Mechanism is integral part of cover designed to be removed with simple downward motion of hand. Before removal, mechanism secures cover in place. After removal, mechanism holds retaining pins for reuse.

  19. TS-1 and TS-2 transient overpower tests on FFTF fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.; Ferrell, P.C.; Culley, G.E.; Weber, E.T.

    1985-11-01

    The TS-1 and TS-2 Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) experiments were conducted on irradiated Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) fuel pins to characterize their failure behavior when subjected to hypothetical 5%/s transient overpower conditions. The TS-1 test employed a near-fresh (2 MWd/kg) fuel pin, while the TS-2 test used a medium-burnup (58 MWd/kg) fuel pin. Transient conditions were closely matched between the two experiments to provide a direct comparison of burnup effects on the failure response.

  20. Completion of the first NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiment, AGR-1, in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Blaine Grover; John Maki; David Petti

    2010-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating up to seven separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next several years to demonstrate and qualify new TRISO coated particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006 and completed a very successful irradiation in early November 2009. The design of AGR-1 test train and support systems used to monitor and control the experiment during

  1. Status Report on the Fabrication of Fuel Cladding Chemical Interaction Test Articles for ATR Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Howard, Richard H.

    2015-09-28

    FeCrAl alloys are a promising new class of alloys for light water reactor (LWR) applications due to their superior oxidation and corrosion resistance in high temperature environments. The current R&D efforts have focused on the alloy composition and processing routes to generate nuclear grade FeCrAl alloys with optimized properties for enhanced accident tolerance while maintaining properties needed for normal operation conditions. Therefore, the composition and processing routes must be optimized to maintain the high temperature steam oxidation (typically achieved by increasing the Cr and Al content) while still exhibiting properties conducive to normal operation in a LWR (such as radiation tolerance where reducing Cr content is favorable). Within this balancing act is the addition of understanding the influence on composition and processing routes on the FeCrAl alloys for fuel-cladding chemical interactions (FCCI). Currently, limited knowledge exists on FCCI for the FeCrAl-UO2 clad-fuel system. To overcome the knowledge gaps on the FCCI for the FeCrAl-UO2 clad-fuel system a series of fueled irradiation tests have been developed for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) housed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The first series of tests has already been reported. These tests used miniaturized 17x17 PWR fuel geometry rodlets of second-generation FeCrAl alloys fueled with industrial Westinghouse UO2 fuel. These rodlets were encapsulated within a stainless steel housing.To provide high fidelity experiments and more robust testing, a new series of rodlets have been developed deemed the Accident Tolerant Fuel Experiment #1 Oak Ridge National Laboratory FCCI test (ATF-1 ORNL FCCI). The main driving factor, which is discussed in detail, was to provide a radiation environment where prototypical fuel-clad interface temperatures are met while still maintaining constant contact between industrial fuel and the candidate cladding alloys

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 371: Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2009-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 371 is located in Areas 11 and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 371 is comprised of the two corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 11-23-05, Pin Stripe Contamination Area • 18-45-01, U-18j-2 Crater (Johnnie Boy) These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on November 19, 2008, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 371. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the corrective action investigation for CAU 371 includes the following activities: • Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. • Conduct radiological surveys. • Measure in situ external dose rates using thermoluminescent dosimeters or other dose measurement devices. • Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine internal dose rates. • Combine internal and external dose rates to determine whether total

  3. Burnup Predictions for Metal Fuel Tests in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, David W.; Nelson, Joseph V.

    2012-06-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is the most recent Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) to be designed, constructed, and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The FFTF operated successfully from initial startup in 1980 through the end of the last operating cycle in March, 1992. A variety of fuel tests were irradiated in FFTF to provide performance data over a range of conditions. The MFF-3 and MFF-5 tests were U10Zr metal fuel tests with HT9 cladding. The MFF-3 and MFF-5 tests were both aggressive irradiation tests of U10Zr metal fuel pins with HT9 cladding that were prototypic of full scale LMR designs. MFF-3 was irradiated for 726 Effective Full Power Days (EFPD), starting from Cycle 10C1 (from November 1988 through March 1992), and MFF-5 was irradiated for 503 EFPD starting from Cycle 11B1 (from January 1990 through March 1992). A group of fuel pins from these two tests are undergoing post irradiation examination at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the Fuel Cycle Research and Development Program (FCRD). The generation of a data package of key information on the irradiation environment and current pin detailed compositions for these tests is described. This information will be used in interpreting the results of these examinations.

  4. Connector pin and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor); Askew, R. Scott (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electrical connector and method includes a connector and a conforming element proximate to or in contact with the mating end of the connector so as to prevent distortion of a matable end. The matable end of the connector may be of a female or male type and may be of a post, tube, blade, pin, or other configuration. An element made of conforming material, for example, an elastomer, epoxy or rubber type material, is configured and positioned in contact with the matable end of the connector, providing support during assembly to prevent distortion of the matable end. The conforming element may be rectangular, wedge, cylindrical, conical, annular, or of another configuration as required to provide support to the connector pin. The conforming element may be fastened with an adhesive to the matable end to further prevent distortion.

  5. First tests of the ion irradiation and implantation beamline at the CMAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Rey, D.; Benedicto, M.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Bachiller-Perea, D.; Olivares, J.; Climent-Font, A.; Gómez-Ferrer, B.; Rodríguez, A.; Narros, J.; Maira, A.; Álvarez, J.; Nakbi, A.; Zucchiatti, A.; de Aragón, F.; García, J. M.; Vila, R.

    2014-07-01

    The implantation and irradiation beamline of the Tandem ion accelerator of the Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales (CMAM), in Madrid, has been recently completed with a beam sweep and monitoring system, and a cryostat/furnace. These new implementations convert the beamline into a versatile tool to implant ions, between H and Au2, in different materials with precise control of the sample temperature, which may be varied between -180 °C and 600 °C. The size of the swept area on target may be as large as 10 × 10 cm2. The implantation chamber also allows carrying out in situ or/and on line analyses during the irradiations by means of advanced optical measurements, as well as ion beam analyses (IBA). These advancements can be employed in novel applications such as the fabrication of optical waveguides and irradiation tests of structural and functional materials for future fusion reactors. The results of beam tests and first experiments are shown.

  6. Histopathological changes of testes and eyes by neutron irradiation with boron compounds in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Joo; Yoon, Won-Ki; Ryu, Si-Yun; Chun, Ki-Jung; Son, Hwa-Young; Cho, Sung-Whan

    2006-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the biological effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) on the testes and eyes in mice using HANARO Nuclear Reactor, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. BNCT relies on the high capacity of 10B in capturing thermal neutrons. Sodium borocaptate (BSH, 75 ppm, iv) and boronophenylalanine (BPA, 750 ppm, ip) have been used as the boron delivery agents. Mice were irradiated with neutron (flux: 1.036739E +09, Fluence 9.600200E+12) by lying flat pose for 30 (10 Gy) or 100 min (33 Gy) with or without boron carrier treatment. In 45 days of irradiation, histopathological changes of the testes and eyes were examined. Thirty-three Gy neutron irradiation for 100 min induced testicular atrophy in which some of seminiferous tubules showed complete depletion of spermatogenic germ cells. Lens epithelial cells and lens fiber were swollen and showed granular changes in an exposure time dependent manner. However, boron carrier treatment had no significant effect on the lesions. These results suggest that the examination of histopathological changes of lens and testis can be used as "biological dosimeters" for gauging radiation responses and the HANARO Nuclear Reactor has sufficient capacities for the BNCT.

  7. Ion irradiation testing and characterization of FeCrAl candidate alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Anderoglu, Osman; Aydogan, Eda; Maloy, Stuart Andrew; Wang, Yongqiang

    2014-10-29

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program’s Advanced Fuels Campaign has initiated a multifold effort aimed at facilitating development of accident tolerant fuels. This effort involves development of fuel cladding materials that will be resistant to oxidizing environments for extended period of time such as loss of coolant accident. Ferritic FeCrAl alloys are among the promising candidates due to formation of a stable Al₂O₃ oxide scale. In addition to being oxidation resistant, these promising alloys need to be radiation tolerant under LWR conditions (maximum dose of 10-15 dpa at 250 – 350°C). Thus, in addition to a number of commercially available alloys, nuclear grade FeCrAl alloys developed at ORNL were tested using high energy proton irradiations and subsequent characterization of irradiation hardening and damage microstructure. This report summarizes ion irradiation testing and characterization of three nuclear grade FeCrAl cladding materials developed at ORNL and four commercially available Kanthal series FeCrAl alloys in FY14 toward satisfying FCRD campaign goals.

  8. Facility for fast neutron irradiation tests of electronics at the ISIS spallation neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Andreani, C.; Pietropaolo, A.; Salsano, A.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Gerardin, S.; Frost, C. D.; Ansell, S.; Platt, S. P.

    2008-03-17

    The VESUVIO beam line at the ISIS spallation neutron source was set up for neutron irradiation tests in the neutron energy range above 10 MeV. The neutron flux and energy spectrum were shown, in benchmark activation measurements, to provide a neutron spectrum similar to the ambient one at sea level, but with an enhancement in intensity of a factor of 10{sup 7}. Such conditions are suitable for accelerated testing of electronic components, as was demonstrated here by measurements of soft error rates in recent technology field programable gate arrays.

  9. Lead test assembly irradiation and analysis Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee and Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) needs to confirm the viability of using a commercial light water reactor (CLWR) as a potential source for maintaining the nation`s supply of tritium. The Proposed Action discussed in this environmental assessment is a limited scale confirmatory test that would provide DOE with information needed to assess that option. This document contains the environmental assessment results for the Lead test assembly irradiation and analysis for the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Tennessee, and the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington.

  10. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant/Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2009-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) tri-isotopic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States, and will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing. The experiments, which will each consist of at least six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The first experiment (designated AGR-1) started irradiation in December 2006, and the second experiment (AGR-2) is currently in the design phase. The design of test trains, as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment during irradiation will be discussed. In

  11. Results of Uranium Dioxide-Tungsten Irradiation Test and Post-Test Examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J. F.; Debogdan, C. E.; Diianni, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    A uranium dioxide (UO2) fueled capsule was fabricated and irradiated in the NASA Plum Brook Reactor Facility. The capsule consisted of two bulk UO2 specimens clad with chemically vapor deposited tungsten (CVD W) 0.762 and 0.1016 cm (0.030-and 0.040-in.) thick, respectively. The second specimen with 0.1016-cm (0.040-in.) thick cladding was irradiated at temperature for 2607 hours, corresponding to an average burnup of 1.516 x 10 to the 20th power fissions/cu cm. Postirradiation examination showed distortion in the bottom end cap, failure of the weld joint, and fracture of the central vent tube. Diametral growth was 1.3 percent. No evidence of gross interaction between CVD tungsten or arc-cast tungsten cladding and the UO2 fuel was observed. Some of the fission gases passed from the fuel cavity to the gas surrounding the fuel specimen via the vent tube and possibly the end-cap weld failure. Whether the UO2 loss rates through the vent tube were within acceptable limits could not be determined in view of the end-cap weld failure.

  12. Recent irradiation tests of uranium-plutonium-zirconium metal fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, R.G.; Lahm, C.E.; Villarreal, R.; Hofman, G.L.; Beck, W.N.

    1986-09-01

    Uranium-Plutonium-Zirconium metal fuel irradiation tests to support the ANL Integral Fast Reactor concept are discussed. Satisfactory performance has been demonstrated to 2.9 at.% peak burnup in three alloys having 0, 8, and 19 wt % plutonium. Fuel swelling measurements at low burnup in alloys to 26 wt % plutonium show that fuel deformation is primarily radial in direction. Increasing the plutonium content in the fuel diminishes the rate of fuel-cladding gap closure and axial fuel column growth. Chemical redistribution occurs by 2.1 at.% peak burnup and generally involves the inward migration of zirconium and outward migration of uranium. Fission gas release to the plenum ranges from 46% to 56% in the alloys irradiated to 2.9 at.% peak burnup. No evidence of deleterious fuel-cladding chemical or mechanical interaction was observed.

  13. Developments, characterization and proton irradiation damage tests of AlN detectors for VUV solar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BenMoussa, A.; Soltani, A.; Gerbedoen, J.-C.; Saito, T.; Averin, S.; Gissot, S.; Giordanengo, B.; Berger, G.; Kroth, U.; De Jaeger, J.-C.; Gottwald, A.

    2013-10-01

    For next generation spaceborne solar ultraviolet radiometers, innovative metal-semiconductor-metal detectors based on wurtzite aluminum nitride are being developed and characterized. A set of measurement campaigns and proton irradiation damage tests was carried out to obtain their ultraviolet-to-visible characterization and degradation mechanisms. First results on large area prototypes up to 4.3 mm diameter are presented here. In the wavelength range of interest, this detector is reasonably sensitive and stable under brief irradiation with a negligible low dark current (3-6 pA/cm2). No significant degradation of the detector performance was observed after exposure to protons of 14.4 MeV energy, showing a good radiation tolerance up to fluences of 1 × 1011 protons/cm2.

  14. Spent fuel pin temperature PC code

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, L.E.

    1985-03-01

    During an annual outage, a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) may discharge 60 or more spent fuel bundles into its storage pool. Most early PWRs were built to store 3 to 5 years of spent fuel in their pools and are beginning to exceed their capacities. One method currently being developed and licensed for expanding spent fuel storage capabilities is the dry storage of spent fuel in large casks. To reduce the probability of gross failures of fuel cladding during dry storage in casks, the fuel pin temperatures must be shown to remain within acceptable limits. LLNL has developed, for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a personal computer (PC) code for calculating fuel pin temperatures on the IBM PC. The code uses the Wooton-Epstein Correlation to calculate the pin temperatures and has been benchmarked against test data. An iterative type of solution is used to calculate the fuel pin temperatures for specified heat fluxes and pin configurations. The PC code is useful in performing confirmatory analyses and comparing the results with those submitted by applicants applying for storage licenses. 5 references, 2 tables.

  15. Further Charpy impact test results of low activation ferritic alloys, irradiated at 430{degrees}C to 67 dpa

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1997-04-01

    Miniature CVN specimens of four ferritic alloys, GA3X, F82H, GA4X and HT9, have been impact tested following irradiation at 430{degrees}C to 67 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of the previously tested lower dose irradiation condition indicates that the GA3X and F82H alloys, two primary candidate low activation alloys, exhibit virtually identical behavior following irradiation at 430{degrees}C to {approximately}67 dpa and at 370{degrees}C to {approximately}15 dpa. Very little shift is observed in either DBTT or USE relative to the unirradiated condition. The shifts in DBTT and USE observed in both GA4X and HT9 were smaller after irradiation at 430{degrees}C to {approximately}67 dpa than after irradiation at 370{degrees}C to {approximately}15 dpa.

  16. Multiple Irradiation Capsule Experiment (MICE)-3B Irradiation Test of Space Fuel Specimens in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) - Close Out Documentation for Naval Reactors (NR) Information

    SciTech Connect

    M. Chen; CM Regan; D. Noe

    2006-01-09

    Few data exist for UO{sub 2} or UN within the notional design space for the Prometheus-1 reactor (low fission rate, high temperature, long duration). As such, basic testing is required to validate predictions (and in some cases determine) performance aspects of these fuels. Therefore, the MICE-3B test of UO{sub 2} pellets was designed to provide data on gas release, unrestrained swelling, and restrained swelling at the upper range of fission rates expected for a space reactor. These data would be compared with model predictions and used to determine adequacy of a space reactor design basis relative to fission gas release and swelling of UO{sub 2} fuel and to assess potential pellet-clad interactions. A primary goal of an irradiation test for UN fuel was to assess performance issues currently associated with this fuel type such as gas release, swelling and transient performance. Information learned from this effort may have enabled use of UN fuel for future applications.

  17. Four-point Bend Testing of Irradiated Monolithic U-10Mo Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B. H.; Lloyd, W. R.; Schulthess, J. L.; Wright, J. K.; Lind, R. P.; Scott, L.; Wachs, K. M.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents results of recently completed studies aimed at characterizing the mechanical properties of irradiated U-10Mo fuel in support of monolithic base fuel qualification. Mechanical properties were evaluated in four-point bending. Specimens were taken from fuel plates irradiated in the RERTR-12 and AFIP-6 Mk. II irradiation campaigns, and tests were conducted in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The monolithic fuel plates consist of a U-10Mo fuel meat covered with a Zr diffusion barrier layer fabricated by co-rolling, clad in 6061 Al using a hot isostatic press (HIP) bonding process. Specimens exhibited nominal (fresh) fuel meat thickness ranging from 0.25 mm to 0.64 mm, and fuel plate average burnup ranged from approximately 0.4 x 1021 fissions/cm3 to 6.0 x 1021 fissions/cm3. After sectioning the fuel plates, the 6061 Al cladding was removed by dissolution in concentrated NaOH. Pre- and post-dissolution dimensional inspections were conducted on test specimens to facilitate accurate analysis of bend test results. Four-point bend testing was conducted on the HFEF Remote Load Frame at a crosshead speed of 0.1 mm/min using custom-designed test fixtures and calibrated load cells. All specimens exhibited substantially linear elastic behavior and failed in a brittle manner. The influence of burnup on the observed slope of the stress-strain curve and the calculated fracture strength is discussed.

  18. Heat transfer in a fuel pin shipping container. [IDENT 1578

    SciTech Connect

    Ingham, J.G.

    1980-11-11

    Maximum cladding temperatures occur when the IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container is installed in the T-3 Cask. The maximum allowable cladding temperature of 800/sup 0/F is reached when the rate of energy deposited in the 19-pin basket reaches 400 watts. Since 45% of the energy which is generated in the fuel escapes the 19-pin basket without being deposited, mostly gamma energy, the maximum allowable rate of heat generation is 400/.55 = 727 watts. Similarly, the maximum allowable cladding temperature of 800/sup 0/F is reached when the rate of energy deposited in the 40-pin basket reaches 465 watts. Since 33% of the energy which is generated in the fuel escapes the 40-pin basket without being deposited, mostly gamma energy, the maximum allowable rate of heat generation is 465/.66 = 704 watts. The IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container therefore meets its thermal design criteria. IDENT 1578 can handle fuel pins with a decay heat load of 600 watts while maintaining the maximum fuel pin cladding temperature below 800/sup 0/F. The emissivities which were determined from the test results for the basket tubes and container are relatively low and correspond to new, shiny conditions. As the IDENT 1578 container is exposed to high temperatures for extended periods of time during the transportation of fuel pins, the emissivities will probably increase. This will result in reduced temperatures.

  19. Status of the NGNP graphite creep experiments AGC-1 and AGC-2 irradiated in the advanced test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2014-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six nuclear graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data, including irradiation creep, at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) very high temperature gas reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain six peripheral stacks of graphite specimens, with half of the graphite specimens in each stack under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six peripheral stacks will have three different compressive loads applied to the top half of three diametrically opposite pairs of specimen stacks, while a seventh stack will not have a compressive load. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any oxidation or off-gassing of the specimens occurs during irradiation of the experiment.

  20. Performance of AGR-1 High-Temperature Reactor Fuel During Post-Irradiation Heating Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Robert Noel; Baldwin, Charles A; Hunn, John D; Demkowicz, Paul; Reber, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The fission product retention of irradiated low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide TRISO fuel compacts from the AGR-1 experiment has been evaluated at temperatures of 1600 1800 C during post-irradiation safety tests. Fourteen compacts (a total of ~58,000 particles) with a burnup ranging from 13.4 to 19.1% FIMA have been tested using dedicated furnace systems at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The release of fission products 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs, 154Eu, 155Eu, 90Sr, and 85Kr was monitored while heating the fuel specimens in flowing helium. The behavior of silver, europium, and strontium appears to be dominated by inventory that was originally released through intact SiC coating layers during irradiation, but was retained in the compact at the end of irradiation and subsequently released during the safety tests. However, at a test temperature of 1800 C, the data suggest that release of these elements through intact coatings may become significant after ~100 h. Cesium was very well retained by intact SiC layers, with a fractional release <5 10-6 after 300 h at 1600 C or 100 h at 1800 C. However, it was rapidly released from individual particles if the SiC layer failed, and therefore the overall cesium release fraction was dominated by the SiC defect and failure fractions in the fuel compacts. No complete TRISO coating layer failures were observed after 300 h at 1600 or 1700 C, and 85Kr release was very low during the tests (particles with breached SiC, but intact outer pyrocarbon, retained most of their krypton). Krypton release from TRISO failures was only observed after ~210 h at 1800 C in one compact. Post-safety-test examination of fuel compacts and particles has focused on identifying specific particles from each compact with notable fission product release and detailed analysis of the coating layers to understand particle behavior.

  1. Performance of AGR-1 high-temperature reactor fuel during post-irradiation heating tests

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Robert N.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Hunn, John D.; Reber, Edward L.

    2016-05-18

    The fission product retention of irradiated low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide tri-structural isotropic (TRISO) fuel compacts from the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor 1 (AGR-1) experiment has been evaluated at temperatures of 1600–1800 °C during post-irradiation safety tests. Fourteen compacts (a total of ~58,000 particles) with a burnup ranging from 13.4% to 19.1% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) have been tested using dedicated furnace systems at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The release of fission products 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs, 154Eu, 155Eu, 90Sr, and 85Kr was monitored while heating the fuel specimens in flowing helium. The behavior of silver, europium, and strontium appears to be dominated by inventory that was originally released through intact SiC coating layers during irradiation, but was retained in the compact at the end of irradiation and subsequently released during the safety tests. However, at a test temperature of 1800 °C, the data suggest that release of these elements through intact coatings may become significant after ~100 h. Cesium was very well retained by intact SiC layers, with a fractional release <5 × 10–6 after 300 h at 1600 °C or 100 h at 1800 °C. However, it was rapidly released from individual particles if the SiC layer failed, and therefore the overall cesium release fraction was dominated by the SiC defect and failure fractions in the fuel compacts. No complete TRISO coating layer failures were observed after 300 h at 1600 or 1700 °C, and 85Kr release was very low during the tests (particles with failed SiC, but intact outer pyrocarbon, retained most of their krypton). Krypton release from TRISO failures was only observed after ~210 h at 1800 °C in one compact. As a result, post-safety-test examination of fuel compacts and particles has focused on identifying specific particles from each compact with notable fission product release and detailed analysis of the coating

  2. Performance of AGR-1 high-temperature reactor fuel during post-irradiation heating tests

    DOE PAGES

    Morris, Robert N.; Baldwin, Charles A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; ...

    2016-05-18

    The fission product retention of irradiated low-enriched uranium oxide/uranium carbide tri-structural isotropic (TRISO) fuel compacts from the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor 1 (AGR-1) experiment has been evaluated at temperatures of 1600–1800 °C during post-irradiation safety tests. Fourteen compacts (a total of ~58,000 particles) with a burnup ranging from 13.4% to 19.1% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA) have been tested using dedicated furnace systems at Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The release of fission products 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs, 154Eu, 155Eu, 90Sr, and 85Kr was monitored while heating the fuel specimens in flowing helium. The behavior of silver, europium,more » and strontium appears to be dominated by inventory that was originally released through intact SiC coating layers during irradiation, but was retained in the compact at the end of irradiation and subsequently released during the safety tests. However, at a test temperature of 1800 °C, the data suggest that release of these elements through intact coatings may become significant after ~100 h. Cesium was very well retained by intact SiC layers, with a fractional release <5 × 10–6 after 300 h at 1600 °C or 100 h at 1800 °C. However, it was rapidly released from individual particles if the SiC layer failed, and therefore the overall cesium release fraction was dominated by the SiC defect and failure fractions in the fuel compacts. No complete TRISO coating layer failures were observed after 300 h at 1600 or 1700 °C, and 85Kr release was very low during the tests (particles with failed SiC, but intact outer pyrocarbon, retained most of their krypton). Krypton release from TRISO failures was only observed after ~210 h at 1800 °C in one compact. As a result, post-safety-test examination of fuel compacts and particles has focused on identifying specific particles from each compact with notable fission product release and detailed analysis of the coating layers

  3. Mechanical behavior of AISI 304SS determined by miniature test methods after neutron irradiation to 28 dpa

    SciTech Connect

    Ellen M. Rabenberg; Brian J. Jaques; Bulent H. Sencer; Frank A. Garner; Paula D. Freyer; Taira Okita; Darryl P. Butt

    2014-05-01

    The mechanical properties of AISI 304 stainless steel irradiated for over a decade in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) were measured using miniature mechanical testing methods. The shear punch method was used to evaluate the shear strengths of the neutron-irradiated steel and a correlation factor was empirically determined to predict its tensile strength. The strength of the stainless steel slightly decreased with increasing irradiation temperature, and significantly increased with increasing dose until it saturated above approximately 5 dpa. Ferromagnetic measurements were used to observe and deduce the effects of the stress-induced austenite to martensite transformation as a result of shear punch testing.

  4. Comparison of irradiated 15Kh2MFA material mechanical properties using conventional testing methods and innovative approach of small punch testing (SPT) and automated ball indentation (ABIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopriva, R.; Petelova, P.; Eliasova, I.; Kytka, M.; Culek, M.

    2017-02-01

    Article describes two innovative testing methods – Small Punch Testing (SPT) and Automated Ball Indentation Test (ABIT) – which are based on the determination and evaluation of material properties from miniaturized testing specimens. These methods are very promising due to minimum material needed for testing and also in case of testing highly irradiated materials of components that are not included in standard surveillance programs. The test results were obtained for reactor pressure vessel (RPV) base material 15Ch2MFA in both states - initial unirradiated and irradiated. Subsequently results were compared with standard tensile tests to prove applicability of these testing methods for the evaluation of degradation of irradiated structural materials of nuclear power plants.

  5. Results of crack-arrest tests on irradiated a 508 class 3 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, S.K.; Milella, P.P.; Pini, M.A.

    1998-02-01

    Ten crack-arrest toughness values for irradiated specimens of A 508 class 3 forging steel have been obtained. The tests were performed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Method for Determining Plane-Strain Crack-Arrest Fracture Toughness, K{sub la} of Ferritic Steels, E 1221-88. None of these values are strictly valid in all five ASTM E 1221-88 validity criteria. However, they are useful when compared to unirradiated crack-arrest specimen toughness values since they show the small (averaging approximately 10{degrees}C) shifts in the mean and lower-bound crack-arrest toughness curves. This confirms that a low copper content in ASTM A 508 class 3 forging material can be expected to result in small shifts of the transition toughness curve. The shifts due to neutron irradiation of the lower bound and mean toughness curves are approximately the same as the Charpy V-notch (CVN) 41-J temperature shift. The nine crack-arrest specimens were irradiated at temperatures varying from 243 to 280{degrees}C, and to a fluence varying from 1.7 to 2.7 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). The test results were normalized to reference values that correspond to those of CVN specimens irradiated at 284{degrees}C to a fluence of 3.2 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) in the same capsule as the crack-arrest specimens. This adjustment resulted in a shift to lower temperatures of all the data, and in particular moved two data points that appeared to lie close to or lower than the American Society of Mechanical Engineers K{sub la} curve to positions that seemed more reasonable with respect to the remaining data. A special fixture was designed, fabricated, and successfully used in the testing. For reasons explained in the text, special blocks to receive the Oak Ridge National Laboratory clip gage were designed, and greater-than-standard crack-mouth opening displacements measured were accounted for. 24 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. AGR-1 Irradiated Test Train Preliminary Inspection and Disassembly First Look

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Demkowicz; Lance Cole; Scott Ploger; Philip Winston; Binh Pham; Michael Abbott

    2011-01-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation experiment ended on November 6, 2009, after 620 effective full power days in the Advanced Test Reactor, achieving a peak burnup of 19.6% FIMA. The test train was shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex in March 2010 for post-irradiation examination. The first PIE activities included non-destructive examination of the test train, followed by disassembly of the test train and individual capsules and detailed inspection of the capsule contents, including the fuel compacts and the graphite fuel holders. Dimensional measurements of the compacts, graphite holders, and steel capsules shells were performed using a custom vision measurement system (for outer diameters and lengths) and conventional bore gauges (for inner diameters). Gamma spectrometry of the intact test train gave a preliminary look at the condition of the interior components. No evidence of damage to compacts or graphite components was evident from the isotopic and gross gamma scans. Neutron radiography of the intact Capsule 2 showed a high degree of detail of interior components and confirmed the observation that there was no major damage to the capsule. Disassembly of the capsules was initiated using procedures qualified during out-of-cell mockup testing. Difficulties were encountered during capsule disassembly due to irradiation-induced changes in some of the capsule components’ properties, including embrittled niobium and molybdenum parts that were susceptible to fracture and swelling of the graphite fuel holders that affected their removal from the capsule shells. This required various improvised modifications to the disassembly procedure to avoid damage to the fuel compacts. Ultimately the capsule disassembly was successful and only one compact from Capsule 4 (out of 72 total in the test train) sustained damage during the disassembly process, along with the associated graphite holder. The compacts were generally in very good condition upon removal. Only relatively minor

  7. Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Graphite Creep Experiments for Irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. Blaine Grover

    2009-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Program will be irradiating six gas reactor graphite creep experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These graphite irradiations are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The graphite experiments will be irradiated over the next six to eight years to support development of a graphite irradiation performance data base on the new nuclear grade graphites now available for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to obtain irradiation performance data at different temperatures and loading conditions to support design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Very High Temperature Gas Reactor, as well as other future gas reactors. The experiments will each consist of a single capsule that will contain seven separate stacks of graphite specimens. Six of the specimen stacks will have half of their graphite specimens under a compressive load, while the other half of the specimens will not be subjected to a compressive load during irradiation. The six stacks will be organized into pairs with a different compressive load being applied to the top half of each pair of specimen stacks. The seventh stack will not have a compressive load on the graphite specimens during irradiation. The specimens will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with on-line temperature and compressive load monitoring and control. There will also be the capability of sampling the sweep gas effluent to determine if any

  8. The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein family of auxin transporters

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Summary The PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are secondary transporters acting in the efflux of the plant signal molecule auxin from cells. They are asymmetrically localized within cells and their polarity determines the directionality of intercellular auxin flow. PIN genes are found exclusively in the genomes of multicellular plants and play an important role in regulating asymmetric auxin distribution in multiple developmental processes, including embryogenesis, organogenesis, tissue differentiation and tropic responses. All PIN proteins have a similar structure with amino- and carboxy-terminal hydrophobic, membrane-spanning domains separated by a central hydrophilic domain. The structure of the hydrophobic domains is well conserved. The hydrophilic domain is more divergent and it determines eight groups within the protein family. The activity of PIN proteins is regulated at multiple levels, including transcription, protein stability, subcellular localization and transport activity. Different endogenous and environmental signals can modulate PIN activity and thus modulate auxin-distribution-dependent development. A large group of PIN proteins, including the most ancient members known from mosses, localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and they regulate the subcellular compartmentalization of auxin and thus auxin metabolism. Further work is needed to establish the physiological importance of this unexpected mode of auxin homeostasis regulation. Furthermore, the evolution of PIN-based transport, PIN protein structure and more detailed biochemical characterization of the transport function are important topics for further studies. PMID:20053306

  9. Spherical fuel elements for advanced HTR manufacture and qualification by irradiation testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehner, A.-W.; Heit, W.; Röllig, K.; Ragoss, H.; Müller, H.

    1990-04-01

    The reference fuel cycle for future pebble bed HTRs uses low enriched uranium fuel. The spherical fuel element for these HTRs is a 60 mm diameter sphere containing TRISO-coated particles with UO 2 kernels. Qualification of this fuel was performed by production and quality control experience, irradiation testing and accident simulation experiments. The results of the qualification programme fully support the new safety concepts of advanced HTR designs. Further work concentrates on consolidating performance data sets and on quantifying the endurance limits of reference fuel elements under normal and accident conditions.

  10. Fabrication and Comparison of Fuels for Advanced Gas Reactor Irradiation Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Phillips; Charles Barnes; John Hunn

    2010-10-01

    As part of the program to demonstrate TRISO-coated fuel for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a series of irradiation tests of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel are being performed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. In the first test, called “AGR-1,” graphite compacts containing approximately 300,000 coated particles were irradiated from December 2006 until November 2009. Development of AGR-1 fuel sought to replicate the properties of German TRISO-coated particles. No particle failures were seen in the nearly 3-year irradiation to a burn up of 19%. The AGR-1 particles were coated in a two-inch diameter coater. Following fabrication of AGR-1 fuel, process improvements and changes were made in each of the fabrication processes. Changes in the kernel fabrication process included replacing the carbon black powder feed with a surface-modified carbon slurry and shortening the sintering schedule. AGR-2 TRISO particles were produced in a six-inch diameter coater using a change size about twenty-one times that of the two-inch diameter coater used to coat AGR-1 particles. Changes were also made in the compacting process, including increasing the temperature and pressure of pressing and using a different type of press. Irradiation of AGR-2 fuel began in late spring 2010. Properties of AGR-2 fuel compare favorably with AGR-1 and historic German fuel. Kernels are more homogeneous in shape, chemistry and density. TRISO-particle sphericity, layer thickness standard deviations, and defect fractions are also comparable. In a sample of 317,000 particles from deconsolidated AGR-2 compacts, 3 exposed kernels were found in a leach test. No SiC defects were found in a sample of 250,000 deconsolidated particles, and no IPyC defects in a sample of 64,000 particles. The primary difference in properties between AGR-1 and AGR-2 compacts is that AGR-2 compacts have a higher matrix density, 1.6 g/cm3 compared to about 1.3 g/cm3 for AGR-1 compacts. Based on

  11. New electron beam facility for irradiated plasma facing materials testing in hot cell

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, N.; Kawamura, H.; Akiba, M.

    1995-09-01

    Since plasma facing components such as the first wall and the divertor for the next step fusion reactors are exposed to high heat loads and high energy neutron flux generated by the plasma, it is urgent to develop of plasma facing components which can resist these. Then, we have established electron beam heat facility ({open_quotes}OHBIS{close_quotes}, Oarai Hot-cell electron Beam Irradiating System) at a hot cell in JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) hot laboratory in order to estimate thermal shock resistivity of plasma facing materials and heat removal capabilities of divertor elements under steady state heating. In this facility, irradiated plasma facing materials (beryllium, carbon based materials and so on) and divertor elements can be treated. This facility consists of an electron beam unit with the maximum beam power of 50kW and the vacuum vessel. The acceleration voltage and the maximum beam current are 30kV (constant) and 1.7A, respectively. The loading time of electron beam is more than 0.1ms. The shape of vacuum vessel is cylindrical, and the mainly dimensions are 500mm in inner diameter, 1000mm in height. The ultimate vacuum of this vessel is 1 x 10{sup -4}Pa. At present, the facility for thermal shock test has been established in a hot cell. And performance estimation on the electron beam is being conducted. Presently, the devices for heat loading tests under steady state will be added to this facility.

  12. Pip pin reliability and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skyles, Lane P.

    1994-01-01

    Pip pins are used in many engineering applications. Of particular interest to the aerospace industry is their use in various mechanism designs. Many payloads that fly aboard our nation's Space Shuttle have at least one actuated mechanism. Often these mechanisms incorporate pip pins in their design in order to fasten interfacing parts or joints. Pip pins are most often used when an astronaut will have a direct interface with the mechanism. This interfacing can be done during Space Shuttle mission EVA's (ExtraVehicular Activity). The main reason for incorporating pip pins is convenience and their ability to provide a quick release for interfacing parts. However, there are some issues that must be taken into account when using them in a design. These issues include documented failures and quality control problems when using substandard pip pins. A history of pip pins as they relate to the aerospace industry as well as general design features is discussed.

  13. PIN it on auxin

    PubMed Central

    Kharshiing, Eros V; Kumar, G Pavan

    2010-01-01

    The growth and development of plants is regulated by several external and internal factors including auxin. Its distribution regulates several developmental processes in plants. Auxin molecules function as mobile signals and are involved in the spatial and temporal coordination of plant morphogenesis and in plant responses to their environment. The intercellular transport of auxin is facilitated by transport proteins and the disruption of polar auxin flow results in various developmental abnormalities. In this review, we discuss the developmental and physiological significance of over-accumulation of PIN1 auxin transport facilitator protein in tomato as seen in the enhanced polar auxin transport pct1-2 mutant. PMID:20980815

  14. Development of a Safeguards Verification Method and Instrument to Detect Pin Diversion from Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Spent Fuel Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Y S; Maldonado, G I; Burdo, J; He, T

    2006-10-10

    A technical safeguards challenge has remained for decades for the IAEA to identify possible diversion of nuclear fuel pins from Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel assemblies. In fact, as modern nuclear power plants are pushed to higher power levels and longer fuel cycles, fuel failures (i.e., ''leakers'') as well as the corresponding fuel assembly repairs (i.e., ''reconstitutions'') are commonplace occurrences within the industry. Fuel vendors have performed hundreds of reconstitutions in the past two decades, thus, an evolved know-how and sophisticated tools exist to disassemble irradiated fuel assemblies and replace damaged pins with dummy stainless steel or other type rods. Various attempts have been made in the past two decades to develop a technology to identify a possible diversion of pin(s) and to determine whether some pins are missing or replaced with dummy or fresh fuel pins. However, to date, there are no safeguards instruments that can detect a possible pin diversion scenario to the requirements of the IAEA. The FORK detector system [1-2] can characterize spent fuel assemblies using operator declared data, but it is not sensitive enough to detect missing pins from spent fuel assemblies. Likewise, an emission computed tomography system [3] has been used to try to detect missing pins from a spent fuel assembly, which has shown some potential for identifying possible missing pins but this capability has not yet been fully demonstrated. The use of such a device in the future would not be envisaged, especially in an inexpensive, easy to handle setting for field applications. In this article, we describe a concept and ongoing research to help develop a new safeguards instrument for the detection of pin diversions in a PWR spent fuel assembly. The proposed instrument is based on one or more very thin radiation detectors that could be inserted within the guide tubes of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assembly. Ultimately, this work could lead to the

  15. Irradiation testing of full-sized, reduced-enrichment fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.; Copeland, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of the irradiation testing of full-sized, reduced-enrichment fuel elements and fuel rods under the US Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor Program is reported. Being tested are UAl/sub x/-Al, U/sub 3/O/sub 8/-Al, U/sub 3/Si/sub 2/-Al, and U/sub 3/Si-Al dispersion fuels and UZrH/sub x/ (TRIGA) fuel at uranium densities in the fuel meat ranging from 1.7 to 6.0 Mg/m/sup 3/. Generally good performance has been experienced to date. Some preliminary results of postirradiation examinations are also included. A whole-core demonstration in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor is planned. Some details of this demonstration are provided.

  16. AGR-2 Irradiated Test Train Preliminary Inspection and Disassembly First Look

    SciTech Connect

    Ploger, Scott; Demkowciz, Paul; Harp, Jason

    2015-05-01

    The AGR 2 irradiation experiment began in June 2010 and was completed in October 2013. The test train was shipped to the Materials and Fuels Complex in July 2014 for post-irradiation examination (PIE). The first PIE activities included nondestructive examination of the test train, followed by disassembly of the test train and individual capsules and detailed inspection of the capsule contents, including the fuel compacts and their graphite fuel holders. Dimensional metrology was then performed on the compacts, graphite holders, and steel capsule shells. AGR 2 disassembly and metrology were performed with the same equipment used successfully on AGR 1 test train components. Gamma spectrometry of the intact test train gave a preliminary look at the condition of the interior components. No evidence of damage to compacts or graphite components was evident from the isotopic and gross gamma scans. Disassembly of the AGR 2 test train and its capsules was conducted rapidly and efficiently by employing techniques refined during the AGR 1 disassembly campaign. Only one major difficulty was encountered while separating the test train into capsules when thermocouples (of larger diameter than used in AGR 1) and gas lines jammed inside the through tubes of the upper capsules, which required new tooling for extraction. Disassembly of individual capsules was straightforward with only a few minor complications. On the whole, AGR 2 capsule structural components appeared less embrittled than their AGR 1 counterparts. Compacts from AGR 2 Capsules 2, 3, 5, and 6 were in very good condition upon removal. Only relatively minor damage or markings were visible using high resolution photographic inspection. Compact dimensional measurements indicated radial shrinkage between 0.8 to 1.7%, with the greatest shrinkage observed on Capsule 2 compacts that were irradiated at higher temperature. Length shrinkage ranged from 0.1 to 0.9%, with by far the lowest axial shrinkage on Capsule 3 compacts

  17. Autologous Transplantation of Adult Mice Spermatogonial Stem Cells into Gamma Irradiated Testes

    PubMed Central

    Koruji, Morteza; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Gourabi, Hamid; Pour-Beiranvand, Shahram; Jabbari Arfaee, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated structural and functional changes of fresh and frozen-thawed adult mouse spermatogonial stem cells following auto-transplantation into gamma-irradiated testes. Materials and Methods: In this experimental research, the right testes from adult mice (n=25) were collected, then Sertoli and spermatogonial cells were isolated using two-step enzymatic digestion, lectin immobilization and differential plating. Three weeks after cultivation, the Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled spermatogonial cells were transplanted, via rete testis, into the other testis of the same mouse, which had been irradiated with 14Gy. The mice were transplanted with: fresh cells (control 1), fresh cells co-cultured with Sertoli cells (control 2), the frozen-thawed cells (experimental 1) and frozen-thawed cells co-cultured with Sertoli cells (experimental 2). The morphological changes between different transplanted testes groups were compared in 8 weeks after transplantation. The statistical significance between mean values was determined by Kruskal Wallis and one-way analysis of variance in efficiency of transplantation. Results: The statistical analysis revealed significant increases in the mean percentage of testis weight and normal seminiferous tubules following spermatogonial stem cells transplantation in the recipient'fs testes. The normal seminiferous tubules percentage in the co-culture system with fresh cells and frozen-thawed groups were more than those in non-transplanted and fresh cell transplanted groups (p≤0.001). Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that spermatogonial stem cells in the colonies could result sperm production in the recipient’s testes after autologous transplantation. PMID:23507977

  18. Irradiation and compatibility testing of Li/sub 2/O materials at EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D.L.; Krsul, J.R.; Laug, M.T.; Tetenbaum, M.; Walters, L.C.

    1982-12-01

    A study was made of the neutron-irradiation behavior of /sup 6/Li-enriched Li/sub 2/O material in EBR-II. In addition, a stress corrosion study was performed ex-reactor to test compatibility of Li/sub 2/O materials with a variety of stainless steels. Results of the irradiation testing showed that tritium and helium retention in the Li/sub 2/O (approx. 89% dense) lessened with neutron exposure. Helium tritium retention appeared to approach steady-state after approx. 1% /sup 6/Li burnup. The effect was likely caused by the formation of open porosity in the pellets. The stress corrosion studies, using a 316 stainless steel (Ti-modified) and a 35% Ni alloy, showed that stress does not enhance the corrosion, and that dry Li/sub 2/O is not significantly corrosive, the LiOH content producing the corrosive effects. Corrosion, in general, was not severe as a passivation in sealed capsules seemed to occur after a time greatly reducing corrosion rates.

  19. 3D-FBK Pixel Sensors: Recent Beam Tests Results with Irradiated Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Micelli, A.; Helle, K.; Sandaker, H.; Stugu, B.; Barbero, M.; Hugging, F.; Karagounis, M.; Kostyukhin, V.; Kruger, H.; Tsung, J.W.; Wermes, N.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Susinno, G.; Gallrapp, C.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D.; La Rosa, A.; Pernegger, H.; Roe, S.; /CERN /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Freiburg U. /Freiburg U. /Freiburg U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Glasgow U. /Glasgow U. /Glasgow U. /Hawaii U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /LBL, Berkeley /Barcelona, IFAE /LBL, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /New Mexico U. /New Mexico U. /Oslo U. /Oslo U. /Oslo U. /Oslo U. /Oslo U. /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SUNY, Stony Brook /SUNY, Stony Brook /SUNY, Stony Brook /INFN, Trento /Trento U. /INFN, Trento /Trento U. /INFN, Trento /Trento U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Trento /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Trento /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Trento /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Trento /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Trento /SINTEF, Oslo /SINTEF, Oslo /SINTEF, Oslo /SINTEF, Oslo /VTT Electronics, Espoo /VTT Electronics, Espoo

    2012-04-30

    The Pixel Detector is the innermost part of the ATLAS experiment tracking device at the Large Hadron Collider, and plays a key role in the reconstruction of the primary vertices from the collisions and secondary vertices produced by short-lived particles. To cope with the high level of radiation produced during the collider operation, it is planned to add to the present three layers of silicon pixel sensors which constitute the Pixel Detector, an additional layer (Insertable B-Layer, or IBL) of sensors. 3D silicon sensors are one of the technologies which are under study for the IBL. 3D silicon technology is an innovative combination of very-large-scale integration and Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems where electrodes are fabricated inside the silicon bulk instead of being implanted on the wafer surfaces. 3D sensors, with electrodes fully or partially penetrating the silicon substrate, are currently fabricated at different processing facilities in Europe and USA. This paper reports on the 2010 June beam test results for irradiated 3D devices produced at FBK (Trento, Italy). The performance of these devices, all bump-bonded with the ATLAS pixel FE-I3 read-out chip, is compared to that observed before irradiation in a previous beam test.

  20. Fabrication Control Plan for ORNL RH-LOCA ATF Test Specimens to be Irradiated in the ATR

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Howard, Richard; Teague, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this fabrication plan is (1) to summarize the design of a set of rodlets that will be fabricated and then irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and (2) provide requirements for fabrication and acceptance criteria for inspections of the Light Water Reactor (LWR) – Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) rodlet components. The functional and operational (F&OR) requirements for the ATF program are identified in the ATF Test Plan. The scope of this document only covers fabrication and inspections of rodlet components detailed in drawings 604496 and 604497. It does not cover the assembly of these items to form a completed test irradiation assembly or the inspection of the final assembly, which will be included in a separate INL final test assembly specification/inspection document. The controls support the requirements that the test irradiations must be performed safely and that subsequent examinations must provide valid results.

  1. Heat transfer coefficients for staggered arrays of short pin fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Short pin fins are often used to increase that heat transfer to the coolant in the trailing edge of a turbine blade. Due primarily to limits of casting technology, it is not possible to manufacture pins of optimum length for heat transfer purposes in the trailing edge region. In many cases the pins are so short that they actually decrease the total heat transfer surface area compared to a plain wall. A heat transfer data base for these short pins is not available in the literature. Heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for several staggered arrays of short pin fins. The measured Nusselt numbers when plotted versus Reynolds numbers were found to fall on a single curve for all surfaces tested. The heat transfer coefficients for the short pin fins (length to diameter ratios of 1/2 and 2) were found to be about a factor of two lower than data from the literature for longer pin arrays (length to diameter ratios of about 8).

  2. Stepped-Pin Clevis Resists Jamming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killgrove, T. O.

    1985-01-01

    Pin modification allows pyrotechnic release devices to operate more smoothly. New clevis pin has stepped diameters to prevent bending as it exits yoke. In contrast, conventional unstepped clevis pin bends and jams as it is withdrawn. Stepped pin design suitable for explosive and possible hammer driven pin sullers.

  3. Length to diameter ratio and row number effects in short pin fin heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brigham, B. A.; Vanfossen, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    The relative effects of pin length to diameter ratio and of pin row geometry on the heat transfer from pin fins, was determined. Array averaged heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for two configurations of staggered arrays of short pin fins (length to diameter ratio of 4). One configuration contained eight streamwise rows of pins, while the other contained only four rows. Results showed that both the 8-row and the 4-row configurations for an L sub p/D of 4, exhibit higher heat transfer than in similar tests on shorter pin fns (L sub p/D of 1/2 and 2). It was also found that for this L sub p/D ratio, the array averaged heat transfer was slightly higher with eight rows of staggered pins than with only four rows.

  4. Status of RBCB testing of LMR oxide fuel in EBR-II

    SciTech Connect

    Strain, R.V.; Bottcher, J.H.; Gross, K.C.; Lambert, J.D.B. ); Ukai, S.; Nomura, S.; Shikakura, S.; Katsuragawa, M. . Oarai Engineering Center)

    1991-01-01

    The status is given of the the American-Japanese collaborative program in Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 to determine the run-beyond-cladding-breach performance of (UPu)O{sub 2} fuel pins for liquid-metal cooled reactors. Phase 1 of the collaboration involved eighteen irradiation tests over 1981--86 with 5.84-mm pins in 316 or D9 stainless steel. Emphasis in Phase 2 tests from 1989 onwards is with larger diameter (7.5mm) pins in advanced claddings. Results include delayed neutron and fission gas release data from breached pins, the impact of fuel-sodium reaction product formation on pin performance, and fuel and fission product contamination from failures. 13 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Effects of sterilizing gamma irradiation on bloodspot newborn screening tests and whole blood cyclosporine and tacrolimus measurements.

    PubMed

    Stickle, Douglas F; McKenzie, David A; Landmark, James D; Pirruccello, Samuel J; Post, Gregory R; Iwen, Peter C; Thompson, Robert B; Hinrichs, Steven H

    2003-02-01

    Sterilizing irradiation of the US mail has been proposed as a method to prevent delivery of viable anthrax spores. Because newborn screening samples (bloodspots) and cyclosporine and tacrolimus specimens (whole blood) are delivered routinely through the mail, we studied whether sterilizing gamma irradiation could affect these test results. Specimens were exposed to 18 kGy gamma irradiation (100 hours x 18,000 rad/h), a "kill dose" for Bacillus pumilus spore strips. Irradiation had no significant effect on whole blood cyclosporine or tacrolimus results, but it had a degradative effect on bloodspot phenylalanine, hemoglobins, biotinidase, galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase, thyroxine, and thyrotropin. Such irradiation potentially could cause false-negative results for the detection of phenylketonuria and likely would lead to an increase in secondary testing for hemoglobin variants, but it is unlikely to lead to false-negative or false-positive results for the remaining newborn screening tests. These experiments cannot rule out possible greater effects by larger doses or other types of irradiation.

  6. Fabrication and testing of uranium nitride fuel for space power reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, R. B.; Chidester, K. M.; Hoth, C. W.; Mason, R. E.; Petty, R. L.

    1988-02-01

    Uranium nitride fuel was selected for previous space power reactors because of its attractive thermal and physical properties; however, all UN fabrication and testing activities were terminated over ten years ago. An accelerated irradiation test, SP-1, was designed to demonstrate the irradiation performance of Nb-1 Zr clad UN fuel pins for the SP-100 program. A carbothermic-reduction/nitriding process was developed to synthesize UN powders. These powders were fabricated into fuel pellets by conventional cold-pressing and sintering. The pellets were loaded into Nb-1 Zr cladding tubes, irradiated in a fast-test reactor, and destructively examined after 0.8 at% burnup. Preliminary postirradiation examination (PIE) results show that the fuel pins behaved as designed. Fuel swelling, fission-gas release, and microstructural data are presented, and suggestions to enhance the reliability of UN fuel pins are discussed.

  7. The Bowling Pin Pal Reunion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Michele Heide

    2007-01-01

    Seeing different retrospectives, which show the progression of works by an artist during their lifetime, inspired the author to organize a retrospective showcasing a progression of student works. In November of 2005, the author and her visual art colleagues celebrated the first Bowling Pin Pal Reunion. For 30 years, the bowling pin pals have been…

  8. Plastic Clamp Retains Clevis Pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cortes, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    Plastic clamp requires no special installation or removal tools. Clamp slips easily over end of pin. Once engaged in groove, holds pin securely. Installed and removed easily without special tools - screwdriver or putty knife adequate for prying out of groove. Used to retain bearings, rollers pulleys, other parts that rotate. Applications include slowly and intermittently rotating parts in appliances.

  9. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Adamson, M.G.

    1983-12-16

    An improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, is described which consist of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel an/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients.

  10. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Adamson, M.G.

    1986-01-28

    Disclosed is an improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients. 2 figs.

  11. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan; Adamson, Martyn G.

    1986-01-01

    An improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients.

  12. Crack-arrest tests on two irradiated high-copper welds. Phase 2: Results of duplex-type experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, S.K.; Corwin, W.R.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of the Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program Sixth Irradiation Series is to determine the effect of neutron irradiation on the shift and shape of the lower-bound curve to crack-arrest toughness data. Two submerged-arc welds with copper contents of 0.23 and 0.31 wt % were commercially fabricated in 220-mm-thick plate. Crack-arrest specimens fabricated from these welds were irradiated at a nominal temperature of 288{degrees}C to an average fluence of 1.9 {times} 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV). This is the second report giving the results of the tests on irradiated duplex-type crack-arrest specimens. A previous report gave results of tests on irradiated weld-embrittled-type specimens. Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimens irradiated in the same capsules as the crack-arrest specimens were also tested, and a 41-J transition temperature shift was determined from these specimens. {open_quotes}Mean{close_quote} curves of the same form as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) K{sub la} curve were fit to the data with only the {open_quotes}reference temperature{close_quotes} as a parameter. The shift between the mean curves agrees well with the 41-J transition temperature shift obtained from the CVN specimen tests. Moreover, the four data points resulting from tests on the duplex crack-arrest specimens of the present study did not make a significant change to mean curve fits to either the previously obtained data or all the data combined.

  13. Steady-state irradiation testing of U-Pu-Zr fuel to >18% burnup

    SciTech Connect

    Pahl, R.G.; Wisner, R.S. ); Billone, M.C.; Hofman, G.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Tests of austenitic stainless steel clad U-xP-10Zr fuel (x=o, 8, 19 wt. %) to peak burnups as high as 18.4 at. % have been completed in the EBR-II. Fuel swelling and fractional fission gas release are slowly increasing functions of burnup beyond 2 at. % burnup. Increasing plutonium content in the fuel reduces swelling and decreases the amount of fission gas which diffuses from fuel to plenum. LIFE-METAL code modelling of cladding strains is consistent with creep by fission gas loading and irradiation-induced swelling mechanisms. Fuel/cladding chemical interaction involves the ingress of rare-earth fission products. Constituent redistribution in the fuel had not limited steady-state performance. Cladding breach behavior at closure welds, in the gas plenum, and in the fuel column region have been benign events. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Comparative effects of X irradiation on the testes of adult Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Delic, J I; Schlappack, O K; Harwood, J R; Stanley, J A

    1987-10-01

    The response of the testes of two strains of adult rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar) to graded single doses and split doses of 230 kVp X rays has been investigated. A marked difference was noted between the strains in the response of the clonogenic spermatogonia to irradiation, as measured histologically by the repopulation index. Single-dose response curves derived for these cells in the Sprague-Dawley strain had a much larger shoulder (up to about 4-5 Gy) than for the Wistar (less than 2 Gy). Split-dose studies revealed that this difference may partly be explained by a greater repair capacity in the cells of the Sprague-Dawley strain. Changes in serum FSH concentrations mirrored the changes in clonogenic spermatogonial survival following split doses of radiation.

  15. Role of Pin1 in UVA-induced cell proliferation and malignant transformation in epidermal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Chang Yeob; Hien, Tran Thi; Lim, Sung Chul; Kang, Keon Wook

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Pin1 expression is enhanced by low energy UVA irradiation in both skin tissues of hairless mice and JB6 C141 epidermal cells. {yields} UVA irradiation increases activator protein-1 activity and cyclin D1 in a Pin1-dependent manner. {yields} UVA potentiates EGF-inducible, anchorage-independent growth of epidermal cells, and this is suppressed by Pin1 inhibition or by anti-oxidant. -- Abstract: Ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation ({lambda} = 320-400 nm) is considered a major cause of human skin cancer. Pin1, a peptidyl prolyl isomerase, is overexpressed in most types of cancer tissues and plays an important role in cell proliferation and transformation. Here, we demonstrated that Pin1 expression was enhanced by low energy UVA (300-900 mJ/cm{sup 2}) irradiation in both skin tissues of hairless mice and JB6 C141 epidermal cells. Exposure of epidermal cells to UVA radiation increased cell proliferation and cyclin D1 expression, and these changes were blocked by Pin1 inhibition. UVA irradiation also increased activator protein-1 (AP-1) minimal reporter activity and nuclear levels of c-Jun, but not c-Fos, in a Pin1-dependent manner. The increases in Pin1 expression and in AP-1 reporter activity in response to UVA were abolished by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment. Finally, we found that pre-exposure of JB6 C141 cells to UVA potentiated EGF-inducible, anchorage-independent growth, and this effect was significantly suppressed by Pin1inhibition or by NAC.

  16. AGR-3/4 Irradiation Test Train Disassembly and Component Metrology First Look Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stempien, John Dennis; Rice, Francine Joyce; Harp, Jason Michael; Winston, Philip Lon

    2016-03-01

    The AGR-3/4 experiment was designed to study fission product transport within graphitic matrix material and nuclear-grade graphite. To this end, this experiment consisted of 12 capsules, each fueled with 4 compacts containing UCO TRISO particles as driver fuel and 20 UCO designed-to-fail (DTF) fuel particles in each compact. The DTF fuel was fabricated with a thin pyrocarbon layer which was intended to fail during irradiation and provide a source of fission products. These fission products could then migrate through the compact and into the surrounding concentric rings of graphitic matrix material and/or nuclear graphite. Through post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the rings (including physical sampling and gamma scanning) fission product concentration profiles within the rings can be determined. These data can be used to elucidate fission product transport parameters (e.g. diffusion coefficients within the test materials) which will be used to inform and refine models of fission product transport. After irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) had been completed in April 2014, the AGR-3/4 experiment was shipped to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) for inspection, disassembly, and metrology. The AGR-3/4 test train was received at MFC in two separate shipments between February and April 2015. Visual examinations of the test train exterior did not indicate dimensional distortion, and only two small discolored areas were observed at the bottom of Capsules 8 and 9. No corresponding discoloration was found on the inside of these capsules, however. Prior to disassembly, the two test train sections were subject to analysis via the Precision Gamma Scanner (PGS), which did not indicate that any gross fuel relocation had occurred. A series of specialized tools (including clamps, cutters, and drills) had been designed and fabricated in order to carry out test train disassembly and recovery of capsule components (graphite

  17. MOX Average Power Test 30 GWd/MT PIE: Quick Look

    SciTech Connect

    MORRIS, RN

    2001-02-14

    This report summarizes the early results of the post irradiation examination of the 30 GWd/MT MOX Average Power Test Capsules (numbers 3 and 10). The purpose of this preliminary examination is to document and monitor the progress of the MOX Average Power Test Irradiation. The capsules and their fuel pins were found to be in excellent condition. Measurement of the fission gas release fraction (about 1.50 to 2.26%), preliminary fuel stack gamma scan measurements, and preliminary fuel pin diameter measurements indicate that the fuel is behaving as expected.

  18. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  19. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Brown, William F.; Steffen, Jim M.

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  20. High intensity solar irradiation testing of UV optics. [OSO-8 instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greyerbiehl, J. M.; Oberright, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The Orbiting Solar Observatory-I (OSO-8 in orbit) incorporates two high resolution solar pointing spectrometers operating from 1000 A to 4000 A. Energy from the sun enters a Cassegrainian telescope and is focused on a slit while the solar disk is scanned to one arc-second resolution. The stability of the secondary mirrors reflectance was of concern since they would be exposed to intense focused solar energy up to 27 suns. A test program was initiated to simulate this energy input on sample UV mirrors of the MgF2 and LiF types and to evaluate their performance after irradiation. Tests were conducted to simulate the solar spectrum at high intensities (25 suns) and at a single wavelength near Lyman-alpha, but with twenty times the solar intensity at Lyman-alpha. Post-test measurements after every exposure were made at wavelengths from 1025 A to 1849 A. After 75 simulated 'orbits', reflectance changes due to temperature effects were noted to be less than 10%. Reductions in reflectance under high intensity solar radiation were generally greater than 10%. Polymerization of surface contaminations on the LiF mirrors reduced reflectances at short wavelengths by 40%.

  1. Independent safety evaluation of the enriched uranium oxide test UO-1

    SciTech Connect

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1989-11-01

    The UO-1 test is designed to provide information on the performance of D9 clad, enriched uranium oxide fuel in FFTF. The Series IV FFTF driver fuel will utilize enriched uranium oxide fuel with D9 cladding. Irradiation data are needed for computer code calibration to support the FSAR analysis effort for the series IV fuel. The UO-1 assembly consists of a 217-pin bundle with the same pin and duct dimensions as a standard driver fuel assembly. The test consists of seven UO{sub 2} pins, 30 mixed oxide test pins, and 180 driver type pins. The test will be irradiated for approximately 250 EFPD. An Independent Safety Evaluation (ISE) of the test has been conducted. Information has been taken from the Test Design Documents, but independent calculations have been made of the safety-related parameters. The scope includes all items specified in the Users` Guide for Irradiation of Experiments in the FTR. Areas investigated include Technical Specification Compliance, Steady State Operation, Transient Operation, Failure Consequences, Stress and Seismic, HCDA, and Test Handling and Criticality Considerations.

  2. MOX capsule post-irradiation examination. Volume 2: Test plan for 30-GWd/MT burnup fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.N.

    1997-12-01

    This test plan is a Level-2 document as defined in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program Light-Water Reactor Mixed-Oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan. The planned post-irradiation examination (PIE) work to be performed on the mixed uranium and plutonium oxide fuel capsules that have received burnups of approximately 30 GWd/MT is described. The major emphasis of this PIE task will be material interactions, particularly indications of gallium transport and interactions. This PIE will include gamma scanning, ceramography, metallography, pellet radial gallium analysis, and clad gallium analysis. A preliminary PIE report will be generated before all the work is completed so that the progress of the fuel irradiation may be known in a timely manner.

  3. Test results of an ITER relevant FPGA when irradiated with neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, Antonio J. N.; Santos, Bruno; Fernandes, Ana; Goncalves, Bruno; Leong, Carlos; Teixeira, Joao P.; Ramos, Ana Rita; Santos, Joana P.; Marques, Jose G.

    2015-07-01

    The data acquisition and control instrumentation cubicles room of the ITER tokamak will be irradiated with neutrons during the fusion reactor operation. A Virtex-6 FPGA from Xilinx (XC6VLX365T-1FFG1156C) is used on the ATCA-IO-PROCESSOR board, included in the ITER Catalog of I and C products - Fast Controllers. The Virtex-6 is a re-programmable logic device where the configuration is stored in Static RAM (SRAM), functional data stored in dedicated Block RAM (BRAM) and functional state logic in Flip-Flops. Single Event Upsets (SEU) due to the ionizing radiation of neutrons causes soft errors, unintended changes (bit-flips) to the values stored in state elements of the FPGA. The SEU monitoring and soft errors repairing, when possible, were explored in this work. An FPGA built-in Soft Error Mitigation (SEM) controller detects and corrects soft errors in the FPGA configuration memory. Novel SEU sensors with Error Correction Code (ECC) detect and repair the BRAM memories. Proper management of SEU can increase reliability and availability of control instrumentation hardware for nuclear applications. The results of the tests performed using the SEM controller and the BRAM SEU sensors are presented for a Virtex-6 FPGA (XC6VLX240T-1FFG1156C) when irradiated with neutrons from the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI), a 1 MW nuclear fission reactor operated by IST in the neighborhood of Lisbon. Results show that the proposed SEU mitigation technique is able to repair the majority of the detected SEU errors in the configuration and BRAM memories. (authors)

  4. Fabrication of U-10 wt.%Zr Metallic Fuel Rodlets for Irradiation Test in BOR-60 Fast Reactor

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Oh, Seok-Jin; ...

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication technology for metallic fuel has been developed to produce the driver fuel in a PGSFR in Korea since 2007. In order to evaluate the irradiation integrity and validate the in-reactor of the starting metallic fuel with FMS cladding for the loading of the metallic fuel, U-10 wt.%Zr fuel rodlets were fabricated and evaluated for a verification of the starting driver fuel through an irradiation test in the BOR-60 fast reactor. The injection casting method was applied to U-10 wt.%Zr fuel slugs with a diameter of 5.5 mm. Consequently, fuel slugs per melting batch without casting defects were fabricated through the developmentmore » of advanced casting technology and evaluation tests. The optimal GTAW welding conditions were also established through a number of experiments. In addition, a qualification test was carried out to prove the weld quality of the end plug welding of the metallic fuel rodlets. The wire wrapping of metallic fuel rodlets was successfully accomplished for the irradiation test. Thus, PGSFR fuel rodlets have been soundly fabricated for the irradiation test in a BOR-60 fast reactor.« less

  5. High-heat-flux testing of irradiated tungsten-based materials for fusion applications using infrared plasma arc lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Ohriner, Evan K.; Kiggans, Jim; Schaich, Charles R.; Ueda, Yoshio; Harper, David C.; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance L.; Byun, Thak S.

    2014-11-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat-flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research, has proved to be quite challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat-flux–testing (HHFT) facility based on water-wall plasma arc lamps (PALs) is now introduced for materials and small-component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12 000°C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over areas of 9×12 and 1×10 cm2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design and implementation of a PAL-based irradiated material target station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interest, such as those for plasma-facing components. Temperature results are shown for thermal cycling under HHFT of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in HFIR. Finally, radiological surveys indicated minimal contamination of the 36×36×18 cm test section, demonstrating the capability of the new facility to handle irradiated specimens at high temperature.

  6. High-heat-flux testing of irradiated tungsten-based materials for fusion applications using infrared plasma arc lamps

    DOE PAGES

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Ohriner, Evan K.; Kiggans, Jim; ...

    2014-11-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat-flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research, has proved to be quite challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat-flux–testing (HHFT) facility based on water-wall plasma arc lamps (PALs) is now introduced for materials and small-component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12 000°C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over areas of 9×12 and 1×10 cm2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design andmore » implementation of a PAL-based irradiated material target station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interest, such as those for plasma-facing components. Temperature results are shown for thermal cycling under HHFT of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in HFIR. Finally, radiological surveys indicated minimal contamination of the 36×36×18 cm test section, demonstrating the capability of the new facility to handle irradiated specimens at high temperature.« less

  7. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

  8. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, D.J.

    1984-05-30

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pins passageway extending through the assembly.

  9. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.

    1987-02-03

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

  10. Status Report on Efforts to Enhance Instrumentation to Support Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rempe; D. Knudson; J. Daw; T. Unruh; B. Chase; R. Schley; J. Palmer; K. Condie

    2014-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support the growth of nuclear science and technology in the United States (US). By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR NSUF facilitates basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to design, develop, and deploy new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors was completed. Based on this initial review, recommendations were made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR, and a strategy was developed for obtaining these sensors. In 2009, a report was issued documenting this program’s strategy and initial progress toward accomplishing program objectives. Since 2009, annual reports have been issued to provide updates on the program strategy and the progress made on implementing the strategy. This report provides an update reflecting progress as of January 2014.

  11. Status Report on Efforts to Enhance Instrumentation to Support Advanced Test Reactor Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; J. E. Daw

    2011-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in April 2007 to support U.S. leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new research users - universities, laboratories, and industry - the ATR NSUF facilitates basic and applied nuclear research and development, further advancing the nation's energy security needs. A key component of the ATR NSUF effort is to prove new in-pile instrumentation techniques that are capable of providing real-time measurements of key parameters during irradiation. To address this need, an assessment of instrumentation available and under-development at other test reactors was completed. Based on this review, recommendations were made with respect to what instrumentation is needed at the ATR; and a strategy was developed for obtaining these sensors. In 2009, a report was issued documenting this program’s strategy and initial progress toward accomplishing program objectives. In 2009, a report was issued documenting this instrumentation development strategy and initial progress toward accomplishing instrumentation development program objectives. This document reports progress toward implementing this strategy in 2010.

  12. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation... § 230.97 Crank pins. (a) General provisions. Crank pins shall be securely applied. Securing the fit of a loose crank pin by shimming, prick punching, or welding is not permitted. (b) Maintenance. Crank...

  13. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation... § 230.97 Crank pins. (a) General provisions. Crank pins shall be securely applied. Securing the fit of a loose crank pin by shimming, prick punching, or welding is not permitted. (b) Maintenance. Crank...

  14. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation... § 230.97 Crank pins. (a) General provisions. Crank pins shall be securely applied. Securing the fit of a loose crank pin by shimming, prick punching, or welding is not permitted. (b) Maintenance. Crank...

  15. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation... § 230.97 Crank pins. (a) General provisions. Crank pins shall be securely applied. Securing the fit of a loose crank pin by shimming, prick punching, or welding is not permitted. (b) Maintenance. Crank...

  16. Small punch tests on martensitic/ferritic steels F82H, T91 and Optimax-A irradiated in SINQ Target-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, X.; Dai, Y.

    2003-12-01

    Small punch (SP) tests were conducted in a temperature range from -190 to 80 °C on martensitic/ferritic steels F82H, T91 and Optimax-A irradiated in SINQ Target-3 up to 9.4 dpa in a irradiation temperature range of 90-275 °C. Results demonstrate: (a) the irradiation hardening deduced from SP tests is reasonably consistent with the results obtained by tensile tests; (b) with increasing irradiation dose, the SP yield load increases at all test temperatures, while the displacement at the maximum load and the total displacement at failure decrease; (c) the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT SP) increases with increasing irradiation dose, and does so more quickly at irradiation doses above ˜6-7 dpa; in addition, the ΔDBTT SP increases linearly with helium content.

  17. A proton irradiation test facility for space research in Ankara, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gencer, Ayşenur; Yiǧitoǧlu, Merve; Bilge Demirköz, Melahat; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation often affects the electronic components' performance during the mission duration. In order to ensure reliable performance, the components must be tested to at least the expected dose that will be received in space, before the mission. Accelerator facilities are widely used for such irradiation tests around the world. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) has a 15MeV to 30MeV variable proton cyclotron in Ankara and the facility's main purpose is to produce radioisotopes in three different rooms for different target systems. There is also an R&D room which can be used for research purposes. This paper will detail the design and current state of the construction of a beamline to perform Single Event Effect (SEE) tests in Ankara for the first time. ESA ESCC No.25100 Standard Single Event Effect Test Method and Guidelines is being considered for these SEE tests. The proton beam kinetic energy must be between 20MeV and 200MeV according to the standard. While the proton energy is suitable for SEE tests, the beam size must be 15.40cm x 21.55cm and the flux must be between 10 ^{5} p/cm ^{2}/s to at least 10 ^{8} p/cm ^{2}/s according to the standard. The beam size at the entrance of the R&D room is mm-sized and the current is variable between 10μA and 1.2mA. Therefore, a defocusing beam line has been designed to enlarge the beam size and reduce the flux value. The beam line has quadrupole magnets to enlarge the beam size and the collimators and scattering foils are used for flux reduction. This facility will provide proton fluxes between 10 ^{7} p/cm ^{2}/s and 10 ^{10} p/cm ^{2}/s for the area defined in the standard when completed. Also for testing solar cells developed for space, the proton beam energy will be lowered below 10MeV. This project has been funded by Ministry of Development in Turkey and the beam line construction will finish in two years and SEE tests will be performed for the first time in Turkey.

  18. First elevated-temperature performance testing of coated particle fuel compacts from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Charles A. Baldwin; John D. Hunn; Robert N. Morris; Fred C. Montgomery; Chinthaka M. Silva; Paul A. Demkowicz

    2014-05-01

    In the AGR-1 irradiation experiment, 72 coated-particle fuel compacts were taken to a peak burnup of 19.5% fissions per initial metal atom with no in-pile failures. This paper discusses the first post-irradiation test of these mixed uranium oxide/uranium carbide fuel compacts at elevated temperature to examine the fuel performance under a simulated depressurized conduction cooldown event. A compact was heated for 400 h at 1600 degrees C. Release of 85Kr was monitored throughout the furnace test as an indicator of coating failure, while other fission product releases from the compact were periodically measured by capturing them on exchangeable, water-cooled deposition cups. No coating failure was detected during the furnace test, and this result was verified by subsequent electrolytic deconsolidation and acid leaching of the compact, which showed that all SiC layers were still intact. However, the deposition cups recovered significant quantities of silver, europium, and strontium. Based on comparison of calculated compact inventories at the end of irradiation versus analysis of these fission products released to the deposition cups and furnace internals, the minimum estimated fractional losses from the compact during the furnace test were 1.9 x 10-2 for silver, 1.4 x 10-3 for europium, and 1.1 x 10-5 for strontium. Other post-irradiation examination of AGR-1 compacts indicates that similar fractions of europium and silver may have already been released by the intact coated particles during irradiation, and it is therefore likely that the detected fission products released from the compact in this 1600 degrees C furnace test were from residual fission products in the matrix. Gamma analysis of coated particles deconsolidated from the compact after the heating test revealed that silver content within each particle varied considerably; a result that is probably not related to the furnace test, because it has also been observed in other as-irradiated AGR-1 compacts. X

  19. Post-refinement multiscale method for pin power reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.; Seker, V.; Downar, T.; Xu, Y.

    2012-07-01

    The ability to accurately predict local pin powers in nuclear reactors is necessary to understand the mechanisms that cause fuel pin failure during steady state and transient operation. In the research presented here, methods are developed to improve the local solution using high order methods with boundary conditions from a low order global solution. Several different core configurations were tested to determine the improvement in the local pin powers compared to the standard techniques based on diffusion theory and pin power reconstruction (PPR). The post-refinement multiscale methods use the global solution to determine boundary conditions for the local solution. The local solution is solved using either a fixed boundary source or an albedo boundary condition; this solution is 'post-refinement' and thus has no impact on the global solution. (authors)

  20. Enhanced pinning in superconducting thin films with graded pinning landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, M.; Colauto, F.; Ortiz, W. A.; Fritzsche, J.; Cuppens, J.; Gillijns, W.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Johansen, T. H.; Sanchez, A.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2013-05-01

    A graded distribution of antidots in superconducting a-Mo79Ge21 thin films has been investigated by magnetization and magneto-optical imaging measurements. The pinning landscape has maximum density at the sample border, decreasing linearly towards the center. Its overall performance is noticeably superior than that for a sample with uniformly distributed antidots: For high temperatures and low fields, the critical current is enhanced, whereas the region of thermomagnetic instabilities in the field-temperature diagram is significantly suppressed. These findings confirm the relevance of graded landscapes on the enhancement of pinning efficiency, as recently predicted by Misko and Nori [Phys. Rev. B 85, 184506 (2012)].

  1. On the (in)adequacy of the Charpy impact test to monitor irradiation effects of ferritic/martensitic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaouadi, R.

    2007-02-01

    Irradiation embrittlement studies rely very often on Charpy impact data, in particular the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). However, while the DBTT-shift is equivalent to the increase of the fracture toughness transition temperature of ferritic steels, it is not the case for ferritic/martensitic steels. The aim of this study is to critically assess experimental data obtained on a 9%Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel, Eurofer-97, to better understand the underlying mechanisms involved during the fracture process. More specifically, a dedicated analysis using the load diagram approach allows to unambiguously reveal the actual effects of irradiation on physically rather than empirically based parameters. A comparison is made between a ferritic and ferritic/martensitic steel to better identify the possible similarities and differences. Tensile, Charpy impact and fracture toughness tests data are examined in a global approach to assess the actual rather than apparent irradiation effects. The adequacy or inadequacy of the Charpy impact test to monitor irradiation effects is extensively discussed.

  2. Evaluation of the limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotter, Susan L.; Wood, Roger; McWeeny, David J.

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjuction with a Gram negative bacteria (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15°C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment and during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeasts and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds.

  3. Vortex Avalanches with Periodic Arrays of Pinning Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, J.; Heckel, T.; Kakalios, J.

    2001-03-01

    Numerical simulations by Nori and co-workers of dynamical phase transitions for magnetic vortices in type II superconductors when the defects which act as pinning sites are arranged in a periodic array have found a dramatic non-linear relationship between vortex voltage and driving current.2,4 In order to experimentally test the predictions of these simulations, a macroscopic physical analog of an array of flux vortices in the presense of an ordered lattice of pinning sites has been constructed. This simple table-top experimental system consists of conventional household magnets, arranged in an ordered grid (serving as the lattice of fixed pinning centers). A plexiglass sheet is positioned above these fixed magnets, and another collection of magnets (representing the magnetic flux vortices), oriented so that they are attracted to the fixed magnets are placed on top of the sheet. The entire apparatus is then tilted to a given angle (the analog of the driving voltage) and the velocity of the avalanching magnets is recorded using the induced voltage in a pick-up coil. By varying the ratio of movable magnets to fixed pinning magnets, the filling fraction can be adjusted, as can the pinning strength, by adjusting the separation of the plexiglass sheet between the fixed and movable magnets. The velocity of the avalanching magnets as the filling fraction is varied displays a jamming transition, with a non-trivial dependence on the pinning strength of the lattice of fixed magnets below the sheet.

  4. PinBus Interface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  5. Test irradiations of full-sized U 3Si 2-Al fuel plates up to very high fission densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böning, K.; Petry, W.

    2009-01-01

    In the course of the licensing procedure of the 'Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz', i.e. the new 20 MW high-flux research reactor FRM II in Garching near Munich, extensive test irradiations have been performed to qualify the U 3Si 2-Al dispersion fuel with a relatively high density of highly enriched uranium (93 wt% of 235U) up to very high fission densities. Two of the three FRM II type fuel plates used in the irradiation tests contained U 3Si 2-Al dispersion fuel with HEU densities of 3.0 gU/cm 3 or 1.5 gU/cm 3 ('homogeneous plates') and one plate had two adjacent zones of either density ('mixed plate'). They were irradiated in the French MTR reactors SILOE and OSIRIS in the years before 2002. The local plate thickness was measured on certain tracks along the plates during interruptions of the irradiation. The maximum fission density obtained in the U 3Si 2 fuel particles was 1.4 × 10 22 f/cm 3 and 1.1 × 10 22 f/cm 3 in the 1.5 gU/cm 3 and 3.0 gU/cm 3 fuel zones, respectively. In the course of the irradiations, the plate thickness increased monotonically and approximately linearly, leading to a maximum plate thickness swelling of 14% and 21% and a corresponding volume increase of the fuel particles of 106% and 81%, respectively. Our results are discussed and compared with the data from the literature.

  6. Dosimetric characteristics of a PIN diode for radiotherapy application.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Sharma, S D; Philomina, A; Topkar, A

    2014-08-01

    The PIN diode developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) was modified for its use as a dosimeter in radiation therapy. For this purpose the diode was mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) and provided with necessary connections so that its response against irradiation can be recorded by a standard radiotherapy electrometer. The dosimetric characteristics of the diode were studied in Co-60 gamma rays as well as high energy X-rays. The measured sensitivity of this PIN diode is 4 nC/cGy which is about ten times higher than some commercial diode dosimeters. The leakage current from the diode is 0.04 nA. The response of the PIN diode is linear in the range of 20-1000 cGy which covers the full range of radiation dose encountered in radiotherapy treatments. The non-linearity of the diode response is 3.5% at 20 cGy and it is less than 1.5% at higher dose values. Its repeatability is within 0.5%. The angular response variation is about 5.6% within 6608 with respect to normal beam incidence. The response of the PIN diode at 6 and 18 MV X-rays varies within 2% with respect to its response at Co-60 gamma rays. The source to surface distance (SSD) dependence of the PIN diode was studied for Co-60 beam. It was found that the response of the diode decreases almost linearly relative to given dose for beams with constant collimator setting but increasing SSD (decreasing dose-rate). Within this study the diode response varied by about 2.5% between the maximum and minimum SSD. The dose-rate dependence of the PIN diode for 6 and 15 MV-rays was studied. The variation in response of diode for both energies in the studied dose range is less than 1%. The field size dependence of the PIN diode response is within 1% with respect to the response of ionisation chamber. These studies indicate that the characteristics of the PIN diode are suitable for use in radiotherapy dosimetry.

  7. Cryogenically cooled detector pin mount

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Jr., William E; Chrisp, Michael P

    2014-06-03

    A focal plane assembly facilitates a molybdenum base plate being mounted to another plate made from aluminum. The molybdenum pin is an interference fit (press fit) in the aluminum base plate. An annular cut out area in the base plate forms two annular flexures.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on reactivity of rinderpest virus antigen with bovine immune serum in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and virus neutralization and indirect fluorescent-antibody tests.

    PubMed Central

    Saliki, J T; Berninger, M L; Torres, A; House, J A; Mebus, C A; Dubovi, E J

    1993-01-01

    Gamma irradiation effectively inactivated gradient-purified rinderpest virus. Irradiated antigen and sera remained functional in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, virus neutralization tests, and indirect fluorescent-antibody tests. Irradiation, however, led to a dose-dependent decrease in reactivity, particularly significant (P < 0.05) when both reagents were irradiated. To avoid false-positive reactions, only one reagent (serum or antigen) may be irradiated. PMID:8432831

  9. Biomechanical and Cost Comparisons of Near-Far and Pin-Bar Constructs.

    PubMed

    Whitney Kluk, Augusta; Zhang, Tina; Russell, Joseph P; Kim, Hyunchul; Hsieh, Adam H; O'Toole, Robert V

    2016-10-13

    Orthopedic dogma states that external fixator stiffness is improved by placing 1 pin close to the fracture and 1 as distant as possible ("near-far"). This fixator construct is thought to be less expensive than placing pins a shorter distance apart and using "pin-bar" clamps that attach pins to outriggers. The authors therefore hypothesized that the near-far construct is stiffer and less expensive. They compared mechanical stiffness and costs of near-far and pin-bar constructs commonly used for temporary external fixation of femoral shaft fractures. Their testing model simulated femoral shaft fractures in damage control situations. Fourth-generation synthetic femora (n=18) were used. The near-far construct had 2 pins that were 106 mm apart, placed 25 mm from the gap on each side of the fracture. The pin-bar construct pins were 55 mm apart, placed 40 mm from the gap. Mechanical testing was performed on a material test system machine. Stiffness was determined in the linear portion of the load-displacement curve for both constructs in 4 modes: axial compression, torsional loading, frontal plane 3-point bending, and sagittal plane 3-point bending. Costs were determined from a 2012 price guide. Compared with the near-far construct, the pin-bar construct had stiffness increased by 58% in axial compression (P<.05) and by 52% in torsional loading (P<.05). The pin-bar construct increased cost by 11%. In contrast to the authors' hypothesis and existing orthopedic dogma, the near-far construct was less stiff than the pin-bar construct and was similarly priced. Use of the pin-bar construct is mechanically and economically reasonable. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].

  10. PIREX II — A new irradiation facility for testing fusion first wall materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmy, P.; Daum, M.; Gavillet, D.; Green, S.; Green, W. V.; Hegedus, F.; Proennecke, S.; Rohrer, U.; Stiefel, U.; Victoria, M.

    1990-03-01

    A new irradiation facility, PIREX II (Proton Irradiation Experiment), became operational in March 1987. It is located on a dedicated beam line split from the main beam of the 590 MeV proton accelerator at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Irradiation with protons of this energy introduces simultaneously displacement damage, helium and other impurities. Because of the penetration range of 590 MeV protons, both damage and impurities are homogeneously distributed in the target material. The installation has its own beam line optics that can support a proton current of up to 50 μA. At a typical beam density of 4 {μA}/{mm 2}, the damage rate in steel is 0.7 × 10 -5{dpa}/{s} (dpa: displacements per atom), and the helium production rat He/dpa. Both flat tensile specimens of up to 0.4 mm thickness and tubular fatigue samples of 3 mm diameter can be irradiated. Cooling of the sample is performed by flowing pressurized helium gas over the sample. Irradiation temperatures can be controlled between 100 ° C and 800 ° C. Installation of an in situ low cycle fatigue device is foreseen. Beams of up to 20 μA have been obtained, the beam having an approximately Gaussian distribution of elliptical cross section with 4σ xbetween 0.8 and 8 nun by 4σ y of up to 10 mm. Irradiations for a dosimetry program have been completed on samples of Al, Cu, Fe, Ni, Au, W, and 1.4914 ferritic steel. The evaluation of results allows the correct choice of reactions to be used for determining total dose, from the standpoint of half life and gamma energy. A program of irradiations on candidate materials for the Next European Torus (NET) design (Cu and Cu alloys, 1.4914 ferritic martensitic steel, W and W-Re alloys and Mo and Mo alloys), where the above mentioned characteristics of this type of irradiation can be used advantageously, is now under way.

  11. Study on Dynamic Compression Properties of K9 Glass with Doppler Pins Array Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changming, Hu; Xiang, Wang; Lingcang, Cai; Cangli, Liu

    2009-06-01

    K9 glass is one of archetypal brittle materials for studies of dynamic fracture, failure wave, and so on. This paper presented the dynamic compression properties of K9 glass under uniaxial strain condition. Experimental sample is K9 glass with internal pre-existed defects, and the shape of pre-existed defects is disc with less than 0.5 mm diameter. All tests were conducted by power gun with 37 mm diameter chamber. Doppler Pins array with high space-time resolutions, which consists of sixteen pins in range of 2 mm line length, were applied to measure the particle velocity histories in different positions at the sample rear surface, and the space-resolution is 127 μm, Experimental results show failure waves initiate at internal micro-surfaces of the sample under shock loading, and the dynamic stress concentration is likely attributed to be a physical mechanism of the initiation of the failure wave. These defects that by the controlled laser irradiation in advance are some internal micro-surfaces. Meanwhile, the experimental results show that internal micro-surfaces of the sample have influence on the elastic precursor wave decay.

  12. Establishing the need for an engineering standard for agricultural hitch pins.

    PubMed

    Deboy, G R; Knapp, W M; Field, W E; Krutz, G W; Corum, C L

    2012-04-01

    Documented incidents have occurred in which failure or unintentional disengagement of agricultural hitch pins has contributed to property damage and personal injury. An examination of current hitch pin use on a convenience sample of farm operations in Indiana revealed a variety of non-standard, worn and damaged, and inappropriately sized hitch pins in use. Informal interviews with the farm operators confirmed that hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement is a relatively widespread problem that remains largely unaddressed. On-site observations also suggested a low use of hitch pin retaining devices or safety chains. A review of prior research revealed that little attention has been given to this problem, and currently no documentation allows for an estimate of the frequency or severity of losses associated with hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement. No specific engineering standards were found that directly applied to the design, appropriate selection, or loading capacity of agricultural hitch pins. Major suppliers of replacement hitch pins currently provide little or no information on matching hitch pin size to intended applications, and most replacement hitch pins examined were of foreign origin, with the overwhelming majority imported from China or India. These replacement hitch pins provided no specifications other than diameter, length, and, in some cases, labeling that indicated that the pins had been "heat treated. " Testing of a sample of 11 commercially available replacement hitch pins found variation along the length of the pin shaft and between individual pins in surface hardness, a potential predictor of pin failure. Examination of 17 commercially available replacement pins also revealed a variety of identifiers used to describe pin composition and fabrication methods, e.g., "heat treated." None of the pins examined provided any specifications on loading capacity. It was therefore concluded that there is a need to develop an agricultural hitch

  13. Kirschner wire pin site infection in hand and wrist fractures: incidence rate and risk factors.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, W F; van Hoorn, B T J A; Chen, N; Ring, D

    2016-11-01

    Kirschner wires are widely used for skeletal fixation of unstable fractures, but the pin tracks create a potential pathway through the skin and into the bone for bacteria to cause an infection. We tested the null hypothesis that there are no demographic, patient-related, injury, or treatment variables independently associated with the occurrence of pin site infection after percutaneous fixation of hand and wrist fractures using Kirschner wires. A retrospective review of 1213 patients with one or more fractures of the hand and wrist treated with percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation identified 85 patients (7%) who had additional treatment with oral antibiotics, early pin removal, or reoperation related to a pin site infection. We found no factors were independently associated with higher or lower risks of pin site infection in multivariable logistic regression analysis. Pin site infections - most benign - occur in a notable number of patients and we could not identify any modifiable risk factors.

  14. Final Assembly and Initial Irradiation of the First Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    S. B. Grover

    2007-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program will be irradiating eight separate low enriched uranium (LEU) oxycarbide (UCO) tri-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel (in compact form) experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The ATR has a long history of irradiation testing in support of reactor development and the INL has been designated as the new United States Department of Energy’s lead laboratory for nuclear energy development. The ATR is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. These irradiations and fuel development are being accomplished to support development of the next generation reactors in the United States. The AGR fuel experiments will be irradiated over the next ten years to demonstrate and qualify new particle fuel for use in high temperature gas reactors. The goals of the irradiation experiments are to provide irradiation performance data to support fuel process development, to qualify fuel for normal operating conditions, to support development and validation of fuel performance and fission product transport models and codes, and to provide irradiated fuel and materials for post irradiation examination (PIE) and safety testing.1,2 The experiments, which will each consist of six separate capsules, will be irradiated in an inert sweep gas atmosphere with individual on-line temperature monitoring and control of each capsule. The sweep gas will also have on-line fission product monitoring on its effluent to track performance of the fuel in each individual capsule during irradiation. The final design phase for the first experiment was completed in 2005, and the fabrication and assembly of the first experiment test train (designated AGR-1) as well as the support systems and fission product monitoring system that will monitor and control the experiment

  15. Adjustably Preloaded Quick-Release Pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimers, Harold W.

    1992-01-01

    Modified adjustable-grip-length quick-release pin holds two bodies together. Threaded shaft of pin threaded in floating nut to pretension fastener. Pin connects and disconnects rapidly and adjusted to accommodate small differences between thicknesses of nominally identical sets of parts to be attached to each other.

  16. Optimisation on the two-layer stack gamma detectors of CsI(Tl) coupled with a pin photodiode for non-destructive testing.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jin Hyoung; Whang, Joo Ho

    2011-07-01

    This paper proposed the two-layer stack scintillator-coupled photodiode detector to improve the measurement accuracy of the gamma-ray scanning. Both MCNPX and DETECT97 code were used to design the detector. The two manufactured two-layer stack gamma detectors were used to measure the density profile of the distillation column of the radiographic non-intrusive process diagnostic area. To compare the measurement accuracy of the density profile through the non-destructive transmission test, the relative error of the four fluids used for the process diagnostics was analysed. To summarise the measurement results with regard to the relative error of the NaI(Tl) detector and the manufactured detector by material as well as the total relative error, the total relative error of the NaI(Tl) detector was about 15.7 %, whereas that of the two-layer stack CsI(Tl) with photodiode detectors were about 5 %. This paper confirmed that the measurement accuracy of the detector proposed was improved by about three times as compared with the NaI(Tl) detector mostly used for non-destructive testing.

  17. Critical processes and parameters in the development of accident tolerant fuels drop-in capsule irradiation tests

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, K. E.; Ellis, K. D.; Glass, C. R.; Roth, G. A.; Teague, M. P.; Johns, J.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) program is to develop the next generation of Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels with improved performance, reliability, and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions and with reduced waste generation. An irradiation test series has been defined to assess the performance of proposed ATF concepts under normal LWR operating conditions. The Phase I ATF irradiation test series is planned to be performed as a series of drop-in capsule tests to be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) operated by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Design, analysis, and fabrication processes for ATR drop-in capsule experiment preparation are presented in this paper to demonstrate the importance of special design considerations, parameter sensitivity analysis, and precise fabrication and inspection techniques for figure innovative materials used in ATF experiment assemblies. A Taylor Series Method sensitivity analysis approach was used to identify the most critical variables in cladding and rodlet stress, temperature, and pressure calculations for design analyses. The results showed that internal rodlet pressure calculations are most sensitive to the fission gas release rate uncertainty while temperature calculations are most sensitive to cladding I.D. and O.D. dimensional uncertainty. The analysis showed that stress calculations are most sensitive to rodlet internal pressure uncertainties, however the results also indicated that the inside radius, outside radius, and internal pressure were all magnified as they propagate through the stress equation. This study demonstrates the importance for ATF concept development teams to provide the fabricators as much information as possible about the material properties and behavior observed in prototype testing, mock-up fabrication and assembly, and chemical and mechanical testing of the materials that may have been performed in the concept development phase. Special

  18. Critical processes and parameters in the development of accident tolerant fuels drop-in capsule irradiation tests

    DOE PAGES

    Barrett, K. E.; Ellis, K. D.; Glass, C. R.; ...

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) program is to develop the next generation of Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels with improved performance, reliability, and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions and with reduced waste generation. An irradiation test series has been defined to assess the performance of proposed ATF concepts under normal LWR operating conditions. The Phase I ATF irradiation test series is planned to be performed as a series of drop-in capsule tests to be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) operated by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Design, analysis, and fabrication processes formore » ATR drop-in capsule experiment preparation are presented in this paper to demonstrate the importance of special design considerations, parameter sensitivity analysis, and precise fabrication and inspection techniques for figure innovative materials used in ATF experiment assemblies. A Taylor Series Method sensitivity analysis approach was used to identify the most critical variables in cladding and rodlet stress, temperature, and pressure calculations for design analyses. The results showed that internal rodlet pressure calculations are most sensitive to the fission gas release rate uncertainty while temperature calculations are most sensitive to cladding I.D. and O.D. dimensional uncertainty. The analysis showed that stress calculations are most sensitive to rodlet internal pressure uncertainties, however the results also indicated that the inside radius, outside radius, and internal pressure were all magnified as they propagate through the stress equation. This study demonstrates the importance for ATF concept development teams to provide the fabricators as much information as possible about the material properties and behavior observed in prototype testing, mock-up fabrication and assembly, and chemical and mechanical testing of the materials that may have been performed in the concept development phase

  19. Initial tensile test results from J316 stainless steel irradiated in the HFIR spectrally tailored experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, J.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel alloys. In this experiment, the spectrum has been tailored to reduce the thermal neutron flux and achieve a He/dpa level near that expected in a fusion reactor.

  20. Microbial analysis and survey test of gamma-irradiated freeze-dried fruits for patient's food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Nam; Sung, Nak-Yun; Byun, Eui-Hong; Byun, Eui-Baek; Song, Beom-Seok; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Kyung-A.; Son, Eun-Joo; Lyu, Eun-Soon

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the microbiological and organoleptic qualities of gamma-irradiated freeze-dried apples, pears, strawberries, pineapples, and grapes, and evaluated the organoleptic acceptability of the sterilized freeze-dried fruits for hospitalized patients. The freeze-dried fruits were gamma-irradiated at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 12, and 15 kGy, and their quality was evaluated. Microorganisms were not detected in apples after 1 kGy, in strawberries and pears after 4 kGy, in pineapples after 5 kGy, and in grapes after 12 kGy of gamma irradiation. The overall acceptance score, of the irradiated freeze-dried fruits on a 7-point scale at the sterilization doses was 5.5, 4.2, 4.0, 4.1, and 5.1 points for apples, strawberries, pears, pineapples, and grapes, respectively. The sensory survey of the hospitalized cancer patients (N=102) resulted in scores of 3.8, 3.7, 3.9, 3.9, and 3.7 on a 5-point scale for the gamma-irradiated freeze-dried apples, strawberries, pears, pineapples, and grapes, respectively. The results suggest that freeze-dried fruits can be sterilized with a dose of 5 kGy, except for grapes, which require a dose of 12 kGy, and that the organoleptic quality of the fruits is acceptable to immuno-compromised patients. However, to clarify the microbiological quality and safety of freeze-dried fruits should be verified by plating for both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms.

  1. Neutronics, steady-state, and transient analyses for the Poland MARIA reactor for irradiation testing of LEU lead test fuel assemblies from CERCA : ANL independent verification results.

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, P. L.; Hanan, N. A.

    2011-06-07

    The MARIA reactor at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) in Swierk (30 km SE of Warsaw) in the Republic of Poland is considering conversion from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies (FA). The FA design in MARIA is rather unique; a suitable LEU FA has never been designed or tested. IAE has contracted with CERCA (the fuel supply portion of AREVA in France) to supply 2 lead test assemblies (LTA). The LTAs will be irradiated in MARIA to burnup level of at least 40% for both LTAs and to 60% for one LTA. IAE may decide to purchase additional LEU FAs for a full core conversion after the test irradiation. The Reactor Safety Committee within IAE and the National Atomic Energy Agency in Poland (PAA) must approve the LTA irradiation process. The approval will be based, in part, on IAE submitting revisions to portions of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) which are affected by the insertion of the LTAs. (A similar process will be required for the full core conversion to LEU fuel.) The analysis required was established during working meetings between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and IAE staff during August 2006, subsequent email correspondence, and subsequent staff visits. The analysis needs to consider the current high-enriched uranium (HEU) core and 4 core configurations containing 1 and 2 LEU LTAs in various core positions. Calculations have been performed at ANL in support of the LTA irradiation. These calculations are summarized in this report and include criticality, burn-up, neutronics parameters, steady-state thermal hydraulics, and postulated transients. These calculations have been performed at the request of the IAE staff, who are performing similar calculations to be used in their SAR amendment submittal to the PAA. The ANL analysis has been performed independently from that being performed by IAE and should only be used as one step in the verification process.

  2. Operations FLINTLOCK and LATCHKEY Events RED HOT, PIN STRIPE, DISCUS THROWER, PILE DRIVER, DOUBLE PLAY, NEWPOINT, MIDI MIST, 5 March 1966-26 June 1967

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    DNA 6321F CD 8) 00 < OPERATIONS 9 FLINTLJOCK AND LATCHKEY < EVENTS RED HOT , PIN STRIPE, DISCUS THROWER, PILE DRIVER, DOUBLE PLAY...Include Security Classification) OPERATIONS FLINTLOCK AND LATCHKEY DOUBLE PLAY, NEW POINT, MIDI MIST EVENTS RED HOT , PIN STRIPE...nuclear weapons testing during Operations FLINTLOCK and LATCHKEY, test events RED HOT , PIN STRIPE, DISCUS THROWER, PILE DRIVER, DOUBLE PLAY

  3. Pinning control of chimera states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Frasca, Mattia

    2016-08-01

    The position of the coherent and incoherent domain of a chimera state in a ring of nonlocally coupled oscillators is strongly influenced by the initial conditions, making nontrivial the problem of confining them in a specific region of the structure. In this paper we propose the use of spatial pinning to induce a chimera state where the nodes belonging to one domain, either the coherent or the incoherent, are fixed by the control action. We design two different techniques according to the dynamics to be forced in the region of pinned nodes, and validate them on FitzHugh-Nagumo and Kuramoto oscillators. Furthermore, we introduce a suitable strategy to deal with the effects of finite size in small structures.

  4. UV testing of solar cells: Effects of antireflective coating, prior irradiation, and UV source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulenberg, A.

    1993-01-01

    Short-circuit current degradation of electron irradiated double-layer antireflective-coated cells after 3000 hours ultraviolet (UV) exposure exceeds 3 percent; extrapolation of the data to 10(exp 5) hours (11.4 yrs.) gives a degradation that exceeds 10 percent. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences in degradation were observed in cells with double- and single-layer antireflective coatings. The effects of UV-source age were observed and corrections were made to the data. An additional degradation mechanism was identified that occurs only in previously electron-irradiated solar cells since identical unirradiated cells degrade to only 6 +/- 3 percent when extrapolated 10(exp 5) hours of UV illumination.

  5. Effect of elbow flexion on the proximity of the PIN during 2-incision distal biceps repair.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason A; Jones, Christopher M; Grossman, Mark G

    2013-07-01

    The posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) is at risk for injury during surgical dissection for distal biceps repair, yet the optimal position of elbow flexion to avoid a PIN injury has never been established for the 2-incision approach. The purpose of this study was to determine the proximity of the PIN to the radial tuberosity during surgical dissection in different degrees of elbow flexion. Ten cadaveric specimens with an intact elbow and forearm were dissected in full pronation using a modified Boyd-Anderson approach. Half of the dissections were completed in 90° of flexion and the other half were completed in maximal flexion. To simulate the location of the PIN during a single-incision biceps repair, the distance of the PIN to the radial tuberosity was recorded in full extension and supination. Results from these measurements were assessed for differences using paired t tests, with differences deemed significant for P values less than .05. The PIN was not identified in any of the 2-incision surgical dissections. Based on these findings, the proximity of the PIN to the radial tuberosity is not significantly affected by the degree of elbow flexion in the muscle-splitting 2-incision approach. In addition, a safe zone exists for avoiding PIN injury in a single-incision technique for distal biceps repair because a drill bit exiting the radial tuberosity greater than 1 cm in a distal-radial direction would place the PIN at risk.

  6. Space and Time Distribution of Pu Isotopes inside The First Experimental Fuel Pin Designed for PWR and Manufactured in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwardi; Setiawan, J.; Susilo, J.

    2017-01-01

    The first short fuel pin containing natural UO2 pellet in Zry4 cladding has been prepared and planned to be tested in power ramp irradiation. An irradiation test should be designed to allow an experiment can be performed safely and giving maximum results of many performance aspects of design and manufacturing. Performance analysis to the fuel specimen shows that the specimen is not match to be used for power ramp testing. Enlargement by 0.20 mm of pellet diameter has been proposed. The present work is evaluation of modified design for important aspect of isotopic Pu distribution during irradiation test, because generated Pu isotopes in natural UO2 fuel, contribute more power relative to the contribution by enriched UO2 fuel. The axial profile of neutrons flux have been chosen from both experimental measurement and model calculation. The parameters of ramp power has been obtained from statistical experiment data. A simplified and typical base-load commercial PHWR profile of LHR history has been chosen, to determine the minimum irradiation time before ramp test can be performed. The data design and Mat pro XI materials properties models have been chosen. The axial profile of neutrons flux has been accommodated by 5 slices of discrete pin. The Pu distribution of slice-4 with highest power rate has been chosen to be evaluated. The radial discretion of pellet and cladding and numerical parameter have been used the default best practice of TU. The results shows that Pu 239 increased rapidly. The maximum burn up of slice 4 at upper the median slice, it reached nearly 90% of maximum value at about 6000 h with peak of 0.8%a Pu/HM at 22000 h, which is higher than initial U 235. Each 240, 241 and 240 Pu grows slower and ends up to 0.4, 0.2 and 0.18 % respectively. This results can be used for verification of other aspect of fuel behavior in the modeling results and also can be used as guide and comparison to the future post irradiation examination for Pu isotopes distribution.

  7. Performance of breached LMFBR fuel pins during continued operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, J.D.B.; Strain, R.V.; Gross, K.C.; Hofman, G.L.; Colburn, R.P.; Adamson, M.G.; Ukai, S.

    1985-01-01

    Four EBR-II tests were used to scope the behavior of breached mixed-oxide pins. After release of stored fission gas, delayed-neutron signals were large and easily detected, although not readily correlated with exposed fuel area. No problems were met during reactor operation or fuel handling. Fuel-sodium reaction caused only narrow breaches which released minute amounts of fuel and fission products; the reaction product appeared dense and non-friable. These initial results indicated LMFBR oxide pins could have considerable potential for operating in the breached mode.

  8. Testing of Performance of Optical Fibers Under Irradiation in Intense Radiation Fields, When Subjected to Very High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, Thomas; Windl, Wolfgang; Dickerson, Bryan

    2013-01-03

    The primary objective of this project is to measure and model the performance of optical fibers in intense radiation fields when subjected to very high temperatures. This research will pave the way for fiber optic and optically based sensors under conditions expected in future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Sensor life and signal-to-noise ratios are susceptible to attenuation of the light signal due to scattering and absorbance in the fibers. This project will provide an experimental and theoretical study of the darkening of optical fibers in high-radiation and high-temperature environments. Although optical fibers have been studied for moderate radiation fluence and flux levels, the results of irradiation at very high temperatures have not been published for extended in-core exposures. Several previous multi-scale modeling efforts have studied irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of materials. However, model-based prediction of irradiation-induced changes in silica's optical transport properties has only recently started to receive attention due to possible applications as optical transmission components in fusion reactors. Nearly all damage-modeling studies have been performed in the molecular-dynamics domain, limited to very short times and small systems. Extended-time modeling, however, is crucial to predicting the long-term effects of irradiation at high temperatures, since the experimental testing may not encompass the displacement rate that the fibers will encounter if they are deployed in the VHTR. The project team will pursue such extended-time modeling, including the effects of the ambient and recrystallization. The process will be based on kinetic MC modeling using the concept of amorphous material consisting of building blocks of defect-pairs or clusters, which has been successfully applied to kinetic modeling in amorphized and recrystallized silicon. Using this procedure, the team will model compensation for rate effects, and the

  9. Experimental tests of irradiation-anneal-reirradiation effects on mechanical properties of RPV plate and weld materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Charpy-V (C{sub V}) notch ductility and tension test properties of three reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel materials were determined for the 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) irradiated (I), 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) irradiated + 454{degree}C (850{degree}F)-168 h postirradiation annealed (IA), and 288{degree}C (550{degree}F) reirradiated (IAR) conditions. Total fluences of the I condition and the IAR condition were, respectively, 3.33 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} and 4.18 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV. The irradiation portion of the IAR condition represents an incremental fluence increase of 1. 05 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2}, E > 1 MeV, over the I-condition fluence. The materials (specimens) were supplied by the Yankee Atomic Electric Company and represented high and low nickel content plates and a high nickel, high copper content weld deposit prototypical of the Yankee-Rowe reactor vessel. The promise of the IAR method for extending the fluence tolerance of radiation-sensitive steels and welds is clearly shown by the results. The annealing treatment produced full C{sub V} upper shelf recovery and full or nearly full recovery in the C{sub V} 41 J (30 ft-lb) transition temperature. The C{sub V} transition temperature increases produced by the reirradiation exposure were 22% to 43% of the increase produced by the first cycle irradiation exposure. A somewhat greater radiation embrittlement sensitivity and a somewhat greater reirradiation embrittlement sensitivity was exhibited by the low nickel content plate than the high nickel content plate. Its high phosphorus content is believed to be responsible. The IAR-condition properties of the surface vs. interior regions of the low nickel content plate are also compared.

  10. An improved silicon PIN diode based portable radon monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashokkumar, P.; Sahoo, B. K.; Topkar, A.; Raman, A.; Babu, D. A. R.; Sharma, D. N.; Mayya, Y. S.

    2013-05-01

    A low budget radon monitor has been developed using silicon PIN diode. Sensitivity factor of this monitor is observed to be relatively high over the other similar monitors. This is achieved by incorporation of a hemispherical mesh in the sampling chamber, thereby accelerating the electro-deposition of charged polonium atoms on the detector surface. Its performance has been tested successfully against reference equipment.

  11. VHSIC and digital pin electronics: Applications and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, James R.

    As VHSIC technology becomes commercially available, its impact on the automatic test equipment (ATE) industry becomes significant. The author provides a brief history of the VHSIC program, highlights the impact VHSIC technology has had on the digital pin electronics of ATE, and discusses the implications for future ATE capabilities.

  12. Flux Pinning and Enhanced Critical Current in Magnetic Field by Artificial Pinning Centers.#

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.-Q.; Rizzo, N. D.; McCambridge, J. D.; Prober, D. E.; Motowidlo, L. R.; Zeitlin, B. A.

    1996-03-01

    Flux pinning to enhance critical currents (Jc) in type II superconductors (NbTi) in a magnetic field was studied, using nanometer sized artificial pins. From consideration of free energy and proximity effects, we compare pinning by various materials, ranging from weak superconductors (Nb), normal metals (Ti, Cu), to ferromagnets (Ni, Fe). A trade-off is found between induced superconductivity in the pin and a reduction of superconductivity in the NbTi. Thus, a normal metal can have stronger pinning than a similar-sized void. This idea is supported by our finding that Ti provides the strongest pinning in multilayer film systems. Pinning mechanisms by ferromagnetic (FM) pins are also discussed, along with results of Jc for NbTiTa wires with FM artificial pinning centers. #Support by CT Dept. Econ. Dev. Grant 94G014 and IGC-AS. *present address: Westinghouse STC, Pittsburgh, PA

  13. RNA silencing targeting PIN (protein inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase) attenuates the development of hypertension in young spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-Chen; Lin, Kuan-Miao; Chien, Shao-Ju; Huang, Li-Tung; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Tain, You-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency contributes to hypertension. We previously showed that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was involved in hypertension and kidney damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The protein inhibitor of nNOS (PIN) has been reported to inhibit activity of nNOS.Thus, we tested whether increased PIN in the kidney results in hypertension and whether small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting PIN attenuates hypertension in SHRs. Four-week-old male SHRs were assigned into three groups (n = 6-7/group): SHR; SHR + PIN, SHR that received siRNA targeting PIN; and SHR + NC, SHR treated with random negative control siRNA. Rats were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. PIN protein expression was inhibited considerably when PIN siRNA was transfected into NRK52E cells (90% siRNA at 1 nM). The increases of BP were attenuated by siRNA targeting PIN in 12-week-old SHRs. Immunostaining of nNOS-α and total nNOS was greater in SHR + PIN group than SHR. Moreover, renal superoxide production and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) staining were more decreased in the SHR + PIN group than SHRs. We conclude that PIN siRNA reduced PIN expression in vitro and in vivo. PIN siRNA therapy attenuates hypertension in SHRs at 12 weeks of age. Our results suggest that PIN is involved in the development of hypertension.

  14. Charpy impact test results of four low activation ferritic alloys irradiated at 370{degrees}C to 15 DPA

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1996-10-01

    Miniature CVN specimens of four low activation ferritic alloys have been impact tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 15 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens indicates that degradation in the impact behavior occurs in each of these four alloys. The 9Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X and the similar alloy F82H with 7.8Cr-2W appear most promising for further consideration as candidate structural materials in fusion energy system applications. These two alloys exhibit a small DBTT shift to higher temperatures but show increased absorbed energy on the upper shelf.

  15. Alignment Pins for Assembling and Disassembling Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Oliver C.

    2008-01-01

    Simple, easy-to-use, highly effective tooling has been devised for maintaining alignment of bolt holes in mating structures during assembly and disassembly of the structures. The tooling was originally used during removal of a body flap from the space shuttle Atlantis, in which misalignments during removal of the last few bolts could cause the bolts to bind in their holes. By suitably modifying the dimensions of the tooling components, the basic design of the tooling can readily be adapted to other structures that must be maintained in alignment. The tooling includes tapered, internally threaded alignment pins designed to fit in the bolt holes in one of the mating structures, plus a draw bolt and a cup that are used to install or remove each alignment pin. In preparation for disassembly of two mating structures, external supports are provided to prevent unintended movement of the structures. During disassembly of the structures, as each bolt that joins the structures is removed, an alignment pin is installed in its place. Once all the bolts have been removed and replaced with pins, the pins maintain alignment as the structures are gently pushed or pulled apart on the supports. In assembling the two structures, one reverses the procedure described above: pins are installed in the bolt holes, the structures are pulled or pushed together on the supports, then the pins are removed and replaced with bolts. The figure depicts the tooling and its use. To install an alignment pin in a bolt hole in a structural panel, the tapered end of the pin is inserted from one side of the panel, the cup is placed over the pin on the opposite side of the panel, the draw bolt is inserted through the cup and threaded into the pin, the draw bolt is tightened to pull the pin until the pin is seated firmly in the hole, then the draw bolt and cup are removed, leaving the pin in place. To remove an alignment pin, the cup is placed over the pin on the first-mentioned side of the panel, the draw

  16. Phylogeny and molecular evolution analysis of PIN-FORMED 1 in angiosperm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengkai; Cheng, Tielong; Wu, Shuang; Zhao, Fangfang; Wang, Guangping; Yang, Liming; Lu, Mengzhu; Chen, Jinhui; Shi, Jisen

    2014-01-01

    PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1) is an important secondary transporter and determines the direction of intercellular auxin flow. As PIN1 performs the conserved function of auxin transport, it is expected that the sequence and structure of PIN1 is conserved. Therefore, we hypothesized that PIN1 evolve under pervasive purifying selection in the protein-coding sequences in angiosperm. To test this hypothesis, we performed detailed evolutionary analyses of 67 PIN1 sequences from 35 angiosperm species. We found that the PIN1 sequences are highly conserved within their transmembrane regions, part of their hydrophilic regions. We also found that there are two or more PIN1 copies in some of these angiosperm species. PIN1 sequences from Poaceae and Brassicaceae are representative of the modern clade. We identified 12 highly conserved motifs and a significant number of family-specific sites within these motifs. One family-specific site within Motif 11 shows a different residue between monocots and dicots, and is functionally critical for the polarity of PIN1. Likewise, the function of PIN1 appears to be different between monocots and dicots since the phenotype associated with PIN1 overexpression is opposite between Arabidopsis and rice. The evolution of angiosperm PIN1 protein-coding sequences appears to have been primarily driven by purifying selection, but traces of positive selection associated with sequences from certain families also seem to be present. We verified this observation by calculating the numbers of non-synonymous and synonymous changes on each branch of a phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that the evolution of angiosperm PIN1 sequences involve strong purifying selection. In addition, our results suggest that the conserved sequences of PIN1 derive from a combination of the family-specific site variations and conserved motifs during their unique evolutionary processes, which is critical for the functional integrity and stability of these auxin transporters

  17. Phylogeny and Molecular Evolution Analysis of PIN-FORMED 1 in Angiosperm

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuang; Zhao, Fangfang; Wang, Guangping; Yang, Liming; Lu, Mengzhu; Chen, Jinhui; Shi, Jisen

    2014-01-01

    PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1) is an important secondary transporter and determines the direction of intercellular auxin flow. As PIN1 performs the conserved function of auxin transport, it is expected that the sequence and structure of PIN1 is conserved. Therefore, we hypothesized that PIN1 evolve under pervasive purifying selection in the protein-coding sequences in angiosperm. To test this hypothesis, we performed detailed evolutionary analyses of 67 PIN1 sequences from 35 angiosperm species. We found that the PIN1 sequences are highly conserved within their transmembrane regions, part of their hydrophilic regions. We also found that there are two or more PIN1 copies in some of these angiosperm species. PIN1 sequences from Poaceae and Brassicaceae are representative of the modern clade. We identified 12 highly conserved motifs and a significant number of family-specific sites within these motifs. One family-specific site within Motif 11 shows a different residue between monocots and dicots, and is functionally critical for the polarity of PIN1. Likewise, the function of PIN1 appears to be different between monocots and dicots since the phenotype associated with PIN1 overexpression is opposite between Arabidopsis and rice. The evolution of angiosperm PIN1 protein-coding sequences appears to have been primarily driven by purifying selection, but traces of positive selection associated with sequences from certain families also seem to be present. We verified this observation by calculating the numbers of non-synonymous and synonymous changes on each branch of a phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that the evolution of angiosperm PIN1 sequences involve strong purifying selection. In addition, our results suggest that the conserved sequences of PIN1 derive from a combination of the family-specific site variations and conserved motifs during their unique evolutionary processes, which is critical for the functional integrity and stability of these auxin transporters

  18. Cellular regulation of basal and FSH-stimulated cyclic AMP production in irradiated rat testes

    SciTech Connect

    Kangasniemi, M.; Kaipia, A.; Toppari, J.; Mali, P.; Huhtaniemi, I.; Parvinen, M. )

    1990-05-01

    Basal and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) productions by seminiferous tubular segments from irradiated adult rats were investigated at defined stages of the epithelial cycle when specific spermatogenic cells were low in number. Seven days post-irradiation, depletion of spermatogonia did not influence the basal cAMP production, but FSH response increased in stages II-VIII. Seventeen days post-irradiation when spermatocytes were low in number, there was a small increase in basal cAMP level in stages VII-VIII and FSH-stimulated cAMP production increased in stages VII-XII and XIII-I. At 38 days when pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids (steps 1-6) were low in number, a decreased basal cAMP production was measured in stages II-VI and IX-XII. FSH-stimulated cAMP output increased in stages VII-XII but decreased in stages II-VI. At 52 days when all spermatids were low in number, basal cAMP levels decreased in all stages of the cycle, whereas FSH response was elevated only in stages VII-XII. All spermatogenic cell types seem to have an effect on cAMP production by the seminiferous tubule in a stage-specific fashion. Germ cells appear to regulate Sertoli cell FSH response in a paracrine way, and a part of cAMP may originate from spermatids stimulated by an unknown FSH-dependent Sertoli cell factor. The FSH-dependent functions may control such phenomena as spermatogonial proliferation, final maturation of spermatids, and onset of meiosis.

  19. Dynamic characteristics of a magnetorheological pin joint for civil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yancheng; Li, Jianchun

    2014-03-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) pin joint is a novel device in which its joint moment resistance can be controlled in real-time by altering the applied magnetic field. The smart pin joint is intended to be used as a controllable connector between the columns and beams of a civil structure to instantaneously shift the structural natural frequencies in order to avoid resonance and therefore to reduce unwanted vibrations and hence prevent structural damage. As an intrinsically nonlinear device, modelling of this MR fluid based device is a challenging task and makes the design of a suitable control algorithm a cumbersome situation. Aimed at its application in civil structure, the main purpose of this paper is to test and characterise the hysteretic behaviour of MR pin joint. A test scheme is designed to obtain the dynamic performance of MR pin joint in the dominant earthquake frequency range. Some unique phenomena different from those of MR damper are observed through the experimental testing. A computationally-efficient model is proposed by introducing a hyperbolic element to accurately reproduce its dynamic behaviour and to further facilitate the design of a suitable control algorithm. Comprehensive investigations on the model accuracy and dependences of the proposed model on loading condition (frequency and amplitude) and input current level are reported in the last section of this paper.

  20. Re-weldability tests of irradiated austenitic stainless steel by a TIG welding method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Kalinin, George

    2000-12-01

    Austenitic stainless steel (SS) is widely used for the in-vessel and ex-vessel components of fusion reactors. In particular, SS316L(N)-IG (IG-ITER Grade) is used for the vacuum vessel (VV), pipe lines, blanket modules, branch pipe lines connecting the module coolant system with the manifold and for the other structures of ITER. One of the most important requirements for the VV and the water cooling branch pipelines is the possibility to repair different defects by welding. Those components which may require re-welding should be studied carefully. The SS re-weldability issue has a large impact on the design of in-vessel components, in particular, the design and efficiency of radiation shielding by the modules. Moreover, re-welded components should operate for the lifetime of the reactor. This paper deals with the study of re-weldability of un-irradiated and/or irradiated SS316L(N)-IG and the effect of helium generation on the mechanical properties of the weld joint. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding was used for re-welding of the SS.

  1. Verification of the SRB motor case pin retainer band tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karu, Z. S.

    1980-01-01

    The pin retainer band is a 1-1/4 in. wide by about 1/32 in. thick steel band that is stretched over the pins circumferentially at the joints of the solid rocket booster (SRB) motor case segments. Its purpose is to hold the retaining pins in place during flight. Since the band is thin and is mounted stretched, or under tension, over the pins which are greased in place, it is necessary to protect it thermally. Three typical areas of the band location on the SRB motor case joints were chosen for verifying the cork thermal prection system (TPS) performance on the band: the joint in front of the attach ring, at the aft skirt joint in front of the kick ring and in an unperturbed area at the forward segments of the SRB motor cases. The kick ring area pin retainer band cork TPS passed the test requirements in the region where there are no phenolic splice caps. In the splice cap areas where the band TPS is closed out around the splice with K5NA, additional amounts of K5NA material is required to adequately protect the steel band. TPS requirements were easily met in the one location where the ends of the steel band are joined together after installation and tensioning. The attack ring area pin retainer band TPS did not quite pass the heat load requirements with the .375 in. thick cork TPS as used for the kick ring area band. It is recommended that the cork thickness here be increased to .50 in. The unperturbed area band TPS presented no problems.

  2. /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.G.; Stryker, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested /sup 14/C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05), and 21.8% at 1 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05). In Group II, the percentage reductions were 11.8% and 3.7% at 1/2 and 1 hour, respectively (p greater than 0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption.

  3. /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.G.; Stryker, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested /sup 14/C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p<0.05), and 21.8% at 1 hour postingestion (p<0.05). In Group II, the prercentage reduction were 11.8% and 3.7% at 1/2 and 1 hour, respectively (p>0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption.

  4. Design and Nuclear-Safety Related Simulations of Bare-Pellet Test Irradiations for the Production of Pu-238 in the High Flux Isotope Reactor using COMSOL

    SciTech Connect

    Freels, James D; Jain, Prashant K; Hobbs, Randy W

    2012-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)is developing technology to produce plutonium-238 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as a power source material for powering vehicles while in deep-space[1]. The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) of ORNL has been utilized to perform test irradiations of incapsulated neptunium oxide (NpO2) and aluminum powder bare pellets for purposes of understanding the performance of the pellets during irradiation[2]. Post irradiation examinations (PIE) are currently underway to assess the effect of temperature, thermal expansion, swelling due to gas production, fission products, and other phenomena

  5. Tool Blunts Cotter Pin Legs for Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, J. A.; Helble, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Jaws on new insertion tool contain upset point and anvil. Point forces cotter-pin legs into loop as it engages anvil. Cotter pin before insertion consists of loop and straight shaft composed of two legs welded together as tips. After insertion, welded legs have been shaped into loop. Tool used to prevent bent loose ends of cotter pins from scratching workers' fingers or cutting and entangling wires.

  6. Altered energy metabolism in an irradiated population of lizards at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, K.A.; Medica, P.A.

    1985-07-01

    Field metabolic rates (via doubly labeled water), body compartmentalization of energy stores, and energy assimilation efficiencies were measured to assess all avenues of energy utilization in Uta stansburiana living in a low-level ..gamma..-irradiated plot in Rock Valley, Nevada. Comparison of energy budgets for radiation-sterilized females with those of nonirradiated control lizards revealed several substantial differences. Sterile females were heavier, mainly because they had extraordinarily large energy (fat) storage depots. Sterile females had much lower rates of energy expenditure via respiration and lower rates of energy intake by feeding. These differences are interpreted as indirect responses to radiation-induced sterility. There is little evidence of direct radiation effects on physiological functions other than reproduction.

  7. Estrogen-regulated genes in rat testes and their relationship to recovery of spermatogenesis after irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Bolden-Tiller, Olga U; Shao, Shan H; Weng, Connie C; Shetty, Gunapala; AbuElhija, Mahmoud; Pakarinen, Pirjo; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Momin, Amin A; Wang, Jing; Stivers, David N; Liu, Zhilin; Meistrich, Marvin L

    2011-10-01

    Despite numerous observations of the effects of estrogens on spermatogenesis, identification of estrogen-regulated genes in the testis is limited. Using rats in which irradiation had completely blocked spermatogonial differentiation, we previously showed that testosterone suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone-antagonist acyline and the antiandrogen flutamide stimulated spermatogenic recovery and that addition of estradiol (E2) to this regimen accelerated this recovery. We report here the global changes in testicular cell gene expression induced by the E2 treatment. By minimizing the changes in other hormones and using concurrent data on regulation of the genes by these hormones, we were able to dissect the effects of estrogen on gene expression, independent of gonadotropin or testosterone changes. Expression of 20 genes, largely in somatic cells, was up- or downregulated between 2- and 5-fold by E2. The unexpected and striking enrichment of transcripts not corresponding to known genes among the E2-downregulated probes suggested that these might represent noncoding mRNAs; indeed, we have identified several as miRNAs and their potential target genes in this system. We propose that genes for which expression levels are altered in one direction by irradiation and in the opposite direction by both testosterone suppression and E2 treatment are candidates for controlling the block in differentiation. Several genes, including insulin-like 3 (Insl3), satisfied those criteria. If they are indeed involved in the inhibition of spermatogonial differentiation, they may be candidate targets for treatments to enhance recovery of spermatogenesis following gonadotoxic exposures, such as those resulting from cancer therapy.

  8. METAPHIX-1 non destructive post irradiation examinations in the irradiated elements cell at Phenix

    SciTech Connect

    Breton, Laurent; Masson, M.; Garces, E.; Desjardins, S.; Fontaine, B.; Lacroix, B.; Martella, T.; Loubet, L.; Ohta, H.; Yokoo, T.; Ougier, M.; Glatz, J.P.

    2007-07-01

    Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has been developing minor actinide (MA) transmutation technology in homogeneous loading mode by use of metal fuel fast reactors in cooperation with Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) and Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Fast reactor metal fuel pins of Uranium- Plutonium-Zirconium (U-Pu-Zr) alloy containing 2 wt% MAs and 2 wt% rare earth elements (REs), 5 wt% MAs, and 5 wt% MAs and 5 wt% REs were irradiated in the PHENIX French fast reactor as METAPHIX experiments. In these METAPHIX experiments, three rigs each consisting of three metal fuel experimental pins and sixteen oxide fuel driver pins were irradiated. The target burnup of the three rigs is 2.4 at%, 7 at% and 11 at% which corresponds to 120, 360 and 600 equivalent full power days (EFPD) in terms of irradiation periods, respectively. The low burnup rig of 2.4 at%, METAPHIX-1, was discharged from the core in August 2004. After cooling, the non-destructive post irradiation examinations (PIEs) of the rig (visual examination, measurement of rig length and deformation) and of the metal fuel pins (visual examination, measurement of pin length and deformation, {gamma}-spectrometry and neutron radiography) were conducted in the Irradiated Elements Cell (IEC) at PHENIX. (authors)

  9. Heat Exchanger With Internal Pin Elements

    DOEpatents

    Gerstmann, Joseph; Hannon, Charles L.

    2004-01-13

    A heat exchanger/heater comprising a tubular member having a fluid inlet end, a fluid outlet end and plurality of pins secured to the interior wall of the tube. Various embodiments additionally comprise a blocking member disposed concentrically inside the pins, such as a core plug or a baffle array. Also disclosed is a vapor generator employing an internally pinned tube, and a fluid-heater/heat-exchanger utilizing an outer jacket tube and fluid-side baffle elements, as well as methods for heating a fluid using an internally pinned tube.

  10. Magnetic pinning in superconductor-ferromagnet multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.; Maley, M. P.

    2000-05-01

    We argue that superconductor/ferromagnet multilayers of nanoscale period should exhibit strong pinning of vortices by the magnetic domain structure in magnetic fields below the coercive field when ferromagnetic layers exhibit strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The estimated maximum magnetic pinning energy for single vortex in such a system is about 100 times larger than the pinning energy by columnar defects. This pinning energy may provide critical currents as high as 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2} at high temperatures (but not very close to T{sub c}) at least in magnetic fields below 0.1 T. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Heterogeneous uptake of NO2 on Arizona Test Dust under UV-A irradiation: An aerosol flow tube study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupart, Yoan; Fine, Ludovic; D'Anna, Barbara; George, Christian

    2014-12-01

    The uptake rate of NO2 on Arizona Test Dust aerosols was measured using an aerosol flow tube (AFT). While the uptake rate in the dark could not be measured, the uptake under UV-A irradiation was enhanced, with values in the range from (0.6 ± 0.3) × 10-8, (2.4 ± 0.4) × 10-8. The observed gas phase products were HONO and NO, with yields of at 30% and 9.6%, respectively. The difference between these measurements and those previously reported on macroscopic films are discussed and differences highlighted. Interestingly, a reasonable agreement is observed between the uptake kinetics of NO2 on Arizona Test Dust macroscopic films and aerosols, despite the different experimental approaches. The simplest approach i.e. thin films having a significant porosity, provides similar uptake kinetics to the more complex and realistic AFT approach.

  12. The kinetics of root gravitropism in PIN mutants suggest redundancy in the signal transduction pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolverton, Chris

    As nonmotile organisms, plants rely on differential growth responses to maximize exposure to the resources necessary for growth and reproduction. One of the primary environmental cues causing differential growth in roots is gravity, which is thought to be sensed predominately in the root cap. This gravity perception event is thought to be transduced into information in the form of an auxin gradient across the cap and propagating basipetally toward the elongation zone. The discovery of several families of auxin efflux and influx carriers has provided significant insight into the mechanisms of directional auxin transport, and the identification of mutants in the genes encoding these carriers provides the opportunity to test the roles of these transporters in plant gravitropism. In this study, we report the results of a systematic, high-resolution study of the kinetics of root gravitropism of mutants in the PIN family of auxin efflux carriers. Based on reported expression and localization patterns, we predicted mutations in PIN2, PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 to cause the greatest reduction in root gravitropism. While pin2 mutants showed severe gravitropic deficiencies in roots as reported previously, several alleles of pin3, pin4 and pin7 remained strongly gravitropic. PIN3 has been localized to the central columella cells, the purported gravisensing cells in the root, and shown to rapidly relocate to the lower flank of the columella cells upon gravistimulation, suggesting an early role in auxin gradient formation. Mutant alleles of PIN3 showed an early delay in response, with just 7 deg of curvature in the first hour compared to approximately 15 deg h-1 in wild-type, but their rate of curvature recovered to near wild-type levels over the ensuing 3 h. Pin3 mutants also showed a slower overall growth rate (124 µm h-1 ), elongating at approximately half the rate of wild-type roots (240 µm h-1 ). PIN4 has been localized to the quiescent center in the root, where it presumably

  13. Flux motion in thin superconductors with inhomogeneous pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Thomas; Kuhn, Holger; Brandt, Ernst Helmut; Indenbom, Mikhail; Koblischka, Michael R.; Konczykowski, Marcin

    1994-12-01

    The penetration and exit of magnetic flux in thin superconductors in a perpendicular applied field is investigated in detail. Flux-density pictures and profiles are obtained by magneto-optics; magnetization curves are measured by torque magnetometry; theoretical space- and time-dependent flux-density and current-density profiles are calculated from Maxwell's equations in a planar approximation assuming a highly nonlinear current-voltage law E~(J/Jc)n (n>>1, E=electric field, J=sheet current) with a critical sheet current Jc(B,r) in general depending on the position and on the perpendicular flux density B. Our experiments and calculations show that for inhomogeneous pinning the additional nontrivial condition Jc=∞ for B=0 is appropriate. Our specimens are high-Tc superconductors in the form of platelets, strips, or rings. In two platelets, an inhomogeneous Jc was produced by heavy-ion irradiation of the edge zone or by thinning down the central part by sputtering. In all cases good qualitative agreement is found between the experimental and theoretical results. In particular, our time-dependent theory reproduces the recently derived static Bean-model profiles in perpendicular geometry, which we also confirm experimentally; field and current profiles in the ring are as predicted for a current-carrying strip in perpendicular field; in the platelet with enhanced edge pinning, when flux starts to leak into the central weak pinning zone the flux lines are driven immediately to the sample center and pile up there; for weaker inhomogeneity of Jc(r), when the flux front arrives from the edges at the central weak-pinning zone the flux lines jump to an intermediate position from where they fill the central zone gradually. Our experiments also confirm the predicted ``uphill motion'' of flux lines against the flux-density gradient and the occurrence of overcritical current densities in the flux-free regions.

  14. Comparison of fracture behavior for low-swelling ferritic and austenitic alloys irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to 180 DPA. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fracture toughness testing was conducted to investigate the radiation embrittlement of high-nickel superalloys, modified austenitic steels and ferritic steels. These materials have been experimentally proven to possess excellent resistance to void swelling after high neutron exposures. In addition to swelling resistance, post-irradiation fracture resistance is another important criterion for reactor material selection. By means of fracture mechanics techniques the fracture behavior of those highly irradiated alloys was characterized in terms of irradiation and test conditions. Precipitation-strengthened alloys failed by channel fracture with very low postirradiation ductility. The fracture toughness of titanium-modified austenitic stainless steel D9 deteriorates with increasing fluence to about 100 displacement per atom (dpa), the fluence level at which brittle fracture appears to occur. Ferritic steels such as HT9 are the most promising candidate materials for fast and fusion reactor applications. The upper-shelf fracture toughness of alloy HT9 remained adequate after irradiation to 180 dpa although its ductile- brittle transition temperature (DBTT) shift by low temperature irradiation rendered the material susceptible to brittle fracture at room temperature. Understanding the fracture characteristics under various irradiation and test conditions helps reduce the potential for brittle fracture by permitting appropriate measure to be taken.

  15. Comparison of fracture behavior for low-swelling ferritic and austenitic alloys irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to 180 DPA

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fracture toughness testing was conducted to investigate the radiation embrittlement of high-nickel superalloys, modified austenitic steels and ferritic steels. These materials have been experimentally proven to possess excellent resistance to void swelling after high neutron exposures. In addition to swelling resistance, post-irradiation fracture resistance is another important criterion for reactor material selection. By means of fracture mechanics techniques the fracture behavior of those highly irradiated alloys was characterized in terms of irradiation and test conditions. Precipitation-strengthened alloys failed by channel fracture with very low postirradiation ductility. The fracture toughness of titanium-modified austenitic stainless steel D9 deteriorates with increasing fluence to about 100 displacement per atom (dpa), the fluence level at which brittle fracture appears to occur. Ferritic steels such as HT9 are the most promising candidate materials for fast and fusion reactor applications. The upper-shelf fracture toughness of alloy HT9 remained adequate after irradiation to 180 dpa although its ductile- brittle transition temperature (DBTT) shift by low temperature irradiation rendered the material susceptible to brittle fracture at room temperature. Understanding the fracture characteristics under various irradiation and test conditions helps reduce the potential for brittle fracture by permitting appropriate measure to be taken.

  16. Synchronization for an array of neural networks with hybrid coupling by a novel pinning control strategy.

    PubMed

    Gong, Dawei; Lewis, Frank L; Wang, Liping; Xu, Ke

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a novel pinning synchronization (synchronization with pinning control) scheme for an array of neural networks with hybrid coupling is investigated. The main contributions are as follows: (1) A novel pinning control strategy is proposed for the first time. Pinning control schemes are introduced as an array of column vector. The controllers are designed as simple linear systems, which are easy to be analyzed or tested. (2) Augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) is applied to introduce more relax variables, which can alleviate the requirements of the positive definiteness of the matrix. (3) Based on the appropriate LKF, by introducing some free weighting matrices, some novel synchronization criteria are derived. Furthermore, the proposed pinning control scheme described by column vector can also be expanded to almost all the other array of neural networks. Finally, numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  17. Investigating the Effects of Pin Tool Design on Friction Stir Welded Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubisoff, H. A.; Querin, J. A.; Schneider, Judy A.; Magee, D.

    2009-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSWing), a solid state joining technique, uses a non-consumable rotating pin tool to thermomechanically join materials. Heating of the weldment caused by friction and deformation is a function of the interaction between the pin tool and the work piece. Therefore, the geometry of the pin tool is in part responsible for the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties. In this study microwave sintered tungsten carbide (WC) pin tools with tapers and flats were used to FSW Ti-6Al-4V. Transverse sections of welds were mechanically tested, and the microstructure was characterized using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning election microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) were used to characterize the texture within the welds produced from the different pin tool designs.

  18. Domain-wall pinning by local control of anisotropy in Pt/Co/Pt strips.

    PubMed

    Franken, J H; Hoeijmakers, M; Lavrijsen, R; Swagten, H J M

    2012-01-18

    We theoretically and experimentally analyze the pinning of a magnetic domain wall (DW) at engineered anisotropy variations in Pt/Co/Pt strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. An analytical model is derived showing that a step in the anisotropy acts as an energy barrier for the DW. Quantitative measurements are performed showing that the anisotropy can be controlled by focused ion beam irradiation with Ga ions. This tool is used to experimentally study the field-induced switching of nanostrips which are locally irradiated. The boundary of the irradiated area indeed acts as a pinning barrier for the domain wall and the pinning strength increases with the anisotropy difference. Varying the thickness of the Co layer provides an additional way to tune the anisotropy, and it is shown that a thinner Co layer gives a higher starting anisotropy thereby allowing tunable DW pinning in a wider range of fields. Finally, we demonstrate that not only the anisotropy itself, but also the width of the anisotropy barrier can be tuned on the length scale of the domain wall.

  19. Total Ionizing Dose Test Report BFR92A NPN 5 GHz Wide Band Transistor from NXP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, Anthony M.; Oldham, Timothy R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this test was to characterize the Philips/NXP BFR92A NPN 5 gigahertz wide band silicon transistor for total dose response. This test shall serves as the radiation lot acceptance test (RLAT) for the lot date code (LDC) 1027. The BFR92A is packaged in a 3-pin plastic SOT23 package. Low dose rate (LDR/ELDRS) irradiations was performed.

  20. Input Correlations for Irradiation Creep of FeCrAl and SiC Based on In-Pile Halden Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, K. A.; Karlsen, T. M.; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2016-05-01

    Swelling and creep behavior of wrought FeCrAl alloys and CVD-SiC, two candidate accident tolerant fuel cladding materials, are being examined using in-pile tests at the Halden reactor. The outcome of these tests are material property correlations that are inputs into fuel performance analysis tools. The results are discussed and compared with what is available in literature from irradiation experiments in other reactors or out-of-pile tests. Specific recommendation on what correlations should be used for swelling, thermal, and irradiation creep for each material are provided in this document.

  1. Core demonstration lead experiments for irradiation in FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Dittmer, J.O.; Jackson, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A major new initiative to develop and irradiate a long-life mixed oxide fuel system in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has been implemented by the Westinghouse Hanford Company at the Hanford Engineering Development Lab. for the US Dept. of Energy. The purpose of this new fuel system, called the Core Demonstration Experiment (CDE), is to demonstrate the capability of achieving a 3-yr life in a prototypical heterogeneous reactor environment under prototypical power and temperature conditions. Three Core Demonstration Lead Experiments (CDLEs) will establish the performance characteristics of entire fuel assemblies of wire-wrapped, large diameter, advanced oxide fuel pins with HT-9 stainless steel alloy cladding and wire wrap and an HT-9 duct. Their performance characteristics provided the basis for design, fabrication, and irradiation of the CDE.

  2. Design of the fuels and materials examination facility (FMEF) neutron radiography facility for irradiated fuel. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, R.L.; Henshall, J.B.

    1981-11-01

    The Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) is a breeder reactor program facility currently under construction at the Hanford Reservation. Major activities carried out in the FMEF are post-irradiation examination of breeder reactor subassemblies, fuel and control pins, and materials; test pin fabrication for use in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF); and Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) of FFTF and Clinch River Breeder Reactor fuel. An important feature of the FMEF is the neutron radiography examination facility which will examine full or partial fuel assemblies at short decay times following long-term reactor irradiation. The neutron source is a one-megawatt TRIGA reactor which supplies intense neutron beams to the two neutron radiography exposure facilities. These two exposure facilities operate simultaneously and independently so that both full fuel assemblies and individual fuel pins can be neutron radiographed in the separate exposure facilities at the same time using collimation systems that are continuously and remotely variable over a wide range of resolutions.

  3. Interaction between age of irradiation and age of testing in the disruption of operant performance using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Bernard M; Joseph, James A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L

    2012-02-01

    Previous research has shown a progressive deterioration in cognitive performance in rats exposed to (56)Fe particles as a function of age. The present experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of age of irradiation independently of the age of testing. Male Fischer-344 rats, 2, 7, 12, and 16 months of age, were exposed to 25-200 cGy of (56)Fe particles (1,000 MeV/n). Following irradiation, the rats were trained to make an operant response on an ascending fixed-ratio reinforcement schedule. When performance was evaluated as a function of both age of irradiation and testing, the results showed a significant effect of age on the dose needed to produce a performance decrement, such that older rats exposed to lower doses of (56)Fe particles showed a performance decrement compared to younger rats. When performance was evaluated as a function of age of irradiation with the age of testing held constant, the results indicated that age of irradiation was a significant factor influencing operant responding, such that older rats tested at similar ages and exposed to similar doses of (56)Fe particles showed similar performance decrements. The results are interpreted as indicating that the performance decrement is not a function of age per se, but instead is dependent upon an interaction between the age of irradiation, the age of testing, and exposure to HZE particles. The nature of these effects and how age of irradiation affects cognitive performance after an interval of 15 to 16 months remains to be established.

  4. Developing and testing solar irradiance forecasting techniques in the Hawaiian Islands region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Hawaíi Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) is developing an operational solar forecasting for the Hawaiian Islands. The system comprises the following three components, covering forecasting horizons from seconds to days ahead. (i) A ground-observation driven advection model, using sky imagery and cloud height data. (ii) A satellite-image based advection model, primarily driven by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery. (iii) A coupled ocean-atmosphere model, using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, including newly available microphysics, shallow convection parameterization, and radiative transfer physics options. The satellite and NWP components provide coverage for the entire island chain, however, lack the resolution in time and space, to accurately forecast ramp events (large changes in irradiance that occur over a short period of time). Knowledge of the magnitude, duration and timing of ramp events are particularly important in Hawaíi due to the small size of the electric grids. Currently, HNEI employs a sky imager and ceilometer installed on the University of Hawaíi campus for high resolution forecasting, however, instrument design and cost limit widespread deployment. We discuss the development and preliminary validation of a new forecasting system based on inexpensive, panoramic (large FOV), off-the-shelf cameras with a cloud base height retrieval algorithm that does not require additional instrumentation.

  5. Physics Characterization of TLD-600 and TLD-700 and Acceptance Testing of New XRAD 160 Biological X-Ray Irradiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yanan

    2: Acceptance testing of new X-RAD 160 Biological X-Ray Irradiator. Purpose: An X-RAD 160 Biological X-Ray Irradiator was recently installed at Duke University to serve as a key device for cellular radiobiology research. The purpose of this study is to perform acceptance testing on the new irradiator for operator radiation safety and irradiation specifications. Methods: The acceptance testing included tests of the following components: (1) Leakage radiation survey, (2) Half-value layer (beam quality), (3) Uniformity, (4) KVp accuracy, (5) Exposure at varying mA (linearity of mA), (6) Exposure at varying kVp, (7) Inverse square measurements, (8) Field size measurement, (9) Exposure constancy. The irradiation parameters for each components of first round of acceptance testing performed on September 21, 2012 were: Leakage radiation survey (none, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 200s), Beam quality (40cm, 50-140 kVp in 10 kVp incensement, 1 mA, 10s, none), Uniformity (40cm, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 15s, F1), KVp accuracy (40cm, 50-150 kVp in 10 kVp incensement, 10 mA, 15s, none), Linearity of mA (40cm, 160 kVp, 2-18 mA, 15s, none), Inverse square measurements (20-63cm, 160 kVp, 1mA, 30s, none), Field size measurement (40cm, 160 kVp, 10 mA, 15s, none), Exposure constancy (40cm, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 20s, none). The irradiation parameters for each components for each components of second round of acceptance testing performed on November 18, 2012 were: Beam quality (40cm, 35-150 kVp, 1 mA, 10s, F1), KVp accuracy (40cm, 35-150 kVp, 1 mA, 10s, F1), Variation of kVp (40cm, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 30s, F1), Linearity of mA (40cm, 160 kVp, 1-18 mA, 30s, F1), Uniformity (40cm, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 30s, F1), Inverse square measurements (20-63cm, 160 kVp, 18 mA, 30s, F1). Results: The first round of acceptance testing performed on September 21, 2012 failed due to the fact that the measured exposure along the X-axis was significantly non-uniform; the exposure greatly decreases going in the left direction, which is a clear

  6. Engineered pinning landscapes for enhanced 2G coil wire

    DOE PAGES

    Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Fleshler, Steven; ...

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a twofold increase in the in-field critical current of AMSC's standard 2G coil wire by irradiation with 18-MeV Au ions. The optimum pinning enhancement is achieved with a dose of 6 × 1011 Au ions/cm2. Although the 77 K, self-field critical current is reduced by about 35%, the in-field critical current (H//c) shows a significant enhancement between 4 and 50 K in fields > 1 T. The process was used for the roll-to-roll irradiation of AMSC's standard 46-mm-wide production coated conductor strips, which were further processed into standard copper laminated coil wire. The long-length wires show the samemore » enhancement as attained with short static irradiated samples. The roll-to-roll irradiation process can be incorporated in the standard 2G wire manufacturing, with no modifications to the current process. In conclusion, the enhanced performance of the wire will benefit rotating machine and magnet applications.« less

  7. Engineered pinning landscapes for enhanced 2G coil wire

    SciTech Connect

    Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Fleshler, Steven; Li, Qiang; Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Ozaki, Toshinori; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai -Kwong; Leroux, Maxime; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Miller, Dean J.; Kihlstrom, Karen; Civale, Leonardo; Eley, Serena; Kayani, Asghar

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a twofold increase in the in-field critical current of AMSC's standard 2G coil wire by irradiation with 18-MeV Au ions. The optimum pinning enhancement is achieved with a dose of 6 × 1011 Au ions/cm2. Although the 77 K, self-field critical current is reduced by about 35%, the in-field critical current (H//c) shows a significant enhancement between 4 and 50 K in fields > 1 T. The process was used for the roll-to-roll irradiation of AMSC's standard 46-mm-wide production coated conductor strips, which were further processed into standard copper laminated coil wire. The long-length wires show the same enhancement as attained with short static irradiated samples. The roll-to-roll irradiation process can be incorporated in the standard 2G wire manufacturing, with no modifications to the current process. In conclusion, the enhanced performance of the wire will benefit rotating machine and magnet applications.

  8. Engineered Pinning Landscapes for Enhanced 2G Coil Wire

    DOE PAGES

    Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Fleshler, Steven; ...

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we demonstrate a twofold increase in the in-field critical current of AMSC's standard 2G coil wire by irradiation with 18-MeV Au ions. The optimum pinning enhancement is achieved with a dose of 6 × 1011 Au ions/cm2. Although the 77 K, self-field critical current is reduced by about 35%, the in-field critical current (H//c) shows a significant enhancement between 4 and 50 K in fields > 1 T. The process was used for the roll-to-roll irradiation of AMSC's standard 46-mm-wide production coated conductor strips, which were further processed into standard copper laminated coil wire. The long-length wiresmore » show the same enhancement as attained with short static irradiated samples. The roll-to-roll irradiation process can be incorporated in the standard 2G wire manufacturing, with no modifications to the current process. Finally, the enhanced performance of the wire will benefit rotating machine and magnet applications.« less

  9. Engineered Pinning Landscapes for Enhanced 2G Coil Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Rupich, Martin W.; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Fleshler, Steven; Li, Qiang; Solovyov, Vyacheslav; Ozaki, Toshinori; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Leroux, Maxime; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Miller, Dean J.; Kihlstrom, Karen; Civale, Leonardo; Eley, Serena; Kayani, Asghar

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we demonstrate a twofold increase in the in-field critical current of AMSC's standard 2G coil wire by irradiation with 18-MeV Au ions. The optimum pinning enhancement is achieved with a dose of 6 × 1011 Au ions/cm2. Although the 77 K, self-field critical current is reduced by about 35%, the in-field critical current (H//c) shows a significant enhancement between 4 and 50 K in fields > 1 T. The process was used for the roll-to-roll irradiation of AMSC's standard 46-mm-wide production coated conductor strips, which were further processed into standard copper laminated coil wire. The long-length wires show the same enhancement as attained with short static irradiated samples. The roll-to-roll irradiation process can be incorporated in the standard 2G wire manufacturing, with no modifications to the current process. Finally, the enhanced performance of the wire will benefit rotating machine and magnet applications.

  10. Pin potential effect on vortex pinning in YBa2Cu3O7-δ films containing nanorods: Pin size effect and mixed pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horide, Tomoya; Matsukida, Naoki; Ishimaru, Manabu; Kita, Ryusuke; Awaji, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Kaname

    2017-01-01

    The pin size effect and mixed pinning of nanorods and matrix defects are discussed for YBa2Cu3O7-δ films containing nanorods. BaSnO3 nanorods with a diameter of 11 nm and BaHfO3 nanorods with a diameter of 7 nm were prepared, and critical current density (Jc) and resistivity were measured in the films. When the coherence length was larger than the nanorod size at high temperatures near the critical temperature, the trapping angle and activation energy of the vortex flow depended on the nanorod diameter. At a moderate temperature of 65-77 K, the pin size effect on Jc disappeared since the coherence length became smaller than the nanorod size. At a low temperature of 20 K, the contribution from matrix pinning became comparable to that of nanorods in a high magnetic field due to the small coherence length. Thus, the temperature-dependent coherence length caused the pin potential situation to vary significantly, namely, the pin size effect and mixed pinning, which strongly affected vortex pinning in YBa2Cu3O7-δ containing nanorods.

  11. Pin bearing evaluation of LTM25 composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, C. H.; Postyn, A. S.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes pin bearing evaluations of LTM25 composite materials. Northrop Grumman Corporation conducted pin bearing testing and fabricate two panels from composite materials that cure at low temperatures. These materials are being incorporated into Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS) to reduce manufacturing costs since they allow the use of low-cost tooling and facilities. Two composite prepreg product forms were evaluated; MR50/LTM25 unidirectional tape, batch 2881vd and CFS003/LTM25 woven cloth, batch 2216. Northrop Grumman fabricated, machined, and tested specimens to determine the bearing strength in accordance with MIL-HDBK-17D, Volume 1, Section 7.2.4. Quasi-isotropic laminates from the two product forms were fabricated for these tests. In addition, 2 quasi-isotropic panels of dimensions 12 in. x 28 in. were fabricated (one each from the two product forms), inspected, and shipped to NASA Langley for further evaluation.

  12. Microstructural Characterization of a Mg Matrix U-Mo Dispersion Fuel Plate Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor to High Fission Density: SEM Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Jue, Jan-Fong; Miller, Brandon D.; Gan, Jian; Robinson, Adam B.; Medvedev, Pavel G.; Madden, James W.; Moore, Glenn A.

    2016-06-01

    Low-enriched (U-235 <20 pct) U-Mo dispersion fuel is being developed for use in research and test reactors. In most cases, fuel plates with Al or Al-Si alloy matrices have been tested in the Advanced Test Reactor to support this development. In addition, fuel plates with Mg as the matrix have also been tested. The benefit of using Mg as the matrix is that it potentially will not chemically interact with the U-Mo fuel particles during fabrication or irradiation, whereas with Al and Al-Si alloys such interactions will occur. Fuel plate R9R010 is a Mg matrix fuel plate that was aggressively irradiated in ATR. This fuel plate was irradiated as part of the RERTR-8 experiment at high temperature, high fission rate, and high power, up to high fission density. This paper describes the results of the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of an irradiated fuel plate using polished samples and those produced with a focused ion beam. A follow-up paper will discuss the results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Using SEM, it was observed that even at very aggressive irradiation conditions, negligible chemical interaction occurred between the irradiated U-7Mo fuel particles and Mg matrix; no interconnection of fission gas bubbles from fuel particle to fuel particle was observed; the interconnected fission gas bubbles that were observed in the irradiated U-7Mo particles resulted in some transport of solid fission products to the U-7Mo/Mg interface; the presence of microstructural pathways in some U-9.1 Mo particles that could allow for transport of fission gases did not result in the apparent presence of large porosity at the U-7Mo/Mg interface; and, the Mg-Al interaction layers that were present at the Mg matrix/Al 6061 cladding interface exhibited good radiation stability, i.e. no large pores.

  13. Pinning impulsive control algorithms for complex network

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Wen; Lü, Jinhu; Chen, Shihua; Yu, Xinghuo

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, we further investigate the synchronization of complex dynamical network via pinning control in which a selection of nodes are controlled at discrete times. Different from most existing work, the pinning control algorithms utilize only the impulsive signals at discrete time instants, which may greatly improve the communication channel efficiency and reduce control cost. Two classes of algorithms are designed, one for strongly connected complex network and another for non-strongly connected complex network. It is suggested that in the strongly connected network with suitable coupling strength, a single controller at any one of the network's nodes can always pin the network to its homogeneous solution. In the non-strongly connected case, the location and minimum number of nodes needed to pin the network are determined by the Frobenius normal form of the coupling matrix. In addition, the coupling matrix is not necessarily symmetric or irreducible. Illustrative examples are then given to validate the proposed pinning impulsive control algorithms.

  14. HIGH TEMPERATURE IRRADIATION RESISTANT THERMOCOUPLES – A LOW COST SENSOR FOR IN-PILE TESTING AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie; S. Curtis Wilkins; Joshua E. Daw

    2008-06-01

    Several options have been identified to improve recently-developed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Irradiation Resistant ThermoCouples (HTIR-TCs) for in-pile testing. These options have the potential to reduce fabrication costs and allow HTIR-TC use in higher temperature applications (up to at least 1800 °C). The INL and the University of Idaho (UI) investigated these options with the ultimate objective of providing recommendations for alternate thermocouple designs that are optimized for various applications. This paper summarizes results from these INL/UI investigations. Specifically, results are reported about several options found to enhance HTIR-TC performance, such as improved heat treatments, alternate geometries, alternate fabrication techniques, and the use of copper/nickel alloys as soft extension cable.

  15. Radiation effects on rat testes. VIII. Kinetic properties of hydrolases following partial body gamma irradiation of rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G S; Bawa, S R

    1975-05-01

    Kinetic properties such as Michaelis constant (Km), maximum velocity (Vmax), temperature coefficient (Q10) and energy of activation (Ea) for hydrolysis of adenosine-5'-phosphate at pH 9.5 and sodium pyrophosphate at pH 8.35 by normal and radiated testes supernatants have been described. Kinetic parameters are related to respective phosphohydrolases (phosphatases). (1) Km values for 5'nucleotidase and inorganic pyrophosphatase of normal testis were determined as 1.25 X 10(-3)M and 0.81 X 10(-3)M respectively; (II) Vmax correspond to 318 mug P/15 min and 430 mug P/15 min for 100 mg tissue respectively; (III) Q10 for 5 nucleotidase is 1.7 and for inorganic pyrophosphatase is 4.2 at a temperature 10-30degreesC; (IV) Ea for hydrolysis of AMP and sodium pyrophosphate were calculated by Arrhenius plots as 17000 and 9000 cal/mol. (V) Km values for irradiated enzymes are similar to the control values suggesting that the binding capacities of these enzymes with their substrates remain unaffected after radiation; (VI) Vmax for radiated enzymes correspond to a value of 500 mug P/100 mg tissue/15 min for 5'nucleotidase and 118 mug P/100 mug tissue/15 min for inorganic pyrophosphatase; (VII) 110 for 5'nucleotidase is 2.2 and inorganic pyrophosphatase 1.16 at 10-30degreesC; (VIII) Ea for irradiated 5'nucleotidase is comparable to those of normal rats whereas for inorganic pyrophosphatase Ea is moderately declined. The observed changes have been related to the different types of metabolic activity in germinal and nongerminal cells of testes.

  16. Detail of "pin" or large bolt used to assemble the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of "pin" or large bolt used to assemble the truss pieces. This "pin" is on pony truss; similar pins were used on movable span. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  17. Nanoscale pinning effect evaluated from deformed nanobubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshima, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Takashi; Takahashi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Classical thermodynamics theory predicts that nanosized bubbles should disappear in a few hundred microseconds. The surprisingly long lifetime and stability of nanobubbles are therefore interesting research subjects. It has been proposed that the stability of nanobubbles arises through pinning of the three-phase contact line, which results from intrinsic nanoscale geometrical and chemical heterogeneities of the substrate. However, a definitive explanation of nanobubble stability is still lacking. In this work, we examined the stability mechanism by introducing a "pinning force." We investigated nanobubbles at a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite/pure water interface by peak force quantitative nano-mechanical mapping and estimated the pinning force and determined its maximum value. We then observed the shape of shrinking nanobubbles. Because the diameter of the shrinking nanobubbles was pinned, the height decreased and the contact angle increased. This phenomenon implies that the stability results from the pinning force, which flattens the bubble through the pinned three-phase contact line and prevents the Laplace pressure from increasing. The pinning force can also explain the metastability of coalesced nanobubbles, which have two semispherical parts that are joined to form a dumbbell-like shape. The pinning force of the semispherical parts was stronger than that of the joint region. This result demonstrates that the contact line of the semispherical parts is pinned strongly to keep the dumbbell-like shape. Furthermore, we proposed a nanobubble generation mechanism for the solvent-exchange method and explained why the pinning force of large nanobubbles was not initially at its maximum value, as it was for small nanobubbles.

  18. Nanoscale pinning effect evaluated from deformed nanobubbles.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Takashi; Takahashi, Koji

    2017-01-07

    Classical thermodynamics theory predicts that nanosized bubbles should disappear in a few hundred microseconds. The surprisingly long lifetime and stability of nanobubbles are therefore interesting research subjects. It has been proposed that the stability of nanobubbles arises through pinning of the three-phase contact line, which results from intrinsic nanoscale geometrical and chemical heterogeneities of the substrate. However, a definitive explanation of nanobubble stability is still lacking. In this work, we examined the stability mechanism by introducing a "pinning force." We investigated nanobubbles at a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite/pure water interface by peak force quantitative nano-mechanical mapping and estimated the pinning force and determined its maximum value. We then observed the shape of shrinking nanobubbles. Because the diameter of the shrinking nanobubbles was pinned, the height decreased and the contact angle increased. This phenomenon implies that the stability results from the pinning force, which flattens the bubble through the pinned three-phase contact line and prevents the Laplace pressure from increasing. The pinning force can also explain the metastability of coalesced nanobubbles, which have two semispherical parts that are joined to form a dumbbell-like shape. The pinning force of the semispherical parts was stronger than that of the joint region. This result demonstrates that the contact line of the semispherical parts is pinned strongly to keep the dumbbell-like shape. Furthermore, we proposed a nanobubble generation mechanism for the solvent-exchange method and explained why the pinning force of large nanobubbles was not initially at its maximum value, as it was for small nanobubbles.

  19. Ilizarov fixator pin site care: the role of crusts in the prevention of infection.

    PubMed

    Britten, Simon; Ghoz, Ali; Duffield, Beverley; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2013-10-01

    Pin site infection is one of the most common local complications after procedures using the Ilizarov fine wire fixator. In this study, the rate of infection was investigated in two groups of patients, representing two consecutive case series, undergoing fracture stabilisation or lower limb reconstruction using an Ilizarov fine wire fixator. Both groups received identical Russian-style pin site care, except in the first Group A where the crusts of dried exudate were removed at the time of pin site cleaning; while in the subsequent Group B, the adherent crusts were retained during cleaning. Pin site infection was diagnosed if the site was painful and inflamed or discharging. The first infected pin site while the fixator remained in situ was considered the outcome of interest. Group A consisted of 59 patients and Group B of 33 patients. A lower proportion of patients in Group B (12/33 - 36%) developed a pin site infection compared to Group A (36/59 - 61%) (p=0.023). However, once infection had developed, a greater proportion of patients in Group B required more than one course of antibiotics to treat the infection when compared to patients in Group A (p=0.005). No patient required hospitalisation for intravenous antibiotics or wire change in Group B (0/33), whereas 3/59 patients required hospitalisation in Group A; but this did not reach statistical significance (Chi-squared test, p=0.18). Retention of adherent crusts during Ilizarov fixator pin site care significantly protects against the development of pin site infection, but renders subsequently infected pin sites more refractory to treatment. This study therefore suggests that crusts should be retained as long as a pin site remains uninfected. Retained crusts may act as a physical barrier to bacterial contamination ('biological dressing').

  20. On tests of equal effect per fraction in microcolony assays of survival after fractionated irradiations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J M

    1985-01-01

    H. D. Thames, Jr. and H. R. Withers [Br. J. Radiol. 53, 1071-1077 (1980)] propose a test of an equal effect per fraction in microcolony assays after fractionated radiation, in which the total effect is measured by counting microcolonies derived from surviving cells in a tissue. The factors considered to influence the cytocidal effect per fraction are incomplete repair, repopulation, and synchrony. The statistics used in the method are criticized and conditions are given under which the test should not be used. An alternative method of testing for an equal effect per fraction is proposed. The pros and cons of each test are discussed and compared using some mouse jejunal crypt cell survival data.

  1. Imminent: Irradiation Testing of (Th,Pu)O{sub 2} Fuel - 13560

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Julian F.; Franceschini, Fausto

    2013-07-01

    Commercial-prototype thorium-plutonium oxide (Th-MOX) fuel pellets have been loaded into the material test reactor in Halden, Norway. The fuel is being operated at full power - with instrumentation - in simulated LWR / PHWR conditions and its behaviour is measured 'on-line' as it operates to high burn-up. This is a vital test on the commercialization pathway for this robust new thoria-based fuel. The performance data that is collected will support a fuel modeling effort to support its safety qualification. Several different samples of Th-MOX fuel will be tested, thereby collecting information on ceramic behaviours and their microstructure dependency. The fuel-cycle reasoning underpinning the test campaign is that commercial Th- MOX fuels are an achievable intermediate / near-term SNF management strategy that integrates well with a fast reactor future. (authors)

  2. Summary of Thermocouple Performance During Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor and Out-of-Pile Thermocouple Testing in Support of Such Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    A. J. Palmer; DC Haggard; J. W. Herter; M. Scervini; W. D. Swank; D. L. Knudson; R. S. Cherry

    2011-07-01

    High temperature gas reactor experiments create unique challenges for thermocouple based temperature measurements. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. This drift is particularly severe for high temperature platinum-rhodium thermocouples (Types S, R, and B); and tungsten-rhenium thermocouples (Types C and W). For lower temperature applications, previous experiences with type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluxes. Currently the use of these Nickel based thermocouples is limited when the temperature exceeds 1000°C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. High rates of open-circuit failure are also typical. Over the past ten years, three long-term Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments have been conducted with measured temperatures ranging from 700oC – 1200oC. A variety of standard Type N and specialty thermocouple designs have been used in these experiments with mixed results. A brief summary of thermocouple performance in these experiments is provided. Most recently, out of pile testing has been conducted on a variety of Type N thermocouple designs at the following (nominal) temperatures and durations: 1150oC and 1200oC for 2000 hours at each temperature, followed by 200 hours at 1250oC, and 200 hours at 1300oC. The standard Type N design utilizes high purity crushed MgO insulation and an Inconel 600 sheath. Several variations on the standard Type N design were tested, including Haynes 214 alloy sheath, spinel (MgAl2O4) insulation instead of MgO, a customized sheath developed at the University of Cambridge, and finally a loose assembly thermocouple with hard fired alumina

  3. Summary of thermocouple performance during advanced gas reactor fuel irradiation experiments in the advanced test reactor and out-of-pile thermocouple testing in support of such experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, A. J.; Haggard, DC; Herter, J. W.; Swank, W. D.; Knudson, D. L.; Cherry, R. S.; Scervini, M.

    2015-07-01

    High temperature gas reactor experiments create unique challenges for thermocouple-based temperature measurements. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time-dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time-dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. This drift is particularly severe for high temperature platinum-rhodium thermocouples (Types S, R, and B) and tungsten-rhenium thermocouples (Type C). For lower temperature applications, previous experiences with Type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly, Type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluence. Currently, the use of these nickel-based thermocouples is limited when the temperature exceeds 1000 deg. C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. High rates of open-circuit failure are also typical. Over the past 10 years, three long-term Advanced Gas Reactor experiments have been conducted with measured temperatures ranging from 700 deg. C - 1200 deg. C. A variety of standard Type N and specialty thermocouple designs have been used in these experiments with mixed results. A brief summary of thermocouple performance in these experiments is provided. Most recently, out-of-pile testing has been conducted on a variety of Type N thermocouple designs at the following (nominal) temperatures and durations: 1150 deg. C and 1200 deg. C for 2,000 hours at each temperature, followed by 200 hours at 1250 deg. C and 200 hours at 1300 deg. C. The standard Type N design utilizes high purity, crushed MgO insulation and an Inconel 600 sheath. Several variations on the standard Type N design were tested, including a Haynes 214 alloy sheath, spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) insulation instead of MgO, a customized sheath developed at the University of Cambridge, and finally a loose assembly

  4. Pin-Retraction Mechanism On Quick-Release Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Malcolm

    1994-01-01

    Quick-release cover includes pin-retraction mechanism releasing cover quickly from lower of two sets of pin connections holding cover. Cover released at top by pulling lever as described in "Lever-Arm Pin Puller" (NPO-18788). Removal of cover begins when technician or robot pulls upper-pin-release lever. Cover swings downward until tabs on lower pins are pulled through slots in their receptacles. Lower pins are then free.

  5. Pinning controllability of complex networks with community structure.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qingying; Tang, Yang; Kurths, Jürgen; Fang, Jian-an; Wong, W K

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we study the controllability of networks with different numbers of communities and various strengths of community structure. By means of simulations, we show that the degree descending pinning scheme performs best among several considered pinning schemes under a small number of pinned nodes, while the degree ascending pinning scheme is becoming more powerful by increasing the number of pinned nodes. It is found that increasing the number of communities or reducing the strength of community structure is beneficial for the enhancement of the controllability. Moreover, it is revealed that the pinning scheme with evenly distributed pinned nodes among communities outperforms other kinds of considered pinning schemes.

  6. Fabrication of ORNL Fuel Irradiated in the Peach Bottom Reactor and Postirradiation Examination of Recycle Test Elements 7 and 4

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Jr. E.L.

    2001-10-25

    Seven full-sized Peach Bottom Reactor. fuel elements were fabricated in a cooperative effort by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Gulf General Atomic (GGA) as part of the National HTGR Fuel Recycle Development Program. These elements contain bonded fuel rods and loose beds of particles made from several combinations of fertile and fissile particles of interest for present and future use in the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). The portion of the fuel prepared for these elements by ORNL is described in detail in this report, and it is in conjunction with the GGA report (GA-10109) a complete fabrication description of the test. In addition, this report describes the results obtained to date from postirradiation examination of the first two elements removed from the Peach Bottom Reactor, RTE-7 and -4. The fuel examined had relatively low exposure, up to about 1.5 x 10{sup 21} neutrons/cm* fast (>0.18 MeV) fluence, compared with the peak anticipated HTGR fluence of 8.0 x 10{sup 21}, but it has performed well at this exposure. Dimensional data indicate greater irradiation shrinkage than expected from accelerated test data to higher exposures. This suggests that either the method of extrapolation of the higher exposure data back to low exposure is faulty, or the behavior of the coated particles in the neutron spectrum characteristic of the accelerated tests does not adequately represent the behavior in an HTGR spectrum.

  7. Are fern stomatal responses to different stimuli coordinated? Testing responses to light, vapor pressure deficit, and CO2 for diverse species grown under contrasting irradiances.

    PubMed

    Creese, Chris; Oberbauer, Steve; Rundel, Phil; Sack, Lawren

    2014-10-01

    The stomatal behavior of ferns provides an excellent system for disentangling responses to different environmental signals, which balance carbon gain against water loss. Here, we measured responses of stomatal conductance (gs ) to irradiance, CO2 , and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) for 13 phylogenetically diverse species native to open and shaded habitats, grown under high- and low-irradiance treatments. We tested two main hypotheses: that plants adapted and grown in high-irradiance environments would have greater responsiveness to all stimuli given higher flux rates; and that species' responsiveness to different factors would be correlated because of the relative simplicity of fern stomatal control. We found that species with higher light-saturated gs had larger responses, and that plants grown under high irradiance were more responsive to all stimuli. Open habitat species showed greater responsiveness to irradiance and CO2 , but lower responsiveness to VPD; a case of plasticity and adaptation tending in different directions. Responses of gs to irradiance and VPD were positively correlated across species, but CO2 responses were independent and highly variable. The novel finding of correlations among stomatal responses to different stimuli suggests coordination of hydraulic and photosynthetic signaling networks modulating fern stomatal responses, which show distinct optimization at growth and evolutionary time-scales.

  8. In-pile irradiation research at NRI Rez for corrosion and material testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kysela, J.

    1995-09-01

    Experimental test facility enabling exposition of materials to radiation environment is described. The facility enables research on behavior of materials and water chemistry of PWRs and BWRs. High pressure water loop RVS-3 is operated in LVR-15 test research reactor. The loop was designed as a universal facility providing wide experimental possibilities. Loop is designed for 16.7 MPa pressure, 334 C temperature, 10 t/hour water flow rate and 1.10{sup 14}cm{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}s{sup {minus}1} neutron flux. Water chemistry used corresponds the PWRs with boric acid and pH control by potassium/lithium, hydrogen control by gas or ammonia. BWR loop is designed for investigation of structural materials and Water chemistry in conditions of boiling water power reactors.

  9. Effect of electron beam irradiation and microencapsulation on the flame retardancy of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer materials during hot water ageing test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Haibo; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Bibo; Yu, Bin; Shi, Yongqian; Song, Lei; Kundu, Chanchal Kumar; Tao, Youji; Jie, Ganxin; Feng, Hao; Hu, Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MCAPP) in combination with polyester polyurethane (TPU) was used to flame retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA). The EVA composites with different irradiation doses were immersed in hot water (80 °C) to accelerate ageing process. The microencapsulation and irradiation dose ensured positive impacts on the properties of the EVA composites in terms of better dimensional stability and flame retardant performance. The microencapsulation of APP could lower its solubility in water and the higher irradiation dose led to the more MCAPP immobilized in three dimensional crosslinked structure of the EVA matrix which could jointly enhance the flame retardant and electrical insulation properties of the EVA composites. So, the EVA composites with 180 kGy irradiation dose exhibited better dimensional stability than the EVA composites with 120 kGy due to the higher crosslinking degree. Moreover, the higher irradiation dose lead to the more MCAPP immobilizated in crosslinked three-dimensional structure of EVA, enhancing the flame retardancy and electrical insulation properties of the EVA composites. After ageing test in hot water at 80 °C for 2 weeks, the EVA/TPU/MCAPP composite with 180 kGy could still maintain the UL-94 V-0 rating and the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value was as high as 30%. This investigation indicated the flame retardant EVA cable containing MCAPP could achieve stable properties and lower electrical fire hazard risk during long-term hot water ageing test.

  10. High flux pinning efficiency by columnar defects dispersed in three directions in YBCO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueyoshi, Tetsuro; Nishimura, Takahiro; Fujiyoshi, Takanori; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Ishikawa, Norito

    2016-10-01

    A systematic investigation of flux pinning by widely direction-dispersed columnar defects (CDs) in YBa2Cu3O y thin films was carried out by using heavy-ion irradiation: a parallel configuration of CDs aligned along the c-axis, and two trimodal splay configurations composed of CDs crossing at 0° and ± 45° relative to the c-axis, where the splay plane defined by the three irradiation angles is perpendicular (trimodal-A) or parallel (trimodal-B) to the transport current direction. The trimodal configurations show high pinning efficiency over a wide range of magnetic field orientations compared to the parallel one at low magnetic field. In particular, trimodal-B shows the higher critical current density of the two trimodal configurations. The crossed CDs at ± 45° in the trimodal configurations provide uncorrelated flux pinning at B || c due to the large tilting angle off the c-axis, which effectively reinforce the flux pinning of CDs parallel to the c-axis. This assist effect is more remarkable for trimodal-B: a kink sliding motion of flux lines along the CDs is more effectively reduced by the splay plane, not only at B || c but also at inclined magnetic fields off the c-axis.

  11. Experimental study of the mechanical behaviour of pin reinforced foam core sandwich materials under shear load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimassi, M. A.; Brauner, C.; Herrmann, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Sandwich structures with a lightweight closed cell hard foam core have the potential to be used in primary structures of commercial aircrafts. Compared to honeycomb core sandwich, the closed cell foam core sandwich overcomes the issue of moisture take up and makes the manufacturing of low priced and highly integrated structures possible. However, lightweight foam core sandwich materials are prone to failure by localised external loads like low velocity impacts. Invisible cracks could grow in the foam core and threaten the integrity of the structure. In order to enhance the out-of-plane properties of foam core sandwich structures and to improve the damage tolerance (DT) dry fibre bundles are inserted in the foam core. The pins are infused with resin and co-cured with the dry fabric face sheets in an out-of-autoclave process. This study presents the results obtained from shear tests following DIN 53294-standard, on flat sandwich panels. All panels were manufactured with pin-reinforcement manufactured with the Tied Foam Core Technology (TFC) developed by Airbus. The effects of pin material (CFRP and GFRP) and pin volume fraction on the shear properties of the sandwich structure and the crack propagation were investigated and compared to a not pinned reference. It has been concluded that the pin volume fraction has a remarkable effect on the shear properties and damage tolerance of the observed structure. Increasing the pin volume fraction makes the effect of crack redirection more obvious and conserves the integrity of the structure after crack occurrence.

  12. Cyclohexyl Ketone Inhibitors of Pin1 Dock in a Trans-Diaxial Cyclohexane Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guoyan G.; Slebodnick, Carla; Etzkorn, Felicia A.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclohexyl ketone substrate analogue inhibitors (Ac–pSer-Ψ[C = OCH]-Pip–tryptamine) of Pin1, the cell cycle regulatory peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase), were designed and synthesized as potential electrophilic acceptors for the Pin1 active site Cys113 nucleophile to test a proposed nucleophilic addition-isomerization mechanism. Because they were weak inhibitors, models of all three stereoisomers were docked into the active site of Pin1. Each isomer consistently minimized to a trans-diaxial cyclohexane conformation. From this, we hypothesize that Pin1 stretches substrates into a trans-pyrrolidine conformation to lower the barrier to isomerization. Our reduced amide inhibitor of Pin1 adopted a similar trans-pyrrolidine conformation in the crystal structure. The molecular model of 1, which mimics the l-Ser-l-Pro stereochemistry, in the Pin1 active site showed a distance of 4.4 Å, and an angle of 31° between Cys113-S and the ketone carbon. The computational models suggest that the mechanism of Pin1 PPIase is not likely to proceed through nucleophilic addition. PMID:23028504

  13. Pretransplant pulmonary function tests predict risk of mortality following fractionated total body irradiation and allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Anurag K. . E-mail: singan@mail.nih.gov; Karimpour, Shervin E.; Savani, Bipin N.; Guion, Peter M.S.; Hope, Andrew J.; Mansueti, John R.; Ning, Holly; Altemus, Rosemary M. Ph.D.; Wu, Colin O.; Barrett, A. John

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) done before peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) in predicting mortality after total body irradiation (TBI) performed with or without dose reduction to the lung. Methods and Materials: From 1997 to 2004, 146 consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies received fractionated TBI before PBSCT. With regimen A (n = 85), patients were treated without lung dose reduction to 13.6 gray (Gy). In regimen B (n = 35), total body dose was decreased to 12 Gy (1.5 Gy twice per day for 4 days) and lung dose was limited to 9 Gy by use of lung shielding. In regimen C (n = 26), lung dose was reduced to 6 Gy. All patients received PFTs before treatment, 90 days after treatment, and annually. Results: Median follow-up was 44 months (range, 12-90 months). Sixty-one patients had combined ventilation/diffusion capacity deficits defined as both a forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV{sub 1}) and a diffusion capacity of carbon dioxide (DLCO) <100% predicted. In this group, there was a 20% improvement in one-year overall survival with lung dose reduction (70 vs. 50%, log-rank test p = 0.042). Conclusion: Among those with combined ventilation/diffusion capacity deficits, lung dose reduction during TBI significantly improved survival.

  14. Thermal Cycling and High Temperature Reverse Bias Testing of Control and Irradiated Gallium Nitride Power Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Boomer, Kristen T.; Scheick, Leif; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The power systems for use in NASA space missions must work reliably under harsh conditions including radiation, thermal cycling, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Gallium nitride semiconductors show great promise, but information pertaining to their performance is scarce. Gallium nitride N-channel enhancement-mode field effect transistors made by EPC Corporation in a 2nd generation of manufacturing were exposed to radiation followed by long-term thermal cycling and testing under high temperature reverse bias conditions in order to address their reliability for use in space missions. Result of the experimental work are presented and discussed.

  15. JESD57 Test Standard, Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation Revision Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The JEDEC JESD57 test standard, Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation, is undergoing its first revision since 1996. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key proposed updates to the document.

  16. The problem of the open safety pin.

    PubMed

    Marsh, B R

    1975-01-01

    The open safety pin lodged in the stomach or esophagus presents a challenge to surgical judgment and technical skill. Most foreign bodies causing trouble lodge in the esophagus. Once in the stomach, uneventful passage can be expected in 80 to 90% of cases. Active intervention is reserved for those where intestinal performation is likely or where there is failure to progress. We have used the fiberesophagoscope to remove three open safety pins from the stomachs of two patients whose symptoms and threat of perforation required intervention. The microbiopsy forceps was used successfully to retrieve the open pins, but a newly developed grasping forceps for use with the fiberesophagoscope now provides a more secure hold on such foreign bodies. Rigid instruments retain their value for selected cases, but the flexible equipment now provides an important advance in the management of the open safety pin in the stomach.

  17. Nucleophosmin Interacts with PIN2/TERF1-interacting Telomerase Inhibitor 1 (PinX1) and Attenuates the PinX1 Inhibition on Telomerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Derek Hang-Cheong; Ho, Sai-Tim; Lau, Kwok-Fai; Jin, Rui; Wang, Ya-Nan; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Jun-Jian; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2017-01-01

    Telomerase activation and telomere maintenance are critical for cellular immortalization and transformation. PIN2/TERF1-interacting telomerase inhibitor 1 (PinX1) is a telomerase regulator and the aberrant expression of PinX1 causes telomere shortening. Identifying PinX1-interacting proteins is important for understanding telomere maintenance. We found that PinX1 directly interacts with nucleophosmin (NPM), a protein that has been shown to positively correlate with telomerase activity. We further showed that PinX1 acts as a linker in the association between NPM and hTERT, the catalytic subunit of telomerase. Additionally, the recruitment of NPM by PinX1 to the telomerase complex could partially attenuate the PinX1-mediated inhibition on telomerase activity. Taken together, our data reveal a novel mechanism that regulates telomerase activation through the interaction between NPM, PinX1 and the telomerase complex. PMID:28255170

  18. Mechanical Property Analysis in the Retracted Pin-Tool (RPT) Region of Friction Stir Welded (FSW) Aluminum Lithium 2195

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey; Oelgoetz, Peter A.

    1999-01-01

    The "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding", was developed at The Marshall Space Flight Center to address process deficiencies unique to the FSW process. The auto-adjustable pin tool, also called the retractable pin-tool (R.PT) automatically withdraws the welding probe of the pin-tool into the pin-tool's shoulder. The primary function of the auto-adjustable pin-tool is to allow for keyhole closeout, necessary for circumferential welding and localized weld repair, and, automated pin-length adjustment for the welding of tapered material thickness. An overview of the RPT hardware is presented. The paper follows with studies conducted using the RPT. The RPT was used to simulate two capabilities; welding tapered material thickness and closing out the keyhole in a circumferential weld. The retracted pin-tool regions in aluminum- lithium 2195 friction stir weldments were studied through mechanical property testing and metallurgical sectioning. Correlation's can be =de between retractable pin-tool programmed parameters, process parameters, microstructure, and resulting weld quality.

  19. Open safety pin in the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Sen, I; Sikder, B; Sinha, R; Paul, R

    2004-04-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are common-day occurrences in Otolaryngologic practice. But an open safety pin in nose with it' s sharp end directed towards roof is a rare incidence, and available literature is silent about this presentation; it is probably, the first of it' s kind being reported. Two cases of safety pins inside the nasal cavity, one open and the other closed, have been presented here with a brief review of literature.

  20. Lightweight Memory-Metal Pin Puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Virginia G.; Johnson, Michael R.; Johnson, A. David

    1991-01-01

    Memory-metal pin puller designed for use in aperture-cover mechanism of camera aboard spacecraft adapted to small-volume instrument environments that must be kept free of contamination. Includes memory-metal wires pulling pin when heated. Small and light in weight, uses relatively simple electronic drive circuitry consisting of timed source of current. Adapted to operate at cryogenic temperatures and in vacuum as well as in normal-temperature environment, cycled large number of times without degradation of performance.

  1. Quick-Release Pin With Lever Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Lever-action quick-release pin operated more easily. Mechanism operated with gloved hand. In modified version, lever added to handle to facilitate actuation. Lever action reduces actuation force. Lever-action pin operated by squeezing on any point of moveable ends of lever and handle together between thumb and forefinger or by simply grasping and squeezing handle and lever with entire hand in more natural grasp.

  2. Paralogous radiations of PIN proteins with multiple origins of noncanonical PIN structure.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Tom; Brockington, Samuel F; Rothfels, Carl; Graham, Sean W; Stevenson, Dennis; Kutchan, Toni; Rolf, Megan; Thomas, Philip; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Leyser, Ottoline; Glover, Beverley J; Harrison, C Jill

    2014-08-01

    The plant hormone auxin is a conserved regulator of development which has been implicated in the generation of morphological novelty. PIN-FORMED1 (PIN) auxin efflux carriers are central to auxin function by regulating its distribution. PIN family members have divergent structures and cellular localizations, but the origin and evolutionary significance of this variation is unresolved. To characterize PIN family evolution, we have undertaken phylogenetic and structural analyses with a massive increase in taxon sampling over previous studies. Our phylogeny shows that following the divergence of the bryophyte and lycophyte lineages, two deep duplication events gave rise to three distinct lineages of PIN proteins in euphyllophytes. Subsequent independent radiations within each of these lineages were taxonomically asymmetric, giving rise to at least 21 clades of PIN proteins, of which 15 are revealed here for the first time. Although most PIN protein clades share a conserved canonical structure with a modular central loop domain, a small number of noncanonical clades dispersed across the phylogeny have highly divergent protein structure. We propose that PIN proteins underwent sub- and neofunctionalization with substantial modification to protein structure throughout plant evolution. Our results have important implications for plant evolution as they suggest that structurally divergent PIN proteins that arose in paralogous radiations contributed to the convergent evolution of organ systems in different land plant lineages.

  3. Computer simulation of vortex pinning in type II superconductors. II. Random point pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, E. H.

    1983-10-01

    Pinning of vortices in a type II superconductor by randomly positioned identical point pins is simulated using the two-dimensional method described in a previous paper (Part I). The system is characterized by the vortex and pin numbers ( N v , N p ), the vortex and pin interaction ranges ( R v , R p ), and the amplitude of the pin potential A p . The computation is performed for many cases: dilute or dense, sharp or soft, attractive or repulsive, weak or strong pins, and ideal or amorphous vortex lattice. The total pinning force F as a function of the mean vortex displacement X increases first linearly (over a distance usually much smaller than the vortex spacing and than R p ) and then saturates, fluctuating about its averagebar F. We interpretbar F as the maximum pinning force j c B of a large specimen. For weak pins the prediction of Larkin and Ovchinnikov for two-dimensional collective pinning is confirmed:bar F=const·bar W/ R p c 66, wherebar W is the mean square pinning force and c 66 is the shear modulus of the vortex lattice. If the initial vortex lattice is chosen highly defective (“amorphous”) the constant is 1.3 3 times larger than for the ideal triangular lattice. This finding may explain the often observed “history effect”. The functionbar F( A p ) exhibits a jump, which for dilute, sharp, attractive pins occurs close to the “threshold value” predicted for isolated pins by Labusch. This jump reflects the onset of plastic deformation of the vortex lattice, and in some cases of vortex trapping, but is not a genuine threshold. For strong pinsbar F˜( N p bar W)1/2 approaches the direct summation limit. For both weak and strong pinning j c B is related to the mean square actual (not maximum) force of each pin. This mean square in general is not proportional to A {/p 2} but, due to relaxation of the vortex lattice, may be smaller or larger than its rigid-lattice limit. Therefore, simple power laws j c ˜ n p A {/p 2} or j c ˜ n p A p in

  4. Determination of X-ray flux using silicon pin diodes

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Robin L.; Holton, James M.; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Garman, Elspeth F.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate measurement of photon flux from an X-ray source, a parameter required to calculate the dose absorbed by the sample, is not yet routinely available at macromolecular crystallography beamlines. The development of a model for determining the photon flux incident on pin diodes is described here, and has been tested on the macromolecular crystallography beamlines at both the Swiss Light Source, Villigen, Switzerland, and the Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, USA, at energies between 4 and 18 keV. These experiments have shown that a simple model based on energy deposition in silicon is sufficient for determining the flux incident on high-quality silicon pin diodes. The derivation and validation of this model is presented, and a web-based tool for the use of the macromolecular crystallography and wider synchrotron community is introduced. PMID:19240326

  5. Raman spectroscopy of PIN hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keya, Kimitaka; Torigoe, Yoshihiro; Toko, Susumu; Yamashita, Daisuke; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Light-induced degradation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a key issue for enhancing competitiveness in solar cell market. A-Si:H films with a lower density of Si-H2 bonds shows higher stability. Here we identified Si-H2 bonds in PIN a-Si:H solar cells fabricated by plasma CVD using Raman spectroscopy. A-Si:H solar cell has a structure of B-doped μc-SiC:H (12.5 nm)/ non-doped a-Si:H (250nm)/ P-doped μc-Si:H (40 nm) on glass substrates (Asahi-VU). By irradiating HeNe laser light from N-layer, peaks correspond to Si-H2 bonds (2100 cm-1) and Si-H bonds (2000 cm-1) have been identified in Raman scattering spectra. The intensity ratio of Si-H2 and Si-H ISiH2/ISiH is found to correlate well to light induced degradation of the cells Therefore, Raman spectroscopy is a promising method for studying origin of light-induced degradation of PIN solar cells.

  6. Swelling of 316 stainless steel and D9 cladding in FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J.

    1986-02-01

    A data base of cladding swelling measurements from postirradiation examinations of FFTF 316 stainless steel clad fuel pins has been developed which is now sufficiently large to compare to previously published cladding swelling data. This comparison of data was motivated by the observation, in the early cycles of FFTF operation, that design swelling correlations had to be adjusted to account for the observed length increases of driver assembly ducts. These original correlations had been developed from nonfueled EBR-II irradiation tests. The recent data indicate that FFTF and EBR-II cladding, from actual fuel pins with similar heats of steel, behave almost identically with respect to fast fluence. The FFTF data further suggest that, above approx.490/sup 0/C, 316 stainless steel (SS) swells in a manner which is essentially independent of irradiation temperature. A comparison of immersion density measurements with the length increases for FFTF driver fuel pins has also shown the 316 SS cladding swelling behavior to be essentially isotropic. D9 cladding (a titanium modified variant of 316 SS) has also been irradiated in FFTF. The data base here is limited, but is large enough to establish the superiority of D9 over 316 SS as an FFTF fuel pin cladding from a swelling point of view.

  7. Flux-pinning mechanism of proximity-coupled planar defects in conventional superconductors: Evidence that magnetic pinning is the dominant pinning mechanism in niobium-titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, L. D.; Lee, P. J.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    1996-03-01

    We propose that a magnetic pinning mechanism is the dominant flux-pinning mechanism of proximity-coupled, planar defects when the field is parallel to the defect. We find compelling evidence that this pinning mechanism is responsible for the strong flux-pinning force exerted by ribbon-shaped α-Ti precipitates and artificial pins in Nb-Ti superconductors, instead of the core pinning mechanism as has been hitherto widely believed. Because the elementary pinning force fp(H) is nonmonotonic when it is optimum (i.e., when the defect thickness t and the proximity length ξN have comparable dimensions), the total pinning force Fp(H) generally does not show temperature scaling. Characteristic changes in the magnitude and shape of Fp(H) at constant T but at different t/ξN (e.g., different Nb-Ti wire diameters) are also direct consequences of the pinning mechanism. The optimum flux-pinning state is a compromise between maximizing fp and getting the highest number density of pins. For a given defect composition this state is reached when t~ξN/3, while for varying defect composition the peak Fp gets higher when ξN is made shorter. Artificial pinning center Nb-Ti wires having short ξN pins appear to be vital for obtaining high Jc at high fields because only then is the elementary pinning force optimized at small pin thicknesses which permit a high number density of vortex-pin interactions and a large bulk pinning force. We find verification of our predictions in experimental Fp(H,T,t) data obtained on special laboratory-scale artificial pinning-center Nb-Ti wires.

  8. Displacement damage induced in iron by gammas and neutrons under irradiation in the IFMIF test cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, S. P.; Fischer, U.

    2011-10-01

    This work presents a complete comparative analysis of the radiation damage induced in iron-based materials in IFMIF by photons and neutrons. The gamma induced damage takes into account, for the first time, both photonuclear and photoatomic reaction mechanisms. The relevant cross sections were taken from available data evaluations. The gamma and neutron radiation fields were calculated by the McDeLicious Monte Carlo code using a 3-D geometry model. Finally the gamma and neutron induced damages in the iron have been assessed inside the IFMIF test cell and the surrounding concrete walls. It was found that the photoatomic mechanism dominates the photonuclear with at least one hundred times higher damage rates. The ratio of the gamma and the neutron induced displacement damage was found to be 10 -3 inside the concrete wall and 10 -5 in the components close to d-Li source. This fraction may increase a few times due to the uncertainty of the evaluated γ-dpa cross sections and the different surviving probabilities for defects produced by gammas and neutrons, nevertheless unlikely exceed 1%.

  9. Improved Quick-Release Pin Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Jay M.

    2007-01-01

    An improved quick-release pin mechanism supplants a prior such mechanism in which the pin bears a shear load to hold two objects together. The prior mechanism, of a ball-locking design, can fail when vibrations cause balls to fall out. The load-bearing pin is an outer tube with a handle at one end (hereafter denoted the near end). Within the outer tube is a spring-loaded inner tube that includes a handle at its near end and a pivoting tab at its far end. The pin is inserted through holes in the objects to be retained and the inner tube is pushed against an offset pivot inside the outer tube to make the tab rotate outward so that it protrudes past the outer diameter of the outer tube, and the spring load maintains this configuration so that the pin cannot be withdrawn through the holes. Pushing the handles together against the spring load moves the locking tab out far enough that the tab becomes free to rotate inward. Then releasing the inner-tube handle causes the tab to be pulled into a resting position inside the outer tube. The pin can then be pulled out through the holes.

  10. Genetic screening test for psoriatic arthritis and UVB irradiation potential responders: A new tool to identify psoriasis subpopulation patients?

    PubMed Central

    Lotti, Torello; Tognetti, Linda; Galeone, Massimiliano; Bruscino, Nicola; Moretti, Silvia; Giorgini, Simonetta

    2011-01-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a psoriasis-associated inflammatory disease of the joints and enthuses. The occurrence of PsA is linked to the complex interplay of gene environment, and immune system. Genetic factors have long been recognized to play an important role in PsA. Genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region have been shown to be associated with PsA. These include genes coded in the HLA region, (especially Class I antigens) and non-HLA genes (i.e., MHC class I chain-related antigen A, MICA, and TNF-α genes). Association studies in PsA have also identified a number of genes outside MHC region, including interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene cluster, killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), and IL-23R genes. Established systemic treatments for moderate-severe psoriasis and PsA may be potentially dangerous and usually time consuming for the patient and often expensive for the National Health Systems. Tests which could predict which subset of psoriatic patients could develop the most severe forms of the disease (i.e., PsA) or will respond to well-established (UVB irradiation) or other systemic treatments are now required. The goal of genetic test screening is to rapidly and safely identify subjects for preventive or early treatment or extended surveillance prior to the onset of signs and symptoms. Genetic tests today represent a reliable investigation procedure which could rapidly and consistently improve the diagnostic ability of the dermatologist and contribute to the early and correct treatment of the different subsets of PsA. PMID:23130225

  11. The chemical constitution of the fuel-clad gap in oxide fuel pins for nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, R. G. J.; Burns, W. G.; Henshaw, J.; Mignanelli, M. A.; Potter, P. E.

    1989-09-01

    An assessment of the chemical equilibria which can occur in the fuel-clad gap of irradiated pins for water-cooled thermal reactors and liquid-sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors is presented. An understanding of such reactions is essential to the elucidation of mechanisms of cladding failure due to fission product elements. Particular attention is given to the variation of the chemical constitution of phases containing the fission product elements caesium, iodine and tellurium. The perturbation by irradiation of the thermal equilibrium concentrations of the gaseous species of these fission product elements has also been assessed in this paper.

  12. ESD testing of the 8S actuator (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Mchugh, Douglas C

    2010-12-03

    The 8S actuator is a hot-wire initiated explosive component used to drive the W76-1 2X Acorn 1V valve. It is known to be safe from human electrostatic discharge (ESD) pin-to-pin and all pin-to-cup stimuli as well as 1 amp/1 watt safe. However low impedance (furniture) ESD stimuli applied pin-to-pin has not been evaluated. Components were tested and the results analyzed. The 8S actuator has been shown to be immune to human and severe furniture ESD, whether applied pin-to-pin or pin-to-cup.

  13. Relaxation and pinning in spark-plasma sintered MgB2 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirsa, M.; Rames, M.; Koblischka, M. R.; Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Berger, K.; Douine, B.

    2016-02-01

    The model of thermally activated relaxation developed and successfully tested on high-T c superconductors (Jirsa et al 2004 Phys. Rev. B 70 0245251) was applied to magnetic data of a bulk spark-plasma sintered MgB2 sample to elucidate its magnetic relaxation behavior. MgB2 and the related borides form a superconductor class lying between classical and high-T c superconductors. In accord with this classification, the relaxation phenomena were found to be about ten times weaker than in cuprates. Vortex pinning analyzed in terms of the field dependence of the pinning force density indicates a combined pinning by normal point-like defects and by grain surfaces. An additional mode of pinning at rather high magnetic fields (of still unknown origin) was observed.

  14. Test Standard Revision Update: JESD57, "Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The JEDEC JESD57 test standard, Procedures for the Measurement of Single-Event Effects in Semiconductor Devices from Heavy-Ion Irradiation, is undergoing its first revision since 1996. In this talk, we place this test standard into context with other relevant radiation test standards to show its importance for single-event effect radiation testing for space applications. We show the range of industry, government, and end-user party involvement in the revision. Finally, we highlight some of the key changes being made and discuss the trade-space in which setting standards must be made to be both useful and broadly adopted.

  15. U.S. Contribution 1994 Summary Report Task T12: Compatibility and irradiation testing of vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1995-03-01

    Vanadium alloys exhibit important advantages as a candidate structural material for fusion first wall/blanket applications. These advantages include fabricability, favorable safety and environmental features, high temperature and high wall load capability, and long lifetime under irradiation. Vanadium alloys with (3-5)% chromium and (3-5)% titanium appear to offer the best combination of properties for first wall/blanket applications. A V-4Cr-4Ti alloy is recommended as the reference composition for the ITER application. This report provides a summary of the R&D conducted during 1994 in support of the ITER Engineering Design Activity. Progress is reported for Vanadium Alloy Production, Welding, Physical Properties, Baseline Mechanical Properties, Corrosion/Compatibility, Neutron Irradiation Effects, Helium Transmutation Effects on Irradiated Alloys, and the Status of Irradiation Experiments. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual reports from this publication.

  16. Miniaturized disk-bend testing, nano-indentation and the microstructure of ion-irradiated titanium aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Petouhoff, N.L.; Ardell, A.J.; Oliver, W.C.; Lucas, B.N.

    1993-09-01

    Effect of ion irradiation on microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-52Al (TiAl) and Ti-26Al (Ti{sub 3}Al) were investigated. The alloys were irradiated with 2 MeV protons and Ar{sup +} ions at low temperatures ({minus}175 to {minus}135C) to max fluences of 4.5 {times} 10{sup 15} Ar{sup +}/cm{sup 2} and 2 {times} 10{sup 17} H{sup +}/cm{sup 2}. Yield strengths of unirradiated TiAl and the fracture strength of unirradiated Ti{sub 3}Al were 367 {plus_minus} 33 MPa and 536 {plus_minus} 30 MPa, respectively, in excellent agreement with published data. Yield strength of TiAl and fracture strength of Ti{sub 3}Al increased as a result of irradiation. Strengths of both alloys were lowest for the samples irradiated to the highest Ar{sup +}-ion dose, but otherwise there was no correlation of strength with dose. The nanohardness of irradiated specimens generally increased with dose, but influence of dose on Young`s modulus was erratic. Plate-shaped defects vacancy in character, and helical dislocations were observed in irradiated TiAl by TEM. The Ar{sup +}-ion irradiation-induced microstructure of Ti{sub 3}Al contained defects producing mottled contrast at 1 dpa and black-spot contrast at 5 dpa. Irradiation-induced loss of long-range order was also observed in both alloys. Influence of these microstructural variables on mechanical behavior is discussed.

  17. An in vitro cell irradiation protocol for testing photopharmaceuticals and the effect of blue, green, and red light on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, S L; Siewert, B; Askes, S H C; Veldhuizen, P; Zwier, R; Heger, Michal; Bonnet, Sylvestre

    2016-05-11

    Traditionally, ultraviolet light (100-400 nm) is considered an exogenous carcinogen while visible light (400-780 nm) is deemed harmless. In this work, a LED irradiation system for in vitro photocytotoxicity testing is described. The LED irradiation system was developed for testing photopharmaceutical drugs, but was used here to determine the basal level response of human cancer cell lines to visible light of different wavelengths, without any photo(chemo)therapeutic. The effects of blue (455 nm, 10.5 mW cm(-2)), green (520 nm, 20.9 mW cm(-2)), and red light (630 nm, 34.4 mW cm(-2)) irradiation was measured for A375 (human malignant melanoma), A431 (human epidermoid carcinoma), A549 (human lung carcinoma), MCF7 (human mammary gland adenocarcinoma), MDA-MB-231 (human mammary gland adenocarcinoma), and U-87 MG (human glioblastoma-grade IV) cell lines. In response to a blue light dose of 19 J cm(-2), three cell lines exhibited a minimal (20%, MDA-MB-231) to moderate (30%, A549 and 60%, A375) reduction in cell viability, compared to dark controls. The other cell lines were not affected. Effective blue light doses that produce a therapeutic response in 50% of the cell population (ED50) compared to dark conditions were found to be 10.9 and 30.5 J cm(-2) for A375 and A549 cells, respectively. No adverse effects were observed in any of the six cell lines irradiated with a 19 J cm(-2) dose of 520 nm (green) or 630 nm (red) light. The results demonstrate that blue light irradiation can have an effect on the viability of certain human cancer cell types and controls should be used in photopharmaceutical testing, which uses high-energy (blue or violet) visible light activation.

  18. Test design description, Volume 1B, Part 2; FSP-1R FFTF test assembly (HF191A): Revision

    SciTech Connect

    McWethy, L.M.

    1989-07-01

    The principal objective of the FSP-1 test series is to provide the required fuel behavior data needed for fuel modeling and data on the performance of Reference Flight System prototypic cladding and liners at goal burnup. The test series includes two reconstitutions, designated FSP-1R and FSP-1RR, respectively. The irradiation times specified are: 150 equivalent full power days (EFPDs) for the initial FSP-1, 300 EFPDs for FSP-1R, and 400 EFPDs for FSP-1RR. A TDD-IB, part 1 document was issued to specify the design and fabrication requirements for fuel pins in the FSP-1R test. This TDD-IB, Part 2 document will specify the requirements for encapsulation of the FSP-1R fuel pins and fabrication of the FSP-1R test assembly. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. The Maize PIN Gene Family of Auxin Transporters.

    PubMed

    Forestan, Cristian; Farinati, Silvia; Varotto, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Auxin is a key regulator of plant development and its differential distribution in plant tissues, established by a polar cell to cell transport, can trigger a wide range of developmental processes. A few members of the two families of auxin efflux transport proteins, PIN-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (ABCB/PGP), have so far been characterized in maize. Nine new Zea mays auxin efflux carriers PIN family members and two maize PIN-like genes have now been identified. Four members of PIN1 (named ZmPIN1a-d) cluster, one gene homologous to AtPIN2 (ZmPIN2), three orthologs of PIN5 (ZmPIN5a-c), one gene paired with AtPIN8 (ZmPIN8), and three monocot-specific PINs (ZmPIN9, ZmPIN10a, and ZmPIN10b) were cloned and the phylogenetic relationships between early-land plants, monocots, and eudicots PIN proteins investigated, including the new maize PIN proteins. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the 12 maize PIN genes, 2 PIN-like genes and ZmABCB1, an ABCB auxin efflux carrier, were analyzed together with protein localization and auxin accumulation patterns in normal conditions and in response to drug applications. ZmPIN gene transcripts have overlapping expression domains in the root apex, during male and female inflorescence differentiation and kernel development. However, some PIN family members have specific tissue localization: ZmPIN1d transcript marks the L1 layer of the shoot apical meristem and inflorescence meristem during the flowering transition and the monocot-specific ZmPIN9 is expressed in the root endodermis and pericycle. The phylogenetic and gene structure analyses together with the expression pattern of the ZmPIN gene family indicate that subfunctionalization of some maize PINs can be associated to the differentiation and development of monocot-specific organs and tissues and might have occurred after the divergence between dicots and monocots.

  20. The Maize PIN Gene Family of Auxin Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Forestan, Cristian; Farinati, Silvia; Varotto, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Auxin is a key regulator of plant development and its differential distribution in plant tissues, established by a polar cell to cell transport, can trigger a wide range of developmental processes. A few members of the two families of auxin efflux transport proteins, PIN-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (ABCB/PGP), have so far been characterized in maize. Nine new Zea mays auxin efflux carriers PIN family members and two maize PIN-like genes have now been identified. Four members of PIN1 (named ZmPIN1a–d) cluster, one gene homologous to AtPIN2 (ZmPIN2), three orthologs of PIN5 (ZmPIN5a–c), one gene paired with AtPIN8 (ZmPIN8), and three monocot-specific PINs (ZmPIN9, ZmPIN10a, and ZmPIN10b) were cloned and the phylogenetic relationships between early-land plants, monocots, and eudicots PIN proteins investigated, including the new maize PIN proteins. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the 12 maize PIN genes, 2 PIN-like genes and ZmABCB1, an ABCB auxin efflux carrier, were analyzed together with protein localization and auxin accumulation patterns in normal conditions and in response to drug applications. ZmPIN gene transcripts have overlapping expression domains in the root apex, during male and female inflorescence differentiation and kernel development. However, some PIN family members have specific tissue localization: ZmPIN1d transcript marks the L1 layer of the shoot apical meristem and inflorescence meristem during the flowering transition and the monocot-specific ZmPIN9 is expressed in the root endodermis and pericycle. The phylogenetic and gene structure analyses together with the expression pattern of the ZmPIN gene family indicate that subfunctionalization of some maize PINs can be associated to the differentiation and development of monocot-specific organs and tissues and might have occurred after the divergence between dicots and monocots. PMID:22639639

  1. Dynamics and Stability of Pinned-Clamped and Clamped-Pinned Cylindrical Shells Conveying Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, A. K.; Wong, S. S. T.; Païdoussis, M. P.

    2001-11-01

    The paper examines the dynamics and stability of fluid-conveying cylindrical shells having pinned-clamped or clamped-pinned boundary conditions, where ``pinned'' is an abbreviation for ``simply supported''. Flügge's equations are used to describe the shell motion, while the fluid-dynamic perturbation pressure is obtained utilizing the linearized potential flow theory. The solution is obtained using two methods - the travelling wave method and the Fourier-transform approach. The results obtained by both methods suggest that the negative damping of the clamped-pinned systems and positive damping of the pinned-clamped systems, observed by previous investigators for any arbitrarily small flow velocity, are simply numerical artefacts; this is reinforced by energy considerations, in which the work done by the fluid on the shell is shown to be zero. Hence, it is concluded that both systems are conservative.

  2. Radon measurements with a PIN photodiode.

    PubMed

    Martín-Martín, A; Gutiérrez-Villanueva, J L; Muñoz, J M; García-Talavera, M; Adamiec, G; Iñiguez, M P

    2006-01-01

    Silicon photodiodes are well suited to detect alphas coming from different sources as neutron reactions or radon daughters. In this work a radon in air detecting device, using an 18x18 mm silicon PIN photodiode is studied. The ionized airborne decay products formed during radon diffusion were focused by an accelerating high voltage to the PIN surface. Several conducting rings were disposed inside a cylindrical PVC vessel in such a way that they reproduced the electric field created by a punctual charge located behind PIN position. Alpha spectra coming from the neutral and ionized species deposited on the PIN surface, dominated by 218Po and 214Po progeny peaks, were recorded for varying conditions. Those include radon concentration from a Pylon source, high voltage (thousands of volts) and PIN inverse bias voltage. Different parameters such as temperature and humidity were also registered during data acquisition. The increase in the particle collection efficiency with respect to zero electric field was compared with the corresponding to a parallel plates configuration. A discussion is made in terms of the most appropriate voltages for different radon concentrations.

  3. Potential of pin-by-pin SPN calculations as an industrial reference

    SciTech Connect

    Fliscounakis, M.; Girardi, E.; Courau, T.; Couyras, D.

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims at analysing the potential of pin-by-pin SP{sub n} calculations to compute the neutronic flux in PWR cores as an alternative to the diffusion approximation. As far as pin-by-pin calculations are concerned, a SPH equivalence is used to preserve the reactions rates. The use of SPH equivalence is a common practice in core diffusion calculations. In this paper, a methodology to generalize the equivalence procedure in the SP{sub n} equations context is presented. In order to verify and validate the equivalence procedure, SP{sub n} calculations are compared to 2D transport reference results obtained with the APOLL02 code. The validation cases consist in 3x3 analytical assembly color sets involving burn-up heterogeneities, UOX/MOX interfaces, and control rods. Considering various energy discretizations (up to 26 groups) and flux development orders (up to 7) for the SP{sub n} equations, results show that 26-group SP{sub 3} calculations are very close to the transport reference (with pin production rates discrepancies < 1%). This proves the high interest of pin-by-pin SP{sub n} calculations as an industrial reference when relying on 26 energy groups combined with SP{sub 3} flux development order. Additionally, the SP{sub n} results are compared to diffusion pin-by-pin calculations, in order to evaluate the potential benefit of using a SP{sub n} solver as an alternative to diffusion. Discrepancies on pin-production rates are less than 1.6% for 6-group SP{sub 3} calculations against 3.2% for 2-group diffusion calculations. This shows that SP{sub n} solvers may be considered as an alternative to multigroup diffusion. (authors)

  4. Full-length U-xPu-10Zr (x = 0, 8, 19 wt.%) fast reactor fuel test in FFTF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. L.; Tsai, Hanchung

    2012-08-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor-1 (IFR-1) experiment performed in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was the only U-Pu-10Zr (Pu-0, 8 and 19 wt.%) metallic fast reactor test with commercial-length (91.4-cm active fuel-column length) conducted to date. With few remaining test reactors, there is little opportunity for performing another test with a long active fuel column. The assembly was irradiated to the goal burnup of 10 at.%. The beginning-of-life (BOL) peak cladding temperature of the hottest pin was 608 °C, cooling to 522 °C at end-of-life (EOL). Selected fuel pins were examined non-destructively using neutron radiography, precision axial gamma scanning, and both laser and spiral contact cladding profilometry. Destructive exams included plenum gas pressure, volume, and gas composition determinations on a number of pins followed by optical metallography, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and alpha and beta-gamma autoradiography on a single U-19Pu-10Zr pin. The post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) showed very few differences compared to the short-pin (34.3-cm fuel column) testing performed on fuels of similar composition in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The fuel column grew axially slightly less than observed in the short pins, but with the same pattern of decreasing growth with increasing Pu content. There was a difference in the fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) in that the maximum cladding penetration by interdiffusion with fuel/fission products did not occur at the top of the fuel column where the cladding temperature is highest, as observed in EBR-II tests. Instead, the more exaggerated fission-rate profile of the FFTF pins resulted in a peak FCCI at ˜0.7 X/L axial location along the fuel column. This resulted from a higher production of rare-earth fission products at this location and a higher ΔT between fuel center and cladding than at core center, together providing more rare earths at the cladding and more FCCI. This behavior could

  5. Experiment Safety Assurance Package for Mixed Oxide Fuel Irradiation in an Average Power Position (I-24) in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    J. M . Ryskamp; R. C. Howard; R. C. Pedersen; S. T. Khericha

    1998-10-01

    The Fissile Material Disposition Program Light Water Reactor Mixed Oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan details a series of test irradiations designed to investigate the use of weapons-grade plutonium in MOX fuel for light water reactors (LWR) (Cowell 1996a, Cowell 1997a, Thoms 1997a). Commercial MOX fuel has been successfully used in overseas reactors for many years; however, weapons-derived test fuel contains small amounts of gallium (about 2 parts per million). A concern exists that the gallium may migrate out of the fuel and into the clad, inducing embrittlement. For preliminary out-of-pile experiments, Wilson (1997) states that intermetallic compound formation is the principal interaction mechanism between zircaloy cladding and gallium. This interaction is very limited by the low mass of gallium, so problems are not expected with the zircaloy cladding, but an in-pile experiment is needed to confirm the out-of-pile experiments. Ryskamp (1998) provides an overview of this experiment and its documentation. The purpose of this Experiment Safety Assurance Package (ESAP) is to demonstrate the safe irradiation and handling of the mixed uranium and plutonium oxide (MOX) Fuel Average Power Test (APT) experiment as required by Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) 3.9.1 (LMITCO 1998). This ESAP addresses the specific operation of the MOX Fuel APT experiment with respect to the operating envelope for irradiation established by the Upgraded Final Safety Analysis Report (UFSAR) Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO 1997a). Experiment handling activities are discussed herein.

  6. In vivo evaluation of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics coating on Steinman pins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Hong, Kug Sun; Baek, Hae-Ri; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung Mee; Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Lee, Hyun-Kyung

    2013-07-01

    Surface coating using ceramics improves the bone bonding strength of an implant. We questioned whether a new type of glass-ceramics (BGS-7) coating (CaO-SiO2 -P2 O5 -B2 O3 ) would improve the osseointegration of Steinman pins (S-pins) both biomechanically and histomorphometrically. An in vivo study was performed using rabbits by inserting three S-pins into each iliac bone. The pins were 2.2-mm S-pins with a coating of 30-μm-thick BGS-7 and 550-nm-thick hydroxyapatite (HA), as opposed to an S-pin without coating. A tensile strength test and histomorphometrical evaluation was performed. In the 2-week group, the BGS-7 implant showed a significantly higher tensile strength than the S-pin. In the 4- and 8-week groups, the BGS-7 implants had significantly higher tensile strengths than the S-pins and HA implants. The histomorphometrical study revealed that the BGS-7 implant had a significantly higher contact ratio than the S-pin and HA implants in the 4-week group. The biomechanical and histomorphometrical tests showed that the BGS-7 coating had superior bone bonding properties than the groups without the coating from the initial stage of insertion. The BGS-7 coating of an S-pin will enhance the bone bonding strength, and there might also be an advantage in human bone bonding.

  7. The effect of temperature on pinning mechanisms in HTS composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikova, A. P.; Rudnev, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Pinning mechanism in samples of second generation tapes (2G) of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) was studied The critical current and the pinning force were calculated from the magnetization curves measured in the temperature range of 4.2 - 77 K in magnetic fields up to 14 Tesla using vibration sample magnetometer. To determine the pinning mechanism the dependences of pinning force on magnetic field were constructed according to the Dew-Hughes model and Kramer's rule. The obtained dependences revealed a significant influence of the temperature on effectiveness of different types of pinning. At low temperatures the 2G HTS tapes of different manufacturers demonstrated an equal efficiency of the pinning centers but with temperature increase the differences in pinning mechanisms as well as in properties and effectiveness of the pinning centers become obvious. The influence of the pinning mechanism on the energy losses in HTS tapes was shown.

  8. Intrafocal pinning for distal radius metaphyseal fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Shital N; Jain, Viral V; Youngquist, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case control study was to evaluate the results of intrafocal pinning for distal radius metaphyseal fractures in children and to compare these results with conventional pinning. Data were collected from medical records and radiographs from patients who underwent closed reduction and percutaneous pinning for distal radius fracture in a Level I trauma center at the authors' institution between 2008 and 2010. Inclusion criteria included a dorsally angulated metaphyseal fracture without physeal involvement, an open distal radius physis, and a follow-up to radiographic union. A total of 10 patients with intrafocal pinning were compared to 26 patients with conventional pinning. Preoperatively, angulation was greater in patients who received intrafocal pinning than conventional pinning based on anteroposterior radiographs. Postoperatively, the 2 groups did not differ in angulation on either anteroposterior or lateral radiographs. One malunion and 2 pin-related complications occurred in the conventional pinning group, and 1 pin-related complication occurred in the intrafocal pinning group. The 2 groups did not differ by age, sex, side of injury, days to surgery, or initial shortening. This study affirms that the intrafocal pinning technique is an alternative to the conventional pinning technique for the stabilization of displaced metaphyseal distal radius fractures in children. Intrafocal pinning can also be used as a reduction tool for fractures that cannot be reduced by closed manipulation. The complications are comparable between the 2 techniques.

  9. A division in PIN-medicated patterning during lateral organ initiation in grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using phlyogenic and gene synteny analysis we identified an angiosperm PIN clade sister to PIN1, here termed SISter-of-PIN1 (soPIN1), which is present in all sampled angiosperms except for Brassicaceae. Additionally, we identified a conserved duplication of PIN1 in the grasses: PIN1a and PIN1b. In...

  10. The Contribution of Pin End-Cup Interactions to Clot Strength Assessed with Thrombelastography.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G

    2016-01-01

    Viscoelastic methods have been developed to assess the contribution of plasma proteins and platelets to coagulation in vitro to guide clinical transfusion therapy. One of the cardinal precepts of determining clot strength is making sure that the viscoelastic technique includes complete exposure of the plastic pin in the testing chamber with the fluid analyzed so as to assure maximal interaction of the cup wall with the pin surface. However, the various contributions of the pin surface area to final clot strength have not been investigated. That is, it is not clear what is more important in the in vitro determination of clot strength, the surface area shared between the cup and pin filled with fluid or the final viscoelastic resistance of the gel matrix formed. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the clot strength when only the tip of the pin was engaged with plasma thrombus and to compare these values with clot strength values obtained when the pin was completely in plasma. After determining the minimal amount of plasma required to cover a pin tip in a thrombelastographic system (30 μL), clot strength (elastic modulus, G) was determined in plasma samples of 30 or 360 μL final volume (n = 12 per condition) after tissue factor activation. The G value with 30 μL volume was 1057 ± 601 dynes/cm (mean ± SD; 95% confidence interval, 675-1439 dynes/cm), which was (P = 0.0015) smaller than the G value associated with 360-μL sample volumes, that was 1712 ± 48 dynes/cm (confidence interval, 1681-1742 dynes/cm). In conclusion, these data demonstrate that clot strength is not determined by a simple ratio of surface area of pin and cup to volume of sample, but rather strength is importantly influenced by the viscoelastic resistance of the fluid assessed.

  11. Cyclic Peptidyl Inhibitors against Human Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Liu, Yu; Kao, Hung-Ying; Pei, Dehua

    2010-01-01

    Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates the function and/or stability of phosphoproteins by altering the conformation of specific pSer/pThr-Pro peptide bonds. In this work, a cyclic peptide library was synthesized and screened against the catalytic domain of human Pin1. The selected inhibitors contained a consensus motif of D-pThr-Pip-Nal (where Pip is L-piperidine-2-carboxylic acid and Nal is L-2-naphthylalanine). Representative compounds were tested for binding to Pin1 by isothermal titration calorimetry and inhibition of Pin1 activity and the most potent inhibitors had KD (and KI) values in the low nanomolar range. Treatment of breast cancer cells with the inhibitors, which were rendered membrane permeable by attachment of an octaarginine sequence, inhibited cell proliferation and increased the protein levels of two previously established Pin1 substrates, PML and SMRT. Finally, a second generation of cell permeable Pin1 inhibitors was designed by replacing the noncritical residues within the cyclic peptide ring with arginine residues and shown to have anti-proliferative activity against the cancer cells. PMID:20180533

  12. Effects of Z-pins on Lamb waves in composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Eric D.; Kapoor, Hitesh; Soni, Som R.

    2010-04-01

    This experimental research investigates the effects of adding z-pins to a carbon fiber reinforced plate (CFRP) on Lamb wave propagation, such as mode conversion and reflections. The motivation for this study is derived from the current and expected future use of z-pins in aircraft structures coupled with the requirement to design structural health monitoring (SHM) systems for detecting damage in regions of composite structures with z-pins. This experimental study is conducted on two 4.8 mm thick CFRP test articles, where one plate has a 20 by 279 mm2 band of z-pins and the other does not. The z-pins have an average diameter of 0.28 mm and are inserted through the thickness of the panel with an area density of 4% before curing. A three-dimensional (3D) laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) was employed to collect velocity measurements over a 1 mm uniformly-spaced grid of 17,899 scan points. Time-sequenced 3D LDV scans are presented to show that adding this relatively small amount of z-pins to a 4.8 mm thick CFRP has few measureable effects on Lamb wave propagation.

  13. Irradiation of Metallic Fuels with Rare Earth Additions for Actinide Transmutation in the Advanced Test Reactor. Experiment Description for AFC-2A and AFC-2B

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Steven L.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), now within the broader context of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. One important component of the technology development is actinide-bearing metallic transmutation fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes. The proposed AFC-2A and AFC-2B irradiation experiments are a continuation of the metallic fuel test series in progress in the ATR. This report documents the experiment description and test matrix of the proposed experiments and the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) and fabrication schedule.

  14. Tests of the radiation hardness of VLSI Integrated Circuits and Silicon Strip Detectors for the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) under neutron, proton, and gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, H.J.; Milner, C.; Sommer, W.F. ); Carteglia, N.; DeWitt, J.; Dorfan, D.; Hubbard, B.; Leslie, J.; O'Shaughnessy, K.F.; Pitzl, D.; Rowe, W.A.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E. . Inst. for Particle Physics); Ellison, J.A. ); Ferguson, P. ); Giubellino

    1990-01-01

    As part of a program to develop a silicon strip central tracking detector system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) we are studying the effects of radiation damage in silicon detectors and their associated front-end readout electronics. We report on the results of neutron and proton irradiations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and {gamma}-ray irradiations at UC Santa Cruz (UCSC). Individual components on single-sided AC-coupled silicon strip detectors and on test structures were tested. Circuits fabricated in a radiation hard CMOS process and individual transistors fabricated using dielectric isolation bipolar technology were also studied. Results indicate that a silicon strip tracking detector system should have a lifetime of at least one decade at the SSC. 17 refs., 17 figs.

  15. Finite element analysis of a novel pin-sleeve system for external fixation of distal limb fractures in horses.

    PubMed

    Brianza, Stefano; Brighenti, Vittoria; Lansdowne, Jennifer L; Schwieger, Karsten; Bouré, Ludovic

    2011-11-01

    The transfixation pin cast (TPC) is an external skeletal fixation technique used to treat horses with distal limb fractures, but its use is often associated with pin-loosening and an increased risk of treatment failure. To address implant loosening, the pin sleeve cast system (PSC) was recently designed and consists of a pin-sleeve unit inserted into the bone. Each pin runs through a sleeve placed in the bone, making contact at two fixed points only within the sleeve. Each pin is attached to a ring embedded in a resin cast. In this report, the mechanical performance of a traditional TPC pin arrangement was compared with that of the PSC using validated finite element models of bone substitutes previously tested in vitro. The PSC resulted in a marked reduction in peak strain magnitude around the pins and a more even distribution of strain across the bone cortex. The two systems resulted in comparable proximal fragment displacement and had a similar stress concentration around bone defects during implant removal. The findings suggest that the PSC load transfer mechanism is effective even in geometrically complex structures like equine bones.

  16. Activity testing of alveolar macrophages and changes in surfactant phospholipids after irradiation in bronchoalveolar lavage: Experimental and clinical data

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, F.; Rehn, B.; Kraus, R.; Quabeck, K.; Bruch, J.; Beelen, D.W.; Schaefer, U.W.; Streffer, C. )

    1992-07-01

    This study presents results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after irradiation to the lungs in mice as well as clinical data. The number of BAL cells, mainly macrophages, lymphocytes, and granulocytes, changed in a time-dependent manner. The phagocytic activity of the macrophages measured as the phagocytosis of microbeads and measured as the esterase activity also showed a strong time-dependent increase during the acute phase up to 21 days after irradiation. The contents of surfactant phospholipids (SF) and sphingomyelin (SPH; as a parameter for cell death) were quantified by HPLC. Both were significantly changed between day 2 and 21 after irradiation. Three BALs of a patient with idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis, who had received an allogenic bone marrow graft after total body irradiation with 10 Gy, showed similar effects in the cellular and surfactant parameters. These data indicate that there are positive interactions between the number of different BAL cells, macrophage activity, and SF and SPH content in the preclinical model of the mouse as well as in the clinical situation after lung irradiation. 30 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Shear punch testing of {sup 59}Ni isotopically-doped model austenitic alloys after irradiation in FFTF at different He/dpa ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Hankin, G.L.; Faulkner, R.G.; Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A.

    1998-03-01

    A series of three model alloys, Fe-15Cr-25Ni, Fe-15Cr-25Ni-0.04P and Fe-15Cr45Ni were irradiated side-by-side in FFTF-MOTA in both the annealed and the cold worked condition in each of two variants, one using naturally occurring isotopic mixtures, and another doped with {sup 59}Ni to generate relatively high helium-to-dpa ratios. Previous papers in this series have addressed the influence of helium on radiation-induced evolution of microstructure, dimensional stability and mechanical properties, the latter using miniature-tensile specimens. In the final paper of this experimental series, three sets of irradiations conducted at different temperatures and displacement rates were examined by shear punch testing of standard microscopy disks. The results were used to determine the influence of helium generation rate, alloy starting condition, irradiation temperature and total neutron exposure. The results were also compared with the miniature tensile data obtained earlier. In general, all alloys approached saturation levels of strength and ductility that were relatively independent of He/dpa ratio and starting condition, but were sensitive to the irradiation temperature and total exposure. Some small influence of helium/dpa ratio on the shear strength is visible in the two series that ran at {approximately}490 C, but is not evident at 365 C.

  18. Theoretical analysis of swelling characteristics of cylindrical uranium dioxide fuel pins with a niobium - 1-percent-zirconium clad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltsman, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The relations between clad creep strain and fuel volume swelling are shown for cylindrical UO2 fuel pins with a Nb-1Zr clad. These relations were obtained by using the computer code CYGRO-2. These clad-strain - fuel-volume-swelling relations may be used with any fuel-volume-swelling model, provided the fuel volume swelling is isotropic and independent of the clad restraints. The effects of clad temperature (over a range from 118 to 1642 K (2010 to 2960 R)), pin diameter, clad thickness and central hole size in the fuel have been investigated. In all calculations the irradiation time was 500 hours. The burnup rate was varied.

  19. Comparison between a silicon PIN diode and a CsI(Tl) coupled to a silicon PIN diode for dosimetric purpose in radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreani, Lucia; Bontempi, Marco; Rossi, Pier Luca; Rignanese, Luigi Pio; Zuffa, Mirco; Baldazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    The use of amorphous Si-PIN diodes showed interesting applications in detector research. Due to their properties and cost effective value, these devices can be used as small dosimeters for fast and real time dose evaluation. The responses of two different detectors to the measurement of X-ray total air KERMA are compared and presented, with the goal to get a dosimetric parameter directly during the X-ray patients exposure. A bare Si-PIN diode and a Si-PIN diode+CsI(Tl) scintillator were tested and compared to radiologic dosimeters. Both detector outputs were calibrated using a secondary reference standard (CAPINTEC PM 30 dosimeter), in order to analyze and discuss the dose and the energy dependence of the detectors in the range of radiologic interest (tube voltage: 40-140 kVp and additional filtration: 0 mm Al to 4 mm Al). The bare Si-PIN diode shows a very coherent response independently from the X-ray beam quality and from the additional filtration. The Si-PIN+CsI(Tl) detector, on the other hand, shows a high spread of the calibration curves as a function of the tube high voltage and the additional filtration. The presented results could be used to calibrate an image detector in dose.

  20. Broken safety pin in bronchus - Anaesthetic considerations.

    PubMed

    Shad, Roona; Agarwal, Aditya

    2012-11-01

    Safety pins are not commonly aspirated objects in infants and form only a small fraction of all the metallic foreign body (FB) which accounts for 4.4% of all foreign bodies found in tracheobronchial tree. Bronchoscopy procedure has various complications, in addition to failure to remove FB due to its impaction, especially with metallic pointed objects ending up in open surgical removal. Infant with inhaled foreign body are always a challenge to anaesthetist. We had one such case of broken safety pin impacted in the wall of right bronchus of an infant with failure to remove on repeated attempts at rigid bronchoscopy.

  1. Broken safety pin in bronchus - Anaesthetic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Shad, Roona; Agarwal, Aditya

    2012-01-01

    Safety pins are not commonly aspirated objects in infants and form only a small fraction of all the metallic foreign body (FB) which accounts for 4.4% of all foreign bodies found in tracheobronchial tree. Bronchoscopy procedure has various complications, in addition to failure to remove FB due to its impaction, especially with metallic pointed objects ending up in open surgical removal. Infant with inhaled foreign body are always a challenge to anaesthetist. We had one such case of broken safety pin impacted in the wall of right bronchus of an infant with failure to remove on repeated attempts at rigid bronchoscopy. PMID:23325944

  2. Self-Pinning on a Liquid Surface.

    PubMed

    Antoine, C; Irvoas, J; Schwarzenberger, K; Eckert, K; Wodlei, F; Pimienta, V

    2016-02-04

    We report on the first experimental evidence of a self-pinning liquid drop on a liquid surface. This particular regime is observed for a miscible heavier oil drop (dichloromethane) deposited on an aqueous solution laden by an ionic surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide). Experimental characterization of the drop shape evolution coupled to particle image velocimetry points to the correlation between the drop profile and the accompanying flow field. A simple model shows that the observed pinned stage is the result of a subtle competition between oil dissolution and surfactant adsorption.

  3. Effective pinning energy landscape perturbations for propagating magnetic domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, D. M.; Atkinson, D.

    2016-10-01

    The interaction between a magnetic domain wall and a pinning site is explored in a planar nanowire using micromagnetics to reveal perturbations of the pinning energetics for propagating domain walls. Numerical simulations in the high damping ’quasi-static’ and low damping ’dynamic’ regimes are compared and show clear differences in de-pinning fields, indicating that dynamical micromagnetic models, which incorporate precessionally limited magnetization processes, are needed to understand domain wall pinning. Differences in the micromagnetic domain wall structure strongly influence the pinning and show periodic behaviour with increasing applied field associated with Walker breakdown. In the propagating regime pinning is complicated.

  4. Effective pinning energy landscape perturbations for propagating magnetic domain walls

    PubMed Central

    Burn, D. M.; Atkinson, D.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between a magnetic domain wall and a pinning site is explored in a planar nanowire using micromagnetics to reveal perturbations of the pinning energetics for propagating domain walls. Numerical simulations in the high damping ’quasi-static’ and low damping ’dynamic’ regimes are compared and show clear differences in de-pinning fields, indicating that dynamical micromagnetic models, which incorporate precessionally limited magnetization processes, are needed to understand domain wall pinning. Differences in the micromagnetic domain wall structure strongly influence the pinning and show periodic behaviour with increasing applied field associated with Walker breakdown. In the propagating regime pinning is complicated. PMID:27694953

  5. Effective pinning energy landscape perturbations for propagating magnetic domain walls.

    PubMed

    Burn, D M; Atkinson, D

    2016-10-03

    The interaction between a magnetic domain wall and a pinning site is explored in a planar nanowire using micromagnetics to reveal perturbations of the pinning energetics for propagating domain walls. Numerical simulations in the high damping 'quasi-static' and low damping 'dynamic' regimes are compared and show clear differences in de-pinning fields, indicating that dynamical micromagnetic models, which incorporate precessionally limited magnetization processes, are needed to understand domain wall pinning. Differences in the micromagnetic domain wall structure strongly influence the pinning and show periodic behaviour with increasing applied field associated with Walker breakdown. In the propagating regime pinning is complicated.

  6. Pinning, flux diodes and ratchets for vortices interacting with conformal pinning arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia Jane; Wang, Y. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; Kwok, W. K.; Ray, Dipanjan; Reichhardt, Charles; Jankó, B.

    2016-05-31

    A conformal pinning array can be created by conformally transforming a uniform triangular pinning lattice to produce a new structure in which the six-fold ordering of the original lattice is conserved but where there is a spatial gradient in the density of pinning sites. Here we examine several aspects of vortices interacting with conformal pinning arrays and how they can be used to create a flux flow diode effect for driving vortices in different directions across the arrays. Under the application of an ac drive, a pronounced vortex ratchet effect occurs where the vortices flow in the easy direction of the array asymmetry. When the ac drive is applied perpendicular to the asymmetry direction of the array, it is possible to realize a transverse vortex ratchet effect where there is a generation of a dc flow of vortices perpendicular to the ac drive due to the creation of a noise correlation ratchet by the plastic motion of the vortices. We also examine vortex transport in experiments and compare the pinning effectiveness of conformal arrays to uniform triangular pinning arrays. In conclusion, we find that a triangular array generally pins the vortices more effectively at the first matching field and below, while the conformal array is more effective at higher fields where interstitial vortex flow occurs.

  7. Pinning, flux diodes and ratchets for vortices interacting with conformal pinning arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Wang, Y. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; ...

    2017-02-01

    A conformal pinning array can be created by conformally transforming a uniform triangular pinning lattice to produce a new structure in which the six-fold ordering of the original lattice is conserved but where there is a spatial gradient in the density of pinning sites. Here we examine several aspects of vortices interacting with conformal pinning arrays and how they can be used to create a flux flow diode effect for driving vortices in different directions across the arrays. Under the application of an ac drive, a pronounced vortex ratchet effect occurs where the vortices flow in the easy direction ofmore » the array asymmetry. When the ac drive is applied perpendicular to the asymmetry direction of the array, it is possible to realize a transverse vortex ratchet effect where there is a generation of a dc flow of vortices perpendicular to the ac drive due to the creation of a noise correlation ratchet by the plastic motion of the vortices. We also examine vortex transport in experiments and compare the pinning effectiveness of conformal arrays to uniform triangular pinning arrays. In conclusion, we find that a triangular array generally pins the vortices more effectively at the first matching field and below, while the conformal array is more effective at higher fields where interstitial vortex flow occurs.« less

  8. Pinning, flux diodes and ratchets for vortices interacting with conformal pinning arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Wang, Y. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; Kwok, W. K.; Ray, D.; Reichhardt, C.; Jankó, B.

    2017-02-01

    A conformal pinning array can be created by conformally transforming a uniform triangular pinning lattice to produce a new structure in which the six-fold ordering of the original lattice is conserved but where there is a spatial gradient in the density of pinning sites. Here we examine several aspects of vortices interacting with conformal pinning arrays and how they can be used to create a flux flow diode effect for driving vortices in different directions across the arrays. Under the application of an ac drive, a pronounced vortex ratchet effect occurs where the vortices flow in the easy direction of the array asymmetry. When the ac drive is applied perpendicular to the asymmetry direction of the array, it is possible to realize a transverse vortex ratchet effect where there is a generation of a dc flow of vortices perpendicular to the ac drive due to the creation of a noise correlation ratchet by the plastic motion of the vortices. We also examine vortex transport in experiments and compare the pinning effectiveness of conformal arrays to uniform triangular pinning arrays. We find that a triangular array generally pins the vortices more effectively at the first matching field and below, while the conformal array is more effective at higher fields where interstitial vortex flow occurs.

  9. Effect of swift heavy Kr ions on complex permittivity of silicon PIN diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Su, Ping; Yang, Zhimei; Ma, Yao; Gong, Min

    2016-12-01

    The complex permittivity has been researched on silicon PIN diodes irradiated by 2150 MeV heavy Kr ions in this article. The difference of complex permittivity spectra from 1 to 10^7 Hz between irradiated and unirradiated were observed and discussed. The current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics were measured at room temperature (300 K) to study the change of electrical properties in diode after irradiation. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was used to investigate damages caused by 2150 MeV heavy Kr ions in diode. Two extra electron traps were observed, which were located at EC-0.31 eV and EC-0.17 eV. It indicated that new defects have been formed in PIN diode during irradiation. A comparison of the results illustrated that not only the carrier density but also the recombination of electron-hole pair have important influences on the properties of complex permittivity. These results offer a further indication of the mechanism about the complex permittivity property of semiconductor device, which could help to make the applications for the semiconductor device controlled by electric signals come true in the fields of optoelectronic integrated circuits, plasma antenna and so on.

  10. Effects of low energy E-beam irradiation on graphene and graphene field effect transistors and raman metrology of graphene on split gate test structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Gayathri S.

    2011-12-01

    to the graphene Dirac bands thereby reducing the inelastic scattering and inhibiting the phonon decay medicated by SiO2 surface polar phonons (SPP). This model also explains the enhancement of n-type doping in GFETS observed for multi-step irradiation. These results highlight the impact of substrate defects and interaction of induced defectivity with the e-beam along with the role of interfacial water in impacting graphene device performance. The thesis also presents data on Raman-based characterization of graphene including layer number determination and carrier concentration measurement. Determination of layer number for graphene exfoliates focused on the splitting of the 2D Raman band. In addition, an alternate Raman-based thickness metrology was evaluated for CVD-based, polycrystalline graphene. Both were carried out on split gate test structures as a method for monolayer or bilayer confirmation in device geometries. In addition, carrier concentration measurements of exfoliates on 300nm SiO2 and split-gate test structure substrate have also been characterized with back gate biasing. These measurements made use of the stiffening of the Raman G-band with doping and the narrowing of the G-band FWHM. These results were important for validating conclusions from the e-beam irradiation experiments mentioned above regarding carrier doping.

  11. Results from irradiation tests on D0 Run 2a silicon detectors at the Radiation Damage Facility at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.; Cerber, C.; Ke, Z.; Korjanevsky, S.; Leflat, A.; Lehner, F.; Lipton, R.; Lackey, J.; Merkin, M.; Rapidis, P.; Rykalin, V.; Shabalina, E.; Spiegel, L.; Stutte, L.; Webber, B.; /Kansas U. /Kansas State U. /Illinois U., Chicago /Fermilab /Moscow State U. /Zurich U. /NICADD, DeKalb

    2006-03-01

    Several different spare modules of the D0 experiment Silicon Microstrip Tracker (SMT) have been irradiated at the Fermilab Booster Radiation Damage Facility (RDF). The total dose received was 2.1 MRads with a proton flux of {approx} 3 {center_dot} 10{sup 11} p/cm{sup 2} sec. The irradiation was carried out in steps of 0.3 or 0.6 MRad, with several days between the steps to allow for annealing and measurements. The leakage currents and depletion voltages of the devices increased with dose, as expected from bulk radiation damage. The double sided, double metal devices showed worse degradation than the less complex detectors.

  12. Effect of the number of pins and inter-pin distance on somatosensory evoked magnetic fields following mechanical tactile stimulation.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Hideaki; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Suzuki, Makoto; Kirimoto, Hikari; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Hiroatsu; Kameyama, Shigeki

    2013-10-16

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were collected to investigate the effect of the number of mechanical pins and inter-pin distance on somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) following mechanical stimulation (MS). We used a 306-ch whole-head MEG system. SEFs were elicited through tactile stimuli with 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 8-pins using healthy participants. Tactile stimuli were applied to the tip of the right index finger. SEF following electrical stimulation of the index finger was recorded in order to compare the activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) following MS. Prominent SEFs were recorded from the contralateral hemisphere approximately 54 ms (P50m) and 125 ms (P100m) after MS regardless of the number of pins. Equivalent current dipoles were located in the S1. The source activities for P50m and P100m significantly increased in tandem with the number of pins for MS. However, the increased ratios for the source activities according to the increase in the number of pins were significantly smaller than that induced by electrical stimulation, and when the number of the pins doubled from 1-pin to 2-pins, from 2-pins to 4-pins, and from 4-pins to 8-pins, S1 activities increased by only 130%. Additionally, source activities significantly increased when the inter-pin distance increased from 2.4 to 7.2 mm. The number of stimulated receptors was considered to have increased with an increase in the inter-pin distance as well as an increase in the number of pins. These findings clarified the effect of the number of pins and inter-pin distance for MS on SEFs.

  13. Genetic studies: dominant lethal study, sex linked recessive lethal, ames mutagenicity, and heritable translocation test of thermal processed, frozen, electron irradiated, and gamma irradiated chicken. Final report Jun 76-Aug 83

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.; Lusskin, R.M.; Thomson, G.M.; Kuzdas, C.D.; Ronning, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    Four samples of chicken meat identified as the frozen control, thermally processed, gamma sterilized (5.9 Mrad), and electron sterilized (5.9 MeV), along with negative and positive controls, were evaluated for genetic activity. The samples were evaluated for ability to induce dominant lethal mutations in spermatid and spermatozoan stages of spermatogenesis in mice fed 35 percent chicken meat. The test meat samples were not observed to have an effect on the incidence of the dominant lethal mutations. However, the positive control failed to give a positive response. The meat samples were investigated for mutagenic activity employing Drosophila melanogaster in the sex linked recessive lethal test. The samples were determined to be nonmutagenic in this test and the positive control gave a significant response. Reduced production of offspring in cultures of Drosophila reared on gamma irradiated chicken which could not be overcome by the addition of vitamins was observed. Pre-incubation tests with and without added mutagens revealed that in no case was a positive result observed in the Ames test from chicken meat without an added mutagen. The manner in which chicken meat was processed had no effect upon the response to the Ames test. A heritable translocation test in mice failed to reveal any cytological evidence of translocation heterozygosity in any of the chicken-containing diets.

  14. Computed tomography of bridge pins, cast aluminum automotive components and human joints

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H E

    1999-04-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging techniques in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) have seen increasing use in an array of industrial, environmental, military, and medical applications (Goebbels, et al., 1999). A brief overview and three diverse application studies of x-ray CT at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be discussed. (1) Bridge pins are fracture critical elements for some multi-span steel bridges. Recently, pins were removed from their hanger pin assemblies. These pins were selected for further examination by laboratory NDE techniques. High-energy x-ray radiography and CT were used to characterize these pins. (2) Cast light metals, aluminum and magnesium, are being used in an ever increasing number of applications to reduce automobile weight for improved gas mileage and lower emissions. After mechanical testing, the damage in notched Al-tensile test specimens was first determined using CT and subsequently by metallography analysis intended to benchmark the CT technique. (3) A computational approach to normal joint kinematics and prosthetic joint analysis offers an opportunity to evaluate and improve prosthetic joint replacements before they are manufactured or surgically implanted. Computed tomography data are combined with computational analysis to reveal regions where the joint design can be improved for better performance and longevity, prior to expensive manufacturing, laboratory tests, and clinical evaluation.

  15. Irradiation-Induced Thermal Effects in Alloyed Metal Fuel of Fast Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, F. N.; Nikitin, O. N.; Kuzmin, S. V.; Belyaeva, A. V.; Gilmutdinov, I. F.; Grin, P. I.; Zhemkov, I. Yu

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studying alloyed metal fuel after irradiation in a fast reactor. Determined is the mechanism of fuel irradiation swelling, mechanical interaction between fuel and cladding, and distribution of fission products. Experience gained in fuel properties and behavior under irradiation as well as in irradiation-induced thermal effects occurred in alloyed metal fuel provides for a fuel pin design to have a burnup not less than 20% h. a.

  16. Jorge Rivera congratulated for spotting misplaced pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jorge Rivera (with microphone) shares his thoughts after receiving congratulations for his observatory powers from NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (right). A NASA external tank mechanical engineer, Rivera is the one who spotted the misplaced lock pin on Shuttle Discovery Oct. 10, shortly before the intended launch of mission STS-92, causing a scrub for safety reasons.

  17. Duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion.

    PubMed

    Cay, Ali; Imamoğlu, Mustafa; Sarihan, Haluk; Sayil, Ozgür

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe the case of a 16-month-old boy with benign duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Etiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and management are discussed and the literature is reviewed. Early diagnosis and surgical management are necessary to avoid serious morbidity.

  18. Jorge Rivera congratulated for spotting misplaced pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jorge Rivera (center) receives a plaque and congratulations for his observatory powers from Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach (right). A NASA external tank mechanical engineer, Rivera is the one who spotted the misplaced lock pin on Shuttle Discovery Oct. 10, shortly before the intended launch of mission STS-92, causing a scrub for safety reasons.

  19. Vortex pinning properties in Fe-chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, A.; Grimaldi, G.; Guarino, A.; Avitabile, F.; Nigro, A.; Galluzzi, A.; Mancusi, D.; Polichetti, M.; Pace, S.; Buchkov, K.; Nazarova, E.; Kawale, S.; Bellingeri, E.; Ferdeghini, C.

    2015-12-01

    Among the families of iron-based superconductors, the 11-family is one of the most attractive for high field applications at low temperatures. Optimization of the fabrication processes for bulk, crystalline and/or thin film samples is the first step in producing wires and/or tapes for practical high power conductors. Here we present the results of a comparative study of pinning properties in iron-chalcogenides, investigating the flux pinning mechanisms in optimized Fe(Se{}1-xTe x ) and FeSe samples by current-voltage characterization, magneto-resistance and magnetization measurements. In particular, from Arrhenius plots in magnetic fields up to 9 T, the activation energy is derived as a function of the magnetic field, {U}0(H), whereas the activation energy as a function of temperature, U(T), is derived from relaxation magnetization curves. The high pinning energies, high upper critical field versus temperature slopes near critical temperatures, and highly isotropic pinning properties make iron-chalcogenide superconductors a technological material which could be a real competitor to cuprate high temperature superconductors for high field applications.

  20. Rotary pin-in-maze discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.

    1997-01-01

    A discriminator apparatus and method that discriminates between a unique signal and any other (incorrect) signal. The unique signal is a sequence of events; each event can assume one of two possible event states. Given the unique signal, a maze wheel is allowed to rotate fully in one direction. Given an incorrect signal, both the maze wheel and a pin wheel lock in position.

  1. Pinned emission from ultrasmall cadmium selenide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Dukes, Albert D; Schreuder, Michael A; Sammons, Jessica A; McBride, James R; Smith, Nathanael J; Rosenthal, Sandra J

    2008-09-28

    We report pinning of the emission spectrum in ultrasmall CdSe nanocrystals with a diameter of 1.7 nm and smaller. It was observed that the first emission feature ceased to blueshift once the band edge absorption reached 420 nm, though the band edge absorption continued to blueshift with decreasing nanocrystal diameter.

  2. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  3. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Driving...

  4. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  5. In situ high-energy X-ray diffraction study of tensile deformation of neutron-irradiated polycrystalline Fe-9%Cr alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuan; Li, Meimei; Park, Jun -Sang; Kenesei, Peter; Almer, Jonathan; Xu, Chi; Stubbins, James F.

    2016-12-30

    The effect of neutron irradiation on tensile deformation of a Fe-9wt.%Cr alloy was investigated using in situ high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction during room-temperature uniaxial tensile tests. New insights into the deformation mechanisms were obtained through the measurements of lattice strain evolution and the analysis of diffraction peak broadening using the modified Williamson-Hall method. Two neutron-irradiated specimens, one irradiated at 300 °C to 0.01 dpa and the other at 450 °C to 0.01dpa, were tested along with an unirradiated specimen. The macroscopic stress–strain curves of the irradiated specimens showed increased strength, reduced ductility and work-hardening exponent compared to the unirradiated specimen. The evolutions of the lattice strain, the dislocation density and the coherent scattering domain size in the deformation process revealed different roles of the submicroscopic defects in the 300°C/0.01 dpa specimen and the TEM-visible nanometer-sized dislocation loops in the 450°C/0.01 dpa specimen: submicroscopic defects extended the linear work hardening stage (stage II) to a higher strain, while irradiation-induced dislocation loops were more effective in dislocation pinning. Lastly, while the work hardening rate of stage II was unaffected by irradiation, significant dynamic recovery in stage III in the irradiated specimens led to the early onset of necking without stage IV as observed in the unirradiated specimen.

  6. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR BEAM, STRINGERS, LATTICE BRACING, EYEBARS, AND PIN, LOOKING SOUTH - Four Mile Bridge, Spanning Elk River on County Road 42, Steamboat Springs, Routt County, CO

  7. Vortex creep and thermal depinning within strong pinning theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willa, Roland; Buchacek, Martin; Geshkenbein, Vadim B.; Blatter, Gianni

    Vortex pinning in type-II superconductors can occur through the collective action of many pins (weak collective pinning scenario) or through plastic deformations induced by a low density of defects (strong pinning scenario). For the latter case, a new formalism has recently be developed to provide a quantitative link between the microscopic pinning landscape and experimentally accessible quantities describing pinning on a macroscopic level. Examples are the critical current density jc, the I- V characteristics, or the ac Campbell length λC. Inspired by the original work of Larkin and Brazovskii on density wave pinning, we have extended the strong pinning formalism to account for thermal depinning of flux lines and vortex creep.

  8. Nanowall pinning for enhanced pinning force in YBCO films with nanofabricated structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palau, A.; Rouco, V.; Luccas, R. F.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T.

    2014-11-01

    High resolution nanofabrication tools (Focused Ion Beam and Electron Beam Lithography) have been used to fabricate nano-metric milled structures in high critical current YBCO thin films able to further increase their vortex pinning capabilities. We have demonstrated that pinning forces at 77 K and 3 T are increased by a 70-80% by proper nanostructure designs. Model systems with linear trenches and triangular blind antidots of different sizes, distribution and density have been generated and studied. We demonstrate that specific milled nanostructures can increase the total current through the system at expenses of a limited decrease of cross section. We have identified the length of fabricated nano-walls as the main parameter controlling the pinning potential of nanostructures and thus defined the optimised milling conditions and nanostructure morphology to maximise pinning efficiency.

  9. Formation of Ceramic Nanoparticle Patterns Using Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printing with Pin-to-Pin Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-Young; Yu, Jae-Hun; Shin, Yun-Soo; Park, Dongho; Yu, Tae-U.; Hwang, Jungho

    2008-03-01

    As one of the direct write technologies, electrohydrodynamic jet printing was used in obtaining fine ceramic lines. We used pin electrodes of various diameters, each of which was located below the substrate, and analyzed the effects of pin diameter on Al2O3 nanoparticle one- and two-dimensional patterns formed with pin (nozzle)-to-pin (ground) electrodes. The onset voltage required to start the formation of a pattern for a 1-µm-diameter electrode was fourfold lower than the voltage required for a 1000-µm-diameter electrode. Additionally, an Al2O3 nanoparticle pattern with a uniform width as fine as 25 µm was obtained despite using the very large diameter of the nozzle (920 µm) used.

  10. Improved solar irradiance forecast with Weather Research and Forecasting model: A Sensitivity test of shallow cumulus clouds to the turbulence process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C. K.; Betterton, E. A.; Leuthold, M.; Holmgren, W.; Cronin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate forecasts of solar irradiance are required for electric utilities to economically integrate substantial amounts of solar power into their power generation portfolios. A common failing of numerical weather models is the prediction of shallow cumulus clouds which are generally difficult to be resolved due to complicated processes in the planetary boundary layer. The present study carried out the sensitivity test of turbulence parameterization for better predicting solar irradiance during the shallow cumulus events near the state of Arizona by using the Weather Research and Forecasting model. The results from the simulations show that increasing the exchange coefficient leads to enhanced vertical mixing and a deeper mixed layer. At the top of mixed layer, an adiabatically ascending air parcel achieved the water vapour saturation and finally shallow cumulus is generated. A detailed analysis will be discussed in the upcoming conference.

  11. Effects of Pin Detached Space on Heat Transfer and Pin-Fin Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Siw, Sin Chien; Chyu, Minking K.; Shih, Tom I. -P.; Alvin, Mary Anne

    2012-01-01

    Heat transfer and pressure characteristics in a rectangular channel with pin-fin arrays of partial detachment from one of the endwalls have been experimentally studied. The overall channel geometry (W=76.2 mm, E=25.4 mm) simulates an internal cooling passage of wide aspect ratio (3:1) in a gas turbine airfoil. With a given pin diameter, D=6.35 mm=¼E, three different pin-fin height-to-diameter ratios, H/D=4, 3, and 2, were examined. Each of these three cases corresponds to a specific pin array geometry of detachment spacing (C) between the pin tip and one of the endwalls, i.e., C/D=0, 1, 2, respectively. The Reynolds number, based on the hydraulic diameter of the unobstructed cross-section and the mean bulk velocity, ranges from 10,000 to 25,000. The experiment employs a hybrid technique based on transient liquid crystal imaging to obtain the distributions of the local heat transfer coefficient over all of the participating surfaces, including the endwalls and all the pin elements. Experimental results reveal that the presence of a detached space between the pin tip and the endwall has a significant effect on the convective heat transfer and pressure loss in the channel. The presence of pin-to-endwall spacing promotes wall-flow interaction, generates additional separated shear layers, and augments turbulent transport. In general, an increase in detached spacing, or C/D, leads to lower heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop. However, C/D=1, i.e., H/D=3, of a staggered array configuration exhibits the highest heat transfer enhancement, followed by the cases of C/D=0 and C/D=2, i.e., H/D=4 or 2, respectively.

  12. Auxin transport through PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3) controls shade avoidance and fitness during competition

    PubMed Central

    Keuskamp, Diederik H.; Pollmann, Stephan; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Peeters, Anton J. M.; Pierik, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Plants grow in dense vegetations at the risk of being out-competed by neighbors. To increase their competitive power, plants display adaptive responses, such as rapid shoot elongation (shade avoidance) to consolidate light capture. These responses are induced upon detection of proximate neighbors through perception of the reduced ratio between red (R) and far-red (FR) light that is typical for dense vegetations. The plant hormone auxin is a central regulator of plant development and plasticity, but until now it has been unknown how auxin transport is controlled to regulate shade-avoidance responses. Here, we show that low R:FR detection changes the cellular location of the PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3) protein, a regulator of auxin efflux, in Arabidopsis seedlings. As a result, auxin levels in the elongating hypocotyls are increased under low R:FR. Seedlings of the pin3-3 mutant lack this low R:FR-induced increase of endogenous auxin in the hypocotyl and, accordingly, have no elongation response to low R:FR. We hypothesize that low R:FR-induced stimulation of auxin biosynthesis drives the regulation of PIN3, thus allowing shade avoidance to occur. The adaptive significance of PIN3-mediated control of shade-avoidance is shown in plant competition studies. It was found that pin3 mutants are outcompeted by wild-type neighbors who suppress fitness of pin3-3 by 40%. We conclude that low R:FR modulates the auxin distribution by a change in the cellular location of PIN3, and that this control can be of great importance for plants growing in dense vegetations. PMID:21149713

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on the friction and wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R.; Hady, W. F.; Crugnola, A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of sterilization gamma irradiation on the friction and wear properties of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sliding against stainless steel 316L in dry air at 23 C is investigated, the results to be used in the development of artificial joints which are to surgically replace diseased human joints. A pin-on-disk sliding friction apparatus is used, a constant sliding speed in the range 0.061-0.27 m/s is maintained, a normal load of 1 kgf is applied with dead weight, and the irradiation dose levels are: 0, 2.5, and 5.0 Mrad. Wear and friction data and conditions for each of the ten tests are summarized, and include: (1) wear volume as a function of the sliding distance for the irradiation levels, (2) incremental wear rate, and (3) coefficient of friction as a function of the sliding distance. It is shown that (1) the friction and wear properties of UHMWPE are not significantly changed by the irradiation doses of 2.5 and 5.0 Mrad, (2) the irradiation increases the amount of insoluble gel as well as the amount of low molecular weight material, and (3) after run-in the wear rate is either steady or gradually decreases as a function of the sliding distance.

  14. The protozoan, Paramecium primaurelia, as a non-sentient model to test laser light irradiation: The effects of an 808nm infrared laser diode on cellular respiration.

    PubMed

    Amaroli, Andrea; Ravera, Silvia; Parker, Steven; Panfoli, Isabella; Benedicenti, Alberico; Benedicenti, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been used in clinical practice for more than 40 years. Unfortunately, conflicting literature has led to the labelling of PBM as a complementary or alternative medicine approach. However, past and ongoing clinical and research studies by reputable investigators have re-established the merits of PBM as a genuine medical therapy, and the technique has, in the last decade, seen an exponential increase in the numbers of clinical instruments available, and their applications. This resurgence has led to a clear need for appropriate experimental models to test the burgeoning laser technology being developed for medical applications. In this context, an ethical model that employs the protozoan, Paramecium primaurelia, is proposed. We studied the possibility of using the measure of oxygen consumption to test PBM by irradiation with an infrared or near-infrared laser. The results show that an 808nm infrared laser diode (1W; 64J/cm²) affects cellular respiration in P. primaurelia, inducing, in the irradiated cells, a significantly (p < 0.05) increased oxygen consumption of about 40%. Our findings indicate that Paramecium can be an excellent tool in biological assays involving infrared and near-infrared PBM, as it combines the advantages of in vivo results with the practicality of in vitro testing. This test represents a fast, inexpensive and straightforward assay, which offers an alternative to both traditional in vivo testing and more expensive mammalian cellular cultures.

  15. Pin Load Control Applied to Retractable Pin Tool Technology and Its Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olegoetz, P.

    1999-01-01

    Until the development of retractable pin tool (RPT) technology, friction stir welding (FSW) was limited to constant thickness joining of aluminum materials and the choices of keyhole elimination focused on traditional fusion and plug weld repair techniques. An invention, US Patent Number 5,893,507, "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" assigned to NASA, demonstrated an approach to resolve these serious drawbacks. This approach brings forth a technique that allows the crater, or keyhole, to be closed out automatically at the end of the weld joint without adding any additional equipment or material. Also the probe length can be varied automatically in the weld joint to compensate for material thickness changes, such as, in a tapered joint. This paper reports the effects of pin extension and retraction rates in the weld joint and its correlation to weld quality. The investigation utilized a pin load-detecting device that was integrated in the Phase IIA RPT designed by Boeing for NASA/MSFC. The RPT modification provided pin load data that was accessed and used to eliminate root side indications and determine pin manipulation rates necessary to produce consistence homogeneous joints.

  16. Pin Load Control Applied to Retractable Pin Tool Technology and its Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oelgoetz, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Until the development of retractable pin tool (RPT) technology, friction stir welding (FSW) was limited to constant thickness joining of aluminum materials and the choices of keyhole elimination focused on traditional fusion and plug weld repair techniques. An invention, US Patent Number 5,893.507, "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" assigned to NASA, demonstrated an approach to resolve these serious drawbacks. This approach brings forth a technique that allows the crater, or keyhole, to be closed out automatically at the end of the weld joint without adding any additional equipment or material. Also the probe length can be varied automatically in the weld joint to compensate for material thickness changes, such as, in a tapered joint. This paper reports the effects of pin extension and retraction rates in the weld joint and its correlation to weld quality. The investigation utilized a pin load-detecting device that was integrated in the Phase 2A RPT designed by Boeing for NASA/MSFC. The RPT modification provided pin load data that was accessed and used to eliminate root side indications and determine pin manipulation rates necessary to produce consistence homogeneous joints.

  17. Pin Load Control Applied to Retractable Pin Tool Technology and its Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oelgoetz, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Until the development of retractable pin tool (RPT) technology, friction stir welding (FSW) was limited to constant thickness joining of aluminum materials and the choices of keyhole elimination focused on traditional fusion and plug weld repair techniques. An invention, US Patent Number 5,893,507, "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" assigned to NASA, demonstrated an approach to resolve these serious drawbacks. This approach brings forth a technique that allows the crater, or keyhole, to be closed out automatically at the end of the weld joint without adding any additional equipment or material. Also the probe length can be varied automatically in the weld joint to compensate for material thickness changes, such as, in a tapered joint. This paper reports the effects of pin extension and retraction rates in the weld joint and its correlation to weld quality. The investigation utilized a pin load-detecting device that was integrated in the Phase 2A RPT designed by Boeing for NASA/MSFC. The RPT modification provided pin load data that was accessed and used to eliminate root side indications and determine pin manipulation rates necessary to produce consistence homogeneous joints.

  18. New model of the pinning potential barrier in layered HTc superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnowski, J.

    2016-11-01

    New model of the pinning potential barrier in multilayered HTc superconductors is presented, based on geometrical approach to the capturing interaction of pancake-type vortices with nano-sized defects. Using the above model the transport current flow phenomena in these materials, especially the current-voltage characteristics and critical current density, have been considered. Details of theoretical analysis are given, including the derivation of basic mathematical equations describing the potential barrier as a function of transport current intensity and the initial position of captured pancake vortex. Computer simulation has been performed of the influence of transport current amplitude on the potential barrier height for various sizes of pinning centers and initial pancake vortex position as well as the influence of fast neutrons irradiation creating nano-sized defects on critical current of HTc layered superconductor.

  19. Detail of "pin" or large bolt used to assemble the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of "pin" or large bolt used to assemble the truss pieces. This "pin" is on pony truss; similar pins were used on movable span. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Daggett Road Bridge, Daggett Road traversing Burns Cut Off, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  20. 21 CFR 872.3740 - Retentive and splinting pin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retentive and splinting pin. 872.3740 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3740 Retentive and splinting pin. (a) Identification. A retentive and splinting pin is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing...