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Sample records for pin power reconstruction

  1. Post-refinement multiscale method for pin power reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.; Seker, V.; Downar, T.; Xu, Y.

    2012-07-01

    The ability to accurately predict local pin powers in nuclear reactors is necessary to understand the mechanisms that cause fuel pin failure during steady state and transient operation. In the research presented here, methods are developed to improve the local solution using high order methods with boundary conditions from a low order global solution. Several different core configurations were tested to determine the improvement in the local pin powers compared to the standard techniques based on diffusion theory and pin power reconstruction (PPR). The post-refinement multiscale methods use the global solution to determine boundary conditions for the local solution. The local solution is solved using either a fixed boundary source or an albedo boundary condition; this solution is 'post-refinement' and thus has no impact on the global solution. (authors)

  2. Environment-based pin-power reconstruction method for homogeneous core calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Leroyer, H.; Brosselard, C.; Girardi, E.

    2012-07-01

    Core calculation schemes are usually based on a classical two-step approach associated with assembly and core calculations. During the first step, infinite lattice assemblies calculations relying on a fundamental mode approach are used to generate cross-sections libraries for PWRs core calculations. This fundamental mode hypothesis may be questioned when dealing with loading patterns involving several types of assemblies (UOX, MOX), burnable poisons, control rods and burn-up gradients. This paper proposes a calculation method able to take into account the heterogeneous environment of the assemblies when using homogeneous core calculations and an appropriate pin-power reconstruction. This methodology is applied to MOX assemblies, computed within an environment of UOX assemblies. The new environment-based pin-power reconstruction is then used on various clusters of 3x3 assemblies showing burn-up gradients and UOX/MOX interfaces, and compared to reference calculations performed with APOLLO-2. The results show that UOX/MOX interfaces are much better calculated with the environment-based calculation scheme when compared to the usual pin-power reconstruction method. The power peak is always better located and calculated with the environment-based pin-power reconstruction method on every cluster configuration studied. This study shows that taking into account the environment in transport calculations can significantly improve the pin-power reconstruction so far as it is consistent with the core loading pattern. (authors)

  3. Critical node treatment in the analytic function expansion method for Pin Power Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Z.; Xu, Y.; Downar, T.

    2013-07-01

    Pin Power Reconstruction (PPR) was implemented in PARCS using the eight term analytic function expansion method (AFEN). This method has been demonstrated to be both accurate and efficient. However, similar to all the methods involving analytic functions, such as the analytic node method (ANM) and AFEN for nodal solution, the use of AFEN for PPR also has potential numerical issue with critical nodes. The conventional analytic functions are trigonometric or hyperbolic sine or cosine functions with an angular frequency proportional to buckling. For a critic al node the buckling is zero and the sine functions becomes zero, and the cosine function become unity. In this case, the eight terms of the analytic functions are no longer distinguishable from ea ch other which makes their corresponding coefficients can no longer be determined uniquely. The mode flux distribution of critical node can be linear while the conventional analytic functions can only express a uniform distribution. If there is critical or near critical node in a plane, the reconstructed pin power distribution is often be shown negative or very large values using the conventional method. In this paper, we propose a new method to avoid the numerical problem wit h critical nodes which uses modified trigonometric or hyperbolic sine functions which are the ratio of trigonometric or hyperbolic sine and its angular frequency. If there are no critical or near critical nodes present, the new pin power reconstruction method with modified analytic functions are equivalent to the conventional analytic functions. The new method is demonstrated using the L336C5 benchmark problem. (authors)

  4. SIMULATE-4 pin power calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bahadir, T.; Lindahl, S. Oe

    2006-07-01

    A new pin power reconstruction module has been implemented in Studsvik Scandpower's next generation nodal code, SIMULATE-4. Heterogeneous pin powers are calculated by modulating multi-group pin powers from the sub-mesh solver of SIMULATE-4 with pin form factors from single-assembly CASMO-5 lattice calculations. The multi-group pin power model captures instantaneous spectral effects, and actinide tracking on the assembly sub-mesh describes exposure-induced pin power variations. Model details and verification tests against high order multi-assembly transport methods are presented. The accuracy of the new methods is also demonstrated by comparing SIMULATE-4 calculations with measured critical experiment pin powers. (authors)

  5. The half-pin and the pin tract: a survey of the Limb Lengthening and Reconstruction Society.

    PubMed

    Stinner, Daniel J; Hsu, Jospeh R; Iobst, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    Although the key principles of external fixation have changed little over the years, there remains a significant amount of variation in fixation methods and postoperative care. In particular, use and management of half-pins intended for prolonged reconstruction are the subject of strong opinions and intense debate. We conducted a study of common trends in use and management of half-pins and in treatment of pin-tract infections in circular fixation by polling subject matter experts who are members of the Limb Lengthening and Reconstruction Society. Although the distribution of stainless steel half-pins (52%) and titanium half-pins (48%) was similar, most respondents preferred hydroxyapatite coating (81%). Respondents commonly encouraged use of a shower (60%) and a washing solution (67%) for pin-site care. For pin-tract infections, oral antibiotics were prescribed more often (83%) than parenteral antibiotics (17%) and were given for 8 days on average. Results from this study helped identify trends in application techniques and in routine management of circular fixators. In addition, they helped identify several areas of clinical equipoise that should be studied, including metallurgy, pin-site care solutions, and antibiotics.

  6. The Half-Pin and the Pin Tract: A Survey of the Limb Lengthening and Reconstruction Society

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Tract:   A Survey of the  Limb   Lengthening    and Reconstruction Society Daniel J. Stinner, MD, Jospeh R. Hsu, MD, and Christopher Iobst, MD A lthough the...pin-tract infections in circular fixation by polling subject matter experts, members of the Limb Lengthening and Reconstruction Society (LLRS...correction, limb reconstruc- tion, and limb lengthening . The survey was designed to investigate surgeon preferences regarding type of hardware used, general

  7. Pin guidance of reconstruction plate contour: an expanded role of external fixation.

    PubMed

    Jaquet, Yves; Higgins, Kevin M; Enepekides, Danny J

    2011-09-01

    This article presents a modification of intraoperative external fixation for mandibular reconstruction with free tissue flaps. This technique is indicated when preregistration of the reconstruction plate is not possible due to transmandibular tumor extension. Once standard external fixation has been carried out and prior to segmental mandibulectomy, additional pins are fixed to the connecting rod that delineate the mandibular contour in three-dimensional (3D) space. Following mandibulectomy, these pins allow accurate contouring of the reconstruction plate and improved restoration of mandibular contour, projection, and dental occlusion. A step-by-step description of the technique using models and intraoperative photos is presented. This method of mandibular reconstruction is a simple and time-effective alternative to intraoperative computer navigation and 3D modeling in select cases of oral carcinoma where tumor infiltration of the outer mandibular cortex precludes prebending of the reconstruction plates.

  8. Evaluation of rodded BWR assembly pin powers with simulate

    SciTech Connect

    Bahadir, T.; Lindahl, S. Oe.

    2012-07-01

    In the development of Studsvik's nodal code SIMULATE5, special attention has been given to the accurate description of pin powers. The code solves the multi-group diffusion or simplified P3 equations with high spatial resolution. A short description is given of the handling of material heterogeneities in the axial and radial directions - the axial re-homogenization and the radial sub-mesh model, respectively. Furthermore, two models which are of special importance in the presence of control rods, and hence on the pellet clad interaction (PCI) phenomenon, are described; the quarter-assembly thermal-hydraulic treatment and the depletion of absorber material. A numerical example for a real core shows that while the impact of the fine grained description is negligible on global parameters such as k{sub eff}, the effect on pin powers may be substantial. For a deeply inserted and highly depleted control rod, the difference in pin powers caused by neglecting the advanced models of SIMULATE5, may be as high as 15 %. (authors)

  9. A wirelessly powered microspectrometer for neural probe-pin device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Min H.; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Uhn

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of neurological anomalies, whether done invasively or not, places stringent demands on device functionality and size. We have developed a micro-spectrometer for use as an implantable neural probe to monitor neuro-chemistry in synapses. The micro-spectrometer, based on a NASA-invented miniature Fresnel grating, is capable of differentiating the emission spectra from various brain tissues. The micro-spectrometer meets the size requirements, and is able to probe the neuro-chemistry and suppression voltage typically associated with a neural anomaly. This neural probe-pin device (PPD) is equipped with wireless power technology (WPT) to enable operation in a continuous manner without requiring an implanted battery. The implanted neural PPD, together with a neural electronics interface and WPT, enable real-time measurement and control/feedback for remediation of neural anomalies. The design and performance of the combined PPD/WPT device for monitoring dopamine in a rat brain will be presented to demonstrate the current level of development. Future work on this device will involve the addition of an embedded expert system capable of performing semi-autonomous management of neural functions through a routine of sensing, processing, and control.

  10. Simultaneous multislice inversion contrast imaging using power independent of the number of slices (PINS) and delays alternating with nutation for tailored excitation (DANTE) radio frequency pulses.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Peter J; Boyacioğlu, Rasim; Barth, Markus; Norris, David G

    2013-06-01

    A method for simultaneous multislice (SMS) inversion contrast imaging is presented using a combination of the delays alternating with nutation for tailored excitation (DANTE) and the power independent of the number of slices (PINS) techniques. In SMS imaging, simultaneously excited slices result in an aliased image that is disentangled using parallel imaging reconstruction techniques. At high-magnetic field strengths, the peak amplitude and specific absorption rate of conventional (summed) SMS radio frequency pulses can be prohibitively high. Using the PINS approach, specific absorption rate is independent of the number of slices allowing high SMS acceleration factors even at high fields. Using DANTE, adiabatic SMS radio frequency pulses can be created to be combined with PINS. This allows 2D imaging protocols that employ adiabatic pulses to also reap the benefits of low specific absorption rate SMS acceleration. As a proof-of-concept, simulations and measurements using hyperbolic secant inversion pulses are shown.

  11. Pinning down the Constitution: Interactively Teaching Congress's Power, Federalism, and Constitutional Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emenaker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    "Pin-the-Tail-on-the-Constitution" is an engaged-learning activity that has been conducted in 26 classes over the past four years. The activity teaches multiple themes commonly included in a variety of courses on American politics such as federalism, congressional powers, the role of the federal courts, and the relevance of the commerce…

  12. Performance and breakdown characteristics of irradiated vertical power GaN P-i-N diodes

    DOE PAGES

    King, M. P.; Armstrong, A. M.; Dickerson, J. R.; ...

    2015-10-29

    Electrical performance and defect characterization of vertical GaN P-i-N diodes before and after irradiation with 2.5 MeV protons and neutrons is investigated. Devices exhibit increase in specific on-resistance following irradiation with protons and neutrons, indicating displacement damage introduces defects into the p-GaN and n- drift regions of the device that impact on-state device performance. The breakdown voltage of these devices, initially above 1700 V, is observed to decrease only slightly for particle fluence <; 1013 cm-2. Furthermore, the unipolar figure of merit for power devices indicates that while the on-resistance and breakdown voltage degrade with irradiation, vertical GaN P-i-Ns remainmore » superior to the performance of the best available, unirradiated silicon devices and on-par with unirradiated modern SiC-based power devices.« less

  13. Smoothing spline primordial power spectrum reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Sealfon, Carolyn; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul

    2005-11-15

    We reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum (PPS) using a smoothing spline. Our adapted smoothing spline technique provides a complementary method to existing efforts to search for smooth features in the PPS, such as a running spectral index. With this technique we find no significant indication with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe first-year data that the PPS deviates from a Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum and no evidence for loss of power on large scales. We also examine the effect on the cosmological parameters of the additional PPS freedom. Smooth variations in the PPS are not significantly degenerate with other cosmological parameters, but the spline reconstruction greatly increases the errors on the optical depth and baryon fraction.

  14. Improved designs for p-i-n OLEDs towards the minimal power loss of devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Dashan

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the low yield, high power loss, and poor stability of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) panels are remaining as the obstacles to the fast growth of the OLED industry, especially for the lighting application. The p-i-n OLEDs have been widely recognized as the promising method to circumvent these bottleneck factors, due to the unique merit of the electrical doping to enable low power loss. In p-i-n OLEDs, the frequently used n-doped electron transport layers (n-ETL1) such as n-BCP, n-Alq3 possess markedly lower conductivities but better capabilities of injecting electrons into ETL such as BCP, Alq3, as compared to another class of n-doped ETLs (n-ETL2), e.g., n-NTCDA, n-PTCDA, n-C60. Thus, in order to minimize the electron loss, we provide the structure of uniting two n-doped layers, cathode/ n-ETL2/ n-ETL1/ ETL. In p-i-n OLEDs, the hole current injected from the single p-doped hole transport layer (p-HTL) into the neat HTL must be limited, because the higher conductivity p-HTL has the higher lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level, leading to a larger hole transport energy barrier (φB) at the interface with the neat HTL. Therefore, in order to minimize the hole loss, we suggest the structure of uniting two p-HTLs, anode/ p-HTL2/ p-HTL1/ HTL. The p-HTL2 possesses high-lying HOMO level and thereby high conductivity, decreasing the ohmic loss in the hole conduction; the p-HTL1 features a low-lying HOMO level, reducing the φB.

  15. Surgical Adjustment of the Guide Pin to Perform a Correct Tibial Tunnel in Anatomical Anterior Cruciate Ligament Single-Bundle Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bharath S; Andrade, Renato; Leal, Ana; Sarmento, André; Pereira, Hélder; Sevivas, Nuno; Espregueira-Mendes, João

    2016-08-01

    Anatomical positioning of the graft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is important to restore normal knee kinematics and prevent early joint degeneration. Inadequate position of a first attempt to place the guide pin within the center of the tibial footprint may occur. Therefore, its adjustment is important to achieve the anatomical positioning of the graft within the tibial footprint. When the guide pin exits eccentrically in an inadequate position, it is possible to correct it to the center of the footprint. A small tunnel with a 4.5-mm reamer is made and the guide pin is shifted to the center of the footprint. The center of the tunnel can be corrected until 50% and in all direction in relation to the initial drilled tunnel, without additional associated morbidity. Once the correct position of the center is achieved, the guide pin is fixed in the femoral notch roof to guarantee the accurate correction of the axis, without toggling of the guide pin inside the tunnel and metal dusting. The final tunnel is then drilled with the same size of the graft. With this technique it is possible to adjust an eccentrically misplaced guide pin to the center of the footprint without additional morbidity.

  16. Effect of manganese doping on PIN-PMN-PT single crystals for high power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahul, Raffi

    property measurements (elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric) for the "2R" Mn:PIN-PMN-PT single crystal poled into orthorhombic mm2 macroscopic symmetry ([011]c poled crystals) and for "4R" configuration ([001]c poled crystals) were conducted and the data was analyzed based on their macroscopic crystallographic symmetry. Full property data was measured for the 1R configuration of the Mn:PIN-PMN-PT single crystal to understand the monodomain properties and the orientation dependence of dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric properties. Domain averaging and matrix transformation was performed with the monodomain data to calculate 4R data and compare with that of experimental 4R data. Orientation dependence of the properties is also presented to understand the crystallographic directions that are best suited for the various applications. The high sensitivity of PMN-PT and the high Qm of Mn:PIN-PMN-PT provide designers with soft and hard piezoelectric material choices in the relaxor-PT single crystals family. While much work has been done on PMN-PT crystals, research efforts on the Mn:PIN-PMN-PT crystals are limited. Investigation of the Qm for Mn-doped crystals under high power drive conditions is essential for the practical application of these crystals for devices. High power characteristics of the Mn:PIN-PMN-PT single crystals were measured with emphasis on specific modes (transverse mode, d32, and face shear mode, d36') based on a constant vibration velocity method using a high power characterization system (HiPoCs), and the degradation of Qm as a function of vibration velocity was studied in order to understand the self heating behavior and device limitations. Practical devices that are useful for various applications were designed and performance of these prototype devices was quantitatively evaluated. This thesis work provides a concrete advancement in the understanding of doped ternary relaxor-PT ferroelectric single crystals and the influence of their domain

  17. Thermal analysis of the FSP-1 fuel pin irradiation test. [for SP-100 space power reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, William F., III

    1991-01-01

    Thermal analysis of a pin from the FSP-1 fuels irradiation test has been completed. The purpose of the analysis was to provide predictions of fuel pin temperatures, determine the flow regime within the lithium annulus of the test assembly, and provide a standardized model for a consistent basis of comparison between pins within the test assembly. The calculations have predicted that the pin is operating at slightly above the test design temperatures and that the flow regime within the lithium annulus is a laminar buoyancy driven flow.

  18. Off-design temperature effects on nuclear fuel pins for an advanced space-power-reactor concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.

    1974-01-01

    An exploratory out-of-reactor investigation was made of the effects of short-time temperature excursions above the nominal operating temperature of 990 C on the compatibility of advanced nuclear space-power reactor fuel pin materials. This information is required for formulating a reliable reactor safety analysis and designing an emergency core cooling system. Simulated uranium mononitride (UN) fuel pins, clad with tungsten-lined T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf) showed no compatibility problems after heating for 8 hours at 2400 C. At 2520 C and above, reactions occurred in 1 hour or less. Under these conditions free uranium formed, redistributed, and attacked the cladding.

  19. Influence of DBT reconstruction algorithm on power law spectrum coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vancamberg, Laurence; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Abderrahmane, Ilyes H.; Palma, Giovanni; Milioni de Carvalho, Pablo; Iordache, Rǎzvan; Muller, Serge

    2015-03-01

    In breast X-ray images, texture has been characterized by a noise power spectrum (NPS) that has an inverse power-law shape described by its slope β in the log-log domain. It has been suggested that the magnitude of the power-law spectrum coefficient β is related to mass lesion detection performance. We assessed β in reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images to evaluate its sensitivity to different typical reconstruction algorithms including simple back projection (SBP), filtered back projection (FBP) and a simultaneous iterative reconstruction algorithm (SIRT 30 iterations). Results were further compared to the β coefficient estimated from 2D central DBT projections. The calculations were performed on 31 unilateral clinical DBT data sets and simulated DBT images from 31 anthropomorphic software breast phantoms. Our results show that β highly depends on the reconstruction algorithm; the highest β values were found for SBP, followed by reconstruction with FBP, while the lowest β values were found for SIRT. In contrast to previous studies, we found that β is not always lower in reconstructed DBT slices, compared to 2D projections and this depends on the reconstruction algorithm. All β values estimated in DBT slices reconstructed with SBP were larger than β values from 2D central projections. Our study also shows that the reconstruction algorithm affects the symmetry of the breast texture NPS; the NPS of clinical cases reconstructed with SBP exhibit the highest symmetry, while the NPS of cases reconstructed with SIRT exhibit the highest asymmetry.

  20. A Wirelessly Powered Micro-Spectrometer for Neural Probe-Pin Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.; Kim, Min Hyuck; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Uhn

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of neurological anomalies, places stringent demands on device functionality and size. A micro-spectrometer has been developed for use as an implantable neural probe to monitor neuro-chemistry in synapses. The microspectrometer, based on a NASA-invented miniature Fresnel grating, is capable of differentiating the emission spectra from various brain tissues. The micro-spectrometer meets the size requirements, and is able to probe the neuro-chemistry and suppression voltage typically associated with a neural anomaly. This neural probe-pin device (PPD) is equipped with wireless power technology (WPT) enabling operation in a continuous manner without requiring an implanted battery. The implanted neural PPD, together with a neural electronics interface and WPT, allow real-time measurement and control/feedback for remediation of neural anomalies. The design and performance of the combined PPD/WPT device for monitoring dopamine in a rat brain will be presented to demonstrate the current level of development. Future work on this device will involve the addition of an embedded expert system capable of performing semi-autonomous management of neural functions through a routine of sensing, processing, and control.

  1. Low power and fast electro-optic silicon modulator with lateral p-i-n embedded photonic crystal nanocavity.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Takasumi; Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Notomi, Masaya

    2009-12-07

    We have fabricated high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities with a lateral p-i-n structure to demonstrate low-power and high-speed electro-optic modulation in a silicon chip. GHz operation is demonstrated at a very low (microW level) operating power, which is about 4.6 times lower than that reported for other cavities in silicon. This low-power operation is due to the small size and high-Q of the photonic crystal nanocavity.

  2. A novel phylogeny and morphological reconstruction of the PIN genes and first phylogeny of the ACC-oxidases (ACOs).

    PubMed

    Clouse, Ronald M; Carraro, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The PIN and ACO gene families present interesting questions about the evolution of plant physiology, including testing hypotheses about the ecological drivers of their diversification and whether unrelated genes have been recruited for similar functions. The PIN-formed proteins contribute to the polar transport of auxin, a hormone which regulates plant growth and development. PIN loci are categorized into groups according to their protein length and structure, as well as subcellular localization. An interesting question with PIN genes is the nature of the ancestral form and location. ACOs are members of a superfamily of oxygenases and oxidases that catalyze the last step of ethylene synthesis, which regulates many aspects of the plant life cycle. We used publicly available PIN and ACO sequences to conduct phylogenetic analyses. Third codon positions of these genes in monocots have a high GC content, which could be historical but is more likely due to a mutational bias. Thus, we developed methods to extract phylogenetic information from nucleotide sequences while avoiding this convergent feature. One method consisted in using only A-T transformations, and another used only the first and second codon positions for serine, which can only take A or T and G or C, respectively. We also conducted tree-searches for both gene families using unaligned amino acid sequences and dynamic homology. PIN genes appear to have diversified earlier than ACOs, with monocot and dicot copies more mixed in the phylogeny. However, gymnosperm PINs appear to be derived and not closely related to those from primitive plants. We find strong support for a long PIN gene ancestor with short forms subsequently evolving one or more times. ACO genes appear to have diversified mostly since the dicot-monocot split, as most genes cluster into a small number of monocot and dicot clades when the tree is rooted by genes from mosses. Gymnosperm ACOs were recovered as closely related and derived.

  3. A novel phylogeny and morphological reconstruction of the PIN genes and first phylogeny of the ACC-oxidases (ACOs)

    PubMed Central

    Clouse, Ronald M.; Carraro, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The PIN and ACO gene families present interesting questions about the evolution of plant physiology, including testing hypotheses about the ecological drivers of their diversification and whether unrelated genes have been recruited for similar functions. The PIN-formed proteins contribute to the polar transport of auxin, a hormone which regulates plant growth and development. PIN loci are categorized into groups according to their protein length and structure, as well as subcellular localization. An interesting question with PIN genes is the nature of the ancestral form and location. ACOs are members of a superfamily of oxygenases and oxidases that catalyze the last step of ethylene synthesis, which regulates many aspects of the plant life cycle. We used publicly available PIN and ACO sequences to conduct phylogenetic analyses. Third codon positions of these genes in monocots have a high GC content, which could be historical but is more likely due to a mutational bias. Thus, we developed methods to extract phylogenetic information from nucleotide sequences while avoiding this convergent feature. One method consisted in using only A-T transformations, and another used only the first and second codon positions for serine, which can only take A or T and G or C, respectively. We also conducted tree-searches for both gene families using unaligned amino acid sequences and dynamic homology. PIN genes appear to have diversified earlier than ACOs, with monocot and dicot copies more mixed in the phylogeny. However, gymnosperm PINs appear to be derived and not closely related to those from primitive plants. We find strong support for a long PIN gene ancestor with short forms subsequently evolving one or more times. ACO genes appear to have diversified mostly since the dicot-monocot split, as most genes cluster into a small number of monocot and dicot clades when the tree is rooted by genes from mosses. Gymnosperm ACOs were recovered as closely related and derived. PMID

  4. Comparison of power spectra for tomosynthesis projections and reconstructed images

    SciTech Connect

    Engstrom, Emma; Reiser, Ingrid; Nishikawa, Robert

    2009-05-15

    Burgess et al. [Med. Phys. 28, 419-437 (2001)] showed that the power spectrum of mammographic breast background follows a power law and that lesion detectability is affected by the power-law exponent {beta} which measures the amount of structure in the background. Following the study of Burgess et al., the authors measured and compared the power-law exponent of mammographic backgrounds in tomosynthesis projections and reconstructed slices to investigate the effect of tomosynthesis imaging on background structure. Our data set consisted of 55 patient cases. For each case, regions of interest (ROIs) were extracted from both projection images and reconstructed slices. The periodogram of each ROI was computed by taking the squared modulus of the Fourier transform of the ROI. The power-law exponent was determined for each periodogram and averaged across all ROIs extracted from all projections or reconstructed slices for each patient data set. For the projections, the mean {beta} averaged across the 55 cases was 3.06 (standard deviation of 0.21), while it was 2.87 (0.24) for the corresponding reconstructions. The difference in {beta} for a given patient between the projection ROIs and the reconstructed ROIs averaged across the 55 cases was 0.194, which was statistically significant (p<0.001). The 95% CI for the difference between the mean value of {beta} for the projections and reconstructions was [0.170, 0.218]. The results are consistent with the observation that the amount of breast structure in the tomosynthesis slice is reduced compared to projection mammography and that this may lead to improved lesion detectability.

  5. Comparison of power spectra for tomosynthesis projections and reconstructed images.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Emma; Reiser, Ingrid; Nishikawa, Robert

    2009-05-01

    Burgess et al. [Med. Phys. 28, 419-437 (2001)] showed that the power spectrum of mammographic breast background follows a power law and that lesion detectability is affected by the power-law exponent beta which measures the amount of structure in the background. Following the study of Burgess et al., the authors measured and compared the power-law exponent of mammographic backgrounds in tomosynthesis projections and reconstructed slices to investigate the effect of tomosynthesis imaging on background structure. Our data set consisted of 55 patient cases. For each case, regions of interest (ROIs) were extracted from both projection images and reconstructed slices. The periodogram of each ROI was computed by taking the squared modulus of the Fourier transform of the ROI. The power-law exponent was determined for each periodogram and averaged across all ROIs extracted from all projections or reconstructed slices for each patient data set. For the projections, the mean beta averaged across the 55 cases was 3.06 (standard deviation of 0.21), while it was 2.87 (0.24) for the corresponding reconstructions. The difference in beta for a given patient between the projection ROIs and the reconstructed ROIs averaged across the 55 cases was 0.194, which was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The 95% CI for the difference between the mean value of beta for the projections and reconstructions was [0.170, 0.218]. The results are consistent with the observation that the amount of breast structure in the tomosynthesis slice is reduced compared to projection mammography and that this may lead to improved lesion detectability.

  6. Full covariance of CMB and lensing reconstruction power spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peloton, Julien; Schmittfull, Marcel; Lewis, Antony; Carron, Julien; Zahn, Oliver

    2017-02-01

    CMB and lensing reconstruction power spectra are powerful probes of cosmology. However, they are correlated, since the CMB power spectra are lensed, and the lensing reconstruction is constructed using CMB multipoles. We perform a full analysis of the auto- and cross-covariances, including polarization power spectra and minimum-variance lensing estimators, and compare with simulations of idealized future CMB-S4 observations. Covariances sourced by fluctuations in the unlensed CMB and instrumental noise can largely be removed by using a realization-dependent subtraction of lensing reconstruction noise, leaving a relatively simple covariance model that is dominated by lensing-induced terms and well described by a small number of principal components. The correlations between the CMB and lensing power spectra will be detectable at the level of ˜5 σ for a CMB-S4 mission, and neglecting them could underestimate some parameter error bars by several tens of percent. However, we found that the inclusion of external priors or data sets to estimate parameter error bars can make the impact of the correlations almost negligible.

  7. Model selection applied to reconstruction of the Primordial Power Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, J. Alberto; Bridges, M.; Hobson, M. P.; Lasenby, A. N.

    2012-06-01

    The preferred shape for the primordial spectrum of curvature perturbations is determined by performing a Bayesian model selection analysis of cosmological observations. We first reconstruct the spectrum modelled as piecewise linear in log k between nodes in k-space whose amplitudes and positions are allowed to vary. The number of nodes together with their positions are chosen by the Bayesian evidence, so that we can both determine the complexity supported by the data and locate any features present in the spectrum. In addition to the node-based reconstruction, we consider a set of parameterised models for the primordial spectrum: the standard power-law parameterisation, the spectrum produced from the Lasenby & Doran (LD) model and a simple variant parameterisation. By comparing the Bayesian evidence for different classes of spectra, we find the power-law parameterisation is significantly disfavoured by current cosmological observations, which show a preference for the LD model.

  8. Imaging diagnostics of pulsed plasma discharges in saline generated with various sharp pin powered electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimakoulas, L.; Karim, M. L.; Dostal, L.; Krcma, F.; Graham, W. G.; Field, T. A.

    2016-09-01

    Plasmas formed by 1 ms pulses of between 180 and 300 V applied to sharp pin-like electrodes immersed in saline solution have been imaged with a Photron SA-X2 fast framing camera and an Andor iStar 510 ICCD camera. Stainless steel, Tungsten and Gold electrodes were investigated with tip diameters of 30 μm, 1 μm and < 1 μ m respectively. As previously observed, a vapour layer forms around the electrode prior to plasma ignition. For gold and stainless steel lower voltages were required to minimize electrode damage. Preliminary anlaysis indicates at lower voltages for all tips the fast framing results show that light emission is normally centred on a single small volume, which appears to move about, but remains close to the tip. In the case of Tungsten with higher voltages or longer pulses the tip of the needle can heat up to incandescent temperatures. At higher voltages shock wave fronts appear to be observed as the vapour layer collapses at the end of the voltage pulse. Backlighting and no lighting to observe bubble/vapour layer formation and emission due to plasma formation were employed. Sometimes at higher voltages a thicker vapour layer engulfs the tip and no plasma emission/current is observed.

  9. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum from CMB data

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zong-Kuan; Zhang, Yuan-Zhong; Schwarz, Dominik J. E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de

    2011-08-01

    Measuring the deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum is a critical test of inflation. In this paper we reconstruct the shape of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations from the cosmic microwave background data, including the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope 148 GHz data, by using a binning method of a cubic spline interpolation in log-log space. We find that the power-law spectrum is preferred by the data and that the Harrison-Zel'dovich spectrum is disfavored at 95% confidence level. These conclusions hold with and without allowing for tensor modes, however the simpler model without tensors is preferred by the data. We do not find evidence for a feature in the primordial power spectrum — in full agreement with generic predictions from cosmological inflation.

  10. Testing parity-violating physics from cosmic rotation power reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namikawa, Toshiya

    2017-02-01

    We study the reconstruction of the cosmic rotation power spectrum produced by parity-violating physics, with an eye to ongoing and near future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments such as BICEP Array, CMBS4, LiteBIRD and Simons Observatory. In addition to the inflationary gravitational waves and gravitational lensing, measurements of other various effects on CMB polarization open new window into the early Universe. One of these is anisotropies of the cosmic polarization rotation which probes the Chern-Simons term generally predicted by string theory. The anisotropies of the cosmic rotation are also generated by the primordial magnetism and in the Standard Model extention framework. The cosmic rotation anisotropies can be reconstructed as quadratic in CMB anisotropies. However, the power of the reconstructed cosmic rotation is a CMB four-point correlation and is not directly related to the cosmic-rotation power spectrum. Understanding all contributions in the four-point correlation is required to extract the cosmic rotation signal. Assuming inflationary motivated cosmic-rotation models, we employ simulation to quantify each contribution to the four-point correlation and find that (1) a secondary contraction of the trispectrum increases the total signal-to-noise, (2) a bias from the lensing-induced trispectrum is significant compared to the statistical errors in, e.g., LiteBIRD and CMBS4-like experiments, (3) the use of a realization-dependent estimator decreases the statistical errors by 10%-20%, depending on experimental specifications, and (4) other higher-order contributions are negligible at least for near future experiments.

  11. Pin care

    MedlinePlus

    There are different types of pin-cleaning solutions. The 2 most common solutions are: Sterile water A mixture of half normal saline and half hydrogen peroxide Use the solution that your surgeon recommends. Supplies you will need to ...

  12. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-01-01

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  13. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  14. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Leggett, Robert D.; Baker, Ronald B.

    1989-10-03

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  15. Reconstructing the primordial power spectrum from the CMB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Christopher; Bucher, Martin

    2012-10-01

    We propose a straightforward and model independent methodology for characterizing the sensitivity of CMB and other experiments to wiggles, irregularities, and features in the primordial power spectrum. Assuming that the primordial cosmological perturbations are adiabatic, we present a function space generalization of the usual Fisher matrix formalism applied to a CMB experiment resembling Planck with and without ancillary data. This work is closely related to other work on recovering the inflationary potential and exploring specific models of non-minimal, or perhaps baroque, primordial power spectra. The approach adopted here, however, most directly expresses what the data is really telling us. We explore in detail the structure of the available information and quantify exactly what features can be reconstructed and at what statistical significance.

  16. Dowel pin

    DOEpatents

    Wojcik, Thaddeus A.

    1978-01-01

    Two abutting members are locked together by reaming a hole entirely through one member and at least partly through the other, machining a circular groove in each through hole just below the surface of the member, press fitting a dowel pin having a thin wall extension on at least one end thereof into the hole in both members, a thin wall extension extending into each through hole, crimping or snapping the thin wall extension into the grooves to positively lock the dowel pin in place and, if necessary, tack welding the end of the thin-wall extension in place.

  17. Measurements of fuel pin/water hole worths and power peaking, void coefficients, and temperature coefficients for 4. 81 wt% enriched UO[sub 2] fuel rods

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.R.; Rohr, R.R.; Angelo, P.L.; Patrou, N.T.; Buckwheat, K.W.; Hayes, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    The Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute reactor critical facility is currently the only facility in North America providing critical measurement data in support of the light water reactor electric power industry. The reactor is fueled by 4.81 wt% [sup 235]U enriched UO[sub 2] high-density pellets in stainless steel clad fuel rods at the present time, although experiments with other fuels are being analyzed. The fuel pins are supported by inexpensive stainless steel lattice plates in a large open water tank. Three sets of lattice plates have been fabricated for fuel pins in square array with pitches 0.585, 0.613, and 0.640 in. (1.486, 0.613, and 1.656 cm, respectively) to provide a relevant range of water-to-fuel volume ratios. The measurements reported here are for the first of these, a relatively tight lattice of considerable interest for reactor physics methods for advanced fuels and reactors.

  18. Pinning controllability of complex networks with community structure.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qingying; Tang, Yang; Kurths, Jürgen; Fang, Jian-an; Wong, W K

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we study the controllability of networks with different numbers of communities and various strengths of community structure. By means of simulations, we show that the degree descending pinning scheme performs best among several considered pinning schemes under a small number of pinned nodes, while the degree ascending pinning scheme is becoming more powerful by increasing the number of pinned nodes. It is found that increasing the number of communities or reducing the strength of community structure is beneficial for the enhancement of the controllability. Moreover, it is revealed that the pinning scheme with evenly distributed pinned nodes among communities outperforms other kinds of considered pinning schemes.

  19. Nondestrucive analysis of fuel pins

    DOEpatents

    Stepan, I.E.; Allard, N.P.; Suter, C.R.

    1972-11-03

    Disclosure is made of a method and a correspondingly adapted facility for the nondestructive analysis of the concentation of fuel and poison in a nuclear reactor fuel pin. The concentrations of fuel and poison in successive sections along the entire length of the fuel pin are determined by measuring the reactivity of a thermal reactor as each successive small section of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux of the reactor core and comparing the measured reactivity with the reactivities measured for standard fuel pins having various known concentrations. Only a small section of the length of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux at any one time while the remainder of the fuel pin is shielded from the neutron flux. In order to expose only a small section at any one time, a boron-10-lined dry traverse tube is passed through the test region within the core of a low-power thermal nuclear reactor which has a very high fuel sensitivity. A narrow window in the boron-10 lining is positioned at the core center line. The fuel pins are then systematically traversed through the tube past the narrow window such that successive small sections along the length of the fuel pin are exposed to the neutron flux which passes through the narrow window.

  20. Linearized image reconstruction method for ultrasound modulated electrical impedance tomography based on power density distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xizi; Xu, Yanbin; Dong, Feng

    2017-04-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is a promising measurement technique with important industrial and clinical applications. However, with limited effective measurements, it suffers from poor spatial resolution due to the ill-posedness of the inverse problem. Recently, there has been an increasing research interest in hybrid imaging techniques, utilizing couplings of physical modalities, because these techniques obtain much more effective measurement information and promise high resolution. Ultrasound modulated electrical impedance tomography (UMEIT) is one of the newly developed hybrid imaging techniques, which combines electric and acoustic modalities. A linearized image reconstruction method based on power density is proposed for UMEIT. The interior data, power density distribution, is adopted to reconstruct the conductivity distribution with the proposed image reconstruction method. At the same time, relating the power density change to the change in conductivity, the Jacobian matrix is employed to make the nonlinear problem into a linear one. The analytic formulation of this Jacobian matrix is derived and its effectiveness is also verified. In addition, different excitation patterns are tested and analyzed, and opposite excitation provides the best performance with the proposed method. Also, multiple power density distributions are combined to implement image reconstruction. Finally, image reconstruction is implemented with the linear back-projection (LBP) algorithm. Compared with ERT, with the proposed image reconstruction method, UMEIT can produce reconstructed images with higher quality and better quantitative evaluation results.

  1. Dependence on the incident light power of the internal electric fields in a GaAs p-i-n solar cell according to bright photoreflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Mun, Young Hee; Kim, Jong Su; Lee, Sang Jun

    2016-07-01

    Bright photoreflectance (BPR) spectroscopy at room temperature is used to examine the internal electric fields in a GaAs p-i-n solar cell for their dependence on the incident light power. Electric fields are observed at 30 µW and 100 µW of incident light. With increasing power, the strengths of the two electric fields are reduced due to the photovoltage effect. The electric field observed at 30 µW is assigned to the p-i interface, which is close to the surface. The other electric field is due to the i-n interface because the incident light penetrates deeper as the light power is increased. The electric field strength of 35.6 kV/cm at the p-i interface is lower than that of 42.9 kV/cm at the i-n interface at 500 µW of light power because the photovoltage effect is proportional to the number of photo-generated carriers, which is reduced as the distance from the surface increases. When the incident light power is similar to the excitation beam power, the electric fields at the p-i interface are saturated.

  2. The effect of frequency on atmospheric pressure glow discharge in a pin-to-plate gap sustained by a resonant power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong Sheng; Ding, Wei Dong; Wang, Ya Nan; Wang, Jia Chen; Li, Fang; Fan, Chuan

    2016-06-01

    More and more researchers have been attracted to the research of atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) because of its great prospect in numerous industrial applications. Nevertheless, almost all of the industrial applications are based on achievement of stable, large-volume, and uniform APGD. In a previous study, stable filamentary APGD was obtained by applying a resonant power supply between pin-to-plate electrodes which could limit the peak value of discharge current to supress the glow-to-arc transition through a series-wound resonance principle. The filamentary APGD is centimeter-level in the length but only several millimeters in diameter. Therefore, in order to obtain large-volume and uniform APGD, it is significant to study how to diffuse filamentary APGD in radial direction. With the increasing resonant frequency of alternating current discharge, excited particles (mainly including energetic electrons and trapped ions left from the previous half-cycle discharge) in the electrodes gap increase, which benefits obtaining stable self-sustaining APGD. In this paper, mechanism and law of the influence of resonant frequency on the diffusion of filamentary APGD in ambient air were studied. By comparing the photos of discharge plasma and waveforms of the discharge voltage and current, it is found that the volume of the glow discharge plasma enlarges as the resonant frequency of the power supply increases. It is very significant and anticipating to study how to obtain stable, large-volume, and uniform APGD in ambient air by the resonant power supply.

  3. PinBus Interface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  4. Reusable Mechanical Pin Puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Son; Farley, Rodger; Devine, ED

    1991-01-01

    Reusable mechanical pin puller relatively simple spring-loaded trigger mechanism. Designed to save money and increase safety as substitute for costly and potentially dangerous pyrotechnic pin pullers used in development and testing of deployment mechanisms.

  5. Red, Straight, no bends: primordial power spectrum reconstruction from CMB and large-scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravenni, Andrea; Verde, Licia; Cuesta, Antonio J.

    2016-08-01

    We present a minimally parametric, model independent reconstruction of the shape of the primordial power spectrum. Our smoothing spline technique is well-suited to search for smooth features such as deviations from scale invariance, and deviations from a power law such as running of the spectral index or small-scale power suppression. We use a comprehensive set of the state-of the art cosmological data: Planck observations of the temperature and polarisation anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, WiggleZ and Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 galaxy power spectra and the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey correlation function. This reconstruction strongly supports the evidence for a power law primordial power spectrum with a red tilt and disfavours deviations from a power law power spectrum including small-scale power suppression such as that induced by significantly massive neutrinos. This offers a powerful confirmation of the inflationary paradigm, justifying the adoption of the inflationary prior in cosmological analyses.

  6. 18. SHEAR PIN, UNIT 24 GORGE POWERHOUSE. THE WICKET GATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SHEAR PIN, UNIT 24 GORGE POWERHOUSE. THE WICKET GATES ON THE TURBINE ARE EACH EQUIPPED WITH A SHEAR PIN AND OIL PRESSURE GAUGE. IF A GATE JAMS, THE PIN SMEARS AND THE CHANGE IN OIL PRESSURE TRIGGERS AN ALARM, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  7. Noise correction in power spectrum and image reconstruction with speckle holography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yao-Hui; Zhang, Rui-Long; Lou, Ke; Lu, Ru-Wei; Liu, Zhong

    At first, the principle of speckle holography is introduced briefly, then some influences upon power spectrum arised from the noise in real data is analysed and a method to correct the noise bias is discussed. At last, a high resolution image reconstruction experiment for two double stars is reported.

  8. Power Relationships in Rumpelstiltskin: A Textual Comparison of a Traditional and a Reconstructed Fairy Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    Reconstructed fairy tales provide a different point of view and challenge the assumptions of a common set of values; for that reason, these stories provide a medium in which to examine power relationships in texts by applying a critical multicultural analysis (Botelho & Rudman, forthcoming, 2008, "A critical multicultural analysis of children's…

  9. Pediatric safety pin ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sarihan, H; Kaklikkaya, I; Ozcan, F

    1998-08-01

    Fifteen consecutive children with ingested safety pins were evaluated retrospectively. Eight patients were males and seven were girls. The mean age of the patients was 5.4 years ranging from 7 months to 16 years. Two of 15 patients were mentally retarded Seven safety pins ingestion were noted by parents, three older children applied with safety pin swallowing. Three infants referred with hypersalivation and swallowing difficulty. One of two mentally retarded patients had recurrent aspiration pneumonia, the other had neck abscess. These patients' lesions were detected incidentally by thoracic X-ray. Nine safety pins were at the level of the cricopharyngeus, one at the level of the aortic arch and five at the esophagogastric junction. A right esophagoscopy was used for extraction of safety pins under general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation were used. Before esophagoscopy control plain X-ray was obtained for location of safety pin. Nine safety pins were extracted by esophagoscopy. Three safety pins spontaneously and three during anesthesia induction passed through the esophagus falling down the stomach. Five of these six safety pins were spontaneously extracted without complication. However one open safety pin lodged at the duodenum and laparotomy was required. In this article, etiology and management of safety pin ingestion in children are discussed.

  10. Pin-Height Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Daniel R.; Nichols, Vincent P.

    1992-01-01

    Gauge aligns itself and retains indication for later reading. Measuring tool indicates height of protrusion of pin from flat surface. Tool surrounds pin and holds itself square with flat surface, ensuring proper alignment and accuracy of measurement. Used in hard-to-see and hard-to-reach places. Holds indication of height until read. Metal scale slides in and out through slot in top plate. Scale value at slot gives height of pin under piston. Dimensions in inches.

  11. Nuclear fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Bramblett, Richard L.; Preskitt, Charles A.

    1987-03-03

    Systems and methods for inspection of nuclear fuel pins to determine fiss loading and uniformity. The system includes infeed mechanisms which stockpile, identify and install nuclear fuel pins into an irradiator. The irradiator provides extended activation times using an approximately cylindrical arrangement of numerous fuel pins. The fuel pins can be arranged in a magazine which is rotated about a longitudinal axis of rotation. A source of activating radiation is positioned equidistant from the fuel pins along the longitudinal axis of rotation. The source of activating radiation is preferably oscillated along the axis to uniformly activate the fuel pins. A detector is provided downstream of the irradiator. The detector uses a plurality of detector elements arranged in an axial array. Each detector element inspects a segment of the fuel pin. The activated fuel pin being inspected in the detector is oscillated repeatedly over a distance equal to the spacing between adjacent detector elements, thereby multiplying the effective time available for detecting radiation emissions from the activated fuel pin.

  12. Straight SU-8 pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavieh, R.; Pla Roca, M.; Qasaimeh, M. A.; Mirzaei, M.; Juncker, D.

    2010-05-01

    SU-8 can be patterned with high resolution, is flexible and tough. These characteristics qualify SU-8 as a material for making spotting pins for printing DNA and protein microarrays, and it can potentially replace the commonly used silicon and steel pins that are expensive, brittle in the case of silicon and can damage the substrate during the printing process. SU-8, however, accumulates large internal stress during fabrication and, as a consequence, thin and long SU-8 structures bend and coil up, which precludes using it for long, freestanding structures such as pins. Here we introduce (i) a novel fabrication process that allows the making of 30 mm long, straight spotting pins that feature (ii) a new design and surface chemistry treatments for better capillary flow control and more homogeneous spotting. A key innovation for the fabrication is a post-processing annealing step with slow temperature ramping and mechanical clamping between two identical substrates to minimize stress buildup and render it symmetric, respectively, which together yield a straight SU-8 structure. SU-8 pins fabricated using this process are compliant and resilient and can buckle without damage during printing. The pins comprise a novel flow stop valve for accurate metering of fluids, and their surface was chemically patterned to render the outside of the pin hydrophobic while the inside of the slit is hydrophilic, and the slit thus spontaneously fills when dipped into a solution while preventing droplet attachment on the outside. A single SU-8 pin was used to print 1392 protein spots in one run. SU-8 pins are inexpensive, straightforward to fabricate, robust and may be used as disposable pins for microarray fabrication. These pins serve as an illustration of the potential application of ultralow stress SU-8 for making freestanding microfabricated polymer microstructures.

  13. Computer simulation of vortex pinning in type II superconductors. II. Random point pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, E. H.

    1983-10-01

    Pinning of vortices in a type II superconductor by randomly positioned identical point pins is simulated using the two-dimensional method described in a previous paper (Part I). The system is characterized by the vortex and pin numbers ( N v , N p ), the vortex and pin interaction ranges ( R v , R p ), and the amplitude of the pin potential A p . The computation is performed for many cases: dilute or dense, sharp or soft, attractive or repulsive, weak or strong pins, and ideal or amorphous vortex lattice. The total pinning force F as a function of the mean vortex displacement X increases first linearly (over a distance usually much smaller than the vortex spacing and than R p ) and then saturates, fluctuating about its averagebar F. We interpretbar F as the maximum pinning force j c B of a large specimen. For weak pins the prediction of Larkin and Ovchinnikov for two-dimensional collective pinning is confirmed:bar F=const·bar W/ R p c 66, wherebar W is the mean square pinning force and c 66 is the shear modulus of the vortex lattice. If the initial vortex lattice is chosen highly defective (“amorphous”) the constant is 1.3 3 times larger than for the ideal triangular lattice. This finding may explain the often observed “history effect”. The functionbar F( A p ) exhibits a jump, which for dilute, sharp, attractive pins occurs close to the “threshold value” predicted for isolated pins by Labusch. This jump reflects the onset of plastic deformation of the vortex lattice, and in some cases of vortex trapping, but is not a genuine threshold. For strong pinsbar F˜( N p bar W)1/2 approaches the direct summation limit. For both weak and strong pinning j c B is related to the mean square actual (not maximum) force of each pin. This mean square in general is not proportional to A {/p 2} but, due to relaxation of the vortex lattice, may be smaller or larger than its rigid-lattice limit. Therefore, simple power laws j c ˜ n p A {/p 2} or j c ˜ n p A p in

  14. PINS Spectrum Identification Guide

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Caffrey

    2012-03-01

    The Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy—PINS, for short—system identifies the chemicals inside munitions and containers without opening them, a decided safety advantage if the fill chemical is a hazardous substance like a chemical warfare agent or an explosive. The PINS Spectrum Identification Guide is intended as a reference for technical professionals responsible for the interpretation of PINS gamma-ray spectra. The guide is divided into two parts. The three chapters that constitute Part I cover the science and technology of PINS. Neutron activation analysis is the focus of Chapter 1. Chapter 2 explores PINS hardware, software, and related operational issues. Gamma-ray spectral analysis basics are introduced in Chapter 3. The six chapters of Part II cover the identification of PINS spectra in detail. Like the PINS decision tree logic, these chapters are organized by chemical element: phosphorus-based chemicals, chlorine-based chemicals, etc. These descriptions of hazardous, toxic, and/or explosive chemicals conclude with a chapter on the identification of the inert chemicals, e.g. sand, used to fill practice munitions.

  15. Wire Retrieves Broken Pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burow, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    Safety wire retains pieces of broken tool. Retrieval wire running through shaft of tool used to pull pieces of tool out of hole, should tool break during use. Safety wire concept suitable for pins subject to deflection or breakage.

  16. Powered Flight Design and Reconstructed Performance Summary for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sell, Steven; Chen, Allen; Davis, Jody; San Martin, Miguel; Serricchio, Frederick; Singh, Gurkirpal

    2013-01-01

    The Powered Flight segment of Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) system extends from backshell separation through landing. This segment is responsible for removing the final 0.1% of the kinetic energy dissipated during EDL and culminating with the successful touchdown of the rover on the surface of Mars. Many challenges exist in the Powered Flight segment: extraction of Powered Descent Vehicle from the backshell, performing a 300m divert maneuver to avoid the backshell and parachute, slowing the descent from 85 m/s to 0.75 m/s and successfully lowering the rover on a 7.5m bridle beneath the rocket-powered Descent Stage and gently placing it on the surface using the Sky Crane Maneuver. Finally, the nearly-spent Descent Stage must execute a Flyaway maneuver to ensure surface impact a safe distance from the Rover. This paper provides an overview of the powered flight design, key features, and event timeline. It also summarizes Curiosity's as flown performance on the night of August 5th as reconstructed by the flight team.

  17. Reconstruction of a nonminimal coupling theory with scale-invariant power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Taotao

    2012-06-01

    A nonminimal coupling single scalar field theory, when transformed from Jordan frame to Einstein frame, can act like a minimal coupling one. Making use of this property, we investigate how a nonminimal coupling theory with scale-invariant power spectrum could be reconstructed from its minimal coupling counterpart, which can be applied in the early universe. Thanks to the coupling to gravity, the equation of state of our universe for a scale-invariant power spectrum can be relaxed, and the relation between the parameters in the action can be obtained. This approach also provides a means to address the Big-Bang puzzles and anisotropy problem in the nonminimal coupling model within Jordan frame. Due to the equivalence between the two frames, one may be able to find models that are free of the horizon, flatness, singularity as well as anisotropy problems.

  18. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, Todd A.; White, James P.

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  19. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  20. A double tuned rail damper—increased damping at the two first pinned-pinned frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, J.; Sol, H.

    2003-10-01

    Railway-induced vibrations are a growing matter of environmental concern. The rapid development of transportation, the increase of vehicle speeds and vehicle weights have resulted in higher vibration levels. In the meantime vibrations that were tolerated in the past are now considered to be a nuisance. Numerous solutions have been proposed to remedy these problems. The majority only acts on a specific part of the dynamic behaviour of the track. This paper presents a possible solution to reduce the noise generated by the 'pinned-pinned' frequencies. Pinned-pinned frequencies correspond with standing waves whose nodes are positioned exactly at the sleeper supports. The two first pinned-pinned frequencies are situated approximately at 950 and 2200 Hz (UIC60-rail and sleeper spacing of 0.60 m). To attenuate these vibrations, the Department of MEMC at the VUB has developed a dynamic vibration absorber called the Double Tuned Rail Damper (DTRD). The DTRD is mounted between two sleepers on the rail and is powered by the motion of the rail. The DTRD consists of two major parts: a steel plate which is connected to the rail with an interface of an elastic layer, and a rubber mass. The two first resonance frequencies of the steel plate coincide with the targeted pinned-pinned frequencies of the rail. The rubber mass acts as a motion controller and energy absorber. Measurements at a test track of the French railway company (SNCF) have shown considerable attenuation of the envisaged pinned-pinned frequencies. The attenuation rate surpasses 5 dB/m at certain frequency bands.

  1. Impact of Pin-by-Pin Thermal-Hydraulic Feedback Modeling on Steady-State Core Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Akio; Ikeno, Tsutomu

    2005-02-15

    In this paper, the effect of a pin-by-pin thermal-hydraulic feedback treatment on the core characteristics at a steady-state condition is investigated using a three-dimensional fine-mesh core calculation code. Currently, advanced nodal codes treat the inside of an assembly as homogeneous, and the temperature distribution inside a node is usually ignored. Namely, the fuel temperature is estimated from the assembly average power density, and the moderator temperature is calculated from the nodewise closed-channel model. However, the validity of a flat temperature distribution inside a node has not yet been investigated, because a three-dimensional pin-by-pin whole-core calculation must be done for comparison. A three-dimensional pin-by-pin nodal-transport code for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) core analysis, SCOPE2, was used in this study since it can directly treat the pin-by-pin feedback effect. A whole-core subchannel analysis code was developed to enhance the thermal-hydraulic capability of SCOPE2. The pin-by-pin feedback models for fuel and moderator temperature were established, and their impact on the core characteristics was investigated in a 3 x 3 multiassembly and the whole PWR core geometries. The calculations showed that modeling of the pin-by-pin temperature distribution revealed a negligible effect on core reactivity and only a slight impact on the radial peaking factor. The difference in the radial peaking factor that is exposed by the pin-by-pin temperature modeling is less than 0.005 in the test calculations.

  2. Dynamic-Feature Extraction, Attribution and Reconstruction (DEAR) Method for Power System Model Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaobu; Lu, Shuai; Zhou, Ning; Lin, Guang; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Pai, M. A.

    2014-09-04

    In interconnected power systems, dynamic model reduction can be applied on generators outside the area of interest to mitigate the computational cost with transient stability studies. This paper presents an approach of deriving the reduced dynamic model of the external area based on dynamic response measurements, which comprises of three steps, dynamic-feature extraction, attribution and reconstruction (DEAR). In the DEAR approach, a feature extraction technique, such as singular value decomposition (SVD), is applied to the measured generator dynamics after a disturbance. Characteristic generators are then identified in the feature attribution step for matching the extracted dynamic features with the highest similarity, forming a suboptimal ‘basis’ of system dynamics. In the reconstruction step, generator state variables such as rotor angles and voltage magnitudes are approximated with a linear combination of the characteristic generators, resulting in a quasi-nonlinear reduced model of the original external system. Network model is un-changed in the DEAR method. Tests on several IEEE standard systems show that the proposed method gets better reduction ratio and response errors than the traditional coherency aggregation methods.

  3. PINS-3X Operations

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury

    2013-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS) non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. The PINS-3X variant of the system is used to identify explosives and uses a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) as the neutron source. Use of the system, including possession and use of the neutron generator and shipment of the system components requires compliance with a number of regulations. This report outlines some of these requirements as well as some of the requirements in using the system outside of INL.

  4. Jorge Rivera congratulated for spotting misplaced pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jorge Rivera (with microphone) shares his thoughts after receiving congratulations for his observatory powers from NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (right). A NASA external tank mechanical engineer, Rivera is the one who spotted the misplaced lock pin on Shuttle Discovery Oct. 10, shortly before the intended launch of mission STS-92, causing a scrub for safety reasons.

  5. Jorge Rivera congratulated for spotting misplaced pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jorge Rivera (center) receives a plaque and congratulations for his observatory powers from Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach (right). A NASA external tank mechanical engineer, Rivera is the one who spotted the misplaced lock pin on Shuttle Discovery Oct. 10, shortly before the intended launch of mission STS-92, causing a scrub for safety reasons.

  6. Retractable Trunnion Pin Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jermstad, Wayne; Landeck, Mark

    2001-01-01

    The X-38 is a technology demonstration project for the proposed International Space Station Crew Return Vehicle. The project consists of several atmospheric flight vehicles and an unmanned spacecraft. This paper will discuss the design, development, and testing of a Retractable Trunnion Pin Mechanism used to mount the spacecraft in the payload bay of the space shuttle orbiter for launch.

  7. Lever-Arm Pin Puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Malcolm

    1994-01-01

    Mechanism holds retaining pins in place except when actuated to release pins quickly. Mechanism is integral part of cover designed to be removed with simple downward motion of hand. Before removal, mechanism secures cover in place. After removal, mechanism holds retaining pins for reuse.

  8. Pin puller impact shock attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auclair, G. F.; Leonard, B. S.; Robbins, R. E.; Proffitt, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Design of a pin arresting mechanism for a pyrotechnically actuated pin puller is reviewed. The investigative approach is discussed and the impact shock test results for various candidate designs are presented. The selected pin arresting design reduced the peak value of the shock response spectrum by five to one.

  9. Extremely deep profiling analysis of the atomic composition of thick (>100 μm) GaAs layers within power PIN diodes by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Yunin, P. A.; Folomin, P. I.; Gritsenko, A. B.; Kryukov, V. L.; Kryukov, E. V.

    2016-08-01

    A new opportunity to analyze the atomic composition of thick (>100 μm) epitaxial GaAs layers by SIMS with lateral imaging of the cross section of a structure is demonstrated. The standard geometry of ldepth analysis turns out to be less informative owing to material redeposition from the walls of a crater to its floor occurring when the crater depth reaches several micrometers. The profiles of concentration of doping impurities Te and Zn and concentrations of Al and major impurities in PIN diode layers are determined down to a depth of 130 μm. The element sensitivity is at the level of 1016 at/cm3 (typical for depth analysis at a TOF.SIMS-5 setup), and the resolution is twice the diameter of the probing beam of Bi ions. The possibility of enhancing the depth resolution and the element sensitivity of the proposed analysis method is discussed.

  10. [Novel method of noise power spectrum measurement for computed tomography images with adaptive iterative reconstruction method].

    PubMed

    Nishimaru, Eiji; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Hara, Takanori; Terakawa, Shoichi; Yokomachi, Kazushi; Fujioka, Chikako; Kiguchi, Masao; Ishifuro, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive iterative reconstruction techniques (IRs) can decrease image noise in computed tomography (CT) and are expected to contribute to reduction of the radiation dose. To evaluate the performance of IRs, the conventional two-dimensional (2D) noise power spectrum (NPS) is widely used. However, when an IR provides an NPS value drop at all spatial frequency (which is similar to NPS changes by dose increase), the conventional method cannot evaluate the correct noise property because the conventional method does not correspond to the volume data natures of CT images. The purpose of our study was to develop a new method for NPS measurements that can be adapted to IRs. Our method utilized thick multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) images. The thick images are generally made by averaging CT volume data in a direction perpendicular to a MPR plane (e.g. z-direction for axial MPR plane). By using this averaging technique as a cutter for 3D-NPS, we can obtain adequate 2D-extracted NPS (eNPS) from 3D NPS. We applied this method to IR images generated with adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D (AIDR-3D, Toshiba) to investigate the validity of our method. A water phantom with 24 cm-diameters was scanned at 120 kV and 200 mAs with a 320-row CT (Acquilion One, Toshiba). From the results of study, the adequate thickness of MPR images for eNPS was more than 25.0 mm. Our new NPS measurement method utilizing thick MPR images was accurate and effective for evaluating noise reduction effects of IRs.

  11. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations using multiple data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Paul; Sarkar, Subir

    2014-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism (`inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the cosmological parameters from observations of the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure. Hence it ought to be extracted from such data in a model-independent manner, however this is difficult because relevant cosmological observables are given by a convolution of the primordial perturbations with some smoothing kernel which depends on both the assumed world model and the matter content of the universe. Moreover the deconvolution problem is ill-conditioned so a regularisation scheme must be employed to control error propagation. We demonstrate that `Tikhonov regularisation' can robustly reconstruct the primordial spectrum from multiple cosmological data sets, a significant advantage being that both its uncertainty and resolution are then quantified. Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate several regularisation parameter selection methods and find that generalised cross-validation and Mallow's Cp method give optimal results. We apply our inversion procedure to data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, other ground-based small angular scale CMB experiments, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The reconstructed spectrum (assuming the standard ΛCDM cosmology) is not scale-free but has an infrared cutoff at klesssim5 × 10-4 Mpc-1 (due to the anomalously low CMB quadrupole) and several features with ~ 2σ significance at k/Mpc-1 ~ 0.0013-0.0025, 0.0362-0.0402 and 0.051-0.056, reflecting the `WMAP glitches'. To test whether these are indeed real will require more accurate data, such as from the Planck satellite and new ground-based experiments.

  12. Reconstruction of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations using multiple data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Paul; Sarkar, Subir E-mail: s.sarkar@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2014-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the primordial power spectrum of curvature perturbations is essential both in order to elucidate the physical mechanism ('inflation') which generated it, and for estimating the cosmological parameters from observations of the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure. Hence it ought to be extracted from such data in a model-independent manner, however this is difficult because relevant cosmological observables are given by a convolution of the primordial perturbations with some smoothing kernel which depends on both the assumed world model and the matter content of the universe. Moreover the deconvolution problem is ill-conditioned so a regularisation scheme must be employed to control error propagation. We demonstrate that 'Tikhonov regularisation' can robustly reconstruct the primordial spectrum from multiple cosmological data sets, a significant advantage being that both its uncertainty and resolution are then quantified. Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate several regularisation parameter selection methods and find that generalised cross-validation and Mallow's C{sub p} method give optimal results. We apply our inversion procedure to data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, other ground-based small angular scale CMB experiments, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The reconstructed spectrum (assuming the standard ΛCDM cosmology) is not scale-free but has an infrared cutoff at k∼<5 × 10{sup −4} Mpc{sup −1} (due to the anomalously low CMB quadrupole) and several features with ∼ 2σ significance at k/Mpc{sup −1} ∼ 0.0013–0.0025, 0.0362–0.0402 and 0.051–0.056, reflecting the 'WMAP glitches'. To test whether these are indeed real will require more accurate data, such as from the Planck satellite and new ground-based experiments.

  13. 10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL BRACING MEMBERS - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  14. 13. UNDERSIDE OF THROUGHWAY SHOWING MAIN CHORDS, SUSPENSION EYEBAR PIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. UNDERSIDE OF THROUGHWAY SHOWING MAIN CHORDS, SUSPENSION EYE-BAR PIN CONNECTORS, LOWER CHORD EYEBARS AND LATERAL BRACING MEMBERS - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  15. Auxin transport through PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3) controls shade avoidance and fitness during competition

    PubMed Central

    Keuskamp, Diederik H.; Pollmann, Stephan; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Peeters, Anton J. M.; Pierik, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Plants grow in dense vegetations at the risk of being out-competed by neighbors. To increase their competitive power, plants display adaptive responses, such as rapid shoot elongation (shade avoidance) to consolidate light capture. These responses are induced upon detection of proximate neighbors through perception of the reduced ratio between red (R) and far-red (FR) light that is typical for dense vegetations. The plant hormone auxin is a central regulator of plant development and plasticity, but until now it has been unknown how auxin transport is controlled to regulate shade-avoidance responses. Here, we show that low R:FR detection changes the cellular location of the PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3) protein, a regulator of auxin efflux, in Arabidopsis seedlings. As a result, auxin levels in the elongating hypocotyls are increased under low R:FR. Seedlings of the pin3-3 mutant lack this low R:FR-induced increase of endogenous auxin in the hypocotyl and, accordingly, have no elongation response to low R:FR. We hypothesize that low R:FR-induced stimulation of auxin biosynthesis drives the regulation of PIN3, thus allowing shade avoidance to occur. The adaptive significance of PIN3-mediated control of shade-avoidance is shown in plant competition studies. It was found that pin3 mutants are outcompeted by wild-type neighbors who suppress fitness of pin3-3 by 40%. We conclude that low R:FR modulates the auxin distribution by a change in the cellular location of PIN3, and that this control can be of great importance for plants growing in dense vegetations. PMID:21149713

  16. Connector pin and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor); Askew, R. Scott (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electrical connector and method includes a connector and a conforming element proximate to or in contact with the mating end of the connector so as to prevent distortion of a matable end. The matable end of the connector may be of a female or male type and may be of a post, tube, blade, pin, or other configuration. An element made of conforming material, for example, an elastomer, epoxy or rubber type material, is configured and positioned in contact with the matable end of the connector, providing support during assembly to prevent distortion of the matable end. The conforming element may be rectangular, wedge, cylindrical, conical, annular, or of another configuration as required to provide support to the connector pin. The conforming element may be fastened with an adhesive to the matable end to further prevent distortion.

  17. Improving Functional Performance and Muscle Power 4-to-6 Months After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Souissi, Sabrine; Wong, Del P.; Dellal, Alexandre; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Ellouze, Zied; Chamari, Karim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8-week retraining programs, with either two or three training sessions per week, on measures of functional performance and muscular power in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Sixteen male athletes were randomly assigned to two groups after ACLR: a functional training group (FTG, n = 8) training 2 intense sessions per week (4hrs/week), and a control group (CG, n = 8) training 3 sessions per week with moderate intensity (6hrs/week). The two groups were assessed at four and six months post-ACLR and the effects of retraining were measured using the following assessments: the functional and the muscular power tests, and the agility T-test. After retraining, the FTG had improved more than the CG in the operated leg in the single leg hop test (+34.64% vs. +10.92%; large effect), the five jump test (+8.87% vs. +5.03%; medium effect), and single leg triple jump (+32.15% vs. +16.05%; medium effect). For the agility T-test, the FTG had larger improvements (+17.26% vs. +13.03%, medium effect) as compared to the CG. For the bilateral power tests, no significant training effects were shown for the two groups in the squat jump (SJ), the counter movement jump (CMJ) and the free arms CMJ (Arm CMJ). On the other hand, the unilateral CMJ test with the injured and the uninjured legs showed a significant increase for the FTG with respect to CG (p < 0.05). The present study introduces a new training modality in rehabilitation after ACLR that results in good recovery of the operated limb along with the contra-lateral leg. This may allow the athletes to reach good functional and strength performance with only two physical training sessions per week, better preparing them for a return to sport activity at 6 months post- ACLR and eventually sparing time for a possible progressive introduction of the sport specific technical training. Key points Functional training (plyometrics, neuromuscular

  18. A noise power spectrum study of a new model-based iterative reconstruction system: Veo 3.0.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Liu, Xinming; Dodge, Cristina T; Jensen, Corey T; Rong, X John

    2016-09-08

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance of the third generation of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) system, Veo 3.0, based on noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis with various clinical presets over a wide range of clinically applicable dose levels. A CatPhan 600 surrounded by an oval, fat-equivalent ring to mimic patient size/shape was scanned 10 times at each of six dose levels on a GE HD 750 scanner. NPS analysis was performed on images reconstructed with various Veo 3.0 preset combinations for comparisons of those images reconstructed using Veo 2.0, filtered back projection (FBP) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruc-tion (ASiR). The new Target Thickness setting resulted in higher noise in thicker axial images. The new Texture Enhancement function achieved a more isotropic noise behavior with less image artifacts. Veo 3.0 provides additional reconstruction options designed to allow the user choice of balance between spatial resolution and image noise, relative to Veo 2.0. Veo 3.0 provides more user selectable options and in general improved isotropic noise behavior in comparison to Veo 2.0. The overall noise reduction performance of both versions of MBIR was improved in comparison to FBP and ASiR, especially at low-dose levels.

  19. The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein family of auxin transporters

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Summary The PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are secondary transporters acting in the efflux of the plant signal molecule auxin from cells. They are asymmetrically localized within cells and their polarity determines the directionality of intercellular auxin flow. PIN genes are found exclusively in the genomes of multicellular plants and play an important role in regulating asymmetric auxin distribution in multiple developmental processes, including embryogenesis, organogenesis, tissue differentiation and tropic responses. All PIN proteins have a similar structure with amino- and carboxy-terminal hydrophobic, membrane-spanning domains separated by a central hydrophilic domain. The structure of the hydrophobic domains is well conserved. The hydrophilic domain is more divergent and it determines eight groups within the protein family. The activity of PIN proteins is regulated at multiple levels, including transcription, protein stability, subcellular localization and transport activity. Different endogenous and environmental signals can modulate PIN activity and thus modulate auxin-distribution-dependent development. A large group of PIN proteins, including the most ancient members known from mosses, localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and they regulate the subcellular compartmentalization of auxin and thus auxin metabolism. Further work is needed to establish the physiological importance of this unexpected mode of auxin homeostasis regulation. Furthermore, the evolution of PIN-based transport, PIN protein structure and more detailed biochemical characterization of the transport function are important topics for further studies. PMID:20053306

  20. Pip pin reliability and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skyles, Lane P.

    1994-01-01

    Pip pins are used in many engineering applications. Of particular interest to the aerospace industry is their use in various mechanism designs. Many payloads that fly aboard our nation's Space Shuttle have at least one actuated mechanism. Often these mechanisms incorporate pip pins in their design in order to fasten interfacing parts or joints. Pip pins are most often used when an astronaut will have a direct interface with the mechanism. This interfacing can be done during Space Shuttle mission EVA's (ExtraVehicular Activity). The main reason for incorporating pip pins is convenience and their ability to provide a quick release for interfacing parts. However, there are some issues that must be taken into account when using them in a design. These issues include documented failures and quality control problems when using substandard pip pins. A history of pip pins as they relate to the aerospace industry as well as general design features is discussed.

  1. Vortex pinning properties in Fe-chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, A.; Grimaldi, G.; Guarino, A.; Avitabile, F.; Nigro, A.; Galluzzi, A.; Mancusi, D.; Polichetti, M.; Pace, S.; Buchkov, K.; Nazarova, E.; Kawale, S.; Bellingeri, E.; Ferdeghini, C.

    2015-12-01

    Among the families of iron-based superconductors, the 11-family is one of the most attractive for high field applications at low temperatures. Optimization of the fabrication processes for bulk, crystalline and/or thin film samples is the first step in producing wires and/or tapes for practical high power conductors. Here we present the results of a comparative study of pinning properties in iron-chalcogenides, investigating the flux pinning mechanisms in optimized Fe(Se{}1-xTe x ) and FeSe samples by current-voltage characterization, magneto-resistance and magnetization measurements. In particular, from Arrhenius plots in magnetic fields up to 9 T, the activation energy is derived as a function of the magnetic field, {U}0(H), whereas the activation energy as a function of temperature, U(T), is derived from relaxation magnetization curves. The high pinning energies, high upper critical field versus temperature slopes near critical temperatures, and highly isotropic pinning properties make iron-chalcogenide superconductors a technological material which could be a real competitor to cuprate high temperature superconductors for high field applications.

  2. PIN it on auxin

    PubMed Central

    Kharshiing, Eros V; Kumar, G Pavan

    2010-01-01

    The growth and development of plants is regulated by several external and internal factors including auxin. Its distribution regulates several developmental processes in plants. Auxin molecules function as mobile signals and are involved in the spatial and temporal coordination of plant morphogenesis and in plant responses to their environment. The intercellular transport of auxin is facilitated by transport proteins and the disruption of polar auxin flow results in various developmental abnormalities. In this review, we discuss the developmental and physiological significance of over-accumulation of PIN1 auxin transport facilitator protein in tomato as seen in the enhanced polar auxin transport pct1-2 mutant. PMID:20980815

  3. Development of 3D pseudo pin-by-pin calculation methodology in ANC

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, B.; Mayhue, L.; Huria, H.; Ivanov, B.

    2012-07-01

    Advanced cores and fuel assembly designs have been developed to improve operational flexibility, economic performance and further enhance safety features of nuclear power plants. The simulation of these new designs, along with strong heterogeneous fuel loading, have brought new challenges to the reactor physics methodologies currently employed in the industrial codes for core analyses. Control rod insertion during normal operation is one operational feature in the AP1000{sup R} plant of Westinghouse next generation Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) design. This design improves its operational flexibility and efficiency but significantly challenges the conventional reactor physics methods, especially in pin power calculations. The mixture loading of fuel assemblies with significant neutron spectrums causes a strong interaction between different fuel assembly types that is not fully captured with the current core design codes. To overcome the weaknesses of the conventional methods, Westinghouse has developed a state-of-the-art 3D Pin-by-Pin Calculation Methodology (P3C) and successfully implemented in the Westinghouse core design code ANC. The new methodology has been qualified and licensed for pin power prediction. The 3D P3C methodology along with its application and validation will be discussed in the paper. (authors)

  4. Stepped-Pin Clevis Resists Jamming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killgrove, T. O.

    1985-01-01

    Pin modification allows pyrotechnic release devices to operate more smoothly. New clevis pin has stepped diameters to prevent bending as it exits yoke. In contrast, conventional unstepped clevis pin bends and jams as it is withdrawn. Stepped pin design suitable for explosive and possible hammer driven pin sullers.

  5. The Bowling Pin Pal Reunion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Michele Heide

    2007-01-01

    Seeing different retrospectives, which show the progression of works by an artist during their lifetime, inspired the author to organize a retrospective showcasing a progression of student works. In November of 2005, the author and her visual art colleagues celebrated the first Bowling Pin Pal Reunion. For 30 years, the bowling pin pals have been…

  6. Plastic Clamp Retains Clevis Pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cortes, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    Plastic clamp requires no special installation or removal tools. Clamp slips easily over end of pin. Once engaged in groove, holds pin securely. Installed and removed easily without special tools - screwdriver or putty knife adequate for prying out of groove. Used to retain bearings, rollers pulleys, other parts that rotate. Applications include slowly and intermittently rotating parts in appliances.

  7. Shock characterization of TOAD pins

    SciTech Connect

    Weirick, L.J.; Navarro, N.J.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this program was to characterize Time Of Arrival Detectors (TOAD) pins response to shock loading with respect to risetime, amplitude, repeatability and consistency. TOAD pins were subjected to impacts of 35 to 420 kilobars amplitude and approximately 1 ms pulse width to investigate the timing spread of four pins and the voltage output profile of the individual pins. Sets of pins were also aged at 45{degrees}, 60{degrees}, and 80{degrees}C for approximately nine weeks before shock testing at 315 kilobars impact stress. Four sets of pins were heated to 50.2{degrees}C (125{degrees}F) for approximately two hours and then impacted at either 50 or 315 kilobars. Also, four sets of pins were aged at 60{degrees}C for nine weeks and then heated to 50.2{degrees}C before shock testing at 50 and 315 kilobars impact stress, respectively. Particle velocity measurements at the contact point between the stainless steel targets and TOAD pins were made using a Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) to monitor both the amplitude and profile of the shock waves.

  8. Shock characterization of toad pins

    SciTech Connect

    Weirick, L.J.; Navarro, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this program was to characterize Time Of Arrival Detectors (TOAD) pins response to shock loading with respect to risetime, amplitude, repeatability and consistency. TOAD pins were subjected to impacts of 35 to 420 kilobars amplitude and approximately 1 ms pulse width to investigate the timing spread of four pins and the voltage output profile of the individual pins. Sets of pins were also aged at 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 80{degree}C for approximately nine weeks before shock testing at 315 kilobars impact stress. Four sets of pins were heated to 50.2{degree}C (125{degree}F) for approximately two hours and then impacted at either 50 or 315 kilobars. Also, four sets of pins were aged at 60{degree}C for nine weeks and then heated to 50.2{degree}C before shock testing at 50 and 315 kilobars impact stress, respectively. Particle velocity measurements at the contact point between the stainless steel targets and TOAD pins were made using a Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) to monitor both the amplitude and profile of the shock waves. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Reconstruction of 137Cs activity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Hayami, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2014-05-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the ocean by the comparison model simulations and observed data. We employed a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model to investigate the oceanic contamination. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for more than 2 years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 3.0 x 1010 Bq day-1 by the end of September 2013. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of dose rate and air activity of 137Cs over the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Observed 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition in the ocean helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Although there is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011, observed data of

  10. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Adamson, M.G.

    1983-12-16

    An improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, is described which consist of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel an/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients.

  11. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Adamson, M.G.

    1986-01-28

    Disclosed is an improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients. 2 figs.

  12. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan; Adamson, Martyn G.

    1986-01-01

    An improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients.

  13. Prevention of pin tract infection in external stainless steel fixator frames using electric current in a goat model.

    PubMed

    van der Borden, Arnout J; Maathuis, Patrick G M; Engels, Eefje; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Sharma, Prashant Kumar

    2007-04-01

    Pin tract infections of external fixators used in orthopaedic reconstructive bone surgery are serious complications that can eventually lead to periostitis and osteomyelitis. In vitro experiments have demonstrated that bacteria adhering to stainless steel in a biofilm mode of growth detach under the influence of small electric currents, while remaining bacteria become less viable upon current application. Therefore, we have investigated whether a 100microA electric current can prevent signs of clinical infection around percutaneous pins, implanted in the tibia of goats. Three pins were inserted into the lateral right tibia of nine goats, of which one served for additional frame support. Two pins were infected with a Staphylococcus epidermidis strain of which one pin was subjected to electric current, while the other pin was used as control. Pin sites were examined daily. The wound electrical resistance decreased with worsening of the infection from a dry condition to a purulent stage. After 21 days, animals were sacrificed and the pins taken out. Infection developed in 89% of the control pin sites, whereas only 11% of the pin sites in the current group showed infection. These results show that infection of percutaneous pin sites of external fixators in reconstructive bone surgery can be prevented by the application of a small DC electric current.

  14. Reconstruction and Application of Protein–Protein Interaction Network

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Tong; Peng, Wei; Wang, Qian; Wang, Bin; Sun, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    The protein-protein interaction network (PIN) is a useful tool for systematic investigation of the complex biological activities in the cell. With the increasing interests on the proteome-wide interaction networks, PINs have been reconstructed for many species, including virus, bacteria, plants, animals, and humans. With the development of biological techniques, the reconstruction methods of PIN are further improved. PIN has gradually penetrated many fields in biological research. In this work we systematically reviewed the development of PIN in the past fifteen years, with respect to its reconstruction and application of function annotation, subsystem investigation, evolution analysis, hub protein analysis, and regulation mechanism analysis. Due to the significant role of PIN in the in-depth exploration of biological process mechanisms, PIN will be preferred by more and more researchers for the systematic study of the protein systems in various kinds of organisms. PMID:27338356

  15. Quenched pinning and collective dislocation dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ovaska, Markus; Laurson, Lasse; Alava, Mikko J.

    2015-01-01

    Several experiments show that crystalline solids deform in a bursty and intermittent fashion. Power-law distributed strain bursts in compression experiments of micron-sized samples, and acoustic emission energies from larger-scale specimens, are the key signatures of the underlying critical-like collective dislocation dynamics - a phenomenon that has also been seen in discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) simulations. Here we show, by performing large-scale two-dimensional DDD simulations, that the character of the dislocation avalanche dynamics changes upon addition of sufficiently strong randomly distributed quenched pinning centres, present e.g. in many alloys as immobile solute atoms. For intermediate pinning strength, our results adhere to the scaling picture of depinning transitions, in contrast to pure systems where dislocation jamming dominates the avalanche dynamics. Still stronger disorder quenches the critical behaviour entirely. PMID:26024505

  16. Parentage Reconstruction in Eucalyptus nitens Using SNPs and Microsatellite Markers: A Comparative Analysis of Marker Data Power and Robustness.

    PubMed

    Telfer, Emily J; Stovold, Grahame T; Li, Yongjun; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Grattapaglia, Dario G; Dungey, Heidi S

    2015-01-01

    Pedigree reconstruction using molecular markers enables efficient management of inbreeding in open-pollinated breeding strategies, replacing expensive and time-consuming controlled pollination. This is particularly useful in preferentially outcrossed, insect pollinated Eucalypts known to suffer considerable inbreeding depression from related matings. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker panel consisting of 106 markers was selected for pedigree reconstruction from the recently developed high-density Eucalyptus Infinium SNP chip (EuCHIP60K). The performance of this SNP panel for pedigree reconstruction in open-pollinated progenies of two Eucalyptus nitens seed orchards was compared with that of two microsatellite panels with 13 and 16 markers respectively. The SNP marker panel out-performed one of the microsatellite panels in the resolution power to reconstruct pedigrees and out-performed both panels with respect to data quality. Parentage of all but one offspring in each clonal seed orchard was correctly matched to the expected seed parent using the SNP marker panel, whereas parentage assignment to less than a third of the expected seed parents were supported using the 13-microsatellite panel. The 16-microsatellite panel supported all but one of the recorded seed parents, one better than the SNP panel, although there was still a considerable level of missing and inconsistent data. SNP marker data was considerably superior to microsatellite data in accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. Although microsatellites and SNPs data provide equivalent resolution for pedigree reconstruction, microsatellite analysis requires more time and experience to deal with the uncertainties of allele calling and faces challenges for data transferability across labs and over time. While microsatellite analysis will continue to be useful for some breeding tasks due to the high information content, existing infrastructure and low operating costs, the multi-species SNP resource

  17. Stiffness of various pin configurations for pediatric supracondylar humeral fracture: a systematic review on biomechanical studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tony Lin-wei; He, Chang-qiang; Zheng, Ting-qu; Gan, Yan-qun; Huang, Ming-xiang; Zheng, Yan-dong; Zhao, Jing-tao

    2015-09-01

    To compare the biomechanical stability of various pin configurations for pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures under varus, internal rotation, and extension conditions. After electronic retrieval, 11 biomechanical studies were included. Stiffness values of pin configurations under different loading conditions were extracted and pooled. There were no statistically significant differences between two cross pins and two divergent lateral pins on the basis of the 'Hamdi method' (P=0.249-0.737). An additional pin did not strengthen two-pin construct (P=0.124-0.367), but better stabilized fractures with medial comminution (P<0.01). Isolated lateral pins are preferable because of a better balance of a lower risk of nerve injury and comparable fixation strength. Limitations such as differences in experimental setup among recruited studies and small sample size may compromise the methodologic power of this study.

  18. Sudden power loss in a HeartMate II left ventricular assist device due to intermittent pin contact with the battery: case report.

    PubMed

    Belway, Dean; Cleland, Mark; Zakutney, Timothy; Grenon, Jackie; Mielniczuk, Lisa M; Hendry, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular assist device technology has improved such that mechanical malfunction, particularly with newer generation continuous flow devices, is a relatively rare event. We present a case of sudden power loss in a HeartMate II caused by intermittent contact of the battery terminals after a clip was dropped with the battery inserted in it. The clip was replaced and the patient made a complete recovery. A new inspection and testing methodology, and amended approach to patient and caregiver training, designed to prevent future occurrences is described.

  19. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  20. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Brown, William F.; Steffen, Jim M.

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  1. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

  2. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, D.J.

    1984-05-30

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pins passageway extending through the assembly.

  3. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.

    1987-02-03

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

  4. Paddle-pin alinement test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilliam, D. M.; Foster, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Segmented insulated test bar speeds up patch distributor paddle-pin test. Device eliminates need to disconnect cables or remove distributor. Printed circuit cable and connector reduces weight on bar, adding to tester portability.

  5. Multi-proxy reconstructions and the power of integration across marine, terrestrial, and freshwater ecosystems. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) techniques have been increasingly applied to growth increments of various bivalve, fish, and coral species. In particular, the use of crossdating ensures that all increments in a dataset have assigned the correct calendar year of formation and that the resulting chronology is exactly placed in time. Such temporal alignment facilitates direct comparisons among chronologies that span diverse taxa and ecosystems, illustrating the pervasive, synchronizing influence of climate from alpine forests to the continental slope. Such an approach can be particularly beneficial to reconstructions in that each species captures climate signals from its unique 'perspective' of life history and habitat. For example, combinations of tree-ring data and chronologies for the long-lived bivalve Pacific geoduck (Panopea generosa) capture substantially more variance in regional sea surface temperatures than either proxy could explain alone. Just as importantly, networks of chronologies spanning multiple trophic levels can help identify climate variables critical to ecosystem functioning, which can then be targeted to generate most biologically relevant reconstructions possible. Along the west coast of North America, fish and bivalve chronologies in combination with records of seabird reproductive success indicate that winter sea-level pressure is closely associated with California Current productivity, which can be hind-cast over the past six centuries using coastal tree-ring chronologies. Thus, multiple proxies not only increase reconstruction skill, but also help isolate climate variables most closely linked to ecosystem structure and functioning.

  6. Multi-proxy reconstructions and the power of integration across marine, terrestrial, and freshwater ecosystems. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, B.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past decade, dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) techniques have been increasingly applied to growth increments of various bivalve, fish, and coral species. In particular, the use of crossdating ensures that all increments in a dataset have assigned the correct calendar year of formation and that the resulting chronology is exactly placed in time. Such temporal alignment facilitates direct comparisons among chronologies that span diverse taxa and ecosystems, illustrating the pervasive, synchronizing influence of climate from alpine forests to the continental slope. Such an approach can be particularly beneficial to reconstructions in that each species captures climate signals from its unique 'perspective' of life history and habitat. For example, combinations of tree-ring data and chronologies for the long-lived bivalve Pacific geoduck (Panopea generosa) capture substantially more variance in regional sea surface temperatures than either proxy could explain alone. Just as importantly, networks of chronologies spanning multiple trophic levels can help identify climate variables critical to ecosystem functioning, which can then be targeted to generate most biologically relevant reconstructions possible. Along the west coast of North America, fish and bivalve chronologies in combination with records of seabird reproductive success indicate that winter sea-level pressure is closely associated with California Current productivity, which can be hind-cast over the past six centuries using coastal tree-ring chronologies. Thus, multiple proxies not only increase reconstruction skill, but also help isolate climate variables most closely linked to ecosystem structure and functioning.

  7. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation... § 230.97 Crank pins. (a) General provisions. Crank pins shall be securely applied. Securing the fit of a loose crank pin by shimming, prick punching, or welding is not permitted. (b) Maintenance. Crank...

  8. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation... § 230.97 Crank pins. (a) General provisions. Crank pins shall be securely applied. Securing the fit of a loose crank pin by shimming, prick punching, or welding is not permitted. (b) Maintenance. Crank...

  9. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation... § 230.97 Crank pins. (a) General provisions. Crank pins shall be securely applied. Securing the fit of a loose crank pin by shimming, prick punching, or welding is not permitted. (b) Maintenance. Crank...

  10. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation... § 230.97 Crank pins. (a) General provisions. Crank pins shall be securely applied. Securing the fit of a loose crank pin by shimming, prick punching, or welding is not permitted. (b) Maintenance. Crank...

  11. Pin-Type Gas Cooled Reactor for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a point design for a pin-type Gas-Cooled Reactor concept that uses a fuel pin design similar to the SP100 fuel pin. The Gas-Cooled Reactor is designed to operate at 100 kWe for 7 years plus have a reduced power mode of 20% power for a duration of 5 years. The power system uses a gas-cooled, UN-fueled, pin-type reactor to heat He/Xe gas that flows directly into a recuperated Brayton system to produce electricity. Heat is rejected to space via a thermal radiator that unfolds in space. The reactor contains approximately 154 kg of 93.15 % enriched UN in 313 fuel pins. The fuel is clad with rhenium-lined Nb-1Zr. The pressures vessel and ducting are cooled by the 900 K He/Xe gas inlet flow or by thermal radiation. This permits all pressure boundaries to be made of superalloy metals rather than refractory metals, which greatly reduces the cost and development schedule required by the project. The reactor contains sufficient rhenium (a neutron poison) to make the reactor subcritical under water immersion accidents without the use of internal shutdown rods. The mass of the reactor and reflectors is about 750 kg.

  12. Telesurveillance of circular frame pin sites: one year's experience at a specialist unit.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sameer K; Abraham, Alwyn

    2011-01-01

    Circular frame treatment for limb reconstruction involves repeated follow-up visits, and a substantial number of these appointments are for pin site review only. We have encouraged our frame patients to take photographs of their pin sites when they carry out their weekly dressing changes. The photographs are taken with mobile phones or digital cameras by the patients themselves, and the images sent to us by email. We reply within 24 hours, with either reassurance or appropriate instructions as indicated. In the past 12 months, five patients have had their pin sites reviewed remotely using this method, and have expressed a high level of satisfaction. These early results are encouraging.

  13. Enhanced pinning in superconducting thin films with graded pinning landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motta, M.; Colauto, F.; Ortiz, W. A.; Fritzsche, J.; Cuppens, J.; Gillijns, W.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Johansen, T. H.; Sanchez, A.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2013-05-01

    A graded distribution of antidots in superconducting a-Mo79Ge21 thin films has been investigated by magnetization and magneto-optical imaging measurements. The pinning landscape has maximum density at the sample border, decreasing linearly towards the center. Its overall performance is noticeably superior than that for a sample with uniformly distributed antidots: For high temperatures and low fields, the critical current is enhanced, whereas the region of thermomagnetic instabilities in the field-temperature diagram is significantly suppressed. These findings confirm the relevance of graded landscapes on the enhancement of pinning efficiency, as recently predicted by Misko and Nori [Phys. Rev. B 85, 184506 (2012)].

  14. Small pinning points increase grounding-line sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, Lionel; Pattyn, Frank; Berger, Sophie; Drews, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    Initialising prognostic simulations of outlet glaciers relies on geometry and surface velocity, from which data assimilation methods rectify poorly known parameters such as ice stiffness or basal slipperiness. Stemming from the contact between ice shelves and submarine topographic highs, pinning points impact both ice velocity and stiffness but, wherever they are small enough, they can easily be overlooked by satellite observations. Here, we use the ice-sheet model BISICLES to investigate the future ice dynamical behaviour of two neighbouring outlet glaciers in Dronning Maud Land, i.e., Hansenbreen and West Raghnild glacier. The latter is buttressed by a previously uncharted pinning point at the ice shelf front while both are separated by an ice promontory. We also reconstruct ice velocity and geometry fields including the pinning point, which is absent from Antarctic-wide datasets, from data collected on site. The model is initialised with three combinations of ice geometry and stiffness, (i) with or (ii) without the pinning point influence in the assimilation procedure, and (iii) being a variant of (i) but starting with unpinning. We explore two sub-ice shelf melting scenarios of three amplitudes, and two weertmann-type sliding law exponents for each initialisation. The results show the future unstable retreat of Hansenbreen, moderately affected by unpinning. However, ignoring the pinning point in data assimilation overstiffens the ice shelf and highly decreases the timing of the retreat. This study stresses the need of accurate bathymetry and ice velocity, as the current datasets that disregard pinning points tend to stabilise marine sectors of the East Antarctic ice sheet, hence affecting sea-level rise predictions.

  15. Thermal-Hydraulic Simulations of Single Pin and Assembly Sector for IVG- 1M Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, A.; Garner, P.; Hanan, N.

    2015-01-15

    Thermal-hydraulic simulations have been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for the highly-enriched uranium (HEU) design of the IVG.1M reactor at the Institute of Atomic Energy (IAE) at the National Nuclear Center (NNC) in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Steady-state simulations were performed for both types of fuel assembly (FA), i.e. the FA in rows 1 & 2 and the FA in row 3, as well as for single pins in those FA (600 mm and 800 mm pins). Both single pin calculations and bundle sectors have been simulated for the most conservative operating conditions corresponding to the 10 MW output power, which corresponds to a pin unit cell Reynolds number of only about 7500. Simulations were performed using the commercial code STAR-CCM+ for the actual twisted pin geometry as well as a straight-pin approximation. Various Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) turbulence models gave different results, and so some validation runs with a higher-fidelity Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code were performed given the lack of experimental data. These singled out the Realizable Two-Layer k-ε as the most accurate turbulence model for estimating surface temperature. Single-pin results for the twisted case, based on the average flow rate per pin and peak pin power, were conservative for peak clad surface temperature compared to the bundle results. Also the straight-pin calculations were conservative as compared to the twisted pin simulations, as expected, but the single-pin straight case was not always conservative with regard to the straight-pin bundle. This was due to the straight-pin temperature distribution being strongly influenced by the pin orientation, particularly near the outer boundary. The straight-pin case also predicted the peak temperature to be in a different location than the twisted-pin case. This is a limitation of the straight-pin approach. The peak temperature pin was in a different location from the peak power pin in every case simulated, and occurred at an

  16. 3D reconstruction and particle acceleration properties of Coronal Shock Waves During Powerful Solar Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikov, Illya; Vourlidas, Angelos; Tylka, Allan J.; Pinto, Rui; Rouillard, Alexis; Tirole, Margot

    2016-07-01

    Identifying the physical mechanisms that produce the most energetic particles is a long-standing observational and theoretical challenge in astrophysics. Strong pressure waves have been proposed as efficient accelerators both in the solar and astrophysical contexts via various mechanisms such as diffusive-shock/shock-drift acceleration and betatron effects. In diffusive-shock acceleration, the efficacy of the process relies on shock waves being super-critical or moving several times faster than the characteristic speed of the medium they propagate through (a high Alfven Mach number) and on the orientation of the magnetic field upstream of the shock front. High-cadence, multipoint imaging using the NASA STEREO, SOHO and SDO spacecrafts now permits the 3-D reconstruction of pressure waves formed during the eruption of coronal mass ejections. Using these unprecedented capabilities, some recent studies have provided new insights on the timing and longitudinal extent of solar energetic particles, including the first derivations of the time-dependent 3-dimensional distribution of the expansion speed and Mach numbers of coronal shock waves. We will review these recent developments by focusing on particle events that occurred between 2011 and 2015. These new techniques also provide the opportunity to investigate the enigmatic long-duration gamma ray events.

  17. Cryogenically cooled detector pin mount

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Jr., William E; Chrisp, Michael P

    2014-06-03

    A focal plane assembly facilitates a molybdenum base plate being mounted to another plate made from aluminum. The molybdenum pin is an interference fit (press fit) in the aluminum base plate. An annular cut out area in the base plate forms two annular flexures.

  18. Low-Amplitude Craniofacial EMG Power Spectral Density and 3D Muscle Reconstruction from MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemann, Lukas; Chaberova, Jana; Edmunds, Kyle; Einarsdóttir, Guðrún; Ramon, Ceon

    2015-01-01

    Improving EEG signal interpretation, specificity, and sensitivity is a primary focus of many current investigations, and the successful application of EEG signal processing methods requires a detailed knowledge of both the topography and frequency spectra of low-amplitude, high-frequency craniofacial EMG. This information remains limited in clinical research, and as such, there is no known reliable technique for the removal of these artifacts from EEG data. The results presented herein outline a preliminary investigation of craniofacial EMG high-frequency spectra and 3D MRI segmentation that offers insight into the development of an anatomically-realistic model for characterizing these effects. The data presented highlights the potential for confounding signal contribution from around 60 to 200 Hz, when observed in frequency space, from both low and high-amplitude EMG signals. This range directly overlaps that of both low γ (30-50 Hz) and high γ (50-80 Hz) waves, as defined traditionally in standatrd EEG measurements, and mainly with waves presented in dense-array EEG recordings. Likewise, average EMG amplitude comparisons from each condition highlights the similarities in signal contribution of low-activity muscular movements and resting, control conditions. In addition to the FFT analysis performed, 3D segmentation and reconstruction of the craniofacial muscles whose EMG signals were measured was successful. This recapitulation of the relevant EMG morphology is a crucial first step in developing an anatomical model for the isolation and removal of confounding low-amplitude craniofacial EMG signals from EEG data. Such a model may be eventually applied in a clinical setting to ultimately help to extend the use of EEG in various clinical roles. PMID:26913150

  19. Accelerating an Ordered-Subset Low-Dose X-Ray Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Reconstruction with a Power Factor and Total Variation Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in low-dose X-ray cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in many fields, including dentistry, guided radiotherapy and small animal imaging. Despite reducing the radiation dose, low-dose CBCT has not gained widespread acceptance in routine clinical practice. In addition to performing more evaluation studies, developing a fast and high-quality reconstruction algorithm is required. In this work, we propose an iterative reconstruction method that accelerates ordered-subsets (OS) reconstruction using a power factor. Furthermore, we combine it with the total-variation (TV) minimization method. Both simulation and phantom studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method can accelerate conventional OS methods, greatly increase the convergence speed in early iterations. Moreover, applying the TV minimization to the power acceleration scheme can further improve the image quality while preserving the fast convergence rate. PMID:27073853

  20. Adjustably Preloaded Quick-Release Pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimers, Harold W.

    1992-01-01

    Modified adjustable-grip-length quick-release pin holds two bodies together. Threaded shaft of pin threaded in floating nut to pretension fastener. Pin connects and disconnects rapidly and adjusted to accommodate small differences between thicknesses of nominally identical sets of parts to be attached to each other.

  1. Lightning Pin Injection Testing on MOSFETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Sankalita

    2009-01-01

    Lightning transients were pin-injected into metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to induce fault modes. This report documents the test process and results, and provides a basis for subsequent lightning tests. MOSFETs may be present in DC-DC power supplies and electromechanical actuator circuits that may be used on board aircraft. Results show that unprotected MOSFET Gates are susceptible to failure, even when installed in systems in well-shielded and partial-shielded locations. MOSFET Drains and Sources are significantly less susceptible. Device impedance decreased (current increased) after every failure. Such a failure mode may lead to cascading failures, as the damaged MOSFET may allow excessive current to flow through other circuitry. Preliminary assessments on a MOSFET subjected to 20-stroke pin-injection testing demonstrate that Breakdown Voltage, Leakage Current and Threshold Voltage characteristics show damage, while the device continues to meet manufacturer performance specifications. The purpose of this research is to develop validated tools, technologies, and techniques for automated detection, diagnosis and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight, such as from lightning transients; and to understand the interplay between lightning-induced surges and aging (i.e. humidity, vibration thermal stress, etc.) on component degradation.

  2. ASTRI SST-2M data reduction and reconstruction software on low-power and parallel architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastropietro, Michele; Madonna, Alberto; Antonelli, Lucio A.; Bastieri, Denis; Lombardi, Saverio

    2016-07-01

    In the framework of the international Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) gamma-ray observatory, a mini-array of nine small-sized, dual-mirror (SST-2M) telescopes developed by the ASTRI Collaboration has been proposed to be installed at the future CTA southern site. In such a location, the capability of each telescope to process its own data before sending them to a central acquisition system provides a key advantage. We implemented the complete analysis chain required by a single telescope on a NVIDIA® Jetson™ TK1 development board, exceeding the nominal required real-time processing speed by more than a factor two, while staying within a very small power budget.

  3. Ilizarov fixator pin site care: the role of crusts in the prevention of infection.

    PubMed

    Britten, Simon; Ghoz, Ali; Duffield, Beverley; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2013-10-01

    Pin site infection is one of the most common local complications after procedures using the Ilizarov fine wire fixator. In this study, the rate of infection was investigated in two groups of patients, representing two consecutive case series, undergoing fracture stabilisation or lower limb reconstruction using an Ilizarov fine wire fixator. Both groups received identical Russian-style pin site care, except in the first Group A where the crusts of dried exudate were removed at the time of pin site cleaning; while in the subsequent Group B, the adherent crusts were retained during cleaning. Pin site infection was diagnosed if the site was painful and inflamed or discharging. The first infected pin site while the fixator remained in situ was considered the outcome of interest. Group A consisted of 59 patients and Group B of 33 patients. A lower proportion of patients in Group B (12/33 - 36%) developed a pin site infection compared to Group A (36/59 - 61%) (p=0.023). However, once infection had developed, a greater proportion of patients in Group B required more than one course of antibiotics to treat the infection when compared to patients in Group A (p=0.005). No patient required hospitalisation for intravenous antibiotics or wire change in Group B (0/33), whereas 3/59 patients required hospitalisation in Group A; but this did not reach statistical significance (Chi-squared test, p=0.18). Retention of adherent crusts during Ilizarov fixator pin site care significantly protects against the development of pin site infection, but renders subsequently infected pin sites more refractory to treatment. This study therefore suggests that crusts should be retained as long as a pin site remains uninfected. Retained crusts may act as a physical barrier to bacterial contamination ('biological dressing').

  4. Pinning control of chimera states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Frasca, Mattia

    2016-08-01

    The position of the coherent and incoherent domain of a chimera state in a ring of nonlocally coupled oscillators is strongly influenced by the initial conditions, making nontrivial the problem of confining them in a specific region of the structure. In this paper we propose the use of spatial pinning to induce a chimera state where the nodes belonging to one domain, either the coherent or the incoherent, are fixed by the control action. We design two different techniques according to the dynamics to be forced in the region of pinned nodes, and validate them on FitzHugh-Nagumo and Kuramoto oscillators. Furthermore, we introduce a suitable strategy to deal with the effects of finite size in small structures.

  5. Flux Pinning and Enhanced Critical Current in Magnetic Field by Artificial Pinning Centers.#

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.-Q.; Rizzo, N. D.; McCambridge, J. D.; Prober, D. E.; Motowidlo, L. R.; Zeitlin, B. A.

    1996-03-01

    Flux pinning to enhance critical currents (Jc) in type II superconductors (NbTi) in a magnetic field was studied, using nanometer sized artificial pins. From consideration of free energy and proximity effects, we compare pinning by various materials, ranging from weak superconductors (Nb), normal metals (Ti, Cu), to ferromagnets (Ni, Fe). A trade-off is found between induced superconductivity in the pin and a reduction of superconductivity in the NbTi. Thus, a normal metal can have stronger pinning than a similar-sized void. This idea is supported by our finding that Ti provides the strongest pinning in multilayer film systems. Pinning mechanisms by ferromagnetic (FM) pins are also discussed, along with results of Jc for NbTiTa wires with FM artificial pinning centers. #Support by CT Dept. Econ. Dev. Grant 94G014 and IGC-AS. *present address: Westinghouse STC, Pittsburgh, PA

  6. Alignment Pins for Assembling and Disassembling Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Oliver C.

    2008-01-01

    Simple, easy-to-use, highly effective tooling has been devised for maintaining alignment of bolt holes in mating structures during assembly and disassembly of the structures. The tooling was originally used during removal of a body flap from the space shuttle Atlantis, in which misalignments during removal of the last few bolts could cause the bolts to bind in their holes. By suitably modifying the dimensions of the tooling components, the basic design of the tooling can readily be adapted to other structures that must be maintained in alignment. The tooling includes tapered, internally threaded alignment pins designed to fit in the bolt holes in one of the mating structures, plus a draw bolt and a cup that are used to install or remove each alignment pin. In preparation for disassembly of two mating structures, external supports are provided to prevent unintended movement of the structures. During disassembly of the structures, as each bolt that joins the structures is removed, an alignment pin is installed in its place. Once all the bolts have been removed and replaced with pins, the pins maintain alignment as the structures are gently pushed or pulled apart on the supports. In assembling the two structures, one reverses the procedure described above: pins are installed in the bolt holes, the structures are pulled or pushed together on the supports, then the pins are removed and replaced with bolts. The figure depicts the tooling and its use. To install an alignment pin in a bolt hole in a structural panel, the tapered end of the pin is inserted from one side of the panel, the cup is placed over the pin on the opposite side of the panel, the draw bolt is inserted through the cup and threaded into the pin, the draw bolt is tightened to pull the pin until the pin is seated firmly in the hole, then the draw bolt and cup are removed, leaving the pin in place. To remove an alignment pin, the cup is placed over the pin on the first-mentioned side of the panel, the draw

  7. Antibiotic-coated pins for prevention of pin-tract infection: a rabbit study.

    PubMed

    Rahimnia, A R; Abbaspour, A; Rezaei, Yadollah; Khodadadi, A; Alizadeh, A M; Mohagheghi, M A; Semeyari, H; Imani Fooladi, A A; Izadi, M; Keshavarz, P; Yasui, N

    2013-08-01

    PURPOSE. To evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic-coated pins for prevention of pin tract infection in a rabbit model. METHODS. 10 rabbits were divided into 2 groups. A unilateral external fixator was applied to the tibia with 4 self-taping 1.8-mm pins. In the test group, pins were coated with hydroxyapatite and antibiotic. In the control group, pins were not coated. All pins were then placed in Staphylococcus aureus- containing media. At postoperative day 5, all 40 pin sites were subcutaneously inoculated with S aureus. The sites were clinically examined for signs of pin tract infection. Nine days later, a piece of soft tissue around the pin site was harvested for microbiologic examination. RESULTS. In the test group, all except one pin sites appeared clean and without clinical infection, and the culture media remained clear. In the control group, all pin sites showed evidence of clinical infection and yielded positive cultures, and the culture media became dark indicating growth of S aureus. CONCLUSION. Antibiotic-coated pins were effective in preventing pin tract infection.

  8. Tool Blunts Cotter Pin Legs for Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, J. A.; Helble, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Jaws on new insertion tool contain upset point and anvil. Point forces cotter-pin legs into loop as it engages anvil. Cotter pin before insertion consists of loop and straight shaft composed of two legs welded together as tips. After insertion, welded legs have been shaped into loop. Tool used to prevent bent loose ends of cotter pins from scratching workers' fingers or cutting and entangling wires.

  9. Heat Exchanger With Internal Pin Elements

    DOEpatents

    Gerstmann, Joseph; Hannon, Charles L.

    2004-01-13

    A heat exchanger/heater comprising a tubular member having a fluid inlet end, a fluid outlet end and plurality of pins secured to the interior wall of the tube. Various embodiments additionally comprise a blocking member disposed concentrically inside the pins, such as a core plug or a baffle array. Also disclosed is a vapor generator employing an internally pinned tube, and a fluid-heater/heat-exchanger utilizing an outer jacket tube and fluid-side baffle elements, as well as methods for heating a fluid using an internally pinned tube.

  10. Magnetic pinning in superconductor-ferromagnet multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.; Maley, M. P.

    2000-05-01

    We argue that superconductor/ferromagnet multilayers of nanoscale period should exhibit strong pinning of vortices by the magnetic domain structure in magnetic fields below the coercive field when ferromagnetic layers exhibit strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The estimated maximum magnetic pinning energy for single vortex in such a system is about 100 times larger than the pinning energy by columnar defects. This pinning energy may provide critical currents as high as 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2} at high temperatures (but not very close to T{sub c}) at least in magnetic fields below 0.1 T. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  11. SU-F-18C-02: Evaluations of the Noise Power Spectrum of a CT Iterative Reconstruction Technique for Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dolly, S; Chen, H; Anastasio, M; Mutic, S; Li, H

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess the noise power spectrum (NPS) of the new, commercially released CT iterative reconstruction technique, iDose{sup 4} from Philips, to compare it with filtered back-projection techniques (FBP), and to provide clinical practice suggestions for radiation therapy. Methods: A uniform phantom was CT imaged with 120kVp tube potential over a range of mAs (250-3333). The image sets were reconstructed using two reconstruction algorithms (FBP and iDose{sup 4} with noise reduction levels 1, 3, and 6) and three reconstruction filters (standard B, smooth A, and sharp C), after which NPS variations were analyzed and compared on region of interest (ROI) sizes (16×16 to 128×128 pixels), ROI radii (0–65 mm), reconstruction algorithms, reconstruction filters, and mAs. Results: The NPS magnitude and shape depended considerably on ROI size and location for both reconstruction algorithms. Regional noise variance became more stationary as ROI size decreased, minimizing NPS artifacts. The optimal 32×32-pixel ROI size balanced the trade-off between stationary noise and adequate sampling. NPS artifacts were greatest at the center of reconstruction space and decreased with increasing ROI distance from the center. The optimal ROI position was located near the phantom's radial midpoint (∼40mm). For sharper filters, the NPS magnitude and the maximum magnitude frequency increased. Higher dose scans yielded lower NPS magnitudes for both reconstruction algorithms and all filters. Compared to FBP, the iDose{sup 4} algorithm reduced the NPS magnitude while preferentially reducing noise at mid-range spatial frequencies, altering noise texture. This reduction was more significant with increasing iDose{sup 4} noise reduction level. Conclusion: Compared to pixel standard deviation, NPS has greater clinical potential for task-based image quality assessment, describing both the magnitude and spatial frequency characteristics of image noise. While iDose{sup 4

  12. Substantiation of the cogeneration turbine unit selection for reconstruction of power units with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Bilan, V. N.; Kadkina, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    The selection of a cogeneration steam turbine unit (STU) for the reconstruction of power units with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine is substantiated by the example of power unit no. 9 at the cogeneration power station no. 22 (TETs-22) of Mosenergo Company. Series T-250 steam turbines have been developed for combined heat and power generation. A total of 31 turbines were manufactured. By the end of 2015, the total operation time of prototype power units with the T-250/300-23.5 turbine exceeded 290000 hours. Considering the expiry of the service life, the decision was made that the reconstruction of the power unit at st. no. 9 of TETs-22 should be the first priority. The main issues that arose in developing this project—the customer's requirements and the request for the reconstruction, the view on certain problems of Ural Turbine Works (UTZ) as the manufacturer of the main power unit equipment, and the opinions of other project parties—are examined. The decisions were made with account taken of the experience in operation of all Series T-250 turbines and the results of long-term discussions of pressing problems at scientific and technical councils, meetings, and negotiations. For the new power unit, the following parameters have been set: a live steam pressure of 23.5 MPa and live steam/reheat temperature of 565/565°C. Considering that the boiler equipment will be upgraded, the live steam flow is increased up to 1030 t/h. The reconstruction activities involving the replacement of the existing turbine with a new one will yield a service life of 250000 hours for turbine parts exposed to a temperature of 450°C or higher and 200000 hours for pipeline components. Hence, the decision has been made to reuse the arrangement of the existing turbine: a four-cylinder turbine unit comprising a high-pressure cylinder (HPC), two intermediate pressure cylinders (IPC-1 & 2), and a low-pressure cylinder (LPC). The flow path in the new turbine will have active blading in LPC and IPC-1

  13. Retrospective reconstruction of Ioidne-131 distribution at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by analysis of Ioidne-129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi; Kusuno, Haruka; Miyake, Yasuto; Honda, Maki

    2014-05-01

    Among various radioactive nuclides emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, Iodine-131 displayed high radioactivity just after the accident. Moreover if taken into human body, Iodine-131 concentrates in the thyroid and may cause the thyroid cancer. The recognition about the risk of Iodine-131 dose originated from the experience of the Chernobyl accident based on the epidemiological study [1]. It is thus important to investigate the detailed deposition distribution of I-131 to evaluate the radiation dose due to I-131 and watch the influence on the human health. However I-131 decays so rapidly (half life = 8.02 d) that it cannot be detected several months after the accident. At the recognition of the risk of I-131 on the Chernobyl occasion, it had gone several years after the accident. The reconstruction of I-131 distribution from Cs-137 distribution was not successful because the behavior of iodine and cesium was different because they have different chemical properties. Long lived radioactive isotope I-129 (half life = 1.57E+7 yr,), which is also a fission product as well as I-131, is ideal proxy for I-131 because they are chemically identical. Several studies had tried to quantify I-129 in 1990's but the analytical technique, especially AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry), had not been developed well and available AMS facility was limited. Moreover because of the lack of enough data on I-131 just after the accident, the isotopic ratio I-129/I-131 of the Chernobyl derived iodine could not been estimated precisely [2]. Calculated estimation of the isotopic ratio showed scattered results. On the other hand, at the FDNPP accident detailed I-131 distribution is going to be successfully reconstructed by the systematical I-129 measurements by our group. We measured soil samples selected from a series of soil collection taken from every 2 km (or 5km, in the distant area) meshed region around FDNPP conducted by the Japanese Ministry of

  14. Pin potential effect on vortex pinning in YBa2Cu3O7-δ films containing nanorods: Pin size effect and mixed pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horide, Tomoya; Matsukida, Naoki; Ishimaru, Manabu; Kita, Ryusuke; Awaji, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Kaname

    2017-01-01

    The pin size effect and mixed pinning of nanorods and matrix defects are discussed for YBa2Cu3O7-δ films containing nanorods. BaSnO3 nanorods with a diameter of 11 nm and BaHfO3 nanorods with a diameter of 7 nm were prepared, and critical current density (Jc) and resistivity were measured in the films. When the coherence length was larger than the nanorod size at high temperatures near the critical temperature, the trapping angle and activation energy of the vortex flow depended on the nanorod diameter. At a moderate temperature of 65-77 K, the pin size effect on Jc disappeared since the coherence length became smaller than the nanorod size. At a low temperature of 20 K, the contribution from matrix pinning became comparable to that of nanorods in a high magnetic field due to the small coherence length. Thus, the temperature-dependent coherence length caused the pin potential situation to vary significantly, namely, the pin size effect and mixed pinning, which strongly affected vortex pinning in YBa2Cu3O7-δ containing nanorods.

  15. Failure Analysis of Electrical Pin Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Baughman, James M.; Smith, Stephen W.; Herath, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the root cause of failure for circuit board electrical connection pins that failed during vibRatory testing. The circuit board is part of an unmanned space probe, and the vibratory testing was performed to ensure component survival of launch loading conditions. The results of this study show that the pins failed as a result of fatigue loading.

  16. Pinning impulsive control algorithms for complex network

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Wen; Lü, Jinhu; Chen, Shihua; Yu, Xinghuo

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, we further investigate the synchronization of complex dynamical network via pinning control in which a selection of nodes are controlled at discrete times. Different from most existing work, the pinning control algorithms utilize only the impulsive signals at discrete time instants, which may greatly improve the communication channel efficiency and reduce control cost. Two classes of algorithms are designed, one for strongly connected complex network and another for non-strongly connected complex network. It is suggested that in the strongly connected network with suitable coupling strength, a single controller at any one of the network's nodes can always pin the network to its homogeneous solution. In the non-strongly connected case, the location and minimum number of nodes needed to pin the network are determined by the Frobenius normal form of the coupling matrix. In addition, the coupling matrix is not necessarily symmetric or irreducible. Illustrative examples are then given to validate the proposed pinning impulsive control algorithms.

  17. Improved strategies for fuel assembly, pin cell and reflector cross section generation using the discrete ordinates code DORT

    SciTech Connect

    Pautz, A.

    2006-07-01

    Additional functionality has been added to the Discrete Ordinates transport code DORT in order to produce few-group, homogenized cross sections for typical fuel assembly geometries, both on the assembly and the pin cell level. It is demonstrated, that even on the pin-by-pin level almost perfect reaction rate and pin power conservation can be achieved by using the so called Super-homogenization (SPH) algorithm. This method also allows the generation of appropriate reflector cross sections, which can significantly improve the quality of pin power values in the vicinity of moderator regions. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated on several examples, including single fuel assembly calculations as well as the C5G7-MOX and the recent NBA VENUS-7 plutonium recycling benchmark problems. (authors)

  18. Detail of "pin" or large bolt used to assemble the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of "pin" or large bolt used to assemble the truss pieces. This "pin" is on pony truss; similar pins were used on movable span. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  19. Reconstruction of the Radiation Emergency Medical System From the Acute to the Sub-acute Phases After the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Crisis.

    PubMed

    Ojino, Mayo; Ishii, Masami

    2014-02-01

    The radiation emergency medical system in Japan ceased to function as a result of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, which has commonly become known as the "Fukushima Accident." In this paper, we review the reconstruction processes of the radiation emergency medical system in order of events and examine the ongoing challenges to overcoming deficiencies and reinforcing the system by reviewing relevant literature, including the official documents of the investigation committees of the National Diet of Japan, the Japanese government, and the Tokyo Electric Power Company, as well as technical papers written by the doctors involved in radiation emergency medical activities in Fukushima. Our review has revealed that the reconstruction was achieved in 6 stages from March 11 to July 1, 2011: (1) Re-establishment of an off-site center (March 13), (2) Re-establishment of a secondary radiation emergency hospital (March 14), (3) Reconstruction of the initial response system for radiation emergency care (April 2), (4) Reinforcement of the off-site center and stationing of disaster medical advisors at the off-site center (April 4), (5) Reinforcement of the medical care system and an increase in the number of hospitals for non-contaminated patients (From April 2 to June 23), and (6) Enhancement of the medical care system in the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant and the construction of a new medical care system, involving both industrial medicine and emergency medicine (July 1). Medical resources such as voluntary efforts, academic societies, a local community medical system and university hospitals involved in medical care activities on 6 stages originally had not planned. In the future, radiation emergency medical systems should be evaluated with these 6 stages as a basis, in order to reinforce and enrich both the existing and backup systems so that minimal harm will come to nuclear power plant workers or evacuees and that they will receive proper care. This

  20. Nanoscale pinning effect evaluated from deformed nanobubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshima, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Takashi; Takahashi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Classical thermodynamics theory predicts that nanosized bubbles should disappear in a few hundred microseconds. The surprisingly long lifetime and stability of nanobubbles are therefore interesting research subjects. It has been proposed that the stability of nanobubbles arises through pinning of the three-phase contact line, which results from intrinsic nanoscale geometrical and chemical heterogeneities of the substrate. However, a definitive explanation of nanobubble stability is still lacking. In this work, we examined the stability mechanism by introducing a "pinning force." We investigated nanobubbles at a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite/pure water interface by peak force quantitative nano-mechanical mapping and estimated the pinning force and determined its maximum value. We then observed the shape of shrinking nanobubbles. Because the diameter of the shrinking nanobubbles was pinned, the height decreased and the contact angle increased. This phenomenon implies that the stability results from the pinning force, which flattens the bubble through the pinned three-phase contact line and prevents the Laplace pressure from increasing. The pinning force can also explain the metastability of coalesced nanobubbles, which have two semispherical parts that are joined to form a dumbbell-like shape. The pinning force of the semispherical parts was stronger than that of the joint region. This result demonstrates that the contact line of the semispherical parts is pinned strongly to keep the dumbbell-like shape. Furthermore, we proposed a nanobubble generation mechanism for the solvent-exchange method and explained why the pinning force of large nanobubbles was not initially at its maximum value, as it was for small nanobubbles.

  1. Nanoscale pinning effect evaluated from deformed nanobubbles.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Hideaki; Nishiyama, Takashi; Takahashi, Koji

    2017-01-07

    Classical thermodynamics theory predicts that nanosized bubbles should disappear in a few hundred microseconds. The surprisingly long lifetime and stability of nanobubbles are therefore interesting research subjects. It has been proposed that the stability of nanobubbles arises through pinning of the three-phase contact line, which results from intrinsic nanoscale geometrical and chemical heterogeneities of the substrate. However, a definitive explanation of nanobubble stability is still lacking. In this work, we examined the stability mechanism by introducing a "pinning force." We investigated nanobubbles at a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite/pure water interface by peak force quantitative nano-mechanical mapping and estimated the pinning force and determined its maximum value. We then observed the shape of shrinking nanobubbles. Because the diameter of the shrinking nanobubbles was pinned, the height decreased and the contact angle increased. This phenomenon implies that the stability results from the pinning force, which flattens the bubble through the pinned three-phase contact line and prevents the Laplace pressure from increasing. The pinning force can also explain the metastability of coalesced nanobubbles, which have two semispherical parts that are joined to form a dumbbell-like shape. The pinning force of the semispherical parts was stronger than that of the joint region. This result demonstrates that the contact line of the semispherical parts is pinned strongly to keep the dumbbell-like shape. Furthermore, we proposed a nanobubble generation mechanism for the solvent-exchange method and explained why the pinning force of large nanobubbles was not initially at its maximum value, as it was for small nanobubbles.

  2. Pin-Retraction Mechanism On Quick-Release Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Malcolm

    1994-01-01

    Quick-release cover includes pin-retraction mechanism releasing cover quickly from lower of two sets of pin connections holding cover. Cover released at top by pulling lever as described in "Lever-Arm Pin Puller" (NPO-18788). Removal of cover begins when technician or robot pulls upper-pin-release lever. Cover swings downward until tabs on lower pins are pulled through slots in their receptacles. Lower pins are then free.

  3. Regulating drift-wave plasma turbulence into spatiotemporal patterns by pinning coupling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Panpan; Yang, Lei; Deng, Zhigang; Wang, Xingang

    2011-07-01

    Using the technique of pinning coupling in chaos control, we investigate how the two-dimensional drift-wave plasma turbulence described by the Hasegawa-Mima equation can be regulated into different spatiotemporal patterns. It is shown both analytically and numerically that, depending on the pattern structure of the target, the pinning strength necessary for regulating the turbulence could have a large variation. More specifically, with the increase of the wave number of the target, the critical pinning strength is found to be increased by a power-law scaling. Moreover, in both the transition and transient process of the pinning regulation, the modes of the turbulence are found to be suppressed in a hierarchical fashion, that is, by the sequence of mode wave number. The findings give insight into the dynamics of drift-wave turbulence, as well as indicative to the design of new control techniques for real-world turbulence.

  4. Complete determination of the Pin1 catalytic domain thermodynamic cycle by NMR lineshape analysis.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Alexander I; Rogals, Monique J; De, Soumya; Lu, Kun Ping; Kovrigin, Evgenii L; Nicholson, Linda K

    2011-09-01

    The phosphorylation-specific peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 catalyzes the isomerization of the peptide bond preceding a proline residue between cis and trans isomers. To best understand the mechanisms of Pin1 regulation, rigorous enzymatic assays of isomerization are required. However, most measures of isomerase activity require significant constraints on substrate sequence and only yield rate constants for the cis isomer, [Formula: see text] and apparent Michaelis constants, [Formula: see text]. By contrast, NMR lineshape analysis is a powerful tool for determining microscopic rates and populations of each state in a complex binding scheme. The isolated catalytic domain of Pin1 was employed as a first step towards elucidating the reaction scheme of the full-length enzyme. A 24-residue phosphopeptide derived from the amyloid precurser protein intracellular domain (AICD) phosphorylated at Thr668 served as a biologically-relevant Pin1 substrate. Specific (13)C labeling at the Pin1-targeted proline residue provided multiple reporters sensitive to individual isomer binding and on-enzyme catalysis. We have performed titration experiments and employed lineshape analysis of phosphopeptide (13)C-(1)H constant time HSQC spectra to determine [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] for the catalytic domain of Pin1 acting on this AICD substrate. The on-enzyme equilibrium value of [E·trans]/[E·cis] = 3.9 suggests that the catalytic domain of Pin1 is optimized to operate on this substrate near equilibrium in the cellular context. This highlights the power of lineshape analysis for determining the microscopic parameters of enzyme catalysis, and demonstrates the feasibility of future studies of Pin1-PPIase mutants to gain insights on the catalytic mechanism of this important enzyme.

  5. Model Based Iterative Reconstruction for Bright Field Electron Tomography (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Reconstruction Technique ( SIRT ) are applied to the data. Model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) provides a powerful framework for tomographic...the reconstruction when the typical algorithms such as Filtered Back Projection (FBP) and Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique ( SIRT ) are

  6. The problem of the open safety pin.

    PubMed

    Marsh, B R

    1975-01-01

    The open safety pin lodged in the stomach or esophagus presents a challenge to surgical judgment and technical skill. Most foreign bodies causing trouble lodge in the esophagus. Once in the stomach, uneventful passage can be expected in 80 to 90% of cases. Active intervention is reserved for those where intestinal performation is likely or where there is failure to progress. We have used the fiberesophagoscope to remove three open safety pins from the stomachs of two patients whose symptoms and threat of perforation required intervention. The microbiopsy forceps was used successfully to retrieve the open pins, but a newly developed grasping forceps for use with the fiberesophagoscope now provides a more secure hold on such foreign bodies. Rigid instruments retain their value for selected cases, but the flexible equipment now provides an important advance in the management of the open safety pin in the stomach.

  7. Nucleophosmin Interacts with PIN2/TERF1-interacting Telomerase Inhibitor 1 (PinX1) and Attenuates the PinX1 Inhibition on Telomerase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Derek Hang-Cheong; Ho, Sai-Tim; Lau, Kwok-Fai; Jin, Rui; Wang, Ya-Nan; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Huang, Jun-Jian; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2017-01-01

    Telomerase activation and telomere maintenance are critical for cellular immortalization and transformation. PIN2/TERF1-interacting telomerase inhibitor 1 (PinX1) is a telomerase regulator and the aberrant expression of PinX1 causes telomere shortening. Identifying PinX1-interacting proteins is important for understanding telomere maintenance. We found that PinX1 directly interacts with nucleophosmin (NPM), a protein that has been shown to positively correlate with telomerase activity. We further showed that PinX1 acts as a linker in the association between NPM and hTERT, the catalytic subunit of telomerase. Additionally, the recruitment of NPM by PinX1 to the telomerase complex could partially attenuate the PinX1-mediated inhibition on telomerase activity. Taken together, our data reveal a novel mechanism that regulates telomerase activation through the interaction between NPM, PinX1 and the telomerase complex. PMID:28255170

  8. SU-E-J-147: Monte Carlo Study of the Precision and Accuracy of Proton CT Reconstructed Relative Stopping Power Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Dedes, G; Asano, Y; Parodi, K; Arbor, N; Dauvergne, D; Testa, E; Letang, J; Rit, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The quantification of the intrinsic performances of proton computed tomography (pCT) as a modality for treatment planning in proton therapy. The performance of an ideal pCT scanner is studied as a function of various parameters. Methods: Using GATE/Geant4, we simulated an ideal pCT scanner and scans of several cylindrical phantoms with various tissue equivalent inserts of different sizes. Insert materials were selected in order to be of clinical relevance. Tomographic images were reconstructed using a filtered backprojection algorithm taking into account the scattering of protons into the phantom. To quantify the performance of the ideal pCT scanner, we study the precision and the accuracy with respect to the theoretical relative stopping power ratios (RSP) values for different beam energies, imaging doses, insert sizes and detector positions. The planning range uncertainty resulting from the reconstructed RSP is also assessed by comparison with the range of the protons in the analytically simulated phantoms. Results: The results indicate that pCT can intrinsically achieve RSP resolution below 1%, for most examined tissues at beam energies below 300 MeV and for imaging doses around 1 mGy. RSP maps accuracy of less than 0.5 % is observed for most tissue types within the studied dose range (0.2–1.5 mGy). Finally, the uncertainty in the proton range due to the accuracy of the reconstructed RSP map is well below 1%. Conclusion: This work explores the intrinsic performance of pCT as an imaging modality for proton treatment planning. The obtained results show that under ideal conditions, 3D RSP maps can be reconstructed with an accuracy better than 1%. Hence, pCT is a promising candidate for reducing the range uncertainties introduced by the use of X-ray CT alongside with a semiempirical calibration to RSP.Supported by the DFG Cluster of Excellence Munich-Centre for Advanced Photonics (MAP)

  9. Open safety pin in the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Sen, I; Sikder, B; Sinha, R; Paul, R

    2004-04-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are common-day occurrences in Otolaryngologic practice. But an open safety pin in nose with it' s sharp end directed towards roof is a rare incidence, and available literature is silent about this presentation; it is probably, the first of it' s kind being reported. Two cases of safety pins inside the nasal cavity, one open and the other closed, have been presented here with a brief review of literature.

  10. Lightweight Memory-Metal Pin Puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Virginia G.; Johnson, Michael R.; Johnson, A. David

    1991-01-01

    Memory-metal pin puller designed for use in aperture-cover mechanism of camera aboard spacecraft adapted to small-volume instrument environments that must be kept free of contamination. Includes memory-metal wires pulling pin when heated. Small and light in weight, uses relatively simple electronic drive circuitry consisting of timed source of current. Adapted to operate at cryogenic temperatures and in vacuum as well as in normal-temperature environment, cycled large number of times without degradation of performance.

  11. Quick-Release Pin With Lever Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Lever-action quick-release pin operated more easily. Mechanism operated with gloved hand. In modified version, lever added to handle to facilitate actuation. Lever action reduces actuation force. Lever-action pin operated by squeezing on any point of moveable ends of lever and handle together between thumb and forefinger or by simply grasping and squeezing handle and lever with entire hand in more natural grasp.

  12. Paralogous radiations of PIN proteins with multiple origins of noncanonical PIN structure.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Tom; Brockington, Samuel F; Rothfels, Carl; Graham, Sean W; Stevenson, Dennis; Kutchan, Toni; Rolf, Megan; Thomas, Philip; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Leyser, Ottoline; Glover, Beverley J; Harrison, C Jill

    2014-08-01

    The plant hormone auxin is a conserved regulator of development which has been implicated in the generation of morphological novelty. PIN-FORMED1 (PIN) auxin efflux carriers are central to auxin function by regulating its distribution. PIN family members have divergent structures and cellular localizations, but the origin and evolutionary significance of this variation is unresolved. To characterize PIN family evolution, we have undertaken phylogenetic and structural analyses with a massive increase in taxon sampling over previous studies. Our phylogeny shows that following the divergence of the bryophyte and lycophyte lineages, two deep duplication events gave rise to three distinct lineages of PIN proteins in euphyllophytes. Subsequent independent radiations within each of these lineages were taxonomically asymmetric, giving rise to at least 21 clades of PIN proteins, of which 15 are revealed here for the first time. Although most PIN protein clades share a conserved canonical structure with a modular central loop domain, a small number of noncanonical clades dispersed across the phylogeny have highly divergent protein structure. We propose that PIN proteins underwent sub- and neofunctionalization with substantial modification to protein structure throughout plant evolution. Our results have important implications for plant evolution as they suggest that structurally divergent PIN proteins that arose in paralogous radiations contributed to the convergent evolution of organ systems in different land plant lineages.

  13. Flux-pinning mechanism of proximity-coupled planar defects in conventional superconductors: Evidence that magnetic pinning is the dominant pinning mechanism in niobium-titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, L. D.; Lee, P. J.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    1996-03-01

    We propose that a magnetic pinning mechanism is the dominant flux-pinning mechanism of proximity-coupled, planar defects when the field is parallel to the defect. We find compelling evidence that this pinning mechanism is responsible for the strong flux-pinning force exerted by ribbon-shaped α-Ti precipitates and artificial pins in Nb-Ti superconductors, instead of the core pinning mechanism as has been hitherto widely believed. Because the elementary pinning force fp(H) is nonmonotonic when it is optimum (i.e., when the defect thickness t and the proximity length ξN have comparable dimensions), the total pinning force Fp(H) generally does not show temperature scaling. Characteristic changes in the magnitude and shape of Fp(H) at constant T but at different t/ξN (e.g., different Nb-Ti wire diameters) are also direct consequences of the pinning mechanism. The optimum flux-pinning state is a compromise between maximizing fp and getting the highest number density of pins. For a given defect composition this state is reached when t~ξN/3, while for varying defect composition the peak Fp gets higher when ξN is made shorter. Artificial pinning center Nb-Ti wires having short ξN pins appear to be vital for obtaining high Jc at high fields because only then is the elementary pinning force optimized at small pin thicknesses which permit a high number density of vortex-pin interactions and a large bulk pinning force. We find verification of our predictions in experimental Fp(H,T,t) data obtained on special laboratory-scale artificial pinning-center Nb-Ti wires.

  14. Improved Quick-Release Pin Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Jay M.

    2007-01-01

    An improved quick-release pin mechanism supplants a prior such mechanism in which the pin bears a shear load to hold two objects together. The prior mechanism, of a ball-locking design, can fail when vibrations cause balls to fall out. The load-bearing pin is an outer tube with a handle at one end (hereafter denoted the near end). Within the outer tube is a spring-loaded inner tube that includes a handle at its near end and a pivoting tab at its far end. The pin is inserted through holes in the objects to be retained and the inner tube is pushed against an offset pivot inside the outer tube to make the tab rotate outward so that it protrudes past the outer diameter of the outer tube, and the spring load maintains this configuration so that the pin cannot be withdrawn through the holes. Pushing the handles together against the spring load moves the locking tab out far enough that the tab becomes free to rotate inward. Then releasing the inner-tube handle causes the tab to be pulled into a resting position inside the outer tube. The pin can then be pulled out through the holes.

  15. Nonlinear driven response of a phase-field crystal in a periodic pinning potential.

    PubMed

    Achim, C V; Ramos, J A P; Karttunen, M; Elder, K R; Granato, E; Ala-Nissila, T; Ying, S C

    2009-01-01

    We study numerically the phase diagram and the response under a driving force of the phase field crystal model for pinned lattice systems introduced recently for both one- and two-dimensional systems. The model describes the lattice system as a continuous density field in the presence of a periodic pinning potential, allowing for both elastic and plastic deformations of the lattice. We first present results for phase diagrams of the model in the absence of a driving force. The nonlinear response to a driving force on an initially pinned commensurate phase is then studied via overdamped dynamic equations of motion for different values of mismatch and pinning strengths. For large pinning strength the driven depinning transitions are continuous, and the sliding velocity varies with the force from the threshold with power-law exponents in agreement with analytical predictions. Transverse depinning transitions in the moving state are also found in two dimensions. Surprisingly, for sufficiently weak pinning potential we find a discontinuous depinning transition with hysteresis even in one dimension under overdamped dynamics. We also characterize structural changes of the system in some detail close to the depinning transition.

  16. Examination the Torsion Properties of pin-to-plate LAMP Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovits, Tamás; Bauernhuber, Andor; Takács, János

    Laser assisted metal plastic (LAMP) joining is a promising new joining technology. In the course of this study, not the mostly examined overlapped sheet to sheet, but the pin-to-plate geometry is investigated. This geometry maybe useful for supporting industrial application of the method because it can utilize the differences in material properties of the joining partners effectively. However, based on previous research, expanded investigation of the pin to plate geometry is needed. Accordingly, the authors applied different metal pin geometries and laser parameters, like different laser spot diameters, laser pulse powers, laser pulse durations, and different metal pin geometries in micro and macro range as well by using pulse mode Nd:YAG laser beam to create transmission laser joining. The material and state of the metal pin (unalloyed steel) and the plastic sheet (PMMA) was investigated as well. In this research the torsion properties of the pin to plate joints were also investigated in order to determine the basic effects of laser technology to the maximal torques on this type of penetrated joints.

  17. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2016-06-01

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco® Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures

  18. The influence of the repetition rate on the nanosecond pulsed pin-to-pin microdischarges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bang-Dou; Takashima, Keisuke; Zhu, Xi-Ming; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2014-10-01

    The effect of repetition rate on a nanosecond atmospheric pressure discharge is investigated. The discharge is generated between two pins in a mixture of Ne and Ar. The voltage, current, power waveforms and the temporally and spatially resolved electron density and an ‘effective’ electron temperature are measured, with a pulse interval between 1.5 and 200 µs. It is found that not only does the repetition rate have a strong influence on the breakdown voltage and the peak discharge power, but it can also affect the rise rate of the volume averaged electron density and its peak value. Temporally and spatially resolved measurement of the electron density and the effective electron temperature show that the spatial distributions of both quantities are also influenced by the repetition rate. In the initial discharge period of all cases, the sharp rise of the electron density correlates with the drastic drop of the effective electron temperature. It is suggested that the residual charges have a strong impact on the axial distribution of the electric field and energetic electrons between the electrodes during the breakdown period, as illustrated by a simple sheath model.

  19. Flux reconstruction methods for assembly calculations in the code APOLLO2

    SciTech Connect

    Zmijarevic, I.; Masiello, E.; Sanchez, R.

    2006-07-01

    A technique for flux reconstruction has been incorporated in the code APOLLO2 allowing for fast generation of accurate burnup libraries. The burnup flux is obtained as the product of a pivot flux from a large-macro-group heterogeneous-assembly calculation times an energy shape factor based on a fine-energy flux. The latter is obtained from a fast multicell calculation for a few types of representative cells in the assembly. The reconstruction formula preserves the reaction rates predicted by the large-macro-group, heterogeneous-assembly calculation. Analysis of a BWR MOX benchmark shows that the reactivity error for a 70 MWd/t burnup cycle did not exceed 90 pcm and the maximum error in pin powers did not exceed 1%. (authors)

  20. The Maize PIN Gene Family of Auxin Transporters.

    PubMed

    Forestan, Cristian; Farinati, Silvia; Varotto, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Auxin is a key regulator of plant development and its differential distribution in plant tissues, established by a polar cell to cell transport, can trigger a wide range of developmental processes. A few members of the two families of auxin efflux transport proteins, PIN-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (ABCB/PGP), have so far been characterized in maize. Nine new Zea mays auxin efflux carriers PIN family members and two maize PIN-like genes have now been identified. Four members of PIN1 (named ZmPIN1a-d) cluster, one gene homologous to AtPIN2 (ZmPIN2), three orthologs of PIN5 (ZmPIN5a-c), one gene paired with AtPIN8 (ZmPIN8), and three monocot-specific PINs (ZmPIN9, ZmPIN10a, and ZmPIN10b) were cloned and the phylogenetic relationships between early-land plants, monocots, and eudicots PIN proteins investigated, including the new maize PIN proteins. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the 12 maize PIN genes, 2 PIN-like genes and ZmABCB1, an ABCB auxin efflux carrier, were analyzed together with protein localization and auxin accumulation patterns in normal conditions and in response to drug applications. ZmPIN gene transcripts have overlapping expression domains in the root apex, during male and female inflorescence differentiation and kernel development. However, some PIN family members have specific tissue localization: ZmPIN1d transcript marks the L1 layer of the shoot apical meristem and inflorescence meristem during the flowering transition and the monocot-specific ZmPIN9 is expressed in the root endodermis and pericycle. The phylogenetic and gene structure analyses together with the expression pattern of the ZmPIN gene family indicate that subfunctionalization of some maize PINs can be associated to the differentiation and development of monocot-specific organs and tissues and might have occurred after the divergence between dicots and monocots.

  1. The Maize PIN Gene Family of Auxin Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Forestan, Cristian; Farinati, Silvia; Varotto, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Auxin is a key regulator of plant development and its differential distribution in plant tissues, established by a polar cell to cell transport, can trigger a wide range of developmental processes. A few members of the two families of auxin efflux transport proteins, PIN-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (ABCB/PGP), have so far been characterized in maize. Nine new Zea mays auxin efflux carriers PIN family members and two maize PIN-like genes have now been identified. Four members of PIN1 (named ZmPIN1a–d) cluster, one gene homologous to AtPIN2 (ZmPIN2), three orthologs of PIN5 (ZmPIN5a–c), one gene paired with AtPIN8 (ZmPIN8), and three monocot-specific PINs (ZmPIN9, ZmPIN10a, and ZmPIN10b) were cloned and the phylogenetic relationships between early-land plants, monocots, and eudicots PIN proteins investigated, including the new maize PIN proteins. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the 12 maize PIN genes, 2 PIN-like genes and ZmABCB1, an ABCB auxin efflux carrier, were analyzed together with protein localization and auxin accumulation patterns in normal conditions and in response to drug applications. ZmPIN gene transcripts have overlapping expression domains in the root apex, during male and female inflorescence differentiation and kernel development. However, some PIN family members have specific tissue localization: ZmPIN1d transcript marks the L1 layer of the shoot apical meristem and inflorescence meristem during the flowering transition and the monocot-specific ZmPIN9 is expressed in the root endodermis and pericycle. The phylogenetic and gene structure analyses together with the expression pattern of the ZmPIN gene family indicate that subfunctionalization of some maize PINs can be associated to the differentiation and development of monocot-specific organs and tissues and might have occurred after the divergence between dicots and monocots. PMID:22639639

  2. Dynamics and Stability of Pinned-Clamped and Clamped-Pinned Cylindrical Shells Conveying Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, A. K.; Wong, S. S. T.; Païdoussis, M. P.

    2001-11-01

    The paper examines the dynamics and stability of fluid-conveying cylindrical shells having pinned-clamped or clamped-pinned boundary conditions, where ``pinned'' is an abbreviation for ``simply supported''. Flügge's equations are used to describe the shell motion, while the fluid-dynamic perturbation pressure is obtained utilizing the linearized potential flow theory. The solution is obtained using two methods - the travelling wave method and the Fourier-transform approach. The results obtained by both methods suggest that the negative damping of the clamped-pinned systems and positive damping of the pinned-clamped systems, observed by previous investigators for any arbitrarily small flow velocity, are simply numerical artefacts; this is reinforced by energy considerations, in which the work done by the fluid on the shell is shown to be zero. Hence, it is concluded that both systems are conservative.

  3. Radon measurements with a PIN photodiode.

    PubMed

    Martín-Martín, A; Gutiérrez-Villanueva, J L; Muñoz, J M; García-Talavera, M; Adamiec, G; Iñiguez, M P

    2006-01-01

    Silicon photodiodes are well suited to detect alphas coming from different sources as neutron reactions or radon daughters. In this work a radon in air detecting device, using an 18x18 mm silicon PIN photodiode is studied. The ionized airborne decay products formed during radon diffusion were focused by an accelerating high voltage to the PIN surface. Several conducting rings were disposed inside a cylindrical PVC vessel in such a way that they reproduced the electric field created by a punctual charge located behind PIN position. Alpha spectra coming from the neutral and ionized species deposited on the PIN surface, dominated by 218Po and 214Po progeny peaks, were recorded for varying conditions. Those include radon concentration from a Pylon source, high voltage (thousands of volts) and PIN inverse bias voltage. Different parameters such as temperature and humidity were also registered during data acquisition. The increase in the particle collection efficiency with respect to zero electric field was compared with the corresponding to a parallel plates configuration. A discussion is made in terms of the most appropriate voltages for different radon concentrations.

  4. Statistics of dislocation pinning at localized obstacles

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Bhattacharya, M. Barat, P.

    2014-10-14

    Pinning of dislocations at nanosized obstacles like precipitates, voids, and bubbles is a crucial mechanism in the context of phenomena like hardening and creep. The interaction between such an obstacle and a dislocation is often studied at fundamental level by means of analytical tools, atomistic simulations, and finite element methods. Nevertheless, the information extracted from such studies cannot be utilized to its maximum extent on account of insufficient information about the underlying statistics of this process comprising a large number of dislocations and obstacles in a system. Here, we propose a new statistical approach, where the statistics of pinning of dislocations by idealized spherical obstacles is explored by taking into account the generalized size-distribution of the obstacles along with the dislocation density within a three-dimensional framework. Starting with a minimal set of material parameters, the framework employs the method of geometrical statistics with a few simple assumptions compatible with the real physical scenario. The application of this approach, in combination with the knowledge of fundamental dislocation-obstacle interactions, has successfully been demonstrated for dislocation pinning at nanovoids in neutron irradiated type 316-stainless steel in regard to the non-conservative motion of dislocations. An interesting phenomenon of transition from rare pinning to multiple pinning regimes with increasing irradiation temperature is revealed.

  5. Spent fuel pin temperature PC code

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, L.E.

    1985-03-01

    During an annual outage, a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) may discharge 60 or more spent fuel bundles into its storage pool. Most early PWRs were built to store 3 to 5 years of spent fuel in their pools and are beginning to exceed their capacities. One method currently being developed and licensed for expanding spent fuel storage capabilities is the dry storage of spent fuel in large casks. To reduce the probability of gross failures of fuel cladding during dry storage in casks, the fuel pin temperatures must be shown to remain within acceptable limits. LLNL has developed, for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a personal computer (PC) code for calculating fuel pin temperatures on the IBM PC. The code uses the Wooton-Epstein Correlation to calculate the pin temperatures and has been benchmarked against test data. An iterative type of solution is used to calculate the fuel pin temperatures for specified heat fluxes and pin configurations. The PC code is useful in performing confirmatory analyses and comparing the results with those submitted by applicants applying for storage licenses. 5 references, 2 tables.

  6. Potential of pin-by-pin SPN calculations as an industrial reference

    SciTech Connect

    Fliscounakis, M.; Girardi, E.; Courau, T.; Couyras, D.

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims at analysing the potential of pin-by-pin SP{sub n} calculations to compute the neutronic flux in PWR cores as an alternative to the diffusion approximation. As far as pin-by-pin calculations are concerned, a SPH equivalence is used to preserve the reactions rates. The use of SPH equivalence is a common practice in core diffusion calculations. In this paper, a methodology to generalize the equivalence procedure in the SP{sub n} equations context is presented. In order to verify and validate the equivalence procedure, SP{sub n} calculations are compared to 2D transport reference results obtained with the APOLL02 code. The validation cases consist in 3x3 analytical assembly color sets involving burn-up heterogeneities, UOX/MOX interfaces, and control rods. Considering various energy discretizations (up to 26 groups) and flux development orders (up to 7) for the SP{sub n} equations, results show that 26-group SP{sub 3} calculations are very close to the transport reference (with pin production rates discrepancies < 1%). This proves the high interest of pin-by-pin SP{sub n} calculations as an industrial reference when relying on 26 energy groups combined with SP{sub 3} flux development order. Additionally, the SP{sub n} results are compared to diffusion pin-by-pin calculations, in order to evaluate the potential benefit of using a SP{sub n} solver as an alternative to diffusion. Discrepancies on pin-production rates are less than 1.6% for 6-group SP{sub 3} calculations against 3.2% for 2-group diffusion calculations. This shows that SP{sub n} solvers may be considered as an alternative to multigroup diffusion. (authors)

  7. Meaningful power grip recovery after salvage reconstruction of a median nerve avulsion injury with a pedicled vascularized ulnar nerve

    PubMed Central

    Van Slyke, Aaron C; Jansen, Leigh A; Hynes, Sally; Hicks, Jane; Bristol, Sean; Carr, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    In cases of median nerve injury alongside an unsalvageable ulnar nerve, a vascularized ulnar nerve graft to reconstruct the median nerve is a viable option. While restoration of median nerve sensation is consistently reported, recovery of significant motor function is less frequently observed. The authors report a case involving a previously healthy man who sustained upper arm segmental median and ulnar nerve injuries and, after failure of sural nerve grafts, was treated with a pedicled vascularized ulnar nerve graft to restore median nerve function. Long-term follow-up showed near full fist, with 12 kg of grip strength, key pinch with 1.5 kg of strength and protective sensation in the median nerve distribution. The present case demonstrates that pedicled ulnar vascularized nerve grafts can provide significant improvements to median nerve sensory and motor function in a heavily scarred environment. PMID:26665144

  8. The effect of temperature on pinning mechanisms in HTS composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikova, A. P.; Rudnev, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Pinning mechanism in samples of second generation tapes (2G) of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) was studied The critical current and the pinning force were calculated from the magnetization curves measured in the temperature range of 4.2 - 77 K in magnetic fields up to 14 Tesla using vibration sample magnetometer. To determine the pinning mechanism the dependences of pinning force on magnetic field were constructed according to the Dew-Hughes model and Kramer's rule. The obtained dependences revealed a significant influence of the temperature on effectiveness of different types of pinning. At low temperatures the 2G HTS tapes of different manufacturers demonstrated an equal efficiency of the pinning centers but with temperature increase the differences in pinning mechanisms as well as in properties and effectiveness of the pinning centers become obvious. The influence of the pinning mechanism on the energy losses in HTS tapes was shown.

  9. Intrafocal pinning for distal radius metaphyseal fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Shital N; Jain, Viral V; Youngquist, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case control study was to evaluate the results of intrafocal pinning for distal radius metaphyseal fractures in children and to compare these results with conventional pinning. Data were collected from medical records and radiographs from patients who underwent closed reduction and percutaneous pinning for distal radius fracture in a Level I trauma center at the authors' institution between 2008 and 2010. Inclusion criteria included a dorsally angulated metaphyseal fracture without physeal involvement, an open distal radius physis, and a follow-up to radiographic union. A total of 10 patients with intrafocal pinning were compared to 26 patients with conventional pinning. Preoperatively, angulation was greater in patients who received intrafocal pinning than conventional pinning based on anteroposterior radiographs. Postoperatively, the 2 groups did not differ in angulation on either anteroposterior or lateral radiographs. One malunion and 2 pin-related complications occurred in the conventional pinning group, and 1 pin-related complication occurred in the intrafocal pinning group. The 2 groups did not differ by age, sex, side of injury, days to surgery, or initial shortening. This study affirms that the intrafocal pinning technique is an alternative to the conventional pinning technique for the stabilization of displaced metaphyseal distal radius fractures in children. Intrafocal pinning can also be used as a reduction tool for fractures that cannot be reduced by closed manipulation. The complications are comparable between the 2 techniques.

  10. A division in PIN-medicated patterning during lateral organ initiation in grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using phlyogenic and gene synteny analysis we identified an angiosperm PIN clade sister to PIN1, here termed SISter-of-PIN1 (soPIN1), which is present in all sampled angiosperms except for Brassicaceae. Additionally, we identified a conserved duplication of PIN1 in the grasses: PIN1a and PIN1b. In...

  11. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2011-09-01

    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  12. Reconstructions of f( T) gravity from entropy-corrected holographic and new agegraphic dark energy models in power-law and logarithmic versions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Pameli; Debnath, Ujjal

    2016-09-01

    Here, we peruse cosmological usage of the most promising candidates of dark energy in the framework of f( T) gravity theory where T represents the torsion scalar teleparallel gravity. We reconstruct the different f( T) modified gravity models in the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe according to entropy-corrected versions of the holographic and new agegraphic dark energy models in power-law and logarithmic corrections, which describe an accelerated expansion history of the universe. We conclude that the equation of state parameter of the entropy-corrected models can transit from the quintessence state to the phantom regime as indicated by recent observations or can lie entirely in the phantom region. Also, using these models, we investigate the different areas of the stability with the help of the squared speed of sound.

  13. The effect of HIV infection on the incidence and severity of circular external fixator pin track sepsis: a retrospective comparative study of 229 patients.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Nando; Marais, Leonard Charles

    2014-08-01

    Pin track sepsis is a common complication of circular external fixation. HIV status has been implicated as an independent risk factor for the development of pin track infection and has been cited as a reason not to attempt complex limb reconstruction in HIV-positive patients. This retrospective review of patients treated with circular external fixators looked at the incidence of pin track sepsis in HIV-positive, HIV-negative and patients whose HIV status was unknown. The records of 229 patients, 40 of whom were HIV-positive, were reviewed. The overall incidence of pin track sepsis was 22.7 %. HIV infection did not affect the incidence of pin track sepsis (p = 0.9). The severity of pin track sepsis was not influenced by HIV status (p = 0.9) or CD4 count (p = 0.2). With the employment of meticulous pin insertion techniques and an effective postoperative pin track care protocol, circular external fixation can be used safely in HIV-positive individuals.

  14. Broken safety pin in bronchus - Anaesthetic considerations.

    PubMed

    Shad, Roona; Agarwal, Aditya

    2012-11-01

    Safety pins are not commonly aspirated objects in infants and form only a small fraction of all the metallic foreign body (FB) which accounts for 4.4% of all foreign bodies found in tracheobronchial tree. Bronchoscopy procedure has various complications, in addition to failure to remove FB due to its impaction, especially with metallic pointed objects ending up in open surgical removal. Infant with inhaled foreign body are always a challenge to anaesthetist. We had one such case of broken safety pin impacted in the wall of right bronchus of an infant with failure to remove on repeated attempts at rigid bronchoscopy.

  15. Broken safety pin in bronchus - Anaesthetic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Shad, Roona; Agarwal, Aditya

    2012-01-01

    Safety pins are not commonly aspirated objects in infants and form only a small fraction of all the metallic foreign body (FB) which accounts for 4.4% of all foreign bodies found in tracheobronchial tree. Bronchoscopy procedure has various complications, in addition to failure to remove FB due to its impaction, especially with metallic pointed objects ending up in open surgical removal. Infant with inhaled foreign body are always a challenge to anaesthetist. We had one such case of broken safety pin impacted in the wall of right bronchus of an infant with failure to remove on repeated attempts at rigid bronchoscopy. PMID:23325944

  16. Self-Pinning on a Liquid Surface.

    PubMed

    Antoine, C; Irvoas, J; Schwarzenberger, K; Eckert, K; Wodlei, F; Pimienta, V

    2016-02-04

    We report on the first experimental evidence of a self-pinning liquid drop on a liquid surface. This particular regime is observed for a miscible heavier oil drop (dichloromethane) deposited on an aqueous solution laden by an ionic surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide). Experimental characterization of the drop shape evolution coupled to particle image velocimetry points to the correlation between the drop profile and the accompanying flow field. A simple model shows that the observed pinned stage is the result of a subtle competition between oil dissolution and surfactant adsorption.

  17. Effective pinning energy landscape perturbations for propagating magnetic domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, D. M.; Atkinson, D.

    2016-10-01

    The interaction between a magnetic domain wall and a pinning site is explored in a planar nanowire using micromagnetics to reveal perturbations of the pinning energetics for propagating domain walls. Numerical simulations in the high damping ’quasi-static’ and low damping ’dynamic’ regimes are compared and show clear differences in de-pinning fields, indicating that dynamical micromagnetic models, which incorporate precessionally limited magnetization processes, are needed to understand domain wall pinning. Differences in the micromagnetic domain wall structure strongly influence the pinning and show periodic behaviour with increasing applied field associated with Walker breakdown. In the propagating regime pinning is complicated.

  18. Effective pinning energy landscape perturbations for propagating magnetic domain walls

    PubMed Central

    Burn, D. M.; Atkinson, D.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between a magnetic domain wall and a pinning site is explored in a planar nanowire using micromagnetics to reveal perturbations of the pinning energetics for propagating domain walls. Numerical simulations in the high damping ’quasi-static’ and low damping ’dynamic’ regimes are compared and show clear differences in de-pinning fields, indicating that dynamical micromagnetic models, which incorporate precessionally limited magnetization processes, are needed to understand domain wall pinning. Differences in the micromagnetic domain wall structure strongly influence the pinning and show periodic behaviour with increasing applied field associated with Walker breakdown. In the propagating regime pinning is complicated. PMID:27694953

  19. Effective pinning energy landscape perturbations for propagating magnetic domain walls.

    PubMed

    Burn, D M; Atkinson, D

    2016-10-03

    The interaction between a magnetic domain wall and a pinning site is explored in a planar nanowire using micromagnetics to reveal perturbations of the pinning energetics for propagating domain walls. Numerical simulations in the high damping 'quasi-static' and low damping 'dynamic' regimes are compared and show clear differences in de-pinning fields, indicating that dynamical micromagnetic models, which incorporate precessionally limited magnetization processes, are needed to understand domain wall pinning. Differences in the micromagnetic domain wall structure strongly influence the pinning and show periodic behaviour with increasing applied field associated with Walker breakdown. In the propagating regime pinning is complicated.

  20. Pinning, flux diodes and ratchets for vortices interacting with conformal pinning arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia Jane; Wang, Y. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; Kwok, W. K.; Ray, Dipanjan; Reichhardt, Charles; Jankó, B.

    2016-05-31

    A conformal pinning array can be created by conformally transforming a uniform triangular pinning lattice to produce a new structure in which the six-fold ordering of the original lattice is conserved but where there is a spatial gradient in the density of pinning sites. Here we examine several aspects of vortices interacting with conformal pinning arrays and how they can be used to create a flux flow diode effect for driving vortices in different directions across the arrays. Under the application of an ac drive, a pronounced vortex ratchet effect occurs where the vortices flow in the easy direction of the array asymmetry. When the ac drive is applied perpendicular to the asymmetry direction of the array, it is possible to realize a transverse vortex ratchet effect where there is a generation of a dc flow of vortices perpendicular to the ac drive due to the creation of a noise correlation ratchet by the plastic motion of the vortices. We also examine vortex transport in experiments and compare the pinning effectiveness of conformal arrays to uniform triangular pinning arrays. In conclusion, we find that a triangular array generally pins the vortices more effectively at the first matching field and below, while the conformal array is more effective at higher fields where interstitial vortex flow occurs.

  1. Pinning, flux diodes and ratchets for vortices interacting with conformal pinning arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Wang, Y. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; ...

    2017-02-01

    A conformal pinning array can be created by conformally transforming a uniform triangular pinning lattice to produce a new structure in which the six-fold ordering of the original lattice is conserved but where there is a spatial gradient in the density of pinning sites. Here we examine several aspects of vortices interacting with conformal pinning arrays and how they can be used to create a flux flow diode effect for driving vortices in different directions across the arrays. Under the application of an ac drive, a pronounced vortex ratchet effect occurs where the vortices flow in the easy direction ofmore » the array asymmetry. When the ac drive is applied perpendicular to the asymmetry direction of the array, it is possible to realize a transverse vortex ratchet effect where there is a generation of a dc flow of vortices perpendicular to the ac drive due to the creation of a noise correlation ratchet by the plastic motion of the vortices. We also examine vortex transport in experiments and compare the pinning effectiveness of conformal arrays to uniform triangular pinning arrays. In conclusion, we find that a triangular array generally pins the vortices more effectively at the first matching field and below, while the conformal array is more effective at higher fields where interstitial vortex flow occurs.« less

  2. Pinning, flux diodes and ratchets for vortices interacting with conformal pinning arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Wang, Y. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; Kwok, W. K.; Ray, D.; Reichhardt, C.; Jankó, B.

    2017-02-01

    A conformal pinning array can be created by conformally transforming a uniform triangular pinning lattice to produce a new structure in which the six-fold ordering of the original lattice is conserved but where there is a spatial gradient in the density of pinning sites. Here we examine several aspects of vortices interacting with conformal pinning arrays and how they can be used to create a flux flow diode effect for driving vortices in different directions across the arrays. Under the application of an ac drive, a pronounced vortex ratchet effect occurs where the vortices flow in the easy direction of the array asymmetry. When the ac drive is applied perpendicular to the asymmetry direction of the array, it is possible to realize a transverse vortex ratchet effect where there is a generation of a dc flow of vortices perpendicular to the ac drive due to the creation of a noise correlation ratchet by the plastic motion of the vortices. We also examine vortex transport in experiments and compare the pinning effectiveness of conformal arrays to uniform triangular pinning arrays. We find that a triangular array generally pins the vortices more effectively at the first matching field and below, while the conformal array is more effective at higher fields where interstitial vortex flow occurs.

  3. Effect of the number of pins and inter-pin distance on somatosensory evoked magnetic fields following mechanical tactile stimulation.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Hideaki; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Yamashiro, Koya; Sato, Daisuke; Suzuki, Makoto; Kirimoto, Hikari; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Hiroatsu; Kameyama, Shigeki

    2013-10-16

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were collected to investigate the effect of the number of mechanical pins and inter-pin distance on somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEFs) following mechanical stimulation (MS). We used a 306-ch whole-head MEG system. SEFs were elicited through tactile stimuli with 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 8-pins using healthy participants. Tactile stimuli were applied to the tip of the right index finger. SEF following electrical stimulation of the index finger was recorded in order to compare the activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) following MS. Prominent SEFs were recorded from the contralateral hemisphere approximately 54 ms (P50m) and 125 ms (P100m) after MS regardless of the number of pins. Equivalent current dipoles were located in the S1. The source activities for P50m and P100m significantly increased in tandem with the number of pins for MS. However, the increased ratios for the source activities according to the increase in the number of pins were significantly smaller than that induced by electrical stimulation, and when the number of the pins doubled from 1-pin to 2-pins, from 2-pins to 4-pins, and from 4-pins to 8-pins, S1 activities increased by only 130%. Additionally, source activities significantly increased when the inter-pin distance increased from 2.4 to 7.2 mm. The number of stimulated receptors was considered to have increased with an increase in the inter-pin distance as well as an increase in the number of pins. These findings clarified the effect of the number of pins and inter-pin distance for MS on SEFs.

  4. Duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion.

    PubMed

    Cay, Ali; Imamoğlu, Mustafa; Sarihan, Haluk; Sayil, Ozgür

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe the case of a 16-month-old boy with benign duodenocolic fistula due to safety pin ingestion who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Etiology, symptomatology, diagnosis and management are discussed and the literature is reviewed. Early diagnosis and surgical management are necessary to avoid serious morbidity.

  5. Rotary pin-in-maze discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.

    1997-01-01

    A discriminator apparatus and method that discriminates between a unique signal and any other (incorrect) signal. The unique signal is a sequence of events; each event can assume one of two possible event states. Given the unique signal, a maze wheel is allowed to rotate fully in one direction. Given an incorrect signal, both the maze wheel and a pin wheel lock in position.

  6. Pinned emission from ultrasmall cadmium selenide nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Dukes, Albert D; Schreuder, Michael A; Sammons, Jessica A; McBride, James R; Smith, Nathanael J; Rosenthal, Sandra J

    2008-09-28

    We report pinning of the emission spectrum in ultrasmall CdSe nanocrystals with a diameter of 1.7 nm and smaller. It was observed that the first emission feature ceased to blueshift once the band edge absorption reached 420 nm, though the band edge absorption continued to blueshift with decreasing nanocrystal diameter.

  7. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  8. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Driving...

  9. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  10. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR BEAM, STRINGERS, LATTICE BRACING, EYEBARS, AND PIN, LOOKING SOUTH - Four Mile Bridge, Spanning Elk River on County Road 42, Steamboat Springs, Routt County, CO

  11. Vortex creep and thermal depinning within strong pinning theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willa, Roland; Buchacek, Martin; Geshkenbein, Vadim B.; Blatter, Gianni

    Vortex pinning in type-II superconductors can occur through the collective action of many pins (weak collective pinning scenario) or through plastic deformations induced by a low density of defects (strong pinning scenario). For the latter case, a new formalism has recently be developed to provide a quantitative link between the microscopic pinning landscape and experimentally accessible quantities describing pinning on a macroscopic level. Examples are the critical current density jc, the I- V characteristics, or the ac Campbell length λC. Inspired by the original work of Larkin and Brazovskii on density wave pinning, we have extended the strong pinning formalism to account for thermal depinning of flux lines and vortex creep.

  12. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program: Criticality experiments with fast test reactor fuel pins in an organic moderator

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, S.R.

    1986-12-01

    The results obtained in a series of criticality experiments performed as part of a joint program on criticality data development between the United States Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are presented in this report along with a complete description of the experiments. The experiments involved lattices of Fast Test Reactor (FTR) fuel pins in an organic moderator mixture similar to that used in the solvent extraction stage of fuel reprocessing. The experiments are designed to provide data for direct comparison with previously performed experimental measurements with water moderated lattices of FTR fuel pins. The same lattice arrangements and FTR fuel pin types are used in these organic moderated experimental assemblies as were used in the water moderated experiments. The organic moderator is a mixture of 38 wt % tributylphosphate in a normal paraffin hydrocarbon mixture of C{sub 11}H{sub 24} to C{sub 15}H{sub 32} molecules. Critical sizes of 1054.8, 599.2, 301.8, 199.5 and 165.3 fuel pins were obtained respectively for organic moderated lattices having 0.761 cm, 0.968 cm, 1.242 cm, 1.537 cm and 1.935 cm square lattice pitches as compared to 1046.9, 571.9, 293.9, 199.7 and 165.1 fuel pins for the same lattices water moderated.

  13. Impact of the tidal power dam in the Rance estuary: geomorphological changes, hydrosedimentary processes and reconstructions plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susperregui, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Rance basin (France) offers potential to make a full-scale assessment of the environmental impact of a tidal power station after 50 years of operation. Consequences on biology, hydrodynamics and sedimentology were observed and nowadays, some of these changes are still acting on the natural system. The tidal dynamic was completely artificialised by the dam construction. The two main consequences are the reduction of exundation area and the extension of slack duration. Sedimentary dynamic depending on hydrodynamics conditions, changes in sediment distribution were also observed. Before the tidal power station construction, sands lined the gravel bed channel, recovered the bottom and formed beaches and banks. Coves and the upstream part of the estuary were dominated by a fine sedimentation, forming mudflats in a classical configuration slikke/schorre. Nowadays, mudflats extended to the center of the basin and all coves are occupied. The important inertia induced by the slack extension caused a slowing down on currents velocities, making easier the fine suspension deposit. The siltation is most important upstream, were the turbidity maximum was shifted, generating problems for navigation and banks access. A solution of sediment management was envisaged from 2001, by the digging of a sediments trap of 91 000 m3, near the Châtelier Lock. Sedimentation monitoring in this trap shows an intense filling over the first two years of functioning, then a slowing down leading to a complete filling from 2005. This trap also showed a beneficial interest on the sedimentation rates of the mudflats closed to it, which decreased. To understand how fine sediment is eroded and transported into this maritime area, an optical backscatter sensor was installed 1.5 km upstream of the tidal power station. During spring tides, the tidal power station functions in a “double-acting” cycle. This particular working leads to an important increase of turbidity during the artificial tidal

  14. Nanowall pinning for enhanced pinning force in YBCO films with nanofabricated structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palau, A.; Rouco, V.; Luccas, R. F.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T.

    2014-11-01

    High resolution nanofabrication tools (Focused Ion Beam and Electron Beam Lithography) have been used to fabricate nano-metric milled structures in high critical current YBCO thin films able to further increase their vortex pinning capabilities. We have demonstrated that pinning forces at 77 K and 3 T are increased by a 70-80% by proper nanostructure designs. Model systems with linear trenches and triangular blind antidots of different sizes, distribution and density have been generated and studied. We demonstrate that specific milled nanostructures can increase the total current through the system at expenses of a limited decrease of cross section. We have identified the length of fabricated nano-walls as the main parameter controlling the pinning potential of nanostructures and thus defined the optimised milling conditions and nanostructure morphology to maximise pinning efficiency.

  15. Formation of Ceramic Nanoparticle Patterns Using Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printing with Pin-to-Pin Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-Young; Yu, Jae-Hun; Shin, Yun-Soo; Park, Dongho; Yu, Tae-U.; Hwang, Jungho

    2008-03-01

    As one of the direct write technologies, electrohydrodynamic jet printing was used in obtaining fine ceramic lines. We used pin electrodes of various diameters, each of which was located below the substrate, and analyzed the effects of pin diameter on Al2O3 nanoparticle one- and two-dimensional patterns formed with pin (nozzle)-to-pin (ground) electrodes. The onset voltage required to start the formation of a pattern for a 1-µm-diameter electrode was fourfold lower than the voltage required for a 1000-µm-diameter electrode. Additionally, an Al2O3 nanoparticle pattern with a uniform width as fine as 25 µm was obtained despite using the very large diameter of the nozzle (920 µm) used.

  16. Effects of Pin Detached Space on Heat Transfer and Pin-Fin Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Siw, Sin Chien; Chyu, Minking K.; Shih, Tom I. -P.; Alvin, Mary Anne

    2012-01-01

    Heat transfer and pressure characteristics in a rectangular channel with pin-fin arrays of partial detachment from one of the endwalls have been experimentally studied. The overall channel geometry (W=76.2 mm, E=25.4 mm) simulates an internal cooling passage of wide aspect ratio (3:1) in a gas turbine airfoil. With a given pin diameter, D=6.35 mm=¼E, three different pin-fin height-to-diameter ratios, H/D=4, 3, and 2, were examined. Each of these three cases corresponds to a specific pin array geometry of detachment spacing (C) between the pin tip and one of the endwalls, i.e., C/D=0, 1, 2, respectively. The Reynolds number, based on the hydraulic diameter of the unobstructed cross-section and the mean bulk velocity, ranges from 10,000 to 25,000. The experiment employs a hybrid technique based on transient liquid crystal imaging to obtain the distributions of the local heat transfer coefficient over all of the participating surfaces, including the endwalls and all the pin elements. Experimental results reveal that the presence of a detached space between the pin tip and the endwall has a significant effect on the convective heat transfer and pressure loss in the channel. The presence of pin-to-endwall spacing promotes wall-flow interaction, generates additional separated shear layers, and augments turbulent transport. In general, an increase in detached spacing, or C/D, leads to lower heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop. However, C/D=1, i.e., H/D=3, of a staggered array configuration exhibits the highest heat transfer enhancement, followed by the cases of C/D=0 and C/D=2, i.e., H/D=4 or 2, respectively.

  17. Pin Load Control Applied to Retractable Pin Tool Technology and Its Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olegoetz, P.

    1999-01-01

    Until the development of retractable pin tool (RPT) technology, friction stir welding (FSW) was limited to constant thickness joining of aluminum materials and the choices of keyhole elimination focused on traditional fusion and plug weld repair techniques. An invention, US Patent Number 5,893,507, "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" assigned to NASA, demonstrated an approach to resolve these serious drawbacks. This approach brings forth a technique that allows the crater, or keyhole, to be closed out automatically at the end of the weld joint without adding any additional equipment or material. Also the probe length can be varied automatically in the weld joint to compensate for material thickness changes, such as, in a tapered joint. This paper reports the effects of pin extension and retraction rates in the weld joint and its correlation to weld quality. The investigation utilized a pin load-detecting device that was integrated in the Phase IIA RPT designed by Boeing for NASA/MSFC. The RPT modification provided pin load data that was accessed and used to eliminate root side indications and determine pin manipulation rates necessary to produce consistence homogeneous joints.

  18. Pin Load Control Applied to Retractable Pin Tool Technology and its Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oelgoetz, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Until the development of retractable pin tool (RPT) technology, friction stir welding (FSW) was limited to constant thickness joining of aluminum materials and the choices of keyhole elimination focused on traditional fusion and plug weld repair techniques. An invention, US Patent Number 5,893.507, "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" assigned to NASA, demonstrated an approach to resolve these serious drawbacks. This approach brings forth a technique that allows the crater, or keyhole, to be closed out automatically at the end of the weld joint without adding any additional equipment or material. Also the probe length can be varied automatically in the weld joint to compensate for material thickness changes, such as, in a tapered joint. This paper reports the effects of pin extension and retraction rates in the weld joint and its correlation to weld quality. The investigation utilized a pin load-detecting device that was integrated in the Phase 2A RPT designed by Boeing for NASA/MSFC. The RPT modification provided pin load data that was accessed and used to eliminate root side indications and determine pin manipulation rates necessary to produce consistence homogeneous joints.

  19. Pin Load Control Applied to Retractable Pin Tool Technology and its Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oelgoetz, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Until the development of retractable pin tool (RPT) technology, friction stir welding (FSW) was limited to constant thickness joining of aluminum materials and the choices of keyhole elimination focused on traditional fusion and plug weld repair techniques. An invention, US Patent Number 5,893,507, "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" assigned to NASA, demonstrated an approach to resolve these serious drawbacks. This approach brings forth a technique that allows the crater, or keyhole, to be closed out automatically at the end of the weld joint without adding any additional equipment or material. Also the probe length can be varied automatically in the weld joint to compensate for material thickness changes, such as, in a tapered joint. This paper reports the effects of pin extension and retraction rates in the weld joint and its correlation to weld quality. The investigation utilized a pin load-detecting device that was integrated in the Phase 2A RPT designed by Boeing for NASA/MSFC. The RPT modification provided pin load data that was accessed and used to eliminate root side indications and determine pin manipulation rates necessary to produce consistence homogeneous joints.

  20. Reconstructing the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident 30 years after. A unique database of air concentration and deposition measurements over Europe.

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Hamburger, Thomas; Talerko, Nikolai; Zibtsev, Sergey; Bondar, Yuri; Stohl, Andreas; Balkanski, Yves; Mousseau, Timothy A; Møller, Anders P

    2016-09-01

    30 years after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident, its radioactive releases still remain of great interest mainly due to the long half-lives of many radionuclides emitted. Observations from the terrestrial environment, which hosts radionuclides for many years after initial deposition, are important for health and environmental assessments. Furthermore, such measurements are the basis for validation of atmospheric transport models and can be used for constraining the still not accurately known source terms. However, although the "Atlas of cesium deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl accident" (hereafter referred to as "Atlas") has been published since 1998, less than 1% of the direct observations of (137)Cs deposition has been made publicly available. The remaining ones are neither accessible nor traceable to specific data providers and a large fraction of these data might have been lost entirely. The present paper is an effort to rescue some of the data collected over the years following the CNPP accident and make them publicly available. The database includes surface air activity concentrations and deposition observations for (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs measured and provided by Former Soviet Union authorities the years that followed the accident. Using the same interpolation tool as the official authorities, we have reconstructed a deposition map of (137)Cs based on about 3% of the data used to create the Atlas map. The reconstructed deposition map is very similar to the official one, but it has the advantage that it is based exclusively on documented data sources, which are all made available within this publication. In contrast to the official map, our deposition map is therefore reproducible and all underlying data can be used also for other purposes. The efficacy of the database was proved using simulated activity concentrations and deposition of (137)Cs from a Langrangian and a Euleurian transport model.

  1. Detail of "pin" or large bolt used to assemble the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of "pin" or large bolt used to assemble the truss pieces. This "pin" is on pony truss; similar pins were used on movable span. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Daggett Road Bridge, Daggett Road traversing Burns Cut Off, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  2. 21 CFR 872.3740 - Retentive and splinting pin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retentive and splinting pin. 872.3740 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3740 Retentive and splinting pin. (a) Identification. A retentive and splinting pin is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3740 - Retentive and splinting pin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retentive and splinting pin. 872.3740 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3740 Retentive and splinting pin. (a) Identification. A retentive and splinting pin is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing...

  4. Functional Analysis of the Hydrophilic Loop in Intracellular Trafficking of Arabidopsis PIN-FORMED Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Anindya; Park, Minho; Kesawat, Mahipal Singh; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

    2014-04-01

    Different PIN-FORMED proteins (PINs) contribute to intercellular and intracellular auxin transport, depending on their distinctive subcellular localizations. Arabidopsis thaliana PINs with a long hydrophilic loop (HL) (PIN1 to PIN4 and PIN7; long PINs) localize predominantly to the plasma membrane (PM), whereas short PINs (PIN5 and PIN8) localize predominantly to internal compartments. However, the subcellular localization of the short PINs has been observed mostly for PINs ectopically expressed in different cell types, and the role of the HL in PIN trafficking remains unclear. Here, we tested whether a long PIN-HL can provide its original molecular cues to a short PIN by transplanting the HL. The transplanted long PIN2-HL was sufficient for phosphorylation and PM trafficking of the chimeric PIN5:PIN2-HL but failed to provide the characteristic polarity of PIN2. Unlike previous observations, PIN5 showed clear PM localization in diverse cell types where PIN5 is natively or ectopically expressed and even polar PM localization in one cell type. Furthermore, in the root epidermis, the subcellular localization of PIN5 switched from PM to internal compartments according to the developmental stage. Our results suggest that the long PIN-HL is partially modular for the trafficking behavior of PINs and that the intracellular trafficking of PIN is plastic depending on cell type and developmental stage.

  5. Double calcaneal osteotomy with percutaneous Steinmann pin fixation as part of treatment for flexible flatfoot deformity: a review of consecutive cases highlighting our experience with pin fixation.

    PubMed

    Boffeli, Troy J; Abben, Kyle W

    2015-01-01

    Surgical correction of flexible flatfoot deformity and posterior tibial tendon dysfunction has been extensively reported in published studies. When appropriate, calcaneal osteotomies for flatfoot correction have been a favorite of foot and ankle surgeons because of the corrective power achieved without the need to fuse any rearfoot joints. The medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy and Evans calcaneal osteotomy, together termed the double calcaneal osteotomy, have been reported several times by various investigators with a wide variety of fixation options. We undertook an institutional review board-approved retrospective review of 9 consecutive patients (11 feet), who had undergone double calcaneal osteotomy with 2 percutaneous Steinmann pin fixation for the correction of flexible flatfoot deformity, with or without posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. All patients had radiographic evidence of bone healing of the posterior calcaneal osteotomy and incorporation of the Evans osteotomy bone graft at 6 weeks and demonstrated clinical healing at 6 weeks. All patients had 2 percutaneous Steinmann pins placed through both osteotomies, and these were removed an average of 6 weeks postoperatively. No patient developed pin site complications. The only complication noted was sural neuritis, which was likely incision related. No patients had delayed union or nonunion, and we did not identify any graft shifting postoperatively. The present retrospective series highlights our experience with 2 percutaneous Steinmann pin fixation, demonstrating equal or better results than many previous published fixation methods for double calcaneal osteotomy. It is cost-effective and minimizes the potential risk of iatrogenic Achilles pathologic features associated with screw fixation.

  6. Difference between conventional head-pin and Dispo-pin in the Sugita multipurpose head frame system.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tetsuya; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Head fixation devices are commonly used in neurosurgical procedures and are considered essential tools for microneurosurgery. The Sugita multipurpose head frame system is one of such systems and has been used for more than 30 years worldwide. It is important to understand how to fix a patient's head with head-pins safely, because there are no numerical parameters for head-pin screwing in the Sugita frame. Recently, the Dispo-pin has been available for disposable use as a head-pin in the Sugita frame. In contrast to the conventional head-pin, the tip of the Dispo-pin is separable from the body. Although their appearance is similar, the torque for adequate fixation is different. The relationships between torque and vertical force were analyzed. The torque of the head-pin was linearly correlated with vertical force for both types of head-pin. Different conditions caused different torque increase against a specific increase of vertical force with the conventional head-pin. In contrast, torque increase against a specific increase of vertical force with the Dispo-pin was the same regardless of the situation. The torque originates from friction between the scalp and tip of the conventional head-pin. As friction is different for each patient's condition, the torque at this part is different. The friction between the tip and body of the Dispo-pin is lower than that between the scalp and tip of the head-pin. In consequence, the torque generated from the tip of the Dispo-pin is the same in each situation. It is important to understand the difference between the Dispo-pin and conventional head-pin.

  7. Analysis of Nicotiana tabacum PIN genes identifies NtPIN4 as a key regulator of axillary bud growth.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaodong; Qin, Guangyong; Si, Ping; Luo, Zhaopeng; Gao, Junping; Chen, Xia; Zhang, Jianfeng; Wei, Pan; Xia, Qingyou; Lin, Fucheng; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-27

    The plant-specific PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux proteins have been well characterized in many plant species, where they are crucial in the regulation of auxin transport in various aspects of plant development. However, little is known about the exact roles of the PIN genes during plant development in Nicotiana species. This study investigated the PIN genes in tobacco (N. tabacum) and in two ancestral species (N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis). Genome-wide analysis of the N. tabacum genome identified 20 genes of the PIN family. An in-depth phylogenetic analysis of the PIN genes of N. tabacum, N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis was conducted. NtPIN4 expression was strongly induced by the application of exogenous IAA, but was downregulated by the application of ABA, a strigolactone analogue, and cytokinin, as well as by decapitation treatments, suggesting that the NtPIN4 expression level is likely positively regulated by auxin. Expression analysis indicated that NtPIN4 was highly expressed in tobacco stems and shoots, which was further validated through analysis of the activity of the NtPIN4 promoter. We used CRISPR-Cas9 technology to generate mutants for NtPIN4 and observed that both T0 and T1 plants had a significantly increased axillary bud growth phenotype, as compared with the wild-type plants. Therefore, NtPIN4 offers an opportunity for studying auxin-dependent branching processes.

  8. Genome-wide identification and evolution of the PIN-FORMED (PIN) gene family in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Wei, Haichao

    2017-03-17

    Soybean is one of the most important crop plants, wild and cultivated soybean varieties have significant differences worth further investigation, such as plant morphology, seed size, seed coat development, these characters may be related to auxin biology. The PIN family is an essential auxin polar transport gene, but little research on soybean PINs (GmPINs) has been done, especially with respect to evolution and the differences between wild and cultivated soybean. In this study, we retrieved 23 GmPINs from the latest updated G. max genome database; six GmPINs protein sequences were changed compared with the previous database. Based on the Plant Genome Duplication Database, 18 GmPINs have been involved in segment duplication. Three pairs of GmPINs arose after the second soybean genome duplication, and six occurred after the first genome duplication. The duplicated GmPINs retained similar expression patterns. All the duplicated GmPINs experienced purifying selection (Ka/Ks<1) to prevent accumulation of non-synonymous mutations and so became more similar. In addition, we also focused on the artificial selection of the soybean PIN genes. Five artificially selected GmPINs were identified by comparing the genome sequence of 17 wild and 14 cultivated soybean varieties. Our research provides useful and comprehensive basic information for understanding GmPINs.

  9. Numerical reconstruction of high dose rate zones due to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Katata, Genki; Terada, Hiroaki; Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi

    2012-09-01

    To understand how the high dose rate zones were created during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident on March 2011, the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides during the period from 15 to 17 March was reproduced by using a computer-based nuclear emergency response system, WSPEEDI-II. With use of limited environmental monitoring data, prediction accuracy of meteorological and radiological fields by the system was improved to obtain best estimates of release rates, radiation dose maps, and plume movements. A large part of current high dose rate zones in Fukushima was explained by simulated surface deposition of radionuclides due to major releases of radionuclides on 15 March. In the simulation, the highest dose rate zones to the northwest of FNPP1 were created by a significant deposition of radionuclides discharged from FNPP1 during the afternoon. The results indicate that two environmental factors, i.e., rainfall and topography, strongly affected the spatial patterns of surface deposition of radionuclides. The wet deposition due to rainfall particularly played an important role in the formation of wide and heterogeneous distributions of high dose rate zones. The simulation also demonstrated that the radioactive plume flowed along the valleys to its leeward, which can expand the areas of a large amount of surface deposition in complex topography.

  10. Influence of Through-Thickness Pinning on Composite Shear Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurin, Romain; Baley, Christophe; Cartié, Denis D. R.; Davies, Peter

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes results from tests to examine the influence of through-thickness pinning on in-plane shear behaviour, measured by tensile loading of ±45° specimens. Samples were produced by both aeronautical and marine manufacturing processes. As few previous studies have investigated pinning of marine composites these were also subjected to out-of-plane shear delamination tests. For both carbon/epoxy laminates the pins reduce the apparent in-plane shear modulus and strength. Pins modify the strain field measured by full-field image analysis, and slow damage development. A new damage mechanism, transverse pin cracking, was observed.

  11. Prevention and management of external fixator pin track sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Nando; Marais, Leonard Charles

    2012-08-01

    Pin track-associated complications are almost universal findings with the use of external fixation. These complications are catastrophic if it leads to the failure of the bone-pin interface and could lead to pin loosening, fracture non-union and chronic osteomyelitis. Strategies proposed for the prevention and management of pin track complications are diverse and constantly changing. Prevention of external fixation pin track infection is a complex and ongoing task that requires attention to detail, meticulous surgical technique and constant vigilance.

  12. Nb3Sn Artificial Pinning Microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Dietderich, D.R.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1996-12-12

    Extension of the APC approach to Nb{sub 3}Sn requires that a second phae be incorporated into the Nb{sub 3}Sn layer. The second phase would increase pinning strength by either reducing the grain size or by the second phase pinning the flux itwelf. The following criteria for elements to be candidates for the APC approach are: (1) they must form intermetallic compounds with Cu or Sn and (2) they must have negligible solubility in Cu and Nb or they must be strong oxide formers. many of the rare earth elements satisfy these criteria. To circumvent the large strains required to produce wires with a fine distribution of the second phase, film deposition techniques have been used. Critical current densities for Nb films doped with Ti and Y are about 4,000 A/mm{sup 2} at 6T and 4.2 K.

  13. Understanding the role of PIN1 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chi-Wai; Leong, Ka-Wai; Tse, Eric

    2016-01-01

    PIN1 is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase that binds and catalyses isomerization of the specific motif comprising a phosphorylated serine or threonine residue preceding a proline (pSer/Thr-Pro) in proteins. PIN1 can therefore induce conformational and functional changes of its interacting proteins that are regulated by proline-directed serine/threonine phosphorylation. Through this phosphorylation-dependent prolyl isomerization, PIN1 fine-tunes the functions of key phosphoproteins (e.g., cyclin D1, survivin, β-catenin and x-protein of hepatitis B virus) that are involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression, apoptosis, proliferation and oncogenic transformation. PIN1 has been found to be over-expressed in many cancers, including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been shown previously that overexpression of PIN1 contributes to the development of HCC in-vitro and in xenograft mouse model. In this review, we first discussed the aberrant transcription factor expression, miRNAs dysregulation, PIN1 gene promoter polymorphisms and phosphorylation of PIN1 as potential mechanisms underlying PIN1 overexpression in cancers. Furthermore, we also examined the role of PIN1 in HCC tumourigenesis by reviewing the interactions between PIN1 and various cellular and viral proteins that are involved in β-catenin, NOTCH, and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways, apoptosis, angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Finally, the potential of PIN1 inhibitors as an anti-cancer therapy was explored and discussed. PMID:28018099

  14. Channelized coplanar waveguide pin-diode switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Simons, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    Three different types of p-i-n diode, reflective CPW switches are presented. The first two switches are the series and the shunt mounted diode switches. Each has achieved greater than 15 dB of isolation over a broad bandwidth. The third switch is a narrow band, high isolation switched filter which has achieved 19 dB of isolation. Equivalent circuits and measured performance for each switch is presented.

  15. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. ); Straka, M. )

    1992-09-01

    Research has been conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin bumup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PFL/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design bumup. Using peaking factors commensurate widi actual bumups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document also contains appendices A through J of this report.

  16. Rotary pin-in-maze discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.

    1997-05-06

    A discriminator apparatus and method that discriminates between a unique signal and any other (incorrect) signal are disclosed. The unique signal is a sequence of events; each event can assume one of two possible event states. Given the unique signal, a maze wheel is allowed to rotate fully in one direction. Given an incorrect signal, both the maze wheel and a pin wheel lock in position. 4 figs.

  17. FFTF/IEM cell fuel pin removal equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwell, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a fuel pin removal device used for pin removal from irradiated fuel assemblies at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). After irradiation in the FFTF, selected fuel assemblies are remotely disassembled in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell. The remote disassembly, following sodium removal, consists of slitting and removing the duct and then removing the fuel pins one-at-a-time by sliding the pins from parallel attachment rails. All pins are removed from one rail before starting on the next. The new pin removal equipment has been used very successfully on the last three fuel experiments disassembled in the IEM cell, including one assembly containing residual sodium. Pin removal time has been cut in half, and this once tedious and time-consuming activity has been turned into an almost effortless evolution.

  18. Penile Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Christopher J.; Chim, Harvey; Tang, Jennifer C.; Monstrey, Stan J.; Mardini, Samir

    2011-01-01

    A variety of surgical options exists for penile reconstruction. The key to success of therapy is holistic management of the patient, with attention to the psychological aspects of treatment. In this article, we review reconstructive modalities for various types of penile defects inclusive of partial and total defects as well as the buried penis, and also describe recent basic science advances, which may promise new options for penile reconstruction. PMID:22851914

  19. Chest Wall Reconstruction Using a Methyl Methacrylate Neo-Rib and Mesh.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kei; Park, Bernard J; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Rizk, Nabil P; Huang, James; Jones, David R; Bains, Manjit S

    2015-08-01

    Prosthetic reconstruction of the chest wall after oncologic resection is performed by means of various techniques using different materials. We describe a new technique of chest wall reconstruction that includes the use of Marlex mesh and the creation of a neo-rib from a Steinmann pin and methyl methacrylate.

  20. Eulerian BAO reconstructions and N -point statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittfull, Marcel; Feng, Yu; Beutler, Florian; Sherwin, Blake; Chu, Man Yat

    2015-12-01

    As galaxy surveys begin to measure the imprint of baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) on large-scale structure at the subpercent level, reconstruction techniques that reduce the contamination from nonlinear clustering become increasingly important. Inverting the nonlinear continuity equation, we propose an Eulerian growth-shift reconstruction algorithm that does not require the displacement of any objects, which is needed for the standard Lagrangian BAO reconstruction algorithm. In real-space dark matter-only simulations the algorithm yields 95% of the BAO signal-to-noise obtained from standard reconstruction. The reconstructed power spectrum is obtained by adding specific simple 3- and 4-point statistics to the prereconstruction power spectrum, making it very transparent how additional BAO information from higher-point statistics is included in the power spectrum through the reconstruction process. Analytical models of the reconstructed density for the two algorithms agree at second order. Based on similar modeling efforts, we introduce four additional reconstruction algorithms and discuss their performance.

  1. Strength of the pin-bone interface of external fixation pins in the iliac crest. A biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Lai, K A; Chou, Y L

    1995-01-01

    The iliac crest is a frequent insertion site for external fixation pins in treating unstable pelvic or acetabular fractures and in iliofemoral distraction for superiorly dislocated hips. The pin-bone interface is critical for the success of treatment, but studies of the iliac crest are lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the strength of the pin-bone interface of different pins and different insertion methods. Four types of commercial pins, Wagner pins, Orthofix cortical and cancellous screws, and AO pins, were driven into sheep iliac crests by 2 methods: the intercortical and the transcortical. Specimens were tested for pullout and bending with an Instron testing machine (Model 1343) at a extension rate of 0.02 mm/sec to failure. The results revealed that the intercortical method had a stronger pullout force than the transcortical in all types of screws (p < 0.05), probably caused by longer insertion in the bone. In the pullout tests, the Wagner pins were the strongest and the Orthofix cancellous screws were the weakest. There were no differences in bending. In the iliac crest, the intercortical method was the better way of driving pins, and the new Orthofix screws were not proven to be stronger than the Wagner pins, nor were the cancellous screws more suitable than the cortical ones.

  2. Capillary pinning of immiscible gravity currents in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; MacMinn, C. W.; Huppert, H. E.; Juanes, R.

    2013-12-01

    Gravity currents in porous media have attracted interest recently in the context of geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, where supercritical CO2 is captured from the flue gas of power plants and injected underground into deep saline aquifers. Capillarity can be important in the spreading and migration of the buoyant CO2 after injection because the typical pore size is very small (~10-100 microns), but the impact of capillarity on these flows is not well understood. Here, we study the impact of capillarity on the buoyant spreading of a finite gravity current of non-wetting fluid into a dense, wetting fluid in a vertically confined, horizontal aquifer. We show via simple, table-top experiments using glass bead packs that capillary pressure hysteresis pins a portion of the fluid-fluid interface. The horizontal extent of the pinned portion of the interface grows over time and this is responsible for ultimately stopping the spreading of the buoyant current after a finite distance. In addition, capillarity blunts the leading edge of the buoyant current. We demonstrate through micromodel experiments that the characteristic height of the nose of the current is controlled by the pore throat size distribution and the balance between capillarity and gravity. We develop a theoretical model that captures the evolution of immiscible gravity currents and predicts the maximum migration distance. Our work suggests that capillary pinning and capillary blunting exert an important control on finite-release gravity currents in the context of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers. Gravity driven flow of a buoyant, nonwetting fluid (air) over a dense, wetting fluid (propylene glycol). Starting with a vertical interface between the fluids, the flow first undergoes a lock-exchange process. The process models a finite release problem after the dense fluid hits the left boundary. In contrast to finite release of a miscible current that spreads indefinitely, spreading of an immiscible

  3. A mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye-Hua; Li, You-Quan

    2013-02-20

    We propose a mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnetic thin films by introducing local maxima of magnetic exchange strength as pinning centers. The local maxima can be realized by engineering the local density of itinerant electrons. The stationary properties and the dynamical pinning and depinning processes of an isolated skyrmion around a pinning center are studied. We carry out numerical simulations of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and find a way to control the position of an isolated skyrmion in a pinning center lattice using electric current pulses. The results are verified by a Thiele equation analysis. We also find that the critical current to depin a skyrmion, which is estimated to have order of magnitude 10(7)-10(8) A m(-2), has linear dependence on the pinning strength.

  4. Contact stresses in pin-loaded orthotropic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Klang, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of pin elasticity, friction, and clearance on the stresses near the hole in a pin-loaded orthotropic plate are described. The problem is modeled as a contact elasticity problem using complex variable theory, the pin and the plate being two elastic bodies interacting through contact. This modeling is in contrast to previous works which assumed that the pin is rigid or that it exerts a known cosinusoidal radial traction on the hole boundary. Neither of these approaches explicitly involves a pin. A collocation procedure and iteration were used to obtain numerical results for a variety of plate and pin elastic properties and various levels of friction and clearance. Collocation was used to enforce the boundary and iteration was used to find the contact and no-slip regions on the boundary. Details of the numerical scheme are discussed.

  5. Recent Developments on High Curie Temperature PIN-PMN-PT Ferroelectric Crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujun; Li, Fei; Sherlock, Nevin P; Luo, Jun; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Xia, Ru; Meyer, Richard J; Hackenberger, Wesley; Shrout, Thomas R

    2011-03-01

    Pb(In(0.5)Nb(0.5))O(3)-Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PIN-PMN-PT) ferroelectric crystals attracted extensive attentions in last couple years, due to their higher usage temperatures range (> 30°C) and coercive fields (~5kV/cm), meanwhile maintaining similar electromechanical couplings (k(33)> 90%) and piezoelectric coefficients (d(33)~1500pC/N), when compared to their binary counterpart Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3). In this article, we reviewed recent developments on the PIN-PMN-PT single crystals, including the Bridgman crystal growth, dielectric, electromechanical, piezoelectric and ferroelectric behaviors as function of temperature and dc bias. Mechanical quality factor Q was studied as function of orientation and phase. Of particular interest is the dynamic strain, which related to the Q and d(33), was found to be improved when compared to binary system, exhibiting the potential usage of PIN-PMN-PT in high power application. Furthermore, PIN-PMN-PT crystals exhibit improved thickness dependent properties, due to their small domain size, being on the order of 1μm. Finally, the manganese acceptor dopant in the ternary crystals was investigated and discussed briefly in this paper.

  6. Performance Analysis of OCDMA Based on AND Detection in FTTH Access Network Using PIN & APD Photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldouri, Muthana; Aljunid, S. A.; Ahmad, R. Badlishah; Fadhil, Hilal A.

    2011-06-01

    In order to comprise between PIN photo detector and avalanche photodiodes in a system used double weight (DW) code to be a performance of the optical spectrum CDMA in FTTH network with point-to-multi-point (P2MP) application. The performance of PIN against APD is compared through simulation by using opt system software version 7. In this paper we used two networks designed as follows one used PIN photo detector and the second using APD photo diode, both two system using with and without erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). It is found that APD photo diode in this system is better than PIN photo detector for all simulation results. The conversion used a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) wavelength converter. Also we are study, the proposing a detection scheme known as AND subtraction detection technique implemented with fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) act as encoder and decoder. This FBG is used to encode and decode the spectral amplitude coding namely double weight (DW) code in Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA). The performances are characterized through bit error rate (BER) and bit rate (BR) also the received power at various bit rate.

  7. Principles of intramedullary pin and wire fixation.

    PubMed

    Howard, P E

    1991-02-01

    Knowledge and experience in the proper use of IM pins, K-wires, and orthopedic wire is a valuable asset to the veterinarian's ability to successfully repair a variety of long bone fractures. Most long bone fractures are amenable to repair with this form of fixation. When the principles of application are violated or the implants are used when contraindicated, complications often occur. Proper use of these implants results in the successful management of complex fractures to the satisfaction of both the animal owner and the veterinarian (Fig 10).

  8. Penile reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Garaffa, Giulio; Sansalone, Salvatore; Ralph, David J

    2013-01-01

    During the most recent years, a variety of new techniques of penile reconstruction have been described in the literature. This paper focuses on the most recent advances in male genital reconstruction after trauma, excision of benign and malignant disease, in gender reassignment surgery and aphallia with emphasis on surgical technique, cosmetic and functional outcome. PMID:22426595

  9. STS-92 Closeup of locking pin on ET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- A locking pin can be seen in the background, almost as a shadow, next to the orbiter aft ET attachment. Locking pins are used to secure handrails on the platforms while work is being performed. The misplaced pin was noticed during an inspection prior to launch, causing the decision to scrub about 90 minutes before liftoff. Launch was rescheduled for Oct. 11 at 7:17 p.m.

  10. Retractable pin dual in-line package test clip

    DOEpatents

    Bandzuch, Gregory S.; Kosslow, William J.

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a Dual In-Line Package (DIP) test clip for use when troubleshooting circuits containing DIP integrated circuits. This test clip is a significant improvement over existing DIP test clips in that it has retractable pins which will permit troubleshooting without risk of accidentally shorting adjacent pins together when moving probes to different pins on energized circuits or when the probe is accidentally bumped while taking measurements.

  11. Retractable pin dual in-line package test clip

    SciTech Connect

    Bandzuch, G.S.; Kosslow, W.J

    1993-12-31

    This invention is a Dual In-line Package (DIP) test clip for use when troubleshooting circuits containing DIP integrated circuits. This test clip is a significant improvement over existing DIP test clips in that it has retractable pins which will permit troubleshooting without risk of accidentally shorting adjacent pins together when moving probes to different pins on energized circuits or when the probe is accidentally bumped while taking measurements.

  12. Pinning synchronization of discrete dynamical networks with delay coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ranran; Peng, Mingshu; Zuo, Jun

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pinning synchronization analysis for nonlinear coupled delayed discrete dynamical networks with the identical or nonidentical topological structure. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, pinning control method and linear matrix inequalities, several adaptive synchronization criteria via two kinds of pinning control method are obtained. Two examples based on Rulkov chaotic system are included to illustrate the effectiveness and verification of theoretical analysis.

  13. Pinning of a single Abrikosov vortex in superconducting Nb thin films using artificially induced pinning sites

    SciTech Connect

    Breitwisch, M.; Finnemore, D. K.

    2000-07-01

    Artificial structures were intentionally introduced into Nb films in order to study the interaction of a single Abrikosov vortex with pinning sites caused by these known defects. A vortex trapped on one of these structures or defects can be induced to move either by thermal depinning or by pushing on the vortex with a transport current in one of the films. The resulting motion, in turn, can be followed by observing the changes in the Fraunhofer-like interference pattern of a cross-strip Josephson junction having the thin film as one leg of the junction. Artificial pinning sites were successfully created by depositing Fe balls on the surface of a previously characterized thin film. Attempts to create artificial pinning sites by depressing the order parameter with a thin strip of Au on the surface of the Nb were not successful. There was no correlation between the location of trapped vortices and the location of the Au line. In a separate measurement, Lorentz-force-depinning studies for several intrinsic pinning sites in the thin film show that a transport current in the top film will depin a vortex in the top film with about one-tenth the current needed in the bottom film to depin the same vortex. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  14. Pinning of a single Abrikosov vortex in superconducting Nb thin films using artificially induced pinning sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitwisch, M.; Finnemore, D. K.

    2000-07-01

    Artificial structures were intentionally introduced into Nb films in order to study the interaction of a single Abrikosov vortex with pinning sites caused by these known defects. A vortex trapped on one of these structures or defects can be induced to move either by thermal depinning or by pushing on the vortex with a transport current in one of the films. The resulting motion, in turn, can be followed by observing the changes in the Fraunhofer-like interference pattern of a cross-strip Josephson junction having the thin film as one leg of the junction. Artificial pinning sites were successfully created by depositing Fe balls on the surface of a previously characterized thin film. Attempts to create artificial pinning sites by depressing the order parameter with a thin strip of Au on the surface of the Nb were not successful. There was no correlation between the location of trapped vortices and the location of the Au line. In a separate measurement, Lorentz-force-depinning studies for several intrinsic pinning sites in the thin film show that a transport current in the top film will depin a vortex in the top film with about one-tenth the current needed in the bottom film to depin the same vortex.

  15. Study of EHD flow generator's efficiencies utilizing pin to single ring and multi-concentric rings electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumariyah; Kusminart; Hermanto, A.; Nuswantoro, P.

    2016-11-01

    EHD flow or ionic wind yield corona discharge is a stream coming from the ionized gas. EHD is generated by a strong electric field and its direction follows the electric field lines. In this study, the efficiency of the EHD flow generators utilizing pin-multi concentric rings electrodes (P-MRE) and the EHD pin-single ring electrode (P-SRE) have been measured. The comparison of efficiencies two types of the generator has been done. EHD flow was generated by using a high-voltage DC 0-10 KV on the electrode pin with a positive polarity and electrode ring/ multi-concentric rings of negative polarity. The efficiency was calculated by comparison between the mechanical power of flow to the electrical power that consumed. We obtained that the maximum efficiency of EHD flow generator utilizing pin-multi concentric rings electrodes was 0.54% and the maximum efficiency of EHD flow generator utilizing a pin-single ring electrode was 0.23%. Efficiency of EHD with P-MRE 2.34 times Efficiency of EHD with P-SRE

  16. [Ingestion of an open safety pin--challenging treatment].

    PubMed

    DeRowe, Ari; Fishman, Gadi; Avni, Hadas; Reider, Ivgeny; Ogorek, Daniel

    2003-11-01

    A 9 month old girl at the emergency room appeared with an acute onset of restlessness, drooling and suspected foreign body ingestion. An X-Ray revealed an open safety pin in the child's upper aero-digestive tract. The source of the safety pin was a "Hamsah" good luck charm that was attached to her bed. Open safety pins in the aero-digestive tract are difficult to manage and great care must be taken during removal to prevent further injury. Parents should be counseled regarding the presence of safety pins in the child's surroundings in order to prevent such hazards.

  17. Positioning and locking device for fuel pin to grid attachment

    DOEpatents

    Frick, Thomas M.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1976-01-01

    A positioning and locking device for fuel pin to grid attachment provides an inexpensive means of positively positioning and locking the individual fuel pins which make up the driver fuel assemblies used in nuclear reactors. The device can be adapted for use with a currently used attachment grid assembly design and insures that the pins remain in their proper position throughout the in-reactor life of the assembly. This device also simplifies fuel bundle assembly in that a complete row of fuel pins can be added to the bundle during each step of assembly.

  18. Heat transfer in a fuel pin shipping container. [IDENT 1578

    SciTech Connect

    Ingham, J.G.

    1980-11-11

    Maximum cladding temperatures occur when the IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container is installed in the T-3 Cask. The maximum allowable cladding temperature of 800/sup 0/F is reached when the rate of energy deposited in the 19-pin basket reaches 400 watts. Since 45% of the energy which is generated in the fuel escapes the 19-pin basket without being deposited, mostly gamma energy, the maximum allowable rate of heat generation is 400/.55 = 727 watts. Similarly, the maximum allowable cladding temperature of 800/sup 0/F is reached when the rate of energy deposited in the 40-pin basket reaches 465 watts. Since 33% of the energy which is generated in the fuel escapes the 40-pin basket without being deposited, mostly gamma energy, the maximum allowable rate of heat generation is 465/.66 = 704 watts. The IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container therefore meets its thermal design criteria. IDENT 1578 can handle fuel pins with a decay heat load of 600 watts while maintaining the maximum fuel pin cladding temperature below 800/sup 0/F. The emissivities which were determined from the test results for the basket tubes and container are relatively low and correspond to new, shiny conditions. As the IDENT 1578 container is exposed to high temperatures for extended periods of time during the transportation of fuel pins, the emissivities will probably increase. This will result in reduced temperatures.

  19. Epigallocatechin-gallate Suppresses Tumorigenesis by Directly Targeting Pin1

    SciTech Connect

    Urusova, Darya V.; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Dong Joon; Jung, Sung Keun; Zykova, Tatyana A.; Carper, Andria; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2011-09-01

    The most active anticancer component in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The human peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (Pin1) plays a critical role in oncogenic signaling. Herein, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the Pin1/EGCG complex resolved at 1.9 Å resolution. Notably, the structure revealed the presence of EGCG in both the WW and PPIase domains of Pin1. The direct binding of EGCG with Pin1 was confirmed and the interaction inhibited Pin1 PPIase activity. In addition, proliferation of cells expressing Pin1 was inhibited and tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model was suppressed. The binding of EGCG with Arg17 in the WW domain prevented the binding of c-Jun, a well-known Pin1 substrate. EGCG treatment corresponded with a decreased abundance of cyclin D1 and diminution of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-l3-acetate–induced AP-1 or NF-κB promoter activity in cells expressing Pin1. Overall, these results showed that EGCG directly suppresses the tumor-promoting effect of Pin1.

  20. An automatic detection system for flatness of integrated circuit pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shichao; Liu, Tiegen; Xiao, Zexin; Li, Xiuyan

    2008-12-01

    The flatness of pins is an important quality indicator for integrated circuit packaging. Almost all of the detection methods which are currently used can't be successful on efficiency and precision. In this system, the image of IC pins was captured by an properly optical systems and corresponding CCD sensor. To detect the edge of each pin, traditional algorithmic, such as Sobel operator and Roberts operator, have some disadvantages: the edge is too thick for system to accurately measure and the edge show directional character. An image segmentation and border extracting algorithm focus on the extreme of neighborhood image intensity change was adopted. The advantage of this algorithm was each pixel's neighborhood image intensity information was considered, so the algorithm is more suitable for accurately measure. After edge was extracted, how to identify the useful spots is cast as a binary classification task. The support vector machine (SVM) would be used to identify pin's spots. After proper image characteristics are obtained and a certain amount of training, SVM provides higher discrimination ratio to distinguish spots of the IC pins. To measure the flatness of pin, a particular line which can be identified easily should be put in the image as a baseline. Through calculating the distance between the pins spot and baseline, the flatness of pins is obtained accurately. In this system, the flatness of IC pins can be accurately and quickly measured, which is worthy of broad application prospect in IC packaging.

  1. Optimizing Dynamical Network Structure for Pinning Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouskhani, Yasin; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2016-04-01

    Controlling dynamics of a network from any initial state to a final desired state has many applications in different disciplines from engineering to biology and social sciences. In this work, we optimize the network structure for pinning control. The problem is formulated as four optimization tasks: i) optimizing the locations of driver nodes, ii) optimizing the feedback gains, iii) optimizing simultaneously the locations of driver nodes and feedback gains, and iv) optimizing the connection weights. A newly developed population-based optimization technique (cat swarm optimization) is used as the optimization method. In order to verify the methods, we use both real-world networks, and model scale-free and small-world networks. Extensive simulation results show that the optimal placement of driver nodes significantly outperforms heuristic methods including placing drivers based on various centrality measures (degree, betweenness, closeness and clustering coefficient). The pinning controllability is further improved by optimizing the feedback gains. We also show that one can significantly improve the controllability by optimizing the connection weights.

  2. Ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Glickel, Steven Z; Gupta, Salil

    2006-05-01

    Volar ligament reconstruction is an effective technique for treating symptomatic laxity of the CMC joint of the thumb. The laxity may bea manifestation of generalized ligament laxity,post-traumatic, or metabolic (Ehler-Danlos). There construction reduces the shear forces on the joint that contribute to the development and persistence of inflammation. Although there have been only a few reports of the results of volar ligament reconstruction, the use of the procedure to treat Stage I and Stage II disease gives good to excellent results consistently. More advanced stages of disease are best treated by trapeziectomy, with or without ligament reconstruction.

  3. Development of a Safeguards Verification Method and Instrument to Detect Pin Diversion from Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Spent Fuel Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Y S; Maldonado, G I; Burdo, J; He, T

    2006-10-10

    A technical safeguards challenge has remained for decades for the IAEA to identify possible diversion of nuclear fuel pins from Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel assemblies. In fact, as modern nuclear power plants are pushed to higher power levels and longer fuel cycles, fuel failures (i.e., ''leakers'') as well as the corresponding fuel assembly repairs (i.e., ''reconstitutions'') are commonplace occurrences within the industry. Fuel vendors have performed hundreds of reconstitutions in the past two decades, thus, an evolved know-how and sophisticated tools exist to disassemble irradiated fuel assemblies and replace damaged pins with dummy stainless steel or other type rods. Various attempts have been made in the past two decades to develop a technology to identify a possible diversion of pin(s) and to determine whether some pins are missing or replaced with dummy or fresh fuel pins. However, to date, there are no safeguards instruments that can detect a possible pin diversion scenario to the requirements of the IAEA. The FORK detector system [1-2] can characterize spent fuel assemblies using operator declared data, but it is not sensitive enough to detect missing pins from spent fuel assemblies. Likewise, an emission computed tomography system [3] has been used to try to detect missing pins from a spent fuel assembly, which has shown some potential for identifying possible missing pins but this capability has not yet been fully demonstrated. The use of such a device in the future would not be envisaged, especially in an inexpensive, easy to handle setting for field applications. In this article, we describe a concept and ongoing research to help develop a new safeguards instrument for the detection of pin diversions in a PWR spent fuel assembly. The proposed instrument is based on one or more very thin radiation detectors that could be inserted within the guide tubes of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assembly. Ultimately, this work could lead to the

  4. ACL reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... This increases the chance you may have a meniscus tear. ACL reconstruction may be used for these ... When other ligaments are also injured When your meniscus is torn Before surgery, talk to your health ...

  5. A SEmi-Adiabatic Matched-phase Spin echo (SEAMS) PINS Pulse-pair for B1-insensitive Simultaneous Multi-slice Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Rebecca E; Islam, Haisam M; Xu, Junqian; Balchandani, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) imaging is a powerful technique that can reduce image acquisition time for anatomical, functional, and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging. At higher magnetic fields, such as 7 Tesla, increased radiofrequency (RF) field inhomogeneity, power deposition, and changes in relaxation parameters make SMS spin echo imaging challenging. We designed an adiabatic 180° Power Independent of Number of Slices (PINS) pulse and a matched-phase 90° PINS pulse to generate a SEmi-Adiabatic Matched-phase Spin echo (SEAMS) PINS sequence to address these issues. Methods We used the adiabatic Shinnar Le-Roux (SLR) algorithm to generate a 180° pulse. The SLR polynomials for the 180° pulse were then used to create a matched-phase 90° pulse. The pulses were sub-sampled to produce a SEAMS PINS pulse-pair and the performance of this pulse-pair was validated in phantoms and in vivo. Results Simulations as well as phantom and in vivo results, demonstrate multi-slice capability and improved B1-insensitivity of the SEAMS PINS pulse-pair when operating at RF amplitudes of up to 40% above adiabatic threshold. Conclusion The SEAMS PINS approach presented here achieves multi-slice spin echo profiles with improved B1-insensitivity when compared to a conventional spin echo. PMID:25753055

  6. Atomistic mechanisms of intermittent plasticity in metals: Dislocation avalanches and defect cluster pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiyama, Tomoaki; Shimokawa, Tomotsugu

    2015-02-01

    Intermittent plastic deformation in crystals with power-law behaviors has been reported in previous experimental studies. The power-law behavior is reminiscent of self-organized criticality, and mesoscopic models have been proposed that describe this behavior in crystals. In this paper, we show that intermittent plasticity in metals under tensile deformation can be observed in molecular dynamics models, using embedded atom method potentials for Ni, Cu, and Al. Power-law behaviors of stress drop and waiting time of plastic deformation events are observed. It is shown that power-law behavior is due to dislocation avalanche motions in Cu and Ni. A different mechanism of dislocation pinning is found in Al. These different stress relaxation mechanisms give different power-law exponents. We propose a probabilistic model to describe the novel dislocation motion in Al and analytically deduce the power-law behavior.

  7. Atomistic mechanisms of intermittent plasticity in metals: dislocation avalanches and defect cluster pinning.

    PubMed

    Niiyama, Tomoaki; Shimokawa, Tomotsugu

    2015-02-01

    Intermittent plastic deformation in crystals with power-law behaviors has been reported in previous experimental studies. The power-law behavior is reminiscent of self-organized criticality, and mesoscopic models have been proposed that describe this behavior in crystals. In this paper, we show that intermittent plasticity in metals under tensile deformation can be observed in molecular dynamics models, using embedded atom method potentials for Ni, Cu, and Al. Power-law behaviors of stress drop and waiting time of plastic deformation events are observed. It is shown that power-law behavior is due to dislocation avalanche motions in Cu and Ni. A different mechanism of dislocation pinning is found in Al. These different stress relaxation mechanisms give different power-law exponents. We propose a probabilistic model to describe the novel dislocation motion in Al and analytically deduce the power-law behavior.

  8. Exploring the basis of [PIN(+)] variant differences in [PSI(+)] induction.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jaya; Liebman, Susan W

    2013-09-09

    Certain soluble proteins can form amyloid-like prion aggregates. Indeed, the same protein can make different types of aggregates, called variants. Each variant is heritable because it attracts soluble homologous protein to join its aggregate, which is then broken into seeds (propagons) and transmitted to daughter cells. [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)] are respectively prion forms of Sup35 and Rnq1. Curiously, [PIN(+)] enhances the de novo induction of [PSI(+)]. Different [PIN(+)] variants do this to dramatically different extents. Here, we investigate the mechanism underlying this effect. Consistent with a heterologous prion cross-seeding model, different [PIN(+)] variants preferentially promoted the appearance of different variants of [PSI(+)]. However, we did not detect this specificity in vitro. Also, [PIN(+)] variant cross-seeding efficiencies were not proportional to the level of Rnq1 coimmunocaptured with Sup35 or to the number of [PIN(+)] propagons characteristic for that variant. This leads us to propose that [PIN(+)] variants differ in the cross-seeding quality of their seeds, following the Sup35/[PIN(+)] binding step.

  9. 41. VIEW OF WEST BASCULE LEAF LOCKING PINS IN EXTENDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VIEW OF WEST BASCULE LEAF LOCKING PINS IN EXTENDED POSITION - PINS FIT INTO MATCHING BUSHINGS ON THE EAST LEAF AND SECURE THE EAST AND WEST SECTIONS WHEN THE BRIDGE IS DOWN. - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  10. Optical fuel pin scanner. [Patent application; for reading identifications

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

    1980-12-09

    This patent relates to an optical identification system developed for post-irradiation disassembly and analysis of fuel bundle assemblies. The apparatus is designed to be lowered onto a stationary fuel pin to read identification numbers or letters imprinted on the circumference of the top fuel pin and cap. (DLC)

  11. Heat transfer coefficients for staggered arrays of short pin fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Short pin fins are often used to increase that heat transfer to the coolant in the trailing edge of a turbine blade. Due primarily to limits of casting technology, it is not possible to manufacture pins of optimum length for heat transfer purposes in the trailing edge region. In many cases the pins are so short that they actually decrease the total heat transfer surface area compared to a plain wall. A heat transfer data base for these short pins is not available in the literature. Heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for several staggered arrays of short pin fins. The measured Nusselt numbers when plotted versus Reynolds numbers were found to fall on a single curve for all surfaces tested. The heat transfer coefficients for the short pin fins (length to diameter ratios of 1/2 and 2) were found to be about a factor of two lower than data from the literature for longer pin arrays (length to diameter ratios of about 8).

  12. FSW of Tapered Thickness Welds using an Adjustable Pin Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Glynn; Venable, Richard; Lawless, Kirby; Smelser, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the advantages of tapered thickness welds in FSW (friction stir welding), the structure of FSW welds, the adjustable pin tool used in FSW. Other topics described include compliance and temperature measurement in a FSW system, loads and torque upon the pin tool and its ability to penetrate different metals, and the results and metallurgy of FSW welds.

  13. Prefoldin and Pins synergistically regulate asymmetric division and suppress dedifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjie; Rai, Madhulika; Wang, Cheng; Gonzalez, Cayetano; Wang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Prefoldin is a molecular chaperone complex that regulates tubulin function in mitosis. Here, we show that Prefoldin depletion results in disruption of neuroblast polarity, leading to neuroblast overgrowth in Drosophila larval brains. Interestingly, co-depletion of Prefoldin and Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) leads to the formation of gigantic brains with severe neuroblast overgrowth, despite that Pins depletion alone results in smaller brains with partially disrupted neuroblast polarity. We show that Prefoldin acts synergistically with Pins to regulate asymmetric division of both neuroblasts and Intermediate Neural Progenitors (INPs). Surprisingly, co-depletion of Prefoldin and Pins also induces dedifferentiation of INPs back into neuroblasts, while depletion either Prefoldin or Pins alone is insufficient to do so. Furthermore, knocking down either α-tubulin or β-tubulin in pins- mutant background results in INP dedifferentiation back into neuroblasts, leading to the formation of ectopic neuroblasts. Overexpression of α-tubulin suppresses neuroblast overgrowth observed in prefoldin pins double mutant brains. Our data elucidate an unexpected function of Prefoldin and Pins in synergistically suppressing dedifferentiation of INPs back into neural stem cells. PMID:27025979

  14. Semiconductor P-I-N detector

    DOEpatents

    Sudharsanan, Rengarajan; Karam, Nasser H.

    2001-01-01

    A semiconductor P-I-N detector including an intrinsic wafer, a P-doped layer, an N-doped layer, and a boundary layer for reducing the diffusion of dopants into the intrinsic wafer. The boundary layer is positioned between one of the doped regions and the intrinsic wafer. The intrinsic wafer can be composed of CdZnTe or CdTe, the P-doped layer can be composed of ZnTe doped with copper, and the N-doped layer can be composed of CdS doped with indium. The boundary layers is formed of an undoped semiconductor material. The boundary layer can be deposited onto the underlying intrinsic wafer. The doped regions are then typically formed by a deposition process or by doping a section of the deposited boundary layer.

  15. Pin stack array for thermoacoustic energy conversion

    DOEpatents

    Keolian, Robert M.; Swift, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    A thermoacoustic stack for connecting two heat exchangers in a thermoacoustic energy converter provides a convex fluid-solid interface in a plane perpendicular to an axis for acoustic oscillation of fluid between the two heat exchangers. The convex surfaces increase the ratio of the fluid volume in the effective thermoacoustic volume that is displaced from the convex surface to the fluid volume that is adjacent the surface within which viscous energy losses occur. Increasing the volume ratio results in an increase in the ratio of transferred thermal energy to viscous energy losses, with a concomitant increase in operating efficiency of the thermoacoustic converter. The convex surfaces may be easily provided by a pin array having elements arranged parallel to the direction of acoustic oscillations and with effective radial dimensions much smaller than the thicknesses of the viscous energy loss and thermoacoustic energy transfer volumes.

  16. Cracking Bank PINs by Playing Mastermind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, Riccardo; Luccio, Flaminia L.

    The bank director was pretty upset noticing Joe, the system administrator, spending his spare time playing Mastermind, an old useless game of the 70ies. He had fought the instinct of telling him how to better spend his life, just limiting to look at him in disgust long enough to be certain to be noticed. No wonder when the next day the director fell on his chair astonished while reading, on the newspaper, about a huge digital fraud on the ATMs of his bank, with millions of Euros stolen by a team of hackers all around the world. The article mentioned how the hackers had 'played with the bank computers just like playing Mastermind', being able to disclose thousands of user PINs during the one-hour lunch break. That precise moment, a second before falling senseless, he understood the subtle smile on Joe's face the day before, while training at his preferred game, Mastermind.

  17. Spectrometric characterization of amorphous silicon PIN detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyva, A.; Ramírez, F. J.; Ortega, Y.; Estrada, M.; Cabal, A.; Cerdeira, A.; Díaz, A.

    2000-10-01

    During the last years, much interest has been dedicated to the use of amorphous silicon PIN diodes as particle and radiation detectors for medical applications. This work presents the spectrometric characterization of PECVD high deposition rate diodes fabricated at our laboratory, with thickness up to 17.5 μm. Results show that the studied devices detect the Am241 alpha particles and the medical X-rays generated by a mammograph model Senographe 700T from General Electric Possible reasons of the observed energy losses are discussed in the text. Using the SRIM2000 program, the transit of 5.5 MeV alpha particles through a diode was simulated, determining the optimum thickness for these particles to deposit their energy in the intrinsic layer of the diode.

  18. Nano-engineered pinning centres in YBCO superconducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, A.; Dang, V. S.; Mikheenko, P.

    2017-02-01

    For practical applications of superconducting materials in applied magnetic fields, artificial pinning centres in addition to natural ones are required to oppose the Lorentz force. These pinning centres are actually various types of defects in the superconductor matrix. The pinning centres can be categorised on their dimension (volume, surface or point) and on their character (normal cores or Δκ cores). Different samples have been produced by Pulsed Laser Deposition, with various thicknesses, temperatures and nanostructured additions to the superconducting matrix. They have been characterized by SQUID Magnetic Properties Measurement System and Physical Properties Measurement System, as well as by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Correlations between pinning architecture, TEM images, and critical currents at various fields and field orientations will be shown for a large number of YBa2Cu3Ox films with various types and architectures of artificial pinning centres.

  19. Flux pinning characteristics and irreversibility line in high temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsushita, T.; Ihara, N.; Kiuchi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The flux pinning properties in high temperature superconductors are strongly influenced by thermally activated flux motion. The scaling relation of the pinning force density and the irreversibility line in various high temperature superconductors are numerically analyzed in terms of the flux creep model. The effect of two factors, i.e., the flux pinning strength and the dimensionality of the material, on these properties are investigated. It is speculated that the irreversibility line in Bi-2212 superconductors is one order of magnitude smaller than that in Y-123, even if the flux pinning strength in Bi-2212 is improved up to the level of Y-123. It is concluded that these two factors are equally important in determination of the flux pinning characteristics at high temperatures.

  20. Retrievable fuel pin end member for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Rosa, Jerry M.

    1982-01-01

    A bottom end member (17b) on a retrievable fuel pin (13b) secures the pin (13b) within a nuclear reactor (12) by engaging on a transverse attachment rail (18) with a spring clip type of action. Removal and reinstallation if facilitated as only axial movement of the fuel pin (13b) is required for either operation. A pair of resilient axially extending blades (31) are spaced apart to define a slot (24) having a seat region (34) which receives the rail (18) and having a land region (37), closer to the tips (39) of the blades (31) which is normally of less width than the rail (18). Thus an axially directed force sufficient to wedge the resilient blades (31) apart is required to emplace or release the fuel pin (13b) such force being greater than the axial forces on the fuel pins (13b) which occur during operation of the reactor (12).

  1. Identification to a breached fuel pin in the IEM cell

    SciTech Connect

    McGuinness, P.W.; Kalk, J.J.; Hicks, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    Novel methods were successfully employed to identify one breached fuel pin in a 217-pin fuel assembly. The assembly was an experiment that had been irradiated at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), an experimental liquid-metal reactor operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Dept. of Energy. A fuel assembly known to contain breached fuel pins was removed from the sodium-cooled FFTF reactor in November 1984. Later, this assembly was brought into the FFTF's Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell to be disassembled and, for the first time ever at FFTF, to identify a breached fuel pin. The synergistic evaluation of the four different verification techniques - visual examination, cladding swipe activity, wash water radiochemistry, and pin weight - provided rapid and positive identification. The capability to perform future detective work of this kind has been conclusively demonstrated.

  2. Monte Carlo characterization of PWR spent fuel assemblies to determine the detectability of pin diversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdo, James S.

    This research is based on the concept that the diversion of nuclear fuel pins from Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel assemblies is feasible by a careful comparison of spontaneous fission neutron and gamma levels in the guide tube locations of the fuel assemblies. The goal is to be able to determine whether some of the assembly fuel pins are either missing or have been replaced with dummy or fresh fuel pins. It is known that for typical commercial power spent fuel assemblies, the dominant spontaneous neutron emissions come from Cm-242 and Cm-244. Because of the shorter half-life of Cm-242 (0.45 yr) relative to that of Cm-244 (18.1 yr), Cm-244 is practically the only neutron source contributing to the neutron source term after the spent fuel assemblies are more than two years old. Initially, this research focused upon developing MCNP5 models of PWR fuel assemblies, modeling their depletion using the MONTEBURNS code, and by carrying out a preliminary depletion of a ¼ model 17x17 assembly from the TAKAHAMA-3 PWR. Later, the depletion and more accurate isotopic distribution in the pins at discharge was modeled using the TRITON depletion module of the SCALE computer code. Benchmarking comparisons were performed with the MONTEBURNS and TRITON results. Subsequently, the neutron flux in each of the guide tubes of the TAKAHAMA-3 PWR assembly at two years after discharge as calculated by the MCNP5 computer code was determined for various scenarios. Cases were considered for all spent fuel pins present and for replacement of a single pin at a position near the center of the assembly (10,9) and at the corner (17,1). Some scenarios were duplicated with a gamma flux calculation for high energies associated with Cm-244. For each case, the difference between the flux (neutron or gamma) for all spent fuel pins and with a pin removed or replaced is calculated for each guide tube. Different detection criteria were established. The first was whether the relative error of the

  3. Simulation of the Vortex Dynamics in a Real Pinning Landscape of YBa2Cu3O7-δ Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Sadovskyy, I. A.; Koshelev, A. E.; Glatz, A.; Ortalan, V.; Rupich, M. W.; Leroux, M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to carry very large currents with almost no dissipation makes them irreplaceable for high-power applications. The development and further improvement of HTS-based cables require an in-depth understanding of the superconducting vortex dynamics in the presence of complex pinning landscapes. We present a critical current analysis of a real HTS sample in a magnetic field by combining state-of-the-art large-scale Ginzburg-Landau simulations with reconstructive three-dimensional scanning-transmission-electron-microscopy tomography of the pinning landscape in Dy-doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ. This methodology provides a unique look at the vortex dynamics in the presence of a complex pinning landscape responsible for the high-current-carrying-capacity characteristic of commercial HTS wires. Finally, our method demonstrates very good functional and quantitative agreement of the critical current between simulation and experiment, providing a new predictive tool for HTS wire designs.

  4. Retractable Pin Tools for the Friction Stir Welding Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Two companies have successfully commercialized a specialized welding tool developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Friction stir welding uses the high rotational speed of a tool and the resulting frictional heat created from contact to crush, 'stir' together, and forge a bond between two metal alloys. It has had a major drawback, reliance on a single-piece pin tool. The pin is slowly plunged into the joint between two materials to be welded and rotated as high speed. At the end of the weld, the single-piece pin tool is retracted and leaves a 'keyhole,' something which is unacceptable when welding cylindrical objects such as drums, pipes and storage tanks. Another drawback is the requirement for different-length pin tools when welding materials of varying thickness. An engineer at the MSFC helped design an automatic retractable pin tool that uses a computer-controlled motor to automatically retract the pin into the shoulder of the tool at the end of the weld, preventing keyholes. This design allows the pin angle and length to be adjusted for changes in material thickness and results in a smooth hole closure at the end of the weld. Benefits of friction stir welding, using the MSFC retractable pin tool technology, include the following: The ability to weld a wide range of alloys, including previously unweldable and composite materials; provision of twice the fatigue resistance of fusion welds and no keyholes; minimization of material distortion; no creation of hazards such as welding fumes, radiation, high voltage, liquid metals, or arcing; automatic retraction of the pin at the end of the weld; and maintaining full penetration of the pin.

  5. A low cost X-ray imaging device based on BPW-34 Si-PIN photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emirhan, E.; Bayrak, A.; Yücel, E. Barlas; Yücel, M.; Ozben, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    A low cost X-ray imaging device based on BPW-34 silicon PIN photodiode was designed and produced. X-rays were produced from a CEI OX/70-P dental tube using a custom made ±30 kV power supply. A charge sensitive preamplifier and a shaping amplifier were built for the amplification of small signals produced by photons in the depletion layer of Si-PIN photodiode. A two dimensional position control unit was used for moving the detector in small steps to measure the intensity of X-rays absorbed in the object to be imaged. An Aessent AES220B FPGA module was used for transferring the image data to a computer via USB. Images of various samples were obtained with acceptable image quality despite of the low cost of the device.

  6. Numerical study of thermal performance of perforated circular pin fin heat sinks in forced convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Mao-Yu; Yeh, Cheng-Hsiung

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a numerical simulation of the heat transfer performance under forced convection for two different types of circular pin fin heat sinks with (Type A) and without (Type B) a hollow in the heated base. COMSOL Multiphysics, which is used for the thermal hydraulic analyses, has proven to be a powerful finite-element-based simulation tool for solving multiple physics-based systems of partial and ordinary differential equations. The standard κ- ɛ two-equations turbulence model is employed to describe the turbulent structure and behavior. The numerical results are validated with the experimental results, and are shown to be in good agreement. The effects of the Reynolds number, height of the fin, finning factor and the perforated base plate on the heat-transfer coefficient are investigated and evaluated. The present study strongly recommends the use of a small hollow ( (Dh /Db ) < 0.15 ) constructed in the base plate of the pin fin heat sink.

  7. Flux pinning study of RE barium coper oxide coated conductors for high field magnet applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Aixia

    low fields and cusp-like towards the ab-plane at high fields. More interestingly, the typically observed Jc c-axis peak of BaZrO3 nanorods (BZO)-containing REBCO at high temperatures disappears at T < 40 K. We observed that J c(H||c) follows well a power law with exponent ≈ 0.5 for coated conductors without BZO nanorods and ≈ 0.7 for coated conductors containing BZO nanorods. More importantly, BZO-containing coated conductors show higher and broader Jc(θ) at least up to 31 T, which is strongly beneficial to high field magnet applications. Finally, we performed Jc(θ) study over a broad temperature domain, 4.2 K to Tc and magnet fields up to 31 T. We found that weak uncorrelated pinning dominates the low temperature Jc. It raises and broadens Jc in the full angular range. We conclude that BZO nanorods induce dense random defects, like oxygen vacancies, atomic disorder etc., which can exert a large pinning effect at low temperatures where thermal fluctuations are small. Near the ab-plane there is clear evidence for strong correlated defects, which we deduce is due to intrinsic pinning by the Cu-O charge reservoir layers. The last section discusses the pinning design relevant to coated conductors. Two types of thin films made by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with well designed defects were studied: one shows Y2O3 precipitates and a high strain which also generates dense point pinning; the second one presents dense stacking faults. The main conclusion is that Jc(θ) can be modulated by tailoring the strain introduced by the mismatch between second phases and REBCO layer. Intrinsic pinning governs Hirr (H||ab), and stacking faults govern Jc(H||ab) and enhance Hirr(H|| ab) at T ≥ 40 K. The thesis contains 8 chapters. The first chapter introduces the background and motivation of this work. Chapter 2 presents thickness dependence of Jc studies. Chapter 3 through chapter 6 present Jc(H, T, θ) characterization and pinning studies on REBCO coated conductors. Chapter 7

  8. Fermi surface reconstruction in (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2 (0.44 ≤ x ≤ 1) probed by thermoelectric power measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hodovanets, Halyna; Liu, Yong; Jesche, Anton; Ran, Sheng; Mun, Eun Deok; Lograsso, Thomas A; Bud'ko, Sergey L; Canfield, Paul C

    2014-06-01

    We report in-plane thermoelectric power measurements on single crystals of (Ba1-xKx)Fe2As2(0.44≤x≤1). We observe a minimum in the S|T=const versus x at x~0.55 that can be associated with the change in the topology of the Fermi surface, a Lifshitz transition, related to the electron pockets at the center of M point crossing the Fermi level. This feature is clearly observable below ~75 K. Thermoelectric power also shows a change in the x~0.8–0.9 range, where the maximum in the thermoelectric power collapses into a plateau. This Lifshitz transition is most likely related to the reconstruction of the Fermi surface associated with the transformation of the hole pockets at the M point into four blades as observed by ARPES measurements.

  9. Reversible ratchet effects for vortices in conformal pinning arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan; Reichhardt, Cynthia Jane Olson

    2015-05-04

    A conformal transformation of a uniform triangular pinning array produces a structure called a conformal crystal which preserves the sixfold ordering of the original lattice but contains a gradient in the pinning density. Here we use numerical simulations to show that vortices in type-II superconductors driven with an ac drive over gradient pinning arrays produce the most pronounced ratchet effect over a wide range of parameters for a conformal array, while square gradient or random gradient arrays with equivalent pinning densities give reduced ratchet effects. In the conformal array, the larger spacing of the pinning sites in the direction transverse to the ac drive permits easy funneling of interstitial vortices for one driving direction, producing the enhanced ratchet effect. In the square array, the transverse spacing between pinning sites is uniform, giving no asymmetry in the funneling of the vortices as the driving direction switches, while in the random array, there are numerous easy-flow channels present for either direction of drive. We find multiple ratchet reversals in the conformal arrays as a function of vortex density and ac amplitude, and correlate the features with a reversal in the vortex ordering, which is greater for motion in the ratchet direction. In conclusion, the enhanced conformal pinning ratchet effect can also be realized for colloidal particles moving over a conformal array, indicating the general usefulness of conformal structures for controlling the motion of particles.

  10. Reversible ratchet effects for vortices in conformal pinning arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan; Reichhardt, Cynthia Jane Olson

    2015-05-04

    A conformal transformation of a uniform triangular pinning array produces a structure called a conformal crystal which preserves the sixfold ordering of the original lattice but contains a gradient in the pinning density. Here we use numerical simulations to show that vortices in type-II superconductors driven with an ac drive over gradient pinning arrays produce the most pronounced ratchet effect over a wide range of parameters for a conformal array, while square gradient or random gradient arrays with equivalent pinning densities give reduced ratchet effects. In the conformal array, the larger spacing of the pinning sites in the direction transversemore » to the ac drive permits easy funneling of interstitial vortices for one driving direction, producing the enhanced ratchet effect. In the square array, the transverse spacing between pinning sites is uniform, giving no asymmetry in the funneling of the vortices as the driving direction switches, while in the random array, there are numerous easy-flow channels present for either direction of drive. We find multiple ratchet reversals in the conformal arrays as a function of vortex density and ac amplitude, and correlate the features with a reversal in the vortex ordering, which is greater for motion in the ratchet direction. In conclusion, the enhanced conformal pinning ratchet effect can also be realized for colloidal particles moving over a conformal array, indicating the general usefulness of conformal structures for controlling the motion of particles.« less

  11. Loss of Pin1 Suppresses Hedgehog-Driven Medulloblastoma Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Zhang, Honglai; Park, Sung-Soo; Venneti, Sriram; Kuick, Rork; Ha, Kimberly; Michael, Lowell Evan; Santi, Mariarita; Uchida, Chiyoko; Uchida, Takafumi; Srinivasan, Ashok; Olson, James M; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Rual, Jean-François

    2017-03-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Therapeutic approaches to medulloblastoma (combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy) have led to significant improvements, but these are achieved at a high cost to quality of life. Alternative therapeutic approaches are needed. Genetic mutations leading to the activation of the Hedgehog pathway drive tumorigenesis in ~30% of medulloblastoma. In a yeast two-hybrid proteomic screen, we discovered a novel interaction between GLI1, a key transcription factor for the mediation of Hedgehog signals, and PIN1, a peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase that regulates the postphosphorylation fate of its targets. The GLI1/PIN1 interaction was validated by reciprocal pulldowns using epitope-tagged proteins in HEK293T cells as well as by co-immunoprecipiations of the endogenous proteins in a medulloblastoma cell line. Our results support a molecular model in which PIN1 promotes GLI1 protein abundance, thus contributing to the positive regulation of Hedgehog signals. Most importantly, in vivo functional analyses of Pin1 in the GFAP-tTA;TRE-SmoA1 mouse model of Hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma demonstrate that the loss of Pin1 impairs tumor development and dramatically increases survival. In summary, the discovery of the GLI1/PIN1 interaction uncovers PIN1 as a novel therapeutic target in Hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma tumorigenesis.

  12. Pin-based electrochemical glucose sensor with multiplexing possibilities.

    PubMed

    Rama, Estefanía C; Costa-García, Agustín; Fernández-Abedul, M Teresa

    2017-02-15

    This work describes the use of mass-produced stainless-steel pins as low-cost electrodes to develop simple and portable amperometric glucose biosensors. A potentiostatic three-electrode configuration device is designed using two bare pins as reference and counter electrodes, and a carbon-ink coated pin as working electrode. Conventional transparency film without any pretreatment is used to punch the pins and contain the measurement solution. The interface to the potentiostat is very simple since it is based on a commercial female connection. This electrochemical system is applied to glucose determination using a bienzymatic sensor phase (glucose oxidase/horseradish peroxidase) with ferrocyanide as electron-transfer mediator, achieving a linear range from 0.05 to 1mM. It shows analytical characteristics comparable to glucose sensors previously reported using conventional electrodes, and its application for real food samples provides good results. The easy modification of the position of the pins allows designing different configurations with possibility of performing simultaneous measurements. This is demonstrated through a specific design that includes four pin working-electrodes. Different concentrations of antibody labeled with alkaline phosphatase are immobilized on the pin-heads and after enzymatic conversion of 3-indoxylphosphate and silver nitrate, metallic silver is determined by anodic stripping voltammetry.

  13. Convex Accelerated Maximum Entropy Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Worley, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) spectral reconstruction methods provide a powerful framework for spectral estimation of nonuniformly sampled datasets. Many methods exist within this framework, usually defined based on the magnitude of a Lagrange multiplier in the MaxEnt objective function. An algorithm is presented here that utilizes accelerated first-order convex optimization techniques to rapidly and reliably reconstruct nonuniformly sampled NMR datasets using the principle of maximum entropy. This algorithm – called CAMERA for Convex Accelerated Maximum Entropy Reconstruction Algorithm – is a new approach to spectral reconstruction that exhibits fast, tunable convergence in both constant-aim and constant-lambda modes. A high-performance, open source NMR data processing tool is described that implements CAMERA, and brief comparisons to existing reconstruction methods are made on several example spectra. PMID:26894476

  14. Role of the Pinning Points in epitaxial Graphene Moiré Superstructures on the Pt(111) Surface

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, José I.; Merino, Pablo; Pinardi, Anna L.; Gonzalo, Otero-Irurueta; López, María F.; Méndez, Javier; Martín-Gago, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The intrinsic atomic mechanisms responsible for electronic doping of epitaxial graphene Moirés on transition metal surfaces is still an open issue. To better understand this process we have carried out a first-principles full characterization of the most representative Moiré superstructures observed on the Gr/Pt(111) system and confronted the results with atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. We find that for all reported Moirés the system relaxes inducing a non-negligible atomic corrugation both, at the graphene and at the outermost platinum layer. Interestingly, a mirror “anti-Moiré” reconstruction appears at the substrate, giving rise to the appearance of pinning-points. We show that these points are responsible for the development of the superstructure, while charge from the Pt substrate is injected into the graphene, inducing a local n-doping, mostly localized at these specific pinning-point positions. PMID:26852920

  15. Role of the Pinning Points in epitaxial Graphene Moiré Superstructures on the Pt(111) Surface.

    PubMed

    Martínez, José I; Merino, Pablo; Pinardi, Anna L; Gonzalo, Otero-Irurueta; López, María F; Méndez, Javier; Martín-Gago, José A

    2016-02-08

    The intrinsic atomic mechanisms responsible for electronic doping of epitaxial graphene Moirés on transition metal surfaces is still an open issue. To better understand this process we have carried out a first-principles full characterization of the most representative Moiré superstructures observed on the Gr/Pt(111) system and confronted the results with atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. We find that for all reported Moirés the system relaxes inducing a non-negligible atomic corrugation both, at the graphene and at the outermost platinum layer. Interestingly, a mirror "anti-Moiré" reconstruction appears at the substrate, giving rise to the appearance of pinning-points. We show that these points are responsible for the development of the superstructure, while charge from the Pt substrate is injected into the graphene, inducing a local n-doping, mostly localized at these specific pinning-point positions.

  16. Direct adhesive pin-retained restorations for severely worn dentition treatment: a 1.5-year follow-up report.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Camila Lima; Gonçalves, Thais Marques Simek Vega; Santos, Ícaro Leite dos; Barros, Michel Silva; Araújo, Nubia Rafaela Ribeiro; Cury, Altair Antoninha Del Bel

    2014-01-01

    Excessive occlusal surface wear can result in occlusal disharmony, functional and esthetic impairment. As a therapeutic approach, conventional single crowns have been proposed, but this kind of treatment is complex, highly invasive and expensive. This case report describes the clinical outcomes of an alternative minimally invasive treatment based on direct adhesive-pin retained restorations. A 64-year-old woman with severely worn dentition, eating problems related to missing teeth and generalized tooth hypersensitivity was referred for treatment. Proper treatment planning based on the diagnostic wax-up simulation was used to guide the reconstruction of maxillary anterior teeth with direct composite resin over self-threading dentin pins. As the mandibular remaining teeth were extremely worn, a tooth-supported overdenture was installed. A stabilization splint was also used to protect the restorations. This treatment was a less expensive alternative to full-mouth rehabilitation with positive esthetic and functional outcomes after 1.5 years of follow-up.

  17. "Safety pin"--a question to its safety!

    PubMed

    Thapa Chettri, S; Bhattarai, M; Karki, S; Regmi, S; Mathur, N N

    2010-03-01

    Foreign body ingestion is not an uncommon problem in children. They can ingest various foreign objects and one of such objects is a safety pin. The ingestion of such foreign body is not widely reported in the literature. This case highlights the risk of accidental ingestion of safety pin used on child's clothing to protect him from cold that can result in lethal complications. In a poor developing country like Nepal, this case serves to address all mothers alerting them of their ignorance while using safety pin in infants. In addition, physicians are reminded to obtain a detailed inquiry of suspected foreign body ingestion in every child with the history of dysphagia.

  18. Fabrication of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic clad fuel pins

    SciTech Connect

    Zirker, L.R. ); Bottcher, J.H. ); Shikakura, S. ); Tsai, C.L. . Dept. of Welding Engineering); Hamilton, M.L. )

    1991-01-01

    A resistance butt welding procedure was developed and qualified for joining ferritic fuel pin cladding to end caps. The cladding are INCO MA957 and PNC ODS lots 63DSA and 1DK1, ferritic stainless steels strengthened by oxide dispersion, while the end caps are HT9 a martensitic stainless steel. With adequate parameter control the weld is formed without a residual melt phase and its strength approaches that of the cladding. This welding process required a new design for fuel pin end cap and weld joint. Summaries of the development, characterization, and fabrication processes are given for these fuel pins. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Piezotronic PIN diode for microwave and piezophototronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lu; Zhang, Yan; Li, Lijie

    2017-04-01

    Piezotronics and piezophototronics, the two emerging fields that combine piezoelectric and semiconductor properties of materials have drawn much attention recently. Piezopotential caused by piezocharges can change the energy band and carrier transport of piezoelectric semiconductor materials. The PIN diodes have been widely used in high-frequency microwave circuits. In this paper, we present the theoretical calculations of the piezotronic PIN diode, including the built-in-potential, current–voltage characteristic, and junction capacitance for microwave and radio frequency application. Furthermore, the photovoltaic and luminescence properties of the PIN piezophototronic photodetector and light-emitting diode have been provided under applied strain.

  20. Three-Dimensional Prints with Pinned Cylindrical Lens Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Shin; Shimizu, Keishi

    2013-09-01

    An application of pinned cylindrical lens arrays (CLAs) reported in Opt. Rev. 19 (2012) 287 to three-dimensional prints is presented for the first time. This lens fabrication method features the easy control of the pitch and radius of curvature of the lens arrays by taking advantage of the pinning effect that the partition walls created on a polymeric substrate by scratching with a cutter blade prevent the ultraviolet curable polymer dispensed between the walls from spreading. It is demonstrated in this paper that a three-dimensional print was realized successfully with the pinned CLA fabricated with our method.

  1. Self-Pinning by Colloids Confined at a Contact Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weon, Byung Mook; Je, Jung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Colloidal particles suspended in a fluid usually inhibit complete wetting of the fluid on a solid surface and cause pinning of the contact line, known as self-pinning. We show differences in spreading and drying behaviors of pure and colloidal droplets using optical and confocal imaging methods. These differences come from spreading inhibition by colloids confined at a contact line. We propose a self-pinning mechanism based on spreading inhibition by colloids. We find a good agreement between the mechanism and the experimental result taken by directly tracking individual colloids near the contact lines of evaporating colloidal droplets.

  2. Project Reconstruct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helisek, Harriet; Pratt, Donald

    1994-01-01

    Presents a project in which students monitor their use of trash, input and analyze information via a database and computerized graphs, and "reconstruct" extinct or endangered animals from recyclable materials. The activity was done with second-grade students over a period of three to four weeks. (PR)

  3. Comparison of a reverse-transverse cross pin technique with a same side cross pin type II external skeletal fixator in 89 dogs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kun-Yang; Pead, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a novel reverse-transverse cross pin insertion technique could increase the stability of type II external skeletal fixators (ESF) in dogs compared with an alternate, same side cross pin ESF. Reverse-transverse cross pin technique and type II ESFs same side cross pin technique were applied and compared among subjects. Two of 42 ESFs (4.8%) applied with the reverse-transverse cross pin technique and 39 of 47 ESFs (83%) applied with the same side cross pin technique were subjectively unstable at the time of fixator removal (P < 0.001). The same side cross pin ESFs had significantly more pin tract new bone formation than the reverse-transverse ESFs (P = 0.038). In summary, this approach may provide a method of treating a variety of musculoskeletal conditions and soft tissue cases, which reverse-transverse cross pin ESFs are tolerated in dogs for a variety of conditions.

  4. ACL reconstruction - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - discharge; ACL reconstruction - discharge ... had surgery to reconstruct your anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The surgeon drilled holes in the bones of ...

  5. Multi-pin chemiresistors for microchemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-02-20

    A multi-pin chemiresistor for use in microchemical sensors. A pair of free-standing, bare wires is supported by an electrically insulating support, and are oriented parallel to each other and spaced closely together. A free-standing film of a chemically sensitive polymer that swells when exposed to vapors of a volatile chemical is formed in-between the pair of closely-spaced wires by capillary action. Similar in construction to a thermocouple, this "chemicouple" is relatively inexpensive and easy to fabricate by dipping the pair of bare wires into a bath of well-mixed chemiresistor ink. Also, a chemiresistor "stick" is formed by dipping an electrically insulating rod with two or more linear or spiral-wrapped electrical traces into the bath of well-mixed chemiresistor ink, which deposits a uniform coating of the chemically sensitive polymer on the rod and the electrical traces. These "sticks" can be easily removed and replaced from a multi-chemiresistor plug.

  6. Superconducting vortex pinning with artificial magnetic nanostructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Velez, M.; Martin, J. I.; Villegas, J. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Gonzalez, E. M.; Vicent, J. L.; Schuller, I. K.; Univ. de Oviedo-CINN; Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS Univ. Paris-Sud; Univ.Complutense de Madrid; Univ. California at San Diego

    2008-11-01

    This review is dedicated to summarizing the recent research on vortex dynamics and pinning effects in superconducting films with artificial magnetic structures. The fabrication of hybrid superconducting/magnetic systems is presented together with the wide variety of properties that arise from the interaction between the superconducting vortex lattice and the artificial magnetic nanostructures. Specifically, we review the role that the most important parameters in the vortex dynamics of films with regular array of dots play. In particular, we discuss the phenomena that appear when the symmetry of a regular dot array is distorted from regularity towards complete disorder including rectangular, asymmetric, and aperiodic arrays. The interesting phenomena that appear include vortex-lattice reconfigurations, anisotropic dynamics, channeling, and guided motion as well as ratchet effects. The different regimes are summarized in a phase diagram indicating the transitions that take place as the characteristic distances of the array are modified respect to the superconducting coherence length. Future directions are sketched out indicating the vast open area of research in this field.

  7. Ideal glass transitions by random pinning

    PubMed Central

    Cammarota, Chiara; Biroli, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of freezing the positions of a fraction c of particles from an equilibrium configuration of a supercooled liquid at a temperature T. We show that within the random first-order transition theory pinning particles leads to an ideal glass transition for a critical fraction c = cK(T) even for moderate supercooling; e.g., close to the Mode-Coupling transition temperature. First we derive the phase diagram in the T - c plane by mean field approximations. Then, by applying a real-space renormalization group method, we obtain the critical properties for |c - cK(T)| → 0, in particular the divergence of length and time scales, which are dominated by two zero-temperature fixed points. We also show that for c = cK(T) the typical distance between frozen particles is related to the static point-to-set length scale of the unconstrained liquid. We discuss what are the main differences when particles are frozen in other geometries and not from an equilibrium configuration. Finally, we explain why the glass transition induced by freezing particles provides a new and very promising avenue of research to probe the glassy state and ascertain, or disprove, the validity of the theories of the glass transition. PMID:22623524

  8. A PWR Thorium Pin Cell Burnup Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Zhao, X.; Pilat, E. E; Hejzlar, P.

    2000-05-01

    As part of work to evaluate the potential benefits of using thorium in LWR fuel, a thorium fueled benchmark comparison was made in this study between state-of-the-art codes, MOCUP (MCNP4B + ORIGEN2), and CASMO-4 for burnup calculations. The MOCUP runs were done individually at MIT and INEEL, using the same model but with some differences in techniques and cross section libraries. Eigenvalue and isotope concentrations were compared on a PWR pin cell model up to high burnup. The eigenvalue comparison as a function of burnup is good: the maximum difference is within 2% and the average absolute difference less than 1%. The isotope concentration comparisons are better than a set of MOX fuel benchmarks and comparable to a set of uranium fuel benchmarks reported in the literature. The actinide and fission product data sources used in the MOCUP burnup calculations for a typical thorium fuel are documented. Reasons for code vs code differences are analyzed and discussed.

  9. Testing of the KRI-developed Silicon PIN Radioxenon Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Foxe, Michael P.; McIntyre, Justin I.

    2015-01-23

    reduced by a factor of 10 in the Si PIN detector compared to the current plastic scintillator cells. There is potential for further reduction with the removal of plastics within the cell, which will need to be explored in future work. A third important parameter in choosing the best detection technique for radioxenon is the resolution of the electron detection. While the resolution is important in determining the minimum detectable concentration, it plays a larger role in source identification when there is a visible signal. The Silicon PIN diodes generated improved resolution over a similar plastic scintillator cell. With the improved resolution, it becomes easier to distinguish the radioxenon isomers (133mXe and 131mXe) from the 133Xe beta continuum background. With the beta background from 133Xe ever present with the detection of the isomers, the improved resolution proves vital in calculating the ratios of the three isotopes. With an accurate measurement of the isotopic ratios, the anthropogenic sources of radioxenon (medical isotope production and nuclear reactors) can be more accurately distinguished. Based on the results shown within this report, a Si PIN beta cell shows the potential to aid in the operation and discriminating power of the IMS for the CTBTO. However, there are a number of issues that need attention before a detector of this design would be reliable enough for field operations in the IMS. Issues that need develop include, but are not limited to: studying the robustness of the design in field conditions, eliminating or minimizing the noise and variability of individual Si detector elements, understanding the long-term gain stability of the Si detectors, and reducing the non-Si materials within the cell (i.e. the plastic housing).

  10. A Division in PIN-Mediated Auxin Patterning during Organ Initiation in Grasses

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Devin L.; Runions, Adam; Sluis, Aaron; Bragg, Jennifer; Vogel, John P.

    2014-01-01

    The hormone auxin plays a crucial role in plant morphogenesis. In the shoot apical meristem, the PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) efflux carrier concentrates auxin into local maxima in the epidermis, which position incipient leaf or floral primordia. From these maxima, PIN1 transports auxin into internal tissues along emergent paths that pattern leaf and stem vasculature. In Arabidopsis thaliana, these functions are attributed to a single PIN1 protein. Using phylogenetic and gene synteny analysis we identified an angiosperm PIN clade sister to PIN1, here termed Sister-of-PIN1 (SoPIN1), which is present in all sampled angiosperms except for Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis. Additionally, we identified a conserved duplication of PIN1 in the grasses: PIN1a and PIN1b. In Brachypodium distachyon, SoPIN1 is highly expressed in the epidermis and is consistently polarized toward regions of high expression of the DR5 auxin-signaling reporter, which suggests that SoPIN1 functions in the localization of new primordia. In contrast, PIN1a and PIN1b are highly expressed in internal tissues, suggesting a role in vascular patterning. PIN1b is expressed in broad regions spanning the space between new primordia and previously formed vasculature, suggesting a role in connecting new organs to auxin sinks in the older tissues. Within these regions, PIN1a forms narrow canals that likely pattern future veins. Using a computer model, we reproduced the observed spatio-temporal expression and localization patterns of these proteins by assuming that SoPIN1 is polarized up the auxin gradient, and PIN1a and PIN1b are polarized to different degrees with the auxin flux. Our results suggest that examination and modeling of PIN dynamics in plants outside of Brassicaceae will offer insights into auxin-driven patterning obscured by the loss of the SoPIN1 clade in Brassicaceae. PMID:24499933

  11. X-ray spectroscopy with silicon pin and avalanche photo diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, U. D.

    1992-01-01

    Results of an evaluation of silicon P-Intrinsic-N (PIN) photodiodes and Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) for the direct detection of soft x rays from 1 to 20 keV and for the detection of scintillation light output from CsI(TI) for higher x ray energies (30 to 1000 keV) are presented. About one keV resolution was achieved at room temperature for both the PIN and APD detectors for soft x rays (1 to 20 keV). Commercially available, low power (18 mV), low noise, hybrid preamplifiers, were used. These photodiodes were also coupled to CsI(TI) scintillator and obtained about 6 resolution at 662 keV. The photodiode frequency response matches well with the emission spectrum of the CsI(TI) scintillator providing good spectral resolution and a higher signal than NaI(TI) when viewed by conventional photomultipliers. A PIN-CsI(TI) combination provides a low energy threshold of around 60 keV while for the APD-CsI(TI) it is 15 keV.

  12. Exponential dependence of the vortex pinning potential on current density in high- Tc superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, H.; Abdelhadi, M. M.; Jung, J. A.; Willemsen, B. A.; Kihlstrom, K. E.

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the dependence of the vortex pinning potential on current density Ueff(J) in Tl2Ba2CaCu2Oy , Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3Oy , and YBa2Cu3Oy thin films and single crystals, measured by us and other research groups. In all these cases Ueff(J) was calculated from the magnetic relaxation data using Maley’s procedure [Phys. Rev. B 42, 2639 (1990)]. We explored the exponential dependence of Ueff(J) , first introduced by Thompson [Phys. Rev. B 44, 456 (1991).] to explain long-term nonlogarithmic magnetic relaxations in high-temperature superconductors (HTSC), as an alternative to power-law and logarithmic forms of Ueff(J) . The results revealed that for J larger than approximately 0.4Jc , the energy barrier can be expressed in the following form: Ueff(J)=aIco(1-T/T*)3/2exp(-bJ/Jco) , where the constant b is the same for all samples investigated. This result is independent of the anisotropy (the interplanar coupling). The experimental results were analyzed taking into account the spatial dependence of the pinning potential, proposed by Qin [J. Appl. Phys. 77, 2618 (1995)]. We suggested that the exponential form of Ueff(J) could represent vortex pinning and motion in the a-b planes due to a nanoscopic variation of the order parameter, in agreement with the growing experimental evidence for the presence of nanostructures, stripes (filaments) in HTSC.

  13. Study of PIN electrical modulation structure based on SiGe-OI material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Song; Jiang, Ren-ke; Gao, Yong

    2015-02-01

    SiGe-OI (Silicon Germanium on insulator) material is a new type of semiconductor material, and the refractive index of waveguide region can be effectively improved in electro-optic modulator with SiGe-OI materials. More importantly, used SiGe-OI material, the injection efficiency of electro-optic modulator can be improved. Based on the early research of SiGe-OI optical waveguide, PIN structure is selected as electrical modulation structure of electro-optic modulator, and the electrical modulation mechanism of PIN structure is studied. PIN structure is built by ISE-TCAD soft, and the carriers injection efficiency are analyzed. The doping concentration of active region, the width of active region, the width between active region and waveguide, Ge content and the other parameters are analyzed and optimized. Finally, compared with SOI electro-optic modulator, the carriers injection efficiency of SiGe-OI electro-optic modulator are increased 87.5%, in other words - modulation voltage of SiGe-OI electro-optic modulator can be reduced, so as to effectively reduce modulation power.

  14. Androgen receptor serine 81 mediates Pin1 interaction and activity

    PubMed Central

    La Montagna, Raffaele; Caligiuri, Isabella; Maranta, Pasquale; Lucchetti, Chiara; Esposito, Luca; Paggi, Marco G.; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Rizzolio, Flavio; Giordano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Hormone-dependent tumors are characterized by deregulated activity of specific steroid receptors, allowing aberrant expression of many genes involved in cancer initiation, progression and metastasis. In prostate cancer, the androgen receptor (AR) protein has pivotal functions, and over the years it has been the target of different drugs. AR is a nuclear receptor whose activity is regulated by a phosphorylation mechanism controlled by hormone and growth factors. Following phosphorylation, AR interacts with many cofactors that closely control its function. Among such cofactors, Pin1 is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that is involved in the control of protein phosphorylation and has a prognostic value in prostate cancer. In the present study, we demonstrate that ARSer81 is involved in the interaction with Pin1, and that this interaction is important for the transcriptional activity of AR. Since Pin1 expression positively correlates with tumor grade, our results suggest that Pin1 can participate in this process by modulating AR function. PMID:22894932

  15. 43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM AND SUSPENDED (PANEL 67). VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  16. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR BEANS, STRINGERS, LATTICE BRACING, EYEBARS AND DECKING, LOOKING SOUTH - Four Mile Bridge, Spanning Elk River on County Road 42, Steamboat Springs, Routt County, CO

  17. 22. PIN CONNECTION AT JUNCTURE OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL WITH BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. PIN CONNECTION AT JUNCTURE OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL WITH BOTTOM CHORD ON PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSS. HYDRAULICALLY FORGED EYES ON ROLLED STOCK. - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  18. PIN proteins and the evolution of plant development.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Tom

    2015-08-01

    Many aspects of development in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana involve regulated distribution of the hormone auxin by the PIN-FORMED (PIN) family of auxin efflux carriers. The role of PIN-mediated auxin transport in other plants is not well understood, but studies in a wider range of species have begun to illuminate developmental mechanisms across land plants. In this review, I discuss recent progress in understanding the evolution of PIN-mediated auxin transport, and its role in development across the green plant lineage. I also discuss the idea that changes in auxin biology led to morphological novelty in plant development: currently available evidence suggests major innovations in auxin transport are rare and not associated with the evolution of new developmental mechanisms.

  19. 23. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, GATE ARM AND GATE GAUGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  20. 21. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, LOOKING NORTH - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  1. 46. VAL, DETAIL OF 'PILLOW BLOCK' WHERE LAUNCHER BRIDGE PIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VAL, DETAIL OF 'PILLOW BLOCK' WHERE LAUNCHER BRIDGE PIN SAT AT THE TOP OF THE CONNECTING BRIDGE. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 9. FINIAL DETAIL COVERING PIN CONNECTIONS AND COMPRESSION BLOCK AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FINIAL DETAIL COVERING PIN CONNECTIONS AND COMPRESSION BLOCK AT EAST INCLINED END POST. NOTE CONSTRUCTION DATE OF 1880. - Peevy Road Bridge, Peevy Road spanning Perkiomen Creek in Upper Hanover Township, East Greenville, Montgomery County, PA

  3. PIN architecture for ultrasensitive organic thin film photoconductors

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhiwen; Wang, Jizheng

    2014-01-01

    Organic thin film photoconductors (OTFPs) are expected to have wide applications in the field of optical communications, artificial vision and biomedical sensing due to their great advantages of high flexibility and low-cost large-area fabrication. However, their performances are not satisfactory at present: the value of responsivity (R), the parameter that measures the sensitivity of a photoconductor to light, is below 1 AW−1. We believe such poor performance is resulted from an intrinsic self-limited effect of present bare blend based device structure. Here we designed a PIN architecture for OTFPs, the PIN device exhibits a significantly improved high R value of 96.5 AW−1. The PIN architecture and the performance the PIN device shows here should represent an important step in the development of OTFPs. PMID:24936952

  4. Characterization of vortex pinning through the Campbell length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willa, Roland; Geshkenbein, Vadim B.; Blatter, Gianni

    Vortex pinning is decisive in establishing dissipation-free current flow in a type-II superconductor; knowledge and optimization of the pinning landscape (pinscape) is of major importance for applications. The ac magnetic response, characterized by the Campbell penetration depth λC, provides valuable information on the pinscape, besides the critical current density jc. While microscopic derivations of jc are available both in the weak and strong pinning limits, this is not the case for the Campbell length, whose understanding has remained on a phenomenological level so far. Based on the microscopic theory of strong pinning, we have established a proper link between the Campbell length and the pinscape parameters. This new quantitative formalism captures all experimentally observed signatures, among which are the dependence of λC on the vortex state preparation and the hysteresis in λC upon thermal cycling the field-cooled state.

  5. Criteria for stochastic pinning control of networks of chaotic maps

    SciTech Connect

    Mwaffo, Violet; Porfiri, Maurizio; DeLellis, Pietro

    2014-03-15

    This paper investigates the controllability of discrete-time networks of coupled chaotic maps through stochastic pinning. In this control scheme, the network dynamics are steered towards a desired trajectory through a feedback control input that is applied stochastically to the network nodes. The network controllability is studied by analyzing the local mean square stability of the error dynamics with respect to the desired trajectory. Through the analysis of the spectral properties of salient matrices, a toolbox of conditions for controllability are obtained, in terms of the dynamics of the individual maps, algebraic properties of the network, and the probability distribution of the pinning control. We demonstrate the use of these conditions in the design of a stochastic pinning control strategy for networks of Chirikov standard maps. To elucidate the applicability of the approach, we consider different network topologies and compare five different stochastic pinning strategies through extensive numerical simulations.

  6. 21 CFR 872.3740 - Retentive and splinting pin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identification. A retentive and splinting pin is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75 percent or greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended to be placed permanently in a tooth...

  7. 7. Pin connections and eye bar nest, lower chord, up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Pin connections and eye bar nest, lower chord, up river truss, 321-4 Span 3. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  8. 6. Pin connection and eye bar nest, lower chord, up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Pin connection and eye bar nest, lower chord, up river truss, 321-4 Span 3. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  9. 24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK THROUGH TRUSS. VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD MADE OF HAND-FORGED EYE BARS - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  10. 8. Pin connecting and eye bar nest, lower chord, down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Pin connecting and eye bar nest, lower chord, down river truss 132-0 Span 2 from Hot Metal Bridge. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 48. Fixed Span, Detail of Pinned Connection between End Post ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Fixed Span, Detail of Pinned Connection between End Post & First Segment of Top Chord (Vertical Tension Member goes to 2L); looking E. - Pacific Shortline Bridge, U.S. Route 20,spanning Missouri River, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  12. PIN1 in breast development and cancer: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Rustighi, Alessandra; Zannini, Alessandro; Campaner, Elena; Ciani, Yari; Piazza, Silvano; Del Sal, Giannino

    2017-02-01

    Mammary gland development, various stages of mammary tumorigenesis and breast cancer progression have the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase PIN1 at their centerpiece, in virtue of the ability of this unique enzyme to fine-tune the dynamic crosstalk between multiple molecular pathways. PIN1 exerts its action by inducing conformational and functional changes on key cellular proteins, following proline-directed phosphorylation. Through this post-phosphorylation signal transduction mechanism, PIN1 controls the extent and direction of the cellular response to a variety of inputs, in physiology and disease. This review discusses PIN1's roles in normal mammary development and cancerous progression, as well as the clinical impact of targeting this enzyme in breast cancer patients.

  13. 11. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical tensile members between panels nine end ten of Moody Bridge - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  14. 8. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical member at the third panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  15. 9. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical tensile members at the fifth panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  16. 9. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, SHOWING INCLINED END POSTS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, SHOWING INCLINED END POSTS, PORTAL BRACING, HIP VERTICALS, LATTICE BRACING AND EYEBARS, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Nepesta Bridge, Spanning Arkansas River on County Road 613, Boone, Pueblo County, CO

  17. 11. VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, SOUTH WEB, SHOWING TOP CHORD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, SOUTH WEB, SHOWING TOP CHORD, LATTICE BRACING, HIP VERTICAL, EYEBARS, TOP LATERAL BRACING, AND STRUTS, LOOKING SOUTH - Four Mile Bridge, Spanning Elk River on County Road 42, Steamboat Springs, Routt County, CO

  18. 20. Detail of lower chord of west truss, showing pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Detail of lower chord of west truss, showing pin connection through lower chord assembly, hip verticals and U-bolt hangers. - Tremont Station Bridge, Pierceville Road, spanning Conrail tracks, Wareham, Plymouth County, MA

  19. 20. LOCK GATES, 3 FOOT WALKWAY, ADJUSTMENT AT GUDGEON PIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. LOCK GATES, 3 FOOT WALKWAY, ADJUSTMENT AT GUDGEON PIN AND QUOIN SHOE. May 1933 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  20. Procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin fields of energy release in the core of VVER-type reactor for the BIPR-8 code

    SciTech Connect

    Gordienko, P. V. Kotsarev, A. V.; Lizorkin, M. P.

    2014-12-15

    The procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin energy-release fields for the BIPR-8 code and the algorithm of the BIPR-8 code which is used in nodal computation of the reactor core and on which the recovery of pin-by-pin fields of energy release is based are briefly described. The description and results of the verification using the module of recovery of pin-by-pin energy-release fields and the TVS-M program are given.

  1. Open safety pin ingestion presenting as incarcerated umbilical hernia.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Bilal; Sheikh, Afzal

    2011-09-01

    Foreign body ingestion is common in children. Sharp foreign bodies are potentially harmful and can result various complications. An 8-month-old infant presented with incarcerated umbilical hernia. With a suspicion of strangulation, operation was performed that revealed a loop of ileum being stuck in the umbilical defect. The loop of ileum was freed from the umbilicus which demonstrated open ends of safety pin piercing out of bowel lumen. The enterotomy followed by removal of safety pin was performed.

  2. Pin and roller attachment system for ceramic blades

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    In a turbine, a plurality of blades are attached to a turbine wheel by way of a plurality of joints which form a rolling contact between the blades and the turbine wheel. Each joint includes a pin and a pair of rollers to provide rolling contact between the pin and an adjacent pair of blades. Because of this rolling contact, high stress scuffing between the blades and the turbine wheel reduced, thereby inhibiting catastrophic failure of the blade joints.

  3. Pin and roller attachment system for ceramic blades

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-07-25

    In a turbine, a plurality of blades are attached to a turbine wheel by way of a plurality of joints which form a rolling contact between the blades and the turbine wheel. Each joint includes a pin and a pair of rollers to provide rolling contact between the pin and an adjacent pair of blades. Because of this rolling contact, high stress scuffing between the blades and the turbine wheel reduced, thereby inhibiting catastrophic failure of the blade joints. 3 figs.

  4. The Safe Zone for External Fixator Pins in the Femur

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    need to be placed more than a centimeter from the fracture to avoid potential pin track infection of fracture hematoma .17 FIGURE 3. Drawing...joint after high-energy periarticular fracture or dislo- cation.1–6 Optimal placement of pins requires a thorough knowledge of cross-sectional limb...distal femur fracture applications, a location which has previously been demonstrated to place neurovascular structures at risk with interlocking of

  5. Remote weighing of irradiated fuel pins at FFTF

    SciTech Connect

    Anglesey, M.O.; Romrell, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the testing and operations of a remotely operated fuel pin weighing system developed to identify fuel pins with breached cladding in the interim examination and maintenance (IEM) cell at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) located near Richland, Washington. The IEM cell is a vertical hot cell located within the FFTF containment building that was designed for disassembly and reassembly of experiments and fuel assemblies.

  6. Investigating the interactions of yeast prions: [SWI+], [PSI+], and [PIN+].

    PubMed

    Du, Zhiqiang; Li, Liming

    2014-06-01

    Multiple prion elements, which are transmitted as heritable protein conformations and often linked to distinct phenotypes, have been identified in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has been shown that overproduction of a prion protein Swi1 can promote the de novo conversion of another yeast prion [PSI(+)] when Sup35 is co-overproduced. However, the mechanism underlying this Pin(+) ([PSI(+)] inducible) activity is not clear. Moreover, how the Swi1 prion ([SWI(+)]) interacts with other yeast prions is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the Pin(+) activity associated with Swi1 overproduction is independent of Rnq1 expression or [PIN(+)] conversion. We also show that [SWI(+)] enhances the appearance of [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)]. However, [SWI(+)] significantly compromises the Pin(+) activity of [PIN(+)] when they coexist. We further demonstrate that a single yeast cell can harbor three prions, [PSI(+)], [PIN(+)], and [SWI(+)], simultaneously. However, under this condition, [SWI(+)] is significantly destabilized. While the propensity to aggregate underlies prionogenesis, Swi1 and Rnq1 aggregates resulting from overproduction are usually nonheritable. Conversely, prion protein aggregates formed in nonoverexpressing conditions or induced by preexisting prion(s) are more prionogenic. For [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)] de novo formation, heterologous "facilitators," such as preexisting [SWI(+)] aggregates, colocalize only with the newly formed ring-/rod-shaped Sup35 or Rnq1 aggregates, but not with the dot-shaped mature prion aggregates. Their colocalization frequency is coordinated with their prion inducibility, indicating that prion-prion interactions mainly occur at the early initiation stage. Our results provide supportive evidence for the cross-seeding model of prionogenesis and highlight a complex interaction network among prions in yeast.

  7. Auto-adjustable pin tool for friction stir welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor); Oelgoetz, Peter A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An auto-adjusting pin tool for friction stir welding is presented wherein the pin tool automatically adjusts for welding materials of varying thicknesses, and the pin can be incrementally withdrawn from the workpieces thus eliminating any crater or keyhole in the weld. The inventive apparatus is comprised of a welding head housing a motor connected to a controller instrument package and an arbor supported by bearings. The arbor forms an interior cylinder and is encircled by a stationary slip ring though which are ported hydraulic passageways into the interior cylinder of the arbor such that a piston housed therein may be moved axially. Coupled to the piston is a pin tool which is treaded on its lower end and which is moveably seated in, and extending through, a shoulder housing having concave lower face. When welding, the rotating treaded end of the pin enters and stirs the workpieces while the lower face of the shoulder housing compacts the workpieces. As the welding head traverses the shoulder housing the controller senses any rising pressure on the lower face of the shoulder housing and withdraws the arbor to keep the pressure constant. At the same time, the piston moves towards the workpieces thus extending the pin further from the shoulder. This keeps the pin at a proper depth in the workpieces regardless of their thicknesses. As the weld terminates this same operation can be used to incrementally withdraw the pin during the final part of the traverse, thus eliminating any keyhole or crater that would otherwise be created.

  8. Self-pinning of a nanosuspension droplet: Molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Baiou; Webb, Edmund B.

    2016-07-01

    Results are presented from molecular dynamics simulations of Pb(l) nanodroplets containing dispersed Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and spreading on solid surfaces. Three-dimensional simulations are employed throughout, but droplet spreading and pinning are reduced to two-dimensional processes by modeling cylindrical NPs in cylindrical droplets; NPs have radius RNP≅3 nm while droplets have initial R0≅42 nm . At low particle loading explored here, NPs in sufficient proximity to the initial solid-droplet interface are drawn into advancing contact lines; entrained NPs eventually bind with the underlying substrate. For relatively low advancing contact angle θadv, self-pinning on entrained NPs occurs; for higher θadv, depinning is observed. Self-pinning and depinning cases are compared and forces on NPs at the contact line are computed during a depinning event. Though significant flow in the droplet occurs in close proximity to the particle during depinning, resultant forces are relatively low. Instead, forces due to liquid atoms confined between the particles and substrate dominate the forces on NPs; that is, for the NP size studied here, forces are interface dominated. For pinning cases, a precursor wetting film advances ahead of the pinned contact line but at a significantly slower rate than for a pure droplet. This is because the precursor film is a bilayer of liquid atoms on the substrate surface but it is instead a monolayer film as it crosses over pinning particles; thus, mass delivery to the bilayer structure is impeded.

  9. Dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide is a novel inhibitor of Pin1.

    PubMed

    Tatara, Yota; Lin, Yi-Chin; Bamba, Yoshimasa; Mori, Tadashi; Uchida, Takafumi

    2009-07-03

    Pin1 is involved in eukaryotic cell proliferation by changing the structure and function of phosphorylated proteins. PiB, the Pin1 specific inhibitor, blocks cancer cell proliferation. However, low solubility of PiB in DMSO has limited studies of its effectiveness. We screened for additional Pin1 inhibitors and identified the DMSO-soluble compound dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide (DTM) that inhibits Pin1 activity with an EC50 value of 4.1 microM. Molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that DTM competitively inhibits Pin1 activity, with a K(i) value of 0.05 microM. The K(D) value of DTM with Pin1 was determined to be 0.06 microM by SPR technology. Moreover, DTM specifically inhibited peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity in HeLa cells. FACS analysis showed that DTM induced G0 arrest of the HCT116 cells. Our results suggest that DTM has the potential to guide the development of novel antifungal and/or anticancer drugs.

  10. Refixation of osteochondral fractures by ultrasound-activated, resorbable pins

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, H.; Schulz, A. P.; Gille, J.; Klinger, M.; Jürgens, C.; Reimers, N.; Kienast, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Osteochondral injuries, if not treated adequately, often lead to severe osteoarthritis. Possible treatment options include refixation of the fragment or replacement therapies such as Pridie drilling, microfracture or osteochondral grafts, all of which have certain disadvantages. Only refixation of the fragment can produce a smooth and resilient joint surface. The aim of this study was the evaluation of an ultrasound-activated bioresorbable pin for the refixation of osteochondral fragments under physiological conditions. Methods In 16 Merino sheep, specific osteochondral fragments of the medial femoral condyle were produced and refixed with one of conventional bioresorbable pins, titanium screws or ultrasound-activated pins. Macro- and microscopic scoring was undertaken after three months. Results The healing ratio with ultrasound-activated pins was higher than with conventional pins. No negative heat effect on cartilage has been shown. Conclusion As the material is bioresorbable, no further surgery is required to remove the implant. MRI imaging is not compromised, as it is with implanted screws. The use of bioresorbable pins using ultrasound is a promising technology for the refixation of osteochondral fractures. PMID:23610699

  11. Dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide is a novel inhibitor of Pin1

    SciTech Connect

    Tatara, Yota; Lin, Yi-Chin; Bamba, Yoshimasa; Mori, Tadashi; Uchida, Takafumi

    2009-07-03

    Pin1 is involved in eukaryotic cell proliferation by changing the structure and function of phosphorylated proteins. PiB, the Pin1 specific inhibitor, blocks cancer cell proliferation. However, low solubility of PiB in DMSO has limited studies of its effectiveness. We screened for additional Pin1 inhibitors and identified the DMSO-soluble compound dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide (DTM) that inhibits Pin1 activity with an EC50 value of 4.1 {mu}M. Molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that DTM competitively inhibits Pin1 activity, with a K{sub i} value of 0.05 {mu}M. The K{sub D} value of DTM with Pin1 was determined to be 0.06 {mu}M by SPR technology. Moreover, DTM specifically inhibited peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity in HeLa cells. FACS analysis showed that DTM induced G0 arrest of the HCT116 cells. Our results suggest that DTM has the potential to guide the development of novel antifungal and/or anticancer drugs.

  12. Vortex Avalanches with Periodic Arrays of Pinning Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, J.; Heckel, T.; Kakalios, J.

    2001-03-01

    Numerical simulations by Nori and co-workers of dynamical phase transitions for magnetic vortices in type II superconductors when the defects which act as pinning sites are arranged in a periodic array have found a dramatic non-linear relationship between vortex voltage and driving current.2,4 In order to experimentally test the predictions of these simulations, a macroscopic physical analog of an array of flux vortices in the presense of an ordered lattice of pinning sites has been constructed. This simple table-top experimental system consists of conventional household magnets, arranged in an ordered grid (serving as the lattice of fixed pinning centers). A plexiglass sheet is positioned above these fixed magnets, and another collection of magnets (representing the magnetic flux vortices), oriented so that they are attracted to the fixed magnets are placed on top of the sheet. The entire apparatus is then tilted to a given angle (the analog of the driving voltage) and the velocity of the avalanching magnets is recorded using the induced voltage in a pick-up coil. By varying the ratio of movable magnets to fixed pinning magnets, the filling fraction can be adjusted, as can the pinning strength, by adjusting the separation of the plexiglass sheet between the fixed and movable magnets. The velocity of the avalanching magnets as the filling fraction is varied displays a jamming transition, with a non-trivial dependence on the pinning strength of the lattice of fixed magnets below the sheet.

  13. Pinned vortex hopping in a neutron star crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, B.; Melatos, A.

    2016-09-01

    The motion of superfluid vortices in a neutron star crust is at the heart of most theories of pulsar glitches. Pinning of vortices to ions can decouple the superfluid from the crust and create a reservoir of angular momentum. Sudden large-scale unpinning can lead to an observable glitch. In this paper, we investigate the scattering of a free vortex off a pinning potential and calculate its mean free path, in order to assess whether unpinned vortices can skip multiple pinning sites and come close enough to their neighbours to trigger avalanches, or whether they simply hop from one pinning site to its neighbour, giving rise to a more gradual creep. We find that there is a significant range of parameter space in which avalanches can be triggered, thus supporting the hypothesis that they may lie at the origin of pulsar glitches. For realistic values of the pinning force and superfluid drag parameters, we find that avalanches are more likely in the higher density regions of the crust where pinning is stronger. Physical differences in stellar parameters, such as mass and temperature, may lead to a switch between creep-like motion and avalanches, explaining the different characteristics of glitching pulsars.

  14. A survey of Populus PIN-FORMED family genes reveals their diversified expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bobin; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Lin; Li, Jianbo; Zheng, Huanquan; Chen, Jun; Lu, Mengzhu

    2014-06-01

    The plant hormone auxin is a key regulator of plant development, and its uneven distribution maintained by polar intercellular auxin transport in plant tissues can trigger a wide range of developmental processes. Although the roles of PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins in intercellular auxin flow have been extensively characterized in Arabidopsis, their roles in woody plants remain unclear. Here, a comprehensive analysis of PIN proteins in Populus is presented. Fifteen PINs are encoded in the genome of Populus, including four PIN1s, one PIN2, two PIN3s, three PIN5s, three PIN6s, and two PIN8s. Similar to Arabidopsis AtPIN proteins, PtPINs share conserved topology and transmembrane domains, and are either plasma membrane- or endoplasmic reticulum-localized. The more diversified expansion of the PIN family in Populus, comparing to that in Arabidopsis, indicates that some auxin-regulated developmental processes, such as secondary growth, may exhibit unique features in trees. More importantly, different sets of PtoPINs have been found to be strongly expressed in the roots, leaves, and cambium in Populus; the dynamic expression patterns of selected PtoPINs were further examined during the regeneration of shoots and roots. This genome-wide analysis of the Populus PIN family provides important cues for their potential roles in tree growth and development.

  15. Dynamical coupled-channels study of {pi}N {right arrow} {pi pi}N reactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Kamano, H.; Julia-Diaz, B.; Lee, T.-S. H.; Matsuyama, A.; Sato, T.; Physics; Jefferson Lab.; Univ. of Barcelona; Shizuoka Univ.; Osaka Univ.

    2009-02-24

    As a step toward performing a complete coupled-channels analysis of the world data of {pi}N,{gamma}*N {yields} {pi}N,{eta}N,{pi}{pi}N reactions, the {pi}N {yields} {pi}{pi}N reactions are investigated starting with the dynamical coupled-channels model developed in Phys. Rev. C 76, 065201 (2007). The channels included are {pi}N,{eta}N, and {pi}{pi}N which has {pi}{Delta},{rho}N, and {sigma}N resonant components. The nonresonant amplitudes are generated from solving a set of coupled-channels equations with the meson-baryon potentials defined by effective Lagrangians. The resonant amplitudes are generated from 16 bare excited nucleon (N*) states that are dressed by the nonresonant interactions as constrained by the unitarity condition. The data of total cross sections and {pi}N and {pi}{pi} invariant mass distributions of {pi} + p {yields} {pi} + {pi} + n, {pi} + {pi}0p and {pi} - p {yields} {pi} + {pi} - n, {pi} - {pi}0p,{pi}0{pi}0n reactions from threshold to the invariant mass W = 2 GeV can be described to a very large extent. We show the importance of the coupled-channels effects and the strong interference among the contributions from the {pi}{Delta},{sigma}N, and {rho}N channels. The large interference between the resonant and nonresonant amplitudes is also demonstrated. Possible future developments are discussed.

  16. Pin-Hole Luminosity Monitor with Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norem, James H.; Spencer, James E.

    Previously, the generalized luminosity { L} was defined and calculated for all incident channels based on an NLC e+e- design. Alternatives were then considered to improve the differing beam-beam effects in the e-e-, eγ and γγ channels. Regardless of the channel, there was a large flux of outgoing, high energy photons that were produced from the beam-beam interaction e.g. beamstrahlung that needs to be disposed of and whose flux depended on { L}. One approach to this problem is to consider it a resource and attempt to take advantage of it by disposing of these straight-ahead photons in more useful ways than simply dumping them. While there are many options for monitoring the luminosity, any method that allows feedback and optimization in real time and in a non-intercepting and non-interfering way during normal data taking is extremely important - especially if it provides other capabilities such as high resolution tuning of spot sizes and can be used for all incident channels without essential modifications to their setup. Our "pin-hole" camera appears to be such a device if it can be made to work with high energy photons in ways that are compatible with the many other constraints and demands on space around the interaction region. The basis for using this method is that it has, in principle, the inherent resolution and bandwidth to monitor the very small spot sizes and their stabilities that are required for very high, integrated luminosity. While there are many possible, simultaneous uses of these outgoing photon beams, we limit our discussion to a single, blind, proof-of-principle experiment that was done on the FFTB line at SLAC to certify the concept of a camera obscura for high energy photons.

  17. Antimicrobial efficacy of external fixator pins coated with a lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine complex to prevent pin tract infection in a goat model.

    SciTech Connect

    Dejong, E. Schuyler; Deberardino, T. M.; Brooks, D. E.; Nelson, B. J.; Campbell, Allison A.; Bottoni, Craig R.; Pusateri, A. E.; Walton, R. S.; Guymon, C. H.; Mcmanus, Albert T.

    2001-06-01

    Background: Pin tract infection is a common complication of external fixation. An antiinfective external fixator pin might help to reduce the incidence of pin tract infection and improve pin fixation. Methods: Stainless steel and titanium external fixator pins, with and without a lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine coating, were evaluated in a goat model. Two pins contaminated with an identifiable Staphylococcus aureus strain were inserted into each tibia of 12 goats. The pin sites were examined daily. On day 14, the animals were killed, and the pin tips cultured. Insertion and extraction torques were measured. Results: Infection developed in 100% of uncoated pins, whereas coated pins demonstrated 4.2% infected, 12.5% colonized, and the remainder, 83.3%, had no growth (p < 0.01). Pin coating decreased the percent loss of fixation torque over uncoated pins (p = 0.04). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine coating was successful in decreasing infection and improving fixation of external fixator pins.

  18. Flux pinning behavior in Nb50Ti/Cu superconducting composite with different form of artificial pinning center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X. H.; Zhou, L.; Wu, X. Z.; Fu, B. Q.; Wang, F. Y.; Zhang, P. X.; Feng, Y.; Weber, H. W.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial pinning center (APC) niobium-titanium composites achieve very high critical current density value at low magnetic field (below 5 T), but they are inferior to conventional composites at high magnetic fields (above 7 T) due to weak flux pining force. Therefore, realization of flux pinning behavior and improvement of flux pinning force of NbTi composite are very important. In this paper, three forms of niobium APC were introduced into Nb50Ti/Cu composites, that is, island-shaped, net-shaped and sheet-shaped Nb APC. The results show that Nb50Ti/Cu composites with island-shaped APC have highest flux pinning force over other two kinds of composites with net-shaped and sheet-shaped APC, however, this difference will be reduced after heat treatment process.

  19. Seasonal Temperature and Pin Site Care Regimen Affect the Incidence of Pin Site Infection in Pediatric Supracondylar Humeral Fractures.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hsuan-Kai; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Lee, Wei-Chun; Yang, Wen-E; Chang, Chia-Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Pin site infection is a common complication after fracture fixation and bone lengthening, and daily pin site care is recommended. Weather is a strong environmental factor of infection, but few articles studied the issue of weather and pin site infection. We performed a prospective comparative study of 61 children with supracondylar humeral fractures treated by closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. The patients were divided into high-temperature season or low-temperature season by the months they received surgery. The patients within each season were further allocated to 2 groups by the different postoperative pin site care methods of daily care or noncare. The infection rate per patient was significantly higher in the high-temperature season compared to low-temperature season (45% versus 19%, P = 0.045). In the high-temperature season, the infection rate per patient was significantly higher in the daily care group versus the noncare group (70% versus 20%, P = 0.001). In the low-temperature season, the infection rate per patient was not significantly different in the daily care group versus the noncare group (10% versus 27.3%, P = 0.33). We recommend that careful monitoring of infection signs, rather than pin site cleaning, would be appropriate in the treatment of pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures, especially during the summer months.

  20. Role of Pin1 in neointima formation: down-regulation of Nrf2-dependent heme oxygenase-1 expression by Pin1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Moo Yeol; Lim, Sung Chul; Hien, Tran Thi; Kim, Jung Woo; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Sang Kyum; Choi, Hong Seok; Kang, Keon Wook

    2010-06-15

    Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to intima formation after stenting and balloon angioplasty. Pin1, a peptidyl prolyl isomerase recognizing phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro, isomerizes the peptide bond. Because Pin1 overexpression is associated with transformation and the uncontrolled cell growth of tumors, we hypothesized that Pin1 functions as a chronic stimulator of VSMC proliferation. Pin1-positive smooth muscle cells were seen in the neointimal region of the femoral artery after guidewire injury. Exposure of VSMCS to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) increased Pin1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Basal cell growth rate and cyclin D1 expression were enhanced in Pin1-overexpressing VSMCs (Pin1-VSMCs). Moreover, PDGF-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Pin1-VSMCs was higher than in control VSMCs. In Pin1-VSMCs, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction in response to nitric oxide donor was suppressed compared to control VSMCs. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) was also diminished in Pin1-VSMCs. In contrast, the activity of the inducible minimal antioxidant response element (ARE) was potentiated in Pin1-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), compared to Pin1-wild-type MEFs. Moreover, Nrf2 ubiquitination was stimulated by Pin1 overexpression. Intraperitoneal injection of juglone (a Pin1 inhibitor) for 3weeks (1mg/kg, two times a week) significantly suppressed neointimal formation induced by wire injury. In conclusion, Pin1 induction during neointimal formation may be associated with ROS-mediated VSMC proliferation via down-regulation of Nrf2/ARE-dependent HO-1 expression. Pin1 may be a novel therapeutic target for several vascular diseases including atherosclerosis and stenosis.

  1. Fractional Moment Bounds and Disorder Relevance for Pinning Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, Bernard; Giacomin, Giambattista; Lacoin, Hubert; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio

    2009-05-01

    We study the critical point of directed pinning/wetting models with quenched disorder. The distribution K(·) of the location of the first contact of the (free) polymer with the defect line is assumed to be of the form K( n) = n - α-1 L( n), with α ≥ 0 and L(·) slowly varying. The model undergoes a (de)-localization phase transition: the free energy (per unit length) is zero in the delocalized phase and positive in the localized phase. For α < 1/2 disorder is irrelevant: quenched and annealed critical points coincide for small disorder, as well as quenched and annealed critical exponents [3,28]. The same has been proven also for α = 1/2, but under the assumption that L(·) diverges sufficiently fast at infinity, a hypothesis that is not satisfied in the (1 + 1)-dimensional wetting model considered in [12,17], where L(·) is asymptotically constant. Here we prove that, if 1/2 < α < 1 or α > 1, then quenched and annealed critical points differ whenever disorder is present, and we give the scaling form of their difference for small disorder. In agreement with the so-called Harris criterion, disorder is therefore relevant in this case. In the marginal case α = 1/2, under the assumption that L(·) vanishes sufficiently fast at infinity, we prove that the difference between quenched and annealed critical points, which is smaller than any power of the disorder strength, is positive: disorder is marginally relevant. Again, the case considered in [12,17] is out of our analysis and remains open. The results are achieved by setting the parameters of the model so that the annealed system is localized, but close to criticality, and by first considering a quenched system of size that does not exceed the correlation length of the annealed model. In such a regime we can show that the expectation of the partition function raised to a suitably chosen power {γ in (0, 1)} is small. We then exploit such an information to prove that the expectation of the same fractional

  2. Alkoxy-auxins are selective inhibitors of auxin transport mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 transporters.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-21

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCF(TIR1) auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development.

  3. Alkoxy-auxins Are Selective Inhibitors of Auxin Transport Mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S.; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCFTIR1 auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development. PMID:21084292

  4. Nonequilibrium dynamic phases in driven vortex lattices with periodic pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Charles Michael

    1998-12-01

    We present the results of an extensive series of simulations of flux-gradient and current driven vortices interacting with either random or periodically arranged pinning sites. First, we consider flux-gradient-driven simulations of superconducting vortices interacting with strong randomly-distributed columnar pinning defects, as an external field H(t) is quasi-statically swept from zero through a matching field Bsb{phi}. Here, we find significant changes in the behavior of the local flux density B(x, y, H(t)), magnetization M(H(t)), critical current Jsb{c}(B(t)), and the individual vortex flow paths, as the local flux density crosses Bsb{phi}. Further, we find that for a given pin density, Jsb{c}(B) can be enhanced by maximizing the distance between the pins for B < Bsb{phi}. For the case of periodic pinning sites as a function of applied field, we find a rich variety of ordered and partially-ordered vortex lattice configurations. We present formulas that predict the matching fields at which commensurate vortex configurations occur and the vortex lattice orientation with respect to the pinning lattice. Our results are in excellent agreement with recent imaging experiments on square pinning arrays (K. Harada et al., Science 274, 1167 (1996)). For current driven simulations with periodic pinning we find a remarkable number of dynamical plastic flow phases. Signatures of the transitions between these different dynamical phases include sudden jumps in the current-voltage curves, hysteresis, as well as marked changes in the vortex trajectories and vortex lattice order. These phases are outlined in a series of dynamic phase diagrams. We show that several of these phases and their phase-boundaries can be understood in terms of analytical arguments. Finally, when the vortex lattice is driven at varying angles with respect to the underlying periodic pinning array, the transverse voltage-current V(I) curves show a series of mode-locked plateaus with the overall V(I) forming

  5. Posttranslational modification and trafficking of PIN auxin efflux carriers.

    PubMed

    Löfke, Christian; Luschnig, Christian; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is absolutely essential for multicellular organisms. Both animals and plants use chemicals called hormones for intercellular signaling. However, multicellularity of plants and animals has evolved independently, which led to establishment of distinct strategies in order to cope with variations in an ever-changing environment. The phytohormone auxin is crucial to plant development and patterning. PIN auxin efflux carrier-driven polar auxin transport regulates plant development as it controls asymmetric auxin distribution (auxin gradients), which in turn modulates a wide range of developmental processes. Internal and external cues trigger a number of posttranslational PIN auxin carrier modifications that were demonstrated to decisively influence variations in adaptive growth responses. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the analysis of posttranslational modification of PIN auxin efflux carriers, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, and discuss their eminent role in directional vesicle trafficking, PIN protein de-/stabilization and auxin transport activity. We conclude with updated models, in which we attempt to integrate the mechanistic relevance of posttranslational modifications of PIN auxin carriers for the dynamic nature of plant development.

  6. Irradiation of TZM: Uranium dioxide fuel pin at 1700 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    A fuel pin clad with TZM and containing solid pellets of uranium dioxide was fission heated in a static helium-cooled capsule at a maximum surface temperature of 1700 K for approximately 1000 hr and to a total burnup of 2.0 percent of the uranium-235. The results of the postirradiation examination indicated: (1) A transverse, intergranular failure of the fuel pin occurred when the fuel pin reached 2.0-percent burnup. This corresponds to 1330 kW-hr/cu cm, where the volume is the sum of the fuel, clad, and void volumes in the fuel region. (2) The maximum swelling of the fuel pin was less than 1.5 percent on the fuel-pin diameter. (3) There was no visible interaction between the TZM clad and the UO2. (4) Irradiation at 1700 K produced a course-grained structure, with an average grain diameter of 0.02 centimeter and with some of the grains extending one-half of the thickness of the clad. (5) Below approximately 1500 K, the irradiation of the clad produced a moderately fine-grained structure, with an average grain diameter of 0.004 centimeter.

  7. A flux-pinning mechanism for segment assembly and alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica A.; Arnold, William R.; Peck, Mason A.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-10-01

    Currently, the most compelling astrophysics questions include how planets and the first stars formed and whether there are protostellar disks that contain large organic molecules. Although answering these questions requires space telescopes with apertures of at least 10 meters, such large primaries are challenging to construct by scaling up previous designs; the limited capacity of a launch vehicle bounds the maximum diameter of a monolithic primary, and beyond a certain size, deployable telescopes cannot fit in current launch vehicle fairings. One potential solution is connecting the primary mirror segments edgewise using flux-pinning mechanisms, which are analogous to non-contacting damped springs. In the baseline design, a flux-pinning mechanism consists of a magnet and a superconductor separated by a predetermined gap, with the damping adjusted by placing aluminum near the interface. Since flux pinning is possible only when the superconductor is cooled below a critical temperature, flux-pinning mechanisms are uniquely suited for cryogenic space telescopes. By placing these mechanisms along the edges of the mirror segments, a primary can be built up over time. Since flux pinning requires no mechanical deployments, the assembly process could be robotic or use some other noncontacting scheme. Advantages of this approach include scalability and passive stability.

  8. A Flux-Pinning Mechanism for Segment Assembly and Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica A.; Arnold, William R.; Peck, Mason A.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the most compelling astrophysics questions include how planets and the first stars formed and whether there are protostellar disks that contain large organic molecules. Although answering these questions requires space telescopes with apertures of at least 10 meters, such large primaries are challenging to construct by scaling up previous designs; the limited capacity of a launch vehicle bounds the maximum diameter of a monolithic primary, and beyond a certain size, deployable telescopes cannot fit in current launch vehicle fairings. One potential solution is connecting the primary mirror segments edgewise using flux-pinning mechanisms, which are analogous to non-contacting damped springs. In the baseline design, a flux-pinning mechanism consists of a magnet and a superconductor separated by a predetermined gap, with the damping adjusted by placing aluminum near the interface. Since flux pinning is possible only when the superconductor is cooled below a critical temperature, flux-pinning mechanisms are uniquely suited for cryogenic space telescopes. By placing these mechanisms along the edges of the mirror segments, a primary can be built up over time. Since flux pinning requires no mechanical deployments, the assembly process could be robotic or use some other non-contacting scheme. Advantages of this approach include scalability and passive stability.

  9. Pin1 and PKMζ Sequentially Control Dendritic Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Westmark, Pamela R.; Westmark, Cara J.; Wang, SuQing; Levenson, Jonathan; O’Riordan, Kenneth J.; Burger, Corinna; Malter, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Some forms of learning and memory, and their electrophysiologic correlate, long-term potentiation (LTP), require dendritic translation. We demonstrate that Pin1, a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, is present in dendritic spines and shafts and inhibits protein synthesis induced by glutamatergic signaling. Pin1 suppression increased dendritic translation, possibly through eIF4E binding proteins 1 and 2 (4E-BP1/2) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). Consistent with increased protein synthesis, hippocampal slices from Pin−/− mice had normal early LTP (E-LTP) but significantly enhanced late LTP (L-LTP) compared to wild-type controls. Protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) and protein kinase M ζ (PKMζ) were increased in Pin1−/− mouse brain and their activity was required to maintain dendritic translation. PKMζ interacted with and inhibited Pin1 by phosphorylating Ser16. Therefore, glutamate-induced, dendritic protein synthesis is sequentially regulated by Pin1 and PKMζ signaling. PMID:20215645

  10. Stroboscopic phenomena in superconductors with dynamic pinning landscape

    PubMed Central

    Jelić, Ž. L.; Milošević, M. V.; Van de Vondel, J.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing artificial pinning centers is a well established strategy to trap quantum vortices and increase the maximal magnetic field and applied electric current that a superconductor can sustain without dissipation. In case of spatially periodic pinning, a clear enhancement of the superconducting critical current arises when commensurability between the vortex configurations and the pinning landscape occurs. With recent achievements in (ultrafast) optics and nanoengineered plasmonics it has become possible to exploit the interaction of light with superconductivity, and create not only spatially periodic imprints on the superconducting condensate, but also temporally periodic ones. Here we show that in the latter case, temporal matching phenomena develop, caused by stroboscopic commensurability between the characteristic frequency of the vortex motion under applied current and the frequency of the dynamic pinning. The matching resonances persist in a broad parameter space, including magnetic field, driving current, or material purity, giving rise to unusual features such as externally variable resistance/impedance and Shapiro steps in current-voltage characteristics. All features are tunable by the frequency of the dynamic pinning landscape. These findings open further exploration avenues for using flashing, spatially engineered, and/or mobile excitations on superconductors, permitting us to achieve advanced functionalities. PMID:26423610

  11. Stroboscopic phenomena in superconductors with dynamic pinning landscape.

    PubMed

    Jelić, Ž L; Milošević, M V; Van de Vondel, J; Silhanek, A V

    2015-10-01

    Introducing artificial pinning centers is a well established strategy to trap quantum vortices and increase the maximal magnetic field and applied electric current that a superconductor can sustain without dissipation. In case of spatially periodic pinning, a clear enhancement of the superconducting critical current arises when commensurability between the vortex configurations and the pinning landscape occurs. With recent achievements in (ultrafast) optics and nanoengineered plasmonics it has become possible to exploit the interaction of light with superconductivity, and create not only spatially periodic imprints on the superconducting condensate, but also temporally periodic ones. Here we show that in the latter case, temporal matching phenomena develop, caused by stroboscopic commensurability between the characteristic frequency of the vortex motion under applied current and the frequency of the dynamic pinning. The matching resonances persist in a broad parameter space, including magnetic field, driving current, or material purity, giving rise to unusual features such as externally variable resistance/impedance and Shapiro steps in current-voltage characteristics. All features are tunable by the frequency of the dynamic pinning landscape. These findings open further exploration avenues for using flashing, spatially engineered, and/or mobile excitations on superconductors, permitting us to achieve advanced functionalities.

  12. Silicide Schottky Contacts to Silicon: Screened Pinning at Defect Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, T.J.

    1999-03-11

    Silicide Schottky contacts can be as large as 0.955 eV (E{sub v} + 0.165 eV) on n-type silicon and as large as 1.05 eV (E{sub c} {minus} 0.07 eV) on p-type silicon. Current models of Schottky barrier formation do not provide a satisfactory explanation of occurrence of this wide variation. A model for understanding Schottky contacts via screened pinning at defect levels is presented. In the present paper it is shown that most transition metal silicides are pinned approximately 0.48 eV above the valence band by interstitial Si clusters. Rare earth disilicides pin close to the divacancy acceptor level 0.41 eV below the conduction band edge while high work function silicides of Ir and Pt pin close to the divacancy donor level 0.21 eV above the valence band edge. Selection of a particular defect pinning level depends strongly on the relative positions of the silicide work function and the defect energy level on an absolute energy scale.

  13. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ho; Jeong, Hyung Min; Han, Younho; Cheong, Heesun; Kang, Bok Yun; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2015-01-15

    Osterix is an essential transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. The mechanism of regulation of Osterix by post-translational modification remains unknown. Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase 1 (Pin1) catalyzes the isomerization of pSer/Thr-Pro bonds and induces a conformational change in its substrates, subsequently regulating diverse cellular processes. In this study, we demonstrated that Pin1 interacts with Osterix and influences its protein stability and transcriptional activity. This regulation is likely due to the suppression of poly-ubiquitination-mediated proteasomal degradation of Osterix. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Pin1 is a novel regulator of Osterix and may play an essential role in the regulation of osteogenic differentiation.

  14. Impact of Edge-Barrier Pinning in Superconducting Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W. A.; Barnes, P.N.; Mullins, M. J.; Baca, F. J.; Emergo, R. L. S.; Wu, J.; Haugan, T. J.; Clem, J. R.

    2010-12-30

    It has been suggested that edge-barrier pinning might cause the critical current density (J{sub c}) in bridged superconducting films to increase. Subsequent work indicated that this edge-barrier effect does not impact bridges larger than 1 {micro}m. However, we provide a theoretical assessment with supporting experimental data suggesting edge-barrier pinning can significantly enhance J{sub c} for bridges of a few microns or even tens of microns thus skewing any comparisons among institutions. As such, when reporting flux pinning and superconductor processing improvements for J{sub c} comparisons, the width of the sample has to be taken into consideration as is currently done with film thickness.

  15. Anisotropy of strong pinning in multi-band superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Beek, C. J.; Konczykowski, M.; Prozorov, R.

    2012-08-01

    The field-angular dependence and anisotropy of the critical current density in iron-based superconductors is evaluated using a phenomenological approach featuring distinct anisotropy factors for the penetration depth and the coherence length. Both the weak collective pinning limit and the strong pinning limit relevant for iron-based superconductors at low magnetic fields are considered. It is found that in the more anisotropic materials, such as SmFeAsO and NdFeAsO, the field-angular dependence is completely dominated by the coherence length (upper critical field) anisotropy, thereby explaining recent results on the critical current in these materials. In less anisotropic superconductors, strong pinning can lead to an apparent inversion of the anisotropy. Finally, it is shown that, under all circumstances, the ratio of the c-axis and ab-plane critical current densities for the magnetic field along the ab-plane directly yields the coherence length anisotropy factor ɛξ.

  16. Self-pinning by colloids confined at a contact line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weon, Byung; Je, Jung

    2013-03-01

    Colloidal particles suspended in a fluid usually inhibit complete wetting of the fluid on a solid surface and cause pinning of the contact line, known as self-pinning. We show differences in spreading and drying behaviors of pure and colloidal droplets using optical and confocal imaging methods. These differences come from spreading inhibition by colloids confined at a contact line. We propose a self-pinning mechanism based on spreading inhibition by colloids. We find a good agreement between the mechanism and the experimental result taken by directly tracking individual colloids near the contact lines of evaporating colloidal droplets. This research was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (Functional X-ray Imaging) of MEST/NRF.

  17. Practical synchronization on complex dynamical networks via optimal pinning control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kezan; Sun, Weigang; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu

    2015-07-01

    We consider practical synchronization on complex dynamical networks under linear feedback control designed by optimal control theory. The control goal is to minimize global synchronization error and control strength over a given finite time interval, and synchronization error at terminal time. By utilizing the Pontryagin's minimum principle, and based on a general complex dynamical network, we obtain an optimal system to achieve the control goal. The result is verified by performing some numerical simulations on Star networks, Watts-Strogatz networks, and Barabási-Albert networks. Moreover, by combining optimal control and traditional pinning control, we propose an optimal pinning control strategy which depends on the network's topological structure. Obtained results show that optimal pinning control is very effective for synchronization control in real applications.

  18. Pin Tool Geometry Effects in Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querin, J. A.; Rubisoff, H. A.; Schneider, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW) there is significant evidence that material can take one of two different flow paths when being displaced from its original position in front of the pin tool to its final position in the wake of the weld. The geometry of the pin tool, along with the process parameters, plays an important role in dictating the path that the material takes. Each flow path will impart a different thermomechanical history on the material, consequently altering the material microstructure and subsequent weld properties. The intention of this research is to isolate the effect that different pin tool attributes have on the flow paths imparted on the FSWed material. Based on published weld tool geometries, a variety of weld tools were fabricated and used to join AA2219. Results from the tensile properties and microstructural characterization will be presented.

  19. Resolving the Pinning Force of Nanobubbles with Optical Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Beng Hau; An, Hongjie; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2017-02-01

    Many of the remarkable properties of surface nanobubbles, such as unusually small contact angles and long lifetimes, are related to the force that pins them onto their substrates. This pinning force is yet to be quantified experimentally. Here, surface-attached nanobubbles are pulled with an atomic force microscope tip while their mechanical responses are observed with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We estimate that a pinning force on the order of 0.1 μ N is required to unpin a nanobubble from its substrate. The maximum force that the tip can exert on the nanobubble is limited by the stability of the neck pulled from the bubble and is enhanced by the hydrophobicity of the tip.

  20. Transverse commensurability effect for vortices on periodic pinning arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia J

    2008-01-01

    Using computer simulations, we demonstrate a type of commensurability that occurs for vortices moving longitudinally through periodic pinning arrays in the presence of an additional transverse driving force. As a function of vortex density, there is a series of broad maxima in the transverse critical depinning force that do not fall at the matching fields where the number of vortices equals an integer multiple of the number of pinning sites. The commensurability effects are associated with dynamical states in which evenly spaced structures consisting of one or more moving rows of vortices form between rows of pinning sites. Remarkably, the critical transverse depinning force can be more than an order of magnitude larger than the longitudinal depinning force.

  1. Dark current study for CMOS fully integrated-PIN-photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teva, Jordi; Jessenig, Stefan; Jonak-Auer, Ingrid; Schrank, Franz; Wachmann, Ewald

    2011-05-01

    PIN photodiodes are semiconductor devices widely used in a huge range of applications, such as photoconductors, charge-coupled devices and pulse oximeters for medical applications. The possibility to combine and to integrate the fabrication of the sensor with its signal conditioning circuitry in a CMOS process allows device miniaturization in addition to enhance its properties lowering the production and assembly costs. This paper presents the design and characterization of silicon based PIN photodiodes integrated in a CMOS commercial process. A high-resistivity, low impurity substrate is chosen as the start material for the PIN photodiode array fabrication in order to fabricate devices with a minimum dark current. The dark current is studied, analyzed and measured for two different starting materials and for different geometries. A model previously proposed is reviewed and compared with experimental data.

  2. FFTF/IEM cell fuel pin weighing system

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is used for remote disassembly of irradiated fuel and materials experiments. For those fuel experiments where the FFTF tag-gas detection system has indicated a fuel pin cladding breach, a weighing system is used in identifying that fuel pin with a reduced weight due to the escape of gaseous and volatile fission products. A fuel pin weighing machine, originally purchased for use in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), was the basis for the IEM cell system. Design modifications to the original equipment were centered around adapting the machine to the differences between the two facilities and correcting deficiencies discovered during functional testing in the IEM cell mock-up.

  3. Practical synchronization on complex dynamical networks via optimal pinning control.

    PubMed

    Li, Kezan; Sun, Weigang; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu

    2015-07-01

    We consider practical synchronization on complex dynamical networks under linear feedback control designed by optimal control theory. The control goal is to minimize global synchronization error and control strength over a given finite time interval, and synchronization error at terminal time. By utilizing the Pontryagin's minimum principle, and based on a general complex dynamical network, we obtain an optimal system to achieve the control goal. The result is verified by performing some numerical simulations on Star networks, Watts-Strogatz networks, and Barabási-Albert networks. Moreover, by combining optimal control and traditional pinning control, we propose an optimal pinning control strategy which depends on the network's topological structure. Obtained results show that optimal pinning control is very effective for synchronization control in real applications.

  4. Anisotropy of strong pinning in multi-band superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    van der Beek, C.J.; Konczykowski, M.; Prozorov, Ruslan

    2012-07-17

    The field-angular dependence and anisotropy of the critical current density in iron-based superconductors is evaluated using a phenomenological approach featuring distinct anisotropy factors for the penetration depth and the coherence length. Both the weak collective pinning limit and the strong pinning limit relevant for iron-based superconductors at low magnetic fields are considered. It is found that in the more anisotropic materials, such as SmFeAsO and NdFeAsO, the field-angular dependence is completely dominated by the coherence length (upper critical field) anisotropy, thereby explaining recent results on the critical current in these materials. In less anisotropic superconductors, strong pinning can lead to an apparent inversion of the anisotropy. Finally, it is shown that, under all circumstances, the ratio of the c-axis and ab-plane critical current densities for the magnetic field along the ab-plane directly yields the coherence length anisotropy factor εξ.

  5. A Validation Study of Pin Heat Transfer for MOX Fuel Based on the IFA-597 Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Phillippe, Aaron M; Clarno, Kevin T; Banfield, James E; Ott, Larry J; Philip, Bobby; Berrill, Mark A; Sampath, Rahul S; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The IFA-597 (Integrated Fuel Assessment) experiments from the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database were designed to study the thermal behavior of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and the effects of an annulus on fission gas release in light-water-reactor fuel. An evaluation of nuclear fuel pin heat transfer in the FRAPCON-3.4 and Exnihilo codes for MOX fuel systems was performed, with a focus on the first 20 time steps ( 6 GWd/MT(iHM)) for explicit comparison between the codes. In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the effect of the radial power shape and approximations to the geometry to account for the thermocouple hole, dish, and chamfer. The analysis demonstrated relative agreement for both solid (rod 1) and annular (rod 2) fuel in the experiment, demonstrating the accuracy of the codes and their underlying material models for MOX fuel, while also revealing a small energy loss artifact in how gap conductance is currently handled in Exnihilo for chamfered fuel pellets. The within-pellet power shape was shown to significantly impact the predicted centerline temperatures. This has provided an initial benchmarking of the pin heat transfer capability of Exnihilo for MOX fuel with respect to a well-validated nuclear fuel performance code.

  6. Verification of the SRB motor case pin retainer band tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karu, Z. S.

    1980-01-01

    The pin retainer band is a 1-1/4 in. wide by about 1/32 in. thick steel band that is stretched over the pins circumferentially at the joints of the solid rocket booster (SRB) motor case segments. Its purpose is to hold the retaining pins in place during flight. Since the band is thin and is mounted stretched, or under tension, over the pins which are greased in place, it is necessary to protect it thermally. Three typical areas of the band location on the SRB motor case joints were chosen for verifying the cork thermal prection system (TPS) performance on the band: the joint in front of the attach ring, at the aft skirt joint in front of the kick ring and in an unperturbed area at the forward segments of the SRB motor cases. The kick ring area pin retainer band cork TPS passed the test requirements in the region where there are no phenolic splice caps. In the splice cap areas where the band TPS is closed out around the splice with K5NA, additional amounts of K5NA material is required to adequately protect the steel band. TPS requirements were easily met in the one location where the ends of the steel band are joined together after installation and tensioning. The attack ring area pin retainer band TPS did not quite pass the heat load requirements with the .375 in. thick cork TPS as used for the kick ring area band. It is recommended that the cork thickness here be increased to .50 in. The unperturbed area band TPS presented no problems.

  7. Reconstructing Masculinity and Power in Africa through Open Distance Learning for Sustainable Development: A Critical Analysis of Wole Soyinka's "Climate of Fear"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adetunji, Barihi; Adesida, Aderonke Adetunji

    2009-01-01

    The strabismus conception of masculinity and power with its manipulation as reflected in the consequences of actions endorsed and demonstrated by leaders, followers, citizens as individuals and groups at different times in the past, and present has been a major source of the seemingly quiescence and underdevelopment in Africa. Masculinity has…

  8. Swallowing a safety pin: Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Benizri, Emmanuel Isaac; Cohen, Charlotte; Bereder, Jean Marc; Rahili, Amine; Benchimol, Daniel

    2012-01-27

    Ingestion of a foreign body is a frequent and well-known medical problem with several diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Usually, ingested foreign bodies pass through the alimentary tract without incident. In some cases, they can be lodged in the appendix and may cause appendicitis. We report a case of a 29-year old woman, suffering from mental illness, with a safety pin lodged in the appendix. Initially, the patient consulted for abdominal pain. After a period of waiting, during which time the foreign body did not move, a colonoscopy was performed but failed to see the safety pin. Then, the patient underwent a laparoscopic appendectomy. Pathological examination showed an ulcerative appendicitis.

  9. An open safety pin in the larynx: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S S; Raine, C H; Caldicott, L D; Wade, M J

    1994-03-01

    Inhalation of a foreign body is a serious event. The number of foreign bodies that become impacted in the larynx is small and requires urgent recognition. We describe the case of a six-month-old baby with an impacted open safety pin in the larynx. The sharp end of the safety pin was upwards and had penetrated the anterior end of the left vocal fold. We discuss the management and describe our method of removal of the foreign body. Tracheostomy was not required in this case and the child had an uneventful recovery. A brief review of the literature is included.

  10. Development and analysis of superconductors with projected nanostructured pinning centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Carlos A.; Rodrigues, D.

    2004-08-01

    The present work has the main objective to study the influence of the proximity effect on the superconducting properties of materials with pinning center dimensions comparable to the coherence length. Artificial Pinning Centers (APC) of Cu(Sn) were introduced into the Nb 3Sn superconducting phase using successive bundlings followed by swaging and wire drawing. Three superconductor wires were produced using the internal tin method. After fabrication, the samples were heat treated to optimize the superconducting phase formation. Microstructural and superconducting characterization of the samples were realized. The results showed the influence of the proximity effect on Tc, Jc and Bc2.

  11. Dosimetric characteristics of a PIN diode for radiotherapy application.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Sharma, S D; Philomina, A; Topkar, A

    2014-08-01

    The PIN diode developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) was modified for its use as a dosimeter in radiation therapy. For this purpose the diode was mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) and provided with necessary connections so that its response against irradiation can be recorded by a standard radiotherapy electrometer. The dosimetric characteristics of the diode were studied in Co-60 gamma rays as well as high energy X-rays. The measured sensitivity of this PIN diode is 4 nC/cGy which is about ten times higher than some commercial diode dosimeters. The leakage current from the diode is 0.04 nA. The response of the PIN diode is linear in the range of 20-1000 cGy which covers the full range of radiation dose encountered in radiotherapy treatments. The non-linearity of the diode response is 3.5% at 20 cGy and it is less than 1.5% at higher dose values. Its repeatability is within 0.5%. The angular response variation is about 5.6% within 6608 with respect to normal beam incidence. The response of the PIN diode at 6 and 18 MV X-rays varies within 2% with respect to its response at Co-60 gamma rays. The source to surface distance (SSD) dependence of the PIN diode was studied for Co-60 beam. It was found that the response of the diode decreases almost linearly relative to given dose for beams with constant collimator setting but increasing SSD (decreasing dose-rate). Within this study the diode response varied by about 2.5% between the maximum and minimum SSD. The dose-rate dependence of the PIN diode for 6 and 15 MV-rays was studied. The variation in response of diode for both energies in the studied dose range is less than 1%. The field size dependence of the PIN diode response is within 1% with respect to the response of ionisation chamber. These studies indicate that the characteristics of the PIN diode are suitable for use in radiotherapy dosimetry.

  12. Pinning control of complex networks via edge snapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLellis, P.; di Bernardo, M.; Porfiri, M.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a hierarchy of novel decentralized adaptive pinning strategies for controlled synchronization of complex networks. This hierarchy addresses the fundamental need of selecting the sites to pin through a fully decentralized approach based on edge snapping. Specifically, we present three different strategies of increasing complexity which use a combination of network evolution and adaptation of the coupling and control gains. Theoretical results are complemented by extensive numerical investigations of the performance of the proposed strategies on a set of testbed examples.

  13. Performance of breached LMFBR fuel pins during continued operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, J.D.B.; Strain, R.V.; Gross, K.C.; Hofman, G.L.; Colburn, R.P.; Adamson, M.G.; Ukai, S.

    1985-01-01

    Four EBR-II tests were used to scope the behavior of breached mixed-oxide pins. After release of stored fission gas, delayed-neutron signals were large and easily detected, although not readily correlated with exposed fuel area. No problems were met during reactor operation or fuel handling. Fuel-sodium reaction caused only narrow breaches which released minute amounts of fuel and fission products; the reaction product appeared dense and non-friable. These initial results indicated LMFBR oxide pins could have considerable potential for operating in the breached mode.

  14. Ratchet effect in Nb films with asymmetric pinning potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas, Javier E.; Savel'Ev, Sergey; Nori, Franco; Gonzalez, Elvira M.; Anguita, Jose V.; Garcia, Ricardo; Vicent, Jose L.

    2004-03-01

    We fabricated a device that controls the motion of flux quanta in a niobium superconducting film grown on an array of nanoscale triangular pinning potentials (J. E. Villegas et al. Science 302, 1188 (2003).) The controllable rectification of the vortex motion is due to the asymmetry of the fabricated magnetic pinning centers. The reversal in the direction of the vortex flow is explained by the interaction between the vortices trapped on the magnetic nanostructures and the interstitial vortices. The applied magnetic field and input current strength can tune both the polarity and magnitude of the rectified vortex flow. Our ratchet system is explained and modeled theoretically, taking the interactions between particles into consideration.

  15. A Phosphorylated Prodrug for the Inhibition of Pin1

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Song; Etzkorn, Felicia A.

    2008-01-01

    Fmoc-pSer-Ψ[(Z)CH=C]-Pro-(2)-N-(3)-ethylaminoindole 1, showed moderate inhibition towards the mitotic regulator, Pin1 (IC50 = 28.3μM). To improve the cell permeability, the charged phosphate was masked as the bis-pivaloyloxymethyl (POM) phosphate in Fmoc-(bisPOM)-pSer-Ψ[(Z)CH=C]-Pro-(2)-N-(3)-ethylaminoindole 2. Antiproliferative activity towards A2780 ovarian cancer cells of 1 (IC50 = 46.2 μM) was improved significantly in 2 (IC50 = 26.9 μM), comparable to the IC50 of 1 towards Pin1 enzymatic activity. PMID:17935986

  16. Inner shell radial pin geometry and mounting arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen

    2002-01-01

    Circumferentially spaced arrays of support pins are disposed through access openings in an outer turbine shell and have projections received in recesses in forward and aft sections of an inner turbine shell supported from the outer shell. The projections have arcuate sides in a circumferential direction affording line contacts with the side walls of the recesses and are spaced from end faces of the recesses, enabling radial and axial expansion and contraction of the inner shell relative to the outer shell. All loads are taken up in a tangential direction by the outer shell with the support pins taking no radial loadings.

  17. Method and apparatus for enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays

    DOEpatents

    Janko, Boldizsar; Reichhardt, Cynthia; Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan

    2015-07-14

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for strongly enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays. The conformal crystal array is constructed by a conformal transformation of a hexagonal lattice, producing a non-uniform structure with a gradient where the local six-fold coordination of the pinning sites is preserved, and with an arching effect. The conformal pinning arrays produce significantly enhanced vortex pinning over a much wider range of field than that found for other vortex pinning geometries with an equivalent number of vortex pinning sites, such as random, square, and triangular.

  18. Strongly enhanced pinning of magnetic vortices in type-II superconductors by conformal crystal arrays.

    PubMed

    Ray, D; Olson Reichhardt, C J; Jankó, B; Reichhardt, C

    2013-06-28

    Conformal crystals are nonuniform structures created by a conformal transformation of regular two-dimensional lattices. We show that gradient-driven vortices interacting with a conformal pinning array exhibit substantially stronger pinning effects over a much larger range of field than found for random or periodic pinning arrangements. The pinning enhancement is partially due to matching of the critical flux gradient with the pinning gradient, but the preservation of local ordering in the conformally transformed hexagonal lattice and the arching arrangement of the pinning also play crucial roles. Our results can be generalized to a wide class of gradient-driven interacting particle systems such as colloids on optical trap arrays.

  19. Identification of a breached fuel pin in the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell

    SciTech Connect

    McGuiness, P.W.; Kalk, J.J.; Hicks, D.F.

    1987-09-01

    At the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell, experiments are routinely disassembled and examined following irradiation in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Recently and for the first time, a fueled experiment which had breached its cladding during irradiation was disassembled in the cell. The processing objective was to locate and identify the one pin (out of 217 pins) with breached cladding, and recover selected test pins for further examination. Identification of the breached pin proved to be challenging. After all pins were weighed the data were inconclusive, and alternate procedures had to be developed and implemented. Ultimately, four independent methods were used to pinpoint the breached pin.

  20. System for Controlling the Stirring Pin of a Friction Stir Welding Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor); Romine, Peter L. (Inventor); Oelgoetz, Peter A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A control is provided for a friction stir welding apparatus comprising a pin tool which includes a shoulder and a rotating pin extending outwardly from the shoulder of the pin tool and which, in use, is plunged into a workpiece formed contacting workpiece members to stir weld the members together. The control system controls the penetration of the pin tool into the workpiece members which are mounted on a support anvil. The control system includes a pin length controller for controlling pin length relative to the shoulder and for producing a corresponding pin length signal. A pin force sensor senses the force being exerted on the pin during welding and produces a corresponding actual pin force signal. A probe controller controls a probe extending outwardly from the pin, senses a parameter related to the distance between the probe and the supporting anvil and produces a corresponding probe signal. A workpiece standoff sensor senses the standoff distance between the workpiece and the standoff sensor and produces a corresponding standoff signal. A control unit receives the various signals, together with a weld schedule, and, based on these signals and the weld schedule, controls the pin length controller so as to control pin penetration into the workpiece.

  1. Capillary pinning and blunting of immiscible gravity currents in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Benzhong; MacMinn, Christopher W.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Juanes, Ruben

    2014-09-01

    Gravity-driven flows in the subsurface have attracted recent interest in the context of geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, where supercritical CO2 is captured from the flue gas of power plants and injected underground into deep saline aquifers. After injection, the CO2 will spread and migrate as a buoyant gravity current relative to the denser, ambient brine. Although the CO2 and the brine are immiscible, the impact of capillarity on CO2 spreading and migration is poorly understood. We previously studied the early time evolution of an immiscible gravity current, showing that capillary pressure hysteresis pins a portion of the macroscopic fluid-fluid interface and that this can eventually stop the flow. Here we study the full lifetime of such a gravity current. Using tabletop experiments in packings of glass beads, we show that the horizontal extent of the pinned region grows with time and that this is ultimately responsible for limiting the migration of the current to a finite distance. We also find that capillarity blunts the leading edge of the current, which contributes to further limiting the migration distance. Using experiments in etched micromodels, we show that the thickness of the blunted nose is controlled by the distribution of pore-throat sizes and the strength of capillarity relative to buoyancy. We develop a theoretical model that captures the evolution of immiscible gravity currents and predicts the maximum migration distance. By applying this model to representative aquifers, we show that capillary pinning and blunting can exert an important control on gravity currents in the context of geological CO2 storage.

  2. Analysis of 129I in the soils of Fukushima Prefecture: preliminary reconstruction of 131I deposition related to the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP).

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Chiaki; Ohno, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the most critical radionuclides to be monitored after release from reactor accidents due to the tendency for this nuclide to accumulate in the human thyroid gland. However, there are not enough data related to the reactor accident in Fukushima, Japan to provide regional information on the deposition of this short-lived nuclide (half-life = 8.02 d). In this study we have focused on the long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (half-life of 1.57 × 10(7) y), and analyzed it by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for surface soil samples collected at various locations in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to obtain information on the (131)I/(129)I ratio released from the accident, we have determined (129)I concentrations in 82 soil samples in which (131)I concentrations were previously determined. There was a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) between the two nuclides, suggesting that the (131)I levels in soil samples following the accident can be estimated through the analysis of (129)I. We have also examined the possible influence from (129m)Te on (129)I, and found no significant effect. In order to construct a deposition map of (131)I, we determined the (129)I concentrations (Bq/kg) in 388 soil samples collected from different locations in Fukushima Prefecture and the deposition densities (Bq/m(2)) of (131)I were reconstructed from the results.

  3. On pins and needles: how vaccines are portrayed on Pinterest.

    PubMed

    Guidry, Jeanine P D; Carlyle, Kellie; Messner, Marcus; Jin, Yan

    2015-09-22

    Vaccination is an effective public health tool for reducing morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases. However, increasing numbers of parents question the safety of vaccines or refuse to vaccinate their children outright. The Internet is playing a significant role in the growing voice of the anti-vaccination movement as a growing number of people use the Internet to obtain health information, including information about vaccines. Given the role the Internet plays in providing vaccination-related communication, coupled with limited research in this area, this study focused on the social media platform Pinterest, analyzing 800 vaccine-related pins through a quantitative content analysis. The majority of the pins were anti-vaccine, and most were original posts as opposed to repins. Concerns about vaccine safety and side effects were oft-repeated themes, as was the concept of conspiracy theory. Pro-vaccine pins elicited consistently more engagement than anti-vaccine pins. Health educators and public health organizations should be aware of these dynamics, since a successful health communication campaign should start with an understanding of what and how publics communicate about the topic at hand.

  4. Dynamic characteristics of a magnetorheological pin joint for civil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yancheng; Li, Jianchun

    2014-03-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) pin joint is a novel device in which its joint moment resistance can be controlled in real-time by altering the applied magnetic field. The smart pin joint is intended to be used as a controllable connector between the columns and beams of a civil structure to instantaneously shift the structural natural frequencies in order to avoid resonance and therefore to reduce unwanted vibrations and hence prevent structural damage. As an intrinsically nonlinear device, modelling of this MR fluid based device is a challenging task and makes the design of a suitable control algorithm a cumbersome situation. Aimed at its application in civil structure, the main purpose of this paper is to test and characterise the hysteretic behaviour of MR pin joint. A test scheme is designed to obtain the dynamic performance of MR pin joint in the dominant earthquake frequency range. Some unique phenomena different from those of MR damper are observed through the experimental testing. A computationally-efficient model is proposed by introducing a hyperbolic element to accurately reproduce its dynamic behaviour and to further facilitate the design of a suitable control algorithm. Comprehensive investigations on the model accuracy and dependences of the proposed model on loading condition (frequency and amplitude) and input current level are reported in the last section of this paper.

  5. Safety pin - The UNSAFE foreign body of air passage.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, K S; Lanjewar, K Y; Joshi, S V

    2006-10-01

    Foreign bodies in the air passage are familiar otolaryngological emergencies. The diagnosis and management in most cases is based on clinico-radiological findings. Here, we are reporting three cases of open safety pin at various locations in the respiratory tract i.e. in the nose, nasopharynx and larynx. Their clinical presentation and management are described in detail.

  6. 35. View is the underside of a lower chord pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. View is the underside of a lower chord pin connection showing the top strut, along with lateral and diagonal members. There are four of these per through truss for a total of eight. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  7. An improved silicon PIN diode based portable radon monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashokkumar, P.; Sahoo, B. K.; Topkar, A.; Raman, A.; Babu, D. A. R.; Sharma, D. N.; Mayya, Y. S.

    2013-05-01

    A low budget radon monitor has been developed using silicon PIN diode. Sensitivity factor of this monitor is observed to be relatively high over the other similar monitors. This is achieved by incorporation of a hemispherical mesh in the sampling chamber, thereby accelerating the electro-deposition of charged polonium atoms on the detector surface. Its performance has been tested successfully against reference equipment.

  8. Magnetically Operated Holding Plate And Ball-Lock Pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetically operated holding plate and ball-locking-pin mechanism part of object attached to, or detached from second object. Mechanism includes tubular housing inserted in hole in second object. Plunger moves inside tube forcing balls to protrude from sides. Balls prevent tube from sliding out of second object. Simpler, less expensive than motorized latches; suitable for robotics applications.

  9. Propagation of spiral waves pinned to circular and rectangular obstacles.

    PubMed

    Sutthiopad, Malee; Luengviriya, Jiraporn; Porjai, Porramain; Phantu, Metinee; Kanchanawarin, Jarin; Müller, Stefan C; Luengviriya, Chaiya

    2015-05-01

    We present an investigation of spiral waves pinned to circular and rectangular obstacles with different circumferences in both thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction and numerical simulations with the Oregonator model. For circular objects, the area always increases with the circumference. In contrast, we varied the circumference of rectangles with equal areas by adjusting their width w and height h. For both obstacle forms, the propagating parameters (i.e., wavelength, wave period, and velocity of pinned spiral waves) increase with the circumference, regardless of the obstacle area. Despite these common features of the parameters, the forms of pinned spiral waves depend on the obstacle shapes. The structures of spiral waves pinned to circles as well as rectangles with the ratio w/h∼1 are similar to Archimedean spirals. When w/h increases, deformations of the spiral shapes are observed. For extremely thin rectangles with w/h≫1, these shapes can be constructed by employing semicircles with different radii which relate to the obstacle width and the core diameter of free spirals.

  10. Inverse Optimal Pinning Control for Complex Networks of Chaotic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Edgar N.; Rodriguez, David I.

    In this paper, a control strategy based on the inverse optimal control approach is applied for pinning weighted complex networks with chaotic systems at their nodes; additionally, a cost functional is minimized. This control strategy does not require to have the same coupling strength for all node connections.

  11. End-to-end azido-pinned interlocking lanthanide squares.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Jianfeng; Zhao, Lang; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Peng; Tang, Jinkui

    2017-03-09

    A rare end-to-end azido-pinned interlocking lanthanide square was self-assembled using a ditopic Schiff-base (H2L) and NaN3 as ligands. Obvious ferromagnetic interaction and a record anisotropy barrier of 152(4) K among lanthanide azido-bridged SMMs in a zero dc field were observed.

  12. VHSIC and digital pin electronics: Applications and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, James R.

    As VHSIC technology becomes commercially available, its impact on the automatic test equipment (ATE) industry becomes significant. The author provides a brief history of the VHSIC program, highlights the impact VHSIC technology has had on the digital pin electronics of ATE, and discusses the implications for future ATE capabilities.

  13. Antioxidant Prophylaxis in the Prevention of Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    Antioxidant supplementation prevents development of PIN: Noble rats were purchased from Charles River Laboratories (Wilmington, MA). Animal experiments were...supplementation and prostate cancer prevention in the SU.VI.MAX trial. Int J Cancer. 116: 182-186 3. Hennekens, CH, Buring JE, Manson , JE et al. 1996 Lack

  14. The stress distribution in pin-loaded orthotropic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klang, E. C.; Hyer, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    The performance of mechanically fastened composite joints was studied. Specially, a single-bolt connector was modeled as a pin-loaded, infinite plate. The model that was developed used two dimensional, complex variable, elasticity techniques combined with a boundary collocation procedure to produce solutions for the problem. Through iteration, the boundary conditions were satisfied and the stresses in the plate were calculated. Several graphite epoxy laminates were studied. In addition, parameters such as the pin modulus, coefficient of friction, and pin-plate clearance were varied. Conclusions drawn from this study indicate: (1) the material properties (i.e., laminate configuration) of the plate alter the stress state and, for highly orthotropic materials, the contact stress deviates greatly from the cosinusoidal distribution often assumed; (2) friction plays a major role in the distribution of stresses in the plate; (3) reversing the load direction also greatly effects the stress distribution in the plate; (4) clearance (or interference) fits change the contact angle and thus the location of the peak hoop stress; and (5) a rigid pin appears to be a good assumption for typical material systems.

  15. The connection characteristics of flux pinned docking interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Han, Yanjun; Guo, Xing; Zhao, Cunbao; Deng, Feiyue

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the mechanism and potential advantages of flux pinned docking interface mainly composed of a high temperature superconductor and an electromagnet. In order to readily assess the connection characteristics of flux pinned docking interface, the force between a high temperature superconductor and an electromagnet needs to be investigated. Based on the magnetic dipole method and the Ampere law method, the force between two current coils can be compared, which shows that the Ampere law method has the higher calculated accuracy. Based on the improved frozen image model and the Ampere law method, the force between high temperature superconductor bulk and permanent magnet can be calculated, which is validated experimentally. Moreover, the force between high temperature superconductor and electromagnet applied to flux pinned docking interface is able to be predicted and analyzed. The connection stiffness between high temperature superconductor and permanent magnet can be calculated based on the improved frozen image model and Hooke's law. The relationship between the connection stiffness and field cooling height is analyzed. Furthermore, the connection stiffness of the flux pinned docking interface is predicted and optimized, and its effective working range is defined and analyzed in case of some different parameters.

  16. Effects of the Hubbard Interaction and Electrostatic Pinning in Polyacetylene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    has been used with end of the chain. In this work we consider the pinning the framework of the continuum modelO to study the resulting from a point...for polyacetylene. This model Hamiltonian includes the mental observation, where very careful measurements of lattice kinetic energy and couples the ir

  17. Finite-Element Fracture Analysis of Pins and Bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nord, K. J.

    1986-01-01

    Stress intensities calculated in bending and tension. Finite-element stress-analysis method gives stress-intensity estimates for surface flaws on smooth and threaded round bars. Calculations done for purely tensile and purely bending loads. Results, presented in dimensionless form, useful for determining fatigue lives of bolts and pins.

  18. Pinned orbital moments – A new contribution to magnetic anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Audehm, P.; Schmidt, M.; Brück, S.; Tietze, T.; Gräfe, J.; Macke, S.; Schütz, G.; Goering, E.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dimensionality and symmetry breaking at interfaces lead to unusual local magnetic configurations, such as glassy behavior, frustration or increased anisotropy. The interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is such an example for enhanced symmetry breaking. Here we present detailed X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and X-ray resonant magnetic reflectometry investigations on the spectroscopic nature of uncompensated pinned magnetic moments in the antiferromagnetic layer of a typical exchange bias system. Unexpectedly, the pinned moments exhibit nearly pure orbital moment character. This strong orbital pinning mechanism has not been observed so far and is not discussed in literature regarding any theory for local magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies in magnetic systems. To verify this new phenomenon we investigated the effect at different temperatures. We provide a simple model discussing the observed pure orbital moments, based on rotatable spin magnetic moments and pinned orbital moments on the same atom. This unexpected observation leads to a concept for a new type of anisotropy energy. PMID:27151436

  19. 9. DETAIL VIEW OF BOTTOM CHORD/FLOOR BEAM/IBAR PIN CONNECTION. WELDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL VIEW OF BOTTOM CHORD/FLOOR BEAM/I-BAR PIN CONNECTION. WELDED PLATE AT PIN CONNECTION IS 20TH CENTURY REVISION. - Bucks County Bridge No. 313, Spanning Delaware Canal at Letchworth Avenue, Yardley, Bucks County, PA

  20. Length to diameter ratio and row number effects in short pin fin heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brigham, B. A.; Vanfossen, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    The relative effects of pin length to diameter ratio and of pin row geometry on the heat transfer from pin fins, was determined. Array averaged heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for two configurations of staggered arrays of short pin fins (length to diameter ratio of 4). One configuration contained eight streamwise rows of pins, while the other contained only four rows. Results showed that both the 8-row and the 4-row configurations for an L sub p/D of 4, exhibit higher heat transfer than in similar tests on shorter pin fns (L sub p/D of 1/2 and 2). It was also found that for this L sub p/D ratio, the array averaged heat transfer was slightly higher with eight rows of staggered pins than with only four rows.

  1. Assemblies with both target and fuel pins in an isotope-production reactor

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

    1982-08-19

    A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium target material is placed in pins adjacent to fuel pins in order to increase the tritium production rate.

  2. Experimental study on thermal performance of micro pin fin heat sinks with various shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Junye; Li, Gui; Zhao, Xiaobao; Li, Qihe

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a visualization experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics of various shapes of micro pin fins, including the circular, ellipse, diamond, square and triangle shape micro pin fin arrays with various equivalent diameters and pin fin density. The influences study of different sizes and shapes of pin fin on Nusselt number and heat transfer coefficient have been conducted. The results show that with the increase of the flow rate, the temperature of the bottom of the experimental section decreases. And the Nusselt number of different shapes of micro pin fins increases with the increase of Re. In which, the heat transfer performance of the ellipse shape pin fin appears better among the other shapes of pin fins. However, the higher pin fin of the ellipse shape density leads to a weaker flow performance. Besides, the micro-scale heat transfer correlation between the Nusselt number and the Reynolds number is fitted based on the experimental data.

  3. Optical dispersion compensation in 300-pin MSA transponders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendlovic, David; Shabtay, Gal

    2005-02-01

    The 300-pin Multi Source Agreement (MSA) and other MSAs provide basic requirements from a transponder or transceiver used in 10Gb/s optical networks. These MSAs typically address a wide range of applications, including: SONET/SDH, 10GbE and 10GFC for Metro, long-haul (LH) and ultra-long-haul (ULH) networks. Nonetheless, being a basic standard, the 300-pin MSA addresses the minimal required specifications set and does not cover the whole set of requirements and applications that system vendors are interested in. For example, widely tunable and extended reach transponders are not included in the 300-pin MSA. Chromatic dispersion is one of the major reach limiting factors in optical networks. In reconfigurable optical networks, chunks of DWDM channels may travel through different routes and therefore require tunable dispersion compensation. In static ULH optical networks, the number of dispersion compensation fibers (DCFs) dictates the amount of residual chromatic dispersion. This residual chromatic dispersion differs from one DWDM channel to the other. Unless it is compensated at the receiver, it further restricts the link length and reduces the distance between one regenerator to the other. This results in shorter links and more O-E-O blocks, which dramatically increases the cost of the network. This paper discusses a specially designed optical dispersion compensation (ODC) device that is packaged in a standard butterfly package and can fit into a 300-pin MSA transponder. A transponder with the proposed ODC can still satisfy all the basic requirements that are described in the 300-pin MSA while providing improved chromatic dispersion tolerance.

  4. Transient Pinning and Pulling: A Mechanism for Bending Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Ian A.; Rane, Parag S.; Dickinson, Richard B.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.; Lele, Tanmay P.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules have a persistence length of the order of millimeters in vitro, but inside cells they bend over length scales of microns. It has been proposed that polymerization forces bend microtubules in the vicinity of the cell boundary or other obstacles, yet bends develop even when microtubules are polymerizing freely, unaffected by obstacles and cell boundaries. How these bends are formed remains unclear. By tracking the motions of microtubules marked by photobleaching, we found that in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells local bends develop primarily by plus-end directed transport of portions of the microtubule contour towards stationary locations (termed pinning points) along the length of the microtubule. The pinning points were transient in nature, and their eventual release allowed the bends to relax. The directionality of the transport as well as the overall incidence of local bends decreased when dynein was inhibited, while myosin inhibition had no observable effect. This suggests that dynein generates a tangential force that bends microtubules against stationary pinning points. Simulations of microtubule motion and polymerization accounting for filament mechanics and dynein forces predict the development of bends of size and shape similar to those observed in cells. Furthermore, simulations show that dynein-generated bends at a pinning point near the plus end can cause a persistent rotation of the tip consistent with the observation that bend formation near the tip can change the direction of microtubule growth. Collectively, these results suggest a simple physical mechanism for the bending of growing microtubules by dynein forces accumulating at pinning points. PMID:26974838

  5. Superlubric-pinned transition in sliding incommensurate colloidal monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelli, Davide; Vanossi, Andrea; Invernizzi, Michele; Paronuzzi, Stella; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) crystalline colloidal monolayers sliding over a laser-induced optical lattice providing the periodic "corrugation" potential recently emerged as a new tool for the study of friction between ideal crystal surfaces. Here, we focus in particular on static friction, the minimal sliding force necessary to depin one lattice from the other. If the colloid and the optical lattices are mutually commensurate, the colloid sliding is always pinned by static friction; however, when they are incommensurate, the presence or absence of pinning can be expected to depend upon the system parameters, like in one-dimensional (1D) systems. If a 2D analogy to the mathematically established Aubry transition of one-dimensional systems were to hold, an increasing periodic corrugation strength U0 should turn an initially free-sliding, superlubric colloid into a pinned state, where the static friction force goes from zero to finite through a well-defined dynamical phase transition. We address this problem by the simulated sliding of a realistic model 2D colloidal lattice, confirming the existence of a clear and sharp superlubric-pinned transition for increasing corrugation strength. Unlike the 1D Aubry transition, which is continuous, the 2D transition exhibits a definite first-order character, with a jump of static friction. With no change of symmetry, the transition entails a structural character, with a sudden increase of the colloid-colloid interaction energy, accompanied by a compensating downward jump of the colloid-corrugation energy. The transition value for the corrugation amplitude U0 depends upon the misalignment angle θ between the optical and the colloidal lattices, superlubricity surviving until larger corrugations for angles away from the energetically favored orientation, which is itself generally slightly misaligned, as shown in recent work. The observability of the superlubric-pinned colloid transition is proposed and discussed.

  6. [Apical root pins of high-karat gold alloys for resected roots].

    PubMed

    Handtmann, S; Lindemann, W; Sculte, W

    1989-02-01

    Following earlier studies on corrosion of silver pins in the root canal experience will be presented with the use of high-karat gold pins for apical closure of root amputations. The commercially available standardized Ackermann silver pins were replaced by high-karat gold pins of similar Vicker hardness and inserted in 218 patients with 264 root amputations since 1986. A clinical and radiological follow-up demonstrated a success rate of over 90%.

  7. Accelerated augmented Lagrangian method for few-view CT reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Junfeng; Mou, Xuanqin

    2012-03-01

    Recently iterative reconstruction algorithms with total variation (TV) regularization have shown its tremendous power in image reconstruction from few-view projection data, but it is much more demanding in computation. In this paper, we propose an accelerated augmented Lagrangian method (ALM) for few-view CT reconstruction with total variation regularization. Experimental phantom results demonstrate that the proposed method not only reconstruct high quality image from few-view projection data but also converge fast to the optimal solution.

  8. Strain tunable light emitting diodes with germanium P-I-N heterojunctions

    DOEpatents

    Lagally, Max G; Sanchez Perez, Jose Roberto

    2016-10-18

    Tunable p-i-n diodes comprising Ge heterojunction structures are provided. Also provided are methods for making and using the tunable p-i-n diodes. Tunability is provided by adjusting the tensile strain in the p-i-n heterojunction structure, which enables the diodes to emit radiation over a range of wavelengths.

  9. Expression Analysis of PIN Genes in Root Tips and Nodules of Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Sańko-Sawczenko, Izabela; Łotocka, Barbara; Czarnocka, Weronika

    2016-07-25

    Polar auxin transport is dependent on the family of PIN-formed proteins (PINs), which are membrane transporters of anionic indole-3-acetic acid (IAA(-)). It is assumed that polar auxin transport may be essential in the development and meristematic activity maintenance of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) root nodules. However, little is known about the involvement of specific PIN proteins in M. truncatula nodulation. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we analyzed the expression patterns of all previously identified MtPIN genes and compared them between root nodules and root tips of M. truncatula. Our results demonstrated significant differences in the expression level of all 11 genes (MtPIN1-MtPIN11) between examined organs. Interestingly, MtPIN9 was the only PIN gene with higher expression level in root nodules compared to root tips. This result is the first indication of PIN9 transporter potential involvement in M. truncatula nodulation. Moreover, relatively high expression level in root nodules was attributed to MtPINs encoding orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana PIN5 subclade. PIN proteins from this subclade have been found to localize in the endoplasmic reticulum, which may indicate that the development and meristematic activity maintenance of M. truncatula root nodules is associated with intracellular homeostasis of auxins level and their metabolism in the endoplasmic reticulum.

  10. Optimization of pin bearing joint strength for segmented graphite/epoxy filament wound case in Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munjal, A. K.; Wilks, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt is made to demonstrate the feasibility of a composite joint in a segmented, graphite/epoxy filament-wound composite case for the Space Shuttle's Solid Rocket Motors. The joint's required ultimate line load is of the of 82,000 lb/in. By optimizing composite layup, and the ratios of pin diameter/specimen thickness, edge distance/pin diameter, and specimen width/pin diameter, a pin bearing joint strength of 85 ksi was obtained. Double pin testing disclosed that the pin close to the composite joint carries a higher load than the outboard pin. Pin bearing strength is noted to vary with matrix resin system.

  11. Study on Dynamic Compression Properties of K9 Glass with Doppler Pins Array Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changming, Hu; Xiang, Wang; Lingcang, Cai; Cangli, Liu

    2009-06-01

    K9 glass is one of archetypal brittle materials for studies of dynamic fracture, failure wave, and so on. This paper presented the dynamic compression properties of K9 glass under uniaxial strain condition. Experimental sample is K9 glass with internal pre-existed defects, and the shape of pre-existed defects is disc with less than 0.5 mm diameter. All tests were conducted by power gun with 37 mm diameter chamber. Doppler Pins array with high space-time resolutions, which consists of sixteen pins in range of 2 mm line length, were applied to measure the particle velocity histories in different positions at the sample rear surface, and the space-resolution is 127 μm, Experimental results show failure waves initiate at internal micro-surfaces of the sample under shock loading, and the dynamic stress concentration is likely attributed to be a physical mechanism of the initiation of the failure wave. These defects that by the controlled laser irradiation in advance are some internal micro-surfaces. Meanwhile, the experimental results show that internal micro-surfaces of the sample have influence on the elastic precursor wave decay.

  12. Controlling flow in microfluidic channels with a manually actuated pin valve.

    PubMed

    Brett, Marie-Elena; Zhao, Shuping; Stoia, Jonathan L; Eddington, David T

    2011-08-01

    There is a need for a simple method to control fluid flow within microfluidic channels. To meet this need, a simple push pin with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tip has been integrated into microfluidic networks to be placed within the microchannel to obstruct flow. This new valve design can attain on/off control of fluid flow without an external power source using readily-available, low-cost materials. The valve consists of a 14 gauge (1.6 mm) one inch piece of metal tubing with a PDMS pad at the tip to achieve a fluidic seal when pressed against a microfluidic channel's substrate. The metal tubing or pin is then either manually pushed down to block or pulled up to allow fluid flow. The valve was validated using a pressure transducer and fluorescent dye to determine the breakthrough pressure the valve can withstand over multiple cycles. In the first cycle, the median value for pressure withstood by the valve was 8.8 psi with a range of 17.5-2.7 psi. The pressure the valves were able to withstand during each successive trial was lower suggesting they may be most valuable as a method to control the initial introduction of fluids into a microfluidic device. These valves can achieve flow regulation within microfluidic devices, have a small dead volume, and are simple to fabricate and use, making this technique widely suitable for a range of applications.

  13. Secondary electron emission contrast of quantum wells in GaAs p-i-n junctions.

    PubMed

    Grunbaum, Enrique; Barkay, Zahava; Shapira, Yoram; Barnham, Keith W J; Bushnell, David B; Ekins-Daukes, Nicholas J; Mazzer, Massimo; Wilshaw, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The secondary electron (SE) signal over a cleaved surface of GaAs p-i-n solar cells containing stacks of quantum wells (QWs) is analyzed by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. The InGaAs QWs appear darker than the GaAsP barriers, which is attributed to the differences in electron affinity. This method is shown to be a powerful tool for profiling the conduction band minimum across junctions and interfaces with nanometer resolution. The intrinsic region is shown to be pinned to the Fermi level. Additional SE contrast mechanisms are discussed in relation to the dopant regions themselves as well as the AlGaAs window at the p-region. A novel method of in situ observation of the SE profile changes resulting from reverse biasing these structures shows that the built-in potential may be deduced. The obtained value of 0.7 eV is lower than the conventional bulk value due to surface effects.

  14. Temperature-variable high-frequency dynamic modeling of PIN diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangbin, Ye; Jiajia, Zhang; Yicheng, Zhang; Yongtao, Yao

    2016-04-01

    The PIN diode model for high frequency dynamic transient characteristic simulation is important in conducted EMI analysis. The model should take junction temperature into consideration since equipment usually works at a wide range of temperature. In this paper, a temperature-variable high frequency dynamic model for the PIN diode is built, which is based on the Laplace-transform analytical model at constant temperature. The relationship between model parameters and temperature is expressed as temperature functions by analyzing the physical principle of these parameters. A fast recovery power diode MUR1560 is chosen as the test sample and its dynamic performance is tested under inductive load by a temperature chamber experiment, which is used for model parameter extraction and model verification. Results show that the model proposed in this paper is accurate for reverse recovery simulation with relatively small errors at the temperature range from 25 to 120 °C. Project supported by the National High Technology and Development Program of China (No. 2011AA11A265).

  15. CMOS Imaging of Pin-Printed Xerogel-Based Luminescent Sensor Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lei; Yung, Ka Yi; Khan, Rifat; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Bright, Frank V

    2010-12-01

    We present the design and implementation of a luminescence-based miniaturized multisensor system using pin-printed xerogel materials which act as host media for chemical recognition elements. We developed a CMOS imager integrated circuit (IC) to image the luminescence response of the xerogel-based sensor array. The imager IC uses a 26 × 20 (520 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each active pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. The imager includes a correlated double sampling circuit and pixel address/digital control circuit; the image data is read-out as coded serial signal. The sensor system uses a light-emitting diode (LED) to excite the target analyte responsive luminophores doped within discrete xerogel-based sensor elements. As a prototype, we developed a 4 × 4 (16 elements) array of oxygen (O2) sensors. Each group of 4 sensor elements in the array (arranged in a row) is designed to provide a different and specific sensitivity to the target gaseous O2 concentration. This property of multiple sensitivities is achieved by using a strategic mix of two oxygen sensitive luminophores ([Ru(dpp)3](2+) and ([Ru(bpy)3](2+)) in each pin-printed xerogel sensor element. The CMOS imager consumes an average power of 8 mW operating at 1 kHz sampling frequency driven at 5 V. The developed prototype system demonstrates a low cost and miniaturized luminescence multisensor system.

  16. Highly Efficient White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with a p-i-n Tandem Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Meiso; Su, Shui-Hsiang; Hou, Cheng-Chieh; Wu, Chung-Ta; Kung, Chun-Hao

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of highly efficient white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with a p-i-n tandem structure using lithium (Li)-doped tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)/molybdenum oxide (MoOx)-doped 4,4',4''-tris[2-naphthyl(phenyl)amino] triphenylamine (2-TNATA) as an effective interconnecting layer (ICL). The tandem device exhibited a luminance of 3800 cd/m2, a luminous efficiency of 18.8 cd/A, a power efficiency of 5.48 lm/W, an external quantum efficiency of 6.5%, and the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (x=0.312, y=0.396) at 20 mA/cm2. The electroluminescence color of this p-i-n tandem device nearly did not change significantly with driving voltage variation and viewing angle. The various interfaces of ICL in such a tandem device were studied using a photovoltaic setup and were used to elucidate the mechanisms of the tandem devices.

  17. Percutaneous external fixator pins with bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films for the prevention of pin tract infection.

    PubMed

    Qu, Haibo; Knabe, Christine; Radin, Shula; Garino, Jonathan; Ducheyne, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Risk of infection is considerable in open fractures, especially when fracture fixation devices are used to stabilize the fractured bones. Overall deep infection rates of 16.2% have been reported. The infection rate is even greater, up to 32.2%, with external fixation of femoral fractures. The use of percutaneous implants for certain clinical applications, such as percutaneous implants for external fracture fixation, still represents a challenge today. Currently, bone infections are very difficult to treat. Very potent antibiotics are needed, which creates the risk of irreversible damage to other organs, when the antibiotics are administered systemically. As such, controlled, local release is being pursued, but no such treatments are in clinical use. Herein, the use of bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films on metallic fracture fixation pins is reported. The data demonstrates that triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenylether), an antimicrobial agent, can be successfully incorporated into micron-thin sol-gel films deposited on percutaneous pins. The sol-gel films continuously release triclosan in vitro for durations exceeding 8 weeks (longest measured time point). The bactericidal effect of the micron-thin sol-gel films follows from both in vitro and in vivo studies. Inserting percutaneous pins in distal rabbit tibiae, there were no signs of infection around implants coated with a micron-thin sol-gel/triclosan film. Healing had progressed normally, bone tissue growth was normal and there was no epithelial downgrowth. This result was in contrast with the results in rabbits that received control, uncoated percutaneous pins, in which abundant signs of infection and epithelial downgrowth were observed. Thus, well-adherent, micron-thin sol-gel films laden with a bactericidal molecule successfully prevented pin tract infection.

  18. Tibial shaft stress fractures resulting from placement of navigation tracker pins.

    PubMed

    Hoke, David; Jafari, S Mehdi; Orozco, Fabio; Ong, Alvin

    2011-04-01

    The use of navigation during joint arthroplasty is believed to allow better placement of components. Gross fracture or stress fracture through navigation tracker pin placement is a complication reported in the literature. This case series presents details of stress fracture of tibial shaft through navigation pin track in 3 patients of 220 cases who underwent total knee arthroplasty at our institution. All the fractures eventually healed after a course of protected weight bearing. As a result, we use smaller-diameter self-tapping and self-drilling pins routinely and avoid placement of pins in the diaphysis and ensure that pins are inserted in different plains during insertion into metaphysis.

  19. Discovery and Binding Studies on a Series of Novel Pin1 Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bainan; Rega, Michele F.; Wei, Jun; Yuan, Hongbin; Dahl, Russell; Zhang, Ziming; Pellecchia, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    Pin1 plays a key role in various biological cellular processes via the recognition of phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Proline motifs. Moreover, high expression levels of Pin1 are correlated to tumorgenesis in some cancer types. Here, we identify a novel series of small molecular weight compounds with a core structure mimicking the phoshorylated serine. The binding affinity and binding mode of the compounds for Pin1 are analyzed via NMR spectroscopy and computational studies. The reported chemical probes and relative binding data to Pin1 represent valuable stepping stones for the validation of Pin1 as target for drug discovery and for eventually the development of possible lead compounds. PMID:19291099

  20. Effect of dilute strongly pinning impurities on charge density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Jun-ichi; Millis, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    We study theoretically the effects of strong pinning centers on a charge density wave in the limit that the charge density wave coherence length is shorter than the average interimpurity distance. An analysis based on a Ginzburg-Landau model shows that long-range forces arising from the elastic response of the charge density wave induce a kind of collective pinning which suppresses impurity-induced phase fluctuations, leading to a long-range ordered ground state. The correlations induced by impurities are characterized by a length scale parametrically longer than the average interimpurity distance. Long-wavelength fluctuations are found to be gapped, implying the stability of the ground state. We also present Monte Carlo simulations that confirm the basic features of the analytical results.

  1. Lightning Pin Injection Test: MOSFETS in "ON" State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Saha, Sankalita; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    The test objective was to evaluate MOSFETs for induced fault modes caused by pin-injecting a standard lightning waveform into them while operating. Lightning Pin-Injection testing was performed at NASA LaRC. Subsequent fault-mode and aging studies were performed by NASA ARC researchers using the Aging and Characterization Platform for semiconductor components. This report documents the test process and results, to provide a basis for subsequent lightning tests. The ultimate IVHM goal is to apply prognostic and health management algorithms using the features extracted during aging to allow calculation of expected remaining useful life. A survey of damage assessment techniques based upon inspection is provided, and includes data for optical microscope and X-ray inspection. Preliminary damage assessments based upon electrical parameters are also provided.

  2. Choked flow effects in the NSI driven pin puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonthier, Keith A.; Powers, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis for pyrotechnic combustion and pin motion in the NASA Standard Initiator (NSI) actuated pin puller. The conservation principles and constitutive relations for a multi-phase system are posed and reduced to a set of eight ordinary differential equations which are solved to predict the system performance. The model tracks the interactions of the unreacted, incompressible solid pyrotechnic, incompressible condensed phase combustion products, and gas phase combustion products. The model accounts for multiple pyrotechnic grains, variable burn surface area, and combustion product mass flow rates through an orifice located within the device. Pressure-time predictions compare favorably with experimental data. Results showing model sensitivity to changes in the cross-sectional area of the orifice are presented.

  3. Single absorbable polydioxanone pin fixation for distal chevron bunion osteotomies.

    PubMed

    Deorio, J K; Ware, A W

    2001-10-01

    The distal chevron osteotomy is a well-established technique for correction of symptomatic mild to moderate metatarsus primus varus with hallux valgus deformity. Fixation of the osteotomy ranges from none to bone pegs, Kirschner wires, screws, or absorbable pins. We evaluated one surgeon's (J.K.D.) results of distal chevron osteotomy fixation with a single, nonpredrilled, 1.3-mm poly-p-dioxanone pin and analyzed any differences in patients with unilateral or bilateral symptomatic metatarsus primus varus with hallux valgus deformities. All osteotomies healed without evidence of infection, osteolysis, nonunion, or necrosis. Equal correction was achieved in unilateral and bilateral procedures. The technique is quick and easy, and adequate fixation is achieved.

  4. Is there Nuclear Pinning of Vortices in Superfluid Pulsars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donati, Paola; Pizzochero, Pierre M.

    2003-05-01

    We develop a fully consistent semianalytical model in order to study the vortex-nucleus interaction in the inner crust of neutron stars. In the framework of the local-density approximation and assuming a constant pairing gap and a square-well nuclear potential, the model takes into account all energy contributions and determines unambiguously the structure of the vortex core. The results show that, irrespective of the value of the pairing gap, only interstitial pinning takes place all along the inner crust. This is in contrast with all existing calculations, which predict nuclear pinning in the deeper layers of the crust. Should further studies confirm this surprising result, the explanation of pulsar glitches in terms of depinning of vortices will have to be carefully revisited.

  5. Determination of X-ray flux using silicon pin diodes

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Robin L.; Holton, James M.; Schulze-Briese, Clemens; Garman, Elspeth F.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate measurement of photon flux from an X-ray source, a parameter required to calculate the dose absorbed by the sample, is not yet routinely available at macromolecular crystallography beamlines. The development of a model for determining the photon flux incident on pin diodes is described here, and has been tested on the macromolecular crystallography beamlines at both the Swiss Light Source, Villigen, Switzerland, and the Advanced Light Source, Berkeley, USA, at energies between 4 and 18 keV. These experiments have shown that a simple model based on energy deposition in silicon is sufficient for determining the flux incident on high-quality silicon pin diodes. The derivation and validation of this model is presented, and a web-based tool for the use of the macromolecular crystallography and wider synchrotron community is introduced. PMID:19240326

  6. Spectrometry and dosimetry of fast neutrons using pin diode detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki Dizaji, H.; Kakavand, T.; Abbasi Davani, F.

    2014-03-01

    Elastic scattering of light nuclei, especially hydrogen, is widely used for detection of fast neutrons. Semiconductor devices based on silicon detectors are frequently used for different radiation detections. In this work, a neutron spectrometer consisting of a pin diode coupled with a polyethylene converter and aluminum degrader layers has been developed. Aluminum layers are used as discriminators of different neutron energies for detectors. The response of the converter-degrader-pin diode configuration, the optimum thickness of the converter and the degrader layers have been extracted using MCNP and SRIM simulation codes. The possibility of using this type of detector for fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry has been investigated. A fairly good agreement was seen between neutron energy spectrum and dose obtained from our configurations and these specifications from an 241Am-Be neutron source.

  7. Domain wall pinning in ultra-narrow electromigrated break junctions.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Robert M; Loescher, André; Mawass, Mohamad-Assaad; Hoffmann-Vogel, Regina; Kläui, Mathias

    2014-11-26

    The study of magnetic domain walls in constrained geometries is an important topic, yet when dealing with extreme nanoscale magnetic systems artefacts can often dominate the measurements and obscure the effects of intrinsic magnetic origin. In this work we study the evolution of domain wall depinning in electromigrated ferromagnetic junctions which are both initially fabricated and subsequently tailored in-situ in clean ultra-high vacuum conditions. Carefully designed Ni(80)Fe(20) (Permalloy) notched half-ring structures are fabricated and investigated as a function of constriction width by tailoring the size of the contact using controlled in-situ electromigration. It is found that the domain wall pinning strength is increased on reducing the contact size in line with a reduction of the wall energy in narrower constrictions. Furthermore, the angular dependency and symmetry of the depinning field is measured to determine the full pinning potential for a domain wall in a system with a narrow constriction.

  8. Turbine blade and non-integral platform with pin attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Christian Xavier; Eng, Darryl; Marra, John J.

    2016-08-02

    Platforms (36, 38) span between turbine blades (23, 24, 25) on a disk (32). Each platform may be individually mounted to the disk by a pin attachment (42). Each platform (36) may have a rotationally rearward edge portion (50) that underlies a forward portion (45) of the adjacent platform (38). This limits centrifugal bending of the rearward portion of the platform, and provides coolant sealing. The rotationally forward edge (44A, 44B) of the platform overlies a seal element (51) on the pressure side (28) of the forwardly adjacent blade, and does not underlie a shelf on that blade. The pin attachment allows radial mounting of each platform onto the disk via tilting (60) of the platform during mounting to provide mounting clearance for the rotationally rearward edge portion (50). This facilitates quick platform replacement without blade removal.

  9. Pin bearing evaluation of LTM25 composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, C. H.; Postyn, A. S.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes pin bearing evaluations of LTM25 composite materials. Northrop Grumman Corporation conducted pin bearing testing and fabricate two panels from composite materials that cure at low temperatures. These materials are being incorporated into Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS) to reduce manufacturing costs since they allow the use of low-cost tooling and facilities. Two composite prepreg product forms were evaluated; MR50/LTM25 unidirectional tape, batch 2881vd and CFS003/LTM25 woven cloth, batch 2216. Northrop Grumman fabricated, machined, and tested specimens to determine the bearing strength in accordance with MIL-HDBK-17D, Volume 1, Section 7.2.4. Quasi-isotropic laminates from the two product forms were fabricated for these tests. In addition, 2 quasi-isotropic panels of dimensions 12 in. x 28 in. were fabricated (one each from the two product forms), inspected, and shipped to NASA Langley for further evaluation.

  10. Is there nuclear pinning of vortices in superfluid pulsars?

    PubMed

    Donati, Paola; Pizzochero, Pierre M

    2003-05-30

    We develop a fully consistent semianalytical model in order to study the vortex-nucleus interaction in the inner crust of neutron stars. In the framework of the local-density approximation and assuming a constant pairing gap and a square-well nuclear potential, the model takes into account all energy contributions and determines unambiguously the structure of the vortex core. The results show that, irrespective of the value of the pairing gap, only interstitial pinning takes place all along the inner crust. This is in contrast with all existing calculations, which predict nuclear pinning in the deeper layers of the crust. Should further studies confirm this surprising result, the explanation of pulsar glitches in terms of depinning of vortices will have to be carefully revisited.

  11. An integrated PIN-array receiver for visible light communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie-Hui; Huang, Xing-Xing; Ji, Xin-Ming; Chi, Nan; Shi, Jian-Yang

    2015-10-01

    This paper first designs and demonstrates an integrated receiver for a visible light communication (VLC) system based on RGB LED and an array of silicon PIN diode detectors. The system uses a maximal ratio combining (MRC) algorithm to enhance system performance. The novel integrated PIN diode array design yields a high date rate of 1.2 Gbit s-1 by 16QAM-OFDM based on a commercially available RGB LED in a VLC system with bit error rate under a 7% pre-forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8 × 10-3 after 30 cm free-space transmission. The results show that the use of integrated antennas in VLC systems will become a trend in the future.

  12. Turbine blade and non-integral platform with pin attachment

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X; Eng, Darryl; Marra, John J

    2015-01-27

    Platforms (36, 38) span between turbine blades (23, 24, 25) on a disk (32). Each platform may be individually mounted to the disk by a pin attachment (42). Each platform (36) may have a rotationally rearward edge portion (50) that underlies a forward portion (45) of the adjacent platform (38). This limits centrifugal bending of the rearward portion of the platform, and provides coolant sealing. The rotationally forward edge (44A, 44B) of the platform overlies a seal element (51) on the pressure side (28) of the forwardly adjacent blade, and does not underlie a shelf on that blade. The pin attachment allows radial mounting of each platform onto the disk via tilting (60) of the platform during mounting to provide mounting clearance for the rotationally rearward edge portion (50). This facilitates quick platform replacement without blade removal.

  13. Pin1 promotes production of Alzheimer's amyloid {beta} from {beta}-cleaved amyloid precursor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Hirotada; Shin, Ryong-Woon; Uchida, Chiyoko; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Uchida, Takafumi . E-mail: uchidat@cir.tohoku.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Here we show that prolyl isomerase Pin1 is involved in the A{beta} production central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Enzyme immunoassay of brains of the Pin1-deficient mice revealed that production of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 was lower than that of the wild-type mice, indicating that Pin1 promotes A{beta} production in the brain. GST-Pin1 pull-down and immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Pin1 binds phosphorylated Thr668-Pro of C99. In the Pin1 {sup -/-} MEF transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the levels of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 compared to that without Pin1 co-transfection. In COS7 cells transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the generation of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42, and reduced the expression level of C99, facilitating the C99 turnover. Thus, Pin1 interacts with C99 and promotes its {gamma}-cleavage, generating A{beta}40 and A{beta}42. Further, GSK3 inhibitor lithium blocked Pin1 binding to C99 by decreasing Thr668 phosphorylation and attenuated A{beta} generation, explaining the inhibitory effect of lithium on A{beta} generation.

  14. 20. 80 foot pony truss an upper chord pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. 80 foot pony truss - an upper chord pin connection at a vertical post other than at the end post. Common to the five 80 foot trusses and similar to the 64 foot truss, there are two pairs per 80 foot truss and one pair on the 64 foot truss for a total of 22. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  15. Channelized-Coplanar-Waveguide PIN-Diode Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Simons, R. N.

    1992-01-01

    Three positive/intrinsic/negative (PIN-diode) reflective CPW (coplanar waveguide) switches demonstrated. First includes series-mounted diode to bridge gap in center strip conductor of CPW. Second includes pair of diodes to short center strip conductor to ground planes. Third includes diode to switch between band-pass filter and notch filter. Isolation exceeds 20 dB, while insertion loss is less than 1 dB.

  16. Pin diode calibration - beam overlap monitoring for low energy cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, A.; Montag, C.; Thieberger, P.

    2015-09-30

    We were trying to address the question whether or not the Pin Diodes, currently installed approximately 1 meter downstream of the RHIC primary collimators, are suitable to monitor a recombination signal from the future RHIC low energy cooling section. A maximized recombination signal, with the Au+78 ions being lost on the collimator, will indicate optimal Au-electron beam overlap as well as velocity matching of the electron beam in the cooling section.

  17. Thermal analysis of the IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Ingham, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The IDENT 1578 container, which is a 110-in. long 5.5-in. OD tube, is designed for shipping FFTF fuel elements in T-3 casks between HEDL, HFEF, and other laboratories. The thermal analysis was conducted to evaluate whether or not the container satisfies its thermal design criteria (handle a decay heat load of 600 watts, max fuel pin cladding temperature not exceeding 800/sup 0/F).

  18. Flexible amorphous silicon PIN diode x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrs, Michael; Bawolek, Edward; Smith, Joseph T.; Raupp, Gregory B.; Morton, David

    2013-05-01

    A low temperature amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film transistor (TFT) and amorphous silicon PIN photodiode technology for flexible passive pixel detector arrays has been developed using active matrix display technology. The flexible detector arrays can be conformed to non-planar surfaces with the potential to detect x-rays or other radiation with an appropriate conversion layer. The thin, lightweight, and robust backplanes may enable the use of highly portable x-ray detectors for use in the battlefield or in remote locations. We have fabricated detector arrays up to 200 millimeters along the diagonal on a Gen II (370 mm x 470 mm rectangular substrate) using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) a-Si as the active layer and PECVD silicon nitride (SiN) as the gate dielectric and passivation. The a-Si based TFTs exhibited an effective saturation mobility of 0.7 cm2/V-s, which is adequate for most sensing applications. The PIN diode material was fabricated using a low stress amorphous silicon (a-Si) PECVD process. The PIN diode dark current was 1.7 pA/mm2, the diode ideality factor was 1.36, and the diode fill factor was 0.73. We report on the critical steps in the evolution of the backplane process from qualification of the low temperature (180°C) TFT and PIN diode process on the 150 mm pilot line, the transfer of the process to flexible plastic substrates, and finally a discussion and demonstration of the scale-up to the Gen II (370 x 470 mm) panel scale pilot line.

  19. Flux motion in thin superconductors with inhomogeneous pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Thomas; Kuhn, Holger; Brandt, Ernst Helmut; Indenbom, Mikhail; Koblischka, Michael R.; Konczykowski, Marcin

    1994-12-01

    The penetration and exit of magnetic flux in thin superconductors in a perpendicular applied field is investigated in detail. Flux-density pictures and profiles are obtained by magneto-optics; magnetization curves are measured by torque magnetometry; theoretical space- and time-dependent flux-density and current-density profiles are calculated from Maxwell's equations in a planar approximation assuming a highly nonlinear current-voltage law E~(J/Jc)n (n>>1, E=electric field, J=sheet current) with a critical sheet current Jc(B,r) in general depending on the position and on the perpendicular flux density B. Our experiments and calculations show that for inhomogeneous pinning the additional nontrivial condition Jc=∞ for B=0 is appropriate. Our specimens are high-Tc superconductors in the form of platelets, strips, or rings. In two platelets, an inhomogeneous Jc was produced by heavy-ion irradiation of the edge zone or by thinning down the central part by sputtering. In all cases good qualitative agreement is found between the experimental and theoretical results. In particular, our time-dependent theory reproduces the recently derived static Bean-model profiles in perpendicular geometry, which we also confirm experimentally; field and current profiles in the ring are as predicted for a current-carrying strip in perpendicular field; in the platelet with enhanced edge pinning, when flux starts to leak into the central weak pinning zone the flux lines are driven immediately to the sample center and pile up there; for weaker inhomogeneity of Jc(r), when the flux front arrives from the edges at the central weak-pinning zone the flux lines jump to an intermediate position from where they fill the central zone gradually. Our experiments also confirm the predicted ``uphill motion'' of flux lines against the flux-density gradient and the occurrence of overcritical current densities in the flux-free regions.

  20. The Recycling and Reclamation of Used Tank Track Pins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    outer surface by previous fatigue stresses or quench cracking during reheat treatment, the fatigue life is very poor. Since the surface of the pin is...under residual compressive stress after the processing, the detection of these fine cracks is difficult and best undertaken before shot peening. The...fracture from fatigue stressing , the surface stress was reduced to as low as -32 ksi at the fatigue crack , although it was -90 ksi at a 0.25 inch from

  1. Special pinning phenomena in arrays of defects with gradient spatial distributions on niobium film

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tian-Chiuan; Horng, Lance Wu, Jong-Ching

    2015-05-07

    Flux pinning effect is related to the strong influence by the presence of defects that act as pinning centers. We present transport experiments that investigate the pinning properties in a spacing-graded array of pinning sites. We have found the asymmetric pinning by arrays of defects with modulated gradient spatial distributions on niobium film. One can clearly see the asymmetric pinning effect for the vortex motion. The dc voltage depends on the amplitude of the ac current and that there is a sharp maximum at matching fields. This curve, however, has an interesting sign reversal phenomenon below the first matching field, which will be investigated more in the future. The dc voltage as a function of dc and ac applied current gives evidence that the artificial arrays of gradient pinning site density induce ratchet effect. This effect can be used to control the vortex motion, which will be important for the application of vortex based on electronic devices.

  2. From prevention of pin-tract infection to treatment of osteomyelitis during paediatric external fixation.

    PubMed

    Ceroni, Dimitri; Grumetz, Catherine; Desvachez, Odile; Pusateri, Sophie; Dunand, Pierre; Samara, Eleftheria

    2016-12-01

    Pin-tract infection (PTI) is the most commonly expected problem, or even an almost inevitable complication, when using external fixation. Left unteated, PTI will progress unavoidably, lead to mechanical pin loosening, and ultimately cause instability of the external fixator pin-bone construct. Thus, PTI remains a clinical challenge, specifically in cases of limb lengthening or deformity correction. Standardised pin site protocols which encompass an understanding of external fixator biomechanics and meticulous surgical technique during pin and wire insertion, postoperative pin site care and pin removal could limit the incidence of major infections and treatment failures. Here we discuss concepts regarding the epidemiology, physiopathology and microbiology of PTI in paediatric populations, as well as the clinical presentations, diagnosis, classification and treatment of these infections.

  3. High-voltage 4H-SiC PiN diodes with the etched implant junction termination extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juntao; Xiao, Chengquan; Xu, Xingliang; Dai, Gang; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Yang; Xiang, An; Yang, Yingkun; Zhang, Jian

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of an etched implant junction termination extension (JTE) for high-voltage 4H-SiC PiN diodes. Unlike the conventional JTE structure, the proposed structure utilizes multiple etching steps to achieve the optimum JTE concentration range. The simulation results show that the etched implant JTE method can improve the blocking voltage of SiC PiN diodes and also provides broad process latitude for parameter variations, such as implantation dose and activation annealing condition. The fabricated SiC PiN diodes with the etched implant JTE exhibit a highest blocking voltage of 4.5 kV and the forward on-state voltage of 4.6 V at room temperature. These results are of interest for understanding the etched implant method in the fabrication of high-voltage power devices. Project supported by the Science and Technology Development Foundation of China Academy of Engineering Physics (No. 2014A05011) and the Special Foundation of President of China Academy of Engineering Physics (No. 2014-1-100).

  4. Neuromagnetic source reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, P.S.; Mosher, J.C.; Leahy, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    In neuromagnetic source reconstruction, a functional map of neural activity is constructed from noninvasive magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements. The overall reconstruction problem is under-determined, so some form of source modeling must be applied. We review the two main classes of reconstruction techniques-parametric current dipole models and nonparametric distributed source reconstructions. Current dipole reconstructions use a physically plausible source model, but are limited to cases in which the neural currents are expected to be highly sparse and localized. Distributed source reconstructions can be applied to a wider variety of cases, but must incorporate an implicit source, model in order to arrive at a single reconstruction. We examine distributed source reconstruction in a Bayesian framework to highlight the implicit nonphysical Gaussian assumptions of minimum norm based reconstruction algorithms. We conclude with a brief discussion of alternative non-Gaussian approachs.

  5. Safety pin suture for management of atonic postpartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mostfa, Ali Abdelhamed M; Zaitoun, Mostafa M

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To assess the efficacy of a new suture technique in controlling severe resistant uterine atonic postpartum hemorrhage. Patients and Methods. This is a retrospective observational study that included thirteen women with uterine atony and postpartum bleeding that did not react to usual medical management. All these women underwent compressing vertical suture technique in which the anterior and posterior walls of the uterus were attached so as to compress the uterus. The suture is transfixed at the uterine fundus, thus eliminating the risk of sutures sliding off at the uterine fundus (safety pin suture). Results. safety pin uterine compression suture was a sufficient procedure to stop the bleeding immediately in 92.2% of the women. None of the women developed complications related to the procedure. Conclusion. A new safety pin suture is a simple and effective procedure to control bleeding in patients with treatment-resistant, life-threatening atonic postpartum hemorrhage with the advantage of eliminating the risk of the sutures sliding off at the uterine fundus.

  6. Obstructed catheter connection pin discovered during intrathecal baclofen pump exchange.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bryan S; Christo, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of catheter obstruction due to complete narrowing of the lumen of a connecting pin, and catheter disconnection in a patient undergoing intrathecal Baclofen pump exchange. The patient underwent intrathecal baclofen pump implantation for treatment of lower extremity spasticity and hypertonia secondary to congenital tetraplegia. Intrathecal baclofen dose escalation occurred over the course of treatment (73 mo) from 80 to 708 mcg/d representing a 189% increase in dose. The pump had neared the manufacturer's recommended exchange interval; therefore, a pump exchange was scheduled to surgically replace the device. One week before surgery, the patient noted a distinct increase in his symptomatology and began enteral baclofen therapy. During the surgery, the pump catheter was noted to be disconnected from the pump. Upon further examination, the lumen of the connection pin positioned between the pump catheter and intrathecal catheter was completely obstructed. Postsurgically, the patient's intrathecal baclofen dose was substantially reduced from 708 to 527 mcg/d (25.6% reduction) to control hypotonicity and to reestablish an Ashworth score of 2. We discuss intrathecal baclofen therapy and a unique complication associated with a catheter connecting pin.

  7. TEACHING PHYSICS: Pin-hole water flow from cylindrical bottles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murilo Castro de Oliveira, Paulo; Delfino, Antonio; Vieira Costa, Eden; Faria Leite, Carlos Alberto

    2000-03-01

    We performed an experiment on elementary hydrodynamics. The basic system is a cylindrical bottle from which water flows through a pin-hole located at the bottom of its lateral surface. We measured the speed of the water leaving the pin-hole, as a function of both the time and the current level of water still inside the bottle. The experimental results are compared with the theory. The theoretical treatment is a very simple one based on mass and energy conservation, corresponding to a widespread exercise usually adopted in university basic disciplines of physics. We extended the previous experiment to another similar system using two identical bottles with equivalent pin-holes. The water flowing from the first bottle feeds the second one located below it. The same concepts of mass and energy conservation now lead to a non-trivial differential equation for the lowest bottle dynamics. We solved this equation both numerically and analytically, comparing the results with the experimental data.

  8. Sequential vortex hopping in an array of artificial pinning centers

    SciTech Connect

    Keay, J. C.

    2010-02-24

    We use low-temperature magnetic force microscopy (MFM) to study the hopping motion of vortices in an array of artificial pinning centers (APCs). The array consists of nanoscale holes etched in a niobium thin film by Ar-ion sputtering through an anodic aluminum-oxide template. Variable-temperature magnetometry shows a transition temperature of 7.1 K and an enhancement of the magnetization up to the third matching field at 5 K. Using MFM with attractive and repulsive tip-vortex interaction, we measure the vortex-pinning strength and investigate the motion of individual vortices in the APC array. The depinning force for individual vortices at low field ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 pN. The motion of individual vortices was found to be reproducible and consistent with movement between adjacent holes in the film. The movements are repeatable but the sequence of hops depends on the scan direction. This asymmetry in the motion indicates nonuniform local pinning, a consequence of array disorder and hole-size variation.

  9. Passive Micro Vibration Isolator Utilizing Flux Pinning Effect for Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takuma; Sakai, Shin-ichiro

    2016-09-01

    Information related to the origin of space and evolution of galaxy can be obtained using the observation satellites. In recent years, high pointing accuracy is demanded for getting more detailed data about distant stars and galaxies. As a result, vibration isolators that consist of a main structure and a TTM (Tip Tilt Mirror) have been adopted for observation satellites. However, cutting the low frequency vibrations off passively with the conventional methods is difficult. A vibration isolator that uses pinning effect is proposed for solving this problem. The pinning effect is acquired by cooling the type-II superconductor below the critical temperature and it generates a pinning force to maintain the relative distance and attitude between a type- II superconductor and a material that generates magnetic flux. The mission part and the bus part of the satellite are equipped with superconductors and permanent magnets and these parts perform short distance formation flight by applying the effect. This method can cut vibrations from low to high frequency bands off passively. In addition, Meissner effect can prevent collision of the mission and bus parts. In order to investigate the performance of this system, experiments and simulations are carried out and the results are discussed.

  10. New Pinning Strategies for Second-Generation Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Solovyov, VF; Li, Q; Rupich, M; Sathyamurthy, S; Li, XP

    2013-06-01

    In the last several years, second-generation (2G) superconducting wires have been considered for applications in rotating machines operating in the 20-40 K temperature range in 1-3 T magnetic fields. Here, we outline several novel strategies for improving the low-temperature performance of second-generation wires by utilizing the in-plane strain of thick YBCO layers manufactured by the reel-to-reel metal-organic deposition (MOD) method. First, we show that he strain-induced pinning mechanism analysis, based on the Eshelby model of the elastically-strained composites, predicts that small YBCO grain size is a critical component of a strong pinning architecture. Second, we describe how the in-plane strain can be controlled by processing parameters. Systematic changes of the in-plane structure and YBCO grain size are mapped with respect to the YBCO stability line and the Cu2O-CuO line on the Bormann-Hammond diagram. It is demonstrated that the optimum critical current density is the result of a trade-off between YBCO grain coupling and the strain-induced pinning.

  11. Imprint control of BaTiO3 thin films via chemically induced surface polarization pinning

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Hyungwoo; Kim, Tae Heon; Patzner, Jacob J.; ...

    2016-02-22

    Surface-adsorbed polar molecules can significantly alter the ferroelectric properties of oxide thin films. Thus, fundamental understanding and controlling the effect of surface adsorbates are crucial for the implementation of ferroelectric thin film devices, such as ferroelectric tunnel junctions. Herein, we report an imprint control of BaTiO3 (BTO) thin films by chemically induced surface polarization pinning in the top few atomic layers of the water-exposed BTO films. Our studies based on synchrotron X-ray scattering and coherent Bragg rod analysis demonstrate that the chemically induced surface polarization is not switchable but reduces the polarization imprint and improves the bistability of ferroelectric phasemore » in BTO tunnel junctions. Here, we conclude that the chemical treatment of ferroelectric thin films with polar molecules may serve as a simple yet powerful strategy to enhance functional properties of ferroelectric tunnel junctions for their practical applications.« less

  12. A full free spectral range tuning of p-i-n doped gallium nitride microdisk cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Nan; Liu, Tsung-Li; Aharonovich, Igor; Russell, Kasey J.; Woolf, Alexander; Sadler, Thomas C.; El-Ella, Haitham A. R.; Kappers, Menno J.; Oliver, Rachel A.; Hu, Evelyn L.

    2012-10-01

    Effective, permanent tuning of the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of p-i-n doped GaN microdisk cavity with embedded InGaN quantum dots over one free spectral range is demonstrated by irradiating the microdisks with a ultraviolet laser (380 nm) in DI water. For incident laser powers between 150 and 960 nW, the tuning rate varies linearly. Etching of the top surface of the cavity is proposed as the driving force for the observed shift in WGMs and is supported by experiments. The tuning for GaN/InGaN microdisk cavities is an important step for deterministically realizing nanophotonic devices for studying cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  13. Imprint Control of BaTiO3 Thin Films via Chemically Induced Surface Polarization Pinning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungwoo; Kim, Tae Heon; Patzner, Jacob J; Lu, Haidong; Lee, Jung-Woo; Zhou, Hua; Chang, Wansoo; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y; Gruverman, Alexei; Eom, Chang-Beom

    2016-04-13

    Surface-adsorbed polar molecules can significantly alter the ferroelectric properties of oxide thin films. Thus, fundamental understanding and controlling the effect of surface adsorbates are crucial for the implementation of ferroelectric thin film devices, such as ferroelectric tunnel junctions. Herein, we report an imprint control of BaTiO3 (BTO) thin films by chemically induced surface polarization pinning in the top few atomic layers of the water-exposed BTO films. Our studies based on synchrotron X-ray scattering and coherent Bragg rod analysis demonstrate that the chemically induced surface polarization is not switchable but reduces the polarization imprint and improves the bistability of ferroelectric phase in BTO tunnel junctions. We conclude that the chemical treatment of ferroelectric thin films with polar molecules may serve as a simple yet powerful strategy to enhance functional properties of ferroelectric tunnel junctions for their practical applications.

  14. Lateral PIN diodes for silicon-on-insulator monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S.; Letavic, T. J.; Gutmann, R. J.; Maby, E. W.

    1988-09-01

    Surface-oriented lateral mesa PIN diodes have been fabricated for the purpose of evaluating the feasibility of a silicon-on-insulator technology for microwave applications. For these devices, heavily doped p and n regions are formed from ion-implanted polysilicon diffusion sources which abut opposite sides of an intrinsic rectangular-shaped mesa, and electrical contact to the injecting contacts can be made with low parasitic series resistance. Devices for process evaluation were fabricated using a single-crystal silicon substrate (as opposed to recrystallized silicon-on-insulator films). Both d.c. and 3-GHz electrical characteristics indicate the desired conductivity modulation of the intrinsic region under forward bias. Moreover, the large breakdown voltage which is observed indicates that high peak-power handling capability should be possible.

  15. Radiation effects induced in pin photodiodes by 40- and 85-MeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becher, J.; Kernell, R. L.; Reft, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    PIN photodiodes were bombarded with 40- and 85-MeV protons to a fluence of 1.5 x 10 to the 11th power p/sq cm, and the resulting change in spectral response in the near infrared was determined. The photocurrent, dark current and pulse amplitude were measured as a function of proton fluence. Changes in these three measured properties are discussed in terms of changes in the diode's spectral response, minority carrier diffusion length and depletion width. A simple model of induced radiation effects is presented which is in good agreement with the experimental results. The model assumes that incident protons produce charged defects within the depletion region simulating donor type impurities.

  16. Validation studies based on critical experiments performed with fuel pin arrays moderated by Pu + U solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Smolen, G.R.; Matsumoto, T. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper outlines the results of a calculational study that was performed to validate the SCALE computer code system using data from critical experiments performed with fuel pin arrays moderated by mixed Pu + U aqueous solutions. A companion paper describes the experiments and discusses the criticality data that were obtained. These experimental activities are part of a joint exchange program between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan in the area of criticality data development. The Consolidated fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) manages the program for the DOE. The experiments were conducted at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories-Critical Mass Laboratory (PNL-CML).

  17. Comparison of Extension Orthosis Versus Percutaneous Pinning of the Distal Interphalangeal Joint for Closed Mallet Injuries.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Kevin J; Odgers, Ryan A; Ivy, Cynthia C

    2016-05-01

    We compared a static extension orthosis with percutaneous pinning of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) for treatment of closed mallet injuries. After receiving counsel about treatment options, 44 patients (25 women and 19 men; mean age, 57 years) freely chose orthosis and 18 patients (5 women and 13 men; mean age, 51 years) chose pinning. Both the extension orthosis and the pin remained in place for 6 weeks; the pin then was removed, and the care in both groups was transitioned to nighttime orthosis use for an additional 6 weeks. The patients in the pin group were allowed to immediately resume unrestricted activity postoperatively. The mean follow-up was 32 months in the orthosis group and 19 months in the pin group. Final residual extensor lag was better in the pin group (5 vs 10 degrees, P = 0.048). Improvement between the groups was in favor of percutaneous pinning (36 vs 17 degrees, P = 0.001). No correlation was seen between time to treatment (≤14 vs >14 days from injury) and final extensor lag in either group (P = 0.85). The final mean DIPJ flexion was 53 degrees for orthosis and 46 degrees for pinning. Among the patients, 93% of the orthosis group and 100% of the pin group said that they would choose the same treatment again. Both groups had a mean of 5 hand therapy visits during treatment. Two complications occurred in the orthosis group (5%) and 3 (17%) occurred in the pin group. Extension orthotics and pinning are both well-tolerated, effective treatments of mallet injury. The techniques produce satisfactory correction of extensor lag and have high patient satisfaction. Pinning allows better correction of DIPJ extensor lag and results in a smaller degree of final extensor lag. Pinning is more expensive and may result in more DIPJ stiffness (ie, loss of active flexion), but it may be justified in certain patients (eg, medical professionals, food service workers) who would have difficulty working with an orthosis.

  18. PIN1 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with TP53 gene status.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jun Sang; Noh, Sang Jae; Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Kyu Yun; Park, Ho Sung; Chung, Myoung Ja; Park, Byung-Hyun; Moon, Woo Sung

    2016-10-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins on serine/threonine residues that precede proline (pSer/Thr-Pro) is specifically catalyzed by the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase PIN1. PIN1-mediated prolyl-isomerization induces cell cycle arrest and growth inhibition through the regulation of target proteins, including TP53. We examined whether PIN1 acts in a different manner according to TP53 gene status in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the expression of PIN1 and TP53 proteins in 119 HCC tissue samples. We also analyzed PIN1 expression in combination with TP53 gene mutation and its correlation with the clinical outcome. In addition, we used synthetic small interfering RNA to silence PIN1 gene expression in TP53 wild-type and TP53 mutant HCC cell lines, and then evaluated cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Expression of PIN1 was strongly associated with expression of TP53 protein or TP53 mutation of HCC samples. PIN1 and TP53 expression in TP53 mutant HCC cell lines was higher than that in TP53 wild-type HCC cell lines. Silencing of PIN1 in HLE cells containing mutant TP53 significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In contrast to PIN1 silencing in HLE cells, PIN1 silencing in HepG2 cells containing functional wild-type TP53 resulted in enhanced tumor cell proliferation. HCC patients bearing PIN1 expression with wild-type TP53 were predicted to demonstrate favorable relapse-free survival. Our results suggest that PIN1 plays a role in cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in a different manner according to the TP53 gene mutation status in HCC. In particular, interaction of PIN1 with mutant TP53 can act as a tumor promoter and increase its oncogenic activities in HCC.

  19. Improved protease stability of the antimicrobial peptide Pin2 substituted with D-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Carmona, G; Rodriguez, A; Juarez, D; Corzo, G; Villegas, E

    2013-08-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted a great interest as novel class of antibiotics that might help in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria. However, some AMPs with high antimicrobial activities are also highly hemolytic and subject to proteolytic degradation from human and bacterial proteases that limit their pharmaceutical uses. In this work a D-diastereomer of Pandinin 2, D-Pin2, was constructed to observe if it maintained antimicrobial activity in the same range as the parental one, but with the purpose of reducing its hemolytic activity to human erythrocytes and improving its ability to resist proteolytic cleavage. Although, the hydrophobic and secondary structure characteristics of L- and D-Pin2 were to some extent similar, an important reduction in D-Pin2 hemolytic activity (30-40 %) was achieved compared to that of L-Pin2 over human erythrocytes. Furthermore, D-Pin2 had an antimicrobial activity with a MIC value of 12.5 μM towards Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae and two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in agar diffusion assays, but it was half less potent than that of L-Pin2. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial activity of D-Pin2 was equally effective as that of L-Pin2 in microdilution assays. Yet, when D- and L-Pin2 were incubated with trypsin, elastase and whole human serum, only D-Pin2 kept its antimicrobial activity towards all bacteria, but in diluted human serum, L- and D-Pin2 maintained similar peptide stability. Finally, when L- and D-Pin2 were incubated with proteases from P. aeruginosa DFU3 culture, a clinical isolated strain, D-Pin2 kept its antibiotic activity while L-Pin2 was not effective.

  20. Development of diagnosis and treatment technology for brain disease using quantum material and nano probe pin device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Uhn; Choi, Sang H.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Song, Kyo D.; Park, Yeonjoon

    2011-04-01

    New medical device technology is essential for diagnosing, monitoring, and curing wide spectrum of diseases, anomalies and inflictions. For neural applications, currently available devices are generally limited to either a curing or a probing function. In this paper we review the technology requirements for new neural probe and cure device technology currently under development. The concept of probe-pin device that integrates the probes for neurochemistry, neuroelectricity, temperature and pressure into a single embodiment with a wireless power transmission was designed for the purpose of deep brain feedback stimulation (DBFS) with insitu neural monitoring. The probe considered for monitoring neurochemistry is a microspectrometer. The feature and size of micro-spectrometer are defined for the DBFS device. Two types of wireless power transmission technology were studied for DBFS device operation. The test results of pig skin showed that both power transmission technologies demonstrated the feasibility of power feed through human tissue.

  1. Comparison of different methods of calculating pinwise power

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    One objective of a nuclear utility is the capability to predict the peak rod power in reload core design accurately and efficiently. This capability can be utilized in the verification of vendor results and the development of utility reload methodology. The MBS code solves the diffusion equation in x-y geometry by the finite different technique. The MBS code utilizes coarser meshes but reaches the same level of accuracy as a pin-by-pin model. The CASMO code utilizes pin profiles at specified core conditions, which are superimposed on the MBS diffusion theory results for pin power predictions. Placement of the burnable poison rods in the loading pattern are crucial to minimizing peak pin power. Westinghouse utilizes a code called TURTLE, licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and proprietary to Westinghouse. The MBS code, with macroscopic cross sections from CASMO, can be run with coarser meshes and macroscopic depletion and still reach the same level of accuracy as a pin-by-pin code such as PDQ-7 or TURTLE. The MBS input preparation is simpler than PDQ-7 or TURTLE-type input preparation.

  2. Proximity Driven Commensurate Pinning in YBa2Cu3O7 through All-Oxide Magnetic Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Rocci, M; Azpeitia, J; Trastoy, J; Perez-Muñoz, A; Cabero, M; Luccas, R F; Munuera, C; Mompean, F J; Garcia-Hernandez, M; Bouzehouane, K; Sefrioui, Z; Leon, C; Rivera-Calzada, A; Villegas, J E; Santamaria, J

    2015-11-11

    The design of artificial vortex pinning landscapes is a major goal toward large scale applications of cuprate superconductors. Although disordered nanometric inclusions have shown to modify their vortex phase diagram and to produce enhancements of the critical current ( MacManus-Driscoll , J. L. ; Foltyn , S. R. ; Jia , Q. X. ; Wang , H. ; Serquis , A. ; Civale , L. ; Maiorov , B. ; Hawley , M. E. ; Maley , M. P. ; Peterson , D. E. Nat. Mater. 2004 , 3 , 439 - 443 and Yamada , Y. ; Takahashi , K. ; Kobayashi , H. ; Konishi , M. ; Watanabe , T. ; Ibi , A. ; Muroga , T. ; Miyata , S. ; Kato , T. ; Hirayama , T. ; Shiohara , Y. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2005 , 87 , 1 - 3 ), the effect of ordered oxide nanostructures remains essentially unexplored. This is due to the very small nanostructure size imposed by the short coherence length, and to the technological difficulties in the nanofabrication process. Yet, the novel phenomena occurring at oxide interfaces open a wide spectrum of technological opportunities to interplay with the superconductivity in cuprates. Here, we show that the unusual long-range suppression of the superconductivity occurring at the interface between manganites and cuprates affects vortex nucleation and provides a novel vortex pinning mechanism. In particular, we show evidence of commensurate pinning in YBCO films with ordered arrays of LCMO ferromagnetic nanodots. Vortex pinning results from the proximity induced reduction of the condensation energy at the vicinity of the magnetic nanodots, and yields an enhanced friction between the nanodot array and the moving vortex lattice in the liquid phase. This result shows that all-oxide ordered nanostructures constitute a powerful, new route for the artificial manipulation of vortex matter in cuprates.

  3. Three-dimensional reconstruction by zooming

    SciTech Connect

    Lavest, J.M.; Rives, G.; Dhome, M. . Electronics Lab.)

    1993-04-01

    Using a zoom lens in monocular vision seems to be an interesting idea. The principal aim of this paper is to prove that it is possible to infer 3-D information from a set of images taken with a zoom lens. In the first part of the paper, a precise study of the optical properties of such a lens gives two major results: The intersection between the optical axis and the image plane can be independently and accurately determined, and the pin-hole model cannot be used directly for the approximation of such a complex lens system. To explain the optical phenomena occurring during a zoom-lens focal-length change, it is shown that a thick optical model must be considered. Finally, experimental results of reconstruction, from a set of real images, are given.

  4. Peristaltic closure of a safety pin--an unusual fate of a safety pin seen as a foreign body in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Andréasson, L; Ingelstedt, S; Tjernström, O

    1986-04-01

    This report presents a case where an open safety pin passed through the Esophagus and where Nature herself finally solved the problem by closing the pin, which was afterwards carried in the faecal stream and discharged from the body without any harm to the patient.

  5. Establishing the need for an engineering standard for agricultural hitch pins.

    PubMed

    Deboy, G R; Knapp, W M; Field, W E; Krutz, G W; Corum, C L

    2012-04-01

    Documented incidents have occurred in which failure or unintentional disengagement of agricultural hitch pins has contributed to property damage and personal injury. An examination of current hitch pin use on a convenience sample of farm operations in Indiana revealed a variety of non-standard, worn and damaged, and inappropriately sized hitch pins in use. Informal interviews with the farm operators confirmed that hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement is a relatively widespread problem that remains largely unaddressed. On-site observations also suggested a low use of hitch pin retaining devices or safety chains. A review of prior research revealed that little attention has been given to this problem, and currently no documentation allows for an estimate of the frequency or severity of losses associated with hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement. No specific engineering standards were found that directly applied to the design, appropriate selection, or loading capacity of agricultural hitch pins. Major suppliers of replacement hitch pins currently provide little or no information on matching hitch pin size to intended applications, and most replacement hitch pins examined were of foreign origin, with the overwhelming majority imported from China or India. These replacement hitch pins provided no specifications other than diameter, length, and, in some cases, labeling that indicated that the pins had been "heat treated. " Testing of a sample of 11 commercially available replacement hitch pins found variation along the length of the pin shaft and between individual pins in surface hardness, a potential predictor of pin failure. Examination of 17 commercially available replacement pins also revealed a variety of identifiers used to describe pin composition and fabrication methods, e.g., "heat treated." None of the pins examined provided any specifications on loading capacity. It was therefore concluded that there is a need to develop an agricultural hitch

  6. Breast Reconstruction after Mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Schmauss, Daniel; Machens, Hans-Günther; Harder, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Its surgical approach has become less and less mutilating in the last decades. However, the overall number of breast reconstructions has significantly increased lately. Nowadays, breast reconstruction should be individualized at its best, first of all taking into consideration not only the oncological aspects of the tumor, neo-/adjuvant treatment, and genetic predisposition, but also its timing (immediate versus delayed breast reconstruction), as well as the patient’s condition and wish. This article gives an overview over the various possibilities of breast reconstruction, including implant- and expander-based reconstruction, flap-based reconstruction (vascularized autologous tissue), the combination of implant and flap, reconstruction using non-vascularized autologous fat, as well as refinement surgery after breast reconstruction. PMID:26835456

  7. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... After a mastectomy , some women choose to have cosmetic surgery to remake their breast. This type of surgery ... augmentation surgery Breast reconstruction - implants Mastectomy Patient Instructions Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge Mastectomy and breast reconstruction - what to ask ...

  8. Breast Reconstruction with Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... removes your breast to treat or prevent breast cancer. One type of breast reconstruction uses breast implants — silicone devices filled with silicone gel or salt water (saline) — to reshape your breasts. Breast reconstruction ...

  9. Monoaxial external fixation of the calcaneus: An anatomical study assessing the safety of monoaxial pin insertion.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Callum M; Esparon, Tom; Rea, Paul M; Jamal, Bilal

    2016-10-01

    The use of external fixation for intra-articular calcaneal fractures is increasing in popularity. Studies have shown fine wire and monoaxial external fixation to be a viable surgical alternative to more invasive methods of open reduction and internal fixation of the calcaneus. However, there is an absence of literature that quantifies the risk of pin insertion for monoaxial fixation. This study aimed to determine the safety of inserting monoaxial pins within the calcaneus to house the Orthofix Calcaneal Mini-Fixator. Five formalin embalmed cadaveric ankle and lower leg specimens were inserted with six monoaxial pins. Careful dissection then revealed the presence of the tendons of peroneus longus and brevis, the sural nerve and the small saphenous vein in relation to these pins. Measurements from each pin to each of these structures were made as the structures transected lines drawn from each pin to two palpable bony landmarks: the inferior tip of the lateral malleolus and the posterosuperior calcaneus. In doing this, the risk posed by each pin could be evaluated. We found that two particular pins, those used to hold the articular surface of the subtalar joint in a reduced position, posed a larger risk of injury to surrounding structures than the remaining pins. These findings therefore suggest that monoaxial fixation of the calcaneus using a six pin approach is a relatively safe method of rectifying calcaneal fractures and thus may serve as a welcome alternative to other methods of calcaneal fixation.

  10. PPP1, a plant-specific regulator of transcription controls Arabidopsis development and PIN expression.

    PubMed

    Benjamins, René; Barbez, Elke; Ortbauer, Martina; Terpstra, Inez; Lucyshyn, Doris; Moulinier-Anzola, Jeanette; Khan, Muhammad Asaf; Leitner, Johannes; Malenica, Nenad; Butt, Haroon; Korbei, Barbara; Scheres, Ben; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Luschnig, Christian

    2016-08-24

    Directional transport of auxin is essential for plant development, with PIN auxin transport proteins representing an integral part of the machinery that controls hormone distribution. However, unlike the rapidly emerging framework of molecular determinants regulating PIN protein abundance and subcellular localization, insights into mechanisms controlling PIN transcription are still limited. Here we describe PIN2 PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN 1 (PPP1), an evolutionary conserved plant-specific DNA binding protein that acts on transcription of PIN genes. Consistent with PPP1 DNA-binding activity, PPP1 reporter proteins are nuclear localized and analysis of PPP1 null alleles and knockdown lines indicated a function as a positive regulator of PIN expression. Furthermore, we show that ppp1 pleiotropic mutant phenotypes are partially reverted by PIN overexpression, and results are presented that underline a role of PPP1-PIN promoter interaction in PIN expression control. Collectively, our findings identify an elementary, thus far unknown, plant-specific DNA-binding protein required for post-embryonic plant development, in general, and correct expression of PIN genes, in particular.

  11. PPP1, a plant-specific regulator of transcription controls Arabidopsis development and PIN expression

    PubMed Central

    Benjamins, René; Barbez, Elke; Ortbauer, Martina; Terpstra, Inez; Lucyshyn, Doris; Moulinier-Anzola, Jeanette; Khan, Muhammad Asaf; Leitner, Johannes; Malenica, Nenad; Butt, Haroon; Korbei, Barbara; Scheres, Ben; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Luschnig, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Directional transport of auxin is essential for plant development, with PIN auxin transport proteins representing an integral part of the machinery that controls hormone distribution. However, unlike the rapidly emerging framework of molecular determinants regulating PIN protein abundance and subcellular localization, insights into mechanisms controlling PIN transcription are still limited. Here we describe PIN2 PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN 1 (PPP1), an evolutionary conserved plant-specific DNA binding protein that acts on transcription of PIN genes. Consistent with PPP1 DNA-binding activity, PPP1 reporter proteins are nuclear localized and analysis of PPP1 null alleles and knockdown lines indicated a function as a positive regulator of PIN expression. Furthermore, we show that ppp1 pleiotropic mutant phenotypes are partially reverted by PIN overexpression, and results are presented that underline a role of PPP1-PIN promoter interaction in PIN expression control. Collectively, our findings identify an elementary, thus far unknown, plant-specific DNA-binding protein required for post-embryonic plant development, in general, and correct expression of PIN genes, in particular. PMID:27553690

  12. Heat transfer and pressure drop in pin-fin trapezoidal ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, J.J.; Lai, D.Y.; Tsia, Y.P.

    1999-04-01

    Experiments are conducted to determine the log-mean averaged Nusselt number and overall pressure-drop coefficient in a pin-fin trapezoidal duct that models the cooling passages in modern gas turbine blades. The effects of pin arrangement (in-line and staggered), flow Reynolds number (6,000 {le} Re {le}40,000) and ratio of lateral-to-total flow rate (0 {le} {var_epsilon} {le} 1.0) are examined. The results of smooth trapezoidal ducts without pin arrays are also obtained for comparison. It is found that, for the single-outlet-flow duct, the log-mean averaged Nusselt number in the pin-fin trapezoidal duct with lateral outlet is insensitive to the pin arrangement, which is higher than that in straight-outlet-flow duct with the corresponding pin array. As for the trapezoidal ducts having both outlets, the log-mean averaged Nusselt number has a local minimum value at about {var_epsilon} = 0.3. After about {var_epsilon} {ge} 0.8, the log-mean averaged Nusselt number is nearly independent of the pin configuration. Moreover, the staggered pin array pays more pressure-drop penalty as compared with the in-line pin array in the straight-outlet-flow duct; however, in the lateral-outlet-flow duct, the in-line and staggered pin arrays yield almost the same overall pressure drop.

  13. Pneumocranium secondary to halo vest pin penetration through an enlarged frontal sinus.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Min Lee; Chan, Chris Yin Wei; Saw, Lim Beng; Kwan, Mun Keong

    2009-07-01

    We present a case report of a patient with pneumocranium secondary to halo vest pin penetration and a review of literature. The objectives of this study are to report a rare complication of halo vest pin insertion and to discuss methods of prevention of this complication. Halo vest orthosis is a commonly used and well-tolerated upper cervical spinal stabilizing device. Reports of complications related to pin penetration is rare and from our review, there has been no reports of pneumocranium occurring from insertion of pins following standard anatomical landmarks. A 57-year-old male sustained a type 1 traumatic spondylolisthesis of C2/C3 following a motor vehicle accident. During application of the halo vest, penetration of the left anterior pin through the abnormally enlarged frontal sinus occurred. The patient developed headache, vomiting and CSF rhinorrhoea over his left nostril. He was treated with intravenous Ceftriaxone for 1 week. This resulted in resolution of his symptoms as well as the pneumocranium. In conclusion, complications of halo vest pin penetration are rare and need immediate recognition. Despite the use of anatomical landmarks, pin penetration is still possible due to aberrant anatomy. All patients should have a skull X-ray with a radio-opaque marker done prior to placement of the halo vest pins and halo vest pins have to be inserted by experienced personnel to enable early detection of pin penetration.

  14. Pin1 promotes GR transactivation by enhancing recruitment to target genes.

    PubMed

    Poolman, Toryn M; Farrow, Stuart N; Matthews, Laura; Loudon, Andrew S; Ray, David W

    2013-10-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ligand activated transcription factor, serving to regulate both energy metabolism and immune functions. Factors that influence cellular sensitivity to glucocorticoids (GC) are therefore of great interest. The N-terminal of the GR contains numerous potential proline-directed phosphorylation sites, some of which can regulate GR transactivation. Unrestricted proline isomerisation can be inhibited by adjacent serine phosphorylation and requires a prolyl isomerise, Pin1. Pin1 therefore determines the functional outcome of proline-directed kinases acting on the GR, as cis/trans isomers are distinct pools with different interacting proteins. We show that Pin1 mediates GR transactivation, but not GR trans-repression. Two N-terminal GR serines, S203 and S211, are targets for Pin1 potentiation of GR transactivation, establishing a direct link between Pin1 and the GR. We also demonstrate GC-activated co-recruitment of GR and Pin1 to the GILZ gene promoter. The Pin1 effect required both its WW and catalytic domains, and GR recruitment to its GRE was Pin1-dependent. Therefore, Pin1 is a selective regulator of GR transactivation, acting through N-terminal phospho-serine residues to regulate GR recruitment to its target sites in the genome. As Pin1 is dysregulated in disease states, this interaction may contribute to altered GC action in inflammatory conditions.

  15. Microfluidic study of the liquid transfer properties of reservoir pins for use in microarraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Jonathan; Elmes, Stuart A.; Moore, David F.

    2001-09-01

    The technique of micro arraying involves laying down genetic elements onto a solid substrate for DNA analysis on a massively parallel scale. A pin-based robotic platform for bioMEMS is used to prepare microarrays by transferring liquid samples from microtitre plates to array pattern son the surface of coated glass slides. The liquid dries to form spots diameter < 200 micrometers . This paper present the design and performance of reservoir pins with particular emphasis on microfluidics and the influence of pin geometry and surface topology. In the newly developed manufacturing process a pin is produced by (a) wet etching of tungsten wire, followed by (b) micromachining with a focused laser to produce a capillary channel structure and a microreservoir. The pin has a flat end 100 micrometers in diameter from which a 600 micrometers long capillary channel, 15 micrometers wide leads up the pin to a reservoir. The pin capacity is 50 nanolitres of fluid containing DNA, and at least 5-0 spots can be printed before replenishing the reservoir. A typical robot holds 16- 48 pins. Scanning electron micrographs of the metal surfaces show roughness on the scale of 5 micrometers . However, the pins give consistent and reproducible spotting performance. In this paper comparisons will be made between the real life performance of the pins on the robotic platform with observations and measurements made using a video microscope system, and an assessment of the prospects for bioMEMS and further miniaturization of this technology.

  16. Connection stiffness and dynamical docking process of flux pinned spacecraft modules

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yong; Zhang, Mingliang Gao, Dong

    2014-02-14

    This paper describes a novel kind of potential flux pinned docking system that consists of guidance navigation and control system, the traditional extrusion type propulsion system, and a flux pinned docking interface. Because of characteristics of passive stability of flux pinning, the docking control strategy of flux pinned docking system only needs a series of sequential control rather than necessary active feedback control, as well as avoidance of hazardous collision accident. The flux pinned force between YBaCuO (YBCO) high temperature superconductor bulk and permanent magnet is able to be given vent based on the identical current loop model and improved image dipole model, which can be validated experimentally. Thus, the connection stiffness between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be calculated based on Hooke's law. This connection stiffness matrix at the equilibrium position has the positive definite performance, which can validate the passively stable connection of two flux pinned spacecraft modules theoretically. Furthermore, the relative orbital dynamical equation of two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be established based on Clohessy-Wiltshire's equations and improved image dipole model. The dynamical docking process between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be obtained by way of numerical simulation, which suggests the feasibility of flux pinned docking system.

  17. The Peptidyl-prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Up-regulation and Proapoptotic Function in Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anamitra; Saminathan, Hariharan; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun; Sondarva, Gautam; Harischandra, Dilshan S.; Qian, Ziqing; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a slow and progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PD remain unclear. Pin1, a major peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, has recently been associated with certain diseases. Notably, Ryo et al. (Ryo, A., Togo, T., Nakai, T., Hirai, A., Nishi, M., Yamaguchi, A., Suzuki, K., Hirayasu, Y., Kobayashi, H., Perrem, K., Liou, Y. C., and Aoki, I. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 4117–4125) implicated Pin1 in PD pathology. Therefore, we sought to systematically characterize the role of Pin1 in PD using cell culture and animal models. To our surprise we observed a dramatic up-regulation of Pin1 mRNA and protein levels in dopaminergic MN9D neuronal cells treated with the parkinsonian toxicant 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) as well as in the substantia nigra of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mouse model. Notably, a marked expression of Pin1 was also observed in the substantia nigra of human PD brains along with a high co-localization of Pin1 within dopaminergic neurons. In functional studies, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Pin1 almost completely prevented MPP+-induced caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation, indicating that Pin1 plays a proapoptotic role. Interestingly, multiple pharmacological Pin1 inhibitors, including juglone, attenuated MPP+-induced Pin1 up-regulation, α-synuclein aggregation, caspase-3 activation, and cell death. Furthermore, juglone treatment in the MPTP mouse model of PD suppressed Pin1 levels and improved locomotor deficits, dopamine depletion, and nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss. Collectively, our findings demonstrate for the first time that Pin1 is up-regulated in PD and has a pathophysiological role in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system and suggest that modulation of Pin1 levels may be a useful translational therapeutic strategy in PD. PMID:23754278

  18. Methods of Voice Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Chi; Kim Evans, Karen F.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Mardini, Samir

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews methods of voice reconstruction. Nonsurgical methods of voice reconstruction include electrolarynx, pneumatic artificial larynx, and esophageal speech. Surgical methods of voice reconstruction include neoglottis, tracheoesophageal puncture, and prosthesis. Tracheoesophageal puncture can be performed in patients with pedicled flaps such as colon interposition, jejunum, or gastric pull-up or in free flaps such as perforator flaps, jejunum, and colon flaps. Other flaps for voice reconstruction include the ileocolon flap and jejunum. Laryngeal transplantation is also reviewed. PMID:22550443

  19. Reoperative midface reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Acero, Julio; García, Eloy

    2011-02-01

    Reoperative reconstruction of the midface is a challenging issue because of the complexity of this region and the severity of the aesthetic and functional sequela related to the absence or failure of a primary reconstruction. The different situations that can lead to the indication of a reoperative reconstructive procedure after previous oncologic ablative procedures in the midface are reviewed. Surgical techniques, anatomic problems, and limitations affecting the reoperative reconstruction in this region of the head and neck are discussed.

  20. CMOS Imaging of Temperature Effects on Pin-Printed Xerogel Sensor Microarrays.

    PubMed

    Lei Yao; Ka Yi Yung; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Bright, Frank V

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of temperature on the operation and performance of a xerogel-based sensor microarrays coupled to a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager integrated circuit (IC) that images the photoluminescence response from the sensor microarray. The CMOS imager uses a 32 × 32 (1024 elements) array of active pixel sensors and each pixel includes a high-gain phototransistor to convert the detected optical signals into electrical currents. A correlated double sampling circuit and pixel address/digital control/signal integration circuit are also implemented on-chip. The CMOS imager data are read out as a serial coded signal. The sensor system uses a light-emitting diode to excite target analyte responsive organometallic luminophores doped within discrete xerogel-based sensor elements. As a proto type, we developed a 3 × 3 (9 elements) array of oxygen (O2) sensors. Each group of three sensor elements in the array (arranged in a column) is designed to provide a different and specific sensitivity to the target gaseous O2 concentration. This property of multiple sensitivities is achieved by using a mix of two O2 sensitive luminophores in each pin-printed xerogel sensor element. The CMOS imager is designed to be low noise and consumes a static power of 320.4 μW and an average dynamic power of 624.6 μW when operating at 100-Hz sampling frequency and 1.8-V dc power supply.

  1. Evaluation of refractory-metal-clad uranium nitride and uranium dioxide fuel pins after irradiation for times up to 10 450 hours at 990 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, K. J.; Gluyas, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of some materials variables on the irradiation performance of fuel pins for a lithium-cooled space power reactor design concept were examined. The variables studied were UN fuel density, fuel composition, and cladding alloy. All pins were irradiated at about 990 C in a thermal neutron environment to the design fuel burnup. An 85-percent dense UN fuel gave the best overall results in meeting the operational goals. The T-111 cladding on all specimens was embrittled, possibly by hydrogen in the case of the UN fuel and by uranium and oxygen in the case of the UO2 fuel. Tests with Cb-1Zr cladding indicate potential use of this cladding material. The UO2 fueled specimens met the operational goals of less than 1 percent cladding strain, but other factors make UO2 less attractive than low-density UN for the contemplated space power reactor use.

  2. Gender and Power: Reconstructing Latino Ethnography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavella, Patricia; Takash, Paule Cruz

    1993-01-01

    Introduces selected papers delivered at the 91st Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association. Papers explore gender as experienced by Latinas and Latinos, examine gendered relationships between Latino men and women, and discern how Latino gender norms in Latin America are perpetrated and negotiated by Latinos within the U.S.…

  3. Kirschner wire pin site infection in hand and wrist fractures: incidence rate and risk factors.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, W F; van Hoorn, B T J A; Chen, N; Ring, D

    2016-11-01

    Kirschner wires are widely used for skeletal fixation of unstable fractures, but the pin tracks create a potential pathway through the skin and into the bone for bacteria to cause an infection. We tested the null hypothesis that there are no demographic, patient-related, injury, or treatment variables independently associated with the occurrence of pin site infection after percutaneous fixation of hand and wrist fractures using Kirschner wires. A retrospective review of 1213 patients with one or more fractures of the hand and wrist treated with percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation identified 85 patients (7%) who had additional treatment with oral antibiotics, early pin removal, or reoperation related to a pin site infection. We found no factors were independently associated with higher or lower risks of pin site infection in multivariable logistic regression analysis. Pin site infections - most benign - occur in a notable number of patients and we could not identify any modifiable risk factors.

  4. Analysis of three idealized reactor configurations: plate, pin, and homogeneous. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed Monte Carlo calculations have been performed for three distinct configurations of an idealized fast critical assembly. This idealized assembly was based on the LMFBR benchmark critical assembly ZPR-6/7. In the first configuration, the entire core was loaded with the plate unit cell of ZPR-6/7. In the second configuration, the entire core was loaded with the ZPR sodium-filled pin calandria. The actual ZPR pin calandria are loaded with mixed (U,Pu) oxide pins which closely match the composition of the ZPR-6/7 plate unit cell. For the present study, slight adjustments were made in the atom concentrations and the length of the pin calandria in order to make the core boundaries and average composition for the pin-cell configuration identical to those of the plate-cell configuration. In the third configuration, the core was homogeneous, again with identical core boundaries and average composition as the plate and pin configurations.

  5. Investigation on convective heat transfer over a rotating disk with discrete pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing-Zhou; Tan, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Xing-Dan

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional numerical study on the flow and heat transfer characteristics over a rotating disk surface with discrete pins was conducted by the use of RNG k-ɛ turbulent model. And some experiments were also made for validation. The effects of rotating angular speed and pin configuration on the temperature maps and convective heat transfer characteristics on the rotating surface were analyzed. As the increase of rotating velocity, the impingement of pumping jet on the centre of rotating disk becomes stronger and the transition from laminar to turbulent occurs at the outer radius of rotating disk, which resulting in heat transfer enhancement. The pins on the disk make the pumping action of a rotating disk weaker. Simultaneously, they also act as perturbing elements to the cyclone flow near the rotating disk surface, making the overall heat transfer to be enhanced. The needle pins have higher convective heat transfer capacity than the discrete ring pins with the same extend pin areas.

  6. Control of domain wall pinning in ferromagnetic nanowires by magnetic stray fields.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sung-Min; Moon, Kyoung-Woong; Cho, Cheong-Gu; Choe, Sug-Bong

    2011-02-25

    We have found that the depinning field of domain walls (DWs) in permalloy (Ni(81)Fe(19)) nanowires can be experimentally controlled by interactions between magnetic stray fields and artificial constrictions. A pinning geometry that consists of a notch and a nanobar is considered, where a DW traveling in the nanowire is pinned by the notch with a nanobar vertical to it. We have found that the direction of magnetization of the nanobar affects the shape and local energy minimum of the potential landscape experienced by the DW; therefore, the pinning strength strongly depends on the interaction of the magnetic stray field from the nanobar with the external pinning force of the notch. The mechanism of this pinning behavior is applied for the instant and flexible control of the pinning strength with respect to various DW motions in DW-mediated magnetic memory devices.

  7. PinX1 inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Mei, Peng-Jin; Chen, Yan-Su; Du, Ying; Bai, Jin; Zheng, Jun-Nian

    2015-03-01

    PinX1 induces apoptosis and suppresses cell proliferation in some cancer cells, and the expression of PinX1 is frequently decreased in some cancer and negatively associated with metastasis and prognosis. However, the precise roles of PinX1 in gliomas have not been studied. In this study, we found that PinX1 obviously reduced the gliomas cell proliferation through regulating the expressions of cell cycle-relative molecules to arrest cell at G1 phase and down-regulating the expression of component telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT in human), which is the hardcore of telomerase. Moreover, PinX1 could suppress the abilities of gliomas cell wound healing, migration and invasion via suppressing MMP-2 expression and increasing TIMP-2 expression. In conclusion, our results suggested that PinX1 may be a potential suppressive gene in the progression of gliomas.

  8. Pinning of a rough interface by an external potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, J. M. J.; Hilhorst, H. J.

    1981-06-01

    An analysis is given of the behavior of an interface between two phases in the presence of an external pinning potential in the solid-on-solid limit of the two-dimensional Ising model. It is found that the potential turns a rough interface into a smooth one, except in the case of a boundary potential, where a minimum potential strength is required. The connection with the roughening transition found by Abraham is discussed. The interface width is calculated as a function of the potential parameters in the limit of a weak pining potential.

  9. Pinning induced magnetostriction in ceramic high temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabiałek, A.; Szymczak, H.; Piotrowski, K.; Chabanenko, V.; Pakieła, Z.

    1999-08-01

    Transverse and longitudinal magnetostriction was measured in ceramic YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ and Hg 0.8Pb 0.2Ba 2Ca 2Cu 3O 8+ δ superconductors by the strain gauge technique. The measurements were performed in an external magnetic field up to 12 T. The observed magnetostriction was shown to consist of two components. The first one is connected with the intragrain - and the second one with the intergrain screening currents. Both components of the magnetostriction were analyzed independently in frames of an isotropic theory of the pinning induced magnetostriction.

  10. Effect of temperature on silicon PIN photodiode radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han Soo; Jeong, Manhee; Kim, Young Soo; Ha, Jang Ho; Cho, Seong Yeon

    2014-03-01

    One of the noise sources of a semiconductor radiation detector is thermal noise, which degrades the performance, such as the energy resolution and unexpected random pulse signals. In this study, PIN photodiode radiation detectors, with different active areas were designed and fabricated for an experimental comparison of the energy resolutions for different temperatures and capacitances by using a Ba-133 calibration gamma-ray source. The experimental temperature was approximately in the range from -7 to 24 °C and was controlled by using a peltier device. The design considerations and the electrical characteristics, such as the I-V and the C-V characteristics, are also addressed.

  11. Automated Analysis of PIN-4 Stained Prostate Needle Biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabata, Bikash; Babenko, Boris; Monroe, Robert; Srinivas, Chukka

    Prostate Needle biopsies are stained with the PIN-4 marker cocktail to help the pathologist distinguish between HGPIN and adenocarcinoma. The correct interpretation of multiple IHC markers can be challenging. Therefore we propose the use of computer aided diagnosis algorithms for the identification and classification of glands in a whole slide image of prostate needle biopsy. The paper presents the different issues related to the automated analysis of prostate needle biopsies and the approach taken by BioImagene in its first generation algorithms.

  12. Frequency Reconfigurable Hybrid Slot Antenna Using PIN Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaolin; Sheng, Lili; Lin, Jiancheng; Chen, Gang

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a frequency reconfigurable hybrid slot antenna fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW) without complex bias network and DC blocking capacitor chips. In order to add reconfigurablility to the antenna, the PIN diodes are equipped in the slots. The antenna is capable of frequency switching at six different frequency bands between 1.7 GHz to 2.5 GHz, which can be used in multiradio wireless systems, such as DCS-1800, PCS1900, UMTS, Wibro and Bluetooth bands. The simulated and measured return loss, peak gain, together with the radiation patterns are presented and compared. Especially, the radiation patterns are stable at different frequency.

  13. Dynamic phases, pinning, and pattern formation for driven dislocation assemblies

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Caizhi; Reichhardt, Charles; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; ...

    2015-01-23

    We examine driven dislocation assemblies and show that they can exhibit a set of dynamical phases remarkably similar to those of driven systems with quenched disorder such as vortices in superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and charge density wave materials. These phases include pinned-jammed, fluctuating, and dynamically ordered states, and each produces distinct dislocation patterns as well as specific features in the noise fluctuations and transport properties. Lastly, our work suggests that many of the results established for systems with quenched disorder undergoing plastic depinning transitions can be applied to dislocation systems, providing a new approach for understanding pattern formation andmore » dynamics in these systems.« less

  14. Dynamic phases, pinning, and pattern formation for driven dislocation assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Caizhi; Reichhardt, Charles; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2015-01-23

    We examine driven dislocation assemblies and show that they can exhibit a set of dynamical phases remarkably similar to those of driven systems with quenched disorder such as vortices in superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and charge density wave materials. These phases include pinned-jammed, fluctuating, and dynamically ordered states, and each produces distinct dislocation patterns as well as specific features in the noise fluctuations and transport properties. Lastly, our work suggests that many of the results established for systems with quenched disorder undergoing plastic depinning transitions can be applied to dislocation systems, providing a new approach for understanding pattern formation and dynamics in these systems.

  15. Welding fixture for nuclear fuel pin cladding assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, D.J.; Feld, S.H.

    1984-02-22

    A welding fixture is described for locating a driver sleeve about the open end of a nuclear fuel pin cladding. The welding fixture includes a holder provided with an open cavity having shoulders for properly positioning the driver sleeve, the end cap, and a soft, high temperature resistant plastic protective sleeve that surrounds a portion of the end cap stem. Ejected contaminant particles spewed forth by closure of the cladding by pulsed magnetic welding techniques are captured within a contamination trap formed in the holder for ultimate removal and disposal of contaminating particles along with the holder.

  16. Welding fixture for nuclear fuel pin cladding assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.; Feld, Sam H.

    1986-01-01

    A welding fixture for locating a driver sleeve about the open end of a nuclear fuel pin cladding. The welding fixture includes a holder provided with an open cavity having shoulders for properly positioning the driver sleeve, the end cap, and a soft, high temperature resistant plastic protective sleeve that surrounds a portion of the end cap stem. Ejected contaminant particles spewed forth by closure of the cladding by pulsed magnetic welding techniques are captured within a contamination trap formed in the holder for ultimate removal and disposal of contaminating particles along with the holder.

  17. Method for forming precision clockplate with pivot pins

    DOEpatents

    Wild, Ronald L.

    2010-06-01

    Methods are disclosed for producing a precision clockplate with rotational bearing surfaces (e.g. pivot pins). The methods comprise providing an electrically conductive blank, conventionally machining oversize features comprising bearing surfaces into the blank, optionally machining of a relief on non-bearing surfaces, providing wire accesses adjacent to bearing surfaces, threading the wire of an electrical discharge machine through the accesses and finishing the bearing surfaces by wire electrical discharge machining. The methods have been shown to produce bearing surfaces of comparable dimension and tolerances as those produced by micro-machining methods such as LIGA, at reduced cost and complexity.

  18. [Breast reconstruction after mastectomy].

    PubMed

    Ho Quoc, C; Delay, E

    2013-02-01

    The mutilating surgery for breast cancer causes deep somatic and psychological sequelae. Breast reconstruction can mitigate these effects and permit the patient to help rebuild their lives. The purpose of this paper is to focus on breast reconstruction techniques and on factors involved in breast reconstruction. The methods of breast reconstruction are presented: objectives, indications, different techniques, operative risks, and long-term monitoring. Many different techniques can now allow breast reconstruction in most patients. Clinical cases are also presented in order to understand the results we expect from a breast reconstruction. Breast reconstruction provides many benefits for patients in terms of rehabilitation, wellness, and quality of life. In our mind, breast reconstruction should be considered more as an opportunity and a positive choice (the patient can decide to do it), than as an obligation (that the patient would suffer). The consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction is an important step to give all necessary informations. It is really important that the patient could speak again with him before undergoing reconstruction, if she has any doubt. The quality of information given by medical doctors is essential to the success of psychological intervention. This article was written in a simple, and understandable way to help gynecologists giving the best information to their patients. It is maybe also possible to let them a copy of this article, which would enable them to have a written support and would facilitate future consultation with the surgeon who will perform the reconstruction.

  19. A misplaced locking pin found near ET causes decision to scrub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A locking pin can be seen in the background, almost as a shadow, next to the orbiter aft ET attachment. Locking pins are used to secure handrails on the platforms while work is being performed. The misplaced pin was noticed during an inspection prior to launch, causing the decision to scrub about 90 minutes before liftoff. Launch was rescheduled for Oct. 11 at 7:17 p.m.

  20. Biomechanical and Cost Comparisons of Near-Far and Pin-Bar Constructs.

    PubMed

    Whitney Kluk, Augusta; Zhang, Tina; Russell, Joseph P; Kim, Hyunchul; Hsieh, Adam H; O'Toole, Robert V

    2016-10-13

    Orthopedic dogma states that external fixator stiffness is improved by placing 1 pin close to the fracture and 1 as distant as possible ("near-far"). This fixator construct is thought to be less expensive than placing pins a shorter distance apart and using "pin-bar" clamps that attach pins to outriggers. The authors therefore hypothesized that the near-far construct is stiffer and less expensive. They compared mechanical stiffness and costs of near-far and pin-bar constructs commonly used for temporary external fixation of femoral shaft fractures. Their testing model simulated femoral shaft fractures in damage control situations. Fourth-generation synthetic femora (n=18) were used. The near-far construct had 2 pins that were 106 mm apart, placed 25 mm from the gap on each side of the fracture. The pin-bar construct pins were 55 mm apart, placed 40 mm from the gap. Mechanical testing was performed on a material test system machine. Stiffness was determined in the linear portion of the load-displacement curve for both constructs in 4 modes: axial compression, torsional loading, frontal plane 3-point bending, and sagittal plane 3-point bending. Costs were determined from a 2012 price guide. Compared with the near-far construct, the pin-bar construct had stiffness increased by 58% in axial compression (P<.05) and by 52% in torsional loading (P<.05). The pin-bar construct increased cost by 11%. In contrast to the authors' hypothesis and existing orthopedic dogma, the near-far construct was less stiff than the pin-bar construct and was similarly priced. Use of the pin-bar construct is mechanically and economically reasonable. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].