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Sample records for pine marten martes

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of European pine marten, Martes martes.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wu, Dan; Malyarchuk, Boris

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We undertook the first sequencing of the entire mitogenome of Martes martes. The genome is 16,486 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a control region. The total base composition of the mitogenome is 31.9% for A, 27. 6% for C, 25.8% for T and 14.7% for G. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage do not differ significantly from other martens. This mitogenome sequence data might be useful for phylogenetic and systematic analyses within the genus Martes.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls in a terrestrial predator, the pine marten (Martes martes L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Bremle, G.; Larsson, P.; Helldin, J.O.

    1997-09-01

    A terrestrial predator population, the pine marten (Martes martes, L.), inhabiting an area in mid-Sweden was investigated for polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p{prime}-DDE, lindane, and hexachlorobenzene. The condition of the animals, as shown by intestine fat amounts or fat content of muscle tissue, showed negative relationships with concentration of persistent pollutants. The relationship resulted in a higher concentration of pollutants as intestinal fat amounts of muscle fat content decreased and lower levels of pollutants as these indexes of condition improved. The results indicate that terrestrial predators show changes in pollutant concentration due to condition, caused by food availability and starvation. No differences in pollutant concentration were recorded between males and females and no relationship was found for levels of pollutants and age or reproduction (females). The latter results are in contrast to those found for aquatic predatory mammals.

  3. Trichinella britovi biomass in naturally infected pine martens (Martes martes) of Latvia.

    PubMed

    Kirjušina, Muza; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Pozio, Edoardo

    2016-11-15

    Parasites of the genus Trichinella are cosmopolitan nematodes infecting primarily wild animals, which represent the main reservoirs of these zoonotic pathogens. To investigate the transmission patterns of Trichinella spp. from wild to domestic animals and to humans and for the risk assessment of these parasites in a geographical area, it is important to know the number of possible transmission events deriving from carcasses of infected hosts. For this purpose, the evaluation of the larval biomass in reservoir hosts is needed. No data is available on how to estimate the biomass of Trichinella spp. larvae in muscles of naturally infected animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larval biomass in naturally infected pine martens (Martes martes) of Latvia, in which the prevalence of Trichinella britovi infection was over 50%. Single muscles or group of muscles (abdomen, back, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, muscles from the head, left and right shoulders, lower and upper parts of the forelimbs and hind limbs, neck, rump with tail, and base and tip of the tongue) were collected from five skinned and eviscerated carcasses of T. britovi infected pine martens. Muscles were entirely removed from the bones and weighted. Each muscle or group of muscles was separately digested to detect the larvae per gram (LPG). Using linear regression, the larval burden in each muscle or group of muscles was evaluated to measure the possible prediction of the total animal larval burden (both as total number of larvae and as average LPG). All muscles were significantly predictive of the total burden with high "goodness of fit" (all adjusted R2>0.80; P≤0.01), and the left shoulder provided the highest adjusted R2 (0.999). Then, to estimate the Trichinella britovi biomass in the pine marten population of Latvia, recent literature data on prevalence (56.2%, 95% CI: 47.8-64.3) and geometric mean LPG (1.26, 95% CI: 0.89-1.79) in the limb muscles of a sample representative of the whole

  4. Myocarditis and myositis due to infection with Hepatozoon species in pine martens (Martes martes) in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Simpson, V R; Panciera, R J; Hargreaves, J; McGarry, J W; Scholes, S F E; Bown, K J; Birtles, R J

    2005-04-02

    Postmortem examinations of four pine martens which had died as a result of road accidents in Scotland revealed focal, granulomatous lesions in the heart and skeletal muscles of three of them. An immunoperoxidase staining technique showed that the lesions were due to infection with Hepatozoon species. A PCR-based assay was used to confirm the presence of Hepatozoon DNA in the infected tissues. The nucleotide base sequence of the PCR products suggested that the infecting organism was probably a new species of Hepatozoon, most closely related to, but distinct from, Hepatozoon canis. The pine martens were in good physical condition and there was no indication that the infection was causing ill health.

  5. Physiological stress responses, fecal marking behavior, and reproduction in wild European pine martens (Martes martes).

    PubMed

    Barja, Isabel; Silván, Gema; Martínez-Fernández, Leticia; Illera, Juan Carlos

    2011-03-01

    The relationship among physiological stress responses, fecal marking behavior, and reproduction in male and female European pine martens was investigated. Between July 2004 and June 2007, 145 fresh fecal samples were collected in a protected area of northwest Spain. Fecal DNA was used for specific identification by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Glucocorticoids (cortisol) and sex steroid hormones (P, progesterone; E, estradiol; T, testosterone) were quantified by enzyme immunoassays. Sex was assigned according to concentrations of T+P+E and the T/P ratio. Fecal cortisol concentrations were higher in males than in females. Feces with a presumptive marking function (on conspicuous substrates, above ground level, and/or in latrines) had higher mean levels of cortisol than those that were on inconspicuous substrates and/or at ground level, for both males and females. Fecal mark density was highest in spring, when mean levels of fecal cortisol were more elevated. Therefore, the higher physiological stress levels in females could be due to female physiological state (late-term pregnancy and lactation), competition for resources connected to birth, or food resources for offspring rearing. In males, the increase could be due to higher male competition for access to females during pro-estrus and estrus. Our results suggest that scent marking in European pine martens is related to reproduction and is involved in intersexual and intrasexual communication.

  6. [Genetic variability of sable Martes zibellina L., pine marten M. martes L., and their hybrids in Western Siberia: protein and DNA polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Zhigileva, O N; Politov, D V; Golovacheva, I M; Petrovicheva, S V

    2014-05-01

    Using four types of markers, the genetic variability of sable and pine marten inhabiting Western Siberia was examined. Izoenzyme and restriction endonuclease analysis of the mtDNA cytochrome b gene fragment, as well as the ISSR-PCR and analysis of microsatellite variation, revealed a low differentiation level of sable and pine marten and confirmed the hybrid origin of atypical representatives of these species. The hybrids were characterized by an increased heterozygosity level and were genetically closer to sable than to pine marten. In atypical martens, the presence of mtDNA haplotypes of eastern sable was identified. This could be the consequence of the reintroduction of the Barguzin sable in the 20th century. In Western Siberia, the introgression of genes between sable and pine marten was massive and symmetrical. It apparently occurred in the past and continues in the present.

  7. Landscape genetics for the empirical assessment of resistance surfaces: the European pine marten (Martes martes) as a target-species of a regional ecological network.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale.

  8. Landscape Genetics for the Empirical Assessment of Resistance Surfaces: The European Pine Marten (Martes martes) as a Target-Species of a Regional Ecological Network

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A.; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale. PMID:25329047

  9. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten.

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes. The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  10. Spatial Niche Segregation of Sympatric Stone Marten and Pine Marten – Avoidance of Competition or Selection of Optimal Habitat?

    PubMed Central

    Wereszczuk, Anna; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence of ecologically similar species relies on differences in one or more dimensions of their ecological niches, such as space, time and resources in diel and/or seasonal scales. However, niche differentiation may result from other mechanisms such as avoidance of high predation pressure, different adaptations or requirements of ecologically similar species. Stone marten (Martes foina) and pine marten (Martes martes) occur sympatrically over a large area in Central Europe and utilize similar habitats and food, therefore it is expected that their coexistence requires differentiation in at least one of their niche dimensions or the mechanisms through which these dimensions are used. To test this hypothesis, we used differences in the species activity patterns and habitat selection, estimated with a resource selection function (RSF), to predict the relative probability of occurrence of the two species within a large forest complex in the northern geographic range of the stone marten. Stone martens were significantly heavier, have a longer body and a better body condition than pine martens. We found weak evidence for temporal niche segregation between the species. Stone and pine martens were both primarily nocturnal, but pine martens were active more frequently during the day and significantly reduced the duration of activity during autumn-winter. Stone and pine martens utilized different habitats and almost completely separated their habitat niches. Stone marten strongly preferred developed areas and avoided meadows and coniferous or deciduous forests. Pine marten preferred deciduous forest and small patches covered by trees, and avoided developed areas and meadows. We conclude that complete habitat segregation of the two marten species facilitates sympatric coexistence in this area. However, spatial niche segregation between these species was more likely due to differences in adaptation to cold climate, avoidance of high predator pressure and/or food

  11. Spatial Niche Segregation of Sympatric Stone Marten and Pine Marten--Avoidance of Competition or Selection of Optimal Habitat?

    PubMed

    Wereszczuk, Anna; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence of ecologically similar species relies on differences in one or more dimensions of their ecological niches, such as space, time and resources in diel and/or seasonal scales. However, niche differentiation may result from other mechanisms such as avoidance of high predation pressure, different adaptations or requirements of ecologically similar species. Stone marten (Martes foina) and pine marten (Martes martes) occur sympatrically over a large area in Central Europe and utilize similar habitats and food, therefore it is expected that their coexistence requires differentiation in at least one of their niche dimensions or the mechanisms through which these dimensions are used. To test this hypothesis, we used differences in the species activity patterns and habitat selection, estimated with a resource selection function (RSF), to predict the relative probability of occurrence of the two species within a large forest complex in the northern geographic range of the stone marten. Stone martens were significantly heavier, have a longer body and a better body condition than pine martens. We found weak evidence for temporal niche segregation between the species. Stone and pine martens were both primarily nocturnal, but pine martens were active more frequently during the day and significantly reduced the duration of activity during autumn-winter. Stone and pine martens utilized different habitats and almost completely separated their habitat niches. Stone marten strongly preferred developed areas and avoided meadows and coniferous or deciduous forests. Pine marten preferred deciduous forest and small patches covered by trees, and avoided developed areas and meadows. We conclude that complete habitat segregation of the two marten species facilitates sympatric coexistence in this area. However, spatial niche segregation between these species was more likely due to differences in adaptation to cold climate, avoidance of high predator pressure and/or food

  12. Occurrence of internal parasites in stone martens (Martes foina) from Cracow and suburbs.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Wierzbowska, Izabela A; Górski, Paweł; Okarma, Henryk

    2013-01-01

    The pine marten Martes martes and the stone marten Martes foina are the only representatives of the genus Martes in Poland. During the last few decades, an intensive synurbisation of stone martens has been recorded. The aim of the study was to assess the level of infection by internal parasites of Martes foina in the Cracow urban area. Eleven necropsies were performed of stone martens killed during animal-vehicle collisions. Additionally, coprological examination of 129 stone marten scats was included. For further analysis, two standard methods, i.e. flotation and decantation, were used. The intensity of infection by parasites was low. Taenia martis was found to be present in one marten individual by necropsy, while Taeniidae helminths and two genera of nematodes, Capillaria and Toxocara, were identified during coprodiagnosis. The diet analysis of stone marten scats revealed a high proportion of two food categories. Percentage frequency of occurrence for plant material and anthropogenic was calculated as 42.3% and 15.4%, respectively. This type of food composition might suggest lower infection by internal parasites in particular species, especially with an indirect life cycle.

  13. [A formal description of mammals' behavior based on data on snow tracking, with pine marten (Martes martes) as a case study].

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, É D; Morozov, V V

    2014-01-01

    The formalism allowing to describe animals' behavior is based on the model of informational interactions between an animal and its environment. The model may be represented as an assemblage consisting of two blocks. The first block, which corresponds to the perception system, is a probabilistic operator: it selects an object of certain class out of many objects randomly encountered by an animal while it moves around. The selected object keeps its actuality as an input symbol for the second block of the assemblage during one or several cycles of the block operation. The second block, being afinite structural probabilistic automaton, generates output reactions to the input symbol. The structural automaton, which consists of elementary automata, produces a sequence of output reactions in course of interactions with the selected object: After exhaustion of the previous input actuality, the assemblage moves to the next cycle. At that, the probabilistic operator comes back to the receptive state and produces next output. Automaton "inputs" correspond to objects of certain classes, selectively perceived by an animal; "outputs" correspond to a sequence of elementary motor reactions. Based on data on snow tracking of pine marten foraging activity, there have been composed: the assemblage input and output alphabets, a conjugation matrix of input signals and internal states of the first elementary automaton that is contained in the second block structure, and transition probability matrices for the states of the second block elementary automata, which are defined for a class of environmental objects when foraging activity occurs. The proposed formalism makes it possible to convert field data on tracking into the unified form, detect key circumstances of animals' behavioral activity, and analyze this natural phenomenon in detail.

  14. Current distribution of the american marten, Martes americana, in California

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Kurcera; William J. Zielinski; Reginald H. Barrett

    1996-01-01

    We describe the current distribution of the American marten, Martes americana, in California based on field surveys conducted between 1989 and 1995 that used either sooted track-plates or cameras. The Sierra Nevada marten, M. a. sierrae, occupies much of its historic range from northwestern Shasta County to the southern Sierra...

  15. Parasitological and molecular features of the Hepatozoon species in the myocardium of Japanese Martens (Martes melampus melampus).

    PubMed

    Kubo, Masahito; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Sakai, Hiroki; Masegi, Toshiaki; Panciera, Roger J; Yanai, Tokuma

    2009-12-01

    The Hepatozoon species in the myocardium of Japanese martens (Martes melampus melampus) was characterized by histological and molecular methods. Histologically, granulomatous nodules with Hepatozoon sp. merozoites/gametocytes, or schizonts, or both were observed in the hearts of Japanese martens. The most frequently observed forms were merozoites/gametocytes within phagocytes; each host cell included a zoite, which was not microscopically identifiable as a merozoite or gametocyte. Schizonts were oval in shape and 36.9 ± 5.7 x 28.9 ± 3.4 μm in size; each schizont had approximately 20-60 nuclei. The size of the merozoites could not be measured because no mature schizonts were observed. In the analyses of the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence, it was strongly suggested that the Hepatozoon sp. in Japanese marten and the Hepatozoon sp. in pine marten (Martes martes) in Scotland were the same species.

  16. Tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine immobilization of American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Belant, Jerrold L

    2005-07-01

    The effectiveness of tiletamine-zolazepam (Telazol) and xylazine as an immobilizing combination for American martens (Martes americana) was evaluated. Fifteen martens were intramuscularly injected on 19 occasions using a 3:2 mixture of tiletamine-zolazepam (3.2+/-0.6 mg/kg [mean +/- SD]) and xylazine (2.1+/-0.4 mg/kg) at Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan (USA) during May to October 2002-2003. Mean induction time was 2.5+/-1.8 min; mean recovery time was 70.8+/-31.9 min. There was no relation between the amount (mg/kg) of tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine injected and induction (r(2)=0.08, P=0.26). However, there was an inverse relation (r(2)=0.28, P<0.01) between dosage and time to first effect of immobilants. Time to recovery increased (r(2)=0.21, P=0.05) with increased dosage. Mean heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature declined through 10 min postinduction (P<0.05). No mortality occurred and no short-term adverse effects were observed in recaptured individuals. In conclusion, a 3:2 mixture of tiletamine-zolazepam/xylazine is a safe and effective immobilizing agent for martens when conducting non-surgical field procedures. Immobilizing martens with 4.2 mg/kg tiletamine-zolazepam and 2.8 mg/kg xylazine should provide < or =30 min of handling time and allow full recovery in about 70 min.

  17. [Genetic analysis of sympatric sable (Martes zibellina) and Marten (M. martes) populations in the northern urals].

    PubMed

    Rozhnov, V V; Meshcherskiĭ, I G; Pishchulina, S L; Simakin, L V

    2010-04-01

    Analysis of nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (495 bp) of sables (Martes zibellina) and martens (M. martes) from allopatric parts of the species ranges has shown a considerable interspecific genetic distance (3%). In sympatric populations of these species in the northern Urals, differences between two species-specific mtDNA lineages are still large; however, classification of each individual nucleotide sequence with one of the two lineages is not correlated with whether the given animal is phenotypically a sable, a marten, or a potential hybrid (the so-called kidas). This indicates a high degree of mutual introgression of the sable and marten mtDNAs in the northern Urals and suggests that their interspecific hybridization is common in the sympatric zone.

  18. Diets of sympatric populations of American martens (Martes americana) and fishers (Martes pennanti) in California

    Treesearch

    William J. Zielinski; Neil P. Duncan

    2004-01-01

    American martens (Martes americana) and fishers (M. pennanti) occur together in mixed-conifer forests of the southern Sierra Nevada. We studied their diets in the area of sympatry by examining their feces and comparing diet diversity and overlap. Diets of both species were more diverse than previously reported in North America...

  19. Systemic AL amyloidosis in a Beech Marten (Martes foina).

    PubMed

    Scaglione, F E; Mignone, W; Ferrero, E; Poggi, M; Biolatti, B; Bollo, E

    2013-10-01

    A wild Beech Marten (Martes foina), was referred for necropsy to the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin (Italy). At gross examination, whitish and firm masses, 10-mm in diameter, were found on the heart and in the kidney. Spleen showed lighter color and greater consistency, and the cut surface of the liver appeared scattered with whitish-yellow coalescing foci homogeneously distributed. Amyloid deposits were present in the perivascular and intercellular spaces of the visceral organs, such as the heart, liver, and kidneys. Amyloid stained positively with Congo red with and without 5% potassium permanganate pretreatment and showed green birefringence observable under polarized light. A diagnosis of systemic AL amyloidosis was made. This is the first description of systemic AL amyloidosis in a wild Stone Marten.

  20. Endoparasites of American marten (Martes americana): Review of the literature and parasite survey of reintroduced American marten in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Maria C; Kaloustian, Lisa L; Gerhold, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) was reintroduced to both the Upper (UP) and northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan during the 20th century. This is the first report of endoparasites of American marten from the NLP. Faeces from live-trapped American marten were examined for the presence of parasitic ova, and blood samples were obtained for haematocrit evaluation. The most prevalent parasites were Capillaria and Alaria species. Helminth parasites reported in American marten for the first time include Eucoleus boehmi, hookworm, and Hymenolepis and Strongyloides species. This is the first report of shedding of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in an American marten and identification of 2 coccidian parasites, Cystoisospora and Eimeria species. The pathologic and zoonotic potential of each parasite species is discussed, and previous reports of endoparasites of the American marten in North America are reviewed.

  1. Modelling the Distribution of Forest-Dependent Species in Human-Dominated Landscapes: Patterns for the Pine Marten in Intensively Cultivated Lowlands

    PubMed Central

    Balestrieri, Alessandro; Bogliani, Giuseppe; Boano, Giovanni; Ruiz-González, Aritz; Saino, Nicola; Costa, Stefano; Milanesi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the “forest-specialist” pine marten Martes martes has been reported to also occur also in largely fragmented, lowland landscapes of north-western Italy. The colonization of such an apparently unsuitable area provided the opportunity for investigating pine marten ecological requirements and predicting its potential south- and eastwards expansion. We collected available pine marten occurrence data in the flood plain of the River Po (N Italy) and relate them to 11 environmental variables by developing nine Species Distribution Models. To account for inter-model variability we used average ensemble predictions (EP). EP predicted a total of 482 suitable patches (8.31% of the total study area) for the pine marten. The main factors driving pine marten occurrence in the western River Po plain were the distance from watercourses and the distance from woods. EP suggested that the pine marten may further expand in the western lowland, whilst the negligible residual wood cover of large areas in the central and eastern plain makes the habitat unsuitable for the pine marten, except for some riparian corridors and the pine wood patches bordering the Adriatic coast. Based on our results, conservation strategies should seek to preserve remnant forest patches and enhance the functional connectivity provided by riparian corridors. PMID:27368056

  2. Modelling the Distribution of Forest-Dependent Species in Human-Dominated Landscapes: Patterns for the Pine Marten in Intensively Cultivated Lowlands.

    PubMed

    Balestrieri, Alessandro; Bogliani, Giuseppe; Boano, Giovanni; Ruiz-González, Aritz; Saino, Nicola; Costa, Stefano; Milanesi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the "forest-specialist" pine marten Martes martes has been reported to also occur also in largely fragmented, lowland landscapes of north-western Italy. The colonization of such an apparently unsuitable area provided the opportunity for investigating pine marten ecological requirements and predicting its potential south- and eastwards expansion. We collected available pine marten occurrence data in the flood plain of the River Po (N Italy) and relate them to 11 environmental variables by developing nine Species Distribution Models. To account for inter-model variability we used average ensemble predictions (EP). EP predicted a total of 482 suitable patches (8.31% of the total study area) for the pine marten. The main factors driving pine marten occurrence in the western River Po plain were the distance from watercourses and the distance from woods. EP suggested that the pine marten may further expand in the western lowland, whilst the negligible residual wood cover of large areas in the central and eastern plain makes the habitat unsuitable for the pine marten, except for some riparian corridors and the pine wood patches bordering the Adriatic coast. Based on our results, conservation strategies should seek to preserve remnant forest patches and enhance the functional connectivity provided by riparian corridors.

  3. [Analyzing spatial-temporal dynamics of the ecological niche: a marten (Martes martes) population case study].

    PubMed

    Puzachenko, Iu G; Zheltukhin, A S; Sandlerskiĭ, R B

    2010-01-01

    A potential of discriminant analysis is demonstrated in a case study of the common marten (Martes martes L., 1758) ecological niche within the Central Forest Reserve and its buffer zone. The analysis is aimed at identifying how the probability to encounter a marten's footprint along a walking route depends on the relief and other parameters of the environment discerned by remote sensing. The analyses that were done individually for each of the eleven months from a three-year observation period have revealed the pattern of the species spatial distribution and a measure of its association with the environment to be dependent, to a large extent, on the weather conditions. In general, associations with the environment do increase under unfavorable conditions. The methods are suggested that integrate outcomes of the monthly analyses into a general map of habitat types. The technique presented has wide application opportunities in studying the ecology of populations and solving problems of practical ecology.

  4. Ketamine and midazolam anesthesia in Pacific martens (Martes caurina).

    PubMed

    Mortenson, Jack A; Moriarty, Katie M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The use of midazolam as a tranquilizer for anesthesia in mustelids in conjunction with the cyclohexamine ketamine is not well documented. Because midazolam is fast acting, inexpensive, and quickly metabolized, it may serve as a good alternative to other more commonly used tranquilizers. We trapped and anesthetized 27 Pacific martens (Martes caurina) in Lassen National Forest (northern California, US) August 2010-April 2013. We assessed anesthesia with ketamine at 18 and 25 mg/kg combined with 0.2 mg/kg of midazolam by comparing mean times of induction, return to consciousness, and recovery, plus physiologic parameters. No reversal was used for the midazolam portion of the anesthetic. Mean (±SD) induction for both ketamine dosages was 1.7±0.5 and 1.8±1.0 min, respectively. Return to consciousness mean times were 8.0 min longer (P<0.001) for martens receiving a 25 mg/kg ketamine dosage. Mean recoveries were 15.1 min longer (P<0.003) for the 25 mg/kg ketamine dosage. Physiologic parameter means were similar for both ketamine dosages with no statistically significant differences. Body temperatures and heart and respiratory rates were generally stable, but percentage of oxygen saturation and end tidal carbon dioxide values were below those seen in previous mustelid studies. The combination of ketamine, at both dosages, and midazolam provided reliable field anesthesia for Pacific martens, and supplemental oxygen is recommended as needed.

  5. Dispersal and genetic structure in the American marten, Martes americana.

    PubMed

    Broquet, T; Johnson, C A; Petit, E; Thompson, I; Burel, F; Fryxell, J M

    2006-05-01

    Natal dispersal in a vagile carnivore, the American marten (Martes americana), was studied by comparing radio-tracking data and microsatellite genetic structure in two populations occupying contrasting habitats. The genetic differentiation determined among groups of individuals using F(ST) indices appeared to be weak in both landscapes, and showed no increase with geographical distance. Genetic structure investigated using pairwise genetic distances between individuals conversely showed a pattern of isolation by distance (IBD), but only in the population occurring in a homogeneous high-quality habitat, therefore showing the advantage of individual-based analyses in detecting within-population processes and local landscape effects. The telemetry study of juveniles revealed a leptokurtic distribution of dispersal distances in both populations, and estimates of the mean squared parent-offspring axial distance (sigma2) inferred both from the genetic pattern of IBD and from the radio-tracking survey showed that most juveniles make little contribution to gene flow.

  6. Abundances of red fox and pine marten in relation to the composition of boreal forest landscapes.

    PubMed

    Kurki, S; Nikula, A; Helle, P; Lindén, H

    1998-11-01

    The effects of human-caused fragmentation of boreal forest on the abundance of red fox Vulpes vulpes L. and pine marten Martes martes L. were studied by combining the Finnish wildlife-triangle snow-track data (1990-94) with land-use and forest resources data employing the GIS. Two study areas (each 45 000 km(2) ) located in northern and southern Finland were selected for the investigation. The extent of landscape that best explained predator abundance (tracks per 10 km 24 h(-1) ) was the same (about 100 km(2) ) in both species and study areas. The decreasing proportion of older forest and the increasing proportions of young forest and agricultural land in the landscape positively affected track density of red fox. The relationship between agricultural land and fox abundance, however, was characterized by a convex curve peaking at 20-30% of agricultural land. With the habitat classification used, landscape composition explained 26% and 11% of the spatial variation in fox abundance in the northern and southern study area, respectively. The relationship between landscape composition and pine marten abundance was not as clear as in that of red fox. Landscape composition explained 10% and 6% of spatial variation in pine marten abundance in the northern and southern study area, respectively. In both areas a positive impact occurred with the increasing proposition of young forest in the landscape, but in the northern area the negative effect of increasing proportion of agricultural land was dominant. The abundances of red fox and pine marten were not negatively correlated, indicating that competition or intraguild predation by red fox do not determine abundance of pine marten on a landscape scale. A general increase in predation pressure by generalist predators in fragmented forest landscapes has been an intensively discussed conservation problem during recent years. We conclude that the red fox is a species potentially able to cause elevated predation pressure in boreal

  7. Soboliphyme baturini infection does not affect the nutritional condition of American marten (Martes americana) in Alaska

    Treesearch

    J.G. Thomas; J.N. Pauli; E. Donaldio; S.W. Buskirk

    2008-01-01

    Soboliphyme baturini, a stomach-dwelling nematode of American martens (Martes americana). reaches high levels of infection; however, its effects on the nutritional condition of the host are unknown. To understand the effects of this parasite on American martens, we collected S. baturini and measured abdominal fat...

  8. Massive infestation with fur mites (Lynxacarus mustelae) of a stone marten (Martes foina) from Tyrol.

    PubMed

    Visser, Martin; Messner, Christian; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-10-01

    A massive infestation with Lynxacarus mustelae (Megnin, 1885) (Acari, Astigmata, Listrophoridae) was diagnosed in a stone marten (Martes foina) from Tyrol, Austria. In addition, Ixodes rugicollis and Trichodectes retusus are reported for the first time in Austria, and the five species of helminths found (Capillaria aerophila, C. mustelorum, C. paranalis, C. plica, Molineus patens) are first records in the stone marten in the country.

  9. Interagency Pacific marten (Martes caurina) distribution study on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moriarty, Katie; Howell, Betsy; Morozumi, Connor; Happe, Patti; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Aubry, Keith B.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the Pacific marten (Martes caurina) still occurs on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State. We reviewed recent records of marten observations on the Olympic Peninsula since 1998, and conducted new surveys in undersampled regions of the Olympic Peninsula during summer, 2016. We reviewed evidence of fisher presence from 6 previously reported studies of carnivore distribution and presence on the Olympic Peninsula and conducted new surveys in previously undersampled areas of the Peninsula. We documented five highly reliable records of marten observations on the Pensula since 1988. Further, we established 197 camera stations in search of martens, amassing a total of 17,897 camera-nights of survey efforts in previously undersampled regions. We documented presence of one additional marten during summer 2016. This marten, however, was close to a marten detected in 2015, so it was not clear if it represented a different marten. We concluded that five to six martens have been verified present on the Olympic Peninsula since 1988. Pacific martens appear to be very limited in distribution and at critically low numbers throughout much of their former range on the Olympic Peninsula.

  10. The "Martes complex"-- an opportunity to bring together marten, fisher, sable, wolverine, and tayra biologists

    Treesearch

    Gilbert Proulx; Keith B. Aubry

    2014-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic studies have shown that the genus Martes is polyphyletic with respect to the Fisher (Pekania pennanti), which is more closely related to the Wolverine (Gulo gulo) and Tayra (Eira barbara) than it is to the martens. We refer to the 11 species in the genera Martes, Pekania, Gulo, and Eira as the “Martes Complex”. Because the species comprising the...

  11. Stress physiological responses to tourist pressure in a wild population of European pine marten.

    PubMed

    Barja, Isabel; Silván, Gema; Rosellini, Stefano; Piñeiro, Ana; González-Gil, Alfredo; Camacho, Laura; Illera, Juan Carlos

    2007-05-01

    The tourist pressure in natural parks is a potential source of stress and may cause an increase in the adrenal activity of wild populations of European pine marten (Martes martes). Seventy-six faecal samples were collected during 15 months in a natural park of Northwest Spain. Analysis of faecal DNA was used for the specific identification using the PCR-RFLPs technique. Faecal steroid determinations were performed by EIA. Natural park was divided in three areas: free entry, restricted area, and integral reservation, and number of daily human visitors recorded. Faecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels (ng/g dry faeces) were significantly higher in spring (56.36+/-19.62) and summer (31.27+/-11.98) compared to autumn (15.33+/-6.89) and winter (11.13+/-3.30). These data are closely related to daily number of visitors (spring: 3204, summer: 1672, winter: 646, autumn: 551). Androgen, progestin and oestrogen levels were also significantly higher in spring (reproductive season) showing values of 43.62+/-18.6, 154.31+/-53.50 and 829.62+/-456.1, respectively. Glucocorticoid levels were significantly lower in integral reservation (15.95+/-3.56) compared to restricted (31.4+/-16.30) and free entry areas (41.59+/-12.73), respectively. Wild populations of European pine marten showed stress physiological response induced by the tourist pressure and this response is higher during reproductive season.

  12. Molecular identification of Trichinella britovi in martens (Martes martes) and badgers (Meles meles); new host records in Poland.

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bożena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Bogdaszewski, Marek; Cabaj, Władysław

    2012-12-01

    Trichinella larvae were detected in a marten (Martes martes) and a badger (Meles meles) in Poland. The animals were found dead following car accidents. All examined animals derived from the Mazurian Lake district, north-east Poland, near the village Kosewo Górne where Trichinella infection were earlier confirmed in wildlife; red foxes and wild boars. The muscle samples were examined by artificial pepsin-HCl digestion method. The parasites were identified as Trichinella britovi by multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. Larvae were found in two out of three martens and one out of seven examined badgers. This is the first report of the identification of Trichinella britovi larvae from martens and badgers in Poland.

  13. Winter home-range characteristics of American Marten (Martes americana) in Northern Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    Joseph B. Dumyahn; Patrick A. Zollner

    2007-01-01

    We estimated home-range size for American marten (Martes americana) in northern Wisconsin during the winter months of 2001-2004, and compared the proportion of cover-type selection categories (highly used, neutral and avoided) among home-ranges (95% fixed-kernel), core areas (50% fixed-kernel) and the study area. Average winter homerange size was 3....

  14. Effects of season on occupancy and implications for habitat modeling: the Pacific marten Martes caurina

    Treesearch

    William J. Zielinski; Katie M. Moriarty; Jim Baldwin; Thomas A. Kirk; Keith M. Slauson; Heather L. Rustigian-Romsos; Wayne D. Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Season affects many characteristics of populations and, as a result, the interpretations of surveys conducted at different seasons. We explored seasonal variation in occupancy using data from four studies on the Pacific marten Martes caurina. Detection surveys were conducted during winter and summer using either cameras or track stations. We...

  15. Characterizing the molecular variation among American marten (Martes americana) subspecies from Oregon and California

    Treesearch

    Keith M. Slauson; Bill Zielinski; Karen D. Stone

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the subspecific identity of a rediscovered population of American martens within the range of a presumed extinct subspecies (Martes americana humboldtensis) by comparing mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity from contemporary individuals within the described ranges of M. a. humboldtensis, nearby ranges of

  16. Soboliphyme baturini infection does not affect the nutritional condition of American marten (Martes americana) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J G; Pauli, J N; Donadio, E; Buskirk, S W

    2008-12-01

    Soboliphyme baturini, a stomach-dwelling nematode of American martens (Martes Americana), reaches high levels of infection; however, its effects on the nutritional condition of the host are unknown. To understand the effects of this parasite on American martens, we collected S. baturini and measured abdominal fat deposits from 155 marten carcasses on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, in the winter 2006-2007. We analyzed how the dried mass of abdominal fat varied as a function of S. baturini intensity. Parasite intensity and nutritional condition were not correlated; these results suggest that American martens were able to withstand even very high levels of S. baturini infection (up to 178 parasites per host).

  17. Distribution, occupancy, and habitat correlates of American martens (Martes americana) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    A clear understanding of habitat associations of martens (Martes americana) is necessary to effectively manage and monitor populations. However, this information was lacking for martens in most of their southern range, particularly during the summer season. We studied the distribution and habitat correlates of martens from 2004 to 2006 in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) across 3 spatial scales: site-specific, home-range, and landscape. We used remote-sensored cameras from early August through late October to inventory occurrence of martens and modeled occurrence as a function of habitat and landscape variables using binary response (BR) and binomial count (BC) logistic regression, and occupancy modeling (OM). We also assessed which was the most appropriate modeling technique for martens in RMNP. Of the 3 modeling techniques, OM appeared to be most appropriate given the explanatory power of derived models and its incorporation of detection probabilities, although the results from BR and BC provided corroborating evidence of important habitat correlates. Location of sites in the western portion of the park, riparian mixed-conifer stands, and mixed-conifer with aspen patches were most frequently positively correlated with occurrence of martens, whereas more xeric and open sites were avoided. Additionally, OM yielded unbiased occupancy values ranging from 91% to 100% and 20% to 30% for the western and eastern portions of RMNP, respectively. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  18. Relating marten scat contents to prey consumed

    Treesearch

    William J. Zielinski

    1986-01-01

    A European ferret, Mustela putorius furo, was fed typical marten food items to discover the relationship between prey weight and number of scats produced per unit weight of prey. A correction factor was derived that was used in the analysis of pine marten, Martes americana, scats to produce a method capable of comparing foods on a...

  19. Genetic diversity of the Japanese Marten (Martes melampus) and its implications for the conservation unit.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun J; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Hosoda, Tetsuji

    2009-07-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of combined mitochondrial DNA sequences (2814 bp; cytochrome b gene, displacement loop region, and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene) identified nine groups among 49 individual Japanese martens, Martes melampus, collected from several areas in Japan. The grouping was not correlated with winter coat color, but was consistent with geography. In particular, the monophyly of 29 Tsushima martens, M. m. tsuensis, was supported by strong clade support and topological tests. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were much lower for the Tsushima population than for any population on the Japanese main islands. In addition, analyses of heterozygosity in nuclear growth hormone receptor gene sequences (654 bp) showed genetic homogeneity for the Tsushima population. This evidence supports the view that the Tsushima marten's long history of isolation on small islands is responsible for its genetic distinctiveness and uniformity, validating the Tsushima population as an evolutionarily significant unit.

  20. Molecular evidence for the presence of Dirofilaria repens in beech marten (Martes foina) from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, M; Hurníková, Z; Zaleśny, G; Chovancová, B

    2013-09-23

    Herein we present the first finding of Dirofilaria repens, agent of the subcutaneous form of dirofilariosis, in Martes foina. Molecular analyses from the spleen of 3 individuals originated from Tatra National Park, Northern Slovakia, confirmed the presence of D. repens in one of them. Finding of D. repens in beech marten instigates to more intense research on free living carnivores as the potential source of Dirofilaria parasites.

  1. EFFECTS OF LIVE-TRAPPING AND ISOFLURANE ANESTHESIA ON FREE-RANGING AMERICAN MARTENS (MARTES AMERICANA).

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Maria C; Muller, Lisa I; Keenlance, Paul; Sanders, Robert L; Witt, Jill C; Miller, Debra L

    2017-07-01

    Seventy-two free-ranging American martens ( Martes americana ) in Michigan, US were immobilized using isoflurane from 2011 to 2015. In total, 129 anesthetic procedures were performed with no mortalities. Hypothermia and hyperthermia were the most common anesthetic complications, and the mean rectal temperatures were significantly higher during summer than in winter. Dental abnormalities were common; the majority of abnormal findings were broken or discolored teeth attributed to previous dental trauma and were not trap-induced. Blood (n=72) was analyzed from 53 martens for venous blood gas, lactate, hematocrit, and/or selected serum biochemistry analytes. Lactate concentration was measured by two different devices (VetScan i-STAT 1 and Lactate Plus) and compared for clinical agreement for 26 samples. Both methods for lactate measurement provided statistically similar results. Using domestic feline reference ranges, the acid-base status and relative arterial oxygen saturation of anesthetized martens in this study were normal as determined by blood pH and pulse oximetry, respectively. Serum biochemistry parameters, multiple environmental parameters, and marten-specific attributes were evaluated for their influence on lactate in American martens using linear regression and an information-theoretic approach with model averaging. Blood urea nitrogen was in all of the top models and was positively related to lactate (β=0.02, 95% confidence interval: 0.00-0.04). Initial body temperature, ambient temperature, and time from trap discovery until immobilization of martens were informative predictors for lactate level. Recommendations for the live-trapping and isoflurane anesthesia of free-ranging martens include using caution during warmer summer months, minimizing disturbance prior to induction, monitoring lactate in addition to vital rates, and being prepared to prevent or treat both hypothermia and hyperthermia during any time of year.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Korean yellow-throated marten, Martes flavigula (Carnivora, Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Jang, Kuem Hee; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Martes flavigula, which is an endangered and endemic species in South Korea, was determined. The genome is 16,533 bp in length and its gene arrangement pattern, gene content, and gene organization is identical to those of martens. The control region was located between the tRNAPro and tRNAPhe genes and is 1087 bp in length. This mitogenome sequence data might be an important role in the preservation of genetic resources by allowing researchers to conduct phylogenetic and systematic analyses of Mustelidae.

  3. Francisella tularensis infection in a stone marten (Martes foina) without classic pathological lesions consistent with tularemia.

    PubMed

    Origgi, Francesco C; Wu, Natacha; Pilo, Paola

    2013-07-01

    The current report describes the isolation and typing of a strain of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, from the spleen of a stone marten (Martes foina) showing no classic lesions consistent with the disease. The identification of this bacterium, belonging to the World Health Organization risk 3 category and considered to have a low infectious dose, could be performed only because of an ongoing project screening F. tularensis in the environment sensu lato. The findings described herein should alert diagnostic laboratories of the possible presence of F. tularensis in clinical samples in countries where tularemia is endemic even in cases with no consistent anamnesis and from unsuspected animal species.

  4. Winter activity patterns of American martens (Martes americana): Rejection of the hypothesis of thermal-cost minimization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, Gary S.; Bissonette, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Despite their temperate to subarctic geographic range, American martens (Martes americana) possess a thermally inefficient morphology. The lack of morphological adaptations for reducing thermal costs suggests that marten may use behavioral strategies to optimize thermal budgets. During the winters of 1989–1990 and 1990–1991, we radio-collared and monitored the diel activity of 7 martens. A log-linear model suggested that the presence or absence of light was the only factor associated with marten activity patterns (p < 0.001). A regression of the percentage of active fixes on ambient temperature failed to detect an association (b = −4.45, p = 0.084, n = 12). Contents of marten scats suggested that their activity was consistent with the prey-vulnerability hypothesis. While martens must balance multiple life requisites, their activity patterns suggest that they accept increased thermal costs in order to increase foraging efficiency. However, the nocturnal activity of martens during winter was also consistent with the hypothesis that they may be able to limit their own exposure to predation risk. The nocturnal habits of Newfoundland martens in the winter were consistent with the hypothesis of avoidance of predation risk.

  5. Mitochondrial genomes reveal the pattern and timing of marten (Martes), wolverine (Gulo), and fisher (Pekania) diversification.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yanchun; Zeng, Zhaohui

    2014-11-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding the pattern and timescale of evolutionary diversification in the marten, wolverine, fisher, and tayra subfamily Guloninae (Mustelidae, Carnivora), several important issues still remain contentious. Among these are the phylogenetic position of Gulo relative to the subgenera of Martes (Martes and Charronia), the phylogenetic relationships within the subgenus Martes, and the timing of gulonine divergences. To elucidate these issues we explored nucleotide variation in 11 whole mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from eight gulonine species and two outgroup meline species. Parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses yielded fully resolved and identical patterns of relationships with high support for all divergences. The generic status of Pekania (P. pennanti), the monophyly of the genus Martes containing M. flavigula (subgenus Charronia) to the exclusion of the genus Gulo (G. gulo), and the M. foina (M. americana (M. melampus (M. zibellina, M. martes))) phylogeny of the subgenus Martes were strongly supported. Dating analyses (BEAST) using a set of five newly applied fossil calibrations provided divergence times considerably younger than previous multigene mitochondrial estimates, but similar to multigene nuclear and nuclear-mitochondrial estimates. The 95% confidence (highest posterior density) intervals of our divergence times fell within those inferred from nuclear and nuclear-mitochondrial sequence data, and were markedly narrower than in earlier studies (whether nuclear, mitochondrial, or combined). Notably, and contrary to long-held beliefs, our findings indicate that fossils older than the Tortonian-Messinian transition (late Late Miocene) do not represent Martes, excluding from this genus its putative members from the Early, Middle, and early Late Miocene. This study demonstrates the high informativeness of the mitogenome for phylogenetic inference and divergence time estimation within Guloninae, and

  6. Field use of isoflurane as an inhalant anesthetic in the American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Marion; Cheveau, Marianne; Imbeau, Louis; Lair, Stéphane

    2007-10-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness and practicality of using isoflurane as an inhalation anesthetic with oxygen as a gas carrier for American martens (Martes americana) in a field setting. Sixty-eight martens were trapped in the Waswanipi Cree Model Forest (Québec, Canada) from October to November 2005 and anesthetized with isoflurane in 100% oxygen (1 l/min) using a face mask. Induction setting of isoflurane was 3% for all animals. Mean (+/-SD) length of induction was 1.8+/-1.2 min. Maintenance isoflurane settings ranged from 1% to 4%. Procedures lasted an average of 16.4+/-7.1 min and were uneventful. Length of recovery, defined as the interval between the end of the procedure and animal release, was short (6.3+/-2.8 min), and well below reported lengths of recovery using injectable anesthetics (>/=70 min). As compared to open drop administration of isoflurane described in previous studies, the use of an anesthesia machine prevents the risk of potential fatal anesthetic overdose. We conclude that among anesthesia techniques currently available, isoflurane with oxygen as a gas carrier is a safe and useful field anesthetic in martens, when issues with equipment portability can be overcome.

  7. Simulating the effects of climate change on population connectivity of American marten (Martes americana) in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA

    Treesearch

    T. N. Wasserman; S. A. Cushman; A. S. Shirk; E. L. Landguth; J. S. Littell

    2012-01-01

    We utilize empirically derived estimates of landscape resistance to assess current landscape connectivity of American marten (Martes americana) in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA, and project how a warming climate may affect landscape resistance and population connectivity in the future. We evaluate the influences of five potential future temperature scenarios...

  8. Developing and testing a landscape habitat suitability model for the American marten (Martes americana) in the Cascades mountains of California

    Treesearch

    Thomas A. Kirk; William J. Zielinski

    2009-01-01

    We used field surveys and Geographic Information System data to identify landscape-scale habitat associations of American martens (Martes americana) and to develop a model to predict their occurrence in northeastern California. Systematic surveys using primarily enclosed track plates, with 10-km spacing, were conducted across a 27,700 km

  9. Coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and Canine Distemper Virus in a Yellow-throated Marten ( Martes flavigula koreana) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Surim; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Hae Beom; Cho, Ho Seong; Kim, Wonil; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2016-04-28

    We describe coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and canine distemper virus (CDV) in a yellow-throated marten ( Martes flavigula koreana). We found Hepatozoon cysts in muscular tissue and viral inclusion bodies in the brain. Hepatozoon sp., and CDV was confirmed in blood and brain, respectively, by PCR.

  10. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Marten

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences and species characteristics of the pine marten (Martes americana) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available scientific data on the species-habitat requirements of the pine marten. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of a HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word and mathematical. Suitability index graphs quantify the species-habitat relationship. These data are then synthesized into a model which is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  11. Shaken but not stirred: Multiscale habitat suitability modeling of sympatric marten species (Martes martes and Martes foina) in the northern Iberian Peninsula

    Treesearch

    Maria Vergara; Samuel A. Cushman; Fermin Urra; Aritz Ruiz-Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Multispecies and multiscale habitat suitability models (HSM) are important to identify the environmental variables and scales influencing habitat selection and facilitate the comparison of closely related species with different ecological requirements. Objectives This study explores the multiscale relationships of habitat suitability for the pine (Martes...

  12. Paleoecological and biogeographical implications of late Pleistocene noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) in eastern Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2011-01-01

    A mandible identified as noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) recovered from sediments dating to 11,800 cal yr BP and a humerus identified as M. a. cf. nobilis recovered from sediments dating from 13,100 to 12,500 cal yr BP at the Marmes Rockshelter archaeological site in southeastern Washington represent the first record of this taxon in the state. Mammalian taxa associated with the Marmes Rockshelter noble marten represent a diversity of open mesic habitats corroborating earlier analyses of other records of the noble marten in the western United States and exemplify how paleozoologists determine the ecology and environmental predilections of extinct taxa. The recovery site represents the topographically lowest record of this species in western North America and the farthest north record in the United States. Future research should examine known late-Quaternary Martes spp. remains from British Columbia and Alberta to fill in the 2200-km geographic gap in the known distribution of this taxon between a record in the northern Yukon and those in the western United States, and to refine our knowledge of noble marten paleoecology.

  13. Diet Composition and Feeding Strategies of the Stone Marten (Martes foina) in a Typical Mediterranean Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Bakaloudis, Dimitrios E.; Vlachos, Christos G.; Papakosta, Malamati A.; Bontzorlos, Vasileios A.; Chatzinikos, Evangelos N.

    2012-01-01

    Stone martens (Martes foina) are documented as generalist throughout their distributional range whose diet composition is affected by food availability. We tested if this occurs and what feeding strategies it follows in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem in Central Greece by analysing contents from 106 stomachs, seasonally collected from three different habitats during 2003–2006. Seasonal variation in diet and feeding strategies was evident and linked to seasonal nutritional requirements, but possibly imposed by strong interference competition and intraguild predation. Fleshy fruits and arthropods predominated in the diet, but also mammals and birds were frequently consumed. An overall low dietary niche breadth (B A = 0.128) indicated a fruit specialization tendency. A generalised diet occurred in spring with high individual specialisation, whereas more animal-type prey was consumed than fruits. A population specialization towards fruits was indicated during summer and autumn, whereas insects were consumed occasionally by males. In those seasons it switched to more clumped food types such as fruits and insects. In winter it selectively exploited both adult and larvae insects and partially fruits overwinter on plants. The tendency to consume particular prey items seasonally reflected both the population specialist behaviour and the individual flexibility preyed on different food resources. PMID:22619607

  14. Diet composition and feeding strategies of the stone marten (Martes foina) in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Bakaloudis, Dimitrios E; Vlachos, Christos G; Papakosta, Malamati A; Bontzorlos, Vasileios A; Chatzinikos, Evangelos N

    2012-01-01

    Stone martens (Martes foina) are documented as generalist throughout their distributional range whose diet composition is affected by food availability. We tested if this occurs and what feeding strategies it follows in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem in Central Greece by analysing contents from 106 stomachs, seasonally collected from three different habitats during 2003-2006. Seasonal variation in diet and feeding strategies was evident and linked to seasonal nutritional requirements, but possibly imposed by strong interference competition and intraguild predation. Fleshy fruits and arthropods predominated in the diet, but also mammals and birds were frequently consumed. An overall low dietary niche breadth (B(A) = 0.128) indicated a fruit specialization tendency. A generalised diet occurred in spring with high individual specialisation, whereas more animal-type prey was consumed than fruits. A population specialization towards fruits was indicated during summer and autumn, whereas insects were consumed occasionally by males. In those seasons it switched to more clumped food types such as fruits and insects. In winter it selectively exploited both adult and larvae insects and partially fruits overwinter on plants. The tendency to consume particular prey items seasonally reflected both the population specialist behaviour and the individual flexibility preyed on different food resources.

  15. Fasting in the American marten (Martes americana): a physiological model of the adaptations of a lean-bodied animal.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Saarela, Seppo; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2007-10-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) is a boreal forest marten with low body adiposity throughout the year. The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptations of this lean-bodied species to fasting for an ecologically relevant duration (48 h) by exposing eight farm-bred animals to total food deprivation with seven control animals. Selected morphological and hematological parameters, plasma and serum biochemistry, endocrinological variables and liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) enzyme activities were determined. After 48 h without food, the marten were within phase II of fasting with depleted liver and muscle glycogen stores, but with active lipid mobilization indicated by the high lipase activities in several WAT depots. The plasma ghrelin concentrations were higher due to food deprivation, possibly increasing appetite and enhancing foraging behavior. The lower plasma insulin and higher cortisol concentrations could mediate augmented lipolysis and the lower triiodothyronine levels could suppress the metabolic rate. Fasting did not affect the plasma levels of stress-associated catecholamines or variables indicating tissue damage. In general, the adaptations to short-term fasting exhibited some differences compared to the related farm-bred American mink (Mustela vison), an example of which was the better ability of the marten to hydrolyze lipids despite its significantly lower initial fat mass.

  16. Metagenomic analysis of the viral flora of pine marten and European badger feces.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, Judith M A; van Leeuwen, Marije; Schapendonk, Claudia M; Simon, James H; Haagmans, Bart L; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Smits, Saskia L

    2012-02-01

    A thorough understanding of the diversity of viruses in wildlife provides epidemiological baseline information about potential pathogens. Metagenomic analysis of the enteric viral flora revealed a new anellovirus and bocavirus species in pine martens and a new circovirus-like virus and geminivirus-related DNA virus in European badgers. In addition, sequences with homology to viruses from the families Paramyxo- and Picornaviridae were detected.

  17. Post-glacial colonization of northwestern North America by the forest-associated American marten (Martes americana, Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Stone, Karen D; Flynn, Rodney W; Cook, Joseph A

    2002-10-01

    Phylogeographic patterns were used to assess intraspecific diversification of American martens (Martes americana). Within martens, two morphological groups (americana and caurina) have been recognized, though the level of distinction between them has been debated. We examined mitochondrial cytochrome b gene haplotypes from 680 martens to explore the colonization history of the Pacific Northwest and found two clades that correspond to the morphological groups. The widespread americana clade extends from interior Alaska south to Montana and eastward to Newfoundland and New England (i.e. northwestern, north-central and northeastern North America). The caurina clade occurs in western North America, minimally extending from Admiralty Island (southeastern Alaska) south to Oregon and Wyoming. Our data indicated two colonization events for the Pacific Northwest (one by members of each clade) and were consistent with the persistence of populations throughout past glacial periods in eastern and western refugia. Due to vegetational and geological history following the past deglaciation, we hypothesize that martens of the caurina clade spread along the North Pacific Coast, and into southeastern Alaska, earlier than martens of the americana clade. Mismatch distributions for the americana clade were indicative of populations that recently experienced demographic expansion, while mismatch distributions for the caurina clade suggested that populations were at equilibrium. These clades are reciprocally monophyletic and distinctive (interclade divergence ranged from 2.5 to 3.0% (uncorrected p), whereas, intraclade divergence was < 0.7%), and two regions of sympatry have been identified. Genetic signatures of past admixture in hybrid zones may have been extinguished during subsequent glacial periods when ranges contracted. This recurrent pattern of relatively restricted western, or Pacific coastal, lineages and more widespread eastern, or interior continental, lineages exists across

  18. Prevalence of Soboliphyme baturini in marten (Martes americana) populations from three regions of Alaska, 1990-1998.

    PubMed

    Zarnke, Randall L; Whitman, Jackson S; Flynn, Rodney W; Ver Hoef, Jay M

    2004-07-01

    Marten (Martes americana) carcasses were collected from trappers in three regions of Alaska. Stomachs were examined for the nematode parasite Soboliphyme baturini. Both prevalence and intensity of infection exhibited an increase from north to south. Prevalence was higher in adults (compared with juveniles) from the two mainland study areas. Prevalences in these two age classes were similar for the southeastern region. There were no sex-specific differences in prevalence. No pathologic changes were observed in the gastrointestinal tract. Impact of the parasite on either individual animals or populations was not detected.

  19. Estimated Seed Shadow Generated by Japanese Martens(Martes melampus): Comparison with Forest-Dwelling Animals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato; Okumura, Tadanobu; Kitahara, Masahiko; Jiang, Zhaowen

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the seed shadow generated by wild Japanese martens (Martes melampus), we combined data on their ranging behavior from the northern foot of Mt. Fuji, central Japan (seven males and three females) with data on gut passage time obtained from martens in Toyama Municipal Family Park Zoo (three males and one female). The movement distances varied, and mean distances for 0-1, 2-3, and 4-5 h intervals were 152.4, 734.7, and 1,162.4 m, respectively, with no significant sex difference. The mean gut passage time of ingested seeds was 7.4 h (range: 0.6-51.7 h), and two-thirds were defecated within 12 h. Seeds of fleshy fruits was frequently transported to 501-1,000 m, and 20% of ingested seeds were transported > 1,000 m from feeding sites. We found positive correlations between body size and home range of the animals in Japan and their seed dispersal distances. We conclude that Japanese martens are medium-range dispersers that can transport seeds from the source to open habitats conducive for germination and/or growth, partly due to scent marking behaviors.

  20. Fatty acid profiles and relative mobilization during fasting in adipose tissue depots of the American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Collinsb, Danielle; Grant, Judy; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2006-03-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) is a boreal forest marten with low body adiposity but high metabolic rate. The study describes the FA composition in white adipose tissue depots of the species and the influence of food deprivation on them. American marten (n = 8) were fasted for 2 d with 7 control animals. Fasting resulted in a 13.4% weight loss, while the relative fat mass was >25% lower in the fasted animals. The FA composition of the fat depots of the trunk was quite similar to other previously studied mustelids with 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, and 18:2n-6 as the most abundant FA. In the extremities, there were higher proportions of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and PUFA. Food deprivation decreased the proportions of 16:0 and 16:1 n-7, while the proportion of long-chain MUFA increased in the trunk. The mobilization of FA was selective, as 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, and particular n-3 PUFA were preferentially mobilized. Relative mobilization correlated negatively with the carbon chain length in saturated FA (SFA) and n-9 MUFA. The delta9-desaturation of SFA enhanced the mobilization of the corresponding MUFA, but the positional isomerism of the first double bond did not correlate consistently with relative mobilization in MUFA or PUFA. In the marten, the FA composition of the extremities was highly resistant to fasting, and the tail tip and the paws contained more long-chain PUFA to prevent the solidification of lipids and to maintain cell membrane fluidity during cooling.

  1. American marten (Martes americana) in the Pacific Northwest: population differentiation across a landscape fragmented in time and space.

    PubMed

    Small, Maureen P; Stone, Karen D; Cook, Joseph A

    2003-01-01

    American marten (Martes americana) have a close association with mature temperate forests, a habitat that expanded throughout the Pacific Northwest as glaciers receded at the end of the Pleistocene. Similar to several other forest-associated mammals in North America (e.g. black bear), genetic analysis of the marten shows a deep phylogeographical subdivision that reflects populations with distinctive evolutionary histories. Using a suite of 14 microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of marten populations in two reciprocally monophyletic clades in the Pacific Northwest identified previously as M. caurina and M. americana by mitochondrial haplotypes and morphology. Microsatellite phylogeographical patterns were congruent with mitochondrial analyses. These independent data sets shed light upon hybridization patterns, population structure and evolutionary histories. Hybridization between M. caurina and M. americana individuals was documented in two regions of sympatry (Kuiu Island in southeastern Alaska and southern Montana). Northern insular populations of M. caurina exhibited higher differentiation and lower variability relative to northern populations of M. americana. Greater divergence among M. caurina populations may reflect longer isolation and persistence in coastal forest habitat that was fragmented by rising sea level in the early Holocene. Lower differentiation among northern M. americana populations and close relationship to other continental M. americana populations may reflect more recent expansion into the Pacific Northwest and/or continued gene flow among populations. Differentiation among M. caurina populations was attributed to habitat fragmentation (i.e. rising sea level), as opposed to isolation-by-distance; oceanic straits pose significant barriers to gene flow among M. caurina populations and between populations of M. caurina and M. americana.

  2. Concentrations of trace elements in tissues of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and stone marten (Martes foina) from suburban and rural areas in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Dežđek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Dokić, Maja; Solomun, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Knežević, Zorka; Slavica, Alen

    2010-11-01

    Trace elements concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) were determined in the liver, kidney and muscle of 28 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and 16 stone marten (Martes foina) from suburban and rural habitats from Croatia. Rural and suburban habitats affected Cd and Hg levels in the muscle, liver and kidney of red fox. Significant differences in metal concentrations in the muscle, liver and kidney were detected among species. Suburban stone marten accumulated the highest levels of trace elements (mg/kg w.w.): in muscle 0.019 for Hg; in liver 0.161 for Cd, 36.1 for Cu and 0.349 for Pb; in kidney 1.34 for Cd and 0.318 for Pb. Values observed were higher than those found in suburban red fox and therefore, may represent an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic metals in urbanized habitats.

  3. Chapter 2: American marten

    Treesearch

    Steven W. Buskirk; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    1994-01-01

    The American marten (Martes americana), also called the marten or American sable, is a carnivorous mammal about the size of a small house cat. Its total length is between 500 and 680 mm and it weighs 500-1400 g as an adult, depending on sex and geography (Buskirk and McDonald 1989; Strickland et al. 1982). The male is 20-40% larger than, but...

  4. Survival of adult martens in Northern Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    Nicholas P. McCann; Patrick A. Zollner; Jonathan H. Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Low adult marten (Martes americana) survival may be one factor limiting their population growth >30 yr after their reintroduction in Wisconsin, USA. We estimated annual adult marten survival at 0.81 in northern Wisconsin, with lower survival during winter (0.87) than summer-fall (1.00). Fisher (Martes pennanti) and raptor kills...

  5. Encephalitis in a stone marten (Martes foina) after natural infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1.

    PubMed

    Klopfleisch, R; Wolf, P U; Wolf, C; Harder, T; Starick, E; Niebuhr, M; Mettenleiter, T C; Teifke, J P

    2007-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of disease in different avian species, caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), have involved infection by subtype H5N1 of the virus. This virus has also crossed species barriers and infected felines and humans. Here, we report the natural infection of a stone marten (Martes foina) from an area with numerous confirmed cases of H5N1 HPAIV infection in wild birds. Histopathological examination of tissues from this animal revealed a diffuse nonsuppurative panencephalitis with perivascular cuffing, multifocal gliosis and neuronal necrosis. Additionally, focal necrosis of pancreatic acinar cells was observed. Immunohistochemically, lesions in these organs were associated with avian influenza virus antigen in neurons, glial cells and pancreatic acinar cells. Thus, the microscopical lesions and viral antigen distribution in this stone marten differs from that recently described for cats naturally and experimentally infected with the same virus subtype. This is the first report of natural infection of a mustelid with HPAIV H5N1.

  6. Prevalence and molecular identification of the sinus worm Skrjabingylus petrowi (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) from Martes spp. in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heddergott, M; Müller, F; Frantz, A C

    2015-06-01

    The nematodes of the genus Skrjabingylus (family Metastrongylidae) can parasitise the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of different carnivore species. Until recently, Skrjabingylus petrowi Bageanov & Petrov, 1941, has mainly been described in pine martens (Martes martes Linnaeus, 1758) and sables (Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758) sampled in the European part of the former Soviet Union. Newer finds in the stone marten (Martes foina Erxleben, 1777) and from different parts of Europe suggest, however, that the species might have a broader host-species range than previously assumed and be geographically more widespread as well. Since most S. petrowi records have resulted from chance discoveries rather than systematic surveys, very little is known about the prevalence of S. petrowi in marten populations. Here, we report results of a 20-year extensive survey of fresh marten skulls, where we tested 1.059 marten carcasses originating from 248 localities in Germany for the presence of S. petrowi. We identified an infestation in only four M. martes individuals and one M. foina, despite using a reliable identification method. Based on the spicule lengths of the male nematodes, the parasites were identified as S. petrowi and genetic barcoding confirmed the identification of the samples. In a phylogenetic analysis, S. petrowi and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842), formed a sister clade to all the other members of the family Metastrongylidae. The low prevalence of S. petrowi is possibly due to its parasitising in the two marten species that are either not very common (M. martes) or predominantly live in urban habitat (M. foina).

  7. Inferring Population Genetic Structure in Widely and Continuously Distributed Carnivores: The Stone Marten (Martes foina) as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, María; Basto, Mafalda P.; Madeira, María José; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín J.; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Fernandes, Carlos; Ruiz-González, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    The stone marten is a widely distributed mustelid in the Palaearctic region that exhibits variable habitat preferences in different parts of its range. The species is a Holocene immigrant from southwest Asia which, according to fossil remains, followed the expansion of the Neolithic farming cultures into Europe and possibly colonized the Iberian Peninsula during the Early Neolithic (ca. 7,000 years BP). However, the population genetic structure and historical biogeography of this generalist carnivore remains essentially unknown. In this study we have combined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing (621 bp) and microsatellite genotyping (23 polymorphic markers) to infer the population genetic structure of the stone marten within the Iberian Peninsula. The mtDNA data revealed low haplotype and nucleotide diversities and a lack of phylogeographic structure, most likely due to a recent colonization of the Iberian Peninsula by a few mtDNA lineages during the Early Neolithic. The microsatellite data set was analysed with a) spatial and non-spatial Bayesian individual-based clustering (IBC) approaches (STRUCTURE, TESS, BAPS and GENELAND), and b) multivariate methods [discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and spatial principal component analysis (sPCA)]. Additionally, because isolation by distance (IBD) is a common spatial genetic pattern in mobile and continuously distributed species and it may represent a challenge to the performance of the above methods, the microsatellite data set was tested for its presence. Overall, the genetic structure of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula was characterized by a NE-SW spatial pattern of IBD, and this may explain the observed disagreement between clustering solutions obtained by the different IBC methods. However, there was significant indication for contemporary genetic structuring, albeit weak, into at least three different subpopulations. The detected subdivision could be attributed to the influence of the

  8. Inferring Population Genetic Structure in Widely and Continuously Distributed Carnivores: The Stone Marten (Martes foina) as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Vergara, María; Basto, Mafalda P; Madeira, María José; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín J; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Fernandes, Carlos; Ruiz-González, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    The stone marten is a widely distributed mustelid in the Palaearctic region that exhibits variable habitat preferences in different parts of its range. The species is a Holocene immigrant from southwest Asia which, according to fossil remains, followed the expansion of the Neolithic farming cultures into Europe and possibly colonized the Iberian Peninsula during the Early Neolithic (ca. 7,000 years BP). However, the population genetic structure and historical biogeography of this generalist carnivore remains essentially unknown. In this study we have combined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing (621 bp) and microsatellite genotyping (23 polymorphic markers) to infer the population genetic structure of the stone marten within the Iberian Peninsula. The mtDNA data revealed low haplotype and nucleotide diversities and a lack of phylogeographic structure, most likely due to a recent colonization of the Iberian Peninsula by a few mtDNA lineages during the Early Neolithic. The microsatellite data set was analysed with a) spatial and non-spatial Bayesian individual-based clustering (IBC) approaches (STRUCTURE, TESS, BAPS and GENELAND), and b) multivariate methods [discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and spatial principal component analysis (sPCA)]. Additionally, because isolation by distance (IBD) is a common spatial genetic pattern in mobile and continuously distributed species and it may represent a challenge to the performance of the above methods, the microsatellite data set was tested for its presence. Overall, the genetic structure of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula was characterized by a NE-SW spatial pattern of IBD, and this may explain the observed disagreement between clustering solutions obtained by the different IBC methods. However, there was significant indication for contemporary genetic structuring, albeit weak, into at least three different subpopulations. The detected subdivision could be attributed to the influence of the

  9. Genetic distinctness and variation in the Tsushima Islands population of the Japanese marten, Martes melampus (Carnivora: Mustelidae), revealed by microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Shouko; Moteki, Shusaku; Baba, Minoru; Ochiai, Keiji; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2012-12-01

    A carnivoran mammal endemic to Japan, the Japanese marten (Martes melampus) is native in forested regions on Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu (main islands of Japan), and the Tsushima Islands. The Tsushima population is classified as a different subspecies (M. m. tsuensis) from populations on the main islands (M. m. melampus). To elucidate the genetic structure of the Tsushima population, we genotyped 101 individuals from the Tsushima Islands and 43 individuals from Honshu and Kyushu using 10 microsatellite loci, and performed population genetic analyses on the genotype data. Genetic diversity was lower in the Tsushima population than in three geographic populations on the main islands: heterozygosity was 0.189-0.364 in the former, compared to 0.457-0.747 in the latter. In addition, high pairwise Fst values (0.485-0.682) and Nei's standard distance (0.550-1.183) between the Tsushima and main-island populations indicated a high degree of genetic differentiation. Finally, a Bayesian clustering analysis showed that the Tsushima population is apparently differentiated from the main-island populations and comprises two genetic clusters. A factorial correspondence analysis corroborated these results. Our results suggest that restricted gene flow or inbreeding may have reduced genetic diversity in the Tsushima population, which has been geographically isolated from the main-island populations since the formation of Tsushima Strait.

  10. Effects of snow on fisher and marten distributions in Idaho

    Treesearch

    Nathan Albrecht; C. Heusser; M. Schwartz; J. Sauder; R. Vinkey

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that deep snow may limit fisher (Martes pennanti) distribution, and that fisher populations may in turn limit marten (Martes americana) distribution. We tested these hypotheses in the Northern Rocky Mountains of Idaho, a region which differs from previous study areas in its climate and relative fisher and marten abundance, but in which very...

  11. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Miguel L.; Reckendorf, Anja; Ulrich, Arlena; van Neer, Abbo; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M.; Bauer, Christian; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes), next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus) and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus) were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence), canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry) and Aujeszky’s disease (virus cultivation). The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16) and pneumonia (n = 20). None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry zoonotic

  12. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Lempp, Charlotte; Jungwirth, Nicole; Grilo, Miguel L; Reckendorf, Anja; Ulrich, Arlena; van Neer, Abbo; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Bauer, Christian; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes), next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus) and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus) were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence), canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry) and Aujeszky's disease (virus cultivation). The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16) and pneumonia (n = 20). None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry zoonotic

  13. Molecular evolution and adaptation of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Malyarchuk, B; He, X B; Derenko, M

    2013-09-23

    Martes species represent a typical example of rapid evolutionary radiation and a recent speciation event. To identify regions of the genome that experienced adaptive evolution, which might provide clues to their functional importance and may be informative about the features that make each species unique, we sought evidence of molecular adaptation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes. Complete sequences of the cytochrome b gene were obtained from 87 samples, including 49 sables, 28 pine martens, and 10 stone martens, and were combined with mtDNA sequences of other true martens, such as M. melampus and M. americana. Analysis of the cytochrome b gene variation in true martens has shown that the evolution of this gene is under negative selection. In contrast, positive selection on the cytochrome b protein has been detected by means of the software TreeSAAP using a phylogenetic reconstruction of Martes taxa. Signatures of adaptive variation in cytochrome b were restricted to the transmembrane domains, which likely function as proton pumps. We compared results of different methods for testing selection and molecular adaptation, and we supposed that the radical changes of the cytochrome b amino acid residues in the subgenus Martes may be the result of molecular adaptation to specific environmental conditions coupled with species dispersals.

  14. Forest thinning changes movement patterns and habitat use by Pacific marten

    Treesearch

    Katie M. Moriarty; Clinton W. Epps; William J. Zielinski

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Simplifying stand structure to reduce fuel density is a high priority for forest managers; however, affects to Pacific marten (Martes caurina) movement and connectivity are unknown. We evaluated whether thinning forests to reduce fuels influenced movements of Pacific marten. We collected movement paths from 22 martens using global positioning system telemetry...

  15. Characteristics of American marten den sites in Wyoming

    Treesearch

    Leonard F. Ruggiero; Dean E. Pearson; Stephen E. Henry

    1998-01-01

    We examined characteristics of den structures and den sites used by female American marten (Martes americana) for natal and maternal dens in the Sierra Madre Range, Wyoming. During 1988-95, we located 18 natal dens (parturition sites) and 97 maternal dens (sites where kits were present exclusive of parturition) used by 10 female marten. Important den structures...

  16. Marten habitat preferences in the northern Sierra Nevada

    Treesearch

    Wayne D. Spencer; Reginald H. Barrett; William J. Zielinski

    1983-01-01

    Escalating harvest of remnant oldgrowth forests in the Pacific Northwest has precipitated concern for marten (Martes americana) as an old-growth dependent species (Meslow et al. 1981). Although recent studies have increased our understanding of marten habitat requirements (Koehler and Hornocker 1977, Soutiere 1979, Steventon and Major 1982), little...

  17. Seasonal field metabolic rates of American martens in Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    Jonathan H. Gilbert; Patrick A Zollner; Adam K. Green; John L. Wright

    2009-01-01

    We report on FMR of free-living American martens (Martes americana) in autumn and winter in northern Wisconsin. Mean body mass was significantly higher in males (1099 ± 43 [S.E.] g) than females (737 ± 28 g), with no significant difference by season. Daily mass change rates of martens did not differ from zero, and mass change rate...

  18. Population connectivity and genetic diversity of American marten (Martes americana) in the United States northern Rocky Mountains in a climate change context

    Treesearch

    Tzeidle N. Wasserman; Samuel A. Cushman; Jeremy S. Littell; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to alter population connectivity, particularly for species associated with higher elevation environments. The goal of this study is to predict the potential effects of future climate change on population connectivity and genetic diversity of American marten populations across a 30.2 million hectare region of the in the US northern Rocky...

  19. Historical perspective on the reintroduction of the fisher and American marten in Michigan and Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    Bronwyn W. Williams; Jonathan H. Gilbert; Patrick A. Zollner

    2007-01-01

    Management of mustelid species such as fishers and martens requires an understanding of the history of local populations. This is particularly true in areas where populations were extirpated and restored through reintroduction efforts. During the late 19th and 20th centuries, fishers (Martes pennanti) and American martens (Martes americana...

  20. Distribution of Pacific Marten in Coastal Oregon

    Treesearch

    Katie M Moriarty; John D Bailey; Sharon E Smythe; Jake Verschuyl

    2016-01-01

    Information on the distribution of rare and little known species is critical for managers and biologists challenged with species conservation in an uncertain future. Pacific Martens (Martes caurina) historically resided throughout Oregon and northern California’s coastal forests, but were considered extinct until 1996 when a population in northern...

  1. Chapter 4: Fishers and American martens

    Treesearch

    K.L. Purcell; C.M. Thompson; W.J. Zielinski

    2012-01-01

    Fishers (Martes pennanti) and American martens (M. americana) are carnivorous mustelids associated with late-successional forests. The distributions of both species have decreased in the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade region (Zielinski et al. 2005). Fishers occur primarily in lower elevation (3,500 to 7,000 ft) (1067 to...

  2. Martens, sables, and fishers: new synthesis informs management and conservation

    Treesearch

    Keith B. Aubry; Martin G. Raphael; Marie. Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Martens, sables, and fishers are midsized carnivores belonging to the genus Martes. Their silky coats have been valued in the fur trade for centuries, which has contributed to a marked decline in their numbers. Pacific Northwest Martes species depend on structurally complex forested ecosystems and specific climatic conditions...

  3. Filaria martis Gmelin 1790 (Spirurida, Filariidae) affecting beech marten (Martes foina): morphological description and molecular characterisation of the cytochrome oxidase c subunit I.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Brianti, Emanuele; Traversa, Donato; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2007-09-01

    Filaria martis causes a poorly known subcutaneous filariosis in mustelids. Few information is available about lesions that F. martis causes in beech martens, on its morphology, biology and the occurrence of the infection. From 1997 to 2006, 29 beech martens from two sites of southern Italy (Sites A and B) have been necropsied. Ectoparasites and nematodes were collected and morphologically identified. A variable region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) of F. martis has been characterised to compare females presenting caudal tips smooth without spines (i.e. Morphotype 1-Mrph. 1) and with spines (i.e. Mrph. 2). All ticks collected were identified as Haemaphysalis erinacei. Eleven animals from Site A were found infected by F. martis nematodes in subcutaneous tissue in both membranous capsules or free under the inner skin surface. The most important morphological characters of F. martis have been reported and discussed. The molecular analysis showed 100% homology among cox1 sequences from Mrph. 1 and 2 thus indicating that the shape of female posterior edge may vary among specimens of F. martis. The results here presented provide new insights into the biology, ecology and morphological characteristics of this scantly known nematode.

  4. Landscape genetics for the empirical assessment of resistance surfaces: The European pine marten (Martes martes) as a target-species of a regional ecological network

    Treesearch

    Aritz Ruiz-Gonzalez; Mikel Gurrutxaga; Samuel A. Cushman; Maria Jose Madeira; Ettore Randi; Benjamin J. Gomez-Moliner

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and...

  5. [Population aspects of sexual dimorphism in guild of the Mustelidae: Mustela lutreola, Neovison vison, Mustela putorius, Martes martes as an example].

    PubMed

    Korablev, M P; Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N

    2013-01-01

    Size sexual dimorphism was investigated on 695 skulls of four Mustelidae species. By extent of increasing of differences between sexes the species are placed in following order: European pine marten (Martes martes), European mink (Mustela lutreola), American mink (Neovison vison), and European polecat (Mustela putorius). Extent of the dimorphism characterizes ecological plasticity of the species and is population characteristic. It is shown that M. martes takes specific and relatively narrow ecological niche of forest ecosystems, entering into weak competitive relationships with smaller Mustelidae species. The level of sexual dimorphism of M. lutreola, N. vison and M. putorius reflects intensity of its interspecific relationships within study area. High level of sexual dimorphism of M. putorius is determined by further divergence of ecological niches of males and females, and also appears to be compensatory mechanism reducing consequences of hardened environmental requirements.

  6. Survival, causes of mortality, and reproduction in American marten in northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L. Bull; Thad W. Heater

    2001-01-01

    Survival rates, causes of mortality, and reproduction in the American marten (Martes americana) were determined in northeastern Oregon from 1994 until 1997 with radiocollared martens. The probability of survival of martens ≥9 mo old was 0.55 for 1 yr, 0.37 for 2 yr, 0.22 for 3 yr, and 0.15 for 4 yr. The mean annual probability of survival...

  7. Conservation status of American martens and fishers in the Klamath-Siskiyou bioregion

    Treesearch

    K. M. Slauson; W. J. Zielinski

    2004-01-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) was historically distributed within coastal and high elevation fir fore sts of the Klamath Siskiyou Bioregion (KSB) and was represented by three recognized subspecies (M. a. caurina, M. a. sierrae, and M. a. humboldtensis...

  8. Seasonal and sexual differences in American marten diet in northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    E.L. Bull

    2002-01-01

    Information on the diet of the American marten (Martes americana) is vital to understanding habitat requirements of populations of this species. The frequency of occurrence of prey items found in 1014 scat samples associated with 31 radiocollared American martens in northeastern Oregon included: 62.7% vole-sized prey, 28.2% squirrel-sized prey, 22....

  9. Determining the gender of American martens and fishers at track plate stations

    Treesearch

    Keith M. Slauson; Richard L. Truex; William J. Zielinski

    2008-01-01

    Determining the gender of American martens (Martes americana) and fishers (M. pennanti) from track plate stations would significantly augment the information currently gathered from this simple and inexpensive survey method. We used track-plate impressions collected from captured individual martens and fishers of known gender to...

  10. Activity patterns of American martens, fishers, snowshoe hares, and red squirrels in westcentral Montana

    Treesearch

    Kerry R. Foresman; Dean Pearson

    1999-01-01

    We investigated winter activity patterns of American Martens, Martes americana, Snowshoe Hares, Lepus americanus, and Red Squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, in westcentral Montana between November 1994 and March 1995 using dual-sensor remote cameras. One hundred percent of Snowshoe Hare (n = 25) observations occurred at night while Martens (n = 85) exhibited...

  11. Decline in American marten occupancy rates at Sagehen Experimental Forest, California

    Treesearch

    Katie M. Moriarty; William J. Zielinski; Eric D. Forsman

    2011-01-01

    We compared the distribution and frequency of American marten (Martes americana) detections during historic surveys and a recent survey on the Sagehen Experimental Forest (SEF) in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California. This area has been the location of 9 previous marten surveys during 1980–1993, each involving a systematic detection/non-...

  12. Habitat characteristics at marten subnivean access sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Janelle G.; Raphael, Martin G.

    1992-01-01

    The occurrence of coarse woody debris (CWD) at sites of subnivean (under snow) access by martens (Martes americana) has not been quantified adequately, and must be better understood to provide suitable winter habitat management for the species. Consequently, we studied subnivean activity of martens in a subalpine forest in southern Wyoming to determine how subnivean space was accessed, and to examine microhabitat characteristics around entry sites. Martens used existing openings in snow, created primarily by logs at low snow depths and by small live spruce and fir trees at greater snow depths. Sites of marten subnivean entry had greater percent cover (P ≤ 0.01) and total volume of CWD (P ≤ 0.01), greater numbers of log layers (all P ≤ 0.02), greater volume of undecayed (P ≤ 0.05) and moderately decayed logs (P ≤ 0.02), less volume of very decayed logs (P ≤ 0.001), and fewer small root masses (P ≤ 0.001) than surrounding forest stands. Provision of sufficient CWD in winter habitat of martens may require specific effort, particularly in managed forests of the central Rocky Mountains.

  13. Ski areas affect Pacific marten movement, habitat use, and density

    Treesearch

    Keith M. Slauson; William J. Zielinski; Michael K. Schwartz

    2017-01-01

    Alpine ski recreation is one of the most popular outdoor winter sports globally but often involves habitat modification and dense human activity, both of which can harm wildlife. We investigated the effects of ski area development and winter recreation activities on movement, occupancy, and density of Pacific martens (Martes caurina) in the Lake...

  14. Ecology of American martens in coastal northwestern California

    Treesearch

    Keith M. Slauson; William J. Zielinski; John P. Hayes

    2002-01-01

    Throughout their geographic distribution, American martens (Martes americana) are closely associated with late-successional mesic coniferous forests having complex physical structure at or near the ground (Bissonette et al. 1989, Buskirk and Ruggiero 1994). Recently, Zielinski et al. (2000b) documented a substantial decline in the distribution of a recognized...

  15. American marten, fisher, lynx, and wolverine: survey methods for their detection

    Treesearch

    William J. Zielinski; Thomas E. Kucera

    1995-01-01

    The status of the American marten (Martes americana), fisher (Martes pennanti), lynx (Lynx canadensis), and wolverine (Gulo gulo) is of increasing concern to managers and conservationists in much of the western United States. Because these species are protected throughout much of their range in...

  16. Examining the uncertain origin and management role of martens on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Jonathan N; Moss, Wynne E; Manlick, Philip J; Fountain, Emily D; Kirby, Rebecca; Sultaire, Sean M; Perrig, Paula L; Mendoza, Jorge E; Pokallus, John W; Heaton, Timothy H

    2015-10-01

    Conservation biologists are generally united in efforts to curtail the spread of non-native species globally. However, the colonization history of a species is not always certain, and whether a species is considered non-native or native depends on the conservation benchmark. Such ambiguities have led to inconsistent management. Within the Tongass National Forest of Alaska, the status of American marten (Martes americana) on the largest, most biologically diverse and deforested island, Prince of Wales (POW), is unclear. Ten martens were released to POW in the early 1930s, and it was generally believed to be the founding event, although this has been questioned. The uncertainty surrounding when and how martens colonized POW complicates management, especially because martens were selected as a design species for the Tongass. To explore the history of martens of POW we reviewed other plausible routes of colonization; genetically and isotopically analyzed putative marten fossils deposited in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene to verify marten occupancy of POW; and used contemporary genetic data from martens on POW and the mainland in coalescent simulations to identify the probable source of the present-day marten population on POW. We found evidence for multiple routes of colonization by forest-associated mammals beginning in the Holocene, which were likely used by American martens to naturally colonize POW. Although we cannot rule out human-assisted movement of martens by Alaskan Natives or fur trappers, we suggest that martens be managed for persistence on POW. More generally, our findings illustrate the difficulty of labeling species as non-native or native, even when genetic and paleo-ecological data are available, and support the notion that community resilience or species invasiveness should be prioritized when making management decisions rather than more subjective and less certain conservation benchmarks.

  17. An analytical platform for cumulative impact assessment based on multiple futures: the impact of petroleum drilling and forest harvesting on moose (Alces alces) and marten (Martes americana) habitats in northeastern British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Strimbu, Bogdan; Innes, John

    2011-07-01

    The combined influence on the environment of all projects occurring in a single area is evaluated through cumulative impact assessments (CIA), which consider the consequences of multiple projects, each insignificant on its own, yet important when evaluated collectively. Traditionally, future human activities are included in CIA using an analytical platform, commonly based on complex models that supply precise predictions but with reduced accuracy. To compensate for the lack of accuracy in current CIA approaches, we propose a shift in the paradigm governing CIA. The paradigm shift involves a change in the focus of CIA investigations from the detailed analysis of one unlikely future to the identification of the patterns describing multiple potential future changes in the environment. To illustrate the approach, a set of 144 possible and equally likely futures were developed that aimed to identify the potential impacts of forest harvesting and petroleum drilling on the habitat suitability of moose and marten in northeast British Columbia, Canada. The evolution of two measures of habitat suitability (average habitat suitability index and surface of the stands with habitat suitability index >0.5) revealed that the human activities could induce cycles in the habitat dynamics of moose and marten. The planning period of 100 years was separated into three distinct periods following a sinusoidal pattern (i.e., increase - constant - decrease in the habitat suitability measures). The attributes that could induce significant changes in the assessment of environment are the choice of harvesting age and species.

  18. Distinguishing tracks of marten and fisher at track-plate stations

    Treesearch

    William J. Zielinski; Richard L. Truex

    1995-01-01

    Managing and conserving uncommon mammals, such as fisher (Martes pennanti) and American marten (M. americana), depend upon a reliable mechanism to index their populations. In parts of their ranges where these species are not commercially harvested, baited track stations provide an alternative means to collect data on distribution...

  19. Using high-resolution short-term location data to describe territoriality in Pacific martens

    Treesearch

    Katie M. Moriarty; Mark A. Linnell; Brandon E. Chasco; Clinton W. Epps; William J. Zielinski

    2017-01-01

    The home range is one of the most frequently sought-after characteristics of an animal’s behavior and ecology. However, most techniques for evaluating home ranges were developed before GPS collar technology. We use VHF and GPS location data collected in tandem on Pacific marten (Martes caurina) to determine the minimum length of time in which frequent GPS locations...

  20. Tool and Technique for Restraining Live-Captured American Martens and Fishers

    Treesearch

    Linda Ebel Thomasma; Rolf O. Peterson; Rolf O. Peterson

    1998-01-01

    Restraining live-captured animals poses challenges when working alone, especially in remote field locations. While studying American martens (Marfes americana) and fishers (Martes pennantr) in Michigan, we developed a new tool, trap combs, to restrain a live-captured animal in the trap. The construction and use of trap combs are described.

  1. Detection surveys for fishers and american martens in California, 1989-1994: summary and interpertations

    Treesearch

    William J. Zielinski; Richard L. Truex; Chester V. Ogan; Kelly Busse

    1997-01-01

    Commercial trapping of fishers (Martes pennanti) and American martens (M. americana) has been prohibited in California since the mid-1900's, yet concern continues to exist about the status of their populations. Recently developed methods for detecting the presence of forest carnivores have made it possible to estimate their...

  2. Multi scale habitat relationships of Martes americana in northern Idaho, U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    Tzeidle N. Wasserman; Samuel A. Cushman; David O. Wallin; Jim Hayden

    2012-01-01

    We used bivariate scaling and logistic regression to investigate multiple-scale habitat selection by American marten (Martes americana). Bivariate scaling reveals dramatic differences in the apparent nature and strength of relationships between marten occupancy and a number of habitat variables across a range of spatial scales. These differences include reversals in...

  3. Fisher and marten

    Treesearch

    Roger A. Powell; Steven W. Buskirk; William J. Zielinski

    2003-01-01

    The genus Martes is circumboreal in distribution, with extensions into southern (M. gwatkinsii) and southeast Asia as far as 7°S latitude (M. flavigula; Anderson 1970). The fisher (subgenus Pekania) is endemic to the New World and restricted to mesic coniferous forest of the boreal zone and its...

  4. Evaluating detection probabilities for American marten in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joshua B.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring techniques designed to determine presence of forest carnivores, such as American marten (Martes americana), is crucial for validation of survey results. Although comparisons between techniques have been made, little attention has been paid to the issue of detection probabilities (p). Thus, the underlying assumption has been that detection probabilities equal 1.0. We used presence-absence data obtained from a track-plate survey in conjunction with results from a saturation-trapping study to derive detection probabilities when marten occurred at high (>2 marten/10.2 km2) and low (???1 marten/10.2 km2) densities within 8 10.2-km2 quadrats. Estimated probability of detecting marten in high-density quadrats was p = 0.952 (SE = 0.047), whereas the detection probability for low-density quadrats was considerably lower (p = 0.333, SE = 0.136). Our results indicated that failure to account for imperfect detection could lead to an underestimation of marten presence in 15-52% of low-density quadrats in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA. We recommend that repeated site-survey data be analyzed to assess detection probabilities when documenting carnivore survey results.

  5. The use of radio telemetry in Martes research: techniques and technologies

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Thompson; Rebecca A. Green; Joel Sauder; Kathryn L. Purcell; Richard Sweitzer; Jon. Armeno

    2012-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was fi rst used on a Martes species in 1972, when 5 American martens ( Martes americana ) captured incidentally during a snowshoe hare ( Lepus americanus ) research project in Minnesota were radio-collared. Since then, at least 128 research projects have used radiotelemetry to investigate...

  6. Test of the prey-base hypothesis to explain use of red squirrel midden sites by American martens

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2001-01-01

    We tested the prey-base hypothesis to determine whether selection of red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) midden sites (cone caches) by American martens (Martes americana) for resting and denning could be attributed to greater abundance of small-mammal prey. Five years of livetrapping at 180 sampling stations in 2 drainages showed that small mammals,...

  7. Monitoring Martes populations in California: survey design and power analysis

    Treesearch

    William J. Zielinski; Howard B. Stauffer

    1996-01-01

    Fishers (Martes pennanti) and American martens (M. americana) have been protected from trapping in California since the mid-1900s, yet in portions of each of their historic ranges their numbers are extremely low, perhaps due to the effects of timber harvest. We propose a method capable of detecting declines in the occurrence and...

  8. The Japanese Marten Favors Actinidia arguta, a Forest Edge Liane as a Directed Seed Disperser.

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, Yui; Takatsuki, Seiki

    2015-06-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of the Japanese marten (Martes melampus) to serve as a directed seed disperser of Actinidia arguta, a representative forest edge liane. Fecal compositions of the Japanese marten in a western part of Tokyo, Japan were analyzed by the point-frame method. It fed on fruits in autumn (73.1%) and winter (63.0%), and the seeds of A. arguta were most frequently eaten (47.4%). Although the vegetation in the study area was dominated by forest (95.5%), seeds found in the marten feces were dominated by those of forest edge plants (92.1%), suggesting a strong selective bias, both habitat and food, toward these species. The density of marten feces was also higher at forest edges than forest interiors. A. arguta plants were more abundant at forest edges than within the forest at Afan Wood, Nagano Prefecture. These results suggest that the Japanese marten selectively uses forest edges as a location for feeding and defecation and thus functions as a directed seed disperser of A. arguta.

  9. Pines

    Treesearch

    C. Dana Nelson; Gary F. Peter; Steven E. McKeand; Eric J. Jokela; Robert B. Rummer; Les Groom; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2013-01-01

    The southern pines (yellow or hard pines, Genus Pinus Sub-genus Pinus Section Pinus Subsection Australes) occupy an immense land-base in the southeastern region of the United States (Little and Critchfield, 1969). In addition, they are planted and managed for wood production on millions of hectares worldwide including China, Brazil, Argentina, and Australia. The...

  10. Assessing Genetic Structure in Common but Ecologically Distinct Carnivores: The Stone Marten and Red Fox

    PubMed Central

    Basto, Mafalda P.; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Simões, Luciana; Grilo, Clara; Cardoso, Luís; Cortes, Helder; Bruford, Michael W.; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The identification of populations and spatial genetic patterns is important for ecological and conservation research, and spatially explicit individual-based methods have been recognised as powerful tools in this context. Mammalian carnivores are intrinsically vulnerable to habitat fragmentation but not much is known about the genetic consequences of fragmentation in common species. Stone martens (Martes foina) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) share a widespread Palearctic distribution and are considered habitat generalists, but in the Iberian Peninsula stone martens tend to occur in higher quality habitats. We compared their genetic structure in Portugal to see if they are consistent with their differences in ecological plasticity, and also to illustrate an approach to explicitly delineate the spatial boundaries of consistently identified genetic units. We analysed microsatellite data using spatial Bayesian clustering methods (implemented in the software BAPS, GENELAND and TESS), a progressive partitioning approach and a multivariate technique (Spatial Principal Components Analysis-sPCA). Three consensus Bayesian clusters were identified for the stone marten. No consensus was achieved for the red fox, but one cluster was the most probable clustering solution. Progressive partitioning and sPCA suggested additional clusters in the stone marten but they were not consistent among methods and were geographically incoherent. The contrasting results between the two species are consistent with the literature reporting stricter ecological requirements of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula. The observed genetic structure in the stone marten may have been influenced by landscape features, particularly rivers, and fragmentation. We suggest that an approach based on a consensus clustering solution of multiple different algorithms may provide an objective and effective means to delineate potential boundaries of inferred subpopulations. sPCA and progressive partitioning

  11. Assessing Genetic Structure in Common but Ecologically Distinct Carnivores: The Stone Marten and Red Fox.

    PubMed

    Basto, Mafalda P; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Simões, Luciana; Grilo, Clara; Cardoso, Luís; Cortes, Helder; Bruford, Michael W; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The identification of populations and spatial genetic patterns is important for ecological and conservation research, and spatially explicit individual-based methods have been recognised as powerful tools in this context. Mammalian carnivores are intrinsically vulnerable to habitat fragmentation but not much is known about the genetic consequences of fragmentation in common species. Stone martens (Martes foina) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) share a widespread Palearctic distribution and are considered habitat generalists, but in the Iberian Peninsula stone martens tend to occur in higher quality habitats. We compared their genetic structure in Portugal to see if they are consistent with their differences in ecological plasticity, and also to illustrate an approach to explicitly delineate the spatial boundaries of consistently identified genetic units. We analysed microsatellite data using spatial Bayesian clustering methods (implemented in the software BAPS, GENELAND and TESS), a progressive partitioning approach and a multivariate technique (Spatial Principal Components Analysis-sPCA). Three consensus Bayesian clusters were identified for the stone marten. No consensus was achieved for the red fox, but one cluster was the most probable clustering solution. Progressive partitioning and sPCA suggested additional clusters in the stone marten but they were not consistent among methods and were geographically incoherent. The contrasting results between the two species are consistent with the literature reporting stricter ecological requirements of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula. The observed genetic structure in the stone marten may have been influenced by landscape features, particularly rivers, and fragmentation. We suggest that an approach based on a consensus clustering solution of multiple different algorithms may provide an objective and effective means to delineate potential boundaries of inferred subpopulations. sPCA and progressive partitioning

  12. Mortality risk increases with natal dispersal distance in American martens.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cheryl A; Fryxell, John M; Thompson, Ian D; Baker, James A

    2009-09-22

    The assumption that mortality risk increases with dispersal distance has rarely been tested. We compared patterns of natal dispersal in the American marten (Martes americana) between a large regenerating forest landscape and an uncut landscape that was dominated by more mature forest to test whether mortality risk increased with dispersal distance, and whether variation in mortality risk influenced dispersal distance. Mortality risk increased with dispersal distance in both landscape treatments, but the distance-dependent increase in mortality in the regenerating landscape was twice that in the uncut landscape. Differences in body condition, supported by other data on foraging efficiency, suggested that juveniles from the regenerating landscape were less able to cope with the energetic demands of dispersal compared with juveniles from older forests. Juveniles travelled shorter distances in the regenerating versus uncut landscape. These results implied that dispersal was costly in terms of juvenile survival and that mean dispersal distance was shaped, in part, by mortality risk.

  13. Pines

    Treesearch

    C. Plomion; D. Chagne; D. Pot; S. Kumar; P.L. Wilcox; R.D. Burdon; D. Prat; D.G. Peterson; J. Paiva; P. Chaumeil; G.G. Vendramin; F. Sebastiani; C.D. Nelson; C.S. Echt; O. Savolainen; T.L. Kubisiak; M.T. Cervera; N. de Maria; M.N. Islam-Faridi

    2007-01-01

    Pinus is the most important genus within the Family Pinaceae and also within the gymnosperms by the number of species (109 species recognized by Farjon 2001) and by its contribution to forest ecosystems. All pine species are evergreen trees or shrubs. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, from tropical areas to northern areas in America and Eurasia....

  14. The forest carnivores: marten and fisher

    Treesearch

    William J. Zielinski

    2014-01-01

    Martens and fishers, as predators, perform important functions that help sustain the integrity of ecosystems. Both species occur primarily in mature forest environments that are characterized by dense canopy, large-diameter trees, a diverse understory community, and abundant standing and downed dead trees. Martens occur in the upper montane forests, where the threat of...

  15. Habitat-mediated variation in predation risk by the American marten.

    PubMed

    Andruskiw, Mark; Fryxell, John M; Thompson, Ian D; Baker, James A

    2008-08-01

    The probability of prey encounter, attack, capture, and kill are often hypothesized to depend on habitat structure, but field evidence in terrestrial systems is rare. We tested whether predation efficiency by the American marten (Martes americana) and fear of predation by their primary prey, the red-backed vole (Clethrionomys gapperi), differed between 20- to 50-year-old regenerating forest stands and older uncut stands. Our results showed that the frequency of prey encounter, prey attack, and prey kill were higher in old uncut forests, despite the fact that small-mammal density was similar to that in younger logged forests. These differences in predation efficiency were linked to higher abundance of coarse woody debris, which seems to offer sensory cues to martens, thereby increasing the odds of hunting success. Red-backed voles in regenerating forest stands exhibited increased wariness compared to voles living in old uncut forest, suggestive of a behavioral response to habitat-mediated variation in predation risk.

  16. More fishers and fewer martens due to cumulative effects of forest management and climate change as evidenced from local knowledge.

    PubMed

    Suffice, Pauline; Asselin, Hugo; Imbeau, Louis; Cheveau, Marianne; Drapeau, Pierre

    2017-09-07

    Monitoring of fur-bearing species populations is relatively rare due to their low densities. In addition to catch data, trappers' experience provides information on the ecology and status of the harvested species. Fisher (Pekania pennanti) and American marten (Martes americana) are mustelids that are sensitive to forest management and therefore considered to be ecological indicators of forest health. Fisher populations have increased in eastern North America since the early 2000s and this could have resulted in a northeastern extension of the species' range and increased overlap with marten's range. Moreover, habitats of both species are subject to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The objective of this study was to document the knowledge held by local trappers in the northern area of sympatry between fisher and marten to identify factors that could explain variation in populations of the two species and interactions between them. Forty-one semi-directed interviews with Indigenous and non-Indigenous trappers in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of western Quebec (Canada), at the northern limit of the overlapping ranges of the two mustelid species. Trappers highlighted the lack of exclusivity of marten and fisher to coniferous forests, although marten is more closely associated with them than is fisher. Fisher apparently also takes advantage of open environments, including agroforestry systems. Moreover, climate change increases the frequency of freeze-thaw events that cause the formation of an ice crust on the snow surface, which favors fisher movements. The fisher was identified as a competitor and even a predator of the marten. Furthermore, the fisher is less affected than the marten by forest management, and it also seems to benefit from climate change to a greater extent.

  17. A Comparison of Visual and Genetic Techniques for Identifying Japanese Marten Scats - Enabling Diet Examination in Relation to Seasonal Food Availability in a Sub-Alpine Area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Masumi; Hoshino, Lisa; Kamada, Shouko; Masuda, Ryuichi; Newman, Chris; Kaneko, Yayoi

    2017-04-01

    We compared the reliability of visual diagnostic criteria to DNA diagnostic techniques, including newly designed primers, to discriminate Japanese marten (Martes melampus) feces from those of other sympatric carnivore species. Visual criteria proved > 95% reliable for fresh, odoriferous scats in good condition. Based upon this verification, we then examined if and how Japanese marten diet differs among seasons at high elevation study site (1500-2026 m). We also considered how intra-specific competition with the Japanese red fox (Vulpes vulpes japonica) may shape marten feeding ecology. From 120 Japanese marten fecal samples, high elevation diet comprised (frequency of occurrence) 30.6-66.0% mammals, 41.0-72.2% insects and 10.6-46.2% fruits, subject to seasonal variation, with a Shannon-Weaver index value of 2.77. These findings contrast substantially to seasonal marten diet reported in adjacent lowland regions (700-900 m), particularly in terms of fruit consumption, showing the trophic adaptability of the Japanese marten. We also noted a substantial dietary overlap with the red fox (n = 26 scats) with a Shannon-Weaver index of 2.61, inferring little trophic niche mutual exclusion (trophic niche overlap: 0.95), although some specific seasonal prey selection differences were likely related to relative differences in body size between foxes and martens. This additional information on the feeding ecology of the Japanese marten enables a better assessment of the specific risks populations face in mountainous regions.

  18. American Marten Respond to Seismic Lines in Northern Canada at Two Spatial Scales

    PubMed Central

    Tigner, Jesse; Bayne, Erin M.; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Development of hydrocarbon resources across northwest Canada has spurred economic prosperity and generated concerns over impacts to biodiversity. To balance these interests, numerous jurisdictions have adopted management thresholds that allow for limited energy development but minimize undesirable impacts to wildlife. Used for exploration, seismic lines are the most abundant linear feature in the boreal forest and exist at a variety of widths and recovery states. We used American marten (Martes americana) as a model species to measure how line attributes influence species’ response to seismic lines, and asked whether responses to individual lines trigger population impacts. Marten response to seismic lines was strongly influenced by line width and recovery state. Compared to forest interiors, marten used open seismic lines ≥ 3 m wide less often, but used open lines ≤ 2 m wide and partially recovered lines ≥ 6 m wide similarly. Marten response to individual line types appeared to trigger population impacts. The probability of occurrence at the home range scale declined with increasing seismic line density, and the inclusion of behavioral response to line density calculations improved model fit. In our top performing model, we excluded seismic lines ≤ 2 m from our calculation of line density, and the probability of occurrence declined > 80% between home ranges with the lowest and highest line densities. Models that excluded seismic lines did not strongly explain occurrence. We show how wildlife-derived metrics can inform regulatory guidelines to increase the likelihood those guidelines meet intended management objectives. With respect to marten, not all seismic lines constitute disturbances, but avoidance of certain line types scales to population impacts. This approach provides the ecological context required to understand cause and effect relationships among socio-economic and ecological conservation goals. PMID:25768848

  19. American marten respond to seismic lines in northern Canada at two spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Tigner, Jesse; Bayne, Erin M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Development of hydrocarbon resources across northwest Canada has spurred economic prosperity and generated concerns over impacts to biodiversity. To balance these interests, numerous jurisdictions have adopted management thresholds that allow for limited energy development but minimize undesirable impacts to wildlife. Used for exploration, seismic lines are the most abundant linear feature in the boreal forest and exist at a variety of widths and recovery states. We used American marten (Martes americana) as a model species to measure how line attributes influence species' response to seismic lines, and asked whether responses to individual lines trigger population impacts. Marten response to seismic lines was strongly influenced by line width and recovery state. Compared to forest interiors, marten used open seismic lines ≥ 3 m wide less often, but used open lines ≤ 2 m wide and partially recovered lines ≥ 6 m wide similarly. Marten response to individual line types appeared to trigger population impacts. The probability of occurrence at the home range scale declined with increasing seismic line density, and the inclusion of behavioral response to line density calculations improved model fit. In our top performing model, we excluded seismic lines ≤ 2 m from our calculation of line density, and the probability of occurrence declined > 80% between home ranges with the lowest and highest line densities. Models that excluded seismic lines did not strongly explain occurrence. We show how wildlife-derived metrics can inform regulatory guidelines to increase the likelihood those guidelines meet intended management objectives. With respect to marten, not all seismic lines constitute disturbances, but avoidance of certain line types scales to population impacts. This approach provides the ecological context required to understand cause and effect relationships among socio-economic and ecological conservation goals.

  20. COMPLEX HOST-PARASITE SYSTEMS IN MARTES: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGY OF ENDEMIC FAUNAS.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Complex assemblages of hosts and parasites reveal insights about biogeography and ecology and inform us about processes which serve to structure faunal diversity and the biosphere in space and time. Exploring aspects of parasite diversity among martens (species of Martes) and other mustelids reveal...

  1. Marte Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of catastrophic flooding in Marte Vallis, Mars. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Many of the major valleys on the red planet are named for the word for 'Mars' in the various languages of Earth. This image shows just a very small portion of the hundreds-of-kilometers-long Marte Vallis system.

    Location near: 17.4oN, 174.7o Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  2. Marte Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of catastrophic flooding in Marte Vallis, Mars. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Many of the major valleys on the red planet are named for the word for 'Mars' in the various languages of Earth. This image shows just a very small portion of the hundreds-of-kilometers-long Marte Vallis system.

    Location near: 17.4oN, 174.7o Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  3. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the Japanese marten.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2007-08-01

    The dorsal lingual surfaces of two adult Japanese marten (Martes melampus) were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Filiform, fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae were observed. A small filiform papilla on the apical surface of the tongue had several pointed processes. A small filiform papilla contained the connective tissue core consisting of several small processes. A large filiform papilla of the lingual body consisted of a main papilla and some secondary papillae. A large filiform papilla contained the connective tissue core consisting of processes of various size. The fungiform papillae are round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla had a top with several round depressions. The four vallate papillae were located on both sides of the posterior end of the lingual body and each papilla was surrounded by groove and crescent pad. A zigzag surface structure appeared on the connective tissue core of the vallate papilla. The foliate papillae were seen on the dorsolateral aspect of the tongue and some ridges and grooves were exposed reciprocally. A zigzag surface structures appeared on the connective tissue cores of the ridges of the foliate papillae.

  4. Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in martens and fishers from the Algonquin region of south-central Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Steeves, T.; Strickland, M. ); Frank, R.; Rasper, J. ); Douglas, C.W.

    1991-03-01

    Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine insecticides (OCI) has been restricted in the Province of Ontario, Canada, since 1971. This study reports on OCI and PCB levels in two carnivores, fishers (Martes pennanti) and martens (Martes americana), collected in the Algonquin Region of south-central Ontario in 1976 and 1981, and compares them to data collected for the same species in the same area in 1972-74. Algonquin Region is a forested area of 43,000 km{sup 2} on the Precambrian shield, and has no major industrial or agricultural development. Except for DDT, which was used in the 1950's and 1960's to control biting insects around tourist establishments, there has been little use of OCIs or PCBs in this area. Their occurrence in the Algonquin Region is most likely due to atmospheric transport.

  5. Inter-individual variability of stone marten behavioral responses to a highway.

    PubMed

    Ascensão, Fernando; Grilo, Clara; LaPoint, Scott; Tracey, Jeff; Clevenger, Anthony P; Santos-Reis, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to reduce the negative impacts of roads on wildlife may be hindered if individuals within the population vary widely in their responses to roads and mitigation strategies ignore this variability. This knowledge is particularly important for medium-sized carnivores as they are vulnerable to road mortality, while also known to use available road passages (e.g., drainage culverts) for safely crossing highways. Our goal in this study was to assess whether this apparently contradictory pattern of high road-kill numbers associated with a regular use of road passages is attributable to the variation in behavioral responses toward the highway between individuals. We investigated the responses of seven radio-tracked stone martens (Martes foina) to a highway by measuring their utilization distribution, response turning angles and highway crossing patterns. We compared the observed responses to simulated movement parameterized by the observed space use and movement characteristics of each individual, but naïve to the presence of the highway. Our results suggested that martens demonstrate a diversity of responses to the highway, including attraction, indifference, or avoidance. Martens also varied in their highway crossing patterns, with some crossing repeatedly at the same location (often coincident with highway passages). We suspect that the response variability derives from the individual's familiarity of the landscape, including their awareness of highway passage locations. Because of these variable yet potentially attributable responses, we support the use of exclusionary fencing to guide transient (e.g., dispersers) individuals to existing passages to reduce the road-kill risk.

  6. Inter-Individual Variability of Stone Marten Behavioral Responses to a Highway

    PubMed Central

    Ascensão, Fernando; Grilo, Clara; LaPoint, Scott; Tracey, Jeff; Clevenger, Anthony P.; Santos-Reis, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to reduce the negative impacts of roads on wildlife may be hindered if individuals within the population vary widely in their responses to roads and mitigation strategies ignore this variability. This knowledge is particularly important for medium-sized carnivores as they are vulnerable to road mortality, while also known to use available road passages (e.g., drainage culverts) for safely crossing highways. Our goal in this study was to assess whether this apparently contradictory pattern of high road-kill numbers associated with a regular use of road passages is attributable to the variation in behavioral responses toward the highway between individuals. We investigated the responses of seven radio-tracked stone martens (Martes foina) to a highway by measuring their utilization distribution, response turning angles and highway crossing patterns. We compared the observed responses to simulated movement parameterized by the observed space use and movement characteristics of each individual, but naïve to the presence of the highway. Our results suggested that martens demonstrate a diversity of responses to the highway, including attraction, indifference, or avoidance. Martens also varied in their highway crossing patterns, with some crossing repeatedly at the same location (often coincident with highway passages). We suspect that the response variability derives from the individual's familiarity of the landscape, including their awareness of highway passage locations. Because of these variable yet potentially attributable responses, we support the use of exclusionary fencing to guide transient (e.g., dispersers) individuals to existing passages to reduce the road-kill risk. PMID:25072639

  7. Habitat selection by the American marten in northeastern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L. Bull; Thad W. Heater; Jay F. Shepherd

    2005-01-01

    Habitat used by 20 adult radio-collared American martens was investigated in northeastern Oregon between 1993 and 1997 to provide land managers with information on habitat management for this species. Martens showed a strong preference for old structure, unlogged stands in subalpine fir and spruce forests with canopy closures 2508, a high density of dead trees and logs...

  8. Status, distribution, and movements of martens in northeastern Minnesota.

    Treesearch

    L. David Mech; Lynn L. Rogers

    1977-01-01

    The decline of martens in Minnesota is reviewed and a recent increase documented. Adjacent and partially overlapping home ranges of 4.3 to 19.9 km2 were determined by telemetry for a female and three males. Habitat use is described. If current trapping and timber management practices persist, martens should continue to increase.

  9. Status, distribution, and movements of martens in northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Rogers, L.L.

    1977-01-01

    The decline of martens in Minnesota is reviewed and a recent increase documented. Adjacent and partially overlapping home ranges of 4.3 to 19.9 sq km were determined by telemetry for a female and three males. Habitat use is described. If current trapping and timber management practices persist, martens should continue to increase.

  10. Interacting effects of climate change, landscape conversion, and harvest on carnivore populations at the range margin: marten and lynx in the northern Appalachians.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    Assessing the effects of climate change on threatened species requires moving beyond simple bioclimatic models to models that incorporate interactions among climatic trends, landscape change, environmental stochasticity, and species life history. Populations of marten (Martes americana) and lynx (Lynx canadensis) in southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States represent peninsular extensions of boreal ranges and illustrate the potential impact of these threats on semi-isolated populations at the range margin. Decreased snowfall may affect marten and lynx through decreased prey vulnerability and decreased competitive advantage over sympatric carnivores. I used a spatially explicit population model to assess potential effects of predicted changes in snowfall by 2055 on regional marten and lynx populations. The models' habitat rankings were derived from previous static models that correlated regional distribution with snowfall and vegetation data. Trapping scenarios were parameterized as a 10% proportional decrease in survival, and logging scenarios were parameterized as a 10% decrease in the extent of older coniferous or mixed forest. Both species showed stronger declines in the simulations due to climate change than to overexploitation or logging. Marten populations declined 40% because of climate change, 16% because of logging, and 30% because of trapping. Lynx populations declined 59% because of climate change, 36% because of trapping, and 20% in scenarios evaluating the effects of population cycles. Climate change interacted with logging in its effects on the marten and with trapping in its effects on the lynx, increasing overall vulnerability. For both species larger lowland populations were vulnerable to climate change, which suggests that contraction may occur in the core of their current regional range as well as among smaller peripheral populations. Despite their greater data requirements compared with bioclimatic models, mesoscale spatial

  11. [Water and energy metabolism in representatives of the genus Martes and Mustela (Mammalia: Mustelidae)].

    PubMed

    Meshcherskiĭ, I G; Rozhnov, V V; Naĭdenko, S V

    2003-01-01

    The quantities of consumed food and water, quantity and moisture content of faeces, as well as quantity and concentration of excreted urine were determined in representatives of Martes--marten (M. martes) and sable (M. zibellina)--as well as in polecat (Mustela putorius). Under the same cage conditions and free access to food, all three species had similar energy value of the daily diet. However, the level of drinking water consumption and the ratio between the quantities of arriving water and energy was reliably higher in both Martes species than in polecat. In addition, both marten and sable featured a much higher rate of evaporation loss in the overall water balance and, consequently, a higher quantity of heat dissipated with evaporation as compared to polecat. Comparison of the obtained and previous data (Sokolov et al., 1995; Rozhnov, 1991) allowed us to propose that the mentioned differences can be specific for representatives of Martes and Mustela genera irrespective of ecological specialization of particular species.

  12. Cell scientist to watch--Sascha Martens.

    PubMed

    2016-02-15

    Sascha Martens obtained both his Diploma and PhD at the University of Cologne in Germany in the laboratory of Jonathan Howard. He pursued his postdoctoral training as an EMBO Long-Term Fellow in the group of Harvey McMahon at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK, during which time he also received the AAAS/Science Program for Excellence in Science Award. In 2009 Sascha became a group leader at the University of Vienna Max F. Perutz Laboratories. Sascha holds an ERC Starting Grant and is an EMBO Young Investigator, and he was recently awarded an ERC Consolidator Grant. His research focuses on understanding the mechanisms that orchestrate autophagy.

  13. DNA-based approach to aging martens (Martes americana and M. caurina)

    Treesearch

    Jonathan N. Pauli; John P. Whiteman; Bruce G. Marcot; Terry M. McClean; Merav Ben-David

    2011-01-01

    Demographic structure is central to understanding the dynamics of animal populations. However, determining the age of free-ranging mammals is difficult, and currently impossible when sampling with noninvasive, genetic-based approaches. We present a method to estimate age class by combining measures of telomere lengths with other biologically meaningful covariates in a...

  14. Spatiotemporal variation in resource selection: Insights from the American marten (Martes Americana)

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Shirk; Martin G. Raphael; Samuel A. Cushman

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and genetic adaptations to spatiotemporal variation in habitat conditions allow species to maximize their biogeographic range and persist over time in dynamic environments. An understanding of these local adaptations can be used to guide management and conservation of populations over broad extents encompassing diverse habitats. This understanding is often...

  15. Scale dependency of American marten (Martes americana) habitat relations [Chapter 12

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Shirk; Tzeidle N. Wasserman; Samuel A. Cushman; Martin G. Raphael

    2012-01-01

    Animals select habitat resources at multiple spatial scales; therefore, explicit attention to scale-dependency when modeling habitat relations is critical to understanding how organisms select habitat in complex landscapes. Models that evaluate habitat variables calculated at a single spatial scale (e.g., patch, home range) fail to account for the effects of...

  16. Effects of multiple founder populations on spatial genetic structure of reintroduced American martens.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bronwyn W; Scribner, Kim T

    2010-01-01

    Reintroductions and translocations are increasingly used to repatriate or increase probabilities of persistence for animal and plant species. Genetic and demographic characteristics of founding individuals and suitability of habitat at release sites are commonly believed to affect the success of these conservation programs. Genetic divergence among multiple source populations of American martens (Martes americana) and well documented introduction histories permitted analyses of post-introduction dispersion from release sites and development of genetic clusters in the Upper Peninsula (UP) of Michigan <50 years following release. Location and size of spatial genetic clusters and measures of individual-based autocorrelation were inferred using 11 microsatellite loci. We identified three genetic clusters in geographic proximity to original release locations. Estimated distances of effective gene flow based on spatial autocorrelation varied greatly among genetic clusters (30-90 km). Spatial contiguity of genetic clusters has been largely maintained with evidence for admixture primarily in localized regions, suggesting recent contact or locally retarded rates of gene flow. Data provide guidance for future studies of the effects of permeabilities of different land-cover and land-use features to dispersal and of other biotic and environmental factors that may contribute to the colonization process and development of spatial genetic associations.

  17. P-Mart

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-07

    P-Mart was designed specifically to allow cancer researchers to perform robust statistical processing of publicly available cancer proteomic datasets. To date an online statistical processing suite for proteomics does not exist. The P-Mart software is designed to allow statistical programmers to utilize these algorithms through packages in the R programming language as well as offering a web-based interface using the Azure cloud technology. The Azure cloud technology also allows the release of the software via Docker containers.

  18. Striving for balance: maintaining marten habitat while reducing fuels

    Treesearch

    John Kirkland; Katie Moriarty

    2016-01-01

    Martens are small forest carnivores associated with dense, mature forests. These important indicators of a forest’s biodiversity are vulnerable to management activities that open the forest canopy or remove downed debris. Many fuel reduction treatment do just that: dense stands of trees are thinned to minimize fire hazard and future fire severity. Until recently, the...

  19. Characteristics of summer and fall diurnal resting habitat used by American martens in coastal northwestern California

    Treesearch

    K. M. Slauson; W. J. Zielinski

    2009-01-01

    American martens use resting habitat between periods of activity to provide both thermal refugia and protection from predators. Maintenance or restoration of key elements of marten resting habitat, such as resting structures, requires that managers recognize their characteristics to protect them, or manage for their creation. We measured resting habitat at 4 scales: (1...

  20. Marte Valles site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Jim W.

    1994-01-01

    This site is located at 16 deg N, 177 deg W on the flood plains of Marte Valles, which is perhaps the youngest channel system on Mars. The young age of this channel warrants investigation because of climatic implications for fluvial activities in recent geologic time. The paucity of craters makes this an excellent site in terms of safety requirements. Some of the objectives stated previously for the Maja Valles region would also apply to this site (grab bag of rock types, etc.).

  1. Marte Vallis Platy Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-442, 4 August 2003

    The Marte Vallis system, located east of Cerberus and west of Amazonis Planitia, is known for its array of broken, platy flow features. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a close-up view of some of these plates; they appear to be like puzzle pieces that have been broken apart and moved away from each other. The Mars science community has been discussing these features for the past several years--either the flows in Marte Vallis are lava flows, or mud flows. In either case, the material was very fluid and had a thin crust on its surface. As the material continued to flow through the valley system, the crust broke up into smaller plates that were then rafted some distance down the valley. This picture is located near 6.9oN, 182.8oW. It is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  2. Population ecology of American marten in New Hampshire: Impact of wind farm development in high elevation habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siren, Alexej Peder Kelly

    This study examined marten ecology relative to wind farm development using radio-marked marten, camera trapping, and snow track surveys to meet study objectives. The local population was mostly breeding adults and was considered near carrying capacity. Mortality (predation) was biased towards females and young. Seasonal home ranges were small overall, and largest during summer and when marten used more regenerating and softwood forest. Selection at the landscape scale was more pronounced than at the stand scale; regenerating forest was selected against year-round. Stand selection for mature mixed-wood and softwood occurred in winter. Disturbance from wind farm construction resulted in less use and periodic displacement of marten, although marten maintained presence in the study area. Winter access by competitor canids was enhanced by maintained roads and snowmobile trails at high elevation. A balanced approach is encouraged to minimize developmental impacts in prime, high elevation habitat of recovering marten populations.

  3. Isolation by distance, resistance and/or clusters? Lessons learned from a forest-dwelling carnivore inhabiting a heterogeneous landscape

    Treesearch

    Aritz Ruiz-Gonzalez; Samuel A. Cushman; Maria Jose Madeira; Ettore Randi; Benjamin J. Gomez-Moliner

    2015-01-01

    Landscape genetics provides a valuable framework to understand how landscape features influence gene flow and to disentangle the factors that lead to discrete and/or clinal population structure. Here, we attempt to differentiate between these processes in a forest-dwelling small carnivore [European pine marten (Martes martes)]. Specifically, we used...

  4. Effect of fuels reduction on American martens and their prey.

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L. Bull; Arlene K. Blumton

    1999-01-01

    The effect of a fuels reduction treatment on small mammals was investigated in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and mixed conifer stands by trapping and track surveys in northeastern Oregon. The number of red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) tracks decreased in all...

  5. Longleaf pine

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer; Donald W. Patterson

    1983-01-01

    Abstract:This report describes the longleaf pine forest type and the characteristics of both tree and forest that can affect management decisions.Longleaf pine is highly adaptable to a range of management goals and silvicultural systems.Management options and appropriate silvicultural methods for the regeneration and management of this species are...

  6. Jack Pine

    Treesearch

    William Dent Sterrett

    1920-01-01

    Jack pine is a very frugal tree in its climatic and soil requirements. The northern limit of its natural range is within 14 degrees of the Arctic Circle and the southern is marked by the southern shores of Lake Michigan. No other North American pine grows naturally so far north and all the others grow farther south. It develops commercial stands and reproduces itself...

  7. Book review: Biology and conservation of martens, sables, and fishers: A new synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.

    2013-01-01

    Review info: Biology and conservation of martens, sables, and fishers: A new synthesis. Edited by K.B. Aubry, W.J. Zielinski, M.G. Raphael, G. Proulx, and S.W. Buskirk, 2012. ISBN: 978-08014, 580pp.

  8. Inexpensive camera systems for detecting martens, fishers, and other animals: guidelines for use and standardization.

    Treesearch

    Lawrence L.C. Jones; Martin G. Raphael

    1993-01-01

    Inexpensive camera systems have been successfully used to detect the occurrence of martens, fishers, and other wildlife species. The use of cameras is becoming widespread, and we give suggestions for standardizing techniques so that comparisons of data can occur across the geographic range of the target species. Details are given on equipment needs, setting up the...

  9. Limiting factors and landscape connectivity: the American marten in the Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    S. A. Cushman; M. G. Raphael; L. F. Ruggiero; A. S. Shirk; T. N. Wasserman; E. C. O' Doherty

    2011-01-01

    In mobile animals, movement behavior can maximize fitness by optimizing access to critical resources and minimizing risk of predation. We sought to evaluate several hypotheses regarding the effects of landscape structure on American marten foraging path selection in a landscape experiencing forest perforation by patchcut logging. We hypothesized that in the uncut pre-...

  10. Financial rates of return on shortleaf pine stands in Arkansas between 1978 and 1995

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Hartsell

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate the annual rate of change in value of Arkansas' shortleaf pine forests using financial maturity concepts and to compare it to the change in other forest types and alternative investment options. Timber Mart-South stumpage price data were combined with inventory data spanning 17 years from the USDA Forest Service,...

  11. Cotransfection of DC with TLR4 and MART-1 RNA induces MART-1-specific responses.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Zeinab; Cisco, Robin; Dannull, Jens; Ueno, Tomio; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Kalady, Matthew F; Onaitis, Mark W; Tyler, Douglas S; Pruitt, Scott K

    2005-04-01

    Cotransfection of dendritic cells (DC) with MART-1 and constitutively active TLR4 (caTLR4) RNA enhances the maturation of DC. Immature DC were cotransfected with RNA constructs encoding MART-1 and caTLR4, and CTL responses were analyzed. Cotransfection of DC with MART-1 + caTLR4 enhanced the expression of CD80 and CD83 surface markers and increased the secretion of cytokines IL-6, IL-12, and TNFalpha. Neither the native nor the A27L-modified MART-1 RNA could induce significant DC maturation or cytokine secretion. More importantly, DC cotransfected with caTLR4 + MART-1 RNA induced MART-1-specific CTL responses of a higher magnitude than DC transfected with either the native or A27L MART-1 RNA. When the MART-1 RNA-transfected DC were treated with DC-maturing cytokines, the induced CTL were less frequent and less lytic than those induced with MART-1 + caTLR4. A 2- to 100-fold increase in MART-1 tetramer+ cells and 2- to 10-fold increases in IFNgamma secretion and cytotoxicity were seen in CTL induced with MART-1 + caTLR4 compared to CTL induced with either MART-1 or A27L RNA. CTL induced with the mixed RNA displayed high percentages of CD8+ cells coexpressing CD45RA, CD56, and 2B4 antigens. Transfection with caTLR4 alone induced DC maturation, but did not induce lytic CTL, suggesting that CTL responses were induced solely by MART-1 epitopes. caTLR4 increases the CTL-inducing capacity of DC generating a lytic response specific for the accompanying antigen. These results demonstrate the possibility of enhancing the immunogenicity of the native MART-1 and other RNA derived from weakly immunogenic tumors in DC-based immunotherapy.

  12. Curiosity --El nuevo robot explorador de Marte

    NASA Image and Video Library

    El nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte llamado Curiosity tiene grandes preguntas que responder una vez que llegue a Marte. Infórmese sobre la misión con el analista de trayectoria de la NASA Fern...

  13. European Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    William E. Miller; Arthur R. Hastings; John F. Wootten

    1961-01-01

    In the United States, the European pine shoot moth has caused much damage in young, plantations of red pine. It has been responsible for reduced planting of red pine in many areas. Although attacked trees rarely if ever die, their growth is inhibited and many are, deformed. Scotch pine and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) are usually not so badly damaged. Swiss...

  14. Martens-Kuin models of normal and inverse polarity filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. F.; Hildner, E.; Kuin, N. P. M.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis is made of the Martens-Kuin filament eruption model in relation to observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The field lines of this model are plotted in the vacuum or infinite resistivity approximation with two background fields. The first is the dipole background field of the model and the second is the potential streamer model of Low. The Martens-Kuin model predicts that, as the filament erupts, the overlying coronal magnetic field lines rise in a manner inconsistent with observations of CMEs associated with eruptive filaments. This model and, by generalization the whole class of so-called Kuperus-Raadu configurations in which a neutral point occurs below the filament, are of questionable utility for CME modeling. An alternate case is considered in which the directions of currents in the Martens-Kuin model are reversed resulting in a so-called normal polarity configuration of the filament magnetic field. The background field lines now distort to support the filament and help eject it. While the vacuum field results make this configuration appear very promising, a full two- or more-dimensional MHD simulations is required to properly analyze the dynamics resulting from this configuration.

  15. Investigations in the correlation between Martens hardness and flexural strength of composite resin restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jens; Roeske, Svenja; Stawarczyk, Bogna; Hämmerle, Christoph H F

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to verify the hypothesis that the hardness and flexural strength of composite resin restorative materials are correlated and similarly affected by accelerated aging. With four different composite resins (Tetric Evo Ceram, Synergy, Filtek Supreme, Quixfil), the effects of aging in distilled water at 37 degrees C or by thermal cycling (5 degrees C/55 degrees C) on Martens hardness and flexural strength were assessed. Flexural strength (n=12) was measured according to ISO 4049 immediately after light-curing and after 75 days of aging. Martens hardness (n=6) was measured in intervals up to 75 days. The results were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA, followed by a post hoc Bonferroni test. In all cases, the effect of aging on hardness could not be measured. The effect of aging on flexural strength was also not consistent, although it was found that thermal cycling affected flexural strength more than water storage. Martens hardness and flexural strength of composite resins are not correlated.

  16. Phylogenetic characterization of canine distemper virus isolates from naturally infected dogs and a marten in Korea.

    PubMed

    An, Dong-Jun; Yoon, Sook-Hee; Park, Jee-Yong; No, In-Sun; Park, Bong-Kyun

    2008-12-10

    We sequenced the hemagglutinin (H) genes from four canine distemper virus (CDV) isolates obtained from three dogs and a marten in Korea. These sequences were included in subsequent H gene-focused phylogenetic tree analysis of 89 CDV strains. This analysis revealed eight clades designated as EU1, EU2, EU3, NA1, NA2, Asia 1, Asia 2 and Vaccine. Three of the Korean isolates (97Jindo, 98Marten and 07D111) occurred in the Asia 2 group that also contains many Japanese CDV strains isolated in 1998. The remaining Korean strain (07Q72) fell into the Asia 1 group. The 21 H protein sequences of 25 Asia 1 strains are generally predicted to bear nine potential N-linked glycosylation sites. In contrast, the 9 H protein sequences of 12 Asia 2 strains had eight potential N-linked glycosylation sites. The remaining strains had six (98Marten and 07D111) and seven (97Jindo) potential N-linked glycosylation sites.

  17. Cross-species transferability of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) nuclear microsatellite markers to five Mexican white pines.

    PubMed

    Villalobos-Arámbula, A R; Pérez de la Rosa, J A; Arias, A; Rajora, O P

    2014-09-12

    We examined cross-species transferability and usefulness of six nuclear microsatellite markers developed in consubgeneric eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) with regard to ecologically and commercially important Mexican white pine species of conservation genetics concern: Pinus chiapensis (Mart.) Andresen, P. flexilis James, P. strobiformis Engelm., P. ayacahuite Ehrenb. Ex Schltdl, and P. ayacahuite var. veitchii (Roezl) G.R. Shaw. Four to six microsatellite loci were found to be polymorphic in different species, with moderate to high informativeness in a relatively small number of samples (PIC/HE=0.25-0.93). This successful transfer sidesteps the time- and resource-consuming development of species-specific microsatellite markers, and will facilitate population and conservation genetic studies and genetic resource management of the less studied Mexican white pines.

  18. A data mart for operations analysis.

    PubMed

    Isken, M W; Littig, S J; West, M

    2001-01-01

    In this article we describe the evolution and architecture of a data mart developed to address the modeling and analysis needs of healthcare operations analysts. More specifically, the data mart is used in projects relating to demand analysis, forecasting, capacity planning, and service system design for a healthcare system consisting of a large tertiary care hospital and a smaller community hospital. The primary focus of the mart is on the detailed movement of inpatients through each hospital, although most component data tables include outpatient information such as emergency center visits, surgical cases, cardiac catheterization cases, and short-stay visits. We show that the data mart goes well beyond consolidating data from different sources by including a number of complex, precalculated fields, data structures, and function libraries that are specific to the needs of operations analysts. We discuss several outstanding and challenging design issues that should be of interest to the data warehouse vendor community.

  19. Wal-Mart Experience: Part One

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, M.; Deru, M.

    2007-09-01

    In 2005, Wal-Mart opened experimental stores in McKinney, Texas (hot climate), and Aurora, Colo. (cold climate). With these projects Wal-Mart can: (1)Learn how to achieve sustainability improvements, (2)Gain experience with the design, design process, and operations for some specific advanced technologies, (3)Understand energy use patterns in their stores more clearly, (4)Lay groundwork for better understanding of how to achieve major carbon footprint reductions; and (5)Measure the potential benefits of specific technologies tested.

  20. Southern Pine Beetle Competitors

    Treesearch

    Fred M. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    When southern pine beetles mass attack a living pine tree, if colonization is successful the tree dies and its phloem becomes immediately available to a complex of other bark beetles and long-horned beetles, all of which, in order to reproduce, compete for the new resource. In southern pines the phloem-inhabiting guild is composed of the southern pine beetle...

  1. Seeding and planting pines

    Treesearch

    Ralph E. Willard; L. Max Schmollinger

    1989-01-01

    Pines that occur naturally in parts of the region, as well as those that do not, have been introduced throughout. Pines usually produce greater volumes of wood faster than hardwoods, but in many parts of the region there is no market for pine stumpage or logs. Aside from wood production, pines are established for Christmas trees, windbreaks, landscaping, erosion...

  2. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  3. Pine embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sutela, Suvi; Tillman-Sutela, Eila; Kauppi, Anneli; Jokela, Anne; Sarjala, Tytti; Häggman, Hely

    2009-01-01

    In plants, programmed cell death (PCD) is an important mechanism that controls normal growth and development as well as many defence responses. At present, research on PCD in different plant species is actively carried out due to the possibilities offered by modern methods in molecular biology and the increasing amount of genome data. The pine seed provides a favourable model for PCD because it represents an interesting inheritance of seed tissues as well as an anatomically well-described embryogenesis during which several tissues die via morphologically different PCD processes. PMID:19826239

  4. Limber Pine Dwarf Mistletoe (FIDL)

    Treesearch

    Jane E. Taylor; Robert L. Mathiason

    1999-01-01

    Limber pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum (A. Nelson ex Rydberg) Coulter & Nelson) is a damaging parasite of limber pine (Pinus flexilis James), whitebark pine (P. albicaulis Engelm.), Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (P. aristata Engelm.) and Great Basin bristlecone pine (P. longaeva D.K. Bailey). Limber pine dwarf mistletoe occurs in the Rocky...

  5. Integrating GIS Technology With Forest Management And Habitat Assessment Efforts On Our National Forests

    Treesearch

    Joan M. Nichols; S. Arif Husain; Christos Papadas

    2000-01-01

    Research was conducted on a section of the Superior National Forest to develop and examine potential methods or approaches that may be used to integrate non-timber resources in multiple-use planning. An indicator species for old-growth conifer forests, pine marten (Martes americana), was chosen to examine potential conflicts between specific forest management practices...

  6. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     ... View an animated gif (371 kb) A large tabular iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West ...

  7. The scientific basis for conserving forest carnivores: American marten, fisher, lynx, and wolverine in the western United States.

    Treesearch

    Leonard F. Ruggiero; Keith B. Aubry; Steven W. Buskirk; L. Jack Lyon; William J. Zielinski

    1994-01-01

    This cooperative effort by USDA Forest Service Research and the National Forest System assesses the state of knowledge related to the conservation status of four forest carnivores in the western United States: American marten, fisher, lynx, and wolverine. The conservation assessment reviews the biology and ecology of these species. It also discusses management...

  8. Social Facilitation During the Initial Stage of Motor Learning: A Re-examination of Martens' Audience Study. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Daniel M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    R. Martens' hypothesis that an audience acts as a stimulus to elicit arousal or drive in the performance of an individual, which in turn enhances the emission of the dominant habit, is reexamined. Where incorrect responses are dominant, learning of a novel task will be inhibited, or at least improvement will not be as rapid as for individuals…

  9. Eastern Pine Shoot Borer

    Treesearch

    Louis F. Wilson

    1978-01-01

    The eastern pineshoot borer Eucosma gloriola Heinrich 2, also known as the white pine tip moth, American pine shoot moth, white pine shoot borer, and Tordeuse americaine, du pin, injures young conifers in Northeastern North America. Because it infests the new shoots of sapling conifers, this insect is particularly destructive on planted trees destined for the Christmas...

  10. White Pine Weevil

    Treesearch

    Abdul Hamid; Thomas M. O' Dell; Steven Katovich

    1995-01-01

    The white pine weevil - Pissodes strobi (Peck) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - is a native insect attacking eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). The latest cytogenetic and breeding studies indicate that two other North American pine weevil species - the Sitka spruce weevil and the Engelmann spruce weevil-also should be classified as Pissodes strobi. The present...

  11. Jeffrey Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Smith

    1971-01-01

    The Jeffrey pine beetle (Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopk.), one of the bark beetles that kill trees by mining between the bark and the wood, is the principal insect enemy of Jeffrey pine. The beetle is of economic importance chiefly in California, where most of the Jeffrey pine grows, and is most destructive in old-growth stands in the timber-producing areas of northeastern...

  12. Southwestern Pine Tip Moth

    Treesearch

    Daniel T. Jennings; Robert E. Stevens

    1982-01-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar), injures young ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) in the Southwest, central Rockies, and midwestern plains. Larvae feed on and destroy new, expanding shoots, often seriously reducing terminal growth of both naturally regenerated and planted pines. The tip moth is especially damaging to trees on...

  13. Ecology of shortleaf pine

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin

    1986-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) occupies the broadest natural range of all the southern pines, and is found across a diverse range of geography, soils, topography, and habitats. Individual shortleaf trees achieve their best developmnet on deep, well-drained soils of the Upper Coastal Plain, but shortleaf pine communities are most prominent in the Ouachita...

  14. Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Thatcher; Patrick J. Barry

    1982-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) is one of pine's most destructive insect enemies in the Southern United States, Mexico, and Central America. Because populations build rapidly to outbreak proportions and large numbers of trees are killed, this insect generates considerable concern among managers of southern pine forests. The beetle...

  15. Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe

    Treesearch

    Frank G. Hawksworth; Oscar J. Dooling

    1984-01-01

    Lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm.) is a native, parasitic, seed plant that occurs essentially throughout the range of lodgepole pine in North America. It is the most damaging disease agent in lodgepole pine, causing severe growth loss and increased tree mortality. Surveys in the Rocky Mountains show that the parasite is found in...

  16. Pine Tortoise Scale

    Treesearch

    Harvey J. MacAloney

    1961-01-01

    The pine tortoise scale (Toumeyella numismaticum (P. & M.)) is a soft scale that periodically causes a noticeable amount of mortality of hard pines. Although it was not described until 1920, when it was found on Scotch pine, in northern Wisconsin, there is evidence that it had caused injury much earlier in a number of localities in this and other States. Scale...

  17. Ponderosa pine ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2005-01-01

    Ponderosa pine is a wide-ranging conifer occurring throughout the United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. Since the 1800s, ponderosa pine forests have fueled the economies of the West. In western North America, ponderosa pine grows predominantly in the moist and dry forests. In the Black Hills of South Dakota and the southern portion of its range, the...

  18. Merging Areas In Timber Mart South Data

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye

    1999-01-01

    For over twenty years, Timber Mart-South (TMS) has been distributing prices of various wood products from Southern forests. These long-term price series have been a critical resource for research into timber price and supply trends in the southern United States. Such analyses rely on consistent temporal and spatial reporting units, but these units have not always been...

  19. An investigation into alternative reservoirs of canine leishmaniasis on the endemic island of Mallorca (Spain).

    PubMed

    Millán, J; Zanet, S; Gomis, M; Trisciuoglio, A; Negre, N; Ferroglio, E

    2011-08-01

    The role of wild and free-roaming domestic carnivores as a reservoir of Leishmania infantum was investigated on the Mediterranean island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain), an endemic area for this disease. Serum, blood and/or spleen samples from 169 animals [48 dogs from a kennel, 86 wild-caught feral cats, 23 pine martens (Martes martes), 10 common genets (Genetta genetta) and two weasels (Mustela nivalis)] were analysed. Seroprevalence determined by Western blotting was 38% in dogs and 16% in feral cats, while the prevalence of infection determined by PCR was 44% in dogs, 26% in cats, 39% in pine martens and 10% in genets. This is the first report of infection by L. infantum in the pine marten or any other member of the Mustelidae family. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis found 33 different patterns in 23 dogs, 14 cats and three martens. Two patterns were shared by dogs and cats, two by different cats, and one by different dogs. Patterns were different to those previously reported in carnivores from peninsular Spain. No external lesions compatible with leishmaniasis were observed in any species other than the dogs. Although the dog is probably the primary reservoir of leishmaniasis in endemic areas, the prevalence and the absence of apparent signs of this disease within the island's abundant feral cat and pine marten populations could make these species potential primary or secondary hosts of L. infantum in Mallorca.

  20. Multiple Aperture Radiation Therapy (MART) to Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    randomized clinical trial comparing total mastectomy and lumpectomy with or without irradiation in the treatment of breast cancer. New England Journal of...significantly from the conventional approach and requires considerable costs of the time and health care. The complexity of the treatment and deliver...efficient optimization method for MART inverse planning; (ii) implemented MART in a clinic environment for breast treatment ; (iii) proposed a gated IMRT/MART

  1. EPICS as a MARTe Configuration Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcarcel, Daniel F.; Barbalace, Antonio; Neto, André; Duarte, André S.; Alves, Diogo; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Sousa, Jorge; Fernandes, Horácio; Goncalves, Bruno; Sartori, Filippo; Manduchi, Gabriele

    2011-08-01

    The Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) software provides an environment for the hard real-time execution of codes while leveraging a standardized algorithm development process. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) software allows the deployment and remote monitoring of networked control systems. Channel Access (CA) is the protocol that enables the communication between EPICS distributed components. It allows to set and monitor process variables across the network belonging to different systems. The COntrol and Data Acquisition and Communication (CODAC) system for the ITER Tokamak will be EPICS based and will be used to monitor and live configure the plant controllers. The reconfiguration capability in a hard real-time system requires strict latencies from the request to the actuation and it is a key element in the design of the distributed control algorithm. Presently, MARTe and its objects are configured using a well-defined structured language. After each configuration, all objects are destroyed and the system rebuilt, following the strong hard real-time rule that a real-time system in online mode must behave in a strictly deterministic fashion. This paper presents the design and considerations to use MARTe as a plant controller and enable it to be EPICS monitorable and configurable without disturbing the execution at any time, in particular during a plasma discharge. The solutions designed for this will be presented and discussed.

  2. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  3. Common Pine Shoot Beetle

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; Daniel Kucera; Steven Passoa

    1993-01-01

    The common (or larger) pine shoot beetle, Tomicus (=Blastophagus) piniperda (L.), was discovered near Cleveland, Ohio in July 1992. As of this writing, it is now in six states: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Adults of the common pine shoot beetle are cylindrical and range from 3 to 5 mm in length (about the size of a match head). Their...

  4. Diplodia Blight of Pines

    Treesearch

    Glenn W. Peterson

    1981-01-01

    The fungus Diplodia pinea (Desm.) Kickx is most damaging to plantings of both exotic and native pine species in the United States. The fungus is seldom found in natural pine stands. Diplodia pinea kills current-year shoots, major branches, and ultimately entire trees. The effects of this disease are most severe in landscape, windbreak, and park plantings in the Central...

  5. Longleaf pine seedling production

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett

    2000-01-01

    Longleaf pine is a highly desirable species, resisting fire, insects and pathogens, and produces quality solid-wood products, but regeneration of the species has been difficult. Natural regeneration is feasible only on a small portion of the area considered to be longleaf pine type. Therefore, artificial regeneration must become a reliable means of regenerating the...

  6. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth

    Treesearch

    Harry O. III Yates; Nell A. Overgaard; Thomas W. Koerber

    1981-01-01

    The Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock),4 is a major forest insect pest in the United States. Its range extends from Massachusetts to Florida and west to Texas. It was found in San Diego County, California, in 1971 and traced to infested pine seedlings shipped from Georgia in 1967. The moth has since spread north and east in California and is now...

  7. Western Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Clarence J. Jr. DeMars; Bruce H. Roettgering

    1982-01-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, can aggressively attack and kill ponderosa and Coulter pine trees of all ages and vigor classes that are 6 inches (15 cm) or larger in diameter, including apparently healthy trees. Group killing of trees is common in dense, overstocked stands of pure, even-aged, young sawtimber (fig. 1), but also occurs among...

  8. Whitebark pine planting guidelines

    Treesearch

    Ward McCaughey; Glenda L. Scott; Kay L. Izlar

    2009-01-01

    This article incorporates new information into previous whitebark pine guidelines for planting prescriptions. Earlier 2006 guidelines were developed based on review of general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard US Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations. A recent study of biotic and abiotic factors...

  9. Squirrel Damage to Pines

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    1981-01-01

    Flagging (dead branch tips) on jack pine and red pine may be caused by insects, diseases, or mechanical damage. In the Lake States, flagging is often the result of mechanical damage, sometimes girdling, caused when the cones are torn off by red squirrels.

  10. Red Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    John Hainze; David Hall

    The red pine shoot moth recently caused significant damage to red pine plantations in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Trees of all ages have been attacked, but the most severe damage has occurred in 20-40 year old plantations growing on sandy soils.

  11. Silvical characteristics of Jeffrey pine

    Treesearch

    William E. Hallin

    1957-01-01

    The most noteworthy feature of Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf. ) is its similarity in appearance and behavior to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.), a much more widespread and better known species. At one time Jeffrey pine was considered to be a variety of ponderosa pine, and lumber markets make no...

  12. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Treesearch

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  13. Pinus glabra Walt. Spruce Pine

    Treesearch

    Susan V. Kossuth; J.L. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Spruce pine (Pinus glabra), also called cedar pine, Walter pine, or bottom white pine, is a medium-sized tree that grows in limited numbers in swamps, river valleys, on hummocks, and along river banks of the southern Coastal Plain. Its wood is brittle, close-grained, nondurable, and is of limited commercial importance.

  14. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea Mart

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as “açai” found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and their phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has rece...

  15. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea mart

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as "acai" found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has received c...

  16. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of ...

  17. PINE -- Electronic mail interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, G. R.

    The PINE mail interface is a user-friendly mail utility for Unix systems. It has been adopted by Starlink as the recommended mail utility because of its ease of use compared with the mail utilities supplied as standard with the Unix operating system. PINE is intended to be intuitive and "to be learned by exploration rather than reading manuals". Here however are a few brief notes to get you started.

  18. Prenatal development in fishers (Martes pennanti)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, H.C.; Krohn, W.B.; Bezembluk, E.A.; Lott, R.; Wallace, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated and quantified prenatal growth of fishers (Martes pennanti) using ultrasonography. Seven females gave birth to 21 kits. The first identifiable embryonic structures were seen 42 d prepartum; these appeared to be unimplanted blastocysts or gestational sacs, which subsequently implanted in the uterine horns. Maternal and fetal heart rates were monitored from first detection to birth. Maternal heart rates did not differ among sampling periods, while fetal hearts rates increased from first detection to birth. Head and body differentiation, visible limbs and skeletal ossification were visible by 30, 23 and 21 d prepartum, respectively. Mean diameter of gestational sacs and crown-rump lengths were linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001). Biparietal and body diameters were also linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001) and correctly predicted parturition dates within 1-2 d. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Health of whitebark pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreaks

    Treesearch

    Sandra Kegley; John Schwandt; Ken Gibson; Dana Perkins

    2011-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a keystone high-elevation species, is currently at risk due to a combination of white pine blister rust (WPBR) (Cronartium ribicola), forest succession, and outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae). While recent mortality is often quantified by aerial detection surveys (ADS) or ground surveys, little...

  20. Attack pattern of mountain pine beetle in sugar pine stands

    Treesearch

    George R. Struble

    1965-01-01

    Data accumulated for more than 25 years from old-growth sugar pine stands in central California showed that the mountain pine beetle preferred to attack mature and overmature trees with the most decadent crowns. Analyses included four age groups and eight crown types. Beetle outbreaks in second-growth sugar pine were nondiscriminating between trees. These outbreaks...

  1. Should ponderosa pine be planted on lodgepole pine sites?

    Treesearch

    P.H. Cochran

    1984-01-01

    Repeated radiation frosts caused no apparent harm to the majority of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) seedlings planted on a pumice flat in south-central Oregon. For most but not all of the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) seedlings planted with the lodgepole pine, however, damage from radiation frost resulted in...

  2. Longleaf pine can catch up

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1997-01-01

    One of the principal southern pines, longleaf (Pinus palustris Mill.) is the key tree species in a fire-dependent ecosystem. In pm-settlement times, longleaf pine forests covered much of the southeastern United States.Once the most extensive forest ecosystem in North America dominated by a single species longleaf pine now occupies only about 3...

  3. Southern Pine Bark Beetle Guild

    Treesearch

    T. Evan Nebeker

    2011-01-01

    Dendroctonus frontalis (southern pine beetle), D. terebrans (black turpentine beetle), Ips avulsus (small southern pine engraver or four-spined engraver), I. grandicollis (five-spined engraver), and I. calligraphus (six-spined engraver) comprise the southern pine bark beetle guild. Often they are found sharing the same hosts in the Southeastern United States. They...

  4. Direct seeding of shortleaf pine

    Treesearch

    Corinne S. Mann; David Gwaze

    2007-01-01

    Direct seeding is a potentially viable method for regenerating shortleaf pine, but it has not been used extensively. In Missouri, an estimated 10,000 acres have been direct-seeded with shortleaf pine; half of which are at Mark Twain National Forest. Direct seeding offers a flexible and efficient alternative to planting as a way to restore shortleaf pine in the Ozarks....

  5. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in the western United States have been adversely affected by an exotic pathogen (Cronartium ribicola, causal agent of white pine blister rust), insect outbreaks (Dendroctonus ponderosae, mountain pine beetle), and drought. We monitored individual trees from 2004 to 2013 and characterized stand-level biophysical conditions through a mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Specifically, we investigated associations between tree-level variables (duration and location of white pine blister rust infection, presence of mountain pine beetle, tree size, and potential interactions) with observations of individual whitebark pine tree mortality. Climate summaries indicated that cumulative growing degree days in years 2006–2008 likely contributed to a regionwide outbreak of mountain pine beetle prior to the observed peak in whitebark mortality in 2009. We show that larger whitebark pine trees were preferentially attacked and killed by mountain pine beetle and resulted in a regionwide shift to smaller size class trees. In addition, we found evidence that smaller size class trees with white pine blister rust infection experienced higher mortality than larger trees. This latter finding suggests that in the coming decades white pine blister rust may become the most probable cause of whitebark pine mortality. Our findings offered no evidence of an interactive effect of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust infection on whitebark pine mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Interestingly, the probability of mortality was lower for larger trees attacked by mountain pine beetle in stands with higher evapotranspiration. Because evapotranspiration varies with climate and topoedaphic conditions across the region, we discuss the potential to use this improved understanding of biophysical influences on mortality to identify microrefugia that might contribute to successful whitebark pine conservation

  6. Sand Pine Symposium Proceedings

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service Southern Forest Experiment Station

    1973-01-01

    Sand pine, a species well suited to the excessively drained soils common to several million acres in the Southeast, was the subject of this well-attended 3-day meeting. Papers presented included a review of the literature plus results of current research related to this species. Subjects covered ranged from seeds and seedlings to final harvest and conversion...

  7. Mountain pine beetle

    Treesearch

    Ken Gibson; Sandy Kegley; Barbara Bentz

    2009-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) is a member of a group of insects known as bark beetles. Its entire life cycle is spent beneath the bark of host trees, except when adults emerge from brood trees and fly in search of new host trees.

  8. Longleaf Pine Genetics

    Treesearch

    Ronald C. Schmidtling

    1999-01-01

    There has been a movement of late toward the use of natural regeneration for iongieaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) as well as for other forest tree species. If you have a good natural stand, and have plenty of time, natural regeneration will result in a suitable stand, and genetics is not relevant.

  9. Longleaf pine agroforestry

    Treesearch

    Kristina Connor; Rebecca Barlow; Luben Dimov; Mark Smith

    2012-01-01

    While ecosystem restoration of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests represents a worthy ideal, it is not always a practical alternative for landowners. Agroforestry systems, which can be developed in existing agricultural land, natural forest stands, plantations, or pasturelands, offer the opportunity to provide multiple benefits: high value...

  10. Longleaf Pine Seed Dispersal

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1963-01-01

    Production and dispersal of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seeds were sampled in 1955, 1957, and 1958 on the Escambia Experimental Forest in southwest Alabama.Two transects of seed traps were established at right angles to each of four forest walls enclosing a rectangular 80-acre clearing. Walls were oriented in the cardinal...

  11. Pinus L. Pine

    Treesearch

    Stanley L. Krugman; James L. Jenkinson

    1974-01-01

    Growth habit, occurrence, and use. The genus Pinus, one of the largest and most important of the coniferous genera, comprises about 95 species and numerous varieties and hybrids. Pines are widely distributed, mostly in the Northern Hemisphere from sea level (Pinus contorta var. contorta) to timberline (P...

  12. Does bristlecone pine senesce?

    Treesearch

    R.M Lanner; Kristina F. Connor

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated hypotheses of senscence in old trees by comparing putative biomarkers of aging in great basin bristlecone pine ( Pinus longaeva) ranging in age from 23 to 4713 years. To teast a hypothesis that water and nutrient conduction is impaired in old trees we examined cambial products in the xylem and phloem. We found no statiscally significant...

  13. Introduced Pine Sawfly

    Treesearch

    Louis F. Wilson

    1966-01-01

    The introduced pine, sawfly (Diprion similis (Hartig)) in North America was first discovered in 1914 in a nursery in New Haven, Conn. This insect might have been introduced in the cocoon stage on nursery stock or packing material from Holland. Since its arrival, it has advanced steadily westward, reaching Pennsylvania before 1920 and Ontario by 1931. The present range...

  14. Lifting Pine Seedlings

    Treesearch

    C. B. Briscoe

    1960-01-01

    One of the factors preventing more widespread planting of the true pines (Pinus spp.) in the tropics is the present necessity of using potted stock instead of barerooted seedlings, such as are used throughout the temperate regions. Potted seedlings require more space, more equipment, more labor, and more money, both to produce in the nursery and to plant in the field...

  15. Longleaf pine site zones

    Treesearch

    Phillip J. Craul; John S. Kush; William D. Boyer

    2005-01-01

    The authors delineate six major climatic areas of the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) region. They subdivide these areas into 21 site zones, each of which is deemed homogenous with respect to climate, physiography, and soils. The site zones are mapped and their climate, physiography, and soils described. The authors recommend that plantings of...

  16. Regenerating Longleaf Pine Naturally

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Croker; William D. Boyer

    1975-01-01

    Research has developed guides for consistent natural regeneration of longleaf pine by a shelterwood system. Key measures include hardwood control by fire and other means, timely preparatory and seed cuts, seed crop monitoring, seedbed preparation, protection of established seedlings, prompt removal of parent trees when reproduction is adequate, and control of...

  17. Pine Beetle Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Earth Systems Science Office scientists worked with officials in St. Tammany Parish, La., to detect and battle pine beetle infestation in Fontainebleu State Park. The scientists used a new method of detecting plant stress by using special lenses and modified sensors to detect a change in light levels given off by the plant before the stress is visible to the naked eye.

  18. The Mediterranean pine engraver

    Treesearch

    Jana C. Lee; Sheri L. Smith; Steven J. Seybold

    2005-01-01

    In May 2004, a new exotic bark beetle for North America was discovered in baited flight traps in Fresno, California during an annual bark beetle and woodborer survey by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. This bark beetle was identified as Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), the Mediterranean pine engraver, a well-documented pest of...

  19. Southern Pine Beetle II

    Treesearch

    R. N. Coulson; Kier Klepzig

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge base for the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has increased dramatically since the last comprehensive and interpretative summary (Thatcher and others 1980). This insect continues to be a significant pest affecting the forest environment of the Southern US and adjoining states and it is also the subject of...

  20. Southern Pine Seed Sources

    Treesearch

    Ronald C. Schmidtling

    2001-01-01

    The selection of an appropriate seed source is critical for successful southern pine plantations. Guidelines for selection of seed sources are presented for loblolly (Pinus taeda L.), slash (P. elliottii Engelm.), longleaf (P. palustris Mill.), Virginia (P. virginiana Mill.), shortleaf (P. echinata...

  1. Diseases of lodgepole pine

    Treesearch

    Frank G. Hawksworth

    1964-01-01

    Diseases are a major concern to forest managers throughout the lodgepole pine type. In many areas, diseases constitute the primary management problem. As might be expected for a tree that has a distribution from Baja California, Mexico to the Yukon and from the Pacific to the Dakotas, the diseases of chief concern vary in different parts of the tree's range. For...

  2. The MARTE VNIR imaging spectrometer experiment: design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adrian J; Sutter, Brad; Dunagan, Stephen

    2008-10-01

    We report on the design, operation, and data analysis methods employed on the VNIR imaging spectrometer instrument that was part of the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). The imaging spectrometer is a hyperspectral scanning pushbroom device sensitive to VNIR wavelengths from 400-1000 nm. During the MARTE project, the spectrometer was deployed to the Río Tinto region of Spain. We analyzed subsets of three cores from Río Tinto using a new band modeling technique. We found most of the MARTE drill cores to contain predominantly goethite, though spatially coherent areas of hematite were identified in Core 23. We also distinguished non Fe-bearing minerals that were subsequently analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and found to be primarily muscovite. We present drill core maps that include spectra of goethite, hematite, and non Fe-bearing minerals.

  3. Freeze injury to southern pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    David B. South

    2006-01-01

    Freeze injury to roots and shoots of pines is affected by genotype and nursery practices. Local sources of shortleaf pine and Virginia pine that are grown in nurseries in USDA hardiness Zones 6 and 7a are relatively freeze tolerant. However, loblolly pine, slash pine, and longleaf pine seedlings have been injured by a number of freeze events (0 to 24 °F) in hardiness...

  4. Overruns - Southern Pine Logs

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Campbell

    1962-01-01

    Overrun and underrun data were collected for the four major southern pine species during a series of grade yield studies in the late 1950's in Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Each of the 1,491 logs was carefully scaled by the Doyle, Scribner Decimal C, and International ¼-inch log rule. All logs were sawed on. circle mills and the...

  5. Black Pine Circle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mytko, Christine

    2014-03-31

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  6. Black Pine Circle Project

    ScienceCinema

    Mytko, Christine

    2016-07-12

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  7. Ecophysiological comparison of 50-year-old longleaf pine, slash pine and loblolly pine.

    Treesearch

    Lisa Samuelson; Tom Stokes; Kurt Johnsen

    2012-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), a species that once dominated the southeastern USA, is considered to be more drought tolerant than the principle plantation species in the South, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.), and so is predicted to better cope with increases in drought frequency associated with climate change. To...

  8. Avian top predator and the landscape of fear: responses of mammalian mesopredators to risk imposed by the golden eagle.

    PubMed

    Lyly, Mari S; Villers, Alexandre; Koivisto, Elina; Helle, Pekka; Ollila, Tuomo; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2015-01-01

    Top predators may induce extensive cascading effects on lower trophic levels, for example, through intraguild predation (IGP). The impacts of both mammalian and avian top predators on species of the same class have been extensively studied, but the effects of the latter upon mammalian mesopredators are not yet as well known. We examined the impact of the predation risk imposed by a large avian predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, L.), on its potential mammalian mesopredator prey, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, L.), and the pine marten (Martes martes, L.). The study combined 23 years of countrywide data from nesting records of eagles and wildlife track counts of mesopredators in Finland, northern Europe. The predation risk of the golden eagle was modeled as a function of territory density, density of fledglings produced, and distance to nearest active eagle territory, with the expectation that a high predation risk would reduce the abundances of smaller sized pine martens in particular. Red foxes appeared not to suffer from eagle predation, being in fact most numerous close to eagle nests and in areas with more eagle territories. This is likely due to similar prey preferences of the two predators and the larger size of foxes enabling them to escape eagle predation risk. Somewhat contrary to our prediction, the abundance of pine martens increased from low to intermediate territory density and at close proximity to eagle nests, possibly because of similar habitat preferences of martens and eagles. We found a slightly decreasing trend of marten abundance at high territory density, which could indicate that the response in marten populations is dependent on eagle density. However, more research is needed to better establish whether mesopredators are intimidated or predated by golden eagles, and whether such effects could in turn cascade to lower trophic levels, benefitting herbivorous species.

  9. Avian top predator and the landscape of fear: responses of mammalian mesopredators to risk imposed by the golden eagle

    PubMed Central

    Lyly, Mari S; Villers, Alexandre; Koivisto, Elina; Helle, Pekka; Ollila, Tuomo; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2015-01-01

    Top predators may induce extensive cascading effects on lower trophic levels, for example, through intraguild predation (IGP). The impacts of both mammalian and avian top predators on species of the same class have been extensively studied, but the effects of the latter upon mammalian mesopredators are not yet as well known. We examined the impact of the predation risk imposed by a large avian predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, L.), on its potential mammalian mesopredator prey, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, L.), and the pine marten (Martes martes, L.). The study combined 23 years of countrywide data from nesting records of eagles and wildlife track counts of mesopredators in Finland, northern Europe. The predation risk of the golden eagle was modeled as a function of territory density, density of fledglings produced, and distance to nearest active eagle territory, with the expectation that a high predation risk would reduce the abundances of smaller sized pine martens in particular. Red foxes appeared not to suffer from eagle predation, being in fact most numerous close to eagle nests and in areas with more eagle territories. This is likely due to similar prey preferences of the two predators and the larger size of foxes enabling them to escape eagle predation risk. Somewhat contrary to our prediction, the abundance of pine martens increased from low to intermediate territory density and at close proximity to eagle nests, possibly because of similar habitat preferences of martens and eagles. We found a slightly decreasing trend of marten abundance at high territory density, which could indicate that the response in marten populations is dependent on eagle density. However, more research is needed to better establish whether mesopredators are intimidated or predated by golden eagles, and whether such effects could in turn cascade to lower trophic levels, benefitting herbivorous species. PMID:25691975

  10. Impact of pine tip moth attack on loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    Roy Hedden

    1999-01-01

    Data on the impact of Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana, attack on the height of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda, in the first three growing seasons after planting from three locations in eastern North Carolina (U.S.A.) was used to develop multiple linear regression models relating tree height to tip moth infestation level in each growing season. These models...

  11. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Treesearch

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  12. Loblolly pine SSR markers for shortleaf pine genetics

    Treesearch

    C. Dana Nelson; Sedley Josserand; Craig S. Echt; Jeff Koppelman

    2007-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSR) are highly informative DNA-based markers widely used in population genetic and linkage mapping studies. We have been developing PCR primer pairs for amplifying SSR markers for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using loblolly pine DNA and EST sequence data as starting materials. Fifty primer pairs known to reliably amplify...

  13. Insects of whitebark pine with emphasis on mountain pine beetle

    Treesearch

    Dale L. Bartos; Kenneth E. Gibson

    1990-01-01

    Few insects that live on whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) are considered pests or potential pests. Those that inhabit cones can cause reductions in reproduction of the tree by destroying seed crops. Decreases in food for animals ranging from squirrels to grizzly bears may also result. A single insect species, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus...

  14. La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.

    Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la búsqueda de manifestaciones de vida fósil en dicho planeta. El estudio de la dinámica orbital del satélite más exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teorías sobre su orígen, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten más de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho más robusto que las simulaciones numéricas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas más severas a la evolución paleoclimática de Marte.

  15. Current distribution of the fisher, Martes pennanti, in California

    Treesearch

    William J. Zielinski; Thomas E. Kucera; Reginald H. Barrett

    1995-01-01

    We describe the 1989-1994 distribution of the fisher, Martes pennanti, in California based on results of detection surveys that used either sooted track-plates or cameras. Fishers were detected in two regions of the state: the northwest and the southern Sierra Nevada. Despite considerable survey effort, neither fisher tracks nor photographs were...

  16. "Dateline NBC"'s Persuasive Attack on Wal-Mart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Dorries, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Develops a typology of persuasive attack strategies. Identifies two key components of persuasive attack: responsibility and offensiveness. Describes several strategies for intensifying each of these elements. Applies this analysis to "Dateline NBC"'s allegations that Wal-Mart's "Buy American" campaign was deceptive. Concludes…

  17. Mountain pine beetles use volatile cues to locate host limber pine and avoid non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine

    Treesearch

    Curtis A. Gray; Justin B. Runyon; Michael J. Jenkins; Andrew D. Giunta

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not...

  18. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling early growth in a (longleaf pine × slash pine) × slash pine BC1 family

    Treesearch

    C. Weng; Thomas L. Kubisiak; C. Dana. Nelson; M. Stine

    2002-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were employed to map the genome and quantitative trait loci controlling the early growth of a pine hybrid F1 tree (Pinus palustris Mill. × P. elliottii Engl.) and a recurrent slash pine tree (P. ellottii Engl.) in a (longleaf pine × slash pine...

  19. Slash Pine (Pinus Elliottii), Including South Florida Slash Pine: Nomenclature and Description

    Treesearch

    Elbert L. Little; Keith W. Dorman

    1954-01-01

    Slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.), including its variation South Florida slash pine recently distinguished as a new botanical variety, has been known by several different scientific names. As a result, the common name slash pine is more precise and clearer than scientific names. The slash pine of southern Florida differs from typical slash pine in a few characters...

  20. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Haiganoush K. Preisler; John T. Abatzoglou; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jesse A. Logan

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle...

  1. Dothistroma Needle Blight of Pines

    Treesearch

    Glenn W. Peterson

    1982-01-01

    Dothistroma blight is a devastating foliar disease of a wide range of pine species. The causal fungus, Dothistroma pini Hulbary, infects and kills needles. Premature defoliation caused by this fungus has resulted in complete failure of most ponderosa pine plantings in States east of the Great Plains. In the central and southern Great Plains, D. pini damages Austrian...

  2. Hydrology of Pine Creek, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, Warren A.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hydrologic characteristics of Pine Creek, Price County, Wisconsin, in order to evaluate a proposed reservoir on Pine Creek. The streamflow characteristics estimated are the mean flows, low flows, and flood peaks. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  3. Dimensional stabilization of southern pines

    Treesearch

    E.T. Choong; H.M. Barnes

    1969-01-01

    The effectiveness of five dimensional stabilizing agents and three impregnation methods on southern pine was determined. Four southern pine species were studies in order to determine the effect of wood factors. The best dimensional stability was obtained when the wood was preswollen and the chemical was impregnated by a diffusion process. In general, polyethylene...

  4. Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project

    Treesearch

    Daniel McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments around pinyon pine trees began as a simple project but ended in something more complex, enjoyable, and rewarding. The project eventually led to pinyon species (Pinus monophylla and P. quadrifolia) reforestation efforts, something that has been tried in the past with disappointing results. The Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project and current...

  5. Restoration of Longleaf Pine Ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Dale G. Brockway; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Donald J. Tomczak; Everett E. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystems once occupied 38 million ha in the Southeastern United States, occurring as forests, woodlands, and savannas on a variety of sites ranging from wet flatwoods to xeric sandhills and rocky mountainous ridges. Characterized by an open parklike structure, longleaf pine ecosystems are a product of frequent fires...

  6. Natural Regeneration of Longleaf Pine

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1979-01-01

    Natural regeneration is now a reliable alternative for existing longleaf pine forests. The shelterwood system, or modifications of it, has been used experimentally to regenerate longleaf pine for over 20 years, and regional tests have confirmed its value for a wide range of site conditions. Natural regeneration, because of its low cost when compared to other...

  7. Transpecific microsatellites for hard pines.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, M.; Cross, M.; Maguire, L.; Dieters, J.; Williams, G.; Henry, J.

    2002-04-01

    Microsatellites are difficult to recover from large plant genomes so cross-specific utilisation is an important source of markers. Fifty microsatellites were tested for cross-specific amplification and polymorphism to two New World hard pine species, slash pine ( Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) and Caribbean pine ( P. caribaea var. hondurensis). Twenty-nine (58%) markers amplified in both hard pine species, and 23 of these 29 were polymorphic. Soft pine (subgenus Strobus) microsatellite markers did amplify, but none were polymorphic. Pinus elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis showed mutational changes in the flanking regions and the repeat motif that were informative for Pinus spp. phylogenetic relationships. Most allele length variation could be attributed to variability in repeat unit number. There was no evidence for ascertainment bias.

  8. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Ralph S. Meldahl; John S. Kush

    2006-01-01

    A fire-maintained longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem may offer the best option for carbon (C) sequestration among the southern pines. Longleaf is the longest living of the southern pines, and products from longleaf pine will sequester C longer than most since they are likely to be solid wood products such as structural lumber and poles....

  9. Growth and Yield of Slash Pine Plantations

    Treesearch

    Frank A. Bennett

    1963-01-01

    Although slash pine has the most limited range of the major southern pines, more has been planted than any other southern pine, or for that matter, than any timber species in North America. More acres of planted slash pine are also approaching a merchantable condition than any other species, even though the bulk of the plantings has been in the last 20 years....

  10. Southern Pine Beetle Behavior and Semiochemistry

    Treesearch

    Brian T. Sullivan

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) feeds both as adults and larvae within the inner bark of pine trees, which invariably die as a result of colonization. Populations of the SPB erupt periodically and produce catastrophic losses of pines, while at other times the beetles persist almost undetectably in the environment. The southern pine beetle has evolved behaviors that...

  11. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Treesearch

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  12. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Treesearch

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  13. Guidelines for regenerating southern pine beetle spots

    Treesearch

    J.C.G. Goelz; B.L. Strom; J.P. Barnett; M.A. Sword Sayer

    2012-01-01

    Southern pine forests are of exceptional commercial and ecological importance to the United States, and the southern pine beetle is their most serious insect pest. The southern pine beetle generally kills overstory pines, causing spots of tree mortality that are unpredictable in time and space and frequently disruptive to management activities and goals. The canopy...

  14. Cronartium ribicola resistance in whitebark pine, southwestern white pine, limber pine and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine - preliminary screening results from first tests at Dorena GRC

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Robert Danchok; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns; Dave Conklin

    2008-01-01

    All nine species of white pines (five-needle pines) native to the United States are highly susceptible to Cronartium ribicola, the fungus causing white pine blister rust. The presence of genetic resistance will be the key to maintaining or restoring white pines in many ecosystems and planning gene conservation activities. Operational genetic...

  15. Development of U-Mart System with Plural Brands and Plural Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Yoshihito; Mori, Naoki; Ono, Isao; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Kita, Hajime; Matsumoto, Keinosuke

    In this paper, we first discuss the notion that artificial market systems should meet the requirements of fidelity, transparency, reproducibility, and traceability. Next, we introduce history of development of the artificial market system named U-Mart system that meet the requirements well, which have been developed by the U-Mart project. We have already developed the U-Mart system called “U-Mart system version 3.0” to solve problems of old U-Mart systems. In version 3.0 system, trading process is modularized and universal market system can be easily introduced.
    However, U-Mart system version 3.0 only simulates the single brand futures market. The simulation of the plural brands and plural markets has been required by lot of users. In this paper, we proposed a novel U-Mart system called “U-Mart system version 4.0” to solve this problem of U-Mart system version 3.0. We improve the server system, machine agents and GUI in order to simulate plural brands and plural markets in U-Mart system version 4.0. The effectiveness of the proposed system is confirmed by statistical analysis of results of spot market simulation with random agents.

  16. Silvicultural treatments for converting loblolly pine to longleaf pine dominance: Effects on planted longleaf pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    Huifeng Hu; G.Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Benjamin O. Knapp

    2012-01-01

    A field study was installed to test silvicultural treatments for establishing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) in loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) stands. Harvesting was used to create seven canopy treatments, four with uniformly distributed canopies at different residual basal areas [Control (16.2 m2/ha),...

  17. Southern Pine Beetle Handbook: Southern Pine Beetles Can Kill Your Ornamental Pine

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Thatcher; Jack E. Coster; Thomas L. Payne

    1974-01-01

    Southern pine beetles are compulsive eaters. Each year in the South from Texas to Virginia the voracious insects conduct a movable feast across thousands of acres of pine forests. Most trees die soon after the beetles sink their teeth into them.

  18. Caño Martín Peña (Martín Peña Channel, Puerto Rico)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Martín Peña Channel Urban Waters Federal Partnership seeks to make significant contributions to the health and welfare of the eight communities that surround the Martín Peña Channel in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

  19. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack

  20. Red Pine in the Northern Lake States

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Red pine is an important tree species for the Northern Lake States. About 4 percent of the total area of timberland is dominated by red pine but most other forest types also have red pine as a component. The red pine forest type in the region has dramatically increased in area since the 1930s. Stand-size class distribution of the red pine forest type has changed over...

  1. Pine Sawfly Larvae Destroy Shortleaf Pine Strobili in Virginia

    Treesearch

    David L. Bramlett; Jay G. Hutchinson

    1965-01-01

    Current studies of shortleaf pine seed production at the Lee Experimental Forest in the Virginia Piedmont have shown that insects can seriously reduce the number of female strobili during the a-year development period.

  2. Identifying ponderosa pines infested with mountain pine beetles

    Treesearch

    William F. McCambridge

    1974-01-01

    Trees successfully and unsuccessfully attacked by mountain pine beetles have several symptoms in common, so that proper diagnosis is not always easy. Guidelines presented here enable the observer to correctly distinguish nearly all attacked trees.

  3. Pinus lambertiana Dougl. Sugar Pine; Pinaceae Pine family

    Treesearch

    Bohun B. Kinloch Jr.; William H. Scheuner

    1990-01-01

    Called "the most princely of the genus" by its discoverer, David Douglas, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is the tallest and largest of all pines, commonly reaching heights of 53 to 61 m (175 to 200 ft) and d.b.h. of 91 to 152 cm (36 to 60 in). Old trees occasionally exceed 500 years and, among associated species, are second only to giant...

  4. Ponderosa pine mortality resulting from a mountain pine beetle outbreak

    Treesearch

    William F. McCambridge; Frank G. Hawksworth; Carleton B. Edminster; John G. Laut

    1982-01-01

    From 1965 to 1978, mountain pine beetles killed 25% of the pines taller than 4.5 feet in a study area in north-central Colorado. Average basal area was reduced from 92 to 58 square feet per acre. Mortality increased with tree diameter up to about 9 inches d.b.h. Larger trees appeared to be killed at random. Mortality was directly related to number of trees per acre and...

  5. Design and implementation of fishery rescue data mart system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jun; Huang, Haiguang; Liu, Yousong

    A novel data mart based system for fishery rescue field was designed and implemented. The system runs ETL process to deal with original data from various databases and data warehouses, and then reorganized the data into the fishery rescue data mart. Next, online analytical processing (OLAP) are carried out and statistical reports are generated automatically. Particularly, quick configuration schemes are designed to configure query dimensions and OLAP data sets. The configuration file will be transformed into statistic interfaces automatically through a wizard-style process. The system provides various forms of reporting files, including crystal reports, flash graphical reports, and two-dimensional data grids. In addition, a wizard style interface was designed to guide users customizing inquiry processes, making it possible for nontechnical staffs to access customized reports. Characterized by quick configuration, safeness and flexibility, the system has been successfully applied in city fishery rescue department.

  6. Artificial regeneration of shortleaf pine

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett; John C. Brissette; William C. Carlson

    1986-01-01

    The artificial means for establishing stands of shortleaf pine seedlings are reviewed. In addition to the relative merits of direct seeding and planting of bare-root and container seedlings, techniques that should help ensure successful stand establishment are discussed.

  7. Wildlife and shortleaf pine management

    Treesearch

    T. Bently Wigley

    1986-01-01

    Shortleaf pine forests (Pinus echinata) are used for multiple purposes. This paper discusses the effects that timber management, livestock grazing, and recreational uses of the shortleaf forest may have on its wildlife resources.

  8. Pembroke Pines Human Resources Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A proposed community educational facility in Pembroke Pines, Florida, involves the city, Broward County Public Schools and Public Libraries, and over 50 community organizations. An innovative financing plan will be developed. (MLF)

  9. Ecology and management of Martes on private timberlands in north coastal California

    Treesearch

    Keith A. Hamm; Lowell V. Diller; David W. Lamphear; Desiree A. Early

    2012-01-01

    Green Diamond Resource Company has conducted periodic studies of fishers on its California timberlands since 1994. A graduate study in 1994 and 1995 used track plates to investigate the distribution and habitat associations of fishers. Fishers were detected at 65 percent of the survey segments during both years combined but marten were not detected. A repeated track...

  10. PINE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canney, Frank C.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic study and geochemical survey were made of the Pine Mountain Wilderness in Arizona. Only slight traces of mineralization of no apparent significance were found and the results of the geochemical survey were negative. The presence of important near-surface mineral deposits in the area is considered unlikely. No evidence of nonmetallic or energy resources was identified during the course of this study. Ore deposits, if present, are probably of the massive sulfide type, and buried deeply beneath the ground surface, beyond the range of the various geochemical and geophysical techniques used in routine exploration. Some of the newer geophysical methods might possibly be capable of detecting such hidden ore bodies if not buried too deeply.

  11. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    This ASTER image was acquired on December 12, 2000, and covers an area of 38 x 48 km. Pine Island Glacier has undergone a steady loss of elevation with retreat of the grounding line in recent decades. Now, space imagery has revealed a wide new crack that some scientists think will soon result in a calving event. Glaciologist Robert Bindschadler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center predicts this crack will result in the calving of a major iceberg, probably in less than 18 months. Discovery of the crack was possible due to multi-year image archives and high resolution imagery. This image is located at 74.1 degrees south latitude and 105.1 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11095

  12. Serologic survey for selected viral pathogens in free-ranging endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other mustelids from south-western France.

    PubMed

    Philippa, Joost; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; Fournier, Pascal; Schaftenaar, Willem; van de Bildt, Marco; van Herweijnen, Rob; Kuiken, Thijs; Liabeuf, Marie; Ditcharry, Sébastien; Joubert, Laurent; Bégnier, Michel; Osterhaus, Ab

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the possible role of selected pathogens in the decline of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) populations and the potential for these pathogens to affect mink survival, a serologic survey was conducted using serum samples collected from March 1996 to March 2003 in eight departments of south-western France. In total, 481 free-ranging individuals of five mustelid species (including the European mink) were tested. Sympatric mustelids can serve as sentinels to determine the presence of antibodies to viruses in the study area that could potentially infect mink. Antibodies to Canine distemper virus (CDV) were detected in all species; 9% of 127 European mink, 20% of 210 polecats (Mustela putorius), 5% of 112 American mink (Mustela vison), 33% of 21 stone marten (Martes foina) and 5% of 20 pine marten (Martes martes). Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in stone marten and polecats, possibly because their ranges overlap more closely with that of domestic species than that of the other species tested. Antibodies to Canine adenovirus were detected in all species but the pine marten; antibody prevalence estimates ranging from 2% to 10%. Antibodies to canine parainfluenza virus were detected in 1% of European mink, 1% of American mink and 5% of tested polecats but were not detected in Martes species. Antibodies to Rabies virus (RV) were detected in three animals, possibly because of interspecies transmission of bat lyssaviruses as the sampling area is considered to be free of RV, or to a lack of test specificity, as antibody titers were low. The high antibody prevalence to potentially lethal CDV suggests that this pathogen could have significant effects on the free-ranging populations and has implications for the conservation efforts for the endangered European mink.

  13. Limber pine forests on the leading edge of white pine blister rust distribution in Northern Colorado

    Treesearch

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Betsy A. Goodrich; Anna W. Schoettle

    2011-01-01

    The combined threats of the current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) epidemic with the imminent invasion of white pine blister rust (caused by the non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, WPBR) in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests in northern Colorado threatens the limber pine's regeneration cycle and ecosystem function. Over one million...

  14. Field Tests of Pine Oil as a Repellent for Southern Pine Bark Beetles

    Treesearch

    J.C. Nod; F.L. Hastings; A.S. Jones

    1990-01-01

    An experimental mixture of terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood pulping, BBR-2, sprayed on the lower 6 m of widely separated southern pine trees did not protect nearby trees from southern pine beetle attacks. Whether treated trees were protected from southern pine beetle was inconclusive. The pine oil mixture did not repellpsfrom treated trees or nearby untreated...

  15. HOW to Manage Eastern White Pine to Minimize Damage from Blister Rust and White Pine Weevil

    Treesearch

    Steven Katovich; Manfred E. Mielke

    1993-01-01

    White pine was once a dominant forest species in the north central and northeastern United States. Following logging in the late 1800's and the early part of this century, two major pests, white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola J.C.Fisch., and white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Peck), combined to reduce the value of white pine. Blister rust was introduced...

  16. White-pine weevil attack: susceptibility of western white pine in the Northeast

    Treesearch

    Ronald C. Wilkinson

    1981-01-01

    Heights were measured and white-pine weevil (Pissodes strobi (Peck)) attacks were recorded on 668 western white pines (Pinus monticola Douglas) interplanted among 109 eastern white pines (Pinus strobus L.) in a 10-year-old plantation in southern Maine. Less than 13 percent of the western white pines were...

  17. Scar markers in a longleaf pine x slash pine F1 family

    Treesearch

    C. Weng; Thomas L. Kubisiak; M. Stine

    1998-01-01

    Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were derived from random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) that segregate in a longleaf pine x slash pine F1 family. Nine RAPD fragments, five from longleaf pine and four from slash pine, were cloned and end sequenced. A total of 13 SCAR primer pairs, with lengths between 17 and 24...

  18. Influence of pine straw harvesting, prescribed fire, and fertilization on a Louisiana longleaf pine site

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood

    2009-01-01

    This research was initiated in a 34-year-old, direct-seeded stand of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) to study how pine straw management practices (harvesting, fire, and fertilization) affected the longleaf pine overstory and pine straw yields. A randomized complete block split-plot design was installed with two main plot treatments...

  19. Strategies for managing whitebark pine in the presence of white pine blister rust [Chapter 17

    Treesearch

    Raymond J. Hoff; Dennis E. Ferguson; Geral I. McDonald; Robert E. Keane

    2001-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is one of many North American white pine species (Pinus subgenus Strobus) susceptible to the fungal disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Blister rust has caused severe mortality (often reaching nearly 100 percent) in many stands of white bark pine north of 45° latitude in western North America. The rust is slowly...

  20. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Treesearch

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  1. A ponderosa pine-lodgepole pine spacing study in central Oregon: results after 20 years.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1989-01-01

    The growth response after 20 years from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure ponderosa pine, pure lodgepole pine, and a...

  2. Relative Suitability of Virginia Pine and Loblolly Pine as Host Species for Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    Jessica S. Veysey; Matthew P. Ayres; Maria J. Lombardero; Richard W. Hofstetter; Kier D. Klepzig

    2003-01-01

    Dendroctonus frontalis is a major disturbance agent in American pine forests, but attack preferences for various host species, and their relative suitability for reproduction, are poorly knowi). We studied patterns of beetle attack and reproduction during an infestation of stands contairiing Virginia pine and lol~lolly pine. Nearly all Virginia pine...

  3. Generalist predator, cyclic voles and cavity nests: testing the alternative prey hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pöysä, Hannu; Jalava, Kaisa; Paasivaara, Antti

    2016-12-01

    The alternative prey hypothesis (APH) states that when the density of the main prey declines, generalist predators switch to alternative prey and vice versa, meaning that predation pressure on the alternative prey should be negatively correlated with the density of the main prey. We tested the APH in a system comprising one generalist predator (pine marten, Martes martes), cyclic main prey (microtine voles, Microtus agrestis and Myodes glareolus) and alternative prey (cavity nests of common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula); pine marten is an important predator of both voles and common goldeneye nests. Specifically, we studied whether annual predation rate of real common goldeneye nests and experimental nests is negatively associated with fluctuation in the density of voles in four study areas in southern Finland in 2000-2011. Both vole density and nest predation rate varied considerably between years in all study areas. However, we did not find support for the hypothesis that vole dynamics indirectly affects predation rate of cavity nests in the way predicted by the APH. On the contrary, the probability of predation increased with vole spring abundance for both real and experimental nests. Furthermore, a crash in vole abundance from previous autumn to spring did not increase the probability of predation of real nests, although it increased that of experimental nests. We suggest that learned predation by pine marten individuals, coupled with efficient search image for cavities, overrides possible indirect positive effects of high vole density on the alternative prey in our study system.

  4. Trace elements in tissues of wild carnivores and omnivores in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Dežđek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Dokić, Maja; Simić, Branimir; Rudan, Nevenka; Brstilo, Mate; Lisicin, Tea

    2012-01-01

    The differences in metal exposure (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues of brown bears (Ursus arctos), grey wolfs (Canis lupus), Eurasian lynxs (Lynx lynx), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and pine martens (Martes martes) from Croatia were observed. The highest mean Cd levels were found in kidney and liver of Eurasian badger (3.05 and 0.537 mg/kg). The highest Cu concentrations (mg/kg) measured in liver tissue were obtained in order: Eurasian badger (15.2) > brown bear (12.1) > pine marten (10.3) > Eurasian lynx (8.43) > grey wolf (6.44). Result presented that Eurasian badger accumulated the highest levels of elements: As, Cu and Pb in muscle; As, Cd, Cu and Pb in liver; Cd and Pb in kidney. Kidney of pine marten accumulated the highest concentrations of As, Cu and Hg. Omnivorous species observed present an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic elements indicating an enhanced vulnerability for response to ecological changes in forested terrain. Generally, element concentrations found in five species observed were lower in comparison to levels reported in previous studies and below levels related to toxicosis in mammals.

  5. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Curtis A.; Runyon, Justin B.; Jenkins, Michael J.; Giunta, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species. PMID:26332317

  6. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine.

    PubMed

    Gray, Curtis A; Runyon, Justin B; Jenkins, Michael J; Giunta, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  7. A comparison of loblolly pine growth and yield on pure pine and mixed pine-hardwood sites

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood; John R. Toliver

    1989-01-01

    The case histories of four loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) sites were examined to determine if differences in growth and yield could be associated with stand type. The stand types were pure loblolly pine and mixed loblolly pine-hardwood. All sites were located on silt loam soils and mechanical site preparation was carried out on all sites before...

  8. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth Control and Loblolly Pine Growth in Intensive Pine Culture: Two-Year Results

    Treesearch

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar, Oust, and Arsenal...

  9. Hybrids of sugar pine by embryo culture

    Treesearch

    E. C. Stone; J. W. Duffield

    1950-01-01

    A modified embryo culture technique was used to facilitate germination of seed obtained after pollinating sugar pine with pollen from blister rust- resistant Armand and Korean pines. Resulting seedlings appear to be hybrids.

  10. GrameneMart: the biomart data portal for the gramene project

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Gramene project was an early adopter of the BioMart software, which remains an integral and well-used component of the Gramene web site. BioMart accessible data sets include plant gene annotations, plant variation catalogues, genetic markers, physical mapping entities, public DNA/mRNA sequences ...

  11. Carmen Martín Gaite and the Writing of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberger, David K.

    2015-01-01

    In this brief article, David Herzberger begins by describing how, with the help of Juan Benet as her interlocutor in 1966, renowned Spanish author Carmen Martín Gaite found her historiographic voice. Herzberger goes on to examine how this relates to Martín Gaite's legacy in historiography and her understanding of the Franco regime and the Spanish…

  12. Sustaining Higher Education Using Wal-Mart's Best Supply Chain Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comm, Clare L.; Mathaisel, Dennis F. X.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The costs in higher education are increasing and need to be controlled. This paper aims to demonstrate what lessons higher education could learn from Wal-Mart's reasons for its financial success with its focus on efficient and effective supply chain management (SCM) best practices. Design/methodology/approach: Wal-Mart's best practices in…

  13. Sustaining Higher Education Using Wal-Mart's Best Supply Chain Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comm, Clare L.; Mathaisel, Dennis F. X.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The costs in higher education are increasing and need to be controlled. This paper aims to demonstrate what lessons higher education could learn from Wal-Mart's reasons for its financial success with its focus on efficient and effective supply chain management (SCM) best practices. Design/methodology/approach: Wal-Mart's best practices in…

  14. Concepto de ingeniería del Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Image and Video Library

    El robot más grande y "más malo", y más nuevo para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte. Tiene el tamaño de un vehículo utilitario deportivo y está provisto de 10 instrumentos, nunca antes h...

  15. A Technique for Merging Areas in Timber Mart-South Data

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye

    2000-01-01

    For over 20 yr, TimberMart-South (TMS) has been distributing prices of various wood products from southern forests. In the beginning of 1988, the reporting frequency changed from monthly to quarterly, a change readily addressed through a variety established statistical techniques. A more significant statistical challenge is Timber Mart-South's change in 1992 from...

  16. La Ciencia y el Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Image and Video Library

    el robot más nuevo fabricado para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte o Curiosity. ¡Se encuentra listo para deambular por el planeta rojo con el mayor y más avanzado conjunto de instrumento...

  17. Carmen Martín Gaite and the Writing of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberger, David K.

    2015-01-01

    In this brief article, David Herzberger begins by describing how, with the help of Juan Benet as her interlocutor in 1966, renowned Spanish author Carmen Martín Gaite found her historiographic voice. Herzberger goes on to examine how this relates to Martín Gaite's legacy in historiography and her understanding of the Franco regime and the Spanish…

  18. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    SciTech Connect

    Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Singh, Preet

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  19. Tappable Pine Trees: Commercial Production of Terpene Biofuels in Pine

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: The University of Florida is working to increase the amount of turpentine in harvested pine from 4% to 20% of its dry weight. While enhanced feedstocks for biofuels have generally focused on fuel production from leafy plants and grasses, the University of Florida is experimenting with enhancing fuel production in a species of pine that is currently used in the paper pulping industry. Pine trees naturally produce around 3-5% terpene content in the wood—terpenes are the energy-dense fuel molecules that are the predominant components of turpentine. The team aims to increase the terpene storage potential and production capacity while improving the terpene composition to a point at which the trees could be tapped while alive, like sugar maples. Growth and production from these trees will take years, but this pioneering technology could have significant impact in making available an economical and domestic source of aviation and diesel biofuels.

  20. Fire effects in northeastern forests: jack pine.

    Treesearch

    Cary Rouse

    1986-01-01

    The jack pine ecosystem has evolved through fire. Jack pine, although easily killed by fire, has developed serotinous cones that depend upon high heat to open and release the seeds. Without a fire to enable the cones to open, jack pine would be replaced by another species. Prescribed fire can be an economical management tool for site preparation in either a natural...

  1. Cone Analysis of Southern Pines - A Guidebook

    Treesearch

    D.L. Bramlett; E.W. Belcher; G.L. DeBarr; G.D. Hertel; Robert P. Karrfalt; C.W. Lantz; T. Miller; K.D. Ware; H.O. Yates

    1977-01-01

    Southern pine tree improvement programs require an ample supply of improved seeds, but productron from southern pine seed orchards has often been disappointing. If high productron is to be malntained yields must be monitored and causes of seed losses must be identified. Techniques for determining seed efficiency were first used for red pine, Pinus resinosa...

  2. Crossability and relationships of Washoe pine

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1984-01-01

    Washoe pine, related to ponderosa pine but occurring at higher elevations along the western edge of the Great Basin, crosses freely with the Rocky Mountain race of ponderosa despite evidence of long-term separation. Washoe is morphologically distinct from the parapatric Pacific race of ponderosa pine, and the two taxa are kept separate partly by genetic barriers that...

  3. The Longleaf Pine Ecosystem of the South

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Outcalt

    2000-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill. [Pinaceae]) was the most prevalent pine type in the southern US Stands of longleaf were also habitat for a vast array of plant species. Decades of timber harvest followed by conversion to agriculture, urban development, or to other pine species, have reduced longleaf dominated areas to less than 5% of its...

  4. A Hydraulically Operated Pine Cone Cutter

    Treesearch

    Carl W. Fatzinger; M.T. Proveaux

    1971-01-01

    Mature cones of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) and longleaf pine (P. palustris Mill.) can be easily bisected along their longitudinal axes with the hydraulic pine cone cutter described. This cutter eliminates the two major problems of earlier models--undue operator fatigue and the...

  5. Ecology of southwestern ponderosa pine forests

    Treesearch

    William H. Moir; Brian W. Geils; Mary Ann Benoit; Dan Scurlock

    1997-01-01

    Ponderosa pine forests are important because of their wide distribution, commercial value, and because they provide habitat for many plants and animals. Ponderosa pine forests are noted for their variety of passerine birds resulting from variation in forest composition and structure modified by past and present human use. Subsequent chapters discuss how ponderosa pine...

  6. Crossing the western pines at Placerville, California

    Treesearch

    W. B. Critchfield; S. L. Krugman

    1967-01-01

    The results of hybridizing the western pine species by the Institute of Forest Genetics are described and discussed. It has been found that the hard, (yellow) pines can generally be crossed successfully only with similar species native to the same part of the world. In contrast, the soft (white) pines of the Western Hemisphere have been crossed successfully with soft...

  7. Mechanical Control of Southern Pine Beetle Infestations

    Treesearch

    Ronald F. Billings

    2011-01-01

    Periodic outbreaks of the southern pine beetle (SPB) may affect thousands of acres of commercial pine forests in the Southeastern United States, Mexico, and Central America. Accordingly, this species is the target of more aggressive and effective suppression programs than any other bark beetle pest in the world. The strategy for controlling the southern pine beetle...

  8. Shortleaf pine: a species at risk?

    Treesearch

    Charles G. Tauer; Shiqin Xu; C. Dana Nelson; James M. Guldin

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1950s the existence of natural hybrids between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine has been recognized and reported in the literature. In a range-wide study of isoenzyme diversity in shortleaf pine. we found 16 percent of the trees from western populations were hybrids. based on the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) locus. In stands thought to be pure shortleaf...

  9. Shortleaf pine: a species at risk?

    Treesearch

    Charles G. Tauer; Shiqin Xu; C. Dana Nelson; James M. Guldin

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1950s the existence of natural hybrids between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine has been recognized and reported in the literature. In a range-wide study of isoenzyme diversity in shortleaf pine, we found 16 percent of the trees from western populations were hybrids, based on the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) locus. In stands thought to be pure shortleaf...

  10. Bending strength of Chilean radiata pine poles

    Treesearch

    Gina Cerda; Ronald W. Wolfe

    2003-01-01

    Because radiata pine has thrived in south-central Chile since it was introduced there more than a century ago, pine plantation productivity there has grown tremendously. Plantation owners are seeking new markets for this material. One potential market is utility poles. The American National Standards Institute 05.1 standard (ANSI 05.1) provides a means for radiata pine...

  11. Silvical characteristics of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana)

    Treesearch

    Albert G., Jr. Snow

    1960-01-01

    Virginia pine has finally attained its rightful place among trees of commercial importance. It has done so in spite of being called "scrub pine" and "poverty pine" - and in spite of the term "forest weed", which has lingered long in the speech of oldtimers who remember the days of timber-plenty.

  12. Guidelines for whitebark pine planting prescriptions

    Treesearch

    Glenda L. Scott; Ward W. McCaughey; Kay Izlar

    2011-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a keystone species in high-elevation ecosystems of the western United States. Unfortunately many fragile subalpine ecosystems are losing whitebark pine as a functional community component due to the combined effects of an introduced disease, insects and succession. Planting whitebark pine is one part of a multifaceted restoration...

  13. Are we over-managing longleaf pine?

    Treesearch

    John S. Kush; Rebecca J. Barlow; John C. Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is not loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) or slash pine (Pinus elliottii L.). There is the need for a paradigmatic shift in our thinking about longleaf pine. All too often we think of longleaf as an intolerant species, slow-grower, difficult to regenerate, and yet it dominated the pre...

  14. Adaptive evolution of Mediterranean pines.

    PubMed

    Grivet, Delphine; Climent, José; Zabal-Aguirre, Mario; Neale, David B; Vendramin, Giovanni G; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2013-09-01

    Mediterranean pines represent an extremely heterogeneous assembly. Although they have evolved under similar environmental conditions, they diversified long ago, ca. 10 Mya, and present distinct biogeographic and demographic histories. Therefore, it is of special interest to understand whether and to what extent they have developed specific strategies of adaptive evolution through time and space. To explore evolutionary patterns, the Mediterranean pines' phylogeny was first reconstructed analyzing a new set of 21 low-copy nuclear genes with multilocus Bayesian tree reconstruction methods. Secondly, a phylogenetic approach was used to search for footprints of natural selection and to examine the evolution of multiple phenotypic traits. We identified two genes (involved in pines' defense and stress responses) that have likely played a role in the adaptation of Mediterranean pines to their environment. Moreover, few life-history traits showed historical or evolutionary adaptive convergence in Mediterranean lineages, while patterns of character evolution revealed various evolutionary trade-offs linking growth-development, reproduction and fire-related traits. Assessing the evolutionary path of important life-history traits, as well as the genomic basis of adaptive variation is central to understanding the past evolutionary success of Mediterranean pines and their future response to environmental changes.

  15. Journey of water in pine cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Seo, Seung-Jun; Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lim, Jae-Hong; Joon Lee, Sang

    2015-05-01

    Pine cones fold their scales when it rains to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. Given that the scales of pine cones consist of nothing but dead cells, this folding motion is evidently related to structural changes. In this study, the structural characteristics of pine cones are studied on micro-/macro-scale using various imaging instruments. Raindrops fall along the outer scales to the three layers (bract scales, fibers and innermost lignified structure) of inner pine cones. However, not all the layers but only the bract scales get wet and then, most raindrops move to the inner scales. These systems reduce the amount of water used and minimize the time spent on structural changes. The result shows that the pine cones have structural advantages that could influence the efficient motion of pine cones. This study provides new insights to understand the motion of pine cones and would be used to design a novel water transport system.

  16. Journey of water in pine cones

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Seo, Seung-Jun; Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lim, Jae-Hong; Joon Lee, Sang

    2015-01-01

    Pine cones fold their scales when it rains to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. Given that the scales of pine cones consist of nothing but dead cells, this folding motion is evidently related to structural changes. In this study, the structural characteristics of pine cones are studied on micro-/macro-scale using various imaging instruments. Raindrops fall along the outer scales to the three layers (bract scales, fibers and innermost lignified structure) of inner pine cones. However, not all the layers but only the bract scales get wet and then, most raindrops move to the inner scales. These systems reduce the amount of water used and minimize the time spent on structural changes. The result shows that the pine cones have structural advantages that could influence the efficient motion of pine cones. This study provides new insights to understand the motion of pine cones and would be used to design a novel water transport system. PMID:25944117

  17. [The myth of the Gaucho Martín Fierro].

    PubMed

    Yampey, N

    1985-06-01

    The Gaucho Martín Fierro, written by José Hernández in 1872 and 1879, is today considered the most beautiful of the original productions of the River Plate literature. It is the one that best represents the mentality and the individual and social attitudes and customs of the common people. Hernández re-creates not only their rustic speech, but also the natural prosody peculiar to the peasant. Most especially, he gives vivid and pathetic shape to the myth of the gaucho in his context: the rural community in its early stages. This paper analyzes the epic nature of the poem (its glamour of adventure, courage and destiny), its nature as a national epic (depecting the values and aspirations of a developing society) and especially its character as a mythical prototype (referring to origins, to destiny and to a "primitive crime"). This myth is embodied by a stoic and conflictive figure, product of an ethnic mixture, but more essentially of transculturation. The conflict and dissociations are revealed as much by the two contrasting parts of the poem as by the vicissitudes of Hernández' own life. The psychological, historical, social and political effects of the poem are analyzed. Argentines have identified themselves on several planes with this mythical hero, since Martín Fierro represents the drama of dissociation, trikery, and unsuccessful attempts at social integration or compromise throughout Argentina's dramatic history.

  18. Restoration planting options for limber pines in Colorado and Wyoming

    Treesearch

    Anne Marie Casper; William R. Jacobi; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns

    2011-01-01

    Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis) populations in the southern Rocky Mountains are severely threatened by the combined impacts of mountain pine beetles and white pine blister rust. Limber pineʼs critical role in these high elevation ecosystems heightens the importance of mitigating these impacts. To develop forest-scale planting methods, six limber pine seedling...

  19. Underplanting shortleaf pine at Coldwater Conservation Area in Missouri

    Treesearch

    Jason Jensen; David Gwaze

    2007-01-01

    Restoring shortleaf pine throughout its native range in the Ozark Highlands is a high priority in Missouri. Restoring shortleaf pine on former pine and oak-pine sites is a longterm strategy for mitigating chronic oak decline (Law et al. 2004). Underplanting or preharvest planting is one method that has potential for restoring shortleaf pine.

  20. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  1. Successional trends of six mature shortleaf pine forests in Missouri

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Stambaugh; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2007-01-01

    Many of Missouri's mature oak-shortleaf pine (Quercus-Pinus echinata) forests are in a mid-transition stage characterized by partial pine overstory, limited pine recruitment, and minimal pine regeneration. Restoration of shortleaf pine communities at a large scale necessitates the understanding and management of natural regeneration. To...

  2. The Vitamin D Analog, MART-10, Attenuates Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Metastatic Potential.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C; Sun, Chi-Chin; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2016-04-21

    Regarding breast cancer treatment, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a difficult issue. Most TNBC patients die of cancer metastasis. Thus, to develop a new regimen to attenuate TNBC metastatic potential is urgently needed. MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)₂D₃), the newly-synthesized 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ analog, has been shown to be much more potent in cancer growth inhibition than 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and be active in vivo without inducing obvious side effect. In this study, we demonstrated that both 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and MART-10 could effectively repress TNBC cells migration and invasion with MART-10 more effective. MART-10 and 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ induced cadherin switching (upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin) and downregulated P-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. The EMT(epithelial mesenchymal transition) process in MDA-MB-231 cells was repressed by MART-10 through inhibiting Zeb1, Zeb2, Slug, and Twist expression. LCN2, one kind of breast cancer metastasis stimulator, was also found for the first time to be repressed by 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and MART-10 in breast cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was also downregulated by MART-10. Furthermore, F-actin synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells was attenuated as exposure to 1α,25(OH)₂D₃ and MART-10. Based on our result, we conclude that MART-10 could effectively inhibit TNBC cells metastatic potential and deserves further investigation as a new regimen to treat TNBC.

  3. Adenovirus MART-1–engineered Autologous Dendritic Cell Vaccine for Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Butterfield, Lisa H.; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Vujanovic, Lazar; Lee, Yohan; Dissette, Vivian B.; Yang, Jin-Quan; Vu, Hong T.; Seja, Elizabeth; Oseguera, Denise K.; Potter, Douglas M.; Glaspy, John A.; Economou, James S.; Ribas, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Summary We performed a phase 1/2 trial testing the safety, toxicity, and immune response of a vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a replication-defective adenovirus (AdV) encoding the full-length melanoma antigen MART-1/Melan-A (MART-1). This vaccine was designed to activate MART-1–specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Metastatic melanoma patients received 3 injections of 106 or 107 DCs, delivered intradermally. Cell surface phenotype and cytokine production of the DCs used for the vaccines were tested, and indicated intermediate maturity. CD8+ T-cell responses to MART-127-35 were assessed by both major histocompatibility complex class I tetramer and interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) before, during, and after each vaccine and CD4+ T-cell responses to MART-151-73 were followed by IFN-γ ELISPOT. We also measured antigen response breadth. Determinant spreading from the immunizing antigen MART-1 to other melanoma antigens [gp100, tyrosinase, human melanoma antigen-A3 (MAGE-A3)] was assessed by IFN-γ ELISPOT. Twenty-three patients were enrolled and 14 patients received all 3 scheduled DC vaccines. Significant CD8+ and/or CD4+ MART-1–specific T-cell responses were observed in 6/11 and 2/4 patients evaluated, respectively, indicating that the E1-deleted adeno-virus encoding the cDNA for MART-1/Melan-A (AdV-MART1)/DC vaccine activated both helper and killer T cells in vivo. Responses in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells to additional antigens were noted in 2 patients. The AdVMART1-transduced DC vaccine was safe and immunogenic in patients with metastatic melanoma. PMID:18317358

  4. The Vitamin D Analog, MART-10, Attenuates Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Metastatic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C.; Sun, Chi-Chin; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Regarding breast cancer treatment, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a difficult issue. Most TNBC patients die of cancer metastasis. Thus, to develop a new regimen to attenuate TNBC metastatic potential is urgently needed. MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3), the newly-synthesized 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been shown to be much more potent in cancer growth inhibition than 1α,25(OH)2D3 and be active in vivo without inducing obvious side effect. In this study, we demonstrated that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 could effectively repress TNBC cells migration and invasion with MART-10 more effective. MART-10 and 1α,25(OH)2D3 induced cadherin switching (upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin) and downregulated P-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. The EMT(epithelial mesenchymal transition) process in MDA-MB-231 cells was repressed by MART-10 through inhibiting Zeb1, Zeb2, Slug, and Twist expression. LCN2, one kind of breast cancer metastasis stimulator, was also found for the first time to be repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 in breast cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was also downregulated by MART-10. Furthermore, F-actin synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells was attenuated as exposure to 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. Based on our result, we conclude that MART-10 could effectively inhibit TNBC cells metastatic potential and deserves further investigation as a new regimen to treat TNBC. PMID:27110769

  5. Growth of a Pine Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  6. Participatory genetic improvement: longleaf pine

    Treesearch

    C. Dana Nelson; Gwendolyn Boyd; Randall J. Rousseau; Barbara S. Crane; Craig S. Echt; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2015-01-01

    University-industry-state cooperative tree improvement has been highly successful in the southern United States. Over nearly 60 years, three cooperative programs have led the way in developing and deploying genetically improved planting stocks for loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and slash (P. elliottii Engelm.) pines. However, much lower levels of success have been achieved...

  7. Longleaf pine growth and yield

    Treesearch

    John S. Kush; J.C.G. Goelz; Richard A. Williams; Douglas R. Carter; Peter E. Linehan

    2006-01-01

    Across the historical range of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), less than 10% of lands previously occupied by longleaf ecosystems are currently in public ownership (Johnson and Gjerstad 1999; Alavalapati et al., this volume). The remainder is owned by private entities ranging from the forest industry, to timberland investment organizations,...

  8. Pine Shoot Beetle Research Update

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; Therese M. Poland

    2000-01-01

    Established populations of the pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), were first detected in the US in 1992. As of January 2000, T. piniperda was known to be established in 271 counties in 11 US states (IL, IN, MD, MI, NH, NY, OH, PA, VT, WI, WV) and 25 counties in Ontario and 8 counties in Quebec,...

  9. Pine Ridge Fire summary report

    Treesearch

    Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie. Stidham

    2013-01-01

    In July 2012, immediately after the Pine Ridge Fire burned outside De Beque, Colorado, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local government officials, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness in order to identify contributors to success and areas for improvement. Although the fire had...

  10. Nutrient Management in Pine Forests

    Treesearch

    Allan E. Tiarks

    1999-01-01

    Coastal plain soils are naturally low in fertility and many pine stands will give an economic response to fertilization, especially phosphorus. Maintaining the nutrients that are on the site by limiting displacement of logging slash during and after the harvest can be important in maintaining the productivity of the site and reducing the amount of fertilizer required...

  11. Pitch canker disease of pines.

    PubMed

    Gordon, T R

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Pitch canker, caused by Fusarium circinatum, is a disease affecting pines in many locations throughout the world. The pathosystem was originally described in the southeastern (SE) United States and was identified in California in 1986. Limited vegetative compatibility group (VCG) diversity in the California population of F. circinatum, relative to the SE United States, suggests the former is a recently established and clonally propagating population. Although the much greater VCG diversity found in the SE United States is suggestive of out-crossing, molecular markers indicate that many vegetatively incompatible isolates are clonally related. This implies that VCG diversity may derive, at least in part, from somatic mutations rather than sexual reproduction. Pitch canker is damaging to many pine species and one at particular risk is Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), which is widely grown in plantations and is highly susceptible to pitch canker. However, some Monterey pines are resistant to pitch canker and some severely diseased trees have been observed to recover. The absence of new infections on these trees reflects the operation of systemic induced resistance, apparently in response to repeated infection by the pitch canker pathogen.

  12. Longleaf Pine: An Updated Bibliography

    Treesearch

    John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl; William D. Boyer; Charles K. McMahon

    1996-01-01

    The longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forest figured prominently in the cultural and economic development of the South. What was once one of the most extensive forest ecosystems in North America has now become critically endangered (6). At the time of European settlement, this ecosystem dominated as much as 92 million acres throughout the...

  13. National regeneration of shortleaf pine

    Treesearch

    Edwin R. Lawson

    1986-01-01

    Natural regeneration with clearcutting, shelterwood, seed tree, and selection systems is a viable method for establishing and managing shortleaf pine stands. An adequate seed source, a suitable seedbed, control of competing vegetation, follow-up cultural treatments, and protection of reproduction are the primary prerequisites for establishing and maintaining natural...

  14. Multiaged silviculture of ponderosa pine

    Treesearch

    Kevin L. O' Hara

    2005-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) is highly suitable for management using multiaged systems. This suitability is primarily the result of a frequent, low severity disturbance regime, but also because it naturally occurs at low densities and has a long history of management to promote multiple age classes. Several different stocking...

  15. Nursery Selection of Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    E. Bayne Snyder

    1976-01-01

    Selecting exceptionally tall loblolly pine seedlings from nursery beds is a promising and low-cost means of tree improvement, according to this 10-year study. From 1962 to 1971, 2,800 outstandingly tall seedlings were chosen from a nursery in south Mississippi and outplanted. Selected seedlings were about twice as tall as average-height controls. When the trees were...

  16. Growth of a Pine Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  17. Southern Pine Beetle Field Survey

    Treesearch

    Saul D. Petty

    2011-01-01

    Southern pine beetle (SPB) is one of the most formidable insect pests impacting southern forests. Federal, State, and private forest managers have always dealt with this pest in some capacity. One of the primary requirements for controlling SPB is locating infestations on the ground. Once the infestation has been located, data is collected and used in management...

  18. Pine regeneration following wildland fire

    Treesearch

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose; Alan S. White

    2008-01-01

    Pine regeneration following wildland fire continues to be a serious problem across the western and southeastern U.S. Frequency of large wildfires has increased over the last several decades and restoration of these burned areas is a major problem confronting land managers. Prescribed fires are used primarily to reduce heavy fuel loads and secondarily to reduce...

  19. Needle blight of ponderosa pine.

    Treesearch

    T.W. Childs

    1955-01-01

    This progress report describes the appearance and behavior of needle blight of pondersoa pine as it has been observed in central and eastern Oregon since 1945. Sorts and extent of damage are briefly discussed, results to date are presented from continuing studies, and timber marking and improvement practices are recommended for infected stands.

  20. Genetic diversity within and among populations of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Treesearch

    Shiqin Xu; C.G. Tauer; C. Dana Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (n=93) and loblolly pine (n=112) trees representing 22 seed sources or 16 physiographic populations were sampled from Southwide Southern Pine Seed Source Study plantings located in Oklahoma, Arkansas and Mississippi. The sampled trees were grown from shortleaf pine and loblolly pine seeds formed in 1951 and 1952, prior to the start of intensive forest...

  1. Shortleaf pine hybrids: growth and tip moth damage in southeast Mississippi

    Treesearch

    Larry H. Lott; Maxine T. Highsmith; C. Dana Nelson

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.) sustain significantly more Nantucket pine tip moth (Rhyacionia frustrana Comst.) damage than do slash pine (Pinus elliotti var. ...

  2. Needle oils of three pine species and species hybrids

    Treesearch

    Robert Z. Callaham

    1956-01-01

    The composition and characteristics of the needle oils of western pines may provide criteria for distinguishing pine hybrids and may help explain why some needle-feeding insects select certain pine species as hosts.

  3. Effects of aerially applied glyphosate and hexazinone on hardwoods and pines in a loblolly pine plantation

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood

    1993-01-01

    Three herbicide products, Roundup© (glyphosate), Pronone© 10G (hexazinone), and Velpar© L (hexazinone), were applied aerially to release a 4-year-old loblolly pine plantation from hardwood competition. Herbicide damage to pines was not excessive. Post-treatment growth of pines in herbicide-treated plots was not significantly different from growth of pines in untreated...

  4. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Buotte, Polly C; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Preisler, Haiganoush K; Abatzoglou, John T; Raffa, Kenneth F; Logan, Jesse A

    2016-12-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle are not well understood, yet are important considerations in whether to list whitebark pine as a threatened or endangered species. We sought to increase the understanding of climate influences on mountain pine beetle outbreaks in whitebark pine forests, which are less well understood than in lodgepole pine, by quantifying climate-beetle relationships, analyzing climate influences during the recent outbreak, and estimating the suitability of future climate for beetle outbreaks. We developed a statistical model of the probability of whitebark pine mortality in the GYE that included temperature effects on beetle development and survival, precipitation effects on host tree condition, beetle population size, and stand characteristics. Estimated probability of whitebark pine mortality increased with higher winter minimum temperature, indicating greater beetle winter survival; higher fall temperature, indicating synchronous beetle emergence; lower two-year summer precipitation, indicating increased potential for host tree stress; increasing beetle populations; stand age; and increasing percent composition of whitebark pine within a stand. The recent outbreak occurred during a period of higher-than-normal regional winter temperatures, suitable fall temperatures, and low summer precipitation. In contrast to lodgepole pine systems, area with mortality was linked to precipitation variability even at high beetle populations. Projections from climate models indicate future climate conditions will likely provide favorable conditions for beetle outbreaks within nearly all current whitebark pine habitat in the GYE by

  5. Using BioMart as a framework to manage and query pancreatic cancer data.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Rosalind J; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Lemoine, Nicholas R; Chelala, Claude

    2011-01-01

    We describe the Pancreatic Expression Database (PED), the first cancer database originally designed based on the BioMart infrastructure. The PED portal brings together multidimensional pancreatic cancer data from the literature including genomic, proteomic, miRNA and gene expression profiles. Based on the BioMart 0.7 framework, the database is easily integrated with other BioMart-compliant resources, such as Ensembl and Reactome, to give access to a wide range of annotations alongside detailed experimental conditions. This article is intended to give an overview of PED, describe its data content and work through examples of how to successfully mine and integrate pancreatic cancer data sets and other BioMart resources.

  6. Using BioMart as a framework to manage and query pancreatic cancer data

    PubMed Central

    Cutts, Rosalind J.; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Lemoine, Nicholas R.; Chelala, Claude

    2011-01-01

    We describe the Pancreatic Expression Database (PED), the first cancer database originally designed based on the BioMart infrastructure. The PED portal brings together multidimensional pancreatic cancer data from the literature including genomic, proteomic, miRNA and gene expression profiles. Based on the BioMart 0.7 framework, the database is easily integrated with other BioMart-compliant resources, such as Ensembl and Reactome, to give access to a wide range of annotations alongside detailed experimental conditions. This article is intended to give an overview of PED, describe its data content and work through examples of how to successfully mine and integrate pancreatic cancer data sets and other BioMart resources. Database URL: http://www.pancreasexpression.org PMID:21666272

  7. Clinical Trials Using Adenovirus Encoding Tyrosinase/MART-1/MAGEA6-transduced Autologous Dendritic Cell Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    NCI supports clinical trials that test new and more effective ways to treat cancer. Find clinical trials studying adenovirus encoding tyrosinase/mart-1/magea6-transduced autologous dendritic cell vaccine.

  8. BioMart: a data federation framework for large collaborative projects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjun; Haider, Syed; Baran, Joachim; Cros, Anthony; Guberman, Jonathan M; Hsu, Jack; Liang, Yong; Yao, Long; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2011-01-01

    BioMart is a freely available, open source, federated database system that provides a unified access to disparate, geographically distributed data sources. It is designed to be data agnostic and platform independent, such that existing databases can easily be incorporated into the BioMart framework. BioMart allows databases hosted on different servers to be presented seamlessly to users, facilitating collaborative projects between different research groups. BioMart contains several levels of query optimization to efficiently manage large data sets and offers a diverse selection of graphical user interfaces and application programming interfaces to ensure that queries can be performed in whatever manner is most convenient for the user. The software has now been adopted by a large number of different biological databases spanning a wide range of data types and providing a rich source of annotation available to bioinformaticians and biologists alike.

  9. BioMart: a data federation framework for large collaborative projects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junjun; Haider, Syed; Baran, Joachim; Cros, Anthony; Guberman, Jonathan M.; Hsu, Jack; Liang, Yong; Yao, Long; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2011-01-01

    BioMart is a freely available, open source, federated database system that provides a unified access to disparate, geographically distributed data sources. It is designed to be data agnostic and platform independent, such that existing databases can easily be incorporated into the BioMart framework. BioMart allows databases hosted on different servers to be presented seamlessly to users, facilitating collaborative projects between different research groups. BioMart contains several levels of query optimization to efficiently manage large data sets and offers a diverse selection of graphical user interfaces and application programming interfaces to ensure that queries can be performed in whatever manner is most convenient for the user. The software has now been adopted by a large number of different biological databases spanning a wide range of data types and providing a rich source of annotation available to bioinformaticians and biologists alike. Database URL: http://www.biomart.org PMID:21930506

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of sable, Martes zibellina.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunzhu; Zhang, Honghai; Ma, Jianzhang; Liu, Zhonghua

    2012-06-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of the Sable (NC_011579) was determined using long PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). The genome was 16,523 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The gene composition and order of which was similar to most other mammals. The overall base composition of the heavy strand in descending order is A (32.0%), C (27. 6%), T (25.8%) and G (14.7%). The base compositions present clearly the A-C skew, which is most obviously in the control region and protein-coding genes. The extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain, and the conserved sequence block domain are defined in the mitochondrial genome control region of Sable. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in phylogenetics and systematics of Martes zibellina.

  11. Seed oil composition of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke.

    PubMed

    Avato, P; Pesante, M A; Fanizzi, F P; Santos, C Aimbiré de Moraes

    2003-07-01

    The chemical composition of the oil extracted from the seeds of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke (syn. P. sorbilis) was investigated. Cyanolipids constituted 3% of the total oil from guaraná seeds, whereas acylglycerols accounted for 28%. 1H and 13C NMR analyses indicated that type I cyanolipids (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethylprop-2-ene-1-ol diesters) are present in the oil from P. cupana. GC and GC-MS analysis showed that cis-11-octadecenoic (cis-vaccenic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids were the main FA (30.4 and 38.7%) esterified to the nitrile group. Paullinic acid (7.0%) was also an abundant component. Oleic acid (37.4%) was the dominant fatty acyl chain in the acylglycerols.

  12. eSciMart: Web Platform for Scientific Software Marketplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, A. P.; Demichev, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we suggest a design of a web marketplace where users of scientific application software and databases, presented in the form of web services, as well as their providers will have presence simultaneously. The model, which will be the basis for the web marketplace is close to the customer-to-customer (C2C) model, which has been successfully used, for example, on the auction sites such as eBay (ebay.com). Unlike the classical model of C2C the suggested marketplace focuses on application software in the form of web services, and standardization of API through which application software will be integrated into the web marketplace. A prototype of such a platform, entitled eSciMart, is currently being developed at SINP MSU.

  13. Historic Properties Report: Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    is a government-owmed-and- operated installation occupying 14,454 acres in Jefferson County, Arkansas, about eight miles northwest of the City of Pine...Bluff and thirty miles southeast of the City of Little Rock. Constructed during 1941-1943, PBA -s originally designed to moufacturs ragesim- and...considerations, Uhe general prmemtion reemr datios prmeeMntad in Chater 3 0fo Category 1, U1, and I.1 historic PrOpetift Wets ievloWs. Special preservtion

  14. Changes in Woodland Use from Longleaf Pine to Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Yaoqi Zhang; Indrajit Majumdar; John Schelhas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: There is growing evidence suggesting that the United States’ roots are not in a state of pristine nature but rather in a human-modified landscape over which Native people have since long exerted vast control and use. The longleaf pine is a typical woodland use largely shaped by fires, lightning and by Native Americans. The frequent fires, which were used to...

  15. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  16. Species composition influences management outcomes following mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine-dominated forests

    Treesearch

    Kristen Pelz; C. C. Rhoades; R. M. Hubbard; M. A. Battaglia; F. W. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle outbreaks have killed lodgepole pine on more than one million hectares of Colorado and southern Wyoming forest during the last decade and have prompted harvest operations throughout the region. In northern Colorado, lodgepole pine commonly occurs in mixed stands with subalpine fir, Engelmann spruce, and aspen. Variation in tree species composition...

  17. HOW to Manage Jack Pine to Reduce Damage from Jack Pine Budworm

    Treesearch

    Deborah G. McCullough; Steven Katovich; Robert L. Heyd; Shane Weber

    1994-01-01

    Jack pine budworm, Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman, is a needle feeding caterpillar that is generally considered the most significant pest of jack pine. Vigorous young jack pine stands are rarely damaged during outbreaks. The most vigorous stands are well stocked, evenly spaced, fairly uniform in height, and less than 45 years old. Stands older than 45 years that are...

  18. Occurrence of shortleaf x loblolly pine hybrids in shortleaf pine orchards: Implications for ecosystem restoration

    Treesearch

    John F. Stewart; Rodney Will; Barbara S. Crane; C. Dana Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) is an important conifer in much of the southeastern United States. However, the species and its associated ecosystems are in decline, and recent evidence about hybridization with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) raises concerns that the species may be at risk of further losses due to introgression. Although shortleaf pine is not...

  19. Determining fire history from old white pine stumps in an oak-pine forest

    Treesearch

    Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey; Chris McDonell

    1995-01-01

    Fire scars on stumps of white pine (Pinus strobus L.) in a red oak (Quercus rubra L.) white pine forest near Bracebridge, Ontario, were dated using dendrochronological methods. A chronological record of fires that caused basal scarring is preserved in the remnant white pine stumps, which were estimated to be up to 135 years old...

  20. Evaluating satellite imagery for estimating mountain pine beetle-caused lodgepole pine mortality: Current status

    Treesearch

    B. J. Bentz; D. Endreson

    2004-01-01

    Spatial accuracy in the detection and monitoring of mountain pine beetle populations is an important aspect of both forest research and management. Using ground-collected data, classification models to predict mountain pine beetle-caused lodgepole pine mortality were developed for Landsat TM, ETM+, and IKONOS imagery. Our results suggest that low-resolution imagery...

  1. Naturally Occurring Compound Can Protect Pines from the Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    B.L. Strom; R.A. Goyer; J.L. Hayes

    1995-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, is the most destructive insect pest of southern pine forests. This tiny insect, smaller than a grain of rice, is responsible for killing pine timber worth millions of dollars on a periodic basis in Louisiana.

  2. Shortleaf pine reproduction abundance and growth in pine-oak stands in the Missouri Ozarks

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth M. Blizzard; Doyle Henken; John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; David R. Larsen; David Gwaze

    2007-01-01

    We conducted an operational study to evaluate effect of site preparation treatments on pine reproduction density and the impact of overstory basal area and understory density on pine reproduction height and basal diameter in pine-oak stands in the Missouri Ozarks. Stands were harvested to or below B-level stocking, but patchiness of the oak decline lead to some plots...

  3. Mountain pine beetle host selection behavior confirms high resistance in Great Basin bristlecone pine

    Treesearch

    Erika L. Eidson; Karen E. Mock; Barbara J. Bentz

    2017-01-01

    Over the last two decades, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) populations reached epidemic levels across much of western North America, including high elevations where cool temperatures previously limited mountain pine beetle persistence. Many high-elevation pine species are susceptible hosts and experienced high levels of mortality in recent outbreaks, but...

  4. Timber management guide for shortleaf pine and oak-pine types in Missouri.

    Treesearch

    K.A. Brinkman; N.F. Rogers

    1967-01-01

    Summarizes recommended management practices for the shortleaf pine and oak-pine types in Missouri. Describes sites and soils, and silvical characteristics of pine; discusses rotations, cutting cycles, stocking levels, growing space requirements, and regeneration techniques; and prescribes treatments for stands with specified characteristics to maximize returns from...

  5. Loblolly pine: the ecology and culture of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Treesearch

    Robert P. Schultz

    1997-01-01

    Loblolly pine ranks as a highly valuable tree for its pulp, paper, and lumber products. In the South, loblolly is planted more than any other conifer. Loblolly Pine: The Ecology and Culture of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) adds to the technical foundations laid by Ashe (1915) and Wahlenberg (1960). Agriculture Handbook 713 encompasses genetics, tree...

  6. Identifying "redtops": Classification of satellite imagery for tracking mountain pine beetle progression through a pine forest

    Treesearch

    Richard Cutler; Leslie Brown; James Powell; Barbara Bentz; Adele Cutler

    2003-01-01

    Mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) are a pest indigenous to the pine forests of the western United States. Capable of exponential population growth, mountain pine beetles can destroy thousands of acres of trees in a short period of time. The research reported here is part of a larger project to demonstrate the application of, and evaluate,...

  7. Bioassay of Pine Bark Extracts as Biting Stimulants for the Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    H.A. Thomas; J.A. Richmond; E.L. Bradley

    1981-01-01

    A bioassay was developed to compare pine outer-bark constituents extracted chemically from five species of southern pines. Extracts from inner and outer bark were also compared. Extracts from the outer bark of shortleaf pine elicited the greatest number of biting responses which significantly exceeded the controls. Beetles responded more often to extracts from the...

  8. Solar treatments for reducing survival of mountain pine beetle in infested ponderosa and lodgepole pine logs

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; Wayne A. Shepperd; Steve A. Mata; John B. Popp; Lance A. Asherin; Anna W. Schoettle; John M. Schmid; David A. Leatherman

    2001-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of solar radiation for reducing survival of mountain pine beetle populations in infested logs. Ponderosa pine logs were used in experiments 1 and 2 and lodgepole pine logs were used in experiment 3. Experiment 1 comprised three treatments: (1) one-layer solar treatment without plastic sheeting and logs rotated one-...

  9. Verbenone decreases whitebark pine mortality throughout a mountain pine beetle outbreak

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mountain pine beetle [Dendroctonus ponderosae (Hopkins)] outbreaks are killing large numbers of pine trees on millions of hectares in the western U.S. The ranges, impacts and frequencies of mountain pine beetle outbreaks are increasing, perhaps due to climate change. One of the species being impacte...

  10. Mountain pine beetle in high-elevation five-needle white pine ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Barbara Bentz; Elizabeth Campbell; Ken Gibson; Sandra Kegley; Jesse Logan; Diana Six

    2011-01-01

    Across western North America mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), populations are growing at exponential rates in pine ecosystems that span a wide range of elevations. As temperature increased over the past several decades, the flexible, thermally-regulated life-history strategies of mountain pine beetle have allowed...

  11. Monitoring white pine blister rust infection and mortality in whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Cathie Jean; Erin Shanahan; Rob Daley; Gregg DeNitto; Dan Reinhart; Chuck Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for information on the status and trend of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Concerns over the combined effects of white pine blister rust (WPBR, Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), and climate change prompted an interagency working group to design and implement...

  12. Selection for resistance to white pine blister rust affects the abiotic stress tolerances of limber pine

    Treesearch

    Patrick J. Vogan; Anna W. Schoettle

    2015-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) mortality is increasing across the West as a result of the combined stresses of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola; WPBR), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum) in a changing climate. With the continued spread of WPBR, extensive mortality will continue with strong selection...

  13. Pine straw harvesting, fire, and fertilization affect understory vegetation within a Louisiana longleaf pine stand

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood

    2012-01-01

    Pine straw harvesting can provide an economic benefit to landowners, but the practice may also change the composition of plant communities. This research was initiated in a 34-year-old stand of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) established in 1956 to study how pine straw management practices (fertilization, prescribed fire, and straw harvesting) affected plant...

  14. Are high elevation pines equally vulnerable to climate change-induced mountain pine beetle attack?

    Treesearch

    Barbara J. Bentz; Erika L. Eidson

    2016-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB), a native insect to western North America, caused extensive tree mortality in pine ecosystems during a recent warm and dry period. More than 24 million acres were affected, including in the relatively low elevation lodgepole (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa (P. ponderosa) pines, and the high-elevation whitebark (P....

  15. Tip moth control and loblolly pine growth in intensive pine culture: four year results

    Treesearch

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana Comstock, and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar®,...

  16. Residual activity of carbaryl protected lodgepole pine against mountain pine beetle, Dillon, Colorado, 1982 and 1983

    Treesearch

    Marion Page; Michael I. Haverty; Charles E. Richmond

    1985-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is the most destructive insect that attacks lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.), a species valued for multiple uses throughout North America. The effective residual life of carbaryl, applied as a 2 percent suspension of Sevimol to the bark of lodgepole pine to prevent...

  17. Toxicity of Pine Monoterpenes to Mountain Pine Beetle.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Christine C; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Joerg

    2017-08-18

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB) is an eruptive bark beetle species affecting pine forests of western North America. MPB are exposed to volatile monoterpenes, which are important host defense chemicals. We assessed the toxicity of the ten most abundant monoterpenes of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), a major host in the current MPB epidemic, against adult MPB from two locations in British Columbia, Canada. Monoterpenes were tested as individual volatiles and included (-)-β-phellandrene, (+)-3-carene, myrcene, terpinolene, and both enantiomers of α-pinene, β-pinene and limonene. Dose-mortality experiments identified (-)-limonene as the most toxic (LC50: 32 μL/L), and (-)-α-pinene (LC50: 290 μL/L) and terpinolene (LC50: >500 μL/L) as the least toxic. MPB body weight had a significant positive effect on the ability to survive most monoterpene volatiles, while sex did not have a significant effect with most monoterpenes. This study helps to quantitatively define the effects of individual monoterpenes towards MPB mortality, which is critical when assessing the variable monoterpene chemical defense profiles of its host species.

  18. Bio-composites made from pine straw

    Treesearch

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Jamie Tang

    2004-01-01

    Pine straw is renewable natural resource that is under-utilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical performances of pine straw composites. Three panel density levels (0.8, 0.9, 1.0 g/cm2) and two resin content levels (1% pMDI + 4% UF, 2% pMDI + 4% UF) were selected as treatments. For the pine-straw-bamboo-...

  19. Adenovirus MART-1-engineered autologous dendritic cell vaccine for metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Lisa H; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Vujanovic, Lazar; Lee, Yohan; Dissette, Vivian B; Yang, Jin-Quan; Vu, Hong T; Seja, Elizabeth; Oseguera, Denise K; Potter, Douglas M; Glaspy, John A; Economou, James S; Ribas, Antoni

    2008-04-01

    We performed a phase 1/2 trial testing the safety, toxicity, and immune response of a vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a replication-defective adenovirus (AdV) encoding the full-length melanoma antigen MART-1/Melan-A (MART-1). This vaccine was designed to activate MART-1-specific CD+8 and CD4+ T cells. Metastatic melanoma patients received 3 injections of 10(6) or 10(7) DCs, delivered intradermally. Cell surface phenotype and cytokine production of the DCs used for the vaccines were tested, and indicated intermediate maturity. CD8+ T-cell responses to MART-1 27-35 were assessed by both major histocompatibility complex class I tetramer and interferon (IFN)-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) before, during, and after each vaccine and CD4+ T-cell responses to MART-1 51-73 were followed by IFN-gamma ELISPOT. We also measured antigen response breadth. Determinant spreading from the immunizing antigen MART-1 to other melanoma antigens [gp100, tyrosinase, human melanoma antigen-A3 (MAGE-A3)] was assessed by IFN-gamma ELISPOT. Twenty-three patients were enrolled and 14 patients received all 3 scheduled DC vaccines. Significant CD8+ and/or CD4+ MART-1-specific T-cell responses were observed in 6/11 and 2/4 patients evaluated, respectively, indicating that the E1-deleted adenovirus encoding the cDNA for MART-1/Melan-A (AdVMART1)/DC vaccine activated both helper and killer T cells in vivo. Responses in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells to additional antigens were noted in 2 patients. The AdVMART1-transduced DC vaccine was safe and immunogenic in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  20. Potential for long-term seed storage for ex situ genetic conservation of high elevation white pine species – whitebark pine and foxtail pine case study

    Treesearch

    R.A. Sniezko; A.J. Kegley

    2017-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and foxtail pine (P. balfouriana) are conifers native to western North America. Due to several threats, including a non-native pathogen (Cronartium ribicola) and a changing climate, whitebark pine and foxtail pine are classified on the IUCN Red List as ‘endangered’ and ‘...

  1. The importance of shortleaf pine for wildlife and diversity in mixed oak-pine forests and in pine-grassland woodlands

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. Masters

    2007-01-01

    Shortleaf pine, by virtue of its wide distribution and occurrence in many forest types in eastern North America, is an important species that provides high habitat value for many wildlife species. Shortleaf pine functions as a structural habitat element in both mixed oak-pine forests and in pine-grassland woodlands. It also adds diversity throughout all stages of plant...

  2. Restoration planting options for limber pines impacted by mountain pine beetles and/or white pine blister rust in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Anne Marie Casper; William R. Jacobi; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    Limber Pine (Pinus flexilis) populations in the southern Rock Mountains are severely threatened by the combined impacts of mountain pine beetles and white pine blister rust. Limber pine’s critical role these high elevation ecosystems heightens the importance of mitigating impacts. To develop forest-scale planting methods six seedling planting trial sites were installed...

  3. Slash pine rootwood in flakeboard

    Treesearch

    Elaine T. Howard

    1974-01-01

    Flakes 3 inches along the grain, 3/8-inch wide, and 0.02 inch thick were machined from the taproots (with 6-inch-high stump) and second logs of eight 31-year old slash pines. Specific gravity (O.D. weght, green volume) of stems averages 0.52; rootwood averaged 0.43 and decreased sharply with depth below ground. Forty-four-lb./cu. ft. structural-type particleboards were...

  4. Slash pine rootwood in flakeboard

    Treesearch

    E.T. Howard

    1974-01-01

    Flakes 3 Inches along the grain. 3/8-inch wide, and 0.02 inch thick were machined from the taproots (with 6-inch-high stump) and second logs at eight 31-year-old slash pines. Specific gravity (O.D. weight, green volume) of stems averaged 0.52; rootwood averaged 0.43 and decreased sharply with depth below ground. Forty-four-lb./cu. ft. structural-type particleboards...

  5. Tall oil precursors in three western pines: ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pine

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.H.; Diehl, M.A.; Rowe, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The nonvolatile diethyl ether extracts (NVEE) from ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pines were analyzed to determine the amounts and chemical composition of the tall oil precursors (resin acids, fatty acids, and nonsaponifiables) and turpentine precursors available from these species. The results showed that crude tall oil compositions would be approximately as follows (% resin acids, % fatty acids, % nonsaponifiables); ponderosa pine - sapwood (15, 75, 10), heartwood (78, 7, 15); lodgepole pine - sapwood (24, 57, 19), heartwood (51, 26, 23); limber pine - sapwood (10, 82, 8), heartwood (23, 60, 17). The larger nonsaponifiables content, as compared to southern pines, is the major factor in explaining the greater difficulty in the distillative refining of tall oil from these western species. Eight resin acids were found in ponderosa and lodgepole pine: palustric, isopimaric, abietic, dehydroabietic, and neoabietic acids predominated. Seven resin acids were identified from limber pine: anticopalic, isopimaric, abietic, and dehydroabietic acids predominated. The free and esterfied fatty acids from these species contained predominantly oleic and linoleic acids. In addition limber pine contained major amounts of 5, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acid. The nonsaponifiables contained mostly diterpenes and the sterols, sitosterol and campesterol. The major turpentine components were: ponderosa pine - ..beta..-pinene and 3-carene; lodgepole pine - ..beta..-phellandrene; and limber pine - 3-carene, ..beta..-phellandrene, ..cap alpha..-piene, and ..beta..-pinene.

  6. Fire effects in northeastern forests: red pine.

    Treesearch

    Cary Rouse

    1988-01-01

    Fire and red pine are closely associated. Fires can provide red pine with the mineral soil and freedom from competition it needs to become well established. Fire can also be used to control pests, increase tree growth, enhance aesthetics, and improve wildlife habitat.

  7. Slash pine: characteristics, history, status, and trends

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett; Raymond M. Sheffield

    2004-01-01

    Slash pine is the premier tree species on many sites throughout the South. Its ease of establishment and early growth, however, has extended its range to many sites where its performance has been less than ideal. For that reason, the acreage and volume of slash pine are declining. Nonetheless, it will continue to be the favored species on many sites where it is the...

  8. Ecological Impacts of Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Maria D. Tchakerian; Robert N. Coulson

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most important biotic disturbance in southern pine forests and causes extensive changes to the forest environment. In this chapter we provide an overview of the ecological impacts of the SPB on forest conditions (the state of the forest) and on forest resources (uses and values associated with the forest). We define ecological...

  9. Grading sugar pine saw logs in trees.

    Treesearch

    John W. Henley

    1972-01-01

    Small limbs and small overgrown limbs cause problems when grading saw logs in sugar pine trees. Surface characteristics and lumber recovery information for 426 logs from 64 sugar pine trees were examined. Resulting modifications in the grading specification that allow a grader to ignore small limbs and small limb indicators do not appear to decrease the performance of...

  10. Regional Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) Natural Regeneration

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1998-01-01

    Duration: 1968-present Objective: Test the shelterwood system of longleaf pine natural regeneration. Methods: Longleaf pine natural regeneration tests were established from 1966 through 1970 at ten locations in seven states from North Carolina to Louisiana. One of these was established on a 50-acre flatwoods site on Eglin AFB in 1968. Regeneration was initially...

  11. Availability of yellow pine sawtimber in Alabama

    Treesearch

    William H. McWilliams

    1991-01-01

    Alabama's timberland supports 76.2 billion board feet of sawtimber (International 1/4-inch Rule), of which 55 percent is contributed by yellow pine species. Currently, yellow pine sawtimber volume totals 41.8 billion board feet. The recent inventory conducted by the USDA-Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis Unit (SO-...

  12. Field Planting Containerized Longleaf Pine Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Dale R. Larson

    2002-01-01

    The difficulty in establishing stands of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) by artificial regeneration techniques has been a major factor in the decline of the number of acres occupied by this species in the Southeast. Many landowners and managers have been reluctant to plant longleaf because of its history of poor survival. Loblolly pine (

  13. Spread of dwarfmistletoe into Jeffrey pine plantation..

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Scarpf; J.R. Parmeter

    1967-01-01

    A study at the Institute of Forest Genetics, Placerville. Calif . showed that dwarfmistletoe could spread from infected overstory ponderosa pine into planted Jeffrey pine--a maximum distance of about 145 feet. About one-third of the trees within this distance were infected after 22 years. The level of infection in the trees remained low. however and the parasite had...

  14. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Mark E.

    2003-02-01

    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  15. Developing blister rust resistance in white pines

    Treesearch

    Bohun B. Kinloch Jr.

    2000-01-01

    After a century since introduction to North America from Europe, white pine blister rust, caused by Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch., is recognized as one of the catastrophic plant disease epidemics in history. It has not yet stabilized and continues to spread and intensify. Its nine native white pine hosts comprise major timber producers, important...

  16. Sequence of the Sugar Pine Megagenome

    Treesearch

    Kristian A. Stevens; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Aleksey Zimin; Daniela Puiu; Marc Crepeau; Charis Cardeno; Robin Paul; Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas; Maxim Koriabine; Ann E. Holtz-Morris; Pedro J. Martínez-García; Uzay U. Sezen; Guillaume Marçais; Kathie Jermstad; Patrick E. McGuire; Carol A. Loopstra; John M. Davis; Andrew Eckert; Pieter de Jong; James A. Yorke; Steven L. Salzberg; David B. Neale; Charles H. Langley

    2016-01-01

    Until very recently, complete characterization of the megagenomes of conifers has remained elusive. The diploid genome of sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) has a highly repetitive, 31 billion bp genome. It is the largest genome sequenced and assembled to date, and the first from the subgenus Strobus, or white pines, a group...

  17. Utilization of the Southern Pines - Volume 1

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1972-01-01

    The southern pines comprise the primary softwood timber species in the United States. Further, their relative importance is increasing. It is estimated that by the year 2000, 51 percent of the softwood used in this country will come from the South (USDA Forest Service 1965, p. 112). These pines occupy about 20 percent of the 509 million acres of commercial forest land...

  18. Underplanting shortleaf pine in the Missouri Ozarks

    Treesearch

    Jason Jensen; Cliff Smith; Mark Johanson; David Gwaze

    2007-01-01

    A study was established on Clearwater Conservation Area in the Missouri Ozarks in which shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) seedlings were underplanted in mature mixed oak and oak/pine stands. Overstory trees were harvested a few months after planting, leaving different levels of residual overstory stocking. The different overstory treatments...

  19. High elevation white pines educational website

    Treesearch

    Anna W. Schoettle; Michele Laskowski

    2011-01-01

    The high elevation five-needle white pines are facing numerous challenges ranging from climate change to invasion by a non-native pathogen to escalation of pest outbreaks. This website (http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/highelevationwhitepines/) serves as a primer for managers and the public on the high elevation North American five-needle pines. It presents information on each...

  20. Many ways to manage lodgepole pine forests

    Treesearch

    Lucia Solorzano

    1997-01-01

    Research underway at the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest near White Sulphur Springs will provide insights on how to sustain lodgepole pine forests and water flow patterns over large areas. Lodgepole pine dominates a high percentage of forests in the northern Rocky Mountains. including the Bitterroot National Forest. About half the stands at Tenderfoot are two-aged...

  1. Financial analysis of pruning ponderosa pine.

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Fight; Natalie A. Bolon; James M. Cahill

    1992-01-01

    A recent lumber recovery study of pruned and unpruned ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) was used to project the financial return from pruning ponderosa pine in the Medford District of the Bureau of Land Management and in the Ochoco and Deschutes National Forests. The cost of pruning at which the investment would yield an expected 4-...

  2. Second-growth western white pine stands

    Treesearch

    Richard F. Watt

    1960-01-01

    The western white pine type is the most valuable timber cover type of the Inland Empire. The large volumes per acre, greater than those found in any associated type, and the high value of the type species, western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.), combine to give stumpage returns that greatly exceed those of other regional types, lagging in the mountainous country...

  3. Longleaf Pine: Natural Regeneration and Management

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1999-01-01

    Longleaf pine has long been recognized as a high-quality timber tree providing a number of valuable products. It is a versatile species with characteristics allowing the use of several silvicultural options. Both natural and artificial regeneration of longleaf pine are now practical management options. Natural regeneration is a lowcost alternative whenever sufficient...

  4. Survey of microsatellite DNA in pine

    Treesearch

    Craig S. Echt; P. May-Marquardt

    1997-01-01

    A large insert genomic library from eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) was probed for the microsatellite motifs (AC)n and (AG)n, all 10 trinucleotide motifs, and 22 of the 33 possible tetranucleotide motifs. For comparison with a species from a different subgenus, a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) genomic...

  5. Regenerating the Natural Longleaf Pine Forest

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1979-01-01

    Natural regeneration by the shldterwood system is a reliable, low-cost alternative for existing longleaf pine (Pine palustris Mill.) forests. The system is well suited to the nautral attributes and requirements of the species. It may be attractive to landownders wishing to retain a natural forest and aboid high costs of site preparation and...

  6. Risk Assessment for the Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Andrew Birt

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) causes significant damage (tree mortality) to pine forests. Although this tree mortality has characteristic temporal and spatial patterns, the precise location and timing of damage is to some extent unpredictable. Consequently, although forest managers are able to identify stands that are predisposed to SPB damage, they are unable to...

  7. Guidelines for producing quality longleaf pine seeds

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett; John M. McGilvray

    2002-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seeds are sensitive to damage during collection, processing, treatment, and storage. High-quality seeds are essential for successfully producing nursery crops that meet management goals and perform well in the field. Uniformity in the production of pine seedlings primarily depends on prompt and uniform seed...

  8. Estimating Slash Quantity from Standing Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Dale D. Wade

    1969-01-01

    No significant difference were found between variances of two prediction equations for estimating loblolly pine crown weight from diameter breast height (d.b.h). One equation was developed from trees on the Georgia Piedmont and the other from tress on the South Carolina Coastal Plain. An equation and table are presented for estimating loblolly pine slash weights from...

  9. Trends in shortleaf pine tree improvement

    Treesearch

    Robert N. Kitchens

    1986-01-01

    Tree improvement programs of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) have developed over the past 25 years to the point that virtually all demand for planting stock is met with genetically improved trees. About 22,600 acres of improved stock are planted each year. Although shortleaf has the largest geographic range of any southern pine, it is not being promoted in...

  10. Diprionidae sawflies on lodgepole and ponderosa pines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eight species of Diprionidae feed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) in western United States: Neodiprion burkei Middleton, N. annulus contortae Ross, N. autumnalis Smith, N. fulviceps (Cresson), N. gillettei (Rohwer), N. mundus Rohwer, N. ventralis Ross, and Zadi...

  11. Heart rot of Virginia pine in Maryland

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Fenton; Frederick H. Berry

    1956-01-01

    Loggers and sawmill men have been wary of purchasing Virginia pine sawtimber. They point out that a heart rot, locally called "red heart, may spell the difference between profit and loss on a logging job. It is difficult to detect this rot in standing Virginia pine. It is even harder to estimate the volume loss. And total losses can be determined only after...

  12. Pine pollens frozen five years produce seed

    Treesearch

    R.Z. Callaham; R.J. Steinhoff

    1966-01-01

    Deep-freezing of pine pollen offers a means of prolonging its storage life. Early work showed that pollen could be frozen without losing its viability. A study was started in 1958 at the Institute of Forest Genetics at Placerville to determine how long frozen pollen of several pines would remain viable. This paper reports in vitro germination and in vivo seed...

  13. Whitebark Pine Guidelines for Planting Prescriptions

    Treesearch

    Glenda L. Scott; Ward W. McCaughey

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations and presents a set of guidelines for outplanting prescriptions. When planting whitebark pine, the recommendations are: 1) reduce overstory competition; 2) reduce understory vegetation, especially grasses...

  14. Tolerance of loblolly pine seedlings to glyphosate

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood; Thomas W. Melder

    1990-01-01

    Broadcasting glyphosate herbicide over loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) may provide enough early-season weed control to allow seedlings to establish themselves more rapidly, but glyphosate can, injure young trees. To examine the question of seedling injury, four rates of glyphosate were broadcast evenly over planted loblolly pine seedlings, competing...

  15. Performance of shortleaf pine provenances in Missouri

    Treesearch

    David Gwaze; Jennifer Myszewski; John Kabrick

    2007-01-01

    Two shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) provenance tests established by the USDA Forest Service North Central Research Station as part of the South-wide Southern Pine Seed Source Study were examined to determine the most suitable seed sources for planting in Missouri. Each test comprised seven different provenances from six to seven states in the...

  16. A Guide to Southern Pine Seed Sources

    Treesearch

    Clark W. Lantz; John F. Kraus

    1987-01-01

    The selection of an appropriate seed source is critical for successful southern pine plantations. Guides for selection of seed sources are presented for loblolly, slash, longleaf, Virginia, shortleaf, and sand pines. Separate recommendations are given for areas where fusiform-rust hazard is high.

  17. Management of ponderosa pine nutrition through fertilization

    Treesearch

    Mariann T. Garrison-Johnston; Terry M. Shaw; Peter G. Mika; Leonard R. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The results of a series of replicated fertilization trials established throughout the Inland Northwest were reviewed for information specific to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. and C. Lawson) nutrition. Ponderosa pine nitrogen (N) status was often better than the N-status of other Inland Northwest species, and therefore growth response to N...

  18. Second-growth white pine in Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    S.R. Gervorkiantz; Raphael. Zon

    1930-01-01

    If white pine forests are to be made an important source of timber in the state either through planting or the proper handling of stands already established, it is essential to have the facts regarding the commercial possibilities of this tree. The facts which must be ascertained first of all are, how long does it take white pine to become merchantable, and what are...

  19. Shortleaf Pine Seed Production in the Piedmont

    Treesearch

    David L. Bramlett

    1965-01-01

    Shortleaf pine occupies millions of acres of commercial forest land in the Southeastern United States and is one of the preferred pine species throughout much of its range. Natural regeneration of this species after harvest, however, is a major problem for forest managers. Adequate seed production is the first requirement of successful natural regeneration, and annual...

  20. Fuel accumulations in Piedmont loblolly pine plantations

    Treesearch

    Ernst V. Brender; W. Henry McNab; Shelton Williams

    1976-01-01

    Weight of minor vegetation under unthinned loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations was closely related to stand age and basal area stocking. Weight of this vegetation peaked 3 years after clearcutting and planting, then diminished as the pine canopy became denser. Forest floor weight increased steadily through age 23, when it began to level off. Equilibrium forest...

  1. Predators of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    John D. Reeve

    2011-01-01

    This chapter of the Southern Pine Beetle II reviews the overall influence of predators on southern pine beetle (SPB) population dynamics, as well as recent research on specific predators such as the clerid beetle Thanasimus dubius. Several lines of evidence suggest that predators and other natural enemies generate significant SPB mortality that contributes to outbreak...

  2. Survey of microsatellite DNA in pine

    Treesearch

    C. S. Echt; P. May-Marquardt

    1997-01-01

    A large insert genomic library from eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) was probed for the microsatellite motifs (AC)n and (AG)n, all 10 trinucleotide motifs, and 22 of the 33 possible tetranucleotide motifs. For comparison with a species from a different subgenus, a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  3. Brown-Spot Needle Blight of Pines

    Treesearch

    W.R. Phelps; A.G. Kais; T.H. Nicholls

    1978-01-01

    Brown-spot needle blight, caused by Scirrhia acicola (Dearn.) Siggers, delays growth and causes mortality of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). Brown spot reduces total annual growth of southern pines by more than 16 million cubic feet (0.453 million cubic meters) of timber. Damage is most severe on longleaf seedlings in the grass stage; i.e., those that have not...

  4. Heat sterilization times of red pine boards

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the time required to heat the center of red pine boards to various temperatures for sterilization. This information will serve as a guideline for those concerned with heat sterilizing wood pallets and other wood shipping containers to meet heat treatment requirements for protection against invasive pests. Red pine boards, 4...

  5. History of pine wilt disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Y

    1988-04-01

    Pine wilt disease induced by the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a great threat to pine forests in Japan. The first occurrence of the disease was reported in Nagasaki, Kyushu. During the 1930s the disease occurrence was extended in 12 prefectures, and in the 1940s the disease was found in 34 prefectures. The annual loss of pine trees increased from 30,000 m(3) to 1.2 million m(3) during these two decades. The enormous increase in timber loss in the 1970s resulted in 2.4 million m(3) of annual loss in 1979. The affected area expanded into 45 prefectures of 47 prefectures in Japan. In cool areas the disease differs in epidemiology from that in heavily infested areas in the warm regions. A national project for controlling pine wilt disease lays special emphasis on the healthy pine forests predominating throughout cool areas in northern Japan.

  6. Pine nut allergy: clinical features and major allergens characterization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pine nuts, the seeds of pine trees, are widely used for human consumption in Europe, America, and Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to pine nut in a large number of patients with details of clinical reactions, and to characterize major pine nut allergens. Th...

  7. HOW to Identify and Minimize Red Pine Shoot Moth Damage

    Treesearch

    Steven Katovich; David J. Hall

    1992-01-01

    The red pine shoot moth, Dioryctria resinosella, feeds on newly expanding shoots and cones of red pine, Pinus resinosa. Damage has been reported from Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and southern Ontario. The red pine shoot moth is now considered a pest due to the large increase in the number and overall acreage of red pine plantations greater than 20 years of...

  8. White pine blister rust resistance research in Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    Andrew David; Paul Berrang; Carrie Pike

    2012-01-01

    The exotic fungus Cronartium ribicola causes the disease white pine blister rust on five-needled pines throughout North America. Although the effects of this disease are perhaps better known on pines in the western portion of the continent, the disease has also impacted regeneration and growth of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. ...

  9. Gypsy moth impacts in pine-hardwood mixtures

    Treesearch

    Kurt W. Gottschalk; Mark J. Twery

    1989-01-01

    Gypsy moth has affected pine-hardwood mixtures, especially oak-pine stands, since the late 1800's. Several old and new studies on impacts in mixed stands are reviewed. When pines are heavily defoliated, considerable growth loss and mortality can occur. Mortality is heaviest in understory white pine trees, Impact information is used to suggest silvicultural...

  10. Estimating red pine site index in northern Minnesota.

    Treesearch

    David H. Alban

    1976-01-01

    Methods are presented for estimating red pine site index from the height growth of red pine, site index of several associated species (jack pine, white pine, white spruce, or quaking aspen), and from easily measured soil properties. The restrictions and limitations of each method and their relative precision are discussed.

  11. Biogeography and diversity of pines in the Madrean Archipelago

    Treesearch

    George M. Ferguson; Aaron D. Flesch; Thomas R. Van Devender

    2013-01-01

    Pines are important dominants in pine-oak, pine and mixed-conifer forests across the Colorado Plateau, southern Rocky Mountains, Sierra Madre Occidental, and in the intervening Sky Islands of the United States-Mexico borderlands. All 17 native species of pines in the Sky Islands region or their adjacent mountain mainlands reach the northern or southern margins of their...

  12. White pine blister rust in the interior Mountain West

    Treesearch

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Dave Conklin; Brian Geils; Jim Hoffman; Marcus Jackson; William Jacobi; Holly Kearns; Anna Schoettle

    2010-01-01

    White pine blister rust is an exotic, invasive disease of white, stone, and foxtail pines (also referred to as white pines or five-needle pines) in the genus Pinus and subgenus Strobus (Price and others 1998). Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes WPBR, requires an alternate host - currants and gooseberries in the genus Ribes and species of Pedicularis...

  13. The health of loblolly pine stands at Fort Benning, GA

    Treesearch

    Soung-Ryoul Ryu; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW) groups at Fort Benning, GA, depend on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands for nesting or foraging. However, loblolly pine stands are suspected to decline. Forest managers want to replace loblolly pine with longleaf pine (P. palustris...

  14. Western yellow pine in Arizona and New Mexico

    Treesearch

    Theodore S. Woolsey

    1911-01-01

    Western yellow pine is to the Southwest what white pine is to the Northeast, or longleaf pine to the Southeast. The commercial forests of Arizona and New Mexico are three-fourths western yellow pine, which furnishes by far the greater part of the lumber used locally as well as that shipped to outside markets. To describe the characteristics of the species and to...

  15. Factors affecting early seedling development in whole pine tree substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wood-based materials derived from pine trees, such as processed whole pine tree (WPT), can be a viable option for producers looking to offset pine bark or peatmoss usage in container substrates. Reduced root development of stem cuttings rooted in WPT compared with pine bark (PB) has been observed, b...

  16. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale... Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Pine Mountain...

  17. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale... Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Pine Mountain...

  18. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale... Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Pine Mountain...

  19. Forest development and carbon dynamics after mountain pine beetle outbreaks

    Treesearch

    E. Matthew. Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetles periodically infest pine forests in western North America, killing many or most overstory pine stems. The surviving secondary stand structure, along with recruited seedlings, will form the future canopy. Thus, even-aged pine stands become multiaged and multistoried. The species composition of affected stands will depend on the presence of nonpines...

  20. State of pine decline in the southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Lori Eckhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Don Imm

    2010-01-01

    Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly...

  1. A Bäcklund transformation between the four-dimensional Martínez Alonso-Shabat and Ferapontov-Khusnutdinova equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglikov, B. S.; Morozov, O. I.

    2016-09-01

    We find a Bäcklund transformation between the four-dimensional Martínez Alonso-Shabat and Ferapontov-Khusnutdinova equations. We also discuss an integrable deformation of the Martínez Alonso-Shabat equation.

  2. Identification of epitope mimics recognized by CTL reactive to the melanoma/melanocyte-derived peptide MART-1(27-35)

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    CTL reactivity to the epitope MART-1(27-35), of the melanoma (self) antigen MART-1/melan A is frequently observed in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and may be readily elicited from the peripheral blood of melanoma patients that express HLA-A*0201. Available data suggest that these observations contrast with those made for other HLA-A*0201- presented melanoma self antigens regarding the regularity of observed CTL responses. Based on preliminary findings, we hypothesized that the CTL response to MART-1 might be augmented in part by T cell encounters with peptides derived from sources other than MART-1, which show sequence similarity to MART-1(27-35). To test this idea, a protein database search for potential MART-1 epitope mimics was done using criteria developed from analyses of effector recognition of singly- substituted peptide analogues of MART-1(27-35). Synthetic peptides were made for a portion of the sequences retrieved; 12/40 peptides tested were able to sensitize target cells for lysis by one or more anti-MART- 1 effectors. The peptides recognized correspond to sequences occurring in a variety of proteins of viral, bacterial, and human (self) origin. One peptide derives from glycoprotein C of the common pathogen HSV-1; cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus encoding native glycoprotein C were lysed by anti-MART-1 effectors. Our results overall indicate that sequences conforming to the A2.1 binding motif and possessing features essential to recognition by anti-MART-1 CTL occur frequently in proteins. These findings further suggest that T cells might encounter a variety of such sequences in vivo, and that epitope mimicry may play a role in modulating the CTL response to MART-1(27-35). PMID:8760818

  3. PCDD/Fs accumulation in pine needles: variation with species and pine needle age.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jun; Chen, Pei; Peng, Ping'an

    2016-01-01

    Pine needles have been used for many decades as a cheap and convenient biosampler to monitor atmospheric levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), collectively known as PCDD/Fs. However, it is unknown whether accumulation of PCDD/Fs varies according to pine tree species or pine needle age, which hampers the precise application of this biosampler. We collected 0.3-2.3-year-old pine needles from four different species of pine at three sites in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, China. The PCDD/Fs were quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry. The results show that Pinus massoniana and Cedrus deodara absorbed more PCDD/Fs than Pinus thunbergii and Pinus parviflora at the same site. More cuticular wax and cuticular cell secretions in the pine needles from P. massoniana and C. deodara, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), might explain this discrepancy. The PCDD/Fs concentrations in 0.3-, 1.3-, and 2.3-year-old pine needles, indicated that concentrations increase with ascending age. This may be ascribed to the enhancement of lipids and cuticular waxes with age in pine needles as indicated by the lipid contents and morphologies observed by SEM. Our results may be useful for selecting the species and age of pine needles used for biosampling, especially for monitoring PCDD/Fs in large areas where the pine species growing in one place may differ from those in another place.

  4. Scientific designs of pine seeds and pine cones for species conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    Reproduction and propagation of species are the most important missions of every living organism. For effective species propagation, pine cones fold their scales under wet condition to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. They open and release their embedded seeds on dry and windy days. In this study, the micro-/macro-scale structural characteristics of pine cones and pine seeds are studied using various imaging modalities. Since the scales of pine cones consist of dead cells, the folding motion is deeply related to structural changes. The scales of pine cones consist of three layers. Among them, bract scales are only involved in collecting water. This makes pine cones reduce the amount of water and minimize the time spent on structural changes. These systems also involve in drying and recovery of pine cones. In addition, pine cones and pine seeds have advantageous structures for long-distance dispersal and response to natural disaster. Owing to these structural features, pine seeds can be released safely and efficiently, and these types of structural advantages could be mimicked for practical applications. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract grant number: 2008-0061991).

  5. Needle asymmetry, pine vigour and pine selection by the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan José; Soler, Manuel

    2008-03-01

    Developmental stability reflects the ability of a genotype to control stable development of a specific phenotype under a wide range of environmental conditions. Developmentally unstable phenotypes can be recognised by deviations from bilateral symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits and, because asymmetry might reflect nutritional quality of leaves for phytophagous insects, they therefore may base plant selection depending on leaf asymmetry. In this article we study such hypothetical relationships occurring between Aleppo pine ( Pinus halepensis) and pine-host selection by the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae). Needle length of Aleppo pines indicated directional asymmetry and, as the hypothesis of developmental stability predicts, relative asymmetry was negatively related to needle length and positively to pine growth in height. Moreover, relative asymmetry proved to be negatively related to concentration of limonene, a defensive monoterpene that affects pine selection by adult female moths. In terms of growth, pine variation in needle length can be explained by the increase in volume of the pines from one to the next year, with smaller needles appearing in the pines that most increased their volume and those that least increased their height. Finally, as expected from a phytophagous insect that selects plants in relation to nutritional characteristics and level of chemical defence against herbivorous, the pine processionary moths selectively oviposited in the trees with the largest and most asymmetric needles. With these results, two of the main hypotheses that explain plant selection, plant-stress and plant-vigour hypotheses are discussed.

  6. Phylogenetics of Lophodermium from pine.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-García, Sol; Gernandt, David S; Stone, Jeffrey K; Johnston, Peter R; Chapela, Ignacio H; Salas-Lizana, Rodolfo; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2003-01-01

    Lophodermium comprises ascomycetous fungi that are both needle-cast pathogens and asymptomatic endophytes on a diversity of plant hosts. It is distinguished from other genera in the family Rhytismataceae by its filiform ascospores and ascocarps that open by a longitudinal slit. Nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to infer phylogenetic relationships within Lophodermium. Twenty-nine sequences from approximately 11 species of Lophodermium were analyzed together with eight sequences from isolates thought to represent six other genera of Rhytismataceae: Elytroderma, Lirula, Meloderma, Terriera, Tryblidiopsis and Colpoma. Two putative Meloderma desmazieresii isolates occurred within the Lophodermium clade but separate from one another, one grouped with L. indianum and the other with L. nitens. An isolate of Elytroderma deformans also occurred within the Lophodermium clade but on a solitary branch. The occurrence of these genera within the Lophodermium clade might be due to problems in generic concepts in Rhytismataceae, such as emphasis on spore morphology to delimit genera, to difficulty of isolating Rhytismataceae needle pathogens from material that also is colonized by Lophodermium or to a combination of both factors. We also evaluated the congruence of host distribution and several morphological characters on the ITS phylogeny. Lophodermium species from pine hosts formed a monophyletic sister group to Lophodermium species from more distant hosts from the southern hemisphere, but not to L. piceae from Picea. The ITS topology indicated that Lophodermium does not show strict cospeciation with pines at deeper branches, although several closely related isolates have closely related hosts. Pathogenic species occupy derived positions in the pine clade, suggesting that pathogenicity has evolved from endophytism. A new combination is proposed, Terriera minor (Tehon) P.R. Johnst.

  7. Hybridization in naturally regenerated shortleaf pine as affected by the distance to nearby artificially regenerated stands of loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    John F. Stewart; Charles G. Tauer; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson

    2013-01-01

    The natural range of shortleaf pine encompasses 22 states from New York to Texas, second only to eastern white pine in the eastern United States. It is a species of minor and varying occurrence in most of these states usually found in association with other pines, but it is the only naturally occurring pine in the northwestern part of its range in Oklahoma, Arkansas,...

  8. Hybridization Leads to Loss of Genetic Integrity in Shortleaf Pine: Unexpected Consequences of Pine Management and Fire Suppression

    Treesearch

    Charles G. Tauer; John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Curtis J. Lilly; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine is causing loss of genetic integrity (the tendency of a population to maintain its genotypes over generations) in shortleaf pine, a species already exhibiting dramatic declines due to land-use changes. Recent findings indicate hybridization has increased in shortleaf pine stands from 3% during the 1950s to 45% for...

  9. Histological observations on needle colonization by Cronartium ribicola in susceptible and resistant seedlings of whitebark pine and limber pine

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey Stone; Anna Schoettle; Richard Sniezko; Angelia Kegley

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to white pine blister rust based on a hypersensitive response (HR) that is conferred by a dominant gene has been identified as functioning in needles of blister rust-resistant families of sugar pine, western white pine and southwestern white pine. The typical HR response displays a characteristic local necrosis at the site of infection in the needles during...

  10. Non-Ribes alternate hosts of white pine blister rust: What this discovery means to whitebark pine

    Treesearch

    Paul J. Zambino; Bryce A. Richardson; Geral I. McDonald; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook. Kim

    2006-01-01

    From early to present-day outbreaks, white pine blister rust caused by the fungus Cronartium ribicola, in combination with mountain pine beetle outbreaks and fire exclusion has caused ecosystem-wide effects for all five-needled pines (McDonald and Hoff 2001). To be successful, efforts to restore whitebark pine will require sound management decisions that incorporate an...

  11. Natural hybridization within seed sources of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Treesearch

    Shiqin Xu; C.G. Tauer; C. Dana Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Shortleaf and loblolly pine trees (n=93 and 102, respectively) from 22 seed sources of the Southwide Southern Pine Seed Source Study plantings or equivalent origin were evaluated for amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) variation. These sampled trees represent shortleaf pine and loblolly pine, as they existed across their native geographic ranges before...

  12. Fire and stand history in two limber pine (Pinus flexilis) and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) stands in Colorado

    Treesearch

    Peter M. Brown; Anna W. Schoettle

    2008-01-01

    We developed fire-scar and tree-recruitment chronologies from two stands dominated by limber pine and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine in central and northern Colorado. Population structures in both sites exhibit reverse-J patterns common in uneven-aged forests. Bristlecone pine trees were older than any other at the site or in the limber pine stand, with the oldest...

  13. Effectiveness of Esfenvalerate, Cyfluthrin, and Carbaryl in Protecting Individual Lodgepole Pines and Ponderosa Pines from Attack by Dendroctonus spp.

    Treesearch

    Michael I. Haverty; Patrick J. Shea; James T. Hoffman; John M. Wenz; Kenneth E. Gibson

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of registered and experimental application rates of insecticides esfenvalerate (Asana XL), cyfluthrin (Tempo WP and Tempo 2), and carbaryl (Sevimol and Sevin SL) was assessed for protection of individual high-value lodgepole pines from mountain pine beetles in Montana and ponderosa pines from western pine beetles in Idaho and California. This field...

  14. Regeneration of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) three decades after stand-replacing fires

    Treesearch

    Jonathan D. Coop; Anna W. Schoettle

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are important highelevation pines of the southern Rockies that are forecast to decline due to the recent spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) into this region. Proactive management strategies to promote the evolution of rust resistance and maintain ecosystem function...

  15. A mitogenomic phylogeny and genetic history of sable (Martes zibellina).

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina

    2014-10-15

    We assessed phylogeny of sable (Martes zibellina, Linnaeus, 1758) by sequence analysis of nearly complete, new mitochondrial genomes in 36 specimens from different localities in northern Eurasia (Primorye, Khabarovsk and Krasnoyarsk regions, the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands and the Urals). Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences demonstrates that two clades, A and BC, radiated about 200-300 thousandyears ago (kya) according to results of Bayesian molecular clock and RelTime analyses of different mitogenome alignments (nearly complete mtDNA sequences, protein-coding region, and synonymous sites), while the age estimates of clades A, B and C fall within the Late Pleistocene (~50-140 kya). Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of sable population size change based on analysis of nearly complete mtDNAs show an expansion around 40 kya in the warm Karganian time, without a decline of population size around the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kya). The BSPs based on synonymous clock rate indicate that M. zibellina experienced demographic expansions later, approximately 22 kya. The A2a clade that colonized Kamchatka ~23-50 kya (depending on the mutation rate used) survived the last glaciation there as demonstrated by the BSP analysis. In addition, we have found evidence of positive selection acting at ND4 and cytochrome b genes, thereby suggesting adaptive evolution of the A2a clade in Kamchatka.

  16. Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Bignoniaceae) as an antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Ana Lúcia A; Vieira, Carla J B; Sousa, Daniella G; Oliveira, Regilene F; Castilho, Rachel O

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated, in vitro, the antimicrobial activity of the hexane extract (JCHE), methanol extract (JCME), and chloroform fraction (JCCF) of bark from Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Family Bignoniaceae), a Brazilian medicinal plant, traditionally used as anti-syphilis and anti-gonorrhea treatment. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion method followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. JCHE was not active against the bacteria evaluated. JCME presented antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae with MIC values of 16.3 mg/mL, 9.1 mg/mL, and 25.2 mg/mL, respectively. JCCF was active against Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, S. pyogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes, and N. gonorrhoeae with MIC values of 18.3 mg/mL, 9.3 mg/mL, 6.3 mg/mL, 6.1 mg/mL, 9.2 mg/mL, 6.2 mg/mL, and 25.2 mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical analysis of JCME and JCCF gave positive results for saponins, coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, quinones, alkaloids, triterpenes, and steroids. Verbascoside was isolated and identified as a major peak in JCME and JCCF high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and might contribute to the observed antimicrobial activity.

  17. Antiproliferative activity of Luehea candicans Mart. et Zucc. (Tiliaceae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Dioni A; Alves, Vanessa G; Franco, Danielle M M; Ribeiro, Laryssa C; de Souza, Maria C; Kato, Lucilia; de Carvalho, João E; Kohn, Luciana K; de Oliveira, Cecília M A; da Silva, Cleuza C

    2012-01-01

    Luehea candicans Mart. et Zucc. (Tiliaceae) is known as 'açoita-cavalo' and is one of the most important medicinal plants found in the Brazilian cerrado. The crude methanolic extracts of the branches and leaves and their fractions were evaluated using the following cancer cell lines: MCF-7 (breast), NCI-ADR (breast expressing the multidrug resistance phenotype), NCI-460 (lung), UACC-62 (melanoma), 786-0 (kidney), OVCAR (ovarian), PCO-3 (prostate), HT-29 (colon) and K-562 (leukaemia). The crude methanolic extracts from the branches (B) and leaves (L) were able to inhibit the growth of the K-562 and 786-0 cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, with GI(50) values of 8.1 and 5.4 µg mL(-1), respectively. The hexane (L1), chloroform (L2) and methanol (L4) fractions derived from extract L showed a high selectivity and pronounced cytostatic activity against 786-0 (GI(50) ~ 40 µg mL(-1)). A significant amount of lupeol was isolated from fraction L2. The chloroform (B2) and methanol (B3) fractions derived from extract (B) exhibited less selectivity, showing the highest cytostatic activity against K-562, NCI-ADR, OVCAR, MCF-7 and NCI-460 cells, with GI(50) values between 27 and 40 µg mL(-1). Lupeol, betulin, a mixture of steroids, (-)-epicatechin, vitexin and liriodendrin were isolated from these active fractions.

  18. Rural maternity care: can we learn from Wal-Mart?

    PubMed

    van Teijlingen, E R; Pitchforth, E

    2010-03-01

    In many countries rural maternity care is under threat. Consequently rural pregnant women will have to travel further to attend larger maternity units to receive care and deliver their babies. This trend is not dissimilar from the disappearance of other rural services, such as village shops, banks, post offices and bus services. We use a comparative approach to draw an analogy with large-scale supermarkets, such as the Wal-Mart and Tesco and their effect on the viability of smaller rural shops, depersonalisation of service and the wider community. The closure of a community-maternity unit leads to women attending a different type of hospital with a different approach to maternity care. Thus small community-midwifery units are being replaced, not by a very similar unit that happens to be further away, but by a larger obstetric unit that operates on different models, philosophy and notions of risk. Comparative analysis allows a fresh perspective on the provision of rural maternity services. We argue that previous discussions focusing on medicalisation and change in maternity services can be enhanced by drawing on experience in other sectors and taking a wider societal lens.

  19. The socioeconomic context of the use of Euterpe precatoria Mart. and E. oleracea Mart. in Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Bussmann, Rainer W; Macía, Manuel J

    2017-06-02

    Traditional knowledge (TK) has enabled communities to adapt to changes in life conditions over centuries. However, this local context is being dramatically affected by recent changes through globalization and modernization of societies. In this paper we seek to identify socio-economic factors that are related to the knowledge and use of two palm species in mestizo and indigenous communities in the Amazonian of Peru and Bolivia. Both species are known in the region under the main vernacular name of Asaí, and are source of two highly commercialized resources: palm-hearts and fruits. Euterpe precatoria Mart. is native to the region whereas E. oleracea Mart. is being introduced for the use of both resources. We compare TK about the two Euterpe species in both countries in relation to 14 socioeconomic factors in seven use categories. We performed a Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to elucidate the influence of each socioeconomic factor on the overall palm knowledge or on individual use categories. In the two countries, we found that mestizos, speaking only Spanish, and migrants in the same ecoregion, knew more uses in all use categories for E. precatoria than for E. oleracea, even in use categories such as Medicinal and veterinary and Construction, for which indigenous participants had more uses in case of other species. In Peru, the use of E. precatoria was higher among participants with greater wealth, which could be related to the commercial importance that both the fruits and the palm-hearts have had in the markets of the region. In contrast, in Bolivia, although some income generation from Euterpe sp. was observed, the use of E. precatoria was much more homogeneously distributed. The use of E. oleracea in Bolivia is recent, and although its most important uses are related to the consumption of fruits and palm-hearts (Human food), it is now being slowly used for Medicinal and Construction purposes, similar to E. precatoria. The use of each of the species

  20. Seismic expression of Marts field (Silurian reef) in Sullivan County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Renick, H.J. Jr.; Rene, R.M.; Hester, N.C.; Stanonis, F.L. )

    1989-08-01

    The Marts field of Sullivan County, Indiana, is associated with a Silurian reef that is part of the Terre Haute bank on the eastern flank of the Illinois basin. Gas production has come from Pennsylvanian sandstones at Marts field, and oil is presently being produced from limestones of the Devonian Muscatatuck Group. Hydrocarbons were trapped in the Devonian limestones because of structural drape over the reef. A 2.8-km (1.8-mi) north-south 24-CDP reflection seismic profile across the Marts field was obtained by using a hydraulic-assisted weight drop with a source array interval of 16.7 m (55 ft). The data were digitally processed through statics corrections, deconvolution, stack, and migration. These data clearly image drape in Carboniferous and Devonian strata, a characteristic change in reflection pattern at the reef flanks, and diffractions associated with the reef flanks. Near Marts field, one well penetrates Silurian strata, and a synthetic seismogram for this off-reef well is tied to the seismic section. Using well data from Marts and other reefs, mirror-imaged cross-plots of depths to tops of formations vs. depth to top of the Devonian limestone aid in examination of the drape. These plots of transformed cross sections approximate those of vertically stacked right circular cones indicative of the linear relationships between depths to formations.

  1. A mart-1::Cre transgenic line induces recombination in melanocytes and retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Iraz T; Beermann, Friedrich

    2011-05-01

    The number of transgenic mouse lines expressing Cre in either type of pigment cells (melanocytes and retinal pigment epithelium, RPE) is limited, and the available lines do not always offer sufficient specificity. In this study, we addressed this issue and we report on the generation of a MART-1::Cre BAC transgenic mouse line, in which the expression of Cre recombinase is controlled by regulatory elements of the pigment cell-specific gene MART-1 (mlana). When MART-1::Cre BAC transgenic mice were bred with the ROSA26-R reporter line, ß-galactosidase expression was observed in RPE from E12.5 onwards, and in melanocyte precursors from E17.5, indicating that the MART-1::Cre line provides Cre recombinase activity in pigment-producing cells rather than in a particular lineage. In addition, breeding of this mouse line to mice carrying a conditional allele of RBP-Jκ corroborated the reported phenotypes in both pigment cell lineages, inducing hair greying and microphthalmia. Our results thus suggest, that the MART-1::Cre line may serve as a novel and useful tool for functional studies in melanocytes and the RPE.genesis 49:403-409, 2011.

  2. Deer prefer pine seedlings growing near black locust

    Treesearch

    Walter H. Davidson

    1970-01-01

    The presence of volunteer black locust seems to make some pine species on a bituminous coal spoil more palatable to white-tailed deer. Seedlings of jack pine, pitch pine, and Austrian pine were browsed more heavily when within 10 feet of a black locust than when farther away. The nitrogen produced by the black locust may have caused more succulent tissue in the pines....

  3. [Enhancing development of children at risk and their parents by video counselling according to the Marte Meo method].

    PubMed

    Bünder, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Marte Meo is a low-intensity programme of counselling parents and other persons significantly involved with children which aims to foster parenting capacity and facilitate child development. The article describes a preliminary pilot study with the aim of identifying variables for the future evaluation of efficacy and effectiveness of the Marte Meo method.

  4. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerdau, Manuel; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-08-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, α-pinene and β-pinene, but that Δ-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for α-pinene and β-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Δ-carene.

  5. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerdau, Manual; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, but that Delta-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Delta-carene.

  6. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerdau, Manual; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, but that Delta-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Delta-carene.

  7. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    PubMed

    Hall, Dawn E; Yuen, Macaire M S; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet K; Li, Maria; Henderson, Hannah; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, Roderick T; Chan, Simon K; Cooke, Janice Ek; Breuil, Colette; Jones, Steven Jm; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-05-16

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine.

  8. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  9. Establishing Longleaf Pine Seedlings Under a Loblolly Pine Canopy (User’s Guide)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    pine habitat for the red- cockaded woodpecker (RCW), a species protected by the Endangered Species Act. Although longleaf pine forests provide the...A-1 III List of Tables Table 1. Characteristics of RCW foraging guidelines established in the species recovery plan (U.S. Fish and Wildlife...forested lands that might be considered for restoration have been converted to pine species with faster early growth and better apparent establishment

  10. Southern pine beetle in loblolly pine: simulating within stand interactions using the process model SPBLOBTHIN

    Treesearch

    Brian Strom; J. R. Meeker; J. Bishir; James Roberds; X. Wan

    2016-01-01

    Pine stand density is a key determinant of damage resulting from attacks by the southern pine beetle (SPB, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.). High-density stands of maturing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) are at high risk for losses to SPB, and reducing stand density is the primary tool available to forest managers for preventing and mitigating damage. Field studies are...

  11. Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion.

    PubMed

    Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B

    2014-06-15

    The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Todoruk, Tara M.; Hartley, Ian D.; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig

    2010-01-01

    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand. PMID:28879981

  13. Text data extraction for a prospective, research-focused data mart: implementation and validation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Translational research typically requires data abstracted from medical records as well as data collected specifically for research. Unfortunately, many data within electronic health records are represented as text that is not amenable to aggregation for analyses. We present a scalable open source SQL Server Integration Services package, called Regextractor, for including regular expression parsers into a classic extract, transform, and load workflow. We have used Regextractor to abstract discrete data from textual reports from a number of ‘machine generated’ sources. To validate this package, we created a pulmonary function test data mart and analyzed the quality of the data mart versus manual chart review. Methods Eleven variables from pulmonary function tests performed closest to the initial clinical evaluation date were studied for 100 randomly selected subjects with scleroderma. One research assistant manually reviewed, abstracted, and entered relevant data into a database. Correlation with data obtained from the automated pulmonary function test data mart within the Northwestern Medical Enterprise Data Warehouse was determined. Results There was a near perfect (99.5%) agreement between results generated from the Regextractor package and those obtained via manual chart abstraction. The pulmonary function test data mart has been used subsequently to monitor disease progression of patients in the Northwestern Scleroderma Registry. In addition to the pulmonary function test example presented in this manuscript, the Regextractor package has been used to create cardiac catheterization and echocardiography data marts. The Regextractor package was released as open source software in October 2009 and has been downloaded 552 times as of 6/1/2012. Conclusions Collaboration between clinical researchers and biomedical informatics experts enabled the development and validation of a tool (Regextractor) to parse, abstract and assemble structured data from text

  14. [Manuel Martínez Baez: a very personal opinion on tropical diseases].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Romo, A C

    1993-01-01

    The work of doctor Manuel Martínez Baéz (1894-1987) is very vast and it is clearly related to three different areas of medicine: parasitology, public health and medical sociology, and history of medicine. This work studies an aspect of his ideology concerning public health and social medicine which is related to tropical diseases. The contribution of Martínez Báez to this area was important because he adapted to the reality of underdeveloped countries concepts concerning tropical diseases originated in countries foreign to this problem.

  15. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling early growth in a (longleaf pine x slash pine) x slash pine BC(1) family.

    PubMed

    Weng, C.; Kubisiak, L.; Nelson, D.; Stine, M.

    2002-04-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were employed to map the genome and quantitative trait loci controlling the early growth of a pine hybrid F(1) tree ( Pinus palustris Mill. x P. elliottii Engl.) and a recurrent slash pine tree ( P. elliottii Engl.) in a (longleaf pine x slash pine) x slash pine BC(1) family consisting of 258 progeny. Of the 150 hybrid F(1) parent-specific RAPD markers, 133 were mapped into 17 linkage groups covering a genetic distance of 1,338.2 cM. Of the 116 slash pine parent-specific RAPD markers, 83 were mapped into 19 linkage groups covering a genetic distance of 994.6 cM. A total of 11 different marker intervals were found to be significantly associated with 13 of the 20 traits on height and diameter growth using MAPMAKER/QTL. Nine of the eleven marker intervals were unique to the hybrid parent 488 genome, and two were unique to the recurrent parent 18-27 genome. The amount of phenotypic variance explained by the putative QTLs ranged from 3.6% to 11.0%. Different QTLs were detected at different ages. Two marker intervals from the hybrid parent 488 were found to have QTL by environment interactions.

  16. [Bad aftertaste caused by pine nuts].

    PubMed

    van Dijkhuizen, E H Pieter; Carpay, J A Hans

    2011-01-01

    Dysgeusia caused by the consumption of pine nuts is not widely reported in the medical literature, although much is written about this condition on the Internet. We present the case of a 46-year-old male who complained of metallic and bitter dysgeusia that started 2 days after the ingestion of approximately 70 grams of pine nuts. A literature search revealed only 3 case reports on this subject. In all cases including ours, the complaints began a few days after the ingestion of pine nuts and had spontaneously resolved after a week. No medical sequelae are known, but patients may suffer social consequences. The cause of this condition is unknown. Possible causes include the presence of toxic or inedible components in the pine nuts. Physicians should be aware of this phenomenon in order to be able to reassure patients about this benign disorder.

  17. Chemical Stimulation of Lightwood in Southern Pines.

    Treesearch

    Jack Stubbs; Donald R. Roberts; Kenneth W. Outcalt

    1984-01-01

    A summary of research findings on the use of paraquat to produce resin soaking or bole xylem tissue in southern pines.Concentrations of paraquat, methods of application, expected yields, and likelihood of insect damage after treatment are recommended.

  18. Regeneration of Cutover Jack Pine Stands

    Treesearch

    John W. Benzie

    1968-01-01

    Jack pine can be regenerated on mineral soil seedbeds by scattering cone-bearing branches or repellent-treated seed. On some areas where competition develops, the seedlings may need to be released between the third and fifth years.

  19. Proceedings of the Shortleaf Pine Regeneration Workshop

    Treesearch

    John C. Brissette; James P. Barnett; [Compilers}

    1992-01-01

    This proceedings documents the results of a workshop to develop state-of-the-art information on the regeneration of shortleaf pine. Regeneration by both artificial and natural means is discussed in detail.

  20. Noise abatement in a pine plantation

    Treesearch

    R. E. Leonard; L. P. Herrington

    1971-01-01

    Observations on sound propagation were made in two red pine plantations. Measurements were taken of attenuation of prerecorded frequencies at various distances from the sound source. Sound absorption was strongly dependent on frequencies. Peak absorption was at 500 Hz.

  1. Mite predators of the southern pine beetle

    Treesearch

    John c. Moser

    1975-01-01

    Of 51 mites found with brood of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis zimmermann, and tested in the laboratory, four are primary candidates for use as natural control agents in reducing field infestations: Histiogaster arborsignis Woodring, Proctolaelaps dendroctoni Lindquist & Hunter, ...

  2. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the ponderosa pine type, ponderosa pine and associated species type, and lodgepole pine type.

    Treesearch

    Franklin R. Ward; David V. Sandberg

    1981-01-01

    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Ponderosa Pine Type, Ponderosa Pine and Associated Species Type, Lodgepole Pine Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1976. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-052....

  3. Severe White Pine Blister Rust Infection in Whitebark Pine Alters Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack Density, Emergence Rate, and Body Size.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Edith M; Six, Diana L

    2015-10-01

    Exotic tree pathogens can cause devastating ecological effects on forests that can be exacerbated when infections increase the likelihood of attack by insects. Current high rates of mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) are due to white pine blister rust caused by the exotic fungus, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch, and the native mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). These two mortality agents interact in whitebark pine; mountain pine beetle preferentially selects white pine blister rust-infected whitebark pine over healthy trees, and likelihood of attack has been observed to increase with infection severity. We examined attack and emergence rates, and size and sex ratio of mountain pine beetle in whitebark pines exhibiting varying white pine blister rust infection severities. Mountain pine beetle attack density was lowest on the most severely infected trees, but emergence rates and size of beetles from these trees were greater than those from uninfected and less severely infected trees. Low attack rates on severely infected whitebark pine may indicate these trees have lower defenses and that fewer beetle attacks are needed to kill them. Higher beetle emergence rates from severely infected trees may be due to low intraspecific competition resulting from low attack rates or differences in nutrient quality. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands: Effects of restoration treatments on natural loblolly pine regeneration

    Treesearch

    Ben Knapp; Wang Geoff; Huifeng Hu; Joan Walker; Carsyn Tennant

    2011-01-01

    Historical land use and management practices in the southeastern United States have resulted in the dominance of loblolly pine on many upland sites that historically were occupied by longleaf pine. There is currently much interest in restoring high quality longleaf pine habitats to such areas, but managers may also desire the retention of some existing canopy trees to...

  5. A test of grafting ponderosa pine.

    Treesearch

    Edwin L. Mowat; Roy R. Silen

    1957-01-01

    Cleft grafting ponderosa pine proved best of five methods of vegetative propagation tested for field use in the dry hot climate of eastern Oregon. Ponderosa pine has been successfully grafted under many conditions elsewhere, but first trials in this area during 1955 were a failure. This study was made in 1956 at the U.S. Forest Service nursery at Bend, Oreg., to find a...

  6. Southern Pine Beetle Population Dynamics in Trees

    Treesearch

    Fred M. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Successful mass attack of a pine tree by the southern pine beetle (SPB) results in the tree’s death and provides opportunity for colonization of the new phloem resource and reproduction by a new generation of SPBs plus hundreds of associated species of insects, mites, fungi, and nematodes. The within-tree portions of the SPB life history can be divided into component...

  7. Steam-bending properties of southern pine

    Treesearch

    Truett J. Lemoine; Peter Koch

    1971-01-01

    Southern pine wood can be successfully steam-bent if the bending jig incorporates a flexible metal bending strap together with a mechanism to apply a uniform end compression load during the bending operation. With clear, 1/2- and 1-inch-thick southern pine at 17-percent moisture content, highest bending rating where obtained with fast-grown, vertical-grain, low-density...

  8. Natural History of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Fred P. Hain; Adrian J. Duehl; Micah J. Gardner; Thomas L. Payne

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is a tree killer of southern yellow pines. All life stages—eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults—infest the inner bark or phloem tissue of the host tree. Adult beetles overcome the tree’s defenses through a mass-attack phenomenon. They are attracted to the tree by a pheromone system consisting of volatiles produced by the beetles and the host....

  9. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pine warbler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences of the pine warbler (Dendroica pinus) are described in this publication, which is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. Habitat use information is presented in a synthesis of the literature on the species-habitat requirements of the pine warbler, followed by the development of the HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word, and mathematical, and is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  10. Deer forage in a loblolly pine plantation

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Blair

    1967-01-01

    Browse yields in a 30-year-old plantation thinned at ages 20 and 25 years were directly related to the amount of pine removed and varied from 154 lb (oven-dry) per acre under light thinning to 199 lb/acre under heavy thinning. At plantation age 35, five growing seasons after a third thinning, browse yields were inversely related to pine-thinning intensity, ranging from...

  11. The Pinon Pine Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pitcher, J.D. ); Motter, J.W. ); Fankhanel, M.O. )

    1992-01-01

    Sierra Pacific Power Company (SPPCo.) plans to build an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, burning 800 t/day of western coal to produce 80 MW of electric power. The Pinon Pine Power Project will be built at an existing power plant site 20 miles east of Reno, Nevada, and the project has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for funding under the fourth round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project is in the Pre-Award phase pending completion of negotiations with DOE. Foster Wheeler USA Corporation (FWUSA) will provide engineering and construction management of the new facility. The M. W. Kellogg Company (MWK) will supply the engineering of the gasifier island using their air-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) gasifier technology with hot gas cleanup, under a subcontract from FWUSA. This paper describes the project team's plans for the project execution.

  12. Identification, characterization, and initial epitope mapping of pine nut allergen Pin k 2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aims of this study were to predict, identify and characterize pine nut allergens. Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin was predicted to be a pine nut allergen. Recombinant Korean pine vicilin was expressed in E. coli and purified. Natural Korean pine vicilin isolated from pine nuts (which disp...

  13. Ecological roles of five-needle pine in Colorado: Potential consequences of their loss

    Treesearch

    Anna Schoettle

    2004-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata Engelm.) are two white pines that grow in Colorado. Limber pine has a broad distribution throughout western North America while bristlecone pine’s distribution is almost entirely within the state of Colorado. White pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch.) was...

  14. Ponderosa Pine reclamation at the Rosebud Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.R.

    1990-12-31

    The first operational plantings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) were made on the Rosebud Mine near Colstrip, Montana in November of 1985. This paper discusses the five {open_quotes}R`s{close_quotes} of pine reclamation. These include the Reasons for planting ponderosa pine, ponderosa pine Research efforts and results, present Reclamation methods and materials, the Results of pine reclamation to date and the relationship of these results to the final bond Release criteria. Over 14,000 pine seedlings have been planted to date. They have been 1-0 to 3-0 bare root or 1-0 to 2-0 containerized stock. Plantings have been done by hand, with augers and (primarily) with a modified Soil Conservation Service tree planter on {open_quotes}tree{close_quotes} and regular soils with and without animal damage protection in spring and fall. Percent survival has varied greatly from field to field influenced by record drought, wildlife, severe grasshopper depredation, cattle grazing and wildlife usage.

  15. Slash pine: still growing and growing! Proceedings of the slash pine symposium

    Treesearch

    E. David. Dickens; James P. Barnett; W.G. Hubbard; E.J. Jokela

    2004-01-01

    This volume presents the experiences of scientists and land managers over a 20-year period in managing southern pine ecosystems. In 17 research papers the authors explore a renewed interest in managing slash pine over its natural and expanded range, but particularly within the southeastern Coastal Plain, with a focus on that species' ability to produce high-grade...

  16. The influence of white pine blister rust on seed dispersal in whitebark pine

    Treesearch

    Shawn T. McKinney; Diana F. Tomback

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.) damage in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands leads to reduced (1) seed cone density, (2) predispersal seed survival, and (3) likelihood of Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana (Wilson, 1811)) seed...

  17. Threats, status & management options for bristlecone pines and limber pines in Southern Rockies

    Treesearch

    A. W. Schoettle; K. S. Burns; F. Freeman; R. A. Sniezko

    2006-01-01

    High-elevation white pines define the most remote alpine-forest ecotones in western North America yet they are not beyond the reach of a lethal non-native pathogen. The pathogen (Cronartium ribicola), a native to Asia, causes the disease white pine blister rust (WPBR) and was introduced into western Canada in 1910. Whitebark (Pinus albicaulis) and...

  18. Local and general above-stump biomass functions for loblolly pine and slash pine trees

    Treesearch

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Beneke; Salvador Gezan; Tmothy J. Albaugh; H. Lee Allen; Harold E. Burkhart; Thomas R. Fox; Eric J. Jokela; Christopher Maier; Timothy A. Martin; Rafael A. Rubilar; Lisa J. Samuelson

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in estimating biomass for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii), two of the most ecologically and commercially important tree species in North America. The majority of the available individual-tree allometric models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh)...

  19. An old-growth definition for xeric pine and pine-oak woodlands

    Treesearch

    Paul A. Murphy; Gregory J. Nowacki

    1997-01-01

    The old-growth characteristics of xeric pine and pine-oak woodlands are summarized from a survey of the available scientific literature. This type occurs throughout the South and is usually found as small inclusions on ridgetops and south-facing slopes in the mountains or on excessively drained, sandy uplands in gentle terrain. Historically, this type has had frequent...

  20. Eradicating European pine shoot moth on ornamental pines with methyl bromide.

    Treesearch

    V.M. Carolin; W.H. Klein; R.M. Thompson

    1962-01-01

    The recent introduction of the European pine shoot moth into this region poses a serious threat to natural pine stands. To combat this threat, quarantines were invoked and eradication programs undertaken. Destruction of infested trees has been used tentatively as an eradication technique. In the meantime, fumigation with methyl bromide was tested over the period of a...