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Sample records for pine marten martes

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of European pine marten, Martes martes.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wu, Dan; Malyarchuk, Boris

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We undertook the first sequencing of the entire mitogenome of Martes martes. The genome is 16,486 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a control region. The total base composition of the mitogenome is 31.9% for A, 27. 6% for C, 25.8% for T and 14.7% for G. The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage do not differ significantly from other martens. This mitogenome sequence data might be useful for phylogenetic and systematic analyses within the genus Martes.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls in a terrestrial predator, the pine marten (Martes martes L.)

    SciTech Connect

    Bremle, G.; Larsson, P.; Helldin, J.O.

    1997-09-01

    A terrestrial predator population, the pine marten (Martes martes, L.), inhabiting an area in mid-Sweden was investigated for polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p{prime}-DDE, lindane, and hexachlorobenzene. The condition of the animals, as shown by intestine fat amounts or fat content of muscle tissue, showed negative relationships with concentration of persistent pollutants. The relationship resulted in a higher concentration of pollutants as intestinal fat amounts of muscle fat content decreased and lower levels of pollutants as these indexes of condition improved. The results indicate that terrestrial predators show changes in pollutant concentration due to condition, caused by food availability and starvation. No differences in pollutant concentration were recorded between males and females and no relationship was found for levels of pollutants and age or reproduction (females). The latter results are in contrast to those found for aquatic predatory mammals.

  3. Myocarditis and myositis due to infection with Hepatozoon species in pine martens (Martes martes) in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Simpson, V R; Panciera, R J; Hargreaves, J; McGarry, J W; Scholes, S F E; Bown, K J; Birtles, R J

    2005-04-02

    Postmortem examinations of four pine martens which had died as a result of road accidents in Scotland revealed focal, granulomatous lesions in the heart and skeletal muscles of three of them. An immunoperoxidase staining technique showed that the lesions were due to infection with Hepatozoon species. A PCR-based assay was used to confirm the presence of Hepatozoon DNA in the infected tissues. The nucleotide base sequence of the PCR products suggested that the infecting organism was probably a new species of Hepatozoon, most closely related to, but distinct from, Hepatozoon canis. The pine martens were in good physical condition and there was no indication that the infection was causing ill health.

  4. Physiological stress responses, fecal marking behavior, and reproduction in wild European pine martens (Martes martes).

    PubMed

    Barja, Isabel; Silván, Gema; Martínez-Fernández, Leticia; Illera, Juan Carlos

    2011-03-01

    The relationship among physiological stress responses, fecal marking behavior, and reproduction in male and female European pine martens was investigated. Between July 2004 and June 2007, 145 fresh fecal samples were collected in a protected area of northwest Spain. Fecal DNA was used for specific identification by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Glucocorticoids (cortisol) and sex steroid hormones (P, progesterone; E, estradiol; T, testosterone) were quantified by enzyme immunoassays. Sex was assigned according to concentrations of T+P+E and the T/P ratio. Fecal cortisol concentrations were higher in males than in females. Feces with a presumptive marking function (on conspicuous substrates, above ground level, and/or in latrines) had higher mean levels of cortisol than those that were on inconspicuous substrates and/or at ground level, for both males and females. Fecal mark density was highest in spring, when mean levels of fecal cortisol were more elevated. Therefore, the higher physiological stress levels in females could be due to female physiological state (late-term pregnancy and lactation), competition for resources connected to birth, or food resources for offspring rearing. In males, the increase could be due to higher male competition for access to females during pro-estrus and estrus. Our results suggest that scent marking in European pine martens is related to reproduction and is involved in intersexual and intrasexual communication.

  5. [Genetic variability of sable Martes zibellina L., pine marten M. martes L., and their hybrids in Western Siberia: protein and DNA polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Zhigileva, O N; Politov, D V; Golovacheva, I M; Petrovicheva, S V

    2014-05-01

    Using four types of markers, the genetic variability of sable and pine marten inhabiting Western Siberia was examined. Izoenzyme and restriction endonuclease analysis of the mtDNA cytochrome b gene fragment, as well as the ISSR-PCR and analysis of microsatellite variation, revealed a low differentiation level of sable and pine marten and confirmed the hybrid origin of atypical representatives of these species. The hybrids were characterized by an increased heterozygosity level and were genetically closer to sable than to pine marten. In atypical martens, the presence of mtDNA haplotypes of eastern sable was identified. This could be the consequence of the reintroduction of the Barguzin sable in the 20th century. In Western Siberia, the introgression of genes between sable and pine marten was massive and symmetrical. It apparently occurred in the past and continues in the present.

  6. Landscape genetics for the empirical assessment of resistance surfaces: the European pine marten (Martes martes) as a target-species of a regional ecological network.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale.

  7. Landscape Genetics for the Empirical Assessment of Resistance Surfaces: The European Pine Marten (Martes martes) as a Target-Species of a Regional Ecological Network

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-González, Aritz; Gurrutxaga, Mikel; Cushman, Samuel A.; Madeira, María José; Randi, Ettore; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent ecological networks (EN) composed of core areas linked by ecological corridors are being developed worldwide with the goal of promoting landscape connectivity and biodiversity conservation. However, empirical assessment of the performance of EN designs is critical to evaluate the utility of these networks to mitigate effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Landscape genetics provides a particularly valuable framework to address the question of functional connectivity by providing a direct means to investigate the effects of landscape structure on gene flow. The goals of this study are (1) to evaluate the landscape features that drive gene flow of an EN target species (European pine marten), and (2) evaluate the optimality of a regional EN design in providing connectivity for this species within the Basque Country (North Spain). Using partial Mantel tests in a reciprocal causal modeling framework we competed 59 alternative models, including isolation by distance and the regional EN. Our analysis indicated that the regional EN was among the most supported resistance models for the pine marten, but was not the best supported model. Gene flow of pine marten in northern Spain is facilitated by natural vegetation, and is resisted by anthropogenic landcover types and roads. Our results suggest that the regional EN design being implemented in the Basque Country will effectively facilitate gene flow of forest dwelling species at regional scale. PMID:25329047

  8. "Reversed" intraguild predation: red fox cubs killed by pine marten.

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Marcin; Rodak, Lukasz; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps deployed at a badger Meles meles set in mixed pine forest in north-eastern Poland recorded interspecific killing of red fox Vulpes vulpes cubs by pine marten Martes martes. The vixen and her cubs settled in the set at the beginning of May 2013, and it was abandoned by the badgers shortly afterwards. Five fox cubs were recorded playing in front of the den each night. Ten days after the first recording of the foxes, a pine marten was filmed at the set; it arrived in the morning, made a reconnaissance and returned at night when the vixen was away from the set. The pine marten entered the den several times and killed at least two fox cubs. It was active at the set for about 2 h. This observation proves that red foxes are not completely safe from predation by smaller carnivores, even those considered to be subordinate species in interspecific competition.

  9. Spatial Niche Segregation of Sympatric Stone Marten and Pine Marten--Avoidance of Competition or Selection of Optimal Habitat?

    PubMed

    Wereszczuk, Anna; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence of ecologically similar species relies on differences in one or more dimensions of their ecological niches, such as space, time and resources in diel and/or seasonal scales. However, niche differentiation may result from other mechanisms such as avoidance of high predation pressure, different adaptations or requirements of ecologically similar species. Stone marten (Martes foina) and pine marten (Martes martes) occur sympatrically over a large area in Central Europe and utilize similar habitats and food, therefore it is expected that their coexistence requires differentiation in at least one of their niche dimensions or the mechanisms through which these dimensions are used. To test this hypothesis, we used differences in the species activity patterns and habitat selection, estimated with a resource selection function (RSF), to predict the relative probability of occurrence of the two species within a large forest complex in the northern geographic range of the stone marten. Stone martens were significantly heavier, have a longer body and a better body condition than pine martens. We found weak evidence for temporal niche segregation between the species. Stone and pine martens were both primarily nocturnal, but pine martens were active more frequently during the day and significantly reduced the duration of activity during autumn-winter. Stone and pine martens utilized different habitats and almost completely separated their habitat niches. Stone marten strongly preferred developed areas and avoided meadows and coniferous or deciduous forests. Pine marten preferred deciduous forest and small patches covered by trees, and avoided developed areas and meadows. We conclude that complete habitat segregation of the two marten species facilitates sympatric coexistence in this area. However, spatial niche segregation between these species was more likely due to differences in adaptation to cold climate, avoidance of high predator pressure and/or food

  10. Spatial Niche Segregation of Sympatric Stone Marten and Pine Marten – Avoidance of Competition or Selection of Optimal Habitat?

    PubMed Central

    Wereszczuk, Anna; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence of ecologically similar species relies on differences in one or more dimensions of their ecological niches, such as space, time and resources in diel and/or seasonal scales. However, niche differentiation may result from other mechanisms such as avoidance of high predation pressure, different adaptations or requirements of ecologically similar species. Stone marten (Martes foina) and pine marten (Martes martes) occur sympatrically over a large area in Central Europe and utilize similar habitats and food, therefore it is expected that their coexistence requires differentiation in at least one of their niche dimensions or the mechanisms through which these dimensions are used. To test this hypothesis, we used differences in the species activity patterns and habitat selection, estimated with a resource selection function (RSF), to predict the relative probability of occurrence of the two species within a large forest complex in the northern geographic range of the stone marten. Stone martens were significantly heavier, have a longer body and a better body condition than pine martens. We found weak evidence for temporal niche segregation between the species. Stone and pine martens were both primarily nocturnal, but pine martens were active more frequently during the day and significantly reduced the duration of activity during autumn-winter. Stone and pine martens utilized different habitats and almost completely separated their habitat niches. Stone marten strongly preferred developed areas and avoided meadows and coniferous or deciduous forests. Pine marten preferred deciduous forest and small patches covered by trees, and avoided developed areas and meadows. We conclude that complete habitat segregation of the two marten species facilitates sympatric coexistence in this area. However, spatial niche segregation between these species was more likely due to differences in adaptation to cold climate, avoidance of high predator pressure and/or food

  11. Occurrence of internal parasites in stone martens (Martes foina) from Cracow and suburbs.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Wierzbowska, Izabela A; Górski, Paweł; Okarma, Henryk

    2013-01-01

    The pine marten Martes martes and the stone marten Martes foina are the only representatives of the genus Martes in Poland. During the last few decades, an intensive synurbisation of stone martens has been recorded. The aim of the study was to assess the level of infection by internal parasites of Martes foina in the Cracow urban area. Eleven necropsies were performed of stone martens killed during animal-vehicle collisions. Additionally, coprological examination of 129 stone marten scats was included. For further analysis, two standard methods, i.e. flotation and decantation, were used. The intensity of infection by parasites was low. Taenia martis was found to be present in one marten individual by necropsy, while Taeniidae helminths and two genera of nematodes, Capillaria and Toxocara, were identified during coprodiagnosis. The diet analysis of stone marten scats revealed a high proportion of two food categories. Percentage frequency of occurrence for plant material and anthropogenic was calculated as 42.3% and 15.4%, respectively. This type of food composition might suggest lower infection by internal parasites in particular species, especially with an indirect life cycle.

  12. [A formal description of mammals' behavior based on data on snow tracking, with pine marten (Martes martes) as a case study].

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, É D; Morozov, V V

    2014-01-01

    The formalism allowing to describe animals' behavior is based on the model of informational interactions between an animal and its environment. The model may be represented as an assemblage consisting of two blocks. The first block, which corresponds to the perception system, is a probabilistic operator: it selects an object of certain class out of many objects randomly encountered by an animal while it moves around. The selected object keeps its actuality as an input symbol for the second block of the assemblage during one or several cycles of the block operation. The second block, being afinite structural probabilistic automaton, generates output reactions to the input symbol. The structural automaton, which consists of elementary automata, produces a sequence of output reactions in course of interactions with the selected object: After exhaustion of the previous input actuality, the assemblage moves to the next cycle. At that, the probabilistic operator comes back to the receptive state and produces next output. Automaton "inputs" correspond to objects of certain classes, selectively perceived by an animal; "outputs" correspond to a sequence of elementary motor reactions. Based on data on snow tracking of pine marten foraging activity, there have been composed: the assemblage input and output alphabets, a conjugation matrix of input signals and internal states of the first elementary automaton that is contained in the second block structure, and transition probability matrices for the states of the second block elementary automata, which are defined for a class of environmental objects when foraging activity occurs. The proposed formalism makes it possible to convert field data on tracking into the unified form, detect key circumstances of animals' behavioral activity, and analyze this natural phenomenon in detail.

  13. Parasitological and molecular features of the Hepatozoon species in the myocardium of Japanese Martens (Martes melampus melampus).

    PubMed

    Kubo, Masahito; Nagataki, Mitsuru; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Sakai, Hiroki; Masegi, Toshiaki; Panciera, Roger J; Yanai, Tokuma

    2009-12-01

    The Hepatozoon species in the myocardium of Japanese martens (Martes melampus melampus) was characterized by histological and molecular methods. Histologically, granulomatous nodules with Hepatozoon sp. merozoites/gametocytes, or schizonts, or both were observed in the hearts of Japanese martens. The most frequently observed forms were merozoites/gametocytes within phagocytes; each host cell included a zoite, which was not microscopically identifiable as a merozoite or gametocyte. Schizonts were oval in shape and 36.9 ± 5.7 x 28.9 ± 3.4 μm in size; each schizont had approximately 20-60 nuclei. The size of the merozoites could not be measured because no mature schizonts were observed. In the analyses of the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence, it was strongly suggested that the Hepatozoon sp. in Japanese marten and the Hepatozoon sp. in pine marten (Martes martes) in Scotland were the same species.

  14. Tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine immobilization of American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Belant, Jerrold L

    2005-07-01

    The effectiveness of tiletamine-zolazepam (Telazol) and xylazine as an immobilizing combination for American martens (Martes americana) was evaluated. Fifteen martens were intramuscularly injected on 19 occasions using a 3:2 mixture of tiletamine-zolazepam (3.2+/-0.6 mg/kg [mean +/- SD]) and xylazine (2.1+/-0.4 mg/kg) at Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Michigan (USA) during May to October 2002-2003. Mean induction time was 2.5+/-1.8 min; mean recovery time was 70.8+/-31.9 min. There was no relation between the amount (mg/kg) of tiletamine-zolazepam-xylazine injected and induction (r(2)=0.08, P=0.26). However, there was an inverse relation (r(2)=0.28, P<0.01) between dosage and time to first effect of immobilants. Time to recovery increased (r(2)=0.21, P=0.05) with increased dosage. Mean heart rate, respiratory rate, and body temperature declined through 10 min postinduction (P<0.05). No mortality occurred and no short-term adverse effects were observed in recaptured individuals. In conclusion, a 3:2 mixture of tiletamine-zolazepam/xylazine is a safe and effective immobilizing agent for martens when conducting non-surgical field procedures. Immobilizing martens with 4.2 mg/kg tiletamine-zolazepam and 2.8 mg/kg xylazine should provide < or =30 min of handling time and allow full recovery in about 70 min.

  15. Modelling the Distribution of Forest-Dependent Species in Human-Dominated Landscapes: Patterns for the Pine Marten in Intensively Cultivated Lowlands

    PubMed Central

    Balestrieri, Alessandro; Bogliani, Giuseppe; Boano, Giovanni; Ruiz-González, Aritz; Saino, Nicola; Costa, Stefano; Milanesi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the “forest-specialist” pine marten Martes martes has been reported to also occur also in largely fragmented, lowland landscapes of north-western Italy. The colonization of such an apparently unsuitable area provided the opportunity for investigating pine marten ecological requirements and predicting its potential south- and eastwards expansion. We collected available pine marten occurrence data in the flood plain of the River Po (N Italy) and relate them to 11 environmental variables by developing nine Species Distribution Models. To account for inter-model variability we used average ensemble predictions (EP). EP predicted a total of 482 suitable patches (8.31% of the total study area) for the pine marten. The main factors driving pine marten occurrence in the western River Po plain were the distance from watercourses and the distance from woods. EP suggested that the pine marten may further expand in the western lowland, whilst the negligible residual wood cover of large areas in the central and eastern plain makes the habitat unsuitable for the pine marten, except for some riparian corridors and the pine wood patches bordering the Adriatic coast. Based on our results, conservation strategies should seek to preserve remnant forest patches and enhance the functional connectivity provided by riparian corridors. PMID:27368056

  16. Modelling the Distribution of Forest-Dependent Species in Human-Dominated Landscapes: Patterns for the Pine Marten in Intensively Cultivated Lowlands.

    PubMed

    Balestrieri, Alessandro; Bogliani, Giuseppe; Boano, Giovanni; Ruiz-González, Aritz; Saino, Nicola; Costa, Stefano; Milanesi, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the "forest-specialist" pine marten Martes martes has been reported to also occur also in largely fragmented, lowland landscapes of north-western Italy. The colonization of such an apparently unsuitable area provided the opportunity for investigating pine marten ecological requirements and predicting its potential south- and eastwards expansion. We collected available pine marten occurrence data in the flood plain of the River Po (N Italy) and relate them to 11 environmental variables by developing nine Species Distribution Models. To account for inter-model variability we used average ensemble predictions (EP). EP predicted a total of 482 suitable patches (8.31% of the total study area) for the pine marten. The main factors driving pine marten occurrence in the western River Po plain were the distance from watercourses and the distance from woods. EP suggested that the pine marten may further expand in the western lowland, whilst the negligible residual wood cover of large areas in the central and eastern plain makes the habitat unsuitable for the pine marten, except for some riparian corridors and the pine wood patches bordering the Adriatic coast. Based on our results, conservation strategies should seek to preserve remnant forest patches and enhance the functional connectivity provided by riparian corridors.

  17. Systemic AL amyloidosis in a Beech Marten (Martes foina).

    PubMed

    Scaglione, F E; Mignone, W; Ferrero, E; Poggi, M; Biolatti, B; Bollo, E

    2013-10-01

    A wild Beech Marten (Martes foina), was referred for necropsy to the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin (Italy). At gross examination, whitish and firm masses, 10-mm in diameter, were found on the heart and in the kidney. Spleen showed lighter color and greater consistency, and the cut surface of the liver appeared scattered with whitish-yellow coalescing foci homogeneously distributed. Amyloid deposits were present in the perivascular and intercellular spaces of the visceral organs, such as the heart, liver, and kidneys. Amyloid stained positively with Congo red with and without 5% potassium permanganate pretreatment and showed green birefringence observable under polarized light. A diagnosis of systemic AL amyloidosis was made. This is the first description of systemic AL amyloidosis in a wild Stone Marten.

  18. [Genetic analysis of sympatric sable (Martes zibellina) and Marten (M. martes) populations in the northern urals].

    PubMed

    Rozhnov, V V; Meshcherskiĭ, I G; Pishchulina, S L; Simakin, L V

    2010-04-01

    Analysis of nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (495 bp) of sables (Martes zibellina) and martens (M. martes) from allopatric parts of the species ranges has shown a considerable interspecific genetic distance (3%). In sympatric populations of these species in the northern Urals, differences between two species-specific mtDNA lineages are still large; however, classification of each individual nucleotide sequence with one of the two lineages is not correlated with whether the given animal is phenotypically a sable, a marten, or a potential hybrid (the so-called kidas). This indicates a high degree of mutual introgression of the sable and marten mtDNAs in the northern Urals and suggests that their interspecific hybridization is common in the sympatric zone.

  19. Endoparasites of American marten (Martes americana): Review of the literature and parasite survey of reintroduced American marten in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Maria C; Kaloustian, Lisa L; Gerhold, Richard W

    2016-12-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) was reintroduced to both the Upper (UP) and northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan during the 20th century. This is the first report of endoparasites of American marten from the NLP. Faeces from live-trapped American marten were examined for the presence of parasitic ova, and blood samples were obtained for haematocrit evaluation. The most prevalent parasites were Capillaria and Alaria species. Helminth parasites reported in American marten for the first time include Eucoleus boehmi, hookworm, and Hymenolepis and Strongyloides species. This is the first report of shedding of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in an American marten and identification of 2 coccidian parasites, Cystoisospora and Eimeria species. The pathologic and zoonotic potential of each parasite species is discussed, and previous reports of endoparasites of the American marten in North America are reviewed.

  20. [Analyzing spatial-temporal dynamics of the ecological niche: a marten (Martes martes) population case study].

    PubMed

    Puzachenko, Iu G; Zheltukhin, A S; Sandlerskiĭ, R B

    2010-01-01

    A potential of discriminant analysis is demonstrated in a case study of the common marten (Martes martes L., 1758) ecological niche within the Central Forest Reserve and its buffer zone. The analysis is aimed at identifying how the probability to encounter a marten's footprint along a walking route depends on the relief and other parameters of the environment discerned by remote sensing. The analyses that were done individually for each of the eleven months from a three-year observation period have revealed the pattern of the species spatial distribution and a measure of its association with the environment to be dependent, to a large extent, on the weather conditions. In general, associations with the environment do increase under unfavorable conditions. The methods are suggested that integrate outcomes of the monthly analyses into a general map of habitat types. The technique presented has wide application opportunities in studying the ecology of populations and solving problems of practical ecology.

  1. Ketamine and midazolam anesthesia in Pacific martens (Martes caurina).

    PubMed

    Mortenson, Jack A; Moriarty, Katie M

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The use of midazolam as a tranquilizer for anesthesia in mustelids in conjunction with the cyclohexamine ketamine is not well documented. Because midazolam is fast acting, inexpensive, and quickly metabolized, it may serve as a good alternative to other more commonly used tranquilizers. We trapped and anesthetized 27 Pacific martens (Martes caurina) in Lassen National Forest (northern California, US) August 2010-April 2013. We assessed anesthesia with ketamine at 18 and 25 mg/kg combined with 0.2 mg/kg of midazolam by comparing mean times of induction, return to consciousness, and recovery, plus physiologic parameters. No reversal was used for the midazolam portion of the anesthetic. Mean (±SD) induction for both ketamine dosages was 1.7±0.5 and 1.8±1.0 min, respectively. Return to consciousness mean times were 8.0 min longer (P<0.001) for martens receiving a 25 mg/kg ketamine dosage. Mean recoveries were 15.1 min longer (P<0.003) for the 25 mg/kg ketamine dosage. Physiologic parameter means were similar for both ketamine dosages with no statistically significant differences. Body temperatures and heart and respiratory rates were generally stable, but percentage of oxygen saturation and end tidal carbon dioxide values were below those seen in previous mustelid studies. The combination of ketamine, at both dosages, and midazolam provided reliable field anesthesia for Pacific martens, and supplemental oxygen is recommended as needed.

  2. Dispersal and genetic structure in the American marten, Martes americana.

    PubMed

    Broquet, T; Johnson, C A; Petit, E; Thompson, I; Burel, F; Fryxell, J M

    2006-05-01

    Natal dispersal in a vagile carnivore, the American marten (Martes americana), was studied by comparing radio-tracking data and microsatellite genetic structure in two populations occupying contrasting habitats. The genetic differentiation determined among groups of individuals using F(ST) indices appeared to be weak in both landscapes, and showed no increase with geographical distance. Genetic structure investigated using pairwise genetic distances between individuals conversely showed a pattern of isolation by distance (IBD), but only in the population occurring in a homogeneous high-quality habitat, therefore showing the advantage of individual-based analyses in detecting within-population processes and local landscape effects. The telemetry study of juveniles revealed a leptokurtic distribution of dispersal distances in both populations, and estimates of the mean squared parent-offspring axial distance (sigma2) inferred both from the genetic pattern of IBD and from the radio-tracking survey showed that most juveniles make little contribution to gene flow.

  3. Massive infestation with fur mites (Lynxacarus mustelae) of a stone marten (Martes foina) from Tyrol.

    PubMed

    Visser, Martin; Messner, Christian; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-10-01

    A massive infestation with Lynxacarus mustelae (Megnin, 1885) (Acari, Astigmata, Listrophoridae) was diagnosed in a stone marten (Martes foina) from Tyrol, Austria. In addition, Ixodes rugicollis and Trichodectes retusus are reported for the first time in Austria, and the five species of helminths found (Capillaria aerophila, C. mustelorum, C. paranalis, C. plica, Molineus patens) are first records in the stone marten in the country.

  4. Stress physiological responses to tourist pressure in a wild population of European pine marten.

    PubMed

    Barja, Isabel; Silván, Gema; Rosellini, Stefano; Piñeiro, Ana; González-Gil, Alfredo; Camacho, Laura; Illera, Juan Carlos

    2007-05-01

    The tourist pressure in natural parks is a potential source of stress and may cause an increase in the adrenal activity of wild populations of European pine marten (Martes martes). Seventy-six faecal samples were collected during 15 months in a natural park of Northwest Spain. Analysis of faecal DNA was used for the specific identification using the PCR-RFLPs technique. Faecal steroid determinations were performed by EIA. Natural park was divided in three areas: free entry, restricted area, and integral reservation, and number of daily human visitors recorded. Faecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels (ng/g dry faeces) were significantly higher in spring (56.36+/-19.62) and summer (31.27+/-11.98) compared to autumn (15.33+/-6.89) and winter (11.13+/-3.30). These data are closely related to daily number of visitors (spring: 3204, summer: 1672, winter: 646, autumn: 551). Androgen, progestin and oestrogen levels were also significantly higher in spring (reproductive season) showing values of 43.62+/-18.6, 154.31+/-53.50 and 829.62+/-456.1, respectively. Glucocorticoid levels were significantly lower in integral reservation (15.95+/-3.56) compared to restricted (31.4+/-16.30) and free entry areas (41.59+/-12.73), respectively. Wild populations of European pine marten showed stress physiological response induced by the tourist pressure and this response is higher during reproductive season.

  5. Molecular identification of Trichinella britovi in martens (Martes martes) and badgers (Meles meles); new host records in Poland.

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bożena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Bogdaszewski, Marek; Cabaj, Władysław

    2012-12-01

    Trichinella larvae were detected in a marten (Martes martes) and a badger (Meles meles) in Poland. The animals were found dead following car accidents. All examined animals derived from the Mazurian Lake district, north-east Poland, near the village Kosewo Górne where Trichinella infection were earlier confirmed in wildlife; red foxes and wild boars. The muscle samples were examined by artificial pepsin-HCl digestion method. The parasites were identified as Trichinella britovi by multiplex polymerase chain reaction method. Larvae were found in two out of three martens and one out of seven examined badgers. This is the first report of the identification of Trichinella britovi larvae from martens and badgers in Poland.

  6. Soboliphyme baturini infection does not affect the nutritional condition of American marten (Martes americana) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J G; Pauli, J N; Donadio, E; Buskirk, S W

    2008-12-01

    Soboliphyme baturini, a stomach-dwelling nematode of American martens (Martes Americana), reaches high levels of infection; however, its effects on the nutritional condition of the host are unknown. To understand the effects of this parasite on American martens, we collected S. baturini and measured abdominal fat deposits from 155 marten carcasses on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, in the winter 2006-2007. We analyzed how the dried mass of abdominal fat varied as a function of S. baturini intensity. Parasite intensity and nutritional condition were not correlated; these results suggest that American martens were able to withstand even very high levels of S. baturini infection (up to 178 parasites per host).

  7. Distribution, occupancy, and habitat correlates of American martens (Martes americana) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    A clear understanding of habitat associations of martens (Martes americana) is necessary to effectively manage and monitor populations. However, this information was lacking for martens in most of their southern range, particularly during the summer season. We studied the distribution and habitat correlates of martens from 2004 to 2006 in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) across 3 spatial scales: site-specific, home-range, and landscape. We used remote-sensored cameras from early August through late October to inventory occurrence of martens and modeled occurrence as a function of habitat and landscape variables using binary response (BR) and binomial count (BC) logistic regression, and occupancy modeling (OM). We also assessed which was the most appropriate modeling technique for martens in RMNP. Of the 3 modeling techniques, OM appeared to be most appropriate given the explanatory power of derived models and its incorporation of detection probabilities, although the results from BR and BC provided corroborating evidence of important habitat correlates. Location of sites in the western portion of the park, riparian mixed-conifer stands, and mixed-conifer with aspen patches were most frequently positively correlated with occurrence of martens, whereas more xeric and open sites were avoided. Additionally, OM yielded unbiased occupancy values ranging from 91% to 100% and 20% to 30% for the western and eastern portions of RMNP, respectively. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  8. Genetic diversity of the Japanese Marten (Martes melampus) and its implications for the conservation unit.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun J; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Hosoda, Tetsuji

    2009-07-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of combined mitochondrial DNA sequences (2814 bp; cytochrome b gene, displacement loop region, and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene) identified nine groups among 49 individual Japanese martens, Martes melampus, collected from several areas in Japan. The grouping was not correlated with winter coat color, but was consistent with geography. In particular, the monophyly of 29 Tsushima martens, M. m. tsuensis, was supported by strong clade support and topological tests. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were much lower for the Tsushima population than for any population on the Japanese main islands. In addition, analyses of heterozygosity in nuclear growth hormone receptor gene sequences (654 bp) showed genetic homogeneity for the Tsushima population. This evidence supports the view that the Tsushima marten's long history of isolation on small islands is responsible for its genetic distinctiveness and uniformity, validating the Tsushima population as an evolutionarily significant unit.

  9. Molecular evidence for the presence of Dirofilaria repens in beech marten (Martes foina) from Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Miterpáková, M; Hurníková, Z; Zaleśny, G; Chovancová, B

    2013-09-23

    Herein we present the first finding of Dirofilaria repens, agent of the subcutaneous form of dirofilariosis, in Martes foina. Molecular analyses from the spleen of 3 individuals originated from Tatra National Park, Northern Slovakia, confirmed the presence of D. repens in one of them. Finding of D. repens in beech marten instigates to more intense research on free living carnivores as the potential source of Dirofilaria parasites.

  10. Effects of Live-Trapping and Isoflurane Anesthesia on Free-Ranging American Martens (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Maria C; Muller, Lisa I; Keenlance, Paul; Sanders, Robert L; Witt, Jill C; Miller, Debra L

    2017-02-23

    Seventy-two free-ranging American martens ( Martes americana ) in Michigan were immobilized using isoflurane from 2011 to 2015. In total, 129 anesthetic procedures were performed with no mortalities. Hypothermia and hyperthermia were the most common anesthetic complications, and the mean rectal temperatures were significantly higher during summer than in winter. Dental abnormalities were common; the majority of abnormal findings were broken or discolored teeth attributed to previous dental trauma and were not trap-induced. Blood (n=72) was analyzed from 53 martens for venous blood gas, lactate, hematocrit, and/or selected serum biochemistry analytes. Lactate concentration was measured by two different devices (VetScan i-STAT 1 and Lactate Plus) and compared for clinical agreement for 26 samples. Both methods for lactate measurement provided statistically similar results. Using domestic feline reference ranges, the acid-base status and relative arterial oxygen saturation of anesthetized martens in this study were normal as determined by blood pH and pulse oximetry, respectively. Serum biochemistry parameters, multiple environmental parameters, and marten-specific attributes were evaluated for their influence on lactate in American martens using linear regression and an information-theoretic approach with model averaging. Blood urea nitrogen was in all of the top models and was positively related to lactate (ß=0.02, 95% confidence interval: 0.00-0.04). Initial body temperature, ambient temperature, and time from trap discovery until immobilization of martens were informative predictors for lactate level. Recommendations for the live-trapping and isoflurane anesthesia of free-ranging martens include using caution during warmer summer months, minimizing disturbance prior to induction, monitoring lactate in addition to vital rates, and being prepared to prevent or treat both hypothermia and hyperthermia during any time of year.

  11. Francisella tularensis infection in a stone marten (Martes foina) without classic pathological lesions consistent with tularemia.

    PubMed

    Origgi, Francesco C; Wu, Natacha; Pilo, Paola

    2013-07-01

    The current report describes the isolation and typing of a strain of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, from the spleen of a stone marten (Martes foina) showing no classic lesions consistent with the disease. The identification of this bacterium, belonging to the World Health Organization risk 3 category and considered to have a low infectious dose, could be performed only because of an ongoing project screening F. tularensis in the environment sensu lato. The findings described herein should alert diagnostic laboratories of the possible presence of F. tularensis in clinical samples in countries where tularemia is endemic even in cases with no consistent anamnesis and from unsuspected animal species.

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of Korean yellow-throated marten, Martes flavigula (Carnivora, Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Jang, Kuem Hee; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of Martes flavigula, which is an endangered and endemic species in South Korea, was determined. The genome is 16,533 bp in length and its gene arrangement pattern, gene content, and gene organization is identical to those of martens. The control region was located between the tRNAPro and tRNAPhe genes and is 1087 bp in length. This mitogenome sequence data might be an important role in the preservation of genetic resources by allowing researchers to conduct phylogenetic and systematic analyses of Mustelidae.

  13. Mitochondrial genomes reveal the pattern and timing of marten (Martes), wolverine (Gulo), and fisher (Pekania) diversification.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yanchun; Zeng, Zhaohui

    2014-11-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding the pattern and timescale of evolutionary diversification in the marten, wolverine, fisher, and tayra subfamily Guloninae (Mustelidae, Carnivora), several important issues still remain contentious. Among these are the phylogenetic position of Gulo relative to the subgenera of Martes (Martes and Charronia), the phylogenetic relationships within the subgenus Martes, and the timing of gulonine divergences. To elucidate these issues we explored nucleotide variation in 11 whole mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from eight gulonine species and two outgroup meline species. Parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses yielded fully resolved and identical patterns of relationships with high support for all divergences. The generic status of Pekania (P. pennanti), the monophyly of the genus Martes containing M. flavigula (subgenus Charronia) to the exclusion of the genus Gulo (G. gulo), and the M. foina (M. americana (M. melampus (M. zibellina, M. martes))) phylogeny of the subgenus Martes were strongly supported. Dating analyses (BEAST) using a set of five newly applied fossil calibrations provided divergence times considerably younger than previous multigene mitochondrial estimates, but similar to multigene nuclear and nuclear-mitochondrial estimates. The 95% confidence (highest posterior density) intervals of our divergence times fell within those inferred from nuclear and nuclear-mitochondrial sequence data, and were markedly narrower than in earlier studies (whether nuclear, mitochondrial, or combined). Notably, and contrary to long-held beliefs, our findings indicate that fossils older than the Tortonian-Messinian transition (late Late Miocene) do not represent Martes, excluding from this genus its putative members from the Early, Middle, and early Late Miocene. This study demonstrates the high informativeness of the mitogenome for phylogenetic inference and divergence time estimation within Guloninae, and

  14. Winter activity patterns of American martens (Martes americana): Rejection of the hypothesis of thermal-cost minimization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, Gary S.; Bissonette, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Despite their temperate to subarctic geographic range, American martens (Martes americana) possess a thermally inefficient morphology. The lack of morphological adaptations for reducing thermal costs suggests that marten may use behavioral strategies to optimize thermal budgets. During the winters of 1989–1990 and 1990–1991, we radio-collared and monitored the diel activity of 7 martens. A log-linear model suggested that the presence or absence of light was the only factor associated with marten activity patterns (p < 0.001). A regression of the percentage of active fixes on ambient temperature failed to detect an association (b = −4.45, p = 0.084, n = 12). Contents of marten scats suggested that their activity was consistent with the prey-vulnerability hypothesis. While martens must balance multiple life requisites, their activity patterns suggest that they accept increased thermal costs in order to increase foraging efficiency. However, the nocturnal activity of martens during winter was also consistent with the hypothesis that they may be able to limit their own exposure to predation risk. The nocturnal habits of Newfoundland martens in the winter were consistent with the hypothesis of avoidance of predation risk.

  15. Field use of isoflurane as an inhalant anesthetic in the American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Marion; Cheveau, Marianne; Imbeau, Louis; Lair, Stéphane

    2007-10-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness and practicality of using isoflurane as an inhalation anesthetic with oxygen as a gas carrier for American martens (Martes americana) in a field setting. Sixty-eight martens were trapped in the Waswanipi Cree Model Forest (Québec, Canada) from October to November 2005 and anesthetized with isoflurane in 100% oxygen (1 l/min) using a face mask. Induction setting of isoflurane was 3% for all animals. Mean (+/-SD) length of induction was 1.8+/-1.2 min. Maintenance isoflurane settings ranged from 1% to 4%. Procedures lasted an average of 16.4+/-7.1 min and were uneventful. Length of recovery, defined as the interval between the end of the procedure and animal release, was short (6.3+/-2.8 min), and well below reported lengths of recovery using injectable anesthetics (>/=70 min). As compared to open drop administration of isoflurane described in previous studies, the use of an anesthesia machine prevents the risk of potential fatal anesthetic overdose. We conclude that among anesthesia techniques currently available, isoflurane with oxygen as a gas carrier is a safe and useful field anesthetic in martens, when issues with equipment portability can be overcome.

  16. Coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and Canine Distemper Virus in a Yellow-throated Marten ( Martes flavigula koreana) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Surim; Choi, Ul Soo; Kim, Eun Ju; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Hae Beom; Cho, Ho Seong; Kim, Wonil; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2016-04-28

    We describe coinfection with Hepatozoon sp. and canine distemper virus (CDV) in a yellow-throated marten ( Martes flavigula koreana). We found Hepatozoon cysts in muscular tissue and viral inclusion bodies in the brain. Hepatozoon sp., and CDV was confirmed in blood and brain, respectively, by PCR.

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Marten

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences and species characteristics of the pine marten (Martes americana) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available scientific data on the species-habitat requirements of the pine marten. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of a HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word and mathematical. Suitability index graphs quantify the species-habitat relationship. These data are then synthesized into a model which is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  18. Paleoecological and biogeographical implications of late Pleistocene noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) in eastern Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, R. Lee

    2011-01-01

    A mandible identified as noble marten ( Martes americana nobilis) recovered from sediments dating to 11,800 cal yr BP and a humerus identified as M. a. cf. nobilis recovered from sediments dating from 13,100 to 12,500 cal yr BP at the Marmes Rockshelter archaeological site in southeastern Washington represent the first record of this taxon in the state. Mammalian taxa associated with the Marmes Rockshelter noble marten represent a diversity of open mesic habitats corroborating earlier analyses of other records of the noble marten in the western United States and exemplify how paleozoologists determine the ecology and environmental predilections of extinct taxa. The recovery site represents the topographically lowest record of this species in western North America and the farthest north record in the United States. Future research should examine known late-Quaternary Martes spp. remains from British Columbia and Alberta to fill in the 2200-km geographic gap in the known distribution of this taxon between a record in the northern Yukon and those in the western United States, and to refine our knowledge of noble marten paleoecology.

  19. Metagenomic analysis of the viral flora of pine marten and European badger feces.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, Judith M A; van Leeuwen, Marije; Schapendonk, Claudia M; Simon, James H; Haagmans, Bart L; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Smits, Saskia L

    2012-02-01

    A thorough understanding of the diversity of viruses in wildlife provides epidemiological baseline information about potential pathogens. Metagenomic analysis of the enteric viral flora revealed a new anellovirus and bocavirus species in pine martens and a new circovirus-like virus and geminivirus-related DNA virus in European badgers. In addition, sequences with homology to viruses from the families Paramyxo- and Picornaviridae were detected.

  20. Diet Composition and Feeding Strategies of the Stone Marten (Martes foina) in a Typical Mediterranean Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Bakaloudis, Dimitrios E.; Vlachos, Christos G.; Papakosta, Malamati A.; Bontzorlos, Vasileios A.; Chatzinikos, Evangelos N.

    2012-01-01

    Stone martens (Martes foina) are documented as generalist throughout their distributional range whose diet composition is affected by food availability. We tested if this occurs and what feeding strategies it follows in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem in Central Greece by analysing contents from 106 stomachs, seasonally collected from three different habitats during 2003–2006. Seasonal variation in diet and feeding strategies was evident and linked to seasonal nutritional requirements, but possibly imposed by strong interference competition and intraguild predation. Fleshy fruits and arthropods predominated in the diet, but also mammals and birds were frequently consumed. An overall low dietary niche breadth (BA = 0.128) indicated a fruit specialization tendency. A generalised diet occurred in spring with high individual specialisation, whereas more animal-type prey was consumed than fruits. A population specialization towards fruits was indicated during summer and autumn, whereas insects were consumed occasionally by males. In those seasons it switched to more clumped food types such as fruits and insects. In winter it selectively exploited both adult and larvae insects and partially fruits overwinter on plants. The tendency to consume particular prey items seasonally reflected both the population specialist behaviour and the individual flexibility preyed on different food resources. PMID:22619607

  1. Diet composition and feeding strategies of the stone marten (Martes foina) in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Bakaloudis, Dimitrios E; Vlachos, Christos G; Papakosta, Malamati A; Bontzorlos, Vasileios A; Chatzinikos, Evangelos N

    2012-01-01

    Stone martens (Martes foina) are documented as generalist throughout their distributional range whose diet composition is affected by food availability. We tested if this occurs and what feeding strategies it follows in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem in Central Greece by analysing contents from 106 stomachs, seasonally collected from three different habitats during 2003-2006. Seasonal variation in diet and feeding strategies was evident and linked to seasonal nutritional requirements, but possibly imposed by strong interference competition and intraguild predation. Fleshy fruits and arthropods predominated in the diet, but also mammals and birds were frequently consumed. An overall low dietary niche breadth (B(A) = 0.128) indicated a fruit specialization tendency. A generalised diet occurred in spring with high individual specialisation, whereas more animal-type prey was consumed than fruits. A population specialization towards fruits was indicated during summer and autumn, whereas insects were consumed occasionally by males. In those seasons it switched to more clumped food types such as fruits and insects. In winter it selectively exploited both adult and larvae insects and partially fruits overwinter on plants. The tendency to consume particular prey items seasonally reflected both the population specialist behaviour and the individual flexibility preyed on different food resources.

  2. Fasting in the American marten (Martes americana): a physiological model of the adaptations of a lean-bodied animal.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Saarela, Seppo; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2007-10-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) is a boreal forest marten with low body adiposity throughout the year. The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptations of this lean-bodied species to fasting for an ecologically relevant duration (48 h) by exposing eight farm-bred animals to total food deprivation with seven control animals. Selected morphological and hematological parameters, plasma and serum biochemistry, endocrinological variables and liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) enzyme activities were determined. After 48 h without food, the marten were within phase II of fasting with depleted liver and muscle glycogen stores, but with active lipid mobilization indicated by the high lipase activities in several WAT depots. The plasma ghrelin concentrations were higher due to food deprivation, possibly increasing appetite and enhancing foraging behavior. The lower plasma insulin and higher cortisol concentrations could mediate augmented lipolysis and the lower triiodothyronine levels could suppress the metabolic rate. Fasting did not affect the plasma levels of stress-associated catecholamines or variables indicating tissue damage. In general, the adaptations to short-term fasting exhibited some differences compared to the related farm-bred American mink (Mustela vison), an example of which was the better ability of the marten to hydrolyze lipids despite its significantly lower initial fat mass.

  3. Post-glacial colonization of northwestern North America by the forest-associated American marten (Martes americana, Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae).

    PubMed

    Stone, Karen D; Flynn, Rodney W; Cook, Joseph A

    2002-10-01

    Phylogeographic patterns were used to assess intraspecific diversification of American martens (Martes americana). Within martens, two morphological groups (americana and caurina) have been recognized, though the level of distinction between them has been debated. We examined mitochondrial cytochrome b gene haplotypes from 680 martens to explore the colonization history of the Pacific Northwest and found two clades that correspond to the morphological groups. The widespread americana clade extends from interior Alaska south to Montana and eastward to Newfoundland and New England (i.e. northwestern, north-central and northeastern North America). The caurina clade occurs in western North America, minimally extending from Admiralty Island (southeastern Alaska) south to Oregon and Wyoming. Our data indicated two colonization events for the Pacific Northwest (one by members of each clade) and were consistent with the persistence of populations throughout past glacial periods in eastern and western refugia. Due to vegetational and geological history following the past deglaciation, we hypothesize that martens of the caurina clade spread along the North Pacific Coast, and into southeastern Alaska, earlier than martens of the americana clade. Mismatch distributions for the americana clade were indicative of populations that recently experienced demographic expansion, while mismatch distributions for the caurina clade suggested that populations were at equilibrium. These clades are reciprocally monophyletic and distinctive (interclade divergence ranged from 2.5 to 3.0% (uncorrected p), whereas, intraclade divergence was < 0.7%), and two regions of sympatry have been identified. Genetic signatures of past admixture in hybrid zones may have been extinguished during subsequent glacial periods when ranges contracted. This recurrent pattern of relatively restricted western, or Pacific coastal, lineages and more widespread eastern, or interior continental, lineages exists across

  4. Prevalence of Soboliphyme baturini in marten (Martes americana) populations from three regions of Alaska, 1990-1998.

    PubMed

    Zarnke, Randall L; Whitman, Jackson S; Flynn, Rodney W; Ver Hoef, Jay M

    2004-07-01

    Marten (Martes americana) carcasses were collected from trappers in three regions of Alaska. Stomachs were examined for the nematode parasite Soboliphyme baturini. Both prevalence and intensity of infection exhibited an increase from north to south. Prevalence was higher in adults (compared with juveniles) from the two mainland study areas. Prevalences in these two age classes were similar for the southeastern region. There were no sex-specific differences in prevalence. No pathologic changes were observed in the gastrointestinal tract. Impact of the parasite on either individual animals or populations was not detected.

  5. Estimated Seed Shadow Generated by Japanese Martens(Martes melampus): Comparison with Forest-Dwelling Animals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yamato; Okumura, Tadanobu; Kitahara, Masahiko; Jiang, Zhaowen

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the seed shadow generated by wild Japanese martens (Martes melampus), we combined data on their ranging behavior from the northern foot of Mt. Fuji, central Japan (seven males and three females) with data on gut passage time obtained from martens in Toyama Municipal Family Park Zoo (three males and one female). The movement distances varied, and mean distances for 0-1, 2-3, and 4-5 h intervals were 152.4, 734.7, and 1,162.4 m, respectively, with no significant sex difference. The mean gut passage time of ingested seeds was 7.4 h (range: 0.6-51.7 h), and two-thirds were defecated within 12 h. Seeds of fleshy fruits was frequently transported to 501-1,000 m, and 20% of ingested seeds were transported > 1,000 m from feeding sites. We found positive correlations between body size and home range of the animals in Japan and their seed dispersal distances. We conclude that Japanese martens are medium-range dispersers that can transport seeds from the source to open habitats conducive for germination and/or growth, partly due to scent marking behaviors.

  6. Fatty acid profiles and relative mobilization during fasting in adipose tissue depots of the American marten (Martes americana).

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Collinsb, Danielle; Grant, Judy; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2006-03-01

    The American marten (Martes americana) is a boreal forest marten with low body adiposity but high metabolic rate. The study describes the FA composition in white adipose tissue depots of the species and the influence of food deprivation on them. American marten (n = 8) were fasted for 2 d with 7 control animals. Fasting resulted in a 13.4% weight loss, while the relative fat mass was >25% lower in the fasted animals. The FA composition of the fat depots of the trunk was quite similar to other previously studied mustelids with 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, and 18:2n-6 as the most abundant FA. In the extremities, there were higher proportions of monounsaturated FA (MUFA) and PUFA. Food deprivation decreased the proportions of 16:0 and 16:1 n-7, while the proportion of long-chain MUFA increased in the trunk. The mobilization of FA was selective, as 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, and particular n-3 PUFA were preferentially mobilized. Relative mobilization correlated negatively with the carbon chain length in saturated FA (SFA) and n-9 MUFA. The delta9-desaturation of SFA enhanced the mobilization of the corresponding MUFA, but the positional isomerism of the first double bond did not correlate consistently with relative mobilization in MUFA or PUFA. In the marten, the FA composition of the extremities was highly resistant to fasting, and the tail tip and the paws contained more long-chain PUFA to prevent the solidification of lipids and to maintain cell membrane fluidity during cooling.

  7. Concentrations of trace elements in tissues of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and stone marten (Martes foina) from suburban and rural areas in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Dežđek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Dokić, Maja; Solomun, Božica; Varenina, Ivana; Knežević, Zorka; Slavica, Alen

    2010-11-01

    Trace elements concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) were determined in the liver, kidney and muscle of 28 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and 16 stone marten (Martes foina) from suburban and rural habitats from Croatia. Rural and suburban habitats affected Cd and Hg levels in the muscle, liver and kidney of red fox. Significant differences in metal concentrations in the muscle, liver and kidney were detected among species. Suburban stone marten accumulated the highest levels of trace elements (mg/kg w.w.): in muscle 0.019 for Hg; in liver 0.161 for Cd, 36.1 for Cu and 0.349 for Pb; in kidney 1.34 for Cd and 0.318 for Pb. Values observed were higher than those found in suburban red fox and therefore, may represent an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic metals in urbanized habitats.

  8. Encephalitis in a stone marten (Martes foina) after natural infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1.

    PubMed

    Klopfleisch, R; Wolf, P U; Wolf, C; Harder, T; Starick, E; Niebuhr, M; Mettenleiter, T C; Teifke, J P

    2007-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of disease in different avian species, caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), have involved infection by subtype H5N1 of the virus. This virus has also crossed species barriers and infected felines and humans. Here, we report the natural infection of a stone marten (Martes foina) from an area with numerous confirmed cases of H5N1 HPAIV infection in wild birds. Histopathological examination of tissues from this animal revealed a diffuse nonsuppurative panencephalitis with perivascular cuffing, multifocal gliosis and neuronal necrosis. Additionally, focal necrosis of pancreatic acinar cells was observed. Immunohistochemically, lesions in these organs were associated with avian influenza virus antigen in neurons, glial cells and pancreatic acinar cells. Thus, the microscopical lesions and viral antigen distribution in this stone marten differs from that recently described for cats naturally and experimentally infected with the same virus subtype. This is the first report of natural infection of a mustelid with HPAIV H5N1.

  9. Prevalence and molecular identification of the sinus worm Skrjabingylus petrowi (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) from Martes spp. in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heddergott, M; Müller, F; Frantz, A C

    2015-06-01

    The nematodes of the genus Skrjabingylus (family Metastrongylidae) can parasitise the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of different carnivore species. Until recently, Skrjabingylus petrowi Bageanov & Petrov, 1941, has mainly been described in pine martens (Martes martes Linnaeus, 1758) and sables (Martes zibellina Linnaeus, 1758) sampled in the European part of the former Soviet Union. Newer finds in the stone marten (Martes foina Erxleben, 1777) and from different parts of Europe suggest, however, that the species might have a broader host-species range than previously assumed and be geographically more widespread as well. Since most S. petrowi records have resulted from chance discoveries rather than systematic surveys, very little is known about the prevalence of S. petrowi in marten populations. Here, we report results of a 20-year extensive survey of fresh marten skulls, where we tested 1.059 marten carcasses originating from 248 localities in Germany for the presence of S. petrowi. We identified an infestation in only four M. martes individuals and one M. foina, despite using a reliable identification method. Based on the spicule lengths of the male nematodes, the parasites were identified as S. petrowi and genetic barcoding confirmed the identification of the samples. In a phylogenetic analysis, S. petrowi and Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842), formed a sister clade to all the other members of the family Metastrongylidae. The low prevalence of S. petrowi is possibly due to its parasitising in the two marten species that are either not very common (M. martes) or predominantly live in urban habitat (M. foina).

  10. Inferring Population Genetic Structure in Widely and Continuously Distributed Carnivores: The Stone Marten (Martes foina) as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, María; Basto, Mafalda P.; Madeira, María José; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín J.; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Fernandes, Carlos; Ruiz-González, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    The stone marten is a widely distributed mustelid in the Palaearctic region that exhibits variable habitat preferences in different parts of its range. The species is a Holocene immigrant from southwest Asia which, according to fossil remains, followed the expansion of the Neolithic farming cultures into Europe and possibly colonized the Iberian Peninsula during the Early Neolithic (ca. 7,000 years BP). However, the population genetic structure and historical biogeography of this generalist carnivore remains essentially unknown. In this study we have combined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing (621 bp) and microsatellite genotyping (23 polymorphic markers) to infer the population genetic structure of the stone marten within the Iberian Peninsula. The mtDNA data revealed low haplotype and nucleotide diversities and a lack of phylogeographic structure, most likely due to a recent colonization of the Iberian Peninsula by a few mtDNA lineages during the Early Neolithic. The microsatellite data set was analysed with a) spatial and non-spatial Bayesian individual-based clustering (IBC) approaches (STRUCTURE, TESS, BAPS and GENELAND), and b) multivariate methods [discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and spatial principal component analysis (sPCA)]. Additionally, because isolation by distance (IBD) is a common spatial genetic pattern in mobile and continuously distributed species and it may represent a challenge to the performance of the above methods, the microsatellite data set was tested for its presence. Overall, the genetic structure of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula was characterized by a NE-SW spatial pattern of IBD, and this may explain the observed disagreement between clustering solutions obtained by the different IBC methods. However, there was significant indication for contemporary genetic structuring, albeit weak, into at least three different subpopulations. The detected subdivision could be attributed to the influence of the

  11. Inferring Population Genetic Structure in Widely and Continuously Distributed Carnivores: The Stone Marten (Martes foina) as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Vergara, María; Basto, Mafalda P; Madeira, María José; Gómez-Moliner, Benjamín J; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Fernandes, Carlos; Ruiz-González, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    The stone marten is a widely distributed mustelid in the Palaearctic region that exhibits variable habitat preferences in different parts of its range. The species is a Holocene immigrant from southwest Asia which, according to fossil remains, followed the expansion of the Neolithic farming cultures into Europe and possibly colonized the Iberian Peninsula during the Early Neolithic (ca. 7,000 years BP). However, the population genetic structure and historical biogeography of this generalist carnivore remains essentially unknown. In this study we have combined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing (621 bp) and microsatellite genotyping (23 polymorphic markers) to infer the population genetic structure of the stone marten within the Iberian Peninsula. The mtDNA data revealed low haplotype and nucleotide diversities and a lack of phylogeographic structure, most likely due to a recent colonization of the Iberian Peninsula by a few mtDNA lineages during the Early Neolithic. The microsatellite data set was analysed with a) spatial and non-spatial Bayesian individual-based clustering (IBC) approaches (STRUCTURE, TESS, BAPS and GENELAND), and b) multivariate methods [discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) and spatial principal component analysis (sPCA)]. Additionally, because isolation by distance (IBD) is a common spatial genetic pattern in mobile and continuously distributed species and it may represent a challenge to the performance of the above methods, the microsatellite data set was tested for its presence. Overall, the genetic structure of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula was characterized by a NE-SW spatial pattern of IBD, and this may explain the observed disagreement between clustering solutions obtained by the different IBC methods. However, there was significant indication for contemporary genetic structuring, albeit weak, into at least three different subpopulations. The detected subdivision could be attributed to the influence of the

  12. Genetic distinctness and variation in the Tsushima Islands population of the Japanese marten, Martes melampus (Carnivora: Mustelidae), revealed by microsatellite analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Shouko; Moteki, Shusaku; Baba, Minoru; Ochiai, Keiji; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2012-12-01

    A carnivoran mammal endemic to Japan, the Japanese marten (Martes melampus) is native in forested regions on Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu (main islands of Japan), and the Tsushima Islands. The Tsushima population is classified as a different subspecies (M. m. tsuensis) from populations on the main islands (M. m. melampus). To elucidate the genetic structure of the Tsushima population, we genotyped 101 individuals from the Tsushima Islands and 43 individuals from Honshu and Kyushu using 10 microsatellite loci, and performed population genetic analyses on the genotype data. Genetic diversity was lower in the Tsushima population than in three geographic populations on the main islands: heterozygosity was 0.189-0.364 in the former, compared to 0.457-0.747 in the latter. In addition, high pairwise Fst values (0.485-0.682) and Nei's standard distance (0.550-1.183) between the Tsushima and main-island populations indicated a high degree of genetic differentiation. Finally, a Bayesian clustering analysis showed that the Tsushima population is apparently differentiated from the main-island populations and comprises two genetic clusters. A factorial correspondence analysis corroborated these results. Our results suggest that restricted gene flow or inbreeding may have reduced genetic diversity in the Tsushima population, which has been geographically isolated from the main-island populations since the formation of Tsushima Strait.

  13. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Lempp, Charlotte; Jungwirth, Nicole; Grilo, Miguel L; Reckendorf, Anja; Ulrich, Arlena; van Neer, Abbo; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Bauer, Christian; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes), next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus) and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus) were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence), canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry) and Aujeszky's disease (virus cultivation). The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16) and pneumonia (n = 20). None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry zoonotic

  14. Molecular evolution and adaptation of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Malyarchuk, B; He, X B; Derenko, M

    2013-09-23

    Martes species represent a typical example of rapid evolutionary radiation and a recent speciation event. To identify regions of the genome that experienced adaptive evolution, which might provide clues to their functional importance and may be informative about the features that make each species unique, we sought evidence of molecular adaptation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b gene in the subgenus Martes. Complete sequences of the cytochrome b gene were obtained from 87 samples, including 49 sables, 28 pine martens, and 10 stone martens, and were combined with mtDNA sequences of other true martens, such as M. melampus and M. americana. Analysis of the cytochrome b gene variation in true martens has shown that the evolution of this gene is under negative selection. In contrast, positive selection on the cytochrome b protein has been detected by means of the software TreeSAAP using a phylogenetic reconstruction of Martes taxa. Signatures of adaptive variation in cytochrome b were restricted to the transmembrane domains, which likely function as proton pumps. We compared results of different methods for testing selection and molecular adaptation, and we supposed that the radical changes of the cytochrome b amino acid residues in the subgenus Martes may be the result of molecular adaptation to specific environmental conditions coupled with species dispersals.

  15. Filaria martis Gmelin 1790 (Spirurida, Filariidae) affecting beech marten (Martes foina): morphological description and molecular characterisation of the cytochrome oxidase c subunit I.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Brianti, Emanuele; Traversa, Donato; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2007-09-01

    Filaria martis causes a poorly known subcutaneous filariosis in mustelids. Few information is available about lesions that F. martis causes in beech martens, on its morphology, biology and the occurrence of the infection. From 1997 to 2006, 29 beech martens from two sites of southern Italy (Sites A and B) have been necropsied. Ectoparasites and nematodes were collected and morphologically identified. A variable region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) of F. martis has been characterised to compare females presenting caudal tips smooth without spines (i.e. Morphotype 1-Mrph. 1) and with spines (i.e. Mrph. 2). All ticks collected were identified as Haemaphysalis erinacei. Eleven animals from Site A were found infected by F. martis nematodes in subcutaneous tissue in both membranous capsules or free under the inner skin surface. The most important morphological characters of F. martis have been reported and discussed. The molecular analysis showed 100% homology among cox1 sequences from Mrph. 1 and 2 thus indicating that the shape of female posterior edge may vary among specimens of F. martis. The results here presented provide new insights into the biology, ecology and morphological characteristics of this scantly known nematode.

  16. Habitat characteristics at marten subnivean access sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Janelle G.; Raphael, Martin G.

    1992-01-01

    The occurrence of coarse woody debris (CWD) at sites of subnivean (under snow) access by martens (Martes americana) has not been quantified adequately, and must be better understood to provide suitable winter habitat management for the species. Consequently, we studied subnivean activity of martens in a subalpine forest in southern Wyoming to determine how subnivean space was accessed, and to examine microhabitat characteristics around entry sites. Martens used existing openings in snow, created primarily by logs at low snow depths and by small live spruce and fir trees at greater snow depths. Sites of marten subnivean entry had greater percent cover (P ≤ 0.01) and total volume of CWD (P ≤ 0.01), greater numbers of log layers (all P ≤ 0.02), greater volume of undecayed (P ≤ 0.05) and moderately decayed logs (P ≤ 0.02), less volume of very decayed logs (P ≤ 0.001), and fewer small root masses (P ≤ 0.001) than surrounding forest stands. Provision of sufficient CWD in winter habitat of martens may require specific effort, particularly in managed forests of the central Rocky Mountains.

  17. [Population aspects of sexual dimorphism in guild of the Mustelidae: Mustela lutreola, Neovison vison, Mustela putorius, Martes martes as an example].

    PubMed

    Korablev, M P; Korablev, N P; Korablev, P N

    2013-01-01

    Size sexual dimorphism was investigated on 695 skulls of four Mustelidae species. By extent of increasing of differences between sexes the species are placed in following order: European pine marten (Martes martes), European mink (Mustela lutreola), American mink (Neovison vison), and European polecat (Mustela putorius). Extent of the dimorphism characterizes ecological plasticity of the species and is population characteristic. It is shown that M. martes takes specific and relatively narrow ecological niche of forest ecosystems, entering into weak competitive relationships with smaller Mustelidae species. The level of sexual dimorphism of M. lutreola, N. vison and M. putorius reflects intensity of its interspecific relationships within study area. High level of sexual dimorphism of M. putorius is determined by further divergence of ecological niches of males and females, and also appears to be compensatory mechanism reducing consequences of hardened environmental requirements.

  18. Examining the uncertain origin and management role of martens on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Jonathan N; Moss, Wynne E; Manlick, Philip J; Fountain, Emily D; Kirby, Rebecca; Sultaire, Sean M; Perrig, Paula L; Mendoza, Jorge E; Pokallus, John W; Heaton, Timothy H

    2015-10-01

    Conservation biologists are generally united in efforts to curtail the spread of non-native species globally. However, the colonization history of a species is not always certain, and whether a species is considered non-native or native depends on the conservation benchmark. Such ambiguities have led to inconsistent management. Within the Tongass National Forest of Alaska, the status of American marten (Martes americana) on the largest, most biologically diverse and deforested island, Prince of Wales (POW), is unclear. Ten martens were released to POW in the early 1930s, and it was generally believed to be the founding event, although this has been questioned. The uncertainty surrounding when and how martens colonized POW complicates management, especially because martens were selected as a design species for the Tongass. To explore the history of martens of POW we reviewed other plausible routes of colonization; genetically and isotopically analyzed putative marten fossils deposited in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene to verify marten occupancy of POW; and used contemporary genetic data from martens on POW and the mainland in coalescent simulations to identify the probable source of the present-day marten population on POW. We found evidence for multiple routes of colonization by forest-associated mammals beginning in the Holocene, which were likely used by American martens to naturally colonize POW. Although we cannot rule out human-assisted movement of martens by Alaskan Natives or fur trappers, we suggest that martens be managed for persistence on POW. More generally, our findings illustrate the difficulty of labeling species as non-native or native, even when genetic and paleo-ecological data are available, and support the notion that community resilience or species invasiveness should be prioritized when making management decisions rather than more subjective and less certain conservation benchmarks.

  19. An analytical platform for cumulative impact assessment based on multiple futures: the impact of petroleum drilling and forest harvesting on moose (Alces alces) and marten (Martes americana) habitats in northeastern British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Strimbu, Bogdan; Innes, John

    2011-07-01

    The combined influence on the environment of all projects occurring in a single area is evaluated through cumulative impact assessments (CIA), which consider the consequences of multiple projects, each insignificant on its own, yet important when evaluated collectively. Traditionally, future human activities are included in CIA using an analytical platform, commonly based on complex models that supply precise predictions but with reduced accuracy. To compensate for the lack of accuracy in current CIA approaches, we propose a shift in the paradigm governing CIA. The paradigm shift involves a change in the focus of CIA investigations from the detailed analysis of one unlikely future to the identification of the patterns describing multiple potential future changes in the environment. To illustrate the approach, a set of 144 possible and equally likely futures were developed that aimed to identify the potential impacts of forest harvesting and petroleum drilling on the habitat suitability of moose and marten in northeast British Columbia, Canada. The evolution of two measures of habitat suitability (average habitat suitability index and surface of the stands with habitat suitability index >0.5) revealed that the human activities could induce cycles in the habitat dynamics of moose and marten. The planning period of 100 years was separated into three distinct periods following a sinusoidal pattern (i.e., increase - constant - decrease in the habitat suitability measures). The attributes that could induce significant changes in the assessment of environment are the choice of harvesting age and species.

  20. Evaluating detection probabilities for American marten in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.B.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring techniques designed to determine presence of forest carnivores, such as American marten (Martes americana), is crucial for validation of survey results. Although comparisons between techniques have been made, little attention has been paid to the issue of detection probabilities (p). Thus, the underlying assumption has been that detection probabilities equal 1.0. We used presence-absence data obtained from a track-plate survey in conjunction with results from a saturation-trapping study to derive detection probabilities when marten occurred at high (>2 marten/10.2 km2) and low (???1 marten/10.2 km2) densities within 8 10.2-km2 quadrats. Estimated probability of detecting marten in high-density quadrats was p = 0.952 (SE = 0.047), whereas the detection probability for low-density quadrats was considerably lower (p = 0.333, SE = 0.136). Our results indicated that failure to account for imperfect detection could lead to an underestimation of marten presence in 15-52% of low-density quadrats in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA. We recommend that repeated site-survey data be analyzed to assess detection probabilities when documenting carnivore survey results.

  1. The Japanese Marten Favors Actinidia arguta, a Forest Edge Liane as a Directed Seed Disperser.

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, Yui; Takatsuki, Seiki

    2015-06-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of the Japanese marten (Martes melampus) to serve as a directed seed disperser of Actinidia arguta, a representative forest edge liane. Fecal compositions of the Japanese marten in a western part of Tokyo, Japan were analyzed by the point-frame method. It fed on fruits in autumn (73.1%) and winter (63.0%), and the seeds of A. arguta were most frequently eaten (47.4%). Although the vegetation in the study area was dominated by forest (95.5%), seeds found in the marten feces were dominated by those of forest edge plants (92.1%), suggesting a strong selective bias, both habitat and food, toward these species. The density of marten feces was also higher at forest edges than forest interiors. A. arguta plants were more abundant at forest edges than within the forest at Afan Wood, Nagano Prefecture. These results suggest that the Japanese marten selectively uses forest edges as a location for feeding and defecation and thus functions as a directed seed disperser of A. arguta.

  2. Assessing Genetic Structure in Common but Ecologically Distinct Carnivores: The Stone Marten and Red Fox.

    PubMed

    Basto, Mafalda P; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Simões, Luciana; Grilo, Clara; Cardoso, Luís; Cortes, Helder; Bruford, Michael W; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The identification of populations and spatial genetic patterns is important for ecological and conservation research, and spatially explicit individual-based methods have been recognised as powerful tools in this context. Mammalian carnivores are intrinsically vulnerable to habitat fragmentation but not much is known about the genetic consequences of fragmentation in common species. Stone martens (Martes foina) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) share a widespread Palearctic distribution and are considered habitat generalists, but in the Iberian Peninsula stone martens tend to occur in higher quality habitats. We compared their genetic structure in Portugal to see if they are consistent with their differences in ecological plasticity, and also to illustrate an approach to explicitly delineate the spatial boundaries of consistently identified genetic units. We analysed microsatellite data using spatial Bayesian clustering methods (implemented in the software BAPS, GENELAND and TESS), a progressive partitioning approach and a multivariate technique (Spatial Principal Components Analysis-sPCA). Three consensus Bayesian clusters were identified for the stone marten. No consensus was achieved for the red fox, but one cluster was the most probable clustering solution. Progressive partitioning and sPCA suggested additional clusters in the stone marten but they were not consistent among methods and were geographically incoherent. The contrasting results between the two species are consistent with the literature reporting stricter ecological requirements of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula. The observed genetic structure in the stone marten may have been influenced by landscape features, particularly rivers, and fragmentation. We suggest that an approach based on a consensus clustering solution of multiple different algorithms may provide an objective and effective means to delineate potential boundaries of inferred subpopulations. sPCA and progressive partitioning

  3. Assessing Genetic Structure in Common but Ecologically Distinct Carnivores: The Stone Marten and Red Fox

    PubMed Central

    Basto, Mafalda P.; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Simões, Luciana; Grilo, Clara; Cardoso, Luís; Cortes, Helder; Bruford, Michael W.; Fernandes, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The identification of populations and spatial genetic patterns is important for ecological and conservation research, and spatially explicit individual-based methods have been recognised as powerful tools in this context. Mammalian carnivores are intrinsically vulnerable to habitat fragmentation but not much is known about the genetic consequences of fragmentation in common species. Stone martens (Martes foina) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) share a widespread Palearctic distribution and are considered habitat generalists, but in the Iberian Peninsula stone martens tend to occur in higher quality habitats. We compared their genetic structure in Portugal to see if they are consistent with their differences in ecological plasticity, and also to illustrate an approach to explicitly delineate the spatial boundaries of consistently identified genetic units. We analysed microsatellite data using spatial Bayesian clustering methods (implemented in the software BAPS, GENELAND and TESS), a progressive partitioning approach and a multivariate technique (Spatial Principal Components Analysis-sPCA). Three consensus Bayesian clusters were identified for the stone marten. No consensus was achieved for the red fox, but one cluster was the most probable clustering solution. Progressive partitioning and sPCA suggested additional clusters in the stone marten but they were not consistent among methods and were geographically incoherent. The contrasting results between the two species are consistent with the literature reporting stricter ecological requirements of the stone marten in the Iberian Peninsula. The observed genetic structure in the stone marten may have been influenced by landscape features, particularly rivers, and fragmentation. We suggest that an approach based on a consensus clustering solution of multiple different algorithms may provide an objective and effective means to delineate potential boundaries of inferred subpopulations. sPCA and progressive partitioning

  4. Habitat-mediated variation in predation risk by the American marten.

    PubMed

    Andruskiw, Mark; Fryxell, John M; Thompson, Ian D; Baker, James A

    2008-08-01

    The probability of prey encounter, attack, capture, and kill are often hypothesized to depend on habitat structure, but field evidence in terrestrial systems is rare. We tested whether predation efficiency by the American marten (Martes americana) and fear of predation by their primary prey, the red-backed vole (Clethrionomys gapperi), differed between 20- to 50-year-old regenerating forest stands and older uncut stands. Our results showed that the frequency of prey encounter, prey attack, and prey kill were higher in old uncut forests, despite the fact that small-mammal density was similar to that in younger logged forests. These differences in predation efficiency were linked to higher abundance of coarse woody debris, which seems to offer sensory cues to martens, thereby increasing the odds of hunting success. Red-backed voles in regenerating forest stands exhibited increased wariness compared to voles living in old uncut forest, suggestive of a behavioral response to habitat-mediated variation in predation risk.

  5. American Marten Respond to Seismic Lines in Northern Canada at Two Spatial Scales

    PubMed Central

    Tigner, Jesse; Bayne, Erin M.; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Development of hydrocarbon resources across northwest Canada has spurred economic prosperity and generated concerns over impacts to biodiversity. To balance these interests, numerous jurisdictions have adopted management thresholds that allow for limited energy development but minimize undesirable impacts to wildlife. Used for exploration, seismic lines are the most abundant linear feature in the boreal forest and exist at a variety of widths and recovery states. We used American marten (Martes americana) as a model species to measure how line attributes influence species’ response to seismic lines, and asked whether responses to individual lines trigger population impacts. Marten response to seismic lines was strongly influenced by line width and recovery state. Compared to forest interiors, marten used open seismic lines ≥ 3 m wide less often, but used open lines ≤ 2 m wide and partially recovered lines ≥ 6 m wide similarly. Marten response to individual line types appeared to trigger population impacts. The probability of occurrence at the home range scale declined with increasing seismic line density, and the inclusion of behavioral response to line density calculations improved model fit. In our top performing model, we excluded seismic lines ≤ 2 m from our calculation of line density, and the probability of occurrence declined > 80% between home ranges with the lowest and highest line densities. Models that excluded seismic lines did not strongly explain occurrence. We show how wildlife-derived metrics can inform regulatory guidelines to increase the likelihood those guidelines meet intended management objectives. With respect to marten, not all seismic lines constitute disturbances, but avoidance of certain line types scales to population impacts. This approach provides the ecological context required to understand cause and effect relationships among socio-economic and ecological conservation goals. PMID:25768848

  6. American marten respond to seismic lines in northern Canada at two spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Tigner, Jesse; Bayne, Erin M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Development of hydrocarbon resources across northwest Canada has spurred economic prosperity and generated concerns over impacts to biodiversity. To balance these interests, numerous jurisdictions have adopted management thresholds that allow for limited energy development but minimize undesirable impacts to wildlife. Used for exploration, seismic lines are the most abundant linear feature in the boreal forest and exist at a variety of widths and recovery states. We used American marten (Martes americana) as a model species to measure how line attributes influence species' response to seismic lines, and asked whether responses to individual lines trigger population impacts. Marten response to seismic lines was strongly influenced by line width and recovery state. Compared to forest interiors, marten used open seismic lines ≥ 3 m wide less often, but used open lines ≤ 2 m wide and partially recovered lines ≥ 6 m wide similarly. Marten response to individual line types appeared to trigger population impacts. The probability of occurrence at the home range scale declined with increasing seismic line density, and the inclusion of behavioral response to line density calculations improved model fit. In our top performing model, we excluded seismic lines ≤ 2 m from our calculation of line density, and the probability of occurrence declined > 80% between home ranges with the lowest and highest line densities. Models that excluded seismic lines did not strongly explain occurrence. We show how wildlife-derived metrics can inform regulatory guidelines to increase the likelihood those guidelines meet intended management objectives. With respect to marten, not all seismic lines constitute disturbances, but avoidance of certain line types scales to population impacts. This approach provides the ecological context required to understand cause and effect relationships among socio-economic and ecological conservation goals.

  7. COMPLEX HOST-PARASITE SYSTEMS IN MARTES: IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGY OF ENDEMIC FAUNAS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex assemblages of hosts and parasites reveal insights about biogeography and ecology and inform us about processes which serve to structure faunal diversity and the biosphere in space and time. Exploring aspects of parasite diversity among martens (species of Martes) and other mustelids reveal...

  8. Marte Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the results of catastrophic flooding in Marte Vallis, Mars. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Many of the major valleys on the red planet are named for the word for 'Mars' in the various languages of Earth. This image shows just a very small portion of the hundreds-of-kilometers-long Marte Vallis system.

    Location near: 17.4oN, 174.7o Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  9. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the Japanese marten.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2007-08-01

    The dorsal lingual surfaces of two adult Japanese marten (Martes melampus) were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Filiform, fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae were observed. A small filiform papilla on the apical surface of the tongue had several pointed processes. A small filiform papilla contained the connective tissue core consisting of several small processes. A large filiform papilla of the lingual body consisted of a main papilla and some secondary papillae. A large filiform papilla contained the connective tissue core consisting of processes of various size. The fungiform papillae are round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla had a top with several round depressions. The four vallate papillae were located on both sides of the posterior end of the lingual body and each papilla was surrounded by groove and crescent pad. A zigzag surface structure appeared on the connective tissue core of the vallate papilla. The foliate papillae were seen on the dorsolateral aspect of the tongue and some ridges and grooves were exposed reciprocally. A zigzag surface structures appeared on the connective tissue cores of the ridges of the foliate papillae.

  10. Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in martens and fishers from the Algonquin region of south-central Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Steeves, T.; Strickland, M. ); Frank, R.; Rasper, J. ); Douglas, C.W.

    1991-03-01

    Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine insecticides (OCI) has been restricted in the Province of Ontario, Canada, since 1971. This study reports on OCI and PCB levels in two carnivores, fishers (Martes pennanti) and martens (Martes americana), collected in the Algonquin Region of south-central Ontario in 1976 and 1981, and compares them to data collected for the same species in the same area in 1972-74. Algonquin Region is a forested area of 43,000 km{sup 2} on the Precambrian shield, and has no major industrial or agricultural development. Except for DDT, which was used in the 1950's and 1960's to control biting insects around tourist establishments, there has been little use of OCIs or PCBs in this area. Their occurrence in the Algonquin Region is most likely due to atmospheric transport.

  11. Inter-individual variability of stone marten behavioral responses to a highway.

    PubMed

    Ascensão, Fernando; Grilo, Clara; LaPoint, Scott; Tracey, Jeff; Clevenger, Anthony P; Santos-Reis, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to reduce the negative impacts of roads on wildlife may be hindered if individuals within the population vary widely in their responses to roads and mitigation strategies ignore this variability. This knowledge is particularly important for medium-sized carnivores as they are vulnerable to road mortality, while also known to use available road passages (e.g., drainage culverts) for safely crossing highways. Our goal in this study was to assess whether this apparently contradictory pattern of high road-kill numbers associated with a regular use of road passages is attributable to the variation in behavioral responses toward the highway between individuals. We investigated the responses of seven radio-tracked stone martens (Martes foina) to a highway by measuring their utilization distribution, response turning angles and highway crossing patterns. We compared the observed responses to simulated movement parameterized by the observed space use and movement characteristics of each individual, but naïve to the presence of the highway. Our results suggested that martens demonstrate a diversity of responses to the highway, including attraction, indifference, or avoidance. Martens also varied in their highway crossing patterns, with some crossing repeatedly at the same location (often coincident with highway passages). We suspect that the response variability derives from the individual's familiarity of the landscape, including their awareness of highway passage locations. Because of these variable yet potentially attributable responses, we support the use of exclusionary fencing to guide transient (e.g., dispersers) individuals to existing passages to reduce the road-kill risk.

  12. Inter-Individual Variability of Stone Marten Behavioral Responses to a Highway

    PubMed Central

    Ascensão, Fernando; Grilo, Clara; LaPoint, Scott; Tracey, Jeff; Clevenger, Anthony P.; Santos-Reis, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to reduce the negative impacts of roads on wildlife may be hindered if individuals within the population vary widely in their responses to roads and mitigation strategies ignore this variability. This knowledge is particularly important for medium-sized carnivores as they are vulnerable to road mortality, while also known to use available road passages (e.g., drainage culverts) for safely crossing highways. Our goal in this study was to assess whether this apparently contradictory pattern of high road-kill numbers associated with a regular use of road passages is attributable to the variation in behavioral responses toward the highway between individuals. We investigated the responses of seven radio-tracked stone martens (Martes foina) to a highway by measuring their utilization distribution, response turning angles and highway crossing patterns. We compared the observed responses to simulated movement parameterized by the observed space use and movement characteristics of each individual, but naïve to the presence of the highway. Our results suggested that martens demonstrate a diversity of responses to the highway, including attraction, indifference, or avoidance. Martens also varied in their highway crossing patterns, with some crossing repeatedly at the same location (often coincident with highway passages). We suspect that the response variability derives from the individual's familiarity of the landscape, including their awareness of highway passage locations. Because of these variable yet potentially attributable responses, we support the use of exclusionary fencing to guide transient (e.g., dispersers) individuals to existing passages to reduce the road-kill risk. PMID:25072639

  13. Status, distribution, and movements of martens in northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Rogers, L.L.

    1977-01-01

    The decline of martens in Minnesota is reviewed and a recent increase documented. Adjacent and partially overlapping home ranges of 4.3 to 19.9 sq km were determined by telemetry for a female and three males. Habitat use is described. If current trapping and timber management practices persist, martens should continue to increase.

  14. Cell scientist to watch--Sascha Martens.

    PubMed

    2016-02-15

    Sascha Martens obtained both his Diploma and PhD at the University of Cologne in Germany in the laboratory of Jonathan Howard. He pursued his postdoctoral training as an EMBO Long-Term Fellow in the group of Harvey McMahon at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK, during which time he also received the AAAS/Science Program for Excellence in Science Award. In 2009 Sascha became a group leader at the University of Vienna Max F. Perutz Laboratories. Sascha holds an ERC Starting Grant and is an EMBO Young Investigator, and he was recently awarded an ERC Consolidator Grant. His research focuses on understanding the mechanisms that orchestrate autophagy.

  15. Interacting effects of climate change, landscape conversion, and harvest on carnivore populations at the range margin: marten and lynx in the northern Appalachians.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    Assessing the effects of climate change on threatened species requires moving beyond simple bioclimatic models to models that incorporate interactions among climatic trends, landscape change, environmental stochasticity, and species life history. Populations of marten (Martes americana) and lynx (Lynx canadensis) in southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States represent peninsular extensions of boreal ranges and illustrate the potential impact of these threats on semi-isolated populations at the range margin. Decreased snowfall may affect marten and lynx through decreased prey vulnerability and decreased competitive advantage over sympatric carnivores. I used a spatially explicit population model to assess potential effects of predicted changes in snowfall by 2055 on regional marten and lynx populations. The models' habitat rankings were derived from previous static models that correlated regional distribution with snowfall and vegetation data. Trapping scenarios were parameterized as a 10% proportional decrease in survival, and logging scenarios were parameterized as a 10% decrease in the extent of older coniferous or mixed forest. Both species showed stronger declines in the simulations due to climate change than to overexploitation or logging. Marten populations declined 40% because of climate change, 16% because of logging, and 30% because of trapping. Lynx populations declined 59% because of climate change, 36% because of trapping, and 20% in scenarios evaluating the effects of population cycles. Climate change interacted with logging in its effects on the marten and with trapping in its effects on the lynx, increasing overall vulnerability. For both species larger lowland populations were vulnerable to climate change, which suggests that contraction may occur in the core of their current regional range as well as among smaller peripheral populations. Despite their greater data requirements compared with bioclimatic models, mesoscale spatial

  16. [Water and energy metabolism in representatives of the genus Martes and Mustela (Mammalia: Mustelidae)].

    PubMed

    Meshcherskiĭ, I G; Rozhnov, V V; Naĭdenko, S V

    2003-01-01

    The quantities of consumed food and water, quantity and moisture content of faeces, as well as quantity and concentration of excreted urine were determined in representatives of Martes--marten (M. martes) and sable (M. zibellina)--as well as in polecat (Mustela putorius). Under the same cage conditions and free access to food, all three species had similar energy value of the daily diet. However, the level of drinking water consumption and the ratio between the quantities of arriving water and energy was reliably higher in both Martes species than in polecat. In addition, both marten and sable featured a much higher rate of evaporation loss in the overall water balance and, consequently, a higher quantity of heat dissipated with evaporation as compared to polecat. Comparison of the obtained and previous data (Sokolov et al., 1995; Rozhnov, 1991) allowed us to propose that the mentioned differences can be specific for representatives of Martes and Mustela genera irrespective of ecological specialization of particular species.

  17. P-Mart

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-07

    P-Mart was designed specifically to allow cancer researchers to perform robust statistical processing of publicly available cancer proteomic datasets. To date an online statistical processing suite for proteomics does not exist. The P-Mart software is designed to allow statistical programmers to utilize these algorithms through packages in the R programming language as well as offering a web-based interface using the Azure cloud technology. The Azure cloud technology also allows the release of the software via Docker containers.

  18. Population ecology of American marten in New Hampshire: Impact of wind farm development in high elevation habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siren, Alexej Peder Kelly

    This study examined marten ecology relative to wind farm development using radio-marked marten, camera trapping, and snow track surveys to meet study objectives. The local population was mostly breeding adults and was considered near carrying capacity. Mortality (predation) was biased towards females and young. Seasonal home ranges were small overall, and largest during summer and when marten used more regenerating and softwood forest. Selection at the landscape scale was more pronounced than at the stand scale; regenerating forest was selected against year-round. Stand selection for mature mixed-wood and softwood occurred in winter. Disturbance from wind farm construction resulted in less use and periodic displacement of marten, although marten maintained presence in the study area. Winter access by competitor canids was enhanced by maintained roads and snowmobile trails at high elevation. A balanced approach is encouraged to minimize developmental impacts in prime, high elevation habitat of recovering marten populations.

  19. Pine embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sutela, Suvi; Tillman-Sutela, Eila; Kauppi, Anneli; Jokela, Anne; Sarjala, Tytti; Häggman, Hely

    2009-01-01

    In plants, programmed cell death (PCD) is an important mechanism that controls normal growth and development as well as many defence responses. At present, research on PCD in different plant species is actively carried out due to the possibilities offered by modern methods in molecular biology and the increasing amount of genome data. The pine seed provides a favourable model for PCD because it represents an interesting inheritance of seed tissues as well as an anatomically well-described embryogenesis during which several tissues die via morphologically different PCD processes. PMID:19826239

  20. Book review: Biology and conservation of martens, sables, and fishers: A new synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.

    2013-01-01

    Review info: Biology and conservation of martens, sables, and fishers: A new synthesis. Edited by K.B. Aubry, W.J. Zielinski, M.G. Raphael, G. Proulx, and S.W. Buskirk, 2012. ISBN: 978-08014, 580pp.

  1. Cross-species transferability of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) nuclear microsatellite markers to five Mexican white pines.

    PubMed

    Villalobos-Arámbula, A R; Pérez de la Rosa, J A; Arias, A; Rajora, O P

    2014-09-12

    We examined cross-species transferability and usefulness of six nuclear microsatellite markers developed in consubgeneric eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) with regard to ecologically and commercially important Mexican white pine species of conservation genetics concern: Pinus chiapensis (Mart.) Andresen, P. flexilis James, P. strobiformis Engelm., P. ayacahuite Ehrenb. Ex Schltdl, and P. ayacahuite var. veitchii (Roezl) G.R. Shaw. Four to six microsatellite loci were found to be polymorphic in different species, with moderate to high informativeness in a relatively small number of samples (PIC/HE=0.25-0.93). This successful transfer sidesteps the time- and resource-consuming development of species-specific microsatellite markers, and will facilitate population and conservation genetic studies and genetic resource management of the less studied Mexican white pines.

  2. Curiosity --El nuevo robot explorador de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    El nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte llamado Curiosity tiene grandes preguntas que responder una vez que llegue a Marte. Infórmese sobre la misión con el analista de trayectoria de la NASA Fern...

  3. Phylogenetic characterization of canine distemper virus isolates from naturally infected dogs and a marten in Korea.

    PubMed

    An, Dong-Jun; Yoon, Sook-Hee; Park, Jee-Yong; No, In-Sun; Park, Bong-Kyun

    2008-12-10

    We sequenced the hemagglutinin (H) genes from four canine distemper virus (CDV) isolates obtained from three dogs and a marten in Korea. These sequences were included in subsequent H gene-focused phylogenetic tree analysis of 89 CDV strains. This analysis revealed eight clades designated as EU1, EU2, EU3, NA1, NA2, Asia 1, Asia 2 and Vaccine. Three of the Korean isolates (97Jindo, 98Marten and 07D111) occurred in the Asia 2 group that also contains many Japanese CDV strains isolated in 1998. The remaining Korean strain (07Q72) fell into the Asia 1 group. The 21 H protein sequences of 25 Asia 1 strains are generally predicted to bear nine potential N-linked glycosylation sites. In contrast, the 9 H protein sequences of 12 Asia 2 strains had eight potential N-linked glycosylation sites. The remaining strains had six (98Marten and 07D111) and seven (97Jindo) potential N-linked glycosylation sites.

  4. Martens-Kuin models of normal and inverse polarity filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. F.; Hildner, E.; Kuin, N. P. M.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis is made of the Martens-Kuin filament eruption model in relation to observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The field lines of this model are plotted in the vacuum or infinite resistivity approximation with two background fields. The first is the dipole background field of the model and the second is the potential streamer model of Low. The Martens-Kuin model predicts that, as the filament erupts, the overlying coronal magnetic field lines rise in a manner inconsistent with observations of CMEs associated with eruptive filaments. This model and, by generalization the whole class of so-called Kuperus-Raadu configurations in which a neutral point occurs below the filament, are of questionable utility for CME modeling. An alternate case is considered in which the directions of currents in the Martens-Kuin model are reversed resulting in a so-called normal polarity configuration of the filament magnetic field. The background field lines now distort to support the filament and help eject it. While the vacuum field results make this configuration appear very promising, a full two- or more-dimensional MHD simulations is required to properly analyze the dynamics resulting from this configuration.

  5. A data mart for operations analysis.

    PubMed

    Isken, M W; Littig, S J; West, M

    2001-01-01

    In this article we describe the evolution and architecture of a data mart developed to address the modeling and analysis needs of healthcare operations analysts. More specifically, the data mart is used in projects relating to demand analysis, forecasting, capacity planning, and service system design for a healthcare system consisting of a large tertiary care hospital and a smaller community hospital. The primary focus of the mart is on the detailed movement of inpatients through each hospital, although most component data tables include outpatient information such as emergency center visits, surgical cases, cardiac catheterization cases, and short-stay visits. We show that the data mart goes well beyond consolidating data from different sources by including a number of complex, precalculated fields, data structures, and function libraries that are specific to the needs of operations analysts. We discuss several outstanding and challenging design issues that should be of interest to the data warehouse vendor community.

  6. Social Facilitation During the Initial Stage of Motor Learning: A Re-examination of Martens' Audience Study. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Daniel M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    R. Martens' hypothesis that an audience acts as a stimulus to elicit arousal or drive in the performance of an individual, which in turn enhances the emission of the dominant habit, is reexamined. Where incorrect responses are dominant, learning of a novel task will be inhibited, or at least improvement will not be as rapid as for individuals…

  7. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of ...

  8. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in the western United States have been adversely affected by an exotic pathogen (Cronartium ribicola, causal agent of white pine blister rust), insect outbreaks (Dendroctonus ponderosae, mountain pine beetle), and drought. We monitored individual trees from 2004 to 2013 and characterized stand-level biophysical conditions through a mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Specifically, we investigated associations between tree-level variables (duration and location of white pine blister rust infection, presence of mountain pine beetle, tree size, and potential interactions) with observations of individual whitebark pine tree mortality. Climate summaries indicated that cumulative growing degree days in years 2006–2008 likely contributed to a regionwide outbreak of mountain pine beetle prior to the observed peak in whitebark mortality in 2009. We show that larger whitebark pine trees were preferentially attacked and killed by mountain pine beetle and resulted in a regionwide shift to smaller size class trees. In addition, we found evidence that smaller size class trees with white pine blister rust infection experienced higher mortality than larger trees. This latter finding suggests that in the coming decades white pine blister rust may become the most probable cause of whitebark pine mortality. Our findings offered no evidence of an interactive effect of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust infection on whitebark pine mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Interestingly, the probability of mortality was lower for larger trees attacked by mountain pine beetle in stands with higher evapotranspiration. Because evapotranspiration varies with climate and topoedaphic conditions across the region, we discuss the potential to use this improved understanding of biophysical influences on mortality to identify microrefugia that might contribute to successful whitebark pine conservation

  9. An investigation into alternative reservoirs of canine leishmaniasis on the endemic island of Mallorca (Spain).

    PubMed

    Millán, J; Zanet, S; Gomis, M; Trisciuoglio, A; Negre, N; Ferroglio, E

    2011-08-01

    The role of wild and free-roaming domestic carnivores as a reservoir of Leishmania infantum was investigated on the Mediterranean island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain), an endemic area for this disease. Serum, blood and/or spleen samples from 169 animals [48 dogs from a kennel, 86 wild-caught feral cats, 23 pine martens (Martes martes), 10 common genets (Genetta genetta) and two weasels (Mustela nivalis)] were analysed. Seroprevalence determined by Western blotting was 38% in dogs and 16% in feral cats, while the prevalence of infection determined by PCR was 44% in dogs, 26% in cats, 39% in pine martens and 10% in genets. This is the first report of infection by L. infantum in the pine marten or any other member of the Mustelidae family. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis found 33 different patterns in 23 dogs, 14 cats and three martens. Two patterns were shared by dogs and cats, two by different cats, and one by different dogs. Patterns were different to those previously reported in carnivores from peninsular Spain. No external lesions compatible with leishmaniasis were observed in any species other than the dogs. Although the dog is probably the primary reservoir of leishmaniasis in endemic areas, the prevalence and the absence of apparent signs of this disease within the island's abundant feral cat and pine marten populations could make these species potential primary or secondary hosts of L. infantum in Mallorca.

  10. Pine Beetle Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Earth Systems Science Office scientists worked with officials in St. Tammany Parish, La., to detect and battle pine beetle infestation in Fontainebleu State Park. The scientists used a new method of detecting plant stress by using special lenses and modified sensors to detect a change in light levels given off by the plant before the stress is visible to the naked eye.

  11. Black Pine Circle Project

    ScienceCinema

    Mytko, Christine

    2016-07-12

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  12. Black Pine Circle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mytko, Christine

    2014-03-31

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  13. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea Mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as “açai” found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and their phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has rece...

  14. Bioactivities of acai (Euterpe precatoria mart.) fruit pulp, superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties to Euterpe oleracea mart

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two predominant palm tree species producing edible fruit known as "acai" found widely dispersed through the Amazon: Euterpe oleracea Mart. and Euterpe precatoria Mart. They differ from each other in terms of how the plants grow and phytochemical composition. E. oleracea (EO) has received c...

  15. Transpecific microsatellites for hard pines.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, M.; Cross, M.; Maguire, L.; Dieters, J.; Williams, G.; Henry, J.

    2002-04-01

    Microsatellites are difficult to recover from large plant genomes so cross-specific utilisation is an important source of markers. Fifty microsatellites were tested for cross-specific amplification and polymorphism to two New World hard pine species, slash pine ( Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) and Caribbean pine ( P. caribaea var. hondurensis). Twenty-nine (58%) markers amplified in both hard pine species, and 23 of these 29 were polymorphic. Soft pine (subgenus Strobus) microsatellite markers did amplify, but none were polymorphic. Pinus elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis showed mutational changes in the flanking regions and the repeat motif that were informative for Pinus spp. phylogenetic relationships. Most allele length variation could be attributed to variability in repeat unit number. There was no evidence for ascertainment bias.

  16. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack

  17. Prenatal development in fishers (Martes pennanti)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, H.C.; Krohn, W.B.; Bezembluk, E.A.; Lott, R.; Wallace, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated and quantified prenatal growth of fishers (Martes pennanti) using ultrasonography. Seven females gave birth to 21 kits. The first identifiable embryonic structures were seen 42 d prepartum; these appeared to be unimplanted blastocysts or gestational sacs, which subsequently implanted in the uterine horns. Maternal and fetal heart rates were monitored from first detection to birth. Maternal heart rates did not differ among sampling periods, while fetal hearts rates increased from first detection to birth. Head and body differentiation, visible limbs and skeletal ossification were visible by 30, 23 and 21 d prepartum, respectively. Mean diameter of gestational sacs and crown-rump lengths were linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001). Biparietal and body diameters were also linearly related to gestational age (P < 0.001) and correctly predicted parturition dates within 1-2 d. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. PINE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canney, Frank C.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic study and geochemical survey were made of the Pine Mountain Wilderness in Arizona. Only slight traces of mineralization of no apparent significance were found and the results of the geochemical survey were negative. The presence of important near-surface mineral deposits in the area is considered unlikely. No evidence of nonmetallic or energy resources was identified during the course of this study. Ore deposits, if present, are probably of the massive sulfide type, and buried deeply beneath the ground surface, beyond the range of the various geochemical and geophysical techniques used in routine exploration. Some of the newer geophysical methods might possibly be capable of detecting such hidden ore bodies if not buried too deeply.

  19. Pembroke Pines Human Resources Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A proposed community educational facility in Pembroke Pines, Florida, involves the city, Broward County Public Schools and Public Libraries, and over 50 community organizations. An innovative financing plan will be developed. (MLF)

  20. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine.

    PubMed

    Gray, Curtis A; Runyon, Justin B; Jenkins, Michael J; Giunta, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  1. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Curtis A.; Runyon, Justin B.; Jenkins, Michael J.; Giunta, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species. PMID:26332317

  2. Tappable Pine Trees: Commercial Production of Terpene Biofuels in Pine

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: The University of Florida is working to increase the amount of turpentine in harvested pine from 4% to 20% of its dry weight. While enhanced feedstocks for biofuels have generally focused on fuel production from leafy plants and grasses, the University of Florida is experimenting with enhancing fuel production in a species of pine that is currently used in the paper pulping industry. Pine trees naturally produce around 3-5% terpene content in the wood—terpenes are the energy-dense fuel molecules that are the predominant components of turpentine. The team aims to increase the terpene storage potential and production capacity while improving the terpene composition to a point at which the trees could be tapped while alive, like sugar maples. Growth and production from these trees will take years, but this pioneering technology could have significant impact in making available an economical and domestic source of aviation and diesel biofuels.

  3. Adaptive evolution of Mediterranean pines.

    PubMed

    Grivet, Delphine; Climent, José; Zabal-Aguirre, Mario; Neale, David B; Vendramin, Giovanni G; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2013-09-01

    Mediterranean pines represent an extremely heterogeneous assembly. Although they have evolved under similar environmental conditions, they diversified long ago, ca. 10 Mya, and present distinct biogeographic and demographic histories. Therefore, it is of special interest to understand whether and to what extent they have developed specific strategies of adaptive evolution through time and space. To explore evolutionary patterns, the Mediterranean pines' phylogeny was first reconstructed analyzing a new set of 21 low-copy nuclear genes with multilocus Bayesian tree reconstruction methods. Secondly, a phylogenetic approach was used to search for footprints of natural selection and to examine the evolution of multiple phenotypic traits. We identified two genes (involved in pines' defense and stress responses) that have likely played a role in the adaptation of Mediterranean pines to their environment. Moreover, few life-history traits showed historical or evolutionary adaptive convergence in Mediterranean lineages, while patterns of character evolution revealed various evolutionary trade-offs linking growth-development, reproduction and fire-related traits. Assessing the evolutionary path of important life-history traits, as well as the genomic basis of adaptive variation is central to understanding the past evolutionary success of Mediterranean pines and their future response to environmental changes.

  4. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    SciTech Connect

    Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Singh, Preet

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  5. Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion.

    PubMed

    Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B

    2014-06-15

    The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management.

  6. Journey of water in pine cones

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Seo, Seung-Jun; Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lim, Jae-Hong; Joon Lee, Sang

    2015-01-01

    Pine cones fold their scales when it rains to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. Given that the scales of pine cones consist of nothing but dead cells, this folding motion is evidently related to structural changes. In this study, the structural characteristics of pine cones are studied on micro-/macro-scale using various imaging instruments. Raindrops fall along the outer scales to the three layers (bract scales, fibers and innermost lignified structure) of inner pine cones. However, not all the layers but only the bract scales get wet and then, most raindrops move to the inner scales. These systems reduce the amount of water used and minimize the time spent on structural changes. The result shows that the pine cones have structural advantages that could influence the efficient motion of pine cones. This study provides new insights to understand the motion of pine cones and would be used to design a novel water transport system. PMID:25944117

  7. Journey of water in pine cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Seo, Seung-Jun; Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lim, Jae-Hong; Joon Lee, Sang

    2015-05-01

    Pine cones fold their scales when it rains to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. Given that the scales of pine cones consist of nothing but dead cells, this folding motion is evidently related to structural changes. In this study, the structural characteristics of pine cones are studied on micro-/macro-scale using various imaging instruments. Raindrops fall along the outer scales to the three layers (bract scales, fibers and innermost lignified structure) of inner pine cones. However, not all the layers but only the bract scales get wet and then, most raindrops move to the inner scales. These systems reduce the amount of water used and minimize the time spent on structural changes. The result shows that the pine cones have structural advantages that could influence the efficient motion of pine cones. This study provides new insights to understand the motion of pine cones and would be used to design a novel water transport system.

  8. Avian top predator and the landscape of fear: responses of mammalian mesopredators to risk imposed by the golden eagle

    PubMed Central

    Lyly, Mari S; Villers, Alexandre; Koivisto, Elina; Helle, Pekka; Ollila, Tuomo; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2015-01-01

    Top predators may induce extensive cascading effects on lower trophic levels, for example, through intraguild predation (IGP). The impacts of both mammalian and avian top predators on species of the same class have been extensively studied, but the effects of the latter upon mammalian mesopredators are not yet as well known. We examined the impact of the predation risk imposed by a large avian predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, L.), on its potential mammalian mesopredator prey, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, L.), and the pine marten (Martes martes, L.). The study combined 23 years of countrywide data from nesting records of eagles and wildlife track counts of mesopredators in Finland, northern Europe. The predation risk of the golden eagle was modeled as a function of territory density, density of fledglings produced, and distance to nearest active eagle territory, with the expectation that a high predation risk would reduce the abundances of smaller sized pine martens in particular. Red foxes appeared not to suffer from eagle predation, being in fact most numerous close to eagle nests and in areas with more eagle territories. This is likely due to similar prey preferences of the two predators and the larger size of foxes enabling them to escape eagle predation risk. Somewhat contrary to our prediction, the abundance of pine martens increased from low to intermediate territory density and at close proximity to eagle nests, possibly because of similar habitat preferences of martens and eagles. We found a slightly decreasing trend of marten abundance at high territory density, which could indicate that the response in marten populations is dependent on eagle density. However, more research is needed to better establish whether mesopredators are intimidated or predated by golden eagles, and whether such effects could in turn cascade to lower trophic levels, benefitting herbivorous species. PMID:25691975

  9. Avian top predator and the landscape of fear: responses of mammalian mesopredators to risk imposed by the golden eagle.

    PubMed

    Lyly, Mari S; Villers, Alexandre; Koivisto, Elina; Helle, Pekka; Ollila, Tuomo; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2015-01-01

    Top predators may induce extensive cascading effects on lower trophic levels, for example, through intraguild predation (IGP). The impacts of both mammalian and avian top predators on species of the same class have been extensively studied, but the effects of the latter upon mammalian mesopredators are not yet as well known. We examined the impact of the predation risk imposed by a large avian predator, the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos, L.), on its potential mammalian mesopredator prey, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, L.), and the pine marten (Martes martes, L.). The study combined 23 years of countrywide data from nesting records of eagles and wildlife track counts of mesopredators in Finland, northern Europe. The predation risk of the golden eagle was modeled as a function of territory density, density of fledglings produced, and distance to nearest active eagle territory, with the expectation that a high predation risk would reduce the abundances of smaller sized pine martens in particular. Red foxes appeared not to suffer from eagle predation, being in fact most numerous close to eagle nests and in areas with more eagle territories. This is likely due to similar prey preferences of the two predators and the larger size of foxes enabling them to escape eagle predation risk. Somewhat contrary to our prediction, the abundance of pine martens increased from low to intermediate territory density and at close proximity to eagle nests, possibly because of similar habitat preferences of martens and eagles. We found a slightly decreasing trend of marten abundance at high territory density, which could indicate that the response in marten populations is dependent on eagle density. However, more research is needed to better establish whether mesopredators are intimidated or predated by golden eagles, and whether such effects could in turn cascade to lower trophic levels, benefitting herbivorous species.

  10. Pitch canker disease of pines.

    PubMed

    Gordon, T R

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Pitch canker, caused by Fusarium circinatum, is a disease affecting pines in many locations throughout the world. The pathosystem was originally described in the southeastern (SE) United States and was identified in California in 1986. Limited vegetative compatibility group (VCG) diversity in the California population of F. circinatum, relative to the SE United States, suggests the former is a recently established and clonally propagating population. Although the much greater VCG diversity found in the SE United States is suggestive of out-crossing, molecular markers indicate that many vegetatively incompatible isolates are clonally related. This implies that VCG diversity may derive, at least in part, from somatic mutations rather than sexual reproduction. Pitch canker is damaging to many pine species and one at particular risk is Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), which is widely grown in plantations and is highly susceptible to pitch canker. However, some Monterey pines are resistant to pitch canker and some severely diseased trees have been observed to recover. The absence of new infections on these trees reflects the operation of systemic induced resistance, apparently in response to repeated infection by the pitch canker pathogen.

  11. Growth of a Pine Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollinson, Susan Wells

    2012-01-01

    The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

  12. La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.

    Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la búsqueda de manifestaciones de vida fósil en dicho planeta. El estudio de la dinámica orbital del satélite más exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teorías sobre su orígen, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten más de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho más robusto que las simulaciones numéricas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas más severas a la evolución paleoclimática de Marte.

  13. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  14. Historic Properties Report: Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    is a government-owmed-and- operated installation occupying 14,454 acres in Jefferson County, Arkansas, about eight miles northwest of the City of Pine...Bluff and thirty miles southeast of the City of Little Rock. Constructed during 1941-1943, PBA -s originally designed to moufacturs ragesim- and...considerations, Uhe general prmemtion reemr datios prmeeMntad in Chater 3 0fo Category 1, U1, and I.1 historic PrOpetift Wets ievloWs. Special preservtion

  15. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  16. Caño Martín Peña (Martín Peña Channel, Puerto Rico)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Martín Peña Channel Urban Waters Federal Partnership seeks to make significant contributions to the health and welfare of the eight communities that surround the Martín Peña Channel in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

  17. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Buotte, Polly C; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Preisler, Haiganoush K; Abatzoglou, John T; Raffa, Kenneth F; Logan, Jesse A

    2016-12-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle are not well understood, yet are important considerations in whether to list whitebark pine as a threatened or endangered species. We sought to increase the understanding of climate influences on mountain pine beetle outbreaks in whitebark pine forests, which are less well understood than in lodgepole pine, by quantifying climate-beetle relationships, analyzing climate influences during the recent outbreak, and estimating the suitability of future climate for beetle outbreaks. We developed a statistical model of the probability of whitebark pine mortality in the GYE that included temperature effects on beetle development and survival, precipitation effects on host tree condition, beetle population size, and stand characteristics. Estimated probability of whitebark pine mortality increased with higher winter minimum temperature, indicating greater beetle winter survival; higher fall temperature, indicating synchronous beetle emergence; lower two-year summer precipitation, indicating increased potential for host tree stress; increasing beetle populations; stand age; and increasing percent composition of whitebark pine within a stand. The recent outbreak occurred during a period of higher-than-normal regional winter temperatures, suitable fall temperatures, and low summer precipitation. In contrast to lodgepole pine systems, area with mortality was linked to precipitation variability even at high beetle populations. Projections from climate models indicate future climate conditions will likely provide favorable conditions for beetle outbreaks within nearly all current whitebark pine habitat in the GYE by

  18. Design and implementation of fishery rescue data mart system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jun; Huang, Haiguang; Liu, Yousong

    A novel data mart based system for fishery rescue field was designed and implemented. The system runs ETL process to deal with original data from various databases and data warehouses, and then reorganized the data into the fishery rescue data mart. Next, online analytical processing (OLAP) are carried out and statistical reports are generated automatically. Particularly, quick configuration schemes are designed to configure query dimensions and OLAP data sets. The configuration file will be transformed into statistic interfaces automatically through a wizard-style process. The system provides various forms of reporting files, including crystal reports, flash graphical reports, and two-dimensional data grids. In addition, a wizard style interface was designed to guide users customizing inquiry processes, making it possible for nontechnical staffs to access customized reports. Characterized by quick configuration, safeness and flexibility, the system has been successfully applied in city fishery rescue department.

  19. Tall oil precursors in three western pines: ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pine

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.H.; Diehl, M.A.; Rowe, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The nonvolatile diethyl ether extracts (NVEE) from ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pines were analyzed to determine the amounts and chemical composition of the tall oil precursors (resin acids, fatty acids, and nonsaponifiables) and turpentine precursors available from these species. The results showed that crude tall oil compositions would be approximately as follows (% resin acids, % fatty acids, % nonsaponifiables); ponderosa pine - sapwood (15, 75, 10), heartwood (78, 7, 15); lodgepole pine - sapwood (24, 57, 19), heartwood (51, 26, 23); limber pine - sapwood (10, 82, 8), heartwood (23, 60, 17). The larger nonsaponifiables content, as compared to southern pines, is the major factor in explaining the greater difficulty in the distillative refining of tall oil from these western species. Eight resin acids were found in ponderosa and lodgepole pine: palustric, isopimaric, abietic, dehydroabietic, and neoabietic acids predominated. Seven resin acids were identified from limber pine: anticopalic, isopimaric, abietic, and dehydroabietic acids predominated. The free and esterfied fatty acids from these species contained predominantly oleic and linoleic acids. In addition limber pine contained major amounts of 5, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acid. The nonsaponifiables contained mostly diterpenes and the sterols, sitosterol and campesterol. The major turpentine components were: ponderosa pine - ..beta..-pinene and 3-carene; lodgepole pine - ..beta..-phellandrene; and limber pine - 3-carene, ..beta..-phellandrene, ..cap alpha..-piene, and ..beta..-pinene.

  20. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Mark E.

    2003-02-01

    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  1. Diprionidae sawflies on lodgepole and ponderosa pines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight species of Diprionidae feed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) in western United States: Neodiprion burkei Middleton, N. annulus contortae Ross, N. autumnalis Smith, N. fulviceps (Cresson), N. gillettei (Rohwer), N. mundus Rohwer, N. ventralis Ross, and Zadi...

  2. Phylogenetics of Lophodermium from pine.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-García, Sol; Gernandt, David S; Stone, Jeffrey K; Johnston, Peter R; Chapela, Ignacio H; Salas-Lizana, Rodolfo; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2003-01-01

    Lophodermium comprises ascomycetous fungi that are both needle-cast pathogens and asymptomatic endophytes on a diversity of plant hosts. It is distinguished from other genera in the family Rhytismataceae by its filiform ascospores and ascocarps that open by a longitudinal slit. Nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to infer phylogenetic relationships within Lophodermium. Twenty-nine sequences from approximately 11 species of Lophodermium were analyzed together with eight sequences from isolates thought to represent six other genera of Rhytismataceae: Elytroderma, Lirula, Meloderma, Terriera, Tryblidiopsis and Colpoma. Two putative Meloderma desmazieresii isolates occurred within the Lophodermium clade but separate from one another, one grouped with L. indianum and the other with L. nitens. An isolate of Elytroderma deformans also occurred within the Lophodermium clade but on a solitary branch. The occurrence of these genera within the Lophodermium clade might be due to problems in generic concepts in Rhytismataceae, such as emphasis on spore morphology to delimit genera, to difficulty of isolating Rhytismataceae needle pathogens from material that also is colonized by Lophodermium or to a combination of both factors. We also evaluated the congruence of host distribution and several morphological characters on the ITS phylogeny. Lophodermium species from pine hosts formed a monophyletic sister group to Lophodermium species from more distant hosts from the southern hemisphere, but not to L. piceae from Picea. The ITS topology indicated that Lophodermium does not show strict cospeciation with pines at deeper branches, although several closely related isolates have closely related hosts. Pathogenic species occupy derived positions in the pine clade, suggesting that pathogenicity has evolved from endophytism. A new combination is proposed, Terriera minor (Tehon) P.R. Johnst.

  3. History of pine wilt disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Y

    1988-04-01

    Pine wilt disease induced by the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a great threat to pine forests in Japan. The first occurrence of the disease was reported in Nagasaki, Kyushu. During the 1930s the disease occurrence was extended in 12 prefectures, and in the 1940s the disease was found in 34 prefectures. The annual loss of pine trees increased from 30,000 m(3) to 1.2 million m(3) during these two decades. The enormous increase in timber loss in the 1970s resulted in 2.4 million m(3) of annual loss in 1979. The affected area expanded into 45 prefectures of 47 prefectures in Japan. In cool areas the disease differs in epidemiology from that in heavily infested areas in the warm regions. A national project for controlling pine wilt disease lays special emphasis on the healthy pine forests predominating throughout cool areas in northern Japan.

  4. Trace elements in tissues of wild carnivores and omnivores in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Bilandžić, Nina; Dežđek, Danko; Sedak, Marija; Dokić, Maja; Simić, Branimir; Rudan, Nevenka; Brstilo, Mate; Lisicin, Tea

    2012-01-01

    The differences in metal exposure (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Hg) in the muscle, liver and kidney tissues of brown bears (Ursus arctos), grey wolfs (Canis lupus), Eurasian lynxs (Lynx lynx), Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and pine martens (Martes martes) from Croatia were observed. The highest mean Cd levels were found in kidney and liver of Eurasian badger (3.05 and 0.537 mg/kg). The highest Cu concentrations (mg/kg) measured in liver tissue were obtained in order: Eurasian badger (15.2) > brown bear (12.1) > pine marten (10.3) > Eurasian lynx (8.43) > grey wolf (6.44). Result presented that Eurasian badger accumulated the highest levels of elements: As, Cu and Pb in muscle; As, Cd, Cu and Pb in liver; Cd and Pb in kidney. Kidney of pine marten accumulated the highest concentrations of As, Cu and Hg. Omnivorous species observed present an important bioindicator for the accumulation of toxic elements indicating an enhanced vulnerability for response to ecological changes in forested terrain. Generally, element concentrations found in five species observed were lower in comparison to levels reported in previous studies and below levels related to toxicosis in mammals.

  5. Generalist predator, cyclic voles and cavity nests: testing the alternative prey hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pöysä, Hannu; Jalava, Kaisa; Paasivaara, Antti

    2016-12-01

    The alternative prey hypothesis (APH) states that when the density of the main prey declines, generalist predators switch to alternative prey and vice versa, meaning that predation pressure on the alternative prey should be negatively correlated with the density of the main prey. We tested the APH in a system comprising one generalist predator (pine marten, Martes martes), cyclic main prey (microtine voles, Microtus agrestis and Myodes glareolus) and alternative prey (cavity nests of common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula); pine marten is an important predator of both voles and common goldeneye nests. Specifically, we studied whether annual predation rate of real common goldeneye nests and experimental nests is negatively associated with fluctuation in the density of voles in four study areas in southern Finland in 2000-2011. Both vole density and nest predation rate varied considerably between years in all study areas. However, we did not find support for the hypothesis that vole dynamics indirectly affects predation rate of cavity nests in the way predicted by the APH. On the contrary, the probability of predation increased with vole spring abundance for both real and experimental nests. Furthermore, a crash in vole abundance from previous autumn to spring did not increase the probability of predation of real nests, although it increased that of experimental nests. We suggest that learned predation by pine marten individuals, coupled with efficient search image for cavities, overrides possible indirect positive effects of high vole density on the alternative prey in our study system.

  6. Needle asymmetry, pine vigour and pine selection by the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Contreras, Tomás; Soler, Juan José; Soler, Manuel

    2008-03-01

    Developmental stability reflects the ability of a genotype to control stable development of a specific phenotype under a wide range of environmental conditions. Developmentally unstable phenotypes can be recognised by deviations from bilateral symmetry in bilaterally symmetrical traits and, because asymmetry might reflect nutritional quality of leaves for phytophagous insects, they therefore may base plant selection depending on leaf asymmetry. In this article we study such hypothetical relationships occurring between Aleppo pine ( Pinus halepensis) and pine-host selection by the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae). Needle length of Aleppo pines indicated directional asymmetry and, as the hypothesis of developmental stability predicts, relative asymmetry was negatively related to needle length and positively to pine growth in height. Moreover, relative asymmetry proved to be negatively related to concentration of limonene, a defensive monoterpene that affects pine selection by adult female moths. In terms of growth, pine variation in needle length can be explained by the increase in volume of the pines from one to the next year, with smaller needles appearing in the pines that most increased their volume and those that least increased their height. Finally, as expected from a phytophagous insect that selects plants in relation to nutritional characteristics and level of chemical defence against herbivorous, the pine processionary moths selectively oviposited in the trees with the largest and most asymmetric needles. With these results, two of the main hypotheses that explain plant selection, plant-stress and plant-vigour hypotheses are discussed.

  7. Scientific designs of pine seeds and pine cones for species conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    Reproduction and propagation of species are the most important missions of every living organism. For effective species propagation, pine cones fold their scales under wet condition to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. They open and release their embedded seeds on dry and windy days. In this study, the micro-/macro-scale structural characteristics of pine cones and pine seeds are studied using various imaging modalities. Since the scales of pine cones consist of dead cells, the folding motion is deeply related to structural changes. The scales of pine cones consist of three layers. Among them, bract scales are only involved in collecting water. This makes pine cones reduce the amount of water and minimize the time spent on structural changes. These systems also involve in drying and recovery of pine cones. In addition, pine cones and pine seeds have advantageous structures for long-distance dispersal and response to natural disaster. Owing to these structural features, pine seeds can be released safely and efficiently, and these types of structural advantages could be mimicked for practical applications. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract grant number: 2008-0061991).

  8. Factors affecting early seedling development in whole pine tree substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wood-based materials derived from pine trees, such as processed whole pine tree (WPT), can be a viable option for producers looking to offset pine bark or peatmoss usage in container substrates. Reduced root development of stem cuttings rooted in WPT compared with pine bark (PB) has been observed, b...

  9. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale... Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Pine...

  10. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale... Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Pine...

  11. 27 CFR 9.220 - Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pine Mountain-Cloverdale... Areas § 9.220 Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Pine...

  12. Pine nut allergy: clinical features and major allergens characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine nuts, the seeds of pine trees, are widely used for human consumption in Europe, America, and Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to pine nut in a large number of patients with details of clinical reactions, and to characterize major pine nut allergens. Th...

  13. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerdau, Manual; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, but that Delta-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Delta-carene.

  14. GrameneMart: the biomart data portal for the gramene project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Gramene project was an early adopter of the BioMart software, which remains an integral and well-used component of the Gramene web site. BioMart accessible data sets include plant gene annotations, plant variation catalogues, genetic markers, physical mapping entities, public DNA/mRNA sequences ...

  15. Concepto de ingeniería del Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    El robot más grande y "más malo", y más nuevo para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte. Tiene el tamaño de un vehículo utilitario deportivo y está provisto de 10 instrumentos, nunca antes h...

  16. Sustaining Higher Education Using Wal-Mart's Best Supply Chain Management Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comm, Clare L.; Mathaisel, Dennis F. X.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The costs in higher education are increasing and need to be controlled. This paper aims to demonstrate what lessons higher education could learn from Wal-Mart's reasons for its financial success with its focus on efficient and effective supply chain management (SCM) best practices. Design/methodology/approach: Wal-Mart's best practices in…

  17. La Ciencia y el Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    el robot más nuevo fabricado para Marte es el Laboratorio Científico de Marte o Curiosity. ¡Se encuentra listo para deambular por el planeta rojo con el mayor y más avanzado conjunto de instrumento...

  18. Carmen Martín Gaite and the Writing of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberger, David K.

    2015-01-01

    In this brief article, David Herzberger begins by describing how, with the help of Juan Benet as her interlocutor in 1966, renowned Spanish author Carmen Martín Gaite found her historiographic voice. Herzberger goes on to examine how this relates to Martín Gaite's legacy in historiography and her understanding of the Franco regime and the Spanish…

  19. The Pinon Pine Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pitcher, J.D. ); Motter, J.W. ); Fankhanel, M.O. )

    1992-01-01

    Sierra Pacific Power Company (SPPCo.) plans to build an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, burning 800 t/day of western coal to produce 80 MW of electric power. The Pinon Pine Power Project will be built at an existing power plant site 20 miles east of Reno, Nevada, and the project has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for funding under the fourth round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project is in the Pre-Award phase pending completion of negotiations with DOE. Foster Wheeler USA Corporation (FWUSA) will provide engineering and construction management of the new facility. The M. W. Kellogg Company (MWK) will supply the engineering of the gasifier island using their air-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) gasifier technology with hot gas cleanup, under a subcontract from FWUSA. This paper describes the project team's plans for the project execution.

  20. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling early growth in a (longleaf pine x slash pine) x slash pine BC(1) family.

    PubMed

    Weng, C.; Kubisiak, L.; Nelson, D.; Stine, M.

    2002-04-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were employed to map the genome and quantitative trait loci controlling the early growth of a pine hybrid F(1) tree ( Pinus palustris Mill. x P. elliottii Engl.) and a recurrent slash pine tree ( P. elliottii Engl.) in a (longleaf pine x slash pine) x slash pine BC(1) family consisting of 258 progeny. Of the 150 hybrid F(1) parent-specific RAPD markers, 133 were mapped into 17 linkage groups covering a genetic distance of 1,338.2 cM. Of the 116 slash pine parent-specific RAPD markers, 83 were mapped into 19 linkage groups covering a genetic distance of 994.6 cM. A total of 11 different marker intervals were found to be significantly associated with 13 of the 20 traits on height and diameter growth using MAPMAKER/QTL. Nine of the eleven marker intervals were unique to the hybrid parent 488 genome, and two were unique to the recurrent parent 18-27 genome. The amount of phenotypic variance explained by the putative QTLs ranged from 3.6% to 11.0%. Different QTLs were detected at different ages. Two marker intervals from the hybrid parent 488 were found to have QTL by environment interactions.

  1. The Vitamin D Analog, MART-10, Attenuates Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Metastatic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C.; Sun, Chi-Chin; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2016-01-01

    Regarding breast cancer treatment, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a difficult issue. Most TNBC patients die of cancer metastasis. Thus, to develop a new regimen to attenuate TNBC metastatic potential is urgently needed. MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3), the newly-synthesized 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been shown to be much more potent in cancer growth inhibition than 1α,25(OH)2D3 and be active in vivo without inducing obvious side effect. In this study, we demonstrated that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 could effectively repress TNBC cells migration and invasion with MART-10 more effective. MART-10 and 1α,25(OH)2D3 induced cadherin switching (upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin) and downregulated P-cadherin expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. The EMT(epithelial mesenchymal transition) process in MDA-MB-231 cells was repressed by MART-10 through inhibiting Zeb1, Zeb2, Slug, and Twist expression. LCN2, one kind of breast cancer metastasis stimulator, was also found for the first time to be repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 in breast cancer cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was also downregulated by MART-10. Furthermore, F-actin synthesis in MDA-MB-231 cells was attenuated as exposure to 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. Based on our result, we conclude that MART-10 could effectively inhibit TNBC cells metastatic potential and deserves further investigation as a new regimen to treat TNBC. PMID:27110769

  2. Adenovirus MART-1–engineered Autologous Dendritic Cell Vaccine for Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Butterfield, Lisa H.; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Vujanovic, Lazar; Lee, Yohan; Dissette, Vivian B.; Yang, Jin-Quan; Vu, Hong T.; Seja, Elizabeth; Oseguera, Denise K.; Potter, Douglas M.; Glaspy, John A.; Economou, James S.; Ribas, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Summary We performed a phase 1/2 trial testing the safety, toxicity, and immune response of a vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a replication-defective adenovirus (AdV) encoding the full-length melanoma antigen MART-1/Melan-A (MART-1). This vaccine was designed to activate MART-1–specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Metastatic melanoma patients received 3 injections of 106 or 107 DCs, delivered intradermally. Cell surface phenotype and cytokine production of the DCs used for the vaccines were tested, and indicated intermediate maturity. CD8+ T-cell responses to MART-127-35 were assessed by both major histocompatibility complex class I tetramer and interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) before, during, and after each vaccine and CD4+ T-cell responses to MART-151-73 were followed by IFN-γ ELISPOT. We also measured antigen response breadth. Determinant spreading from the immunizing antigen MART-1 to other melanoma antigens [gp100, tyrosinase, human melanoma antigen-A3 (MAGE-A3)] was assessed by IFN-γ ELISPOT. Twenty-three patients were enrolled and 14 patients received all 3 scheduled DC vaccines. Significant CD8+ and/or CD4+ MART-1–specific T-cell responses were observed in 6/11 and 2/4 patients evaluated, respectively, indicating that the E1-deleted adeno-virus encoding the cDNA for MART-1/Melan-A (AdV-MART1)/DC vaccine activated both helper and killer T cells in vivo. Responses in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells to additional antigens were noted in 2 patients. The AdVMART1-transduced DC vaccine was safe and immunogenic in patients with metastatic melanoma. PMID:18317358

  3. Substituting pine wood for pine bark affects physical properties of nursery substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine bark (PB) is currently imported from southern U.S. states to those in the upper Midwest and Northeast U.S. Alternatives to pine bark that are regionally abundant and sustainable are needed for nursery substrates. The objective of this research was to determine the influence of chipped and hamm...

  4. Identification, characterization, and initial epitope mapping of pine nut allergen Pin k 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aims of this study were to predict, identify and characterize pine nut allergens. Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin was predicted to be a pine nut allergen. Recombinant Korean pine vicilin was expressed in E. coli and purified. Natural Korean pine vicilin isolated from pine nuts (which disp...

  5. RAPD linkage mapping in a longleaf pine x slash pine F1 family.

    PubMed

    Kubisiak, T L; Nelson, C D; Nance, W L; Stine, M

    1995-06-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) were used to construct linkage maps of the parent of a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) slash pine (Pinus elliottii Englm.) F1 family. A total of 247 segregating loci [233 (1∶1), 14 (3∶1)] and 87 polymorphic (between parents), but non-segregating, loci were identified. The 233 loci segregating 1∶1 (testcross configuration) were used to construct parent-specific linkage maps, 132 for the longleaf-pine parent and 101 for the slash-pine parent. The resulting linkage maps consisted of 122 marker loci in 18 groups (three or more loci) and three pairs (1367.5 cM) for longleaf pine, and 91 marker loci in 13 groups and six pairs for slash pine (952.9 cM). Genome size estimates based on two-point linkage data ranged from 2348 to 2392 cM for longleaf pine, and from 2292 to 2372 cM for slash pine. Linkage of 3∶1 loci to testcross loci in each of the parental maps was used to infer further linkages within maps, as well as potentially homologous counterparts between maps. Three of the longleaf-pine linkage groups appear to be potentially homologous counterparts to four different slash-pine linkage groups. The number of heterozygous loci (previously testcross in parents) per F1 individual, ranged from 96 to 130. With the 87 polymorphic, but non-segregating, loci that should also be heterozygous in the F1 progeny, a maximum of 183-217 heterozygous loci could be available for mapping early height growth (EHG) loci and for applying genomic selection in backcross populations.

  6. Aromatic biosynthesis in pine tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Pinus elliotti is a woody plant species responsive to gravity and capable of synthesizing large quantities of lignin. Lignification begins very quickly after germination; lignin is detected in the vascular region within 4 days after germination and rapidly progresses up the hypocotyl. Young pine seedlings bend in response to geostimulation for about 10 days after germination, with the most rapid response time occurring in 4- to 5-day-old seedlings. Various chemicals were used to establish their effects on the geotropic response in this gymnosperm species. IAA completely arrests the geotropic response for 18 to 24 hr. Afterward the seedlings respond geostimulation as if they were not treated. The same pattern of response will occur with a second IAA treatment. If the synthetic auxin, 2-4,D, is used, the georesponse is permanently blocked. The method of application does not appear to be critical; addition of auxin to only one side of the seedling gave results similar to those obtained by treating the entire seedling.

  7. Solar Decathlon 2015 - Indigo Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, Vincent

    2016-05-30

    The Solar Decathlon competition challenges students across the country to design and build a net-zero, market ready solar powered home. The bi-annual competition consists of ten contests that seek to balance the home on a scale of innovation. The ten contests were selected by to organizers to address all aspects of housing, including architecture, market appeal, engineering, communication, affordability, comfort, appliances, home life, commuting, and energy balance. Along with the criteria associated with the contests, the competition includes several design constraints that mirror those found in practical housing applications: including (but certainly not limited to) lot lines, building height, and ADA accessibility. The Solar Decathlon 2015 was held at the Orange Country Great Park in Irvine, CA. The 2015 competition was Clemson University’s first entry into the Solar Decathlon and was a notable milestone in the continued development of a home, called Indigo Pine. From the beginning, the team reconsidered the notion of sustainability as related to both the design of a home and the competition itself. The designing and building process for the home reflects a process which seamlessly moves between thinking and making to develop a comprehensive design with a method and innovations that challenge the conventions of residential construction. This report is a summary of the activities of the Clemson University team during the two-year duration of the project leading to the participation in the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine California.

  8. Seed oil composition of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke.

    PubMed

    Avato, P; Pesante, M A; Fanizzi, F P; Santos, C Aimbiré de Moraes

    2003-07-01

    The chemical composition of the oil extracted from the seeds of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke (syn. P. sorbilis) was investigated. Cyanolipids constituted 3% of the total oil from guaraná seeds, whereas acylglycerols accounted for 28%. 1H and 13C NMR analyses indicated that type I cyanolipids (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethylprop-2-ene-1-ol diesters) are present in the oil from P. cupana. GC and GC-MS analysis showed that cis-11-octadecenoic (cis-vaccenic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids were the main FA (30.4 and 38.7%) esterified to the nitrile group. Paullinic acid (7.0%) was also an abundant component. Oleic acid (37.4%) was the dominant fatty acyl chain in the acylglycerols.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of sable, Martes zibellina.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunzhu; Zhang, Honghai; Ma, Jianzhang; Liu, Zhonghua

    2012-06-01

    The complete mitogenome sequence of the Sable (NC_011579) was determined using long PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). The genome was 16,523 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The gene composition and order of which was similar to most other mammals. The overall base composition of the heavy strand in descending order is A (32.0%), C (27. 6%), T (25.8%) and G (14.7%). The base compositions present clearly the A-C skew, which is most obviously in the control region and protein-coding genes. The extended termination-associated sequence domain, the central conserved domain, and the conserved sequence block domain are defined in the mitochondrial genome control region of Sable. This mitogenome sequence data would play an important role in phylogenetics and systematics of Martes zibellina.

  10. eSciMart: Web Platform for Scientific Software Marketplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, A. P.; Demichev, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we suggest a design of a web marketplace where users of scientific application software and databases, presented in the form of web services, as well as their providers will have presence simultaneously. The model, which will be the basis for the web marketplace is close to the customer-to-customer (C2C) model, which has been successfully used, for example, on the auction sites such as eBay (ebay.com). Unlike the classical model of C2C the suggested marketplace focuses on application software in the form of web services, and standardization of API through which application software will be integrated into the web marketplace. A prototype of such a platform, entitled eSciMart, is currently being developed at SINP MSU.

  11. Using BioMart as a framework to manage and query pancreatic cancer data.

    PubMed

    Cutts, Rosalind J; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Lemoine, Nicholas R; Chelala, Claude

    2011-01-01

    We describe the Pancreatic Expression Database (PED), the first cancer database originally designed based on the BioMart infrastructure. The PED portal brings together multidimensional pancreatic cancer data from the literature including genomic, proteomic, miRNA and gene expression profiles. Based on the BioMart 0.7 framework, the database is easily integrated with other BioMart-compliant resources, such as Ensembl and Reactome, to give access to a wide range of annotations alongside detailed experimental conditions. This article is intended to give an overview of PED, describe its data content and work through examples of how to successfully mine and integrate pancreatic cancer data sets and other BioMart resources.

  12. Using BioMart as a framework to manage and query pancreatic cancer data

    PubMed Central

    Cutts, Rosalind J.; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Lemoine, Nicholas R.; Chelala, Claude

    2011-01-01

    We describe the Pancreatic Expression Database (PED), the first cancer database originally designed based on the BioMart infrastructure. The PED portal brings together multidimensional pancreatic cancer data from the literature including genomic, proteomic, miRNA and gene expression profiles. Based on the BioMart 0.7 framework, the database is easily integrated with other BioMart-compliant resources, such as Ensembl and Reactome, to give access to a wide range of annotations alongside detailed experimental conditions. This article is intended to give an overview of PED, describe its data content and work through examples of how to successfully mine and integrate pancreatic cancer data sets and other BioMart resources. Database URL: http://www.pancreasexpression.org PMID:21666272

  13. Do Pine Beetles Fan the Flames in Western Forests?

    NASA Video Gallery

    As mountain pine beetles damage whole regions of Western forests, some worry that the dead trees left behind have created a tinderbox ready to burn. But do pine beetles really increase fire risk? I...

  14. Adenovirus MART-1-engineered autologous dendritic cell vaccine for metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Lisa H; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Vujanovic, Lazar; Lee, Yohan; Dissette, Vivian B; Yang, Jin-Quan; Vu, Hong T; Seja, Elizabeth; Oseguera, Denise K; Potter, Douglas M; Glaspy, John A; Economou, James S; Ribas, Antoni

    2008-04-01

    We performed a phase 1/2 trial testing the safety, toxicity, and immune response of a vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) transduced with a replication-defective adenovirus (AdV) encoding the full-length melanoma antigen MART-1/Melan-A (MART-1). This vaccine was designed to activate MART-1-specific CD+8 and CD4+ T cells. Metastatic melanoma patients received 3 injections of 10(6) or 10(7) DCs, delivered intradermally. Cell surface phenotype and cytokine production of the DCs used for the vaccines were tested, and indicated intermediate maturity. CD8+ T-cell responses to MART-1 27-35 were assessed by both major histocompatibility complex class I tetramer and interferon (IFN)-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) before, during, and after each vaccine and CD4+ T-cell responses to MART-1 51-73 were followed by IFN-gamma ELISPOT. We also measured antigen response breadth. Determinant spreading from the immunizing antigen MART-1 to other melanoma antigens [gp100, tyrosinase, human melanoma antigen-A3 (MAGE-A3)] was assessed by IFN-gamma ELISPOT. Twenty-three patients were enrolled and 14 patients received all 3 scheduled DC vaccines. Significant CD8+ and/or CD4+ MART-1-specific T-cell responses were observed in 6/11 and 2/4 patients evaluated, respectively, indicating that the E1-deleted adenovirus encoding the cDNA for MART-1/Melan-A (AdVMART1)/DC vaccine activated both helper and killer T cells in vivo. Responses in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells to additional antigens were noted in 2 patients. The AdVMART1-transduced DC vaccine was safe and immunogenic in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  15. Characterization of pine nuts in the U.S. market, including those associated with "pine mouth", by GC-FID.

    PubMed

    Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza; Handy, Sara M; Rader, Jeanne I

    2012-03-14

    Taste disturbances following consumption of pine nuts, referred to as "pine mouth", have been reported by consumers in the United States and Europe. Nuts of Pinus armandii have been associated with pine mouth, and a diagnostic index (DI) measuring the content of Δ5-unsaturated fatty acids relative to that of their fatty acid precursors has been proposed for identifying nuts from this species. A 100 m SLB-IL 111 GC column was used to improve fatty acid separations, and 45 pine nut samples were analyzed, including pine mouth-associated samples. This study examined the use of a DI for the identification of mixtures of pine nut species and showed the limitation of morphological characteristics for species identification. DI values for many commercial samples did not match those of known reference species, indicating that the majority of pine nuts collected in the U.S. market, including those associated with pine mouth, are mixtures of nuts from different Pinus species.

  16. 78 FR 52498 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will meet in Eureka, Nevada. The... Standard Time. All RAC meetings are subject to change or cancellation. For status of the White Pine-Nye...

  17. Evolutionary fire ecology: lessons learned from pines.

    PubMed

    Pausas, Juli G

    2015-05-01

    Macroevolutionary studies of the genus Pinus provide the oldest current evidence of fire as an evolutionary pressure on plants and date back to ca. 125 million years ago (Ma). Microevolutionary studies show that fire traits are variable within and among populations, especially among those subject to different fire regimes. In addition, there is increasing evidence of an inherited genetic basis to variability in fire traits. Added together, pines provide compelling evidence that fire can exert an evolutionary pressure on plants and, thus, shape biodiversity. In addition, evolutionary fire ecology is providing insights to improve the management of pine forests under changing conditions. The lessons learned from pines may guide research on the evolutionary ecology of other taxa.

  18. First record of the Kuwana pine mealybug Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana) in Italy: a new threat to Italian pine forests?

    PubMed

    Boselli, Mauro; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-02-19

    The Asiatic Kuwana pine mealybug, Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana, 1902) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae), is reported in Italy for the first time. It was detected in September 2015 on maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, and stone pine, Pinus pinea, trees growing in the town of Cervia (Ravenna Province), Northern Italy. The mealybug has caused yellowing and decline of the pine trees. Pinus pinea is recorded here as a new host for C. pini.

  19. China's Masson pine forests: Cure or curse

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, L.F.

    1993-01-01

    Masson pine, which grows well on rocky montane soil where it can be aerial seeded, has long been one of southern China's better sources for timber, fuel, and various wood products. However, although it has been widely planted in reforestation projects, expected yields will never be realized because of poor quality seed, poor site selection, and aggressive insect attacks. The pine needle scale is discussed in detail. Scale control options are presented: biological control, cultural control, and isolation of infected stands. Also discussed are other forestry approaches such as alternative species and alternative planting systems.

  20. Extracting DNA from submerged pine wood.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, M Megan; Williams, Claire G

    2004-10-01

    A DNA extraction protocol for submerged pine logs was developed with the following properties: (i) high molecular weight DNA, (ii) PCR amplification of chloroplast and nuclear sequences, and (iii) high sequence homology to voucher pine specimens. The DNA extraction protocol was modified from a cetyltrimehtylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol by adding stringent electrophoretic purification, proteinase K, RNAse, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and Gene Releaser. Chloroplast rbcL (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) could be amplified. Nuclear ribosomal sequences had >95% homology to Pinus taeda and Pinus palustris. Microsatellite polymorphism for PtTX2082 matched 2 of 14 known P. taeda alleles. Our results show DNA analysis for submerged conifer wood is feasible.

  1. Chemical linkage of pine polysaccharides to lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Methylation analysis was used to investigate the bonds to lignin of the carbohydrates remaining after enzymatic hydrolysis and alkaline reduction of ball-milled loblolly pine wood and red pine compression wood. The carbohydrates exist as oligomeric chains with degrees of polymerization of 7-14. Approximately one sugar unit per oligomer chain is bonded to lignin. Bonding at C-6 of the hexose units if favored, and the arabinose is bonded exclusively at C-5. Galactan and arabinan are structurally of the so-called ''pectin group substances''. 16 references.

  2. Noncoding chloroplast DNA variation in Mexican pines.

    PubMed

    Perez de la Rosa, J; Harris, S A; Farjon, A

    1995-11-01

    Universal primers were used for PCR amplification of three noncoding regions of chloroplast DNA in order to study restriction site variation in 12 Mexican pine species. Two length mutations were identified that are of diagnostic value for two subgenera or sections of the genus. Phylogenetic analysis of the restriction site and length variation showed patterns of variation largely consistent with previous arrangements of these pines, except for the position of Pinus nelsonii, indicating that Pinus section Parraya Mayr, as circumscribed by Little and Critchfield (1969) and later authors, is not a monophyletic group.

  3. Food reserves in mountain longleaf pine roots during shoot elongation.

    SciTech Connect

    Walkinshaw, C.H.; W.J. Otrosina

    2001-03-20

    Roots of saplings appear to be models for healthy tissues in longleaf pines. Results show that roots of mountain longleaf pine have a normal anatomy, but also have unusual amounts of starch when compared to loblolly pine roots growing during phenologiexecy equal time periods. Roots appear large in diameter and grow much nearer the soil surface than roots observed from Coastal Plain longleaf pine. Starch grains are large in size and uniformly filled root cells. These results yield methodology potentially useful in assessment of health and productivity of longleaf pine.

  4. Uneven-aged management of pine and pine-hardwood mixtures in the Ouachita mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, M.G.; Baker, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Ouachita National Forest and the Southern Forest Experiment Station launched a long-term research project in 1988 to study uneven-aged management of shortleaf pine and pine-hardwood mixtures in the Ouachita Mountains. The successful use of uneven-aged management in the southern pines has to date been limited to pure stands. However, the maintenance of a hardwood component is desirable to enhance biological diversity, wildlife habitat, and aesthetics. The study's goals are: (1) to determine the levels at which pine and hardwoods are biologically compatible in uneven-aged stands, and (2) to evaluate the timber, wildlife, water quality, aesthetics and biodiversity associated with each management alternative so that sound decisions concerning the tradeoffs among these resources can be determined.

  5. Mountain pine beetle attack associated with low levels of 4-allylanisole in ponderosa pine.

    PubMed

    Emerick, Jay J; Snyder, Aaron I; Bower, Nathan W; Snyder, Marc A

    2008-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is the most important insect pest in southern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Tree mortality is hastened by the various fungal pathogens that are symbiotic with the beetles. The phenylpropanoid 4-allylanisole is an antifungal and semiochemical for some pine beetle species. We analyzed 4-allylanisole and monoterpene profiles in the xylem oleoresin from a total of 107 trees at six sites from two chemotypes of ponderosa pine found in Colorado and New Mexico using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Although monoterpene profiles were essentially the same in attacked and nonattacked trees, significantly lower levels of 4-allylanisole were found in attacked trees compared with trees that showed no evidence of attack for both chemotypes.

  6. Workshop proceedings: research and management in whitebark pine ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, Katherine C.; Coen, Brenda

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this workshop is to exchange information on on-going and soon-to-be-initiated whitebark pine research and management projects. By doing so we hope to encourage future work on this valuable species. We also hope to promote the use of consistent methods for evaluation and investigation of whitebark pine, and to provide avenues of collaboration. Speakers will present information on a variety of topics related to whitebark pine management and research. Featured presentation topics include anthropomorphic utilization of whitepark pine forests, whitebark pine natural regeneration, blister rust and the decline of whitebark pine, blister rust resistance studies, ecological mapping of the species, restoration and management projects, and survey/monitoring techniques. Information gained from these presentations may hopefully be used in the planning of future projects for the conservation of whitebark pine.

  7. Loblolly pine and slash pine responses to acute aluminum and acid exposures.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Jaroslaw; Friend, Alexander L

    2006-09-01

    In response to concerns about aluminum and HCl exposure associated with rocket motor testing and launches, survival and growth of full-sib families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) were evaluated in a nursery bed experiment. Each species was exposed to a single soil application of aluminum chloride (0.33 M AlCl(3), pH 2.5), hydrochloric acid (0.39 M HCl, pH 0.6) or water, with or without mycorrhizal inoculation with Pisolithus tinctorius (Coker and Couch). After 20 weeks without inoculation, survival in AlCl(3) and HCl treatments averaged 52% for loblolly pine and 72% for slash pine. Inoculation improved survival of loblolly pine, receiving HCl from 49 to 73%, and of those receiving AlCl3, from 55 to 90%. Inoculation also resulted in improved survival and growth of individual families in AlCl(3), but not in HCl treatments. Results illustrate the relative resistance of both pine species to the acute treatments supplied, the improvement in resistance associated with mycorrhizal inoculation and the importance of field testing, following hydroponic screening, to verify the resistance to soil-supplied stresses.

  8. Regeneration of Different Plant Functional Types in a Masson Pine Forest Following Pine Wilt Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Yu, Mingjian

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation. PMID:22563499

  9. Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

  10. Ecology and evolution of pine life histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion - Understanding the current pattern of pine distribution requires interpreting their evolution in terms of climate, geology, and fire. All three of these factors have played a role since the Mesozoic origin of the genus. All are important to the appropriate management of these resources.

  11. PINE Discovery Box, 101 Stimulating Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    This manual is intended for use with the PINE (Projects in Imaginative Nature Education) discovery box in elementary school conservation education. The box contains 21 natural specimens which can serve as the starting point for simple student investigations. Specimens and activities are keyed for grade level. For each item, background information…

  12. Amending pine bark with alternative substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to a number of factors, pine bark supplies have significantly decreased over the past few years. While alternative substrates are being evaluated, many growers are asking if these alternative substrates can be used to stretch existing PB supplies. In this study, two alternative substrates, “Cl...

  13. A Bäcklund transformation between the four-dimensional Martínez Alonso-Shabat and Ferapontov-Khusnutdinova equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglikov, B. S.; Morozov, O. I.

    2016-09-01

    We find a Bäcklund transformation between the four-dimensional Martínez Alonso-Shabat and Ferapontov-Khusnutdinova equations. We also discuss an integrable deformation of the Martínez Alonso-Shabat equation.

  14. Identification of epitope mimics recognized by CTL reactive to the melanoma/melanocyte-derived peptide MART-1(27-35)

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    CTL reactivity to the epitope MART-1(27-35), of the melanoma (self) antigen MART-1/melan A is frequently observed in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and may be readily elicited from the peripheral blood of melanoma patients that express HLA-A*0201. Available data suggest that these observations contrast with those made for other HLA-A*0201- presented melanoma self antigens regarding the regularity of observed CTL responses. Based on preliminary findings, we hypothesized that the CTL response to MART-1 might be augmented in part by T cell encounters with peptides derived from sources other than MART-1, which show sequence similarity to MART-1(27-35). To test this idea, a protein database search for potential MART-1 epitope mimics was done using criteria developed from analyses of effector recognition of singly- substituted peptide analogues of MART-1(27-35). Synthetic peptides were made for a portion of the sequences retrieved; 12/40 peptides tested were able to sensitize target cells for lysis by one or more anti-MART- 1 effectors. The peptides recognized correspond to sequences occurring in a variety of proteins of viral, bacterial, and human (self) origin. One peptide derives from glycoprotein C of the common pathogen HSV-1; cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus encoding native glycoprotein C were lysed by anti-MART-1 effectors. Our results overall indicate that sequences conforming to the A2.1 binding motif and possessing features essential to recognition by anti-MART-1 CTL occur frequently in proteins. These findings further suggest that T cells might encounter a variety of such sequences in vivo, and that epitope mimicry may play a role in modulating the CTL response to MART-1(27-35). PMID:8760818

  15. Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Bignoniaceae) as an antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Ana Lúcia A; Vieira, Carla J B; Sousa, Daniella G; Oliveira, Regilene F; Castilho, Rachel O

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated, in vitro, the antimicrobial activity of the hexane extract (JCHE), methanol extract (JCME), and chloroform fraction (JCCF) of bark from Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. (Family Bignoniaceae), a Brazilian medicinal plant, traditionally used as anti-syphilis and anti-gonorrhea treatment. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the disc diffusion method followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. JCHE was not active against the bacteria evaluated. JCME presented antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae with MIC values of 16.3 mg/mL, 9.1 mg/mL, and 25.2 mg/mL, respectively. JCCF was active against Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, S. pyogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes, and N. gonorrhoeae with MIC values of 18.3 mg/mL, 9.3 mg/mL, 6.3 mg/mL, 6.1 mg/mL, 9.2 mg/mL, 6.2 mg/mL, and 25.2 mg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical analysis of JCME and JCCF gave positive results for saponins, coumarins, flavonoids, tannins, quinones, alkaloids, triterpenes, and steroids. Verbascoside was isolated and identified as a major peak in JCME and JCCF high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and might contribute to the observed antimicrobial activity.

  16. Antiproliferative activity of Luehea candicans Mart. et Zucc. (Tiliaceae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Dioni A; Alves, Vanessa G; Franco, Danielle M M; Ribeiro, Laryssa C; de Souza, Maria C; Kato, Lucilia; de Carvalho, João E; Kohn, Luciana K; de Oliveira, Cecília M A; da Silva, Cleuza C

    2012-01-01

    Luehea candicans Mart. et Zucc. (Tiliaceae) is known as 'açoita-cavalo' and is one of the most important medicinal plants found in the Brazilian cerrado. The crude methanolic extracts of the branches and leaves and their fractions were evaluated using the following cancer cell lines: MCF-7 (breast), NCI-ADR (breast expressing the multidrug resistance phenotype), NCI-460 (lung), UACC-62 (melanoma), 786-0 (kidney), OVCAR (ovarian), PCO-3 (prostate), HT-29 (colon) and K-562 (leukaemia). The crude methanolic extracts from the branches (B) and leaves (L) were able to inhibit the growth of the K-562 and 786-0 cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, with GI(50) values of 8.1 and 5.4 µg mL(-1), respectively. The hexane (L1), chloroform (L2) and methanol (L4) fractions derived from extract L showed a high selectivity and pronounced cytostatic activity against 786-0 (GI(50) ~ 40 µg mL(-1)). A significant amount of lupeol was isolated from fraction L2. The chloroform (B2) and methanol (B3) fractions derived from extract (B) exhibited less selectivity, showing the highest cytostatic activity against K-562, NCI-ADR, OVCAR, MCF-7 and NCI-460 cells, with GI(50) values between 27 and 40 µg mL(-1). Lupeol, betulin, a mixture of steroids, (-)-epicatechin, vitexin and liriodendrin were isolated from these active fractions.

  17. A mitogenomic phylogeny and genetic history of sable (Martes zibellina).

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina

    2014-10-15

    We assessed phylogeny of sable (Martes zibellina, Linnaeus, 1758) by sequence analysis of nearly complete, new mitochondrial genomes in 36 specimens from different localities in northern Eurasia (Primorye, Khabarovsk and Krasnoyarsk regions, the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands and the Urals). Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA sequences demonstrates that two clades, A and BC, radiated about 200-300 thousandyears ago (kya) according to results of Bayesian molecular clock and RelTime analyses of different mitogenome alignments (nearly complete mtDNA sequences, protein-coding region, and synonymous sites), while the age estimates of clades A, B and C fall within the Late Pleistocene (~50-140 kya). Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of sable population size change based on analysis of nearly complete mtDNAs show an expansion around 40 kya in the warm Karganian time, without a decline of population size around the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kya). The BSPs based on synonymous clock rate indicate that M. zibellina experienced demographic expansions later, approximately 22 kya. The A2a clade that colonized Kamchatka ~23-50 kya (depending on the mutation rate used) survived the last glaciation there as demonstrated by the BSP analysis. In addition, we have found evidence of positive selection acting at ND4 and cytochrome b genes, thereby suggesting adaptive evolution of the A2a clade in Kamchatka.

  18. Rural maternity care: can we learn from Wal-Mart?

    PubMed

    van Teijlingen, E R; Pitchforth, E

    2010-03-01

    In many countries rural maternity care is under threat. Consequently rural pregnant women will have to travel further to attend larger maternity units to receive care and deliver their babies. This trend is not dissimilar from the disappearance of other rural services, such as village shops, banks, post offices and bus services. We use a comparative approach to draw an analogy with large-scale supermarkets, such as the Wal-Mart and Tesco and their effect on the viability of smaller rural shops, depersonalisation of service and the wider community. The closure of a community-maternity unit leads to women attending a different type of hospital with a different approach to maternity care. Thus small community-midwifery units are being replaced, not by a very similar unit that happens to be further away, but by a larger obstetric unit that operates on different models, philosophy and notions of risk. Comparative analysis allows a fresh perspective on the provision of rural maternity services. We argue that previous discussions focusing on medicalisation and change in maternity services can be enhanced by drawing on experience in other sectors and taking a wider societal lens.

  19. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    PubMed

    Lerch, Andrew P; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Bentz, Barbara J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  20. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, Andrew P.; Pfammatter, Jesse A.

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks. PMID:27783632

  1. Seismic expression of Marts field (Silurian reef) in Sullivan County, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Renick, H.J. Jr.; Rene, R.M.; Hester, N.C.; Stanonis, F.L. )

    1989-08-01

    The Marts field of Sullivan County, Indiana, is associated with a Silurian reef that is part of the Terre Haute bank on the eastern flank of the Illinois basin. Gas production has come from Pennsylvanian sandstones at Marts field, and oil is presently being produced from limestones of the Devonian Muscatatuck Group. Hydrocarbons were trapped in the Devonian limestones because of structural drape over the reef. A 2.8-km (1.8-mi) north-south 24-CDP reflection seismic profile across the Marts field was obtained by using a hydraulic-assisted weight drop with a source array interval of 16.7 m (55 ft). The data were digitally processed through statics corrections, deconvolution, stack, and migration. These data clearly image drape in Carboniferous and Devonian strata, a characteristic change in reflection pattern at the reef flanks, and diffractions associated with the reef flanks. Near Marts field, one well penetrates Silurian strata, and a synthetic seismogram for this off-reef well is tied to the seismic section. Using well data from Marts and other reefs, mirror-imaged cross-plots of depths to tops of formations vs. depth to top of the Devonian limestone aid in examination of the drape. These plots of transformed cross sections approximate those of vertically stacked right circular cones indicative of the linear relationships between depths to formations.

  2. Sapwood Stored Resources Decline in Whitebark and Lodgepole Pines Attacked by Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Sala, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex. Louden) with resource concentrations one year later, in trees that were naturally attacked by beetles and trees that remained unattacked. Beetles did not select host trees based on sapwood resources-there were no consistent a priori differences between attacked versus unattacked trees-but concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), lipids, and phosphorus declined in attacked trees, relative to initial concentrations and unattacked trees. Whitebark pine experienced greater resource declines than lodgepole pine; however, sapwood resources were not correlated with beetle success in either species. Experimental manipulation confirmed that the negative effect of beetles on sapwood and phloem NSC was not due to girdling. Instead, changes in sapwood resources were related to the percentage of sapwood with fungal blue-stain. Overall, mountain pine beetle attack affected sapwood resources, but sapwood resources did not contribute directly to beetle success; instead, sapwood resources may support colonization by beetle-vectored fungi that potentially accelerate tree mortality. Closer attention to stored resource dynamics will improve our understanding of the interaction between mountain pine beetles, fungi, and host trees, an issue that is relevant to our understanding of insect range expansion under climate change.

  3. [Enhancing development of children at risk and their parents by video counselling according to the Marte Meo method].

    PubMed

    Bünder, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Marte Meo is a low-intensity programme of counselling parents and other persons significantly involved with children which aims to foster parenting capacity and facilitate child development. The article describes a preliminary pilot study with the aim of identifying variables for the future evaluation of efficacy and effectiveness of the Marte Meo method.

  4. Diversity and decay ability of basidiomycetes isolated from lodgepole pines killed by the mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Son, E; Kim, J-J; Lim, Y W; Au-Yeung, T T; Yang, C Y H; Breuil, C

    2011-01-01

    When lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) that are killed by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its fungal associates are not harvested, fungal decay can affect wood and fibre properties. Ophiostomatoids stain sapwood but do not affect the structural properties of wood. In contrast, white or brown decay basidiomycetes degrade wood. We isolated both staining and decay fungi from 300 lodgepole pine trees killed by mountain pine beetle at green, red, and grey stages at 10 sites across British Columbia. We retained 224 basidiomycete isolates that we classified into 34 species using morphological and physiological characteristics and rDNA large subunit sequences. The number of basidiomycete species varied from 4 to 14 species per site. We assessed the ability of these fungi to degrade both pine sapwood and heartwood using the soil jar decay test. The highest wood mass losses for both sapwood and heartwood were measured for the brown rot species Fomitopsis pinicola and the white rot Metulodontia and Ganoderma species. The sap rot species Trichaptum abietinum was more damaging for sapwood than for heartwood. A number of species caused more than 50% wood mass losses after 12 weeks at room temperature, suggesting that beetle-killed trees can rapidly lose market value due to degradation of wood structural components.

  5. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions.

  6. Pathogenicity of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus on Pines in Minnesota and Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Wingfield, Michael J.; Bedker, Peter J.; Blanchette, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, was inoculated into established native jack and red pines (Pinus banksiana and P. resinosa) and exotic Austrian pine (P. nigra) in Minnesota and Wisconsin forests during summer 1981. The nematode isolates did not kill established nonstressed pine trees growing in the forest. However, the same nematode isolates killed pine seedlings under greenhouse conditions. Girdling the main stem of some trees to induce stress resulted in the death of the majority of inoculated and noninoculated branches of Austrian and jack pines, but no branch death was observed on red pine. Greater numbers of nematodes were extracted from branches of inoculated, girdled trees than from nongirdled trees. The mean number of nematodes extracted from branches of inoculated, nongirdled trees was 0.3 - 14 nematodes per gram of wood. PMID:19294138

  7. Whitebark pine, grizzly bears, and red squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.; Kendall, K.C.; Reinhart, D.P.; Tomback, D.F.; Arno, S.F.; Keane, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Appropriately enough, much of this book is devoted to discussing management challenges and techniques. However, the impetus for action—the desire to save whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis)—necessarily arises from the extent to which we cherish it for its beauty and its connections with other things that we value. Whitebark pine is at the hub of a fascinating web of relationships. It is the stuff of great stories (cf. Quammen 1994). One of the more interesting of these stories pertains to the dependence of certain grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) populations on its seeds, and the role that red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) play as an agent of transfer between tree and bear.

  8. Pine Gene Discovery Project - Final Report - 08/31/1997 - 02/28/2001

    SciTech Connect

    Whetten, R. W.; Sederoff, R. R.; Kinlaw, C.; Retzel, E.

    2001-04-30

    Integration of pines into the large scope of plant biology research depends on study of pines in parallel with study of annual plants, and on availability of research materials from pine to plant biologists interested in comparing pine with annual plant systems. The objectives of the Pine Gene Discovery Project were to obtain 10,000 partial DNA sequences of genes expressed in loblolly pine, to determine which of those pine genes were similar to known genes from other organisms, and to make the DNA sequences and isolated pine genes available to plant researchers to stimulate integration of pines into the wider scope of plant biology research. Those objectives have been completed, and the results are available to the public. Requests for pine genes have been received from a number of laboratories that would otherwise not have included pine in their research, indicating that progress is being made toward the goal of integrating pine research into the larger molecular biology research community.

  9. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Mark E.

    2001-11-01

    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring.

  10. Aflatoxin in Tunisian aleppo pine nuts.

    PubMed

    Boutrif, E; Jemmali, M; Pohland, A E; Campbell, A D

    1977-05-01

    Twenty-six of 50 Aleppo pine nuts samples collected throughout Tunisia showed relatively high levels of contamination by aflatoxin. Some samples contained as much as 2000 ppb aflatoxin B1, and very few contained less than 100 ppb. Total aflatoxins as high as 7550 ppb were found. A traditional pudding, widely consumed in Tunisia, which was prepared from contaminated nuts still contained more than 80% of the aflatoxin originally present in the nuts.

  11. AmeriFlux US-Vcp Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Litvak, Marcy

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Vcp Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine. Site Description - The Valles Caldera Ponderosa Pine site is located in the 1200km2 Jemez River basin of the Jemez Mountains in north-central New Mexico at the southern margin of the Rocky Mountain ecoregion. The Ponderosa Pine forest is the warmest and lowest (below 2700m) zone of the forests in the Valles Caldera National Preserve. Its vegetation is composed of a Ponderosa Pine (Pinus Ponderosa) overstory and a Gambel Oak (Quercus gambelii) understory.

  12. Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Monoterpenes in Scots Pine and Norway Spruce Tissues Affect Pine Weevil Orientation.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Lina; Nordlander, Göran; Björklund, Niklas; Nordenhem, Henrik; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2016-12-01

    In large parts of Europe, insecticide-free measures for protecting conifer plants are desired to suppress damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.). Treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a chemical elicitor already used in crop production, may enhance expression of chemical defenses in seedlings in conifer regenerations. However, in a previous experiment, MeJA treatment resulted in substantially better field protection for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) than for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Hypothesizing that the variations may be at least due partly to volatiles released by MeJA-treated seedlings and their effects on pine weevil orientation, we examined tissue extracts of seedlings (from the same batches as previously used) by two-dimensional GC-MS. We found that the MeJA treatment increased contents of the monoterpene (-)-β-pinene in phloem (the weevil's main target tissue) of both tree species, however, the (-)-β-pinene/(-)-α-pinene ratio increased more in the phloem of P. sylvestris. We also tested the attractiveness of individual monoterpenes found in conifer tissues (needles and phloem) for pine weevils using an arena with traps baited with single-substance dispensers and pine twigs. Trap catches were reduced when the pine material was combined with a dispenser releasing (-)-β-pinene, (+)-3-carene, (-)-bornyl acetate or 1,8-cineole. However, (-)-α-pinene did not have this effect. Thus, the greater field protection of MeJA-treated P. sylvestris seedlings may be due to the selective induction of increases in contents of the deterrent (-)-β-pinene, in contrast to strong increases in both non-deterrent (-)-α-pinene and the deterrent (-)-β-pinene in P. abies seedlings.

  13. Suitability of some southern and western pines as hosts for the pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Eager, T A; Berisford, C W; Dalusky, M J; Nielsen, D G; Brewer, J W; Hilty, S J; Haack, R A

    2004-04-01

    The pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda (L.), is an exotic pest that has become established in North America. Discovered in Ohio in 1992, it has since been found in at least 13 states and parts of Canada. The beetle can cause significant growth loss in pines, and it represents a potential threat to trees in areas where it has not yet become established. To evaluate this threat to native pines, field and laboratory tests were conducted on several common and important southern and western species to determine whether they are acceptable hosts for T. piniperda. Comparisons with Pinus sylvestris L., Scots pine, a preferred natural host for the beetle, were made where possible. Measurements of beetle attack success on southern pine billets showed that Pinus taeda L., Pinus echinata Miller, Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelmann, Pinus palustris Miller, and Pinus virginiana Miller (loblolly, shortleaf, slash, longleaf, and Virginia pine, respectively) and two western pines, Pinus ponderosa Lawson and Pinus contorta Douglas (ponderosa and lodgepole pine, respectively), were acceptable for breeding material, but brood production was highly variable. Among the southern pines, P. taeda and P. echinata were susceptible to shoot feeding by T. piniperda, whereas P. elliottii was highly resistant and P. palustris seemed to be virtually immune. Shoot feeding tests on the western pines were conducted only in the laboratory, but there was moderate-to-good survival of adults feeding on both species. It seems that if T. piniperda is introduced into the south and west it will likely establish and may cause some damage to native pines. P. taeda may be affected more than other southern pines because it is the most abundant species, it is readily attacked for brood production, which can result in moderately large broods, and the beetle survives well during maturation feeding on P. taeda shoots.

  14. Cytotoxic effects of Euterpe oleracea Mart. in malignant cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Euterpe oleracea Mart., a plant from the Amazon region, is commonly known as açaí or juçara; it has high nutritional value and elevated levels of lipids, proteins, and minerals. Açaí is an abundant and much consumed fruit by the Amazon local population, and studies have demonstrated that it is rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test this plant for anticancer activity in different human malignant cell lines. Methods Cell lines derived from breast and colorectal adenocarcinomas were treated with 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL of bark, seed, and total açaí fruit hydroalcoholic extracts for 24 and 48 h. After treatment, cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, and cell morphological features were observed by light and transmission electron microscopy. The type of cell death was also evaluated. The data were analyzed statistically by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Dunnett’s or Tukey’s post hoc tests, as appropriate. Results We observed that of all the cell lines tested, MCF-7 was the only line that responded to açaí treatment. The extracts caused significant reduction (p < 0.01) in cell viability and altered cell morphological features by inducing the appearance of autophagic vacuoles, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, increased expression of LC3BII, a protein marker of autophagosome formation, was observed by western blotting. Caspase Glo™ assays and morphologic observations by DAPI nuclear staining and transmission electron microscopy did not indicate any apoptotic events. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that açaí possesses antitumorigenic potential in the MCF-7 cell line. Further studies are needed to identify the compound (s) responsible for this cytotoxic activity and the molecular target in the cell. This discovery of the

  15. Eruption Constraints for a Young Channelized Lava Flow, Marte Vallis, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Therkelsen, J. P.; Santiago, S. S.; Grosfils, E. B.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Mendelson, C. V.; Bleacher, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    This study constrains flow rates for a specific channelized lava flow in Marte Vallis, Mars. We measured slope-gradient, channel width, and channel depth. Our results are similar to other recent studies which suggests similarities to long, terrestrial basaltic flow. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. EnsMart: a generic system for fast and flexible access to biological data.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk, Arek; Keefe, Damian; Smedley, Damian; London, Darin; Spooner, William; Melsopp, Craig; Hammond, Martin; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Cox, Tony; Birney, Ewan

    2004-01-01

    The EnsMart system (www.ensembl.org/EnsMart) provides a generic data warehousing solution for fast and flexible querying of large biological data sets and integration with third-party data and tools. The system consists of a query-optimized database and interactive, user-friendly interfaces. EnsMart has been applied to Ensembl, where it extends its genomic browser capabilities, facilitating rapid retrieval of customized data sets. A wide variety of complex queries, on various types of annotations, for numerous species are supported. These can be applied to many research problems, ranging from SNP selection for candidate gene screening, through cross-species evolutionary comparisons, to microarray annotation. Users can group and refine biological data according to many criteria, including cross-species analyses, disease links, sequence variations, and expression patterns. Both tabulated list data and biological sequence output can be generated dynamically, in HTML, text, Microsoft Excel, and compressed formats. A wide range of sequence types, such as cDNA, peptides, coding regions, UTRs, and exons, with additional upstream and downstream regions, can be retrieved. The EnsMart database can be accessed via a public Web site, or through a Java application suite. Both implementations and the database are freely available for local installation, and can be extended or adapted to 'non-Ensembl' data sets.

  17. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J; Dassi, Erik; Di Genova, Alex; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K; Hayes, Richard D; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-07-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations.

  18. Screening a core collection of citrus genetic resources for resistance to Fusarium solani (Mart) Sacc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A causal agent for Dry root rot (DRR) of citrus has not been definitively identified, but the organism most consistently associated with DRR is Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. To efficiently screen a citrus germplasm collection for resistance to F. solani, a core subset of the collection was evaluated...

  19. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

    PubMed Central

    Smedley, Damian; Haider, Syed; Durinck, Steffen; Pandini, Luca; Provero, Paolo; Allen, James; Arnaiz, Olivier; Awedh, Mohammad Hamza; Baldock, Richard; Barbiera, Giulia; Bardou, Philippe; Beck, Tim; Blake, Andrew; Bonierbale, Merideth; Brookes, Anthony J.; Bucci, Gabriele; Buetti, Iwan; Burge, Sarah; Cabau, Cédric; Carlson, Joseph W.; Chelala, Claude; Chrysostomou, Charalambos; Cittaro, Davide; Collin, Olivier; Cordova, Raul; Cutts, Rosalind J.; Dassi, Erik; Genova, Alex Di; Djari, Anis; Esposito, Anthony; Estrella, Heather; Eyras, Eduardo; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Forbes, Simon; Free, Robert C.; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Gadaleta, Emanuela; Garcia-Manteiga, Jose M.; Goodstein, David; Gray, Kristian; Guerra-Assunção, José Afonso; Haggarty, Bernard; Han, Dong-Jin; Han, Byung Woo; Harris, Todd; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hastings, Robert K.; Hayes, Richard D.; Hoede, Claire; Hu, Shen; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Hutchins, Lucie; Kan, Zhengyan; Kawaji, Hideya; Keliet, Aminah; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kim, Sunghoon; Kinsella, Rhoda; Klopp, Christophe; Kong, Lei; Lawson, Daniel; Lazarevic, Dejan; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Letellier, Thomas; Li, Chuan-Yun; Lio, Pietro; Liu, Chu-Jun; Luo, Jie; Maass, Alejandro; Mariette, Jerome; Maurel, Thomas; Merella, Stefania; Mohamed, Azza Mostafa; Moreews, Francois; Nabihoudine, Ibounyamine; Ndegwa, Nelson; Noirot, Céline; Perez-Llamas, Cristian; Primig, Michael; Quattrone, Alessandro; Quesneville, Hadi; Rambaldi, Davide; Reecy, James; Riba, Michela; Rosanoff, Steven; Saddiq, Amna Ali; Salas, Elisa; Sallou, Olivier; Shepherd, Rebecca; Simon, Reinhard; Sperling, Linda; Spooner, William; Staines, Daniel M.; Steinbach, Delphine; Stone, Kevin; Stupka, Elia; Teague, Jon W.; Dayem Ullah, Abu Z.; Wang, Jun; Ware, Doreen; Wong-Erasmus, Marie; Youens-Clark, Ken; Zadissa, Amonida; Zhang, Shi-Jian; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2015-01-01

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biological datasets spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. All resources available through the portal are independently administered and funded by their host organizations. The BioMart data federation technology provides a unified interface to all the available data. The latest version of the portal comes with many new databases that have been created by our ever-growing community. It also comes with better support and extensibility for data analysis and visualization tools. A new addition to our toolbox, the enrichment analysis tool is now accessible through graphical and web service interface. The BioMart community portal averages over one million requests per day. Building on this level of service and the wealth of information that has become available, the BioMart Community Portal has introduced a new, more scalable and cheaper alternative to the large data stores maintained by specialized organizations. PMID:25897122

  20. EnsMart: A Generic System for Fast and Flexible Access to Biological Data

    PubMed Central

    Kasprzyk, Arek; Keefe, Damian; Smedley, Damian; London, Darin; Spooner, William; Melsopp, Craig; Hammond, Martin; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Cox, Tony; Birney, Ewan

    2004-01-01

    The EnsMart system (www.ensembl.org/EnsMart) provides a generic data warehousing solution for fast and flexible querying of large biological data sets and integration with third-party data and tools. The system consists of a query-optimized database and interactive, user-friendly interfaces. EnsMart has been applied to Ensembl, where it extends its genomic browser capabilities, facilitating rapid retrieval of customized data sets. A wide variety of complex queries, on various types of annotations, for numerous species are supported. These can be applied to many research problems, ranging from SNP selection for candidate gene screening, through cross-species evolutionary comparisons, to microarray annotation. Users can group and refine biological data according to many criteria, including cross-species analyses, disease links, sequence variations, and expression patterns. Both tabulated list data and biological sequence output can be generated dynamically, in HTML, text, Microsoft Excel, and compressed formats. A wide range of sequence types, such as cDNA, peptides, coding regions, UTRs, and exons, with additional upstream and downstream regions, can be retrieved. The EnsMart database can be accessed via a public Web site, or through a Java application suite. Both implementations and the database are freely available for local installation, and can be extended or adapted to `non-Ensembl' data sets. PMID:14707178

  1. La Verneda-Sant Martí Adult School: A Reference for Neighborhood Popular Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubert, Adrianna; Villarejo, Bea; Cabré, Joan; Santos, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The Adult School of La Verneda Sant Martí, located in Barcelona, Spain, is a reference at the international level because of its trajectory and its contributions to the transformative movement in democratic education. The school was created in 1978 to address the demands of the working-class residents of the La Verneda…

  2. A miniature Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (miniMART) as a compact breaking wave analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, M. Dale; Deane, Grant; Collins, Douglas B.; Cappa, Christopher; Bertram, Timothy; Dommer, Abigail; Schill, Steven; Forestieri, Sara; Survilo, Mathew

    2016-09-01

    In order to understand the processes governing the production of marine aerosols, repeatable, controlled methods for their generation are required. A new system, the miniature Marine Aerosol Reference Tank (miniMART), has been designed after the success of the original MART system, to approximate a small oceanic spilling breaker by producing an evolving bubble plume and surface foam patch. The smaller tank utilizes an intermittently plunging jet of water produced by a rotating water wheel, into an approximately 6 L reservoir to simulate bubble plume and foam formation and generate aerosols. This system produces bubble plumes characteristic of small whitecaps without the large external pump inherent in the original MART design. Without the pump it is possible to easily culture delicate planktonic and microbial communities in the bulk water during experiments while continuously producing aerosols for study. However, due to the reduced volume and smaller plunging jet, the absolute numbers of particles generated are approximately an order of magnitude less than in the original MART design.

  3. The BioMart community portal: an innovative alternative to large, centralized data repositories

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The BioMart Community Portal (www.biomart.org) is a community-driven effort to provide a unified interface to biomedical databases that are distributed worldwide. The portal provides access to numerous database projects supported by 30 scientific organizations. It includes over 800 different biologi...

  4. Flavonoids from acai (euterpe oleracea mart.) Pulp and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five flavonoids, (2S,3S)-dihyrokaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (1) and its isomer (2R,3R)-dihydrokaempferol 3-O-'-D-glucoside (2) , isovitexin (3), velutin (4) and 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3',5'-trimethoxyflavone (5), were isolated from acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp. The structures of these compounds ...

  5. Exploración del Nuevo Laboratorio Científico de Marte

    NASA Video Gallery

    Únase a Fernando Abilleira, un analista de trayectoria de la NASA para la Oficina de Exploración de Marte, y conozca las nuevas tecnologías que el nuevo robot Curiosity del Laboratorio Científico d...

  6. The vitamin D analog, MART-10, represses metastasis potential via downregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Jan, Yi-Yin; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-11-28

    Pancreatic cancer (PDA) is a devastating disease and there is no effective treatment available at present. To develop new regiments against PDA is urgently needed. Previously we have shown that vitamin D analog, MART-10 (19-nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3), exerted potent antiproliferative effect on PDA in vitro and in vivo without causing hypercalcemia. Since metastasis is the major cause of PDA-related death, we therefore investigate the anti-metastasis effect of MART-10 on PDA. Our results showed that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 repressed migration and invasion of BxPC-3 and PANC cells with MART-10 much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic cancer cells through downregulation of Snail, Slug, and Vimentin expression in BxPC-3 and PANC cells. MART-10 further blocked cadherin switch (from E-cadherin to N-cadherin) in BxPC-3 cells. The F-actin synthesis in the cytoplasm of BxPC-3 cells was also repressed by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 as determined by immunofluorescence stain. Both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 decreased MMP-2 and -9 secretion in BxPC-3 cells as determined by western blot and zymography. Collectively, MART-10 should be deemed as a promising regimen against PDA.

  7. Changes in soil respiration after thinning activities in dense Aleppo pine forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Joan; Alonso, Macià; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Forest fires are a widespread perturbation in Mediterranean areas, and they have tended to increase during the last decades (Pausas, 2004; Moreno et al, 1998). Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill) is dominant specie in some forest landscapes of western Mediterranean Basin, due to its capacity to colonize abandoned fields, and also due to afforestation practices mainly performed during the 20th century (Ruiz Navarro et al., 2009). Aleppo pine tends to die as consequence of forest fires, although it is able to disperse a high quantity of seeds which easily germinates. These dispersion and germination can result in dense forests with high inter and intra-specific competition, low diversity, low growth, and high fuel accumulation, increasing the risk of new forest fires. These forests of high density present ecological problems and management difficulties that require preventive treatments. Thinning treatments are common in these types of communities, but the management has to be oriented towards strengthening their functions. In the context of global change, better understandings of the implications of forest management practices in the carbon cycle are necessary. The objective of this study was to examine the evolution of seasonal soil respiration after treatment of selective thinning in dense Aleppo pine forests. The study area covers three localities placed in the Valencian Community (E Spain) affected by a forest fire in 1994. Thinning activities were done 16 years after the fire, reducing pine density from around 100,000 individuals per hectare to around 900 individuals per hectare. Soil respiration was measured in situ with a portable soil respiration instrument (LI-6400, LiCor, Lincoln, NB, USA) fitted with a soil respiration chamber (6400-09, LiCor, Lincoln, NB, USA). We installed 12 plots per treatment (control and thinned) and locality, being a total of 72 plots. We carried out 13 measurements covering a period of one year. We also estimated other related

  8. 33 CFR 117.643 - Pine River (St. Clair).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pine River (St. Clair). 117.643 Section 117.643 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.643 Pine River (St. Clair). The draw of the S29 bridge, mile 0.1 at St....

  9. 33 CFR 117.641 - Pine River (Charlevoix).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pine River (Charlevoix). 117.641 Section 117.641 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.641 Pine River (Charlevoix). (a) The draw of the U.S. 31 bridge, mile 0.3...

  10. Anaphylaxis to pine nut: cross-reactivity to Artemisia vulgaris?

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Alves, R; Pregal, A; Pereira-Santos, M C; Branco-Ferreira, M; Lundberg, M; Oman, H; Pereira-Barbosa, M

    2008-01-01

    The use of pine nuts, the seeds of Pinus pinea, is on the increasing in the modern Mediterranean diet. Little more than 20 cases of allergy to this tree nut have been published, and cross-reactivity with pine pollen, peanut and almond has already been reported. We describe the case of a young boy with several episodes of anaphylaxis after pine nut ingestion. Specific IgE to pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris was demonstrated by skin prick tests and in vitro determination of specific IgE, although no IgE to pine pollen or other nuts was detected. Immunoblotting of Artemisia vulgaris and pine nut revealed two matching diffuse bands, just below 14 kDa and 30 kDa. The ImmunoCAP inhibition assays showed complete inhibition of pine nut specific IgE after serum incubation with Artemisia vulgaris extract. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of documented cross-reactivity between pine nut and Artemisia vulgaris.

  11. Drawing entitled "Sketch of proposed site for Pine Hills Patrol ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Drawing entitled "Sketch of proposed site for Pine Hills Patrol Station, Cleveland National Forest, San Diego County, California. Surveyed by Norman McClean, U.S.F.S., January, 1934. - Pine Hills Station, Barracks, West Side of Boulder Creek Road at Engineers Road, Julian, San Diego County, CA

  12. 77 FR 58095 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  13. 76 FR 48800 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting cancellation. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee meeting scheduled in...

  14. 78 FR 30847 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of two meetings. ] SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka,...

  15. 77 FR 45331 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of two meetings. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  16. 76 FR 41451 - White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Eureka, Nevada....

  17. 76 FR 1339 - Pine Shoot Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... was necessary to prevent the spread of PSB, a pest of pine trees, into noninfested areas of the United... dying trees. The beetle has been found in a variety of pine species (Pinus spp.) in the United States... growth), causing stunted and distorted growth in host trees. Large infestations of PSB typically...

  18. 1. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, AT THE SITE OF THE PINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, AT THE SITE OF THE PINE LOG MILL. THE STONE RETAINING WALL ON THE RIGHT MARKS THE LOCATION OF THE 1896 20-STAMP FACILITY, EXPANDED SOUTH TO INCLUDE 20 ADDITIONAL STAMPS BY 1899 - Pine Log Mill, Southern Edge of Salt Spring Valley, Copperopolis, Calaveras County, CA

  19. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), since it comprises 951 641 raw sequence reads obtained from non-normalised cDNA libraries and high-throughput sequencing from adult (xylem, phloem, roots, stem, needles, cones, strobili) and embryonic (germinated embryos, buds, callus) maritime pine tissues. Using open-source tools, sequences were optimally pre-processed, assembled, and extensively annotated (GO, EC and KEGG terms, descriptions, SNPs, SSRs, ORFs and InterPro codes). As a result, a 10.5× P. pinaster genome was covered and assembled in 55 322 UniGenes. A total of 32 919 (59.5%) of P. pinaster UniGenes were annotated with at least one description, revealing at least 18 466 different genes. The complete database, which is designed to be scalable, maintainable, and expandable, is freely available at: http://www.scbi.uma.es/pindb/. It can be retrieved by gene libraries, pine species, annotations, UniGenes and microarrays (i.e., the sequences are distributed in two-colour microarrays; this is the only conifer database that provides this information) and will be periodically updated. Small assemblies can be viewed using a dedicated visualisation tool that connects them with SNPs. Any sequence or annotation set shown on-screen can be downloaded. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and gene annotations are provided. Conclusions The EuroPineDB with its integrated information can be used to reveal new knowledge, offers an easy-to-use collection of information to directly support experimental work (including microarray hybridisation), and

  20. An innovative aerial assessment of Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem mountain pine beetle-caused whitebark pine mortality.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, William W; Logan, Jesse A; Kern, Wilson R

    2013-03-01

    An innovative aerial survey method called the Landscape Assessment System (LAS) was used to assess mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae)-caused mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) across the species distribution in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE; 894 774 ha). This large-scale implementation of the LAS method consisted of 8673 km of flight lines, along which 4653 geo-tagged, oblique aerial photos were captured at the catchment level (a subset of 12-digit USGS hydrologic units) and geographic information system (GIS) processed. The Mountain Pine Beetle-caused Mortality Rating System, a landscape-scale classification system designed specifically to measure the cumulative effects of recent and older MPB attacks on whitebark pine, was used to classify mortality with a rating from 0 to 6 based on the amount of red (recent attack) and gray (old attack) trees visible. The approach achieved a photo inventory of 79% of the GYE whitebark pine distribution. For the remaining 21%, mortality levels were estimated based on an interpolated surface. Results that combine the photo-inventoried and interpolated mortality indicate that nearly half (46%) of the GYE whitebark pine distribution showed severe mortality (3-4 or 5.3-5.4 rating), 36% showed moderate mortality (2-2.9 rating), 13% showed low mortality (1-1.9 rating), and 5% showed trace levels of mortality (0-0.9). These results reveal that the proliferation of MPB in the subalpine zone of the GYE due to climate warming has led to whitebark pine mortality that is more severe and widespread than indicated from either previous modeling research or USDA Forest Service Aerial Detection surveys. Sixteen of the 22 major mountain ranges of the GYE have experienced widespread moderate-to-severe mortality. The majority of catchments in the other six mountain ranges show low-to-moderate mortality. Refugia from MPB outbreaks, at least for now, also exist and correspond to locations that have colder

  1. Finding a (pine) needle in a haystack: chloroplast genome sequence divergence in rare and widespread pines.

    PubMed

    Whittall, J B; Syring, J; Parks, M; Buenrostro, J; Dick, C; Liston, A; Cronn, R

    2010-03-01

    Critical to conservation efforts and other investigations at low taxonomic levels, DNA sequence data offer important insights into the distinctiveness, biogeographic partitioning and evolutionary histories of species. The resolving power of DNA sequences is often limited by insufficient variability at the intraspecific level. This is particularly true of studies involving plant organelles, as the conservative mutation rate of chloroplasts and mitochondria makes it difficult to detect polymorphisms necessary to track genealogical relationships among individuals, populations and closely related taxa, through space and time. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) makes it possible to acquire entire organelle genome sequences to identify cryptic variation that would be difficult to detect otherwise. We are using MPS to evaluate intraspecific chloroplast-level divergence across biogeographic boundaries in narrowly endemic and widespread species of Pinus. We focus on one of the world's rarest pines - Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana) - due to its conservation interest and because it provides a marked contrast to more widespread pine species. Detailed analysis of nearly 90% ( approximately 105 000 bp each) of these chloroplast genomes shows that mainland and island populations of Torrey pine differ at five sites in their plastome, with the differences fixed between populations. This is an exceptionally low level of divergence (1 polymorphism/ approximately 21 kb), yet it is comparable to intraspecific divergence present in widespread pine species and species complexes. Population-level organelle genome sequencing offers new vistas into the timing and magnitude of divergence within species, and is certain to provide greater insight into pollen dispersal, migration patterns and evolutionary dynamics in plants.

  2. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  3. Nitrogen Cycling Responses to Mountain Pine Beetle Disturbance in a High Elevation Whitebark Pine Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks. PMID:23755166

  4. Modeling Pine Plantation NEP Using Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynne, R. H.; Potter, C. S.; Blinn, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) ecosystem process model predicts terrestrial ecosystem fluxes using satellite-based inputs at a maximum geographic resolution of 30 meters to infer variability in forest carbon fluxes. We are using CASA to model pine plantation net ecosystem production (NEP) under a range of standard silvicultural prescriptions, primarily thinning by fertilization interactions. Landsat scenes from WRS path/row 14/35, 21/37, and 16/34 are being used. Within each frame, all available cloud-free scenes within a two- to three-year period have been obtained from the USGS EROS Data Center processed to L1T, and subsequently converted to top-of-atmosphere reflectance using standard methods and the latest calibration parameter files. Atmospheric amelioration started with dark object subtraction (band minimum) and only proceeded to more complex techniques as necessary. Subsequent to preprocessing, the reduced simple ratio (RSR; using global min/max) was calculated for all images for each WRS path/row. Pure pine pixels in each frame were identified using unsupervised classification of the most recent leaf-off scene. We developed four age classes using two decades of Landsat data over each WRS path/row. CASA runs, which require soil parameters, and gridded climate/solar radiation in addition to satellite-derived vegetation indices, are now complete. Soil respiration and productivity estimates are being evaluated using a regionwide network of validation sites spanning the range of loblolly pine (Texas to Virginia). Preliminary results indicate that Landsat-based process modeling (1) is necessary for the scale at which land is actually managed and (2) produces estimates with an accuracy and precision affording improved understanding and management of forest ecosystems.

  5. Dendrochronology of bristlecone pine: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, C.W.; Graybill, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Dendrochronological studies of bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva, have produced a continuous tree-ring sequence back to 6700 BC for the White Mountains of California and to 3258 BC for east-central Nevada. The primary focus of the project is to provide dendrochronolgically-dated decade samples for an interlaboratory calibration of the /sup 14/C time scale. The primary climatic signal that can be isolated in both the California and Nevada series is annual moisture variability. Current efforts are directed at calibration of the tree-ring series with instrumented climatic series.

  6. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression

    PubMed Central

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined. PMID:23346232

  7. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression.

    PubMed

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined.

  8. Suitability of Pines and Other Conifers as Hosts for the Invasive Mediterranean Pine Engraver (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), was detected in North America in 2004 and is currently distributed in the southern Central Valley of California. It originates from the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and Asia, and reproduces on pines. To identify p...

  9. Using pheromones to protect heat-injured lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle infestation. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Amman, G.D.; Ryan, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat-injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho. Peat moss was placed around 70 percent of the basal circumference of lodgepole pines. When the peat moss was ignited, it simulated the smoldering of natural duff, generating temperatures that killed the cambium. The four treatments tested were uninjured tree, heat-injured tree, heat-injured tree treated with verbenone, and heat-injured tree treated with verbenone plus ipsdienol. Treatments were replicated 20 times. Mountain pine beetles were attracted into treatment blocks by placing mountain pine beetle tree baits on metal posts 3 to 5 meters from treated trees. Fisher's Extract Test showed that treatment and beetle infestation were not independent (P < 0.015). Check treatments contained more unattacked and mass-attacked trees, whereas pheromone treatments contained more unsuccessfully attacked trees.

  10. 75 FR 23666 - Huron-Manistee National Forests, White Pines Wind Farm Project, Mason County, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Forest Service Huron-Manistee National Forests, White Pines Wind Farm Project, Mason County, MI AGENCY... Pines Wind Farm Project on National Forest System (NFS) lands managed by the Huron-Manistee National... process for the White Pines Wind Farm Project. DATES: The Notice of Intent to prepare the White Pines...

  11. Excavation of red squirrel middens by grizzly bears in the whitebark pine zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.; Reinhart, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    7. Grizzly bears would benefit from the minimization of roads and other human facilities in the whitebark pine zone and from increases in the availability of whitebark pine seeds, potentially achieved by increasing the numbers of cone-producing whitebark pine trees, especially in lower elevations of the whitebark pine zone where red squirrels are more abundant.

  12. Prediction and identification of Korean Pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin as a food allergen (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RATIONALE: Pine nut allergy cases have been reported, but pine nut allergens remain to be identified and characterized. Korean pine nut is one of the major varieties of pine nuts that are widely consumed. Vicilins belong to one of a few protein families that contain more than 85% of the known food a...

  13. Oceanic heat sources to Pine Island Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazloff, M. R.; Gilroy, A. R.; Gille, S. T.; Subramanian, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    The rapid melting of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica has been attributed to increased basal melting of its grounded ice-shelf. Recent work suggests that an increased ocean heat supply to Pine Island Bay (PIB) is responsible for this increased melting. There is no consensus, however, on the origin of this increased ocean heat. We use a 2008-2010 state estimate of the Southern Ocean to diagnose the heat budget on the PIB continental shelf. In times of minimal sea-ice coverage, air-sea fluxes dominate the budget. Sea-ice is present over much of the year, however, and on average advection and parameterized small-scale mixing are equally important. The average air-sea fluxes and small scale mixing both act to cool the continental shelf waters, while advection by the large-scale circulation tends to warm these waters. The warmest waters are found on the eastern PIB continental shelf where bathymetric features cause increased advective fluxes and mixing. The average circulation along the PIB continental shelf is eastward consisting of approximately 1 Sv along shelf flow augmented by 1 Sv of across shelf flow to be balanced by a 2 Sv outflow along the eastern PIB shelf. Numerical simulations of passive tracer releases reveal the advective pathways of these waters that reach the continental shelf.

  14. Wind noise under a pine tree canopy.

    PubMed

    Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that infrasonic wind noise levels are lower for arrays placed in forests and under vegetation than for those in open areas. In this research, the wind noise levels, turbulence spectra, and wind velocity profiles are measured in a pine forest. A prediction of the wind noise spectra from the measured meteorological parameters is developed based on recent research on wind noise above a flat plane. The resulting wind noise spectrum is the sum of the low frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-shear interaction near and above the tops of the trees and higher frequency wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction near the ground within the tree layer. The convection velocity of the low frequency wind noise corresponds to the wind speed above the trees while the measurements showed that the wind noise generated by the turbulence-turbulence interaction is near stationary and is generated by the slow moving turbulence adjacent to the ground. Comparison of the predicted wind noise spectrum with the measured wind noise spectrum shows good agreement for four measurement sets. The prediction can be applied to meteorological estimates to predict the wind noise under other pine forests.

  15. MART-10, a newly synthesized vitamin D analog, represses metastatic potential of head and neck squamous carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shih-Wei; Tsai, Chi-Ying; Pan, Yi-Chun; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Takano, Masashi; Kittaka, Atsushi; Juang, Horng-Heng; Chen, Tai C; Chiang, Kun-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Even with multidisciplinary treatment, the prognosis and quality of life of patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are still not satisfactory. Previously, 19-Nor-2α-(3-hydroxypropyl)-1α,25(OH)2D3 (MART-10), the new brand 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, has been demonstrated to be an effective drug to inhibit HNSCC growth in vitro. Since most cancer patients die of metastasis, in this study, the antimetastatic effect of MART-10 on HNSCC was investigated. Our results reveal that both 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 effectively repressed the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells, with MART-10 being much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. The antimetastatic effect of 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 was mediated by attenuation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which was supported by the finding that the expression of EMT-inducing transcriptional factors, Sail and Twist, was inhibited by 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10. The upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin in FaDu cells induced by both drugs further confirmed the repression of EMT. In addition, 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 treatment inhibited intracellular MMP-9 expression and extracellular MMP activity in FaDu cells. Collectively, our results suggest that the less-calcemia 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, MART-10, is a promising drug for HNSCC treatment. Further clinical studies are warranted.

  16. Pine nut use in the Early Holocene and beyond: The danger cave archaeobotanical record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    Nuts of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) from Early Holocene strata in Danger Cave, Utah, are distinguishable by seed-coat sculpturing from pine nuts of single-needled pinyon (Pinus monophylla), which occur in strata dating <7000 years BP. Owls and other taphonomic agents may deposit pine nuts in archaeological sites, but the morphology of the pine nuts in Danger Cave strongly indicate they were deposited by human foragers who brought small quantities with them for food for at least the last 7500 years. Large-scale transport of pine nuts to Danger Cave from distant hinterlands is unlikely, however. The seamless transition from limber pine to pinyon pine nuts in the Danger Cave record suggests that foragers who had utilized limber pine as a food resource easily switched to using pinyon pine nuts when pinyon pine migrated into the region at the close of the Early Holocene.

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain.

    PubMed

    Sobrino, R; Cabezón, O; Millán, J; Pabón, M; Arnal, M C; Luco, D F; Gortázar, C; Dubey, J P; Almeria, S

    2007-09-30

    Serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), 3 of 6 European wildcats (Felis silvestris), 66 of 102 (64.7%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 15 of 32 (46.9%) wolves (Canis lupus), 26 of 37 (70.3%) Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 17 of 20 (85.0%) stone martens (Martes foina), 4 of 4 pine martens (Martes martes), 6 of 6 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra), 4 of 4 polecats (Mustela putorius), 1 of 1 ferret (Mustela putorius furo), 13 of 21 (61.9%) European genets (Genetta genetta), and 13 of 22 (59.1%) Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon). Serological results indicated a widespread exposure to T. gondii among wild carnivores in Spain. The high T. gondii seroprevalence in Iberian lynx and the European wildcat reported here may be of epidemiologic significance because seropositive cats might have shed oocysts.

  18. Angiostrongylus species in wild carnivores in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Gerrikagoitia, X; Barral, M; Juste, R A

    2010-11-24

    A survey of Angiostrongylus parasites was carried out between 2003 and 2006 in wild carnivore species in the Basque Country (Northern Spain). Parasitological examination consisted in the dissection of heart and lungs for the extraction of adult worms. Nematodes were identified using morphometrical features and also PCR amplification and sequencing analysis. The animal species included in this study were Eurasian badger (Meles meles), Weasel (Mustela nivalis), Beech marten (Martes foina), Pine marten (Martes martes), Polecat (Mustela putorius), American mink (Mustela vison), Red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Wolf (Canis lupus), Wild cat (Felis silvestris), and Small-spotted genet (Genetta genetta). Angiostrongylus parasites were only found in foxes and badgers at prevalences of 33.3% and 24%, respectively. Identification of the nematodes by morphometrical features revealed that foxes were infected with A. vasorum while badgers were infected by a different species of Angiostrongylus most likely A. daskalovi. Sequencing data of the second internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA (ITS2) of isolates from each species confirmed the species difference. The high prevalence of Angiostrongylus found in the present survey, indicates that the wild cycle of two different species of Angiostrongylus is present in the Basque Country. To our knowledge this is the first report of A. daskalovi in the Iberian Peninsula.

  19. The role of the wolf in endemic sylvatic Trichinella britovi infection in the Abruzzi region of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Badagliacca, Pietro; Di Sabatino, Daria; Salucci, Stefania; Romeo, Gianfranco; Cipriani, Micaela; Sulli, Nadia; Dall'Acqua, Francesca; Ruggieri, Marco; Calistri, Paolo; Morelli, Daniela

    2016-11-15

    During the period 2004-2014 in the Abruzzi region (Central Italy), muscle samples gathered from hunted wild boars (n=16,323) and retrieved from carcasses of other susceptible wild mammals (n=838) and birds (n=438) were tested for Trichinella larvae according to European Union regulations. Although no positive samples were found from wild birds, 91 wild mammals tested positive. Six species were found to harbor Trichinella spp. infections, namely wolf (Canis lupus, 59 positive samples out of 218), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 24/480), wild boar (Sus scrofa, 3/16,323), stone marten (Martes foina, 2/27), pine marten (Martes martes, 2/6) and wildcat (Felis silvestris, 1/8). All isolates tested for species attribution belonged to Trichinella britovi. The overall prevalence was 0.52% (IC 95%: 0.4-0.6). The higher frequency of positive samples in wolf, compared to red fox, was statistically significant (p=0.001). In spite of the limited geographical area of investigation and the random nature of sampling, this study provides new data on the circulation of T. britovi in Italy. In particular, the highest prevalence being found among wolves allows us to consider this species as a sentinel for T. britovi infection in the investigated area, and probably also in other apennine regions, which is different from the alpine regions where the red fox was reputed as the primary reservoir of Trichinella spp. infection.

  20. Mercury in various tissues of three mustelid species and other trace metals in liver of European otter from Eastern Finland.

    PubMed

    Lodenius, M; Skarén, U; Hellstedt, P; Tulisalo, E

    2014-01-01

    Mercury concentrations were monitored in European otter (Lutra lutra), European polecat (Mustela putorius) and European pine marten (Martes martes) collected in Eastern Finland during the period 1972-2008. Otters mainly eat fish, which is an important reason to monitor the bioaccumulation of mercury in this predator. In this species, the highest concentrations were found in fur followed by liver and kidney, and the mercury concentrations increased with increasing age and body weight. Males showed in general higher concentrations than females of otters. The food of European polecat consists of small mammals, frogs, birds and insects from both aquatic and terrestrial food chains. The mercury concentrations were lower than in otters without significant differences related to body weight or sex. In European pine martens, the concentrations were rather evenly distributed except for two specimens with high concentrations. Also, concentrations of some other metals (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analysed from liver samples of otter. Possible adverse effects of mercury on the Finnish populations of these mustelids are discussed.

  1. A survey of intestinal helminths in wild carnivores from the Tatra National Park, southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Borecka, Anna; Gawor, Jakub; Zieba, Filip

    2013-01-01

    From January 2011 to July 2012, 144 faecal samples of wild carnivores from the Tatra National Park were examined to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal helminths--72 of wolves (Canis lupus), 45 of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 15 of pine martens (Martes martes) and 12 of brown bears (Ursus arctos). In wolves, monospecific infection with Trichuris vulpis (13.9%), Toxocara canis (6.9%), Ancylostoma/Uncinaria (5.6%) and taeniids (1.4%) was revealed. In red foxes, the most prevalent infection was 7 vulpis (64.4%), followed by T. canis (11.1%), Ancylostoma/Uncinaria (8.9%) and taeniids (2.2%). Monospecific infection with T. vulpis was more frequent (44.4%), than infection with two species, i.e. T > vulpis with Ancylostoma/Uncinaria, T. vulpis with T. canis or T. vulpis with taeniids (17.8%). In pine martens, Trichuris spp. was the most prevalent (40.0%), while T. cati and Ancylostoma/Uncinaria were found in 13.3% and 6.7% samples, respectively. In faeces from brown bears, no parasite eggs were found. The present survey of wild carnivores revealed a significant prevalence of parasites such as Toxocara spp. and Trichuris spp. (8.3% and 31.0% in all examined samples, respectively), which are hazardous to human and animal health.

  2. Triplet-repeat microsatellites shared among hard and soft pines.

    PubMed

    Kutil, B L; Williams, C G

    2001-01-01

    Vascular plant species have shown a low level of microsatellite conservation compared to many animal species. Finding trans-specific microsatellites for plants may be improved by using a priori knowledge of genome organization. Fifteen triplet-repeat microsatellites from hard pine (Pinus taeda L.) were tested for trans-specific amplification across seven hard pines (P. palustris Mill., P. echinata Mill., P. radiata D. Don., P. patula Schiede et Deppe, P. halepensis Mill., P. kesiya Royle), a soft pine (P. strobus L.), and Picea rubens Sargent. Seven of 15 microsatellites had trans-specific amplification in both hard and soft pine subgenera. Two P. taeda microsatellites had conserved flanking regions and repeat motifs in all seven hard pines, soft pine P. strobus, and P. rubens. Perfect triplet-repeat P. taeda microsatellites appear to be better candidates for trans-specific polymorphism than compound microsatellites. Not all perfect triplet-repeat microsatellites were conserved, but all conserved microsatellites had perfect repeat motifs. Persistent microsatellites PtTX2123 and PtTX3020 had highly conserved flanking regions and a conserved repeat motif composition with variable repeat unit numbers. Using trinucleotide microsatellites improved trans-specific microsatellite recovery among hard and soft pine species.

  3. The oldest know Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm. )

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstein, F.C. ); Yamaguchi, D.K. )

    1992-08-01

    We have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata) more than 1600 yr old, including four that are more than 2 1 00 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the southern Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 B.C. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr, The ages of these trees show that Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, under arid environmental conditions, achieve much older ages than have been previously reported. The ages also show that previously inferred trends in bristlecone pine ages, where maximum ages in the eastern range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines are much less than maximum ages in the western range of Great Basin bristlecone pines (Pinus longaea), are less strong than previously supposed. Ancient Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, such as those found in this study, have the potential to expand our knowledge of late Holocene climatic conditions in western North America.

  4. Decline of ectomycorrhizal fungi following a mountain pine beetle epidemic.

    PubMed

    Treu, Roland; Karst, Justine; Randall, Morgan; Pec, Gregory J; Cigan, Paul W; Simard, Suzanne W; Cooke, Janice E K; Erbilgin, Nadir; Cahill, James F

    2014-04-01

    Forest die-off caused by mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosa) is rapidly transforming western North American landscapes. The rapid and widespread death of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) will likely have cascading effects on biodiversity. One group particularly prone to such declines associated with MPB are ectomycorrhizal fungi, symbiotic organisms that can depend on pine for their survival, and are critical for stand regeneration. We evaluated the indirect effects of MPB on above- (community composition of epigeous sporocarps) and belowground (hyphal abundance) occurrences of ectomycorrhizal fungi across 11 forest stands. Along a gradient of mortality (0-82% pine killed), macromycete community composition changed; this shift was driven by a decrease in the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Both the proportion of species that were ectomycorrhizal and hyphal length in the soil declined with increased MPB-caused pine mortality; < 10% of sporocarp species were ectomycorrhizal in stands with high pine mortality compared with > 70% in stands without MPB attacks. The rapid range expansion of a native insect results not only in the widespread mortality of an ecologically and economically important pine species, but the effect of MPB may also be exacerbated by the concomitant decline of fungi crucial for recovery of these forests.

  5. An ancient bottleneck in the Lost Pines of central Texas.

    PubMed

    Al-Rabab'ah, Mohammad A; Williams, Claire G

    2004-05-01

    The retreating edge hypothesis for species responding to climate change predicts severe bottlenecks and eventual extinction. The disjunct Lost Pines population at the westernmost edge of the widespread Pinus taeda range is well suited for testing this prediction. The occurrence of one or more genetic bottlenecks in the Lost Pines population was tested using 34 nuclear microsatellite markers and a control sample from the larger, more continuous east Texas P. taeda forests. The Lost Pines population has undergone drastic contractions in effective population size between 3000 and 30 000 years bp. These results were supported by: (i) detection of transient heterozygosity excess, (ii) a mode-shift indicator of allele frequencies, and (iii) a ratio of allele number to allele size range. No bottleneck was detected for the east Texas control using any of the three methods. The distribution of allele frequencies was skewed for the Lost Pines population compared to the control, indicating a loss of rare alleles. However, allelic diversity was similar between the Lost Pines population and its east Texas control; the mean allele number per locus was 5.29 and 5.38, respectively. It is proposed that the Lost Pines population was the western refugium for P. taeda during Pleistocene glaciation and that East Texas P. taeda forests descended from the bottlenecked Lost Pines population.

  6. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest?

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L

    2013-09-01

    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine.

  7. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Singleton, I.

    2015-11-01

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  8. Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1993-10-01

    Because ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and Monterey pone (P. radiata D Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. Ponderosa and Monterey pine seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr-characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout-from contaminated soil. Seedlings were grown for 3 mo in 165 cm{sup 3} sphagnum peat moss/perlite (1:1 V/V) in a growth chamber. In Exp. 1, seedling accumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr after 1 mo of exposure was measured. In Exp. 2, seedling accumulation of the radioisotopes during different-length exposures was measured. Seedling accumulation of {sup 137}CS and {sup 90}Sr at different concentrations of the radioisotopes in the growth medium was measured in Exp. 3. Ponderosa pine accumulated 6.3% of the {sup 137}Cs and I.5% of the {sup 90}Sr present in the growth medium after 1 mo; Monterey pine accumulated 8.3% of the {sup 137}Cs and 4.5% of the {sup 90}Sr. Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr by both coniferous species was curvilinearly related to duration of exposure. Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr by both species increased with increasing concentration in the growth medium and correlated curvilinearly with radioisotope concentration in the growth medium. Large areas throughout the world are contaminated with {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr as a result of nuclear weapons testing or atomic reactor accidents. The ability of trees to sequester and store {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr introduces the possibility of using reforestation to remediate contaminated soils.

  9. Host Deception: Predaceous Fungus, Esteya vermicola, Entices Pine Wood Nematode by Mimicking the Scent of Pine Tree for Nutrient

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Feng; Ye, Jianling; Wang, Huaguang; Zhang, Aijun; Zhao, Boguang

    2013-01-01

    Background A nematophagous fungus, Esteya vermicola, is recorded as the first endoparasitic fungus of pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in last century. E. vermicola exhibited high infectivity toward PWN in the laboratory conditions and conidia spraying of this fungus on Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, seedlings in the field protected the pine trees from pine wilt disease to some extent, indicating that it is a potential bio-control agent against PWN. Previous research had demonstrated that the living fungal mycelia of E. vermicola continuously produced certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which were responsible for the PWN attraction. However, identity of these VOCs remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we report the identification of α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphor produced by living mycelia of E. vermicola, the same volatile compounds emitted from PWN host pine tree, as the major VOCs for PWN attraction using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, we also confirmed the host deception behavior of E. vermicola to PWN by using synthetic VOCs in a straightforward laboratory bioassay. Conclusions/Significance This research result has demonstrated that the endoparasitic nematophagous fungus, E. vermicola, mimics the scent of PWN host pine tree to entice PWN for the nutrient. The identification of the attractive VOCs emitted from the fungus E. vermicola is of significance in better understanding parasitic mechanism of the fungus and the co-evolution in the two organisms and will aid management of the pine wilt disease. PMID:23990972

  10. Suitability of pines and other conifers as hosts for the invasive Mediterranean pine engraver (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jana C; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J

    2008-06-01

    The invasive Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was detected in North America in 2004, and it is currently distributed in the southern Central Valley of California. It originates from the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and Asia, and it reproduces on pines (Pinus spp.). To identify potentially vulnerable native and adventive hosts in North America, no-choice host range tests were conducted in the laboratory on 22 conifer species. The beetle reproduced on four pines from its native Eurasian range--Aleppo, Canary Island, Italian stone, and Scots pines; 11 native North American pines--eastern white, grey, jack, Jeffrey, loblolly, Monterey, ponderosa, red, Sierra lodgepole, singleleaf pinyon, and sugar pines; and four native nonpines--Douglas-fir, black and white spruce, and tamarack. Among nonpines, fewer progeny developed and they were of smaller size on Douglas-fir and tamarack, but sex ratios of progeny were nearly 1:1 on all hosts. Last, beetles did not develop on white fir, incense cedar, and coast redwood. With loblolly pine, the first new adults emerged 42 d after parental females were introduced into host logs at temperatures of 20-33 degrees C and 523.5 or 334.7 accumulated degree-days based on lower development thresholds of 13.6 or 18 degrees C, respectively.

  11. BioMart Central Portal--unified access to biological data.

    PubMed

    Haider, Syed; Ballester, Benoit; Smedley, Damian; Zhang, Junjun; Rice, Peter; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2009-07-01

    BioMart Central Portal (www.biomart.org) offers a one-stop shop solution to access a wide array of biological databases. These include major biomolecular sequence, pathway and annotation databases such as Ensembl, Uniprot, Reactome, HGNC, Wormbase and PRIDE; for a complete list, visit, http://www.biomart.org/biomart/martview. Moreover, the web server features seamless data federation making cross querying of these data sources in a user friendly and unified way. The web server not only provides access through a web interface (MartView), it also supports programmatic access through a Perl API as well as RESTful and SOAP oriented web services. The website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement.

  12. Ionizing radiation affects human MART-1 melanoma antigen processing and presentation by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Pei; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Butterfield, Lisa H; Economou, James S; Ribas, Antoni; Meng, Wilson S; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; McBride, William H

    2004-08-15

    Radiation is generally considered to be an immunosuppressive agent that acts by killing radiosensitive lymphocytes. In this study, we demonstrate the noncytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation on MHC class I Ag presentation by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) that have divergent consequences depending upon whether peptides are endogenously processed and loaded onto MHC class I molecules or are added exogenously. The endogenous pathway was examined using C57BL/6 murine DCs transduced with adenovirus to express the human melanoma/melanocyte Ag recognized by T cells (AdVMART1). Prior irradiation abrogated the ability of AdVMART1-transduced DCs to induce MART-1-specific T cell responses following their injection into mice. The ability of these same DCs to generate protective immunity against B16 melanoma, which expresses murine MART-1, was also abrogated by radiation. Failure of AdVMART1-transduced DCs to generate antitumor immunity following irradiation was not due to cytotoxicity or to radiation-induced block in DC maturation or loss in expression of MHC class I or costimulatory molecules. Expression of some of these molecules was affected, but because irradiation actually enhanced the ability of DCs to generate lymphocyte responses to the peptide MART-1(27-35) that is immunodominant in the context of HLA-A2.1, they were unlikely to be critical. The increase in lymphocyte reactivity generated by irradiated DCs pulsed with MART-1(27-35) also protected mice against growth of B16-A2/K(b) tumors in HLA-A2.1/K(b) transgenic mice. Taken together, these results suggest that radiation modulates MHC class I-mediated antitumor immunity by functionally affecting DC Ag presentation pathways.

  13. Morphological and niche divergence of pinyon pines.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Medrano, Alejandra; Scantlebury, Daniel Patrick; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Piñero, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The environmental variables that define a species ecological niche should be associated with the evolutionary patterns present in the adaptations that resulted from living in these conditions. Thus, when comparing across species, we can expect to find an association between phylogenetically independent phenotypic characters and ecological niche evolution. Few studies have evaluated how organismal phenotypes might mirror patterns of niche evolution if these phenotypes reflect adaptations. Doing so could contribute on the understanding of the origin and maintenance of phenotypic diversity observed in nature. Here, we show the pattern of niche evolution of the pinyon pine lineage (Pinus subsection Cembroides); then, we suggest morphological adaptations possibly related to niche divergence, and finally, we test for correlation between ecological niche and morphology. We demonstrate that niche divergence is the general pattern within the clade and that it is positively correlated with adaptation.

  14. The antibody response against MART-1 differs in patients with melanoma-associated leucoderma and vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Teulings, Hansje-Eva; Willemsen, Karin J; Glykofridis, Iris; Krebbers, Gabrielle; Komen, Lisa; Kroon, Marije W; Kemp, E Helen; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; van der Veen, J P Wietze; Luiten, Rosalie M; Tjin, Esther P M

    2014-11-01

    Patients with melanoma may develop skin depigmentation spontaneously or following therapy, referred to as melanoma-associated leucoderma (MAL). As clinical presentation of MAL may precede primary/metastatic melanoma detection, recognition of MAL is important to prevent its misdiagnosis as vitiligo and the subsequent application of immunosuppressive treatment. To reveal the immunity involved in MAL development, we investigated the presence of antibody and T-cell immune responses directed against the melanocyte-differentiation-antigens MART-1 (Melan-A), tyrosinase and gp100 in patients with MAL, as compared to patients with vitiligo. Autoantibodies to gp100 and tyrosinase were commonly found in both diseases. Interestingly, MART-1 antibodies were only present in patients with MAL. Melanocyte antigen-specific T cells were found in all patients, with relatively more specific T cells in patients with active vitiligo. Although MAL and vitiligo may appear clinically similar, our results indicate that the humoral immune responses against MART-1 differ between these diseases, which can help to differentiate MAL from vitiligo.

  15. Ensembl BioMarts: a hub for data retrieval across taxonomic space.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, Rhoda J; Kähäri, Andreas; Haider, Syed; Zamora, Jorge; Proctor, Glenn; Spudich, Giulietta; Almeida-King, Jeff; Staines, Daniel; Derwent, Paul; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Kersey, Paul; Flicek, Paul

    2011-01-01

    For a number of years the BioMart data warehousing system has proven to be a valuable resource for scientists seeking a fast and versatile means of accessing the growing volume of genomic data provided by the Ensembl project. The launch of the Ensembl Genomes project in 2009 complemented the Ensembl project by utilizing the same visualization, interactive and programming tools to provide users with a means for accessing genome data from a further five domains: protists, bacteria, metazoa, plants and fungi. The Ensembl and Ensembl Genomes BioMarts provide a point of access to the high-quality gene annotation, variation data, functional and regulatory annotation and evolutionary relationships from genomes spanning the taxonomic space. This article aims to give a comprehensive overview of the Ensembl and Ensembl Genomes BioMarts as well as some useful examples and a description of current data content and future objectives. Database URLs: http://www.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://metazoa.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://plants.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://protists.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://fungi.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://bacteria.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/.

  16. On the relative contributions of wind vs. animals to seed dispersal of four Sierra Nevada pines.

    PubMed

    Vander Wall, Stephen B

    2008-07-01

    Selective pressures that influence the form of seed dispersal syndromes are poorly understood. Morphology of plant propagules is often used to infer the means of dispersal, but morphology can be misleading. Several species of pines, for example, have winged seeds adapted for wind dispersal but owe much of their establishment to scatter-hoarding animals. Here the relative importance of wind vs. animal dispersal is assessed for four species of pines of the eastern Sierra Nevada that have winged seeds but differed in seed size: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta murrayana, 8 mg); ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa ponderosa, 56 mg); Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi, 160 mg); and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana, 231 mg). Pre-dispersal seed mortality eliminated much of the ponderosa pine seed crop (66%), but had much less effect on Jeffrey pine (32% of seeds destroyed), lodgepole pine (29%), and sugar pine (7%). When cones opened most filled seeds were dispersed by wind. Animals removed > 99% of wind-dispersed Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds from the ground within 60 days, but animals gathered only 93% of lodgepole pine seeds and 38% of ponderosa pine seeds during the same period. Animals gathered and scatter hoarded radioactively labeled ponderosa, Jeffrey, and sugar pine seeds, making a total of 2103 caches over three years of study. Only three lodgepole pine caches were found. Caches typically contained 1-4 seeds buried 5-20 mm deep, depths suitable for seedling emergence. Although Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds are initially wind dispersed, nearly all seedlings arise from animal caches. Lodgepole pine is almost exclusively wind dispersed, with animals acting as seed predators. Animals treated ponderosa pine in an intermediate fashion. Two-phased dispersal of large, winged pine seeds appears adaptive; initial wind dispersal helps to minimize pre-dispersal seed mortality whereas scatter hoarding by animals places seeds in sites with a higher probability of seedling establishment.

  17. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak.

    PubMed

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M

    2011-01-01

    There are concerns that large-scale stand mortality due to mountain pine beetle (MPB) could greatly reduce natural regeneration of serotinous Rocky Mountain (RM) lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) because the closed cones are held in place without the fire cue for cone opening. We selected 20 stands (five stands each of live [control], 3 years since MPB [3-yr-MPB], 6 years since MPB [6-yr-MPB], and 9 years since MPB [9-yr-MPB] mortality) in north central British Columbia, Canada. The goal was to determine partial loss of serotiny due to fall of crown-stored cones via breakage of branches and in situ opening of canopy cones throughout the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. We also quantified seed release by the opening of forest-floor cones, loss of seed from rodent predation, and cone burial. Trees killed by MPB three years earlier dropped approximately 3.5 times more cones via branch breakage compared to live stands. After six years, MPB-killed stands had released 45% of their canopy seed bank through cone opening, cone fall due to breakage, and squirrel predation. Further losses of canopy seed banks are expected with time since we found 9-yr-MPB stands had 38% more open canopy cones. This was countered by the development of a modest forest-floor seed bank (6% of the original canopy seed bank) from burial of cones; this seed bank may be ecologically important if a fire or anthropogenic disturbance reexposes these cones. If adequate levels of regeneration are to occur, disturbances to create seedbeds must occur shortly after tree mortality, before the seed banks are lost. Our findings also suggest that the sustained seed rain (over at least nine years) after MPB outbreak may be beneficial for population growth of ground-foraging vertebrates. Our study adds insight to the seed ecology of serotinous pines under a potentially continental-wide insect outbreak, threatening vast forests adapted to regeneration after fire. Key words: biotic disturbance; cone

  18. Mainstream Consultation in Secondary Settings: The Pine County Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This report describes a secondary mainstreaming program in Pine County, Minnesota, which successfully used a team approach and consultation between regular and special education teachers to adapt regular content-area classes to accommodate mildly handicapped students. (Author/JDD)

  19. 20. GROVE OF TREES PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GROVE OF TREES -- PINES, MULBERRY, JUNIPER, BLUE SPRUCE -- TRANSPLANTED FROM NEW MEXICO MANZANO MOUNTAINS, WEST OF BUILDINGS 4 AND T-59, LOOKING NORTHWEST - U. S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, 2100 Ridgecrest Southeast, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM

  20. VIEW NORTH OF AUSTRALIAN PINES THAT LINE SUNNY JIM LANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH OF AUSTRALIAN PINES THAT LINE SUNNY JIM LANE FROM SOUTHERN MOST BARN TO THE STABLE GATE. BARNS LINE LEFT SIDE OF LANE: CD-N. - Hialeah Park Race Track, East Fourth Avenue, Hialeah, Miami-Dade County, FL

  1. VIEW OF ELM DRIVE WITH NORFOLK PINE ON RIGHT. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ELM DRIVE WITH NORFOLK PINE ON RIGHT. VIEW FACING WEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. ESTATE ROAD WITH LONGLEAF PINE AND WIREGRASS HABITAT, NORTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ESTATE ROAD WITH LONGLEAF PINE AND WIREGRASS HABITAT, NORTH OF NURSERY ROAD AND WEST OF HIGHWAY 87, FACING SOUTHEAST - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  3. 6. FRONT PORCH AND GABLE SHOWING PINE TREE SILHOUETTE, TIMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FRONT PORCH AND GABLE SHOWING PINE TREE SILHOUETTE, TIMBER SUPPORTS, AND STONE PORCH FLOOR, TO NORTHWEST - U.S. Forest Service Chelan Ranger Station, Main Office, 428 West Woodin Avenue, Chelan, Chelan County, WA

  4. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) convicilin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tengchuan; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yu-Wei; Albillos, Silvia M; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen; Tankersley, Boyce; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2014-07-01

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis). SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that Korean pine convicilin was post-translationally processed. The N-terminal peptide sequences of its components were determined. These peptides could be mapped to a protein translated from an embryo abundant transcript isolated in this study. Similar to vicilin, native convicilin appeared to be homotrimeric. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses revealed that this protein is less resistant to thermal treatment than Korean pine vicilin. Its transition temperature was 75.57 °C compared with 84.13 °C for vicilin. The urea induced folding-unfolding equilibrium of pine convicilin monitored by intrinsic fluorescence could be interpreted in terms of a two-state model, with a Cm of 4.41 ± 0.15 M.

  5. 58. View of Writer's Cabin (or Three Pines Cabin) and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. View of Writer's Cabin (or Three Pines Cabin) and path looking from the southeast (similar to HALS no. LA-1-35) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  6. Climate Change Altered Disturbance Regimes in High Elevation Pine Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    Insects in aggregate are the greatest cause of forest disturbance. Outbreaks of both native and exotic insects can be spectacular events in both their intensity and spatial extent. In the case of native species, forest ecosystems have co-evolved (or at least co-adapted) in ways that incorporate these disturbances into the normal cycle of forest maturation and renewal. The time frame of response to changing climate, however, is much shorter for insects (typically one year) than for their host forests (decades or longer). As a result, outbreaks of forest insects, particularly bark beetles, are occurring at unprecedented levels throughout western North America, resulting in the loss of biodiversity and potentially entire ecosystems. In this talk, I will describe one such ecosystem, the whitebark pine association at high elevations in the north-central Rocky Mountains of the United States. White bark pines are keystone species, which in consort with Clark's nutcracker, build entire ecosystems at high elevations. These ecosystems provide valuable ecological services, including the distribution and abundance of water resources. I will briefly describe the keystone nature of whitebark pine and the historic role of mountain pine beetle disturbance in these ecosystems. The mountain pine beetle is the most important outbreak insect in forests of the western United States. Although capable of spectacular outbreak events, in historic climate regimes, outbreak populations were largely restricted to lower elevation pines; for example, lodgepole and ponderosa pines. The recent series of unusually warm years, however, has allowed this insect to expand its range into high elevation, whitebark pine ecosystems with devastating consequences. The aspects of mountain pine beetle thermal ecology that has allowed it to capitalize so effectively on a warming climate will be discussed. A model that incorporates critical thermal attributes of the mountain pine beetle's life cycle was

  7. The oldest known Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunstein, F.C.; Yamaguchi, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines >1600 yr old, including four that are >2100 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the S Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 BC. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr. -from Authors

  8. MART-10 represses cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and high vitamin D receptor expression indicates better prognosis for cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Huang, Cheng-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Chan; Juang, Horng-Heng; Cheng, Chi-Tung; Pang, Jong-Hwei S.; Hsu, Jun-Te; Takano, Masashi; Chen, Tai C.; Kittaka, Atsushi; Hsiao, Michael; Yeh, Chun-Nan

    2017-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating disease due to no effective treatments available. Since the non-mineral functions of vitamin D emerges, 1α,25(OH)2D3, the active form of vitamin D, has been applied in anti-cancer researches. In this study, we demonstrated that both the 1α,25(OH)2D3 analog, MART-10, and 1α,25(OH)2D3 possessed anti-growth effect on human CCA cells with MART-10 much more potent than 1α,25(OH)2D3. The growth inhibition of both drugs were mediated by induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest through upregulation of p27 and downregulation of CDK4, CDK6, and cyclin D3. Human neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) was found to be involved in 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 meditated growth inhibition for CCA as knockdown of NGAL decreased Ki-67 expression in SNU308 cells and rendered SNU308 cells less responsive to 1α,25(OH)2D3 and MART-10 treatment. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockdown partly abolished MART-10-induced inhibition of NGAL and cell growth in SNU308 cells. The xenograft animal study demonstrated MART-10 could effectively repressed CCA growth in vivo without inducing obvious side effects. The IHC examination of human CCA specimen for VDR revealed that higher VDR expression was linked with better prognosis. Collectively, our results suggest that MART-10 could be a promising regimen for CCA treatment. PMID:28256614

  9. Pathogenesis in Pine Wilt Caused by Pinewood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Ronald F.

    1988-01-01

    The progression of events in the development of pine wilt disease following the invasion by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is reviewed from early migration through pine tissues until symptom development on foliage. Disease resistance in pines, especially the hypersensitive reaction that is successful in controlling many potential pests and pathogens, is explored. Pathologies resulting from the activities of pinewood nematode include cortical trails and cavities; formation of cambial gaps and traumatic resin cysts; browning and death of cortex, phloem, cambium, and ray tissues; granulation and shrinkage of cell cytoplasm in rays; and destruction of resin canal epithelial and ray parenchyma cells. Death of parenchyma, production of toxins, and leakage of oleoresins and other material into tracheids are typical of the hypersensitive reaction occurring in pines following migration of small numbers of pinewood nematodes. The hypothesis presented is that a spreading hypersensitive reaction results in some of the observed pathologies and symptoms and eventually causes pine death. The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis is used to help explain predisposition, oleoresin production and toxicity, susceptibility and resistance, and the effects of variation in climate on host pines as related to pinewilt disease. PMID:19290207

  10. Fungal Elicitor-Mediated Responses in Pine Cell Cultures 1

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Malcolm M.; Ellis, Brian E.

    1992-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) is involved in the lignification of pine suspension cultures in response to an elicitor prepared from an ectomycorrhizal fungus. To elucidate the molecular basis of this response, PAL was purified to homogeneity from jack pine (Pinus banksiana) suspension cultures using anion-exchange and chromatofocussing fast protein liquid chromatography. Physical characterization of the enzyme revealed that pine PAL was similar to PAL from other plant sources. Pine PAL had a pH optimum of 8.8, an isoelectric point of 5.75, and a native molecular mass of 340 kilodaltons. The enzyme appears to be a tetramer composed of 77 kilodalton subunits. Chromatographic and western blot analyses were used to identify possible isoenzymic changes in pine PAL in response to elicitation and to determine the nature of the increase in PAL activity associated with inducible lignification in these cultures. Only one species of PAL was detected in P. banksiana cell cultures and increased quantities of this protein were correlated with the enhanced enzyme activity observed in elicited cultures. P. banksiana PAL was not feedback-inhibited by a wide range of phenolic compounds at micromolar concentrations, including the reaction product cinnamic acid. Our data suggest that a different set of metabolic and molecular controls must be in place for the regulation of PAL in pine. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 5 PMID:16668649

  11. An allelopathic substance in red pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Fushimi, Yoshiko; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-03-01

    Aqueous methanol extracts of red pine (Pinus densiflora) needles inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), timothy (Pheleum pratense), Digitaria sanguinalis and Echinochloa crus-galli. Increasing the extract concentration increased inhibition, suggesting that the pine needles may have growth inhibitory substances and possess allelopathic potential. The aqueous methanol extract of the pine needles was purified, and a main inhibitory substance was isolated and determined by spectral data as 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid. This substance inhibited root and shoot growth of cress and Echinochloa crus-galli seedlings at concentrations greater than 0.1 mM. The endogenous concentration of the substance was 0.13 mmol/kg pine needle. These results suggest that 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of the pine needles and may play an important role in the allelopathy of red pine.

  12. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention.

  13. Fire, red squirrels, whitebark pine, and Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podruzny, Shannon; Reinhart, D.P.; Mattson, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) habitats are important to Yellowstone grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) as refugia and sources of food. Ecological relationships between whitebark pine, red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and grizzly bear use of pine seeds on Mt. Washburn in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, were examined during 1984-86. Following large-scale fires in 1988, we repeated the study in 1995-97 to examine the effects of fire on availability of whitebark pine seed in red squirrel middens and on bear use of middens. Half of the total length of the original line transects burned. We found no red squirrel middens in burned areas. Post-fire linear-abundance (no./km) of active squirrel middens that were pooled from burned and unburned areas decreased 27% compared to pre-fire abundance, but increased in unburned portions of some habitat types. Mean size of active middens decreased 54% post-fire. Use of pine seeds by bears (linear abundance of excavated middens) in pooled burned and unburned habitats decreased by 64%, likely due to the combined effects of reduced midden availability and smaller midden size. We discourage any further large-scale losses of seed producing trees from management-prescribed fires or timber harvesting until the effects of fire on ecological relationships in the whitebark pine zone are better understood.

  14. MIRANDA PINE, HORSESHOE SPRINGS, TEPUSQUET PEAK, LA BREA, SPOOR CANYON, FOX MOUNTAIN, AND LITTLE PINE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frizzell, Virgil A.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    The Miranda Pine, Horseshoe Springs, Tepusquet Peak, La Brea, Spoor Canyon, Fox Mountain and Little Pine Roadless Areas together occupy about 246 sq mi in the Los Padres National Forest, California. Mineral-resource surveys indicate demonstrated resources of barite, copper, and zinc at two localities in the La Brea Roadless Area and demonstrated resources of phosphate at a mine in the Fox Mountain Roadless Area. A building stone quarry is present on the southern border of the Horseshoe Spring Roadless Area and an area of substantiated resource potential extends into the area. The Miranda Pine, Tepusquet Peak, Spoor Canyon, and Little Pine Roadless Areas have little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources and there is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in any of the roadless areas.

  15. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L.; Lindgren, B. Staffan; Huber, Dezene P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to

  16. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  17. Long-term benefits to the growth of ponderosa pines from controlling southwestern pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and weeds.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael R; Chen, Zhong

    2004-12-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a native forest pest that attacks seedlings and saplings of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, in the southwestern United States. Repeated attacks can cause severe deformation of host trees and significant long-term growth loss. Alternatively, effective control of R. neomexicana, vegetative competition, or both in young pine plantations may increase survival and growth of trees for many years after treatments are applied. We test the null hypothesis that 4 yr of R. neomexicana and weed control with insecticide, weeding, and insecticide plus weeding would not have any residual effect on survival and growth of trees in ponderosa pine plantation in northern Arizona 14 yr post-treatment, when the trees were 18 yr old. Both insecticide and weeding treatment increased tree growth and reduced the incidence of southwestern pine tip moth damage compared with the control. However, weeding alone also significantly increased tree survival, whereas insecticide alone did not. The insecticide plus weeding treatment had the greatest tree growth and survival, and the lowest rate of tip moth damage. Based on these results, we rejected our null hypothesis and concluded that there were detectable increases in the survival and growth of ponderosa pines 14 yr after treatments applied to control R. neomexicana and weeds.

  18. Changes In Snowmelt Timing In Response To Pine Beetle Infestation In Lodgepole Pines In The Colorado Rockies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, E.; Tilton, E. S.

    2008-12-01

    Since 1996, roughly 1.5 million acres of lodgepole pine forest in Colorado have been infested by mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae). We measured physical snowpack properties (depth, density, and temperature) under stands of both living and dead lodgepole pines in the Colorado Rockies. This data allowed us to investigate the effect of increased forest canopy transmittance due to tree death on potential advances in the annual hydrograph. We compared snow accumulation and melt on north-facing and south- facing slopes at an elevation of approximately 3000m. As expected, topography-dominated solar forcing is the chief factor in snowmelt: snow on south-facing slopes melted earlier in the season than north-facing slopes. Comparing stands of dead and live trees within topographic zones revealed a few dramatic differences: snow water equivalent was lower and mean snowpack temperature was warmer in dead lodgepole pine stands. Temperature timeseries from within the snowpack suggest that snow in dead tree stands became isothermal sooner than snow in living tree stands. Together these show that there was indeed earlier snowmelt in lodgepole pine forest regions infested with mountain pine beetle. Earlier snowmelt will likely cause peak snowmelt discharge to occur sooner.

  19. MART-1 adenovirus-transduced dendritic cell immunization in a murine model of metastatic central nervous system tumor.

    PubMed

    Broder, Howard; Anderson, Andrea; Kremen, Thomas J; Odesa, Sylvia K; Liau, Linda M

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that have been shown to play a critical role in the initiation of host immune responses against tumor antigens. In this study, a recombinant adenovirus vector encoding the melanoma-associated antigen, MART-1, was used to transduce murine DCs, which were then tested for their ability to activate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and induce protective immunity against B16 melanoma tumor cells implanted intracranially. Genetic modifications of murine bone marrow-derived DCs to express MART-1 was achieved through the use of an E1-deficient, recombinant adenovirus vector. Sixty-two C57BL/6 mice were immunized subcutaneously with AdVMART-1-transduced DCs (n = 23), untransduced DCs (n = 17), or sterile saline (n = 22). Using the B16 murine melanoma, which naturally expresses the MART-1 antigen, all the mice were then challenged intracranially with viable, unmodified syngeneic B16 tumor cells 7 days later. Splenocytes from representative animals in each group were harvested for standard cytotoxicity (CTL) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. The remaining mice were followed for survival. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with DCs transduced with an adenoviral vector encoding the MART-1 antigen elicited the development of antigen-specific CTL responses. As evidenced by a prolonged survival curve when compared to control-immunized mice with intracranial B16 tumors, AdMART-1-DC vaccination was able to elicit partial protection against central nervous system tumor challenge in vivo.

  20. Responses of the Mediterranean pine shoot beetle Tomicus destruens (Wollaston) to pine shoot and bark volatiles.

    PubMed

    Faccoli, Massimo; Anfora, Gianfranco; Tasin, Marco

    2008-09-01

    The pine shoot beetle Tomicus destruens has two dispersal phases per generation. In the first, mature adults move toward trunks of dying pines to lay eggs; in the second, callow adults move toward the shoots of healthy pines for maturation feeding. However, there is no information on the chemical stimuli that govern host selection by T. destruens adults. The aims of this study were: (1) to identify the volatiles released by shoots and bark of stone pine that are behaviorally and electrophysiologically active on T. destruens; (2) to verify which blends and concentrations of such volatiles are differently active on males and females, as well as on callow and mature adults, during the two host search phases (breeding and feeding). A four-arm olfactometer was used to test the behavior of walking T. destruens adults toward various sources of volatiles including fresh shoots and bark, their collected volatiles, and two synthetic blends. For each odor, the behavior of both callow and mature males and females was recorded individually. Shoot and bark extracts were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and tested by gas chromatography coupled with electroantennography (GC-EAD) on T. destruens males and females. Two blends of two (alpha-pinene and beta-myrcene; blend A) and three (alpha-pinene, beta- myrcene, and alpha-terpinolene; blend B) synthetic compounds, chosen among those that induce EAD responses and known to be attractive for other bark beetle species, were tested in the olfactometer at five concentrations. Insect behavior was affected by the degree of sexual maturation but not by sex. Callow insects were attracted by shoots and their extracts, while mature individuals by bark and its extracts. Six extracted compounds were active on T. destruens antennae: limonene, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and beta-caryophyllene, alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and alpha-terpinolene. alpha-Terpinolene, released only by bark, was active only on mature insects

  1. Southwestern Pine Forests Likely to Disappear

    ScienceCinema

    McDowell, Nathan

    2016-07-12

    A new study, led by Los Alamos National Laboratory's Nathan McDowell, suggests that widespread loss of a major forest type, the pine-juniper woodlands of the Southwestern U.S., could be wiped out by the end of this century due to climate change, and that conifers throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere may be on a similar trajectory. New results, reported in the journal Nature Climate Change, suggest that global models may underestimate predictions of forest death. McDowell and his large international team strove to provide the missing pieces of understanding tree death at three levels: plant, regional and global. The team rigorously developed and evaluated multiple process-based and empirical models against experimental results, and then compared these models to results from global vegetation models to examine independent simulations. They discovered that the global models simulated mortality throughout the Northern Hemisphere that was of similar magnitude, but much broader spatial scale, as the evaluated ecosystem models predicted for in the Southwest.

  2. Southwestern Pine Forests Likely to Disappear

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, Nathan

    2015-12-21

    A new study, led by Los Alamos National Laboratory's Nathan McDowell, suggests that widespread loss of a major forest type, the pine-juniper woodlands of the Southwestern U.S., could be wiped out by the end of this century due to climate change, and that conifers throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere may be on a similar trajectory. New results, reported in the journal Nature Climate Change, suggest that global models may underestimate predictions of forest death. McDowell and his large international team strove to provide the missing pieces of understanding tree death at three levels: plant, regional and global. The team rigorously developed and evaluated multiple process-based and empirical models against experimental results, and then compared these models to results from global vegetation models to examine independent simulations. They discovered that the global models simulated mortality throughout the Northern Hemisphere that was of similar magnitude, but much broader spatial scale, as the evaluated ecosystem models predicted for in the Southwest.

  3. Hibernacula and summer den sites of pine snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) in the New Jersey pine barrens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, J.; Zappalorti, R.T.; Gochfeld, M.; Boarman, W.I.; Caffrey, M.; Doig, V.; Garber, S.D.; Lauro, B.; Mikovsky, M.; Safina, C.; Saliva, Jorge

    1988-01-01

    We examined eight summer dens (used only in summer) and seven hibernacula (occupied both in winter and summer) of the snake Pituophis melanoleucus in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, comparing above ground characteristics of hibernacula and summer dens with characteristics at nearby random points. Temperatures at the soil surface and at 10 cm depth were significantly warmer, and there was less leaf cover around the random points compared to the entrances of the hibernacula and summer dens. Hibernacula had significantly more vegetation cover within 5 m, more leaf cover over the burrow entrance, and were closer to trees than were summer dens. Most hibernacula and summer dens were beside old fallen logs (73%), the entrance tunnels following decaying roots into the soil. Excavation of the hibernacula and summer dens indicated that most hibernacula appeared to be dug by the snakes and had an average of eight side chambers and 642 cm of tunnels, compared to less than one side chamber and 122 cm of tunnels for summer dens. Except for hatchlings, most snakes in hibernacula were located in individual chambers off the main tunnel; all snakes were at depths of 50-111 cm (X̄ = 79 cm). Pine snakes may select optimum hibernation sites which reduce winter mortality.

  4. Barrenia, a new genus associated with roots of switchgrass and pine in the oligotrophic pine barrens.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Emily; Luo, Jing; Naik, Abhishek; Preteroti, Thomas; Zhang, Ning

    2015-12-01

    A new genus Barrenia is described based on multi-gene phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic and ecological characters. Isolated from roots of switchgrass and pitch pine in the acidic and oligotrophic New Jersey Pine Barrens in this study, Barrenia likely has a wide distribution because its internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence has high similarity with a number of GenBank sequences from various ecological studies. The majority of these matching samples were from roots of plants in acidic, nutrient-poor environments, as well as from managed sugarcane plantations. Phylogenetic analyses based on ITS, LSU, and RPB1 sequence data strongly support that Barrenia is a monophyletic clade in Helotiales, distinct from any known taxa. Barrenia is phylogenetically close to Acidomelania, Loramyces, Mollisia, and Phialocephala fortinii - Acephala applanata species complex (PAC), the dark septate endophytes. Barrenia can be distinguished from Loramyces and Mollisia by its association with living plant roots. Taxa in PAC also are root endophytes but they have complex phialid arrangements that appear to be lacking in Barrenia. Plant-fungal interaction experiments showed that Barrenia panicia and Acidomelania panicicola significantly promoted root hair growth in switchgrass. Results from this work will facilitate ecological and evolutionary studies on root-associated fungi.

  5. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  6. AmeriFlux CA-TP4 Ontario - Turkey Point 1939 Plantation White Pine

    DOE Data Explorer

    Arain, M. Altaf [McMaster University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-TP4 Ontario - Turkey Point 1939 Plantation White Pine. Site Description - White pine plantation established in 1939 over sandy abandoned land

  7. AmeriFlux CA-TP3 Ontario - Turkey Point 1974 Plantation White Pine

    DOE Data Explorer

    Arain, M. Altaf [McMaster University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-TP3 Ontario - Turkey Point 1974 Plantation White Pine. Site Description - White pine plantation established in 1974 over sandy abandoned land

  8. Chemical Characterization and Cytoprotective Effect of the Hydroethanol Extract from Annona coriacea Mart. (Araticum)

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, José G. A. S.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.; Boris, Ticiana C. C.; Cristo, Janyketchuly S.; Pereira, Nara L. F.; Figueiredo, Fernando G.; Cunha, Francisco A. B.; Aquino, Pedro E. A.; Nascimento, Polyana A. C.; Mesquita, Francisco J. C.; Moreira, Paulo H. F.; Coutinho, Sáskia T. B.; Souza, Ivon T.; Teixeira, Gabriela C.; Ferreira, Najla M. N.; Farina, Eleonora O.; Torres, Cícero M. G.; Holanda, Vanderlan N.; Pereira, Vandbergue S.; Guedes, Maria I. F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Annona coriacea Mart. (araticum) is a widely distributed tree in the cerrado. Its value is attributed principally to the consumption of its fruit which possesses a large nutritive potential. The objective was to identify the chemical profile and evaluate the antimicrobial and cytoprotective activity of the hydroethanol extract of A. coriacea Mart. (HEAC) leaves against the toxicity of mercury chloride. Materials and Methods: The characterization of components was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution method in broth with strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For evaluation of the modulatory and cytoprotective activity of aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamicin and amikacin) and mercury chloride (HgCl2), the substances were associated with the HEAC at subinhibitory concentrations (MIC/8). Results and Discussion: The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids such as Luteolin (1.84%) and Quercetin (1.19%) in elevated concentrations. The HEAC presented an MIC ≥512 μg/mL and significant antagonistic action in aminoglycosides modulation, and it also showed cytoprotective activity to S. aureus (significance P < 0.0001) and E. coli (significance P < 0.05) bacteria against the mercury chloride heavy metal with significance, this action being attributed to the chelating properties of the flavonoids found in the chemical identification. Conclusions: The results acquired in this study show that the HEAC presents cytoprotective activity over the tested strains in vitro and can also present antagonistic effect when associated with aminoglycosides, reinforcing the necessity of taking caution when combining natural and pharmaceutical products. SUMMARY The hydroalcoholic extract of A. coriacea Mart. presents in vitro cytoprotective activity against the toxic effect of Hg. Abbreviations Used: HPLC-DAD: High

  9. Penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Muhammad; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin

    2013-01-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides.

  10. Use of lodgepole pine cover types by Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are a large and dynamic part of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) habitat in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Research in other areas suggests that grizzly bears select for young open forest stands, especially for grazing and feeding on berries. Management guidelines accordingly recommend timber harvest as a technique for improving habitat in areas potentially dominated by lodgepole pine. In this paper I examine grizzly bear use of lodgepole pine forests in the Yellowstone area, and test several hypotheses with relevance to a new generation of management guidelines. Differences in grizzly bear selection of lodgepole pine cover types (defined on the basis of stand age and structure) were not pronounced. Selection furthermore varied among years, areas, and individuals. Positive selection for any lodgepole pine type was uncommon. Estimates of selection took 5-11 years or 4-12 adult females to stabilize, depending upon the cover type. The variances of selection estimates tended to stabilize after 3-5 sample years, and were more-or-less stable to slightly increasing with progressively increased sample area. There was no conclusive evidence that Yellowstone's grizzlies favored young (<40 yr) stands in general or for their infrequent use of berries. On the other hand, these results corroborated previous observations that grizzlies favored open and/or young stands on wet and fertile sites for grazing. These results also supported the proposition that temporally and spatially robust inferences require extensive, long-duration studies, especially for wide-ranging vertebrates like grizzly bears.

  11. Identification of steroleosin in oil bodies of pine megagametophytes.

    PubMed

    Pasaribu, Buntora; Chung, Tse-yu; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Jiang, Pei-Luen; Tzen, Jason T C

    2016-04-01

    Three classes of integral proteins termed oleosin, caleosin and steroleosin have been identified in seed oil bodies of diverse angiosperm species. Recently, two oleosin isoforms and one caleosin were identified in megagametophyte oil bodies of pine (Pinus massoniana), a representative gymnosperm species. In this study, a putative steroleosin of approximately 41 kDa was observed in isolated oil bodies of pine megagametophytes, and its corresponding cDNA fragment was obtained by PCR cloning and further confirmed by mass spectrometric analysis. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that pine steroleosin was evolutionarily more closely-related to steroleosin-B than steroleosin-A found in angiosperm seed oil bodies. As expected, artificial oil bodies constituted with recombinant steroleosin over-expressed in Escherichia coli were less stable and larger than native pine oil bodies. Filipin staining of artificial oil bodies sheltered by recombinant steroleosin with or without its sterol binding domain showed that the sterol binding domain was responsible for the sterol binding capability of steroleosin. Sterol-coupling dehydrogenase activity was demonstrated in artificial oil bodies constituted with recombinant steroleosin as well as in purified pine oil bodies.

  12. Sarcocystis neurona-associated meningoencephalitis and description of intramuscular sarcocysts in a fisher (Martes pennanti).

    PubMed

    Gerhold, Richard W; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Lindsay, David S

    2005-01-01

    A free-ranging juvenile fisher (Martes pennanti) with ataxia, lethargy, stupor, and intermittent, whole-body tremors was examined postmortem. Microscopically, the fisher had protozoal meningoencephalitis caused by Sarcocystis neurona, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism testing, and genetic sequencing. Sarcocysts found in the skeletal muscle of the fisher were negative for S. neurona by PCR, but were morphologically similar to previous light and electron microscopy descriptions of S. neurona. This is the first report of clinical neural S. neurona infection in a fisher.

  13. [Growth of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms Laubach) in the tropics].

    PubMed

    Lareo, L

    1981-12-01

    The growth and reproduction rates of water hyacinth (Eicchornia crassipes (Mart) Solms Laubach) in tropical areas, under natural and fertilized controlled conditions, were studied. The fertilizer used was swine fecal matter at three different levels: 1.25, 2.5 and 5%. The highest rate of growth was found with the 2.5% concentration, and this value was 49.16 g/m2/day on a dry-weight basis. Under natural conditions the rate of growth was 18.39 g/m2/day on a dry-weight basis. These results represent a yearly production in ton/ha among the highest reported in the world.

  14. [Changes in correlations between commercially valuable characters of the sable Martes zibellina L. during artificial selection].

    PubMed

    Kashtanov, S N; Labeznyĭ, O E; Imasheva, A G

    2008-11-01

    A farm population of the sable Martes zibellina L. has been selected for darker coat color during 40 years. Correlations between fitness characters and correlations of these characters with the selected character have been monitored. Correlation analysis has shown that the female fertility in the first year of reproduction is a promising predictor of how valuable the female will be for further breeding. Artificial directional selection has been shown to change the correlations that have been formed in natural populations of the sable. The relationship of this phenomenon with a decrease in the overall fitness during selection that has been observed in the sable population is discussed.

  15. Mountain pine beetle-caused mortality over eight years in two pine hosts in mixed conifer stands of the southern Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    West, Daniel R.; Briggs, Jennifer S.; Jacobi, William R.; Negrón, José F.

    2014-01-01

    Eruptive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) populations have caused widespread mortality of pines throughout western North America since the late 1990s. Early work by A.D. Hopkins suggested that when alternate host species are available, MPB will prefer to breed in the host to which it has become adapted. In Colorado, epidemic MPB populations that originated in lodgepole pine expanded into mixed-conifer stands containing ponderosa pine, a related host. We evaluated the susceptibility of both hosts to successful MPB colonization in a survey of 19 sites in pine-dominated mixed-conifer stands spanning 140 km of the Front Range, CO, USA. In each of three 0.2-ha plots at each site, we (1) assessed trees in the annual flights of 2008–2011 to compare MPB-caused mortality between lodgepole and ponderosa pine; (2) recorded previous MPB-caused tree mortality from 2004–2007 to establish baseline mortality levels; and (3) measured characteristics of the stands (e.g. tree basal area) and sites (e.g. elevation, aspect) that might be correlated with MPB colonization. Uninfested average live basal area of lodgepole and ponderosa pine was 74% of total basal area before 2004. We found that for both species, annual percent basal area of attacked trees was greatest in one year (2009), and was lower in all other years (2004–2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011). Both pine species had similar average total mortality of 38–39% by 2011. Significant predictors of ponderosa pine mortality in a given year were basal area of uninfested ponderosa pine and the previous year’s mortality levels in both ponderosa and lodgepole pine. Lodgepole pine mortality was predicted by uninfested basal areas of both lodgepole and ponderosa pine, and the previous year’s lodgepole pine mortality. These results indicate host selection by MPB from lodgepole pine natal hosts into ponderosa pine the following year, but not the reverse. In both species, diameters of attacked trees within each year

  16. [Influence of anthropogenous factors on the genetic variety of the sable (Martes zibellina L.)].

    PubMed

    Kashtanov, S N; Svishcheva, G R; Lazebny, O E; Kolobkov, D S; Pishchulina, I G; Meshchersky, S L; Rozhnov, V V

    2015-01-01

    The genetic variety of seven geographic populations of sable has been studied; its distribution area stretches from the Urals to the Far East. It was shown using the panel of eight nuclear microsatellite markers that the sable populations from different geographical regions retain their individual genetic characteristics, despite the influence of anthropogenous factors (overhunting and introduction). There is a significant genetic similarity between the three populations of Central Siberia (Reynolds distances are 0.170-0.200) due to the influence of natural migrations that weaken genetic differentiation, while genetic difference is maximum (0.361) between populations located at the edges of the sable' habitat. The population of the Kamchatka Peninsula is isolated and exists as an independent phylogenetic group. An analysis of the topology of the phylogenetic tree suggests that the populations of Kamchatka and the Sikhote-Alin are closest to the ancestral form. Despite the existence of interspecific hybrids of sable and marten, the level of interspecific genetic differentiation between them is maximal.

  17. Population densities and tree diameter effects associated with verbenone treatments to reduce mountain pine beetle-caused mortality of lodgepole pine.

    PubMed

    Progar, R A; Blackford, D C; Cluck, D R; Costello, S; Dunning, L B; Eager, T; Jorgensen, C L; Munson, A S; Steed, B; Rinella, M J

    2013-02-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is among the primary causes of mature lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia mortality. Verbenone is the only antiaggregant semiochemical commercially available for reducing mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine. The success of verbenone treatments has varied greatly in previous studies because of differences in study duration, beetle population size, tree size, or other factors. To determine the ability of verbenone to protect lodgepole pine over long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks, we applied verbenone treatments annually for 3 to 7 yr at five western United States sites. At one site, an outbreak did not develop; at two sites, verbenone reduced lodgepole pine mortality in medium and large diameter at breast height trees, and at the remaining two sites verbenone was ineffective at reducing beetle infestation. Verbenone reduced mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine trees in treated areas when populations built gradually or when outbreaks in surrounding untreated forests were of moderate severity. Verbenone did not protect trees when mountain pine beetle populations rapidly increase.

  18. Effect of water stress and fungal inoculation on monoterpene emission from an historical and a new pine host of the mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Evenden, Maya L; Blanchet, F Guillaume; Cooke, Janice E K; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2011-09-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) has killed millions of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees in Western Canada, and recent range expansion has resulted in attack of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in Alberta. Establishment of MPB in the Boreal forest will require use of jack pine under a suite of environmental conditions different from those it typically encounters in its native range. Lodgepole and jack pine seedlings were grown under controlled environment conditions and subjected to either water deficit or well watered conditions and inoculated with Grosmannia clavigera, a MPB fungal associate. Soil water content, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored over the duration of the six-week study. Monoterpene content of bark and needle tissue was measured at the end of the experiment. β-Phellandrene, the major monoterpene in lodgepole pine, was almost completely lacking in the volatile emission profile of jack pine. The major compound in jack pine was α-pinene. The emission of both compounds was positively correlated with stomatal conductance. 3-Carene was emitted at a high concentration from jack pine seedlings, which is in contrast to monoterpene profiles of jack pine from more southern and eastern parts of its range. Fungal inoculation caused a significant increase in total monoterpene emission in water deficit lodgepole pine seedlings right after its application. By 4 weeks into the experiment, water deficit seedlings of both species released significantly lower levels of total monoterpenes than well watered seedlings. Needle tissue contained lower total monoterpene content than bark. Generally, monoterpene tissue content increased over time independent from any treatment. The results suggest that monoterpenes that play a role in pine-MPB interactions differ between lodgepole and jack pine, and also that they are affected by water availability.

  19. Dam Safety Program Flood Control Project Pine River Dam and Reservoir

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Hay, Ox, Loon , and Pig. These lakes are generally connected by shallow, narrow channels, maintained to allow boat passage. a. Pine River Dam Pine...the inundation area during the PMF includes areas adjacent to Velvet Lake, Big Bird Lake, Greer Lake, Big Pine Lake, Bass Lake, and Google Lake. The

  20. Growth of longleaf and loblolly pine planted on South Carolina Sandhill sites.

    SciTech Connect

    Cram, Michelle, M.; Outcalt, Kenneth, W.; Zarnoch, Stanley, J.

    2010-07-01

    Performance of longleaf (Pinus palustris Mill.) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) were compared 15–19 years after outplanting on 10 different sites in the sandhillsof South Carolina. The study was established from 1988 to 1992 with bareroot seedlings artificially inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt) or naturally inoculated with mycorrhizae in the nursery. A containerized longleaf pine treatment with and without Pt inoculation was added to two sites in 1992. Effects of the Pt nursery treatment were mixed, with a decrease in survival of bareroot longleaf pine on two sites and an increase in survival on another site. The containerized longleaf pine treatment substantially increased survival, which led to greater volume compared with bareroot longleaf pine. Loblolly pine yielded more volume than longleaf pine on all sites but one, where survival was negatively affected by fire. Depth of sandy surface horizon affected mean annual height growth of both loblolly and longleaf pine. Height growth per year decreased with an increase in sand depth for both species. Multiple regression analysis of volume growth(ft3/ac per year) for both species indicated a strong relationship to depth of sandy soil and survival. After 15–19 years, loblolly pine has been more productive than longleaf pine, although longleaf pine productivity may be equal to or greater than that of loblolly pine on the soils with the deepest sandy surface layers over longer rotations.

  1. 77 FR 10717 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota--Mountain Pine... environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: This project proposes to treat areas newly infested by mountain pine... resources on National Forest System (NFS) lands from the ongoing mountain pine beetle epidemic, and to...

  2. 75 FR 48550 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA AGENCY... Airspace at Pine Mountain, GA, to accommodate the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Pine Mountain, GA (75 FR 28765) Docket No....

  3. 75 FR 28765 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... of that authority as it would amend Class E airspace at Harris County Airport, Pine Mountain, GA... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Pine Mountain, GA, to accommodate the additional...

  4. The role of cell membranes in the regulation of lignification in pine cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    The identity of pine cell membranes bearing PAL enzyme activity, the isolation of a plasma membrane preparation from pine cells for testing as a regulatory barrier in lignification, and the measurement of the geopotential effect in pine stems are presented. A model to describe and predict the interaction of gravity and lignification of higher plants was developed.

  5. 78 FR 14477 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pine Island, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Pine Island, FL...: This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Pine Island, FL, to accommodate a new Area...) serving Pine Island Heliport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of...

  6. 75 FR 65310 - Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Application October 15, 2010. Take notice that on October 4, 2010, Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC (Pine Prairie), 333 Clay...

  7. Root endophytic fungal communities associated with pitch pine, switchgrass, and rosette grass in the pine barrens ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Walsh, Emily; Miller, Stephen; Blystone, David; Dighton, John; Zhang, Ning

    2017-05-01

    Almost all plants in nature harbour fungi in their roots but the knowledge on distribution and the underlying principles of assemblage is still poorly developed for the root-associated fungi. In this study we analysed the root endophytic fungal communities associated with switchgrass, rosette grass, and pitch pine in the acidic, oligotrophic pine barrens ecosystem. A total of 434 fungal isolates were obtained from 600 root segments of 60 plant samples. DNA barcoding and morphological analyses identified 92 fungal species, which belong to 39 genera in six classes. Compared to other ecosystems, the pine barrens has a higher proportion of Leotiomycetes. The fungal community associated with pitch pine was significantly different from those associated with the grasses, while less difference was found between those associated with the two grasses. Our results suggest that edaphic factors and host specificity play a role in shaping root endophytic fungal community. This study also corroborates our previous finding that plant roots in the pine barrens are a rich reservoir of novel fungi.

  8. Efficacy of two systemic insecticides injected into loblolly pine for protection against southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Grosman, Donald M; Clarke, Stephen R; Upton, William W

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of systemic insecticides emamectin benzoate and fipronil for preventing mortality of individual loblolly pines, Pinus taeda L., as a result of attacks by southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) for two consecutive years in Mississippi (2005-2006) and Alabama (2006-2007). Trees were injected once in the spring of 2005 (Mississippi) or 2006 (Alabama) and then were baited with species-specific bark beetle lures several weeks later. The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, was the target species but was changed to Ips spp. in Mississippi (but not Alabama) the second year because of few southern pine beetle attacks on baited trees. Single injections of emamectin benzoate were effective in reducing tree mortality caused by bark beetles compared with untreated checks. Although less effective overall, fipronil also significantly reduced tree mortality from southern pine beetle compared with the checks during the second year in Alabama. Tree mortality continued well after the lures had been removed. Evaluations of bolts taken from experimental trees killed in 2006 indicated that emamectin benzoate effectively prevented parent bark beetle gallery construction and that fipronil significantly reduced lengths of galleries constructed by adult beetles, brood development, and emergence, compared with checks. In contrast, neither insecticide treatment prevented the bark beetles from inoculating blue stain fungi, Ophiostoma spp., into treated trees.

  9. Radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C. C.; Han, H. C.; Shin, Robert T.; Kong, Jin AU; Beaudoin, A.; Letoan, T.

    1992-01-01

    The radiative transfer theory is applied to interpret polarimetric radar backscatter from pine forest with clustered vegetation structures. To take into account the clustered structures with the radiative transfer theory, the scattering function of each cluster is calculated by incorporating the phase interference of scattered fields from each component. Subsequently, the resulting phase matrix is used in the radiative transfer equations to evaluate the polarimetric backscattering coefficients from random medium layers embedded with vegetation clusters. Upon including the multi-scale structures, namely, trunks, primary and secondary branches, as well as needles, we interpret and simulate the polarimetric radar responses from pine forest for different frequencies and looking angles. The preliminary results are shown to be in good agreement with the measured backscattering coefficients at the Landes maritime pine forest during the MAESTRO-1 experiment.

  10. Radiative transfer theory for polarimetric remote sensing of pine forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C. C.; Han, H. C.; Shin, R. T.; Kong, J. A.; Beaudoin, A.; Le Toan, T.

    1992-01-01

    The radiative transfer theory is applied to interpret polarimetric radar backscatter from pine forest with clustered vegetation structures. The scattering function of each cluster is calculated by incorporating the phase interference of scattered fields from each component. The resulting phase matrix is used in the radiative transfer equations to evaluate the polarimetric backscattering coefficients from random medium layers embedded with vegetation clusters. Upon including multiscale structures (trunks, primary and secondary branches, and needles), polarimetric radar responses from pine forest for different frequencies and looking angles are interpreted and simulated. Preliminary results are shown to be in good agreement with the measured backscattering coefficients at the Landes maritime pine forest during the MAESTRO-1 experiment.

  11. Genetic transformation and gene expression in white pine (pinus strobus)

    SciTech Connect

    Minocha, R.

    1987-10-01

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop protocols for transformation of white pine (Pinus strobus) embryonic tissue; and (2) to analyze the regulation of foreign gene expression in Pinus strobus. A number of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains containing chimeric genes for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII for kanamycin resistance) and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) under the control of either a constitutive promoter (NOS-nopaline synthase) or light-inducible promoters (RuBisCO small subunit and chlorophyll a/b binding protein) were used. A variety of tissues from white pine seedlings and mature trees was used. The techniques for transformation were modified from those used for tobacco transformation. The results show that white pine tissue from young seedlings is high suitable for transformation by A. tumefaciens. Whereas the normal tissues are very sensitive to kanamycin, transformed callus was quite resistant to this antibiotic.

  12. Thinning increases climatic resilience of red pine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magruder, Matthew; Chhin, Sophan; Palik, Brian; Bradford, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Forest management techniques such as intermediate stand-tending practices (e.g., thinning) can promote climatic resiliency in forest stands by moderating tree competition. Residual trees gain increased access to environmental resources (i.e., soil moisture, light), which in turn has the potential to buffer trees from stressful climatic conditions. The influences of climate (temperature and precipitation) and forest management (thinning method and intensity) on the productivity of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) in Michigan were examined to assess whether repeated thinning treatments were able to increase climatic resiliency (i.e., maintaining productivity and reduced sensitivity to climatic stress). The cumulative productivity of each thinning treatment was determined, and it was found that thinning from below to a residual basal area of 14 m2·ha−1 produced the largest average tree size but also the second lowest overall biomass per acre. On the other hand, the uncut control and the thinning from above to a residual basal area of 28 m2·ha−1 produced the smallest average tree size but also the greatest overall biomass per acre. Dendrochronological methods were used to quantify sensitivity of annual radial growth to monthly and seasonal climatic factors for each thinning treatment type. Climatic sensitivity was influenced by thinning method (i.e., thinning from below decreased sensitivity to climatic stress more than thinning from above) and by thinning intensity (i.e., more intense thinning led to a lower climatic sensitivity). Overall, thinning from below to a residual basal area of 21 m2·ha−1 represented a potentially beneficial compromise to maximize tree size, biomass per acre, and reduced sensitivity to climatic stress, and, thus, the highest level of climatic resilience.

  13. Resource release in lodgepole pine across a chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brayden, B. H.; Trahan, N. A.; Dynes, E.; Beatty, S. W.; Monson, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade and a half Western North America has experienced a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on a scale not previously recorded. Millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in high elevation forests have been devastated. Although bark beetles are an important part of the endemic disturbance and regeneration regime in this region, the current unprecedented level of tree mortality will have a significant impact on resources and light availability to surviving trees. We established a decade-long chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance, in a lodgepole stand, composed of three age classes: recent, intermediate, and longest (approximately 2-4, 5-7, 8-10 years respectively) time since initial infestation, as well as a control group. The focus of the study was a healthy tree and it's area of influence (1m radius from the bole), each located in a cluster of the respective chronosequence classes. In the 2011 growing season we have looked at rates of photosynthesis, and water potentials for the healthy trees, as well as soil respiration flux and gravimetric moisture in their areas of influence. We are also in the process of analyzing soil extractable dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, and inorganic phosphorus, and plan to take hemispherical photographs and analyze tree-ring stable isotopes to determine if there is any reallocation of soil water use by the trees. Our data shows that photosynthetic rates in the youngest infestation class increase 10 percent over the control group and then falls well bellow the control by the oldest class. The mineral soil gravimetric moisture drastically increases between the control and the recent class and then maintains a consistently higher level through the remaining classes. In contrast, moisture in the organic soil significantly declines between the control and recent class before rebounding to pre-infestation levels in the two older classes. Soil

  14. Synergic effect of methanol and water on pine liquefaction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun-Peng; Zhu, Wei-Wei; Wei, Xian-Yong; Fan, Xing; Cao, Jing-Pei; Dou, You-Quan; Zong, Zhi-Min; Zhao, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Pine liquefaction (PL) and re-liquefaction of its liquefaction residues in sub- and supercritical methanol, water or methanol/water mixed solvents (MWMSs) was investigated. The results show that isometric MWMS has the highest synergic effect on PL. Moreover, the total yield of bio-oil (BO) and conversion from pine and its residue both liquefied in the MWMS were obvious higher than those from PL in methanol (water) and re-liquefaction of its residue in water (methanol), suggesting that the interaction between the two solvents is responsible for synergic effect. This approach facilitates understanding the mechanism for biomass liquefaction in mixed solvents and developing efficient utilization process of biomass.

  15. An analysis of natural ventilation techniques to achieve indoor comfort in Wal-Mart express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, Shona

    Despite global efforts to reduce world fossil fuel dependency the world still obtains 81% of its energy from fossil fuels (IEA,2009). Modern renewable alternatives have been around since the mid twentieth century these alternatives have not been integrated into electrical grid systems at the exponential rate required to eradicate fossil fuels dependency. The problem, world energy demand, is too large to be satisfied by anything other than the energy-dense fossil fuels used today. We must change our energy intensive processes in order to conserve energy and hence reduce the demands that alternatives must satisfy. This research aims to identify sustainable design opportunities through the application of innovative technologies for the largest retailer in the US with the view that a viable conservative design measure could be applied to the store model, which is replicated across the country, causing a cumulative and hence larger impact on the company energy consumption as a whole. This paper will present the literature available on the 'big box' industry and Wal-Mart, comfort, natural ventilation and building simulation software and then perform an analysis into the viability of naturally ventilating the Wal-Mart Express sales zone using Monodraught natural ventilation windcatcher products

  16. SigReannot-mart: a query environment for expression microarray probe re-annotations

    PubMed Central

    Moreews, François; Rauffet, Gaelle; Dehais, Patrice; Klopp, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Expression microarrays are commonly used to study transcriptomes. Most of the arrays are now based on oligo-nucleotide probes. Probe design being a tedious task, it often takes place once at the beginning of the project. The oligo set is then used for several years. During this time period, the knowledge gathered by the community on the genome and the transcriptome increases and gets more precise. Therefore re-annotating the set is essential to supply the biologists with up-to-date annotations. SigReannot-mart is a query environment populated with regularly updated annotations for different oligo sets. It stores the results of the SigReannot pipeline that has mainly been used on farm and aquaculture species. It permits easy extraction in different formats using filters. It is used to compare probe sets on different criteria, to choose the set for a given experiment to mix probe sets in order to create a new one. Database URL: http://sigreannot-mart.toulouse.inra.fr/ PMID:21930501

  17. Analysis of bioactivities and chemical composition of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. using HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Brito, Sharlene M O; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Talvani, Andre; Coronel, Cathia; Barbosa, Andreza G R; Vega, Celeste; Figueredo, Fernando G; Tintino, Saulo R; Lima, Luciene F; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Menezes, Irwin R A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical profile and antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (HELZJ). The antioxidant DPPH and FRAP assays and chemical profile were determined by colorimetric methods and HPLC/DAD. The antiparasitic, antibiotic and antibiotic-modifying activity were evaluated by microdilution assays. The HPLC-DAD assay showed the presence of mostly tannins and flavonoids, such as caffeic acid and quercetin. The levels of polyphenols and flavonoids were 183.136 mg/g extract and 7.37 mg/g extract, respectively. DPPH and FRAP showed low antioxidant activity for the extract. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were not of clinical relevance, showing MIC>1024 μg/mL. However, synergism was observed between HELZJ and the antibiotics amikacin and gentamicin, which resulted in decreased bacterial drug resistance. EHFZJ showed low toxicity in fibroblasts in vitro, while antiparasitic results against Trypnosoma cruzi, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania infantum were not clinically relevant. Thus, our results indicate that Z. joazeiro Mart. (HELZJ) could be a source of plant-derived natural products that could lead to the development of promising new antibiotic compounds for infectious diseases.

  18. Effects of aerially applied glyphosate and hexazinone on hardwoods and pines in a loblolly pine plantation. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, J.D.

    1993-09-01

    Areas in a 4-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation were treated with aerially applied Roundup (glyphosate), Pronone 10G (hexazinone), and Velpar L (hexazinone) plus Lo Drift (a spray additive). All herbicides were applied with appropriate helicopter-mounted equipment. The proportion of free-to-grow pine trees increased over a 2-year period in both the treated and untreated areas, but the increase was slightly greater in the treated areas. Final loblolly pine height, d.b.h., and volume per tree did not differ significantly among the four treatments. About 1,200 hardwood trees and 4,700 shrubs over 3 ft tall per acre were present at the beginning of the study.

  19. Mountain pine beetle selectivity in old-growth ponderosa pine forests, Montana, USA

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Paul A; Soulé, Peter T; Maxwell, Justin T

    2013-01-01

    A historically unprecedented mountain pine beetle (MPB) outbreak affected western Montana during the past decade. We examined radial growth rates (AD 1860–2007/8) of co-occurring mature healthy and MPB-infected ponderosa pine trees collected at two sites (Cabin Gulch and Kitchen Gulch) in western Montana and: (1) compared basal area increment (BAI) values within populations and between sites; (2) used carbon isotope analysis to calculate intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) at Cabin Gulch; and (3) compared climate-growth responses using a suite of monthly climatic variables. BAI values within populations and between sites were similar until the last 20–30 years, at which point the visually healthy populations had consistently higher BAI values (22–34%) than the MPB-infected trees. These results suggest that growth rates two–three decades prior to the current outbreak diverged between our selected populations, with the slower-growing trees being more vulnerable to beetle infestation. Both samples from Cabin Gulch experienced upward trends in iWUE, with significant regime shifts toward higher iWUE beginning in 1955–59 for the visually healthy trees and 1960–64 for the MPB-infected trees. Drought tolerance also varied between the two populations with the visually healthy trees having higher growth rates than MPB-infected trees prior to infection during a multi-decadal period of drying summertime conditions. Intrinsic water-use efficiency significantly increased for both populations during the past 150 years, but there were no significant differences between the visually healthy and MPB-infected chronologies. PMID:23762502

  20. Ectomycorrhizal communities of ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine in the south-central Oregon pumice zone.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Maria O; Smith, Jane E; Luoma, Daniel L; Jones, Melanie D

    2016-05-01

    Forest ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest of the USA are changing as a result of climate change. Specifically, rise of global temperatures, decline of winter precipitation, earlier loss of snowpack, and increased summer drought are altering the range of Pinus contorta. Simultaneously, flux in environmental conditions within the historic P. contorta range may facilitate the encroachment of P. ponderosa into P. contorta territory. Furthermore, successful pine species migration may be constrained by the distribution or co-migration of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). Knowledge of the linkages among soil fungal diversity, community structure, and environmental factors is critical to understanding the organization and stability of pine ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to establish a foundational knowledge of the EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in the Deschutes National Forest, OR, USA, and to examine soil characteristics associated with community composition. We examined EMF root tips of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in soil cores and conducted soil chemistry analysis for P. ponderosa cores. Results indicate that Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon salebrosus, and Inocybe flocculosa were dominant in both P. contorta and P. ponderosa soil cores. Rhizopogon spp. were ubiquitous in P. ponderosa cores. There was no significant difference in the species composition of EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta. Ordination analysis of P. ponderosa soils suggested that soil pH, plant-available phosphorus (Bray), total phosphorus (P), carbon (C), mineralizable nitrogen (N), ammonium (NH4), and nitrate (NO3) are driving EMF community composition in P. ponderosa stands. We found a significant linear relationship between EMF species richness and mineralizable N. In conclusion, P. ponderosa and P. contorta, within the Deschutes National Forest, share the same dominant EMF species, which implies that P. ponderosa may be able to successfully establish

  1. Mountain pine beetle selectivity in old-growth ponderosa pine forests, Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Paul A; Soulé, Peter T; Maxwell, Justin T

    2013-05-01

    A historically unprecedented mountain pine beetle (MPB) outbreak affected western Montana during the past decade. We examined radial growth rates (AD 1860-2007/8) of co-occurring mature healthy and MPB-infected ponderosa pine trees collected at two sites (Cabin Gulch and Kitchen Gulch) in western Montana and: (1) compared basal area increment (BAI) values within populations and between sites; (2) used carbon isotope analysis to calculate intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) at Cabin Gulch; and (3) compared climate-growth responses using a suite of monthly climatic variables. BAI values within populations and between sites were similar until the last 20-30 years, at which point the visually healthy populations had consistently higher BAI values (22-34%) than the MPB-infected trees. These results suggest that growth rates two-three decades prior to the current outbreak diverged between our selected populations, with the slower-growing trees being more vulnerable to beetle infestation. Both samples from Cabin Gulch experienced upward trends in iWUE, with significant regime shifts toward higher iWUE beginning in 1955-59 for the visually healthy trees and 1960-64 for the MPB-infected trees. Drought tolerance also varied between the two populations with the visually healthy trees having higher growth rates than MPB-infected trees prior to infection during a multi-decadal period of drying summertime conditions. Intrinsic water-use efficiency significantly increased for both populations during the past 150 years, but there were no significant differences between the visually healthy and MPB-infected chronologies.

  2. Induced defenses change the chemical composition of pine seedlings and influence meal properties of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Lina; Fedderwitz, Frauke; Björklund, Niklas; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2016-10-01

    The defense of conifers against phytophagous insects relies to a large extent on induced chemical defenses. However, it is not clear how induced changes in chemical composition influence the meal properties of phytophagous insects (and thus damage rates). The defense can be induced experimentally with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), which is a substance that is produced naturally when a plant is attacked. Here we used MeJA to investigate how the volatile contents of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tissues influence the meal properties of the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis (L.)). Phloem and needles (both weevil target tissues) from MeJA-treated and control seedlings were extracted by n-hexane and analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (2D GC-MS). The feeding of pine weevils on MeJA-treated and control seedlings were video-recorded to determine meal properties. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that phloem and needle contents of MeJA-treated seedlings had different volatile compositions compared to control seedlings. Levels of the pine weevil attractant (+)-α-pinene were particularly high in phloem of control seedlings with feeding damage. The antifeedant substance 2-phenylethanol occurred at higher levels in the phloem of MeJA-treated than in control seedlings. Accordingly, pine weevils fed slower and had shorter meals on MeJA-seedlings. The chemical compositions of phloem and needle tissues were clearly different in control seedlings but not in the MeJA-treated seedlings. Consequently, meal durations of mixed meals, i.e. both needles and phloem, were longer than phloem meals on control seedlings, while meal durations on MeJA seedlings did not differ between these meal contents. The meal duration influences the risk of girdling and plant death. Thus our results suggest a mechanism by which MeJA treatment may protect conifer seedlings against pine weevils.

  3. Melan-A/MART-1(51-73) represents an immunogenic HLA-DR4-restricted epitope recognized by melanoma-reactive CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Zarour, H M; Kirkwood, J M; Kierstead, L S; Herr, W; Brusic, V; Slingluff, C L; Sidney, J; Sette, A; Storkus, W J

    2000-01-04

    The human Melan-A/MART-1 gene encodes an HLA-A2-restricted peptide epitope recognized by melanoma-reactive CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Here we report that this gene also encodes at least one HLA-DR4-presented peptide recognized by CD4(+) T cells. The Melan-A/MART-1(51-73) peptide was able to induce the in vitro expansion of specific CD4(+) T cells derived from normal DR4(+) donors or from DR4(+) patients with melanoma when pulsed onto autologous dendritic cells. CD4(+) responder T cells specifically produced IFN-gamma in response to, and also lysed, T2.DR4 cells pulsed with the Melan-A/MART-1(51-73) peptide and DR4(+) melanoma target cells naturally expressing the Melan-A/MART-1 gene product. Interestingly, CD4(+) T cell immunoreactivity against the Melan-A/MART-1(51-73) peptide typically coexisted with a high frequency of anti-Melan-A/MART-1(27-35) reactive CD8(+) T cells in freshly isolated blood harvested from HLA-A2(+)/DR4(+) patients with melanoma. Taken together, these data support the use of this Melan-A/MART-1 DR4-restricted melanoma epitope in future immunotherapeutic trials designed to generate, augment, and quantitate specific CD4(+) T cell responses against melanoma in vivo.

  4. 76 FR 13968 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Pine Shoot Beetle; Host...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Pine Shoot Beetle; Host Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal and... information collection associated with regulations for the importation of pine nursery stock and various pine products from Canada to prevent the spread of pine shoot beetle into noninfested areas of the United...

  5. Water-deficit and fungal infection can differentially affect the production of different classes of defense compounds in two host pines of mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Cale, Jonathan A; Lusebrink, Inka; Najar, Ahmed; Klutsch, Jennifer G; Sherwood, Patrick; Enrico Bonello, Pierluigi; Evenden, Maya L

    2016-11-22

    Bark beetles are important agents of tree mortality in conifer forests and their interaction with trees is influenced by host defense chemicals, such as monoterpenes and phenolics. Since mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has expanded its host range from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Doug. ex Loud. (var. latifolia Engelm.))-dominated forests to the novel jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) forests in western Canada, studies investigating the jack pine suitability as a host for this beetle have exclusively focused on monoterpenes, and whether phenolics affect jack pine suitability to mountain pine beetle and its symbiotic fungus Grosmannia clavigera is unknown. We investigated the phenolic and monoterpene composition in phloem and foliage of jack and lodgepole pines, and their subsequent change in response to water deficit and G. clavigera inoculation treatments. In lodgepole pine phloem, water deficit treatment inhibited the accumulation of both the total and richness of phenolics, but had no effect on total monoterpene production or richness. Fungal infection also inhibited the total phenolic production and had no effect on phenolic or monoterpene richness, but increased total monoterpene synthesis by 71%. In jack pine phloem, water deficit treatment reduced phenolic production, but had no effect on phenolic or monoterpene richness or total monoterpenes. Fungal infection did not affect phenolic or monoterpene production. Lesions of both species contained lower phenolics but higher monoterpenes than non-infected phloem in the same tree. In both species, richness of monoterpenes and phenolics was greater in non-infected phloem than in lesions. We conclude that monoterpenes seem to be a critical component of induced defenses against G. clavigera in both jack and lodgepole pines; however, a lack of increased monoterpene response to fungal infection is an important evolutionary factor defining jack pine suitability to the mountain pine beetle

  6. Antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoid compounds isolated from acai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been demonstrated to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Seven major flavonoids were isolated from freeze-dried acai pulp by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated as orientin (1), homoorientin (2), vitexin (3), luteolin (4)...

  7. Non-fermented and fermented Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart.) pomaces of as valuable sources of functional ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart) is a non-climacteric, highly perishable fruit native to Brazil, which is consumed both fresh and industrially processed in the form of juices, jams, wines and distilled liqueurs. The processing to obtain these products generates a great amount of by-products (p...

  8. Flux agreement above a Scots pine plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Blanford, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    The surface energy exchange of 12m high Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany, was measured with a variety of methods during a 11-day period of fine weather in mid-May 1992. Net radiation and rate of thermal storage were measured with conventional net radiometers, soil heat flux discs and temperature-based storage models. The turbulent fluxes discussed in this report were obtained with an interchanging Bowen ratio energy budget system (BREB, at 14 m), two one-propeller eddy correlation systems (OPEC systems 1 and 2 at 17m), a 1-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 3) at 15 m, all on one “low” tower, and a 3-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 22) at 22 m on the “high” tower that was about 46 m distant. All systems measured sensible and latent heat (H and LE) directly, except for OPEC systems 1 and 2 which estimated LE as a residual term in the surface energy balance. Closure of turbulent fluxes from the two SEC systems was around 80% for daytime and 30% for night, with closure of 1-dimensional SEC system 3 exceeding that of 3-dimensional SEC system 22. The night measurements of turbulent fluxes contained considerable uncertainty, especially with the BREB system where measured gradients often yielded erroneous fluxes due to problems inherent in the method (i.e., computational instability as Bowen's ratio approaches -1). Also, both eddy correlation system designs (OPEC and SEC) appeared to underestimate |H| during stable conditions at night. In addition, both sonic systems (1- and 3-dimensional) underestimated |LE| during stable conditions. The underestimate of |H| at night generated residual estimates of OPEC LE containing a “phantom dew” error that erroneously decreased daily LE totals by about 10 percent. These special night problems are circumvented here by comparing results for daytime periods only, rather than for full days. To summarize, turbulent fluxes on the low tower from OPEC system 2 and the adjacent

  9. External forcing modulates Pine Island Glacier flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, K. A.; Bushuk, M.; Holland, D.; Dutrieux, P.; Joughin, I.; Parizek, B. R.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Heywood, K. J.; Jenkins, A.; Nicholls, K. W.; Webber, B.; Muto, A.; Stanton, T. P.

    2015-12-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, Mercer first suggested the Eemian sea-level high stand was a result of a collapse of the marine portions of the West Antarctic ice sheet. Recently, special attention has been paid to West Antarctica's Amundsen Sea Embayment due to its steeply sloping retrograde beds that are well below sea level, and observations of rapid grounding-line retreat, high ice-shelf basal-melt rates, and basin-wide glacier thinning and acceleration. Despite this focus, accurate assessments of the past and future behavior of this embayment remain elusive due to a lack of understanding of calving processes and ice-ocean interactions. Here we present a continuous two-year (2012-2014) time series of oceanographic, borehole, glaciological, and seismological observations of Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, its sub-ice ocean cavity, and the adjacent Amundsen Sea. With these data, we captured the ice shelf's response to a large fluctuation in the temperature of the water (~1 °C) entering the sub-ice-ocean cavity. Initially, the ice shelf slowed by 5%, but, by the end of 2014, it had nearly recovered its earlier speed. The generally smooth changes in ice flow were punctuated by rapid (2-3 week), high-amplitude (~2.5% of the background speed) speedups and slowdowns. Satellite and seismological observations indicate that rapid speedups are caused by reduction of lateral drag along the ice stream's shear margins as a large iceberg calves and that rapid slowdowns may be due to periodic regrounding on bed highs at low tide. Coupled ice-stream/ice-shelf/ocean-plume flowband modeling informed by these new data indicates that the more-gradual changes in speed are related to ocean temperature, ice-front position, and past ice-flow history. Our observations highlight an ice shelf's rapid response to external forcings and that past ice-flow behavior affects subsequent ice response to external forcing. Thus, long-term, multifaceted investigations are necessary to determine whether a

  10. Topical pine tar: History, properties and use as a treatment for common skin conditions.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Tanya M; Greive, Kerryn A

    2016-01-20

    Pine tar is the end product of pine wood carbonisation following distillation using extreme heat. An extensive literature search was conducted back to the 1950s for this review. Pine tar has been used in medicine for more than 2000 years to treat a range of skin conditions because of its soothing and antiseptic properties. Pine tar should not be confused with coal tar, which has been produced from coal for approximately a hundred years. Pine tar is thought to exert its effect by reducing DNA synthesis and mitotic activity, which promotes a return to normal keratinisation. In addition, pine tar has been shown to be antipruritic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. These properties make pine tar suitable for the topical treatment of eczema, psoriasis, seborrhoeic dermatitis and other dry, itchy, flaky or inflamed skin conditions. Topical products available over-the-counter in Australia today contain up to 2.3% pine tar, and come in several different formulations that can be used on the entire body, including the face. Modern day pine tar is manufactured with increased purity to eliminate toxic phenol and carcinogenic components, which have been of concern in the past. Primary irritation is uncommon. In conclusion, the long experience with topical pine tar therapy and its worldwide usage, together with the evidence presented in this review, suggests that pine tar is an effective treatment with minimal safety risk.

  11. Brains of Native and Alien Mesocarnivores in Biomonitoring of Toxic Metals in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Budis, Halina; Podlasinska, Joanna; Popiolek, Marcin; Pirog, Agnieszka; Jedrzejewska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are involved in mammalian brain damage. However, little is known about Pb and Cd brain levels in wildlife that reflect the geochemical background. The aims of the study include the estimation of Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations, and the determination of relationships between these elements in the brains of 94 mesocarnivores. Road-killed or hunted animals were obtained from north-western Poland near the Polish-German border. The investigation covered the native Eurasian otter Lutra lutra, badger Meles meles, pine marten Martes martes, beech marten M. foina, European polecat Mustela putorius, red fox Vulpes vulpes, and alien species: feral and ranch American mink Neovison vison, raccoon Procyon lotor and raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides. Depending on the diet and environmental pollution, the carnivore brains accumulated toxic metals in varying amounts. The highest median Hg levels (in mg/kg dry weight, dw) were found in the piscivorous Eurasian otter and feral mink (2.44 and 3.96), Pb in the omnivorous raccoon (0.47), while Cd in minks (~0.06). We indicated that Pb-based ammunition is a significant source of the element in scavengers from hunting area, and we also found a significant correlation between Pb and Cd levels in the fox brain. Finally, this study is the first to suggest background levels for brain Pb and Cd in mesocarnivores (<0.50 and <0.04 mg/kg dw, respectively).

  12. Large-scale serosurvey of Besnoitia besnoiti in free-living carnivores in Spain.

    PubMed

    Millán, Javier; Sobrino, Raquel; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Oleaga, Alvaro; Gortazar, Christian; Schares, Gereon

    2012-11-23

    The disease bovine besnoitiosis is responsible for severe economic losses caused by the protozoan Besnoitia besnoiti. The identity of the definitive host (DH) of this parasite has yet to be determined, although it is presumed to be a carnivore. With the aim of advancing in the identification of B. besnoiti DH, a necessary step in implementing control strategies, the contact rate of 205 free-roaming carnivores with this parasite in Spain was studied. The study included 16 wolves (Canis lupus), 41 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 21 pine martens (Martes martes), eight stone martens (M. foina), 12 Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 18 common genets (Genetta genetta), five Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), 28 European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), 43 feral cats (Felis silvestris catus), and 13 other animals belonging to five other species. Serum samples were analysed by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and by two western immunoblots (WB, one with tachyzoite and the other with bradyzoite antigen). Twelve individuals (eight of which were cats) seroconverted by one or other of these techniques but no individual showed seroconversion by IFAT and one of the WBs. The results provided no evidence to support the idea that within the geographical regions covered by the analysis wild carnivores are implicated in the transmission of B. besnoiti in Spain.

  13. Brains of Native and Alien Mesocarnivores in Biomonitoring of Toxic Metals in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Budis, Halina; Podlasinska, Joanna; Popiolek, Marcin; Pirog, Agnieszka; Jedrzejewska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are involved in mammalian brain damage. However, little is known about Pb and Cd brain levels in wildlife that reflect the geochemical background. The aims of the study include the estimation of Hg, Pb and Cd concentrations, and the determination of relationships between these elements in the brains of 94 mesocarnivores. Road-killed or hunted animals were obtained from north-western Poland near the Polish-German border. The investigation covered the native Eurasian otter Lutra lutra, badger Meles meles, pine marten Martes martes, beech marten M. foina, European polecat Mustela putorius, red fox Vulpes vulpes, and alien species: feral and ranch American mink Neovison vison, raccoon Procyon lotor and raccoon dog Nyctereutes procyonoides. Depending on the diet and environmental pollution, the carnivore brains accumulated toxic metals in varying amounts. The highest median Hg levels (in mg/kg dry weight, dw) were found in the piscivorous Eurasian otter and feral mink (2.44 and 3.96), Pb in the omnivorous raccoon (0.47), while Cd in minks (~0.06). We indicated that Pb-based ammunition is a significant source of the element in scavengers from hunting area, and we also found a significant correlation between Pb and Cd levels in the fox brain. Finally, this study is the first to suggest background levels for brain Pb and Cd in mesocarnivores (<0.50 and <0.04 mg/kg dw, respectively). PMID:27513467

  14. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (−):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest. PMID:26042134

  15. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (-):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  16. 101. Pine Creek Bridge #7. It is the only parkway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. Pine Creek Bridge #7. It is the only parkway bridge with steel arch piers and the only one whose piers are attached to its foundations with steel pins allowing it to flex without damaging the structure. Looking northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  17. A Program Showcase: Pine Grove School, Falmouth, Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalinowski, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Since 1809, there has almost always been a school in Macworth Point (now Falmouth), Maine, just north of Portland. In 1916 a brick, one-room schoolhouse was built on this property and named Pine Grove School. Unfortunately, it burned down a few days before the school opened and was rebuilt, and then expanded in 1941. In 1984, after a brief…

  18. Resistance of a pine forest to ozone uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhut, Gary K.

    1983-12-01

    The surface resistance of a pine forest to ozone uptake is calculated from aircraft data obtained in southern New Jersey. The resistances are 130 and 300 s m-1 for the afternoon and early evening, respectively, in good agreement with estimates used by Galbally and Roy (1980) in their calculation of global surface destruction of ozone.

  19. Preliminary Geologic Map of the Big Pine Mountain Quadrangle, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vedder, J.G.; McLean, Hugh; Stanley, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Reconnaissance geologic mapping of the San Rafael Primitive Area (now the San Rafael Wilderness) by Gower and others (1966) and Vedder an others (1967) showed s number of stratigraphic and structural ambiguities. To help resolve some of those problems, additional field work was done on parts of the Big Pine Moutain quadrangle during short intervals in 1981 and 1984, and 1990-1994.

  20. Strontium isotope study, Pine Barrens, Long Island, NY

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Geng; Hanson, G.N. . Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Twenty-four samples representing precipitation, through-fall, soil water, ground water, vegetation and soil were analyzed for strontium concentration and the [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratio. The Pine Barrens, which consists of forests and dense vegetation, covers approximately 300 square miles of the coastal plain of Long Island, New York. This study estimates the relative importance of atmospheric and weathering inputs of Sr to vegetation in this ecosystem. The values of the [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios and Sr concentration in the Pine Barrens are shown in the attached figure. Precipitation has Sr isotopic ratios that are close to that of sea water (0.7092). The Sr in through-fall is dominated by the Sr from the canopy foliage. The [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratios of soil water and ground water increase with depth. The Sr isotopic ratio for a composite sample of pine (0.71181) is a mixture of atmosphere Sr and soil or ground waters. The Sr isotopic ratios and concentrations in pine suggest that plants are a major reservoir of Sr in the system.

  1. The Long Island Pine Barrens: A Curriculum & Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long Island Pine Barrens Society, NY.

    The Long Island Pine Barrens is Long Island's premier ecosystem. It overlies the greatest quantity of the purest drinking water remaining on Long Island and boasts the greatest diversity of plants and animals in New York State. This curriculum guide provides background and suggested inquiry-based in-class and field trip experiences to use with…

  2. Removing Phosphorus from Aqueous Solutions Using Lanthanum Modified Pine Needles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianze; Liu, Zhongmou; Liu, Jiancong; Huo, Mingxin; Huo, Hongliang; Yang, Wu

    2015-01-01

    The renewable pine needles was used as an adsorbent to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. Using batch experiments, pine needles pretreated with alkali-isopropanol (AI) failed to effectively remove phosphorus, while pine needles modified with lanthanum hydroxide (LH) showed relatively high removal efficiency. LH pine needles were effective at a wide pH ranges, with the highest removal efficiency reaching approximately 85% at a pH of 3. The removal efficiency was kept above 65% using 10 mg/L phosphorus solutions at desired pH values. There was no apparent significant competitive behavior between co-existing anions of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride (SO42-, NO3- and Cl-); however, CO32- exhibited increased interfering behavior as concentrations increased. An intraparticle diffusion model showed that the adsorption process occurred in three phases, suggesting that a boundary layer adsorption phenomena slightly affected the adsorption process, and that intraparticle diffusion was dominant. The adsorption process was thermodynamically unfavorable and non-spontaneous; temperature increases improved phosphorus removal. Total organic carbon (TOC) assays indicated that chemical modification reduced the release of soluble organic compounds from 135.6 mg/L to 7.76 mg/L. This new information about adsorption performances provides valuable information, and can inform future technological applications designed to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. PMID:26630014

  3. Phototactic Behavior of the Armand Pine Bark Weevil, Pissodes punctatus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You; Luo, Chang W.; Kuang, Rong P.; Li, Hong W.; Chen, Zheng; Liu, Ying J.

    2013-01-01

    The Armand pine bark weevil, Pissodes punctatus Langor et Zhang (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a destructive bark weevil on the Armand pine, Pinus armandii Franch (Pinales: Pinaceae), an important timbering tree in southern China. This study examined the phototactic behavior ïéP. punctatus through observation of behavioral characteristics, response to nine monochromatic lights (ranging from 340 nm to 689 nm with about 40-nm step), and response to five intensities (ranging from 1 lux to 200 lux) of the most attractive light. The results demonstrated that P. punctatus was most active in the day, and kept still at night (or in a dark room). P. punctatus could be attracted to eight of nine monochromatic lights, the exception being red light (649 nm), which implied broad sensitivity to the spectrum of light. P. punctatus was most sensitive to violet (415 nm), ultraviolet (340 nm), and green (504 nm) light, suggesting there might be at least three types of photoreceptors in the compound eyes of this weevil. Furthermore, low intensities elicited an increased phototactic response, and high intensities a decreased phototactic response, under both violet and UV light. Thus, P. punctatus were found to be phototactic insects, and the phototactic behavior of P. punctatus is both a color and intensity preference. The information provided here provides a basis for the improvement of trapping devices for detection and survey of P. punctatus, as well as a basis for the development of alternate control strategies for this important pest of Armand pine and other pine trees. PMID:23879189

  4. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-02-01

    Pine Mountain Builders achieved HERS scores as low as 59 and electric bills as low as $50/month with extensive air sealing (blower door tests = 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50), R-3 XPS sheathing instead of OSB, and higher efficiency heat pumps.

  5. Australian Pine, Casuarina equisetifolia L. Management Plan for Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia) is a fast growing tree native to Australia, Southeast Asia, India, Bangladesh and the Pacific Islands that has been introduced to tropical areas throughout the world as an ornamental; to stabilize sand dunes; to form windbreaks around canals, roads, houses, ...

  6. Antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities of pine (Pinus densiflora) pollen extract.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Mi

    2007-05-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activity of pine (Pinus densiflora) pollen in mice. The antinociceptive activity was determined using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-induced licking, and the hot plate test. Antiinflammatory effects were evaluated using carrageenan- and formalin-induced paw edema, and arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in mice. The ethanol extract of pine pollen (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin pain test in mice, a reduction in mouse writhing induced by acetic acid and an elevation of the pain threshold in the hot plate test in mice. The pine pollen extract also produced a significant inhibition of carrageenan- and formalin-induced paw edema as well as arachidonic acid-induced ear edema in mice. The inhibitions were similar to those produced by aminopyrine and indomethacin, p.o. The different polyphenols found in pine pollen could account for the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory actions. The results obtained indicate that the extract possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory effects.

  7. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)convicilin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) by a combination of anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration chromatography. The protein is less abundant than vicilin in low-salt extracts of matur...

  8. Skin Reactions to Pine Processionary Caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Pine caterpillar, Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff, is a phyto- and xylophagous lepidopteran, responsible for the delay in the growth or the death of various types of pines. Besides nature damage, pine caterpillar causes dermatological reactions in humans by contact with its irritating larvae hairs. Although the dermatitis occurs among outdoor professionals, it is primarily extraprofessional. Contamination generally occurs in pinewoods, rarely in cities. Means of contamination comprise direct contact with the nest or the processional caterpillar and indirect contact with air dispersed hairs. The dermatitis is generally observed in late spring and particularly from April to June, among campers and tourers. The eruption has its onset 1–12 hours after contact with the hairs and presents with intense and continuous itching. Morphologically, it is strophulus-like and consists of papulous, excoriated, and pinkish lesions on an oedematous base. Diagnosis is usually straightforward. The pathogenetic mechanism of the affection is mechanical, pharmacological, and allergic in nature. Besides skin, T. pityocampa Schiff can involve the eyes and rarely the airways. Despite the considerable damages to humans and nature, pine caterpillar infestation is an underestimated problem; medical literature lists few studies, and often relevant information is referred to local media and popular wisdom. PMID:23781164

  9. 62. Photocopy of Ladders & Lifelines, 547 WAGL, White Pine. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Photocopy of Ladders & Lifelines, 547 WAGL, White Pine. U.S. Coast Guard Yard, Planning Department, Curtis Bay, Maryland. Coast Guard Headquarters Drawing No. 540-WAGL-1604-12. dated August 1970. Original drawing property of the U.S. Coast Guard. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. Atmospheric Plasma-Enhanced Soft Hydrolysis of Southern Pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of fermentable sugars from southern pine using atmospheric plasma (AP) was studied. AP processing in the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) configuration was coupled with acid hydrolysis in an effort to determine how AP can impact a standard conversion technique. The effects of plas...

  11. Topical treatment of contact dermatitis by pine processionary caterpillar

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Pedro; Angulo, Javier; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Skin contact dermatitis by pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) is a public health problem of increasing significance. The authors present here the case of a 65-year-old man who was diagnosed with processionary caterpillar dermatitis. Patient was treated with topical potassium dobesilate 5% cream twice a day for 2 days. An improvement occurred soon after treatment. PMID:22688482

  12. Environment Conscious, Biomorphic Ceramics from Pine and Jelutong Wood Precursors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Yee, Bo-Moon; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Environment conscious, biomorphic ceramics have been fabricated from pine and jelutong wood precursors. A carbonaceous preform is produced through wood pyrolysis and subsequent infiltration with oxides (ZrO2 sols) and liquid silicon to form ceramics. These biomorphic ceramics show a wide variety of microstructures, densities, and hardness behavior that are determined by the type of wood and infiltrants selected.

  13. OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WHITE PINE TALC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WHITE PINE TALC MINE LOOKING EAST. THE OPENING TO THE TALC MINE IS IN THE DARK AREA AT CENTER LEFT EDGE. WARM SPRINGS CAMP IS OUT OF FRAME TO THE RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  14. Siberian Pine Decline and Mortality in Southern Siberian Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Im, S. T.; Oskorbin, P. A.; Petrov, I. A.; Ranson, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    The causes and resulting spatial patterns of Siberian pine mortality in eastern Kuznetzky Alatau Mountains, Siberia were analyzed based on satellite (Landsat, MODIS) and dendrochronology data. Climate variables studied included temperature, precipitation and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) drought index. Landsat data analysis showed that stand mortality was first detected in the year 2006 at an elevation of 650 m, and extended up to 900 m by the year 2012. Mortality was accompanied by a decrease in MODIS derived vegetation index (EVI).. The area of dead stands and the upper mortality line were correlated with increased drought. The uphill margin of mortality was limited by elevational precipitation gradients. Dead stands (i.e., >75% tree mortality) were located mainly on southern slopes. With respect to slope, mortality was observed within a 7 deg - 20 deg range with greatest mortality occurring on convex terrain. Tree radial incrementmeasurements correlate and were synchronous with SPEI (r sq = 0.37, r(sub s) = 80). Increasing synchrony between tree ring growth and SPEI indicates that drought has reduced the ecological niche of Siberian pine. The results also showed the primary role of drought stress on Siberian pine mortality. A secondary role may be played by bark beetles and root fungi attacks. The observed Siberian pine mortality is part of a broader phenomenon of "dark needle conifers" (DNC, i.e., Siberian pine, fir and spruce) decline and mortality in European Russia, Siberia, and the Russian Far East. All locations of DNC decline coincided with areas of observed drought increase. The results obtained are one of the first observations of drought-induced decline and mortality of DNC at the southern border of boreal forests. Meanwhile if model projections of increased aridity are correct DNC, within the southern part of its range may be replaced by drought-resistant Pinus silvestris and Larix sibirica.

  15. Fidelity of northern pine snakes (Pituophis m. melanoleucus) to natural and artificial hibernation sites in the New Jersey Pine Barrens.

    PubMed

    Zappalorti, Robert T; Burger, Joanna; Burkett, David W; Schneider, David W; McCort, Matthew P; Golden, David M

    2014-01-01

    Environmental managers require information on whether human-made hibernacula are used by rare snakes before constructing large numbers of them as mitigation measures. Fidelity of northern pine snakes (Pituophis m. melanoleucus) was examined in a 6-year study in the New Jersey Pine Barrens to determine whether they used natural and artificial hibernacula equally. Pine snakes used both artificial (human-made) and natural (snake-adapted) hibernacula. Most natural hibernacula were in abandoned burrows of large mammals. Occupancy rates were similar between natural and artificial hibernacula. Only 6 of 27 radio-tracked snakes did not shift hibernacula between years, whereas 78% shifted sites at least once, and fidelity from one year to the next was 42%. For snakes that switched hibernacula (n = 21), one switched among artificial hibernacula, 14 (65%) switched among natural hibernacula, and 6 (29%) switched from artificial to natural hibernacula. Data indicate that most pine snakes switch among hibernacula, mainly selecting natural hibernacula, suggesting that artificial dens are used, but protecting natural hibernacula should be a higher conservation priority.

  16. Host deception: Predaceous fungus, esteya vermicola, entices pine wood nematode by mimicking the scent of its host pine for nutrient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A nematophagous fungus, Esteya vermicola, is recorded as the first endoparasitic fungus of pine wood nematode (PWN), Burasphelenchus xylophilus, in the last century. E. vermicola exhibited high infectivity toward PWN in the laboratory conditions and conidia spraying of this fungus on Japanese red pi...

  17. Triterpene Esters and Biological Activities from Edible Fruits of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard, Sapotaceae

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Caio P.; Corrêa, Arthur L.; Lobo, Jonathas F. R.; Caramel, Otávio P.; de Almeida, Fernanda B.; Castro, Elaine S.; Souza, Kauê F. C. S.; Burth, Patrícia; Amorim, Lidia M. F.; Santos, Marcelo G.; Ferreira, José Luiz P.; Falcão, Deborah Q.; Carvalho, José C. T.; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard (Sapotaceae) is popularly known in Brazil as “guracica.” Studies with Manilkara spp indicated the presence of triterpenes, saponins, and flavonoids. Several activities have been attributed to Manilkara spp such as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antitumoral, which indicates the great biological potential of this genus. In all, 87.19% of the hexanic extract from fruits relative composition were evaluated, in which 72.81% were beta- and alpha-amyrin esters, suggesting that they may be chemical markers for M. subsericea. Hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, (E)-9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester, and octadecanoic acid ethyl ester were also identified. Ethanolic crude extracts from leaves, stems, and hexanic extract from fruits exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. These extracts had high IC50 values against Vero cells, demonstrating weak cytotoxicity. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that beta- and alpha-amyrin caproates and caprylates are described for Manilkara subsericea. PMID:23509702

  18. Chemical characterization and protective effect of the Bactris setosa Mart. fruit against oxidative/nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Boeing, Joana Schuelter; Ribeiro, Daniela; Chisté, Renan Campos; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Costa, Vera Marisa; Freitas, Marisa; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2017-04-01

    Bactris setosa Mart. is a Brazilian tree from the palm family (Arecaceae), whose fruits are scientifically underexploited. Here, we report, for the first time, the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds and carotenoids in the pulp, seed, and peel extracts of B. setosa fruits and their in vitro biological activity. The anthocyanins cyanidin deoxyhexose hexoside and cyanidin hexoside and other phenolic compounds were detected mainly in the peel but also in the pulp extracts. All-trans-lutein was the unique carotenoid identified and quantified, and only in the peel extract. All extracts were able to scavenge reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively), to modulate human neutrophils' oxidative burst and to protect Caco-2 cells against oxidative damage, the peel extract being the most efficient. This study indicates that extracts from B. setosa fruits, especially the peel extract, are a source of bioactive compounds with promising antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  19. Triterpene esters and biological activities from edible fruits of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard, Sapotaceae.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Caio P; Corrêa, Arthur L; Lobo, Jonathas F R; Caramel, Otávio P; de Almeida, Fernanda B; Castro, Elaine S; Souza, Kauê F C S; Burth, Patrícia; Amorim, Lidia M F; Santos, Marcelo G; Ferreira, José Luiz P; Falcão, Deborah Q; Carvalho, José C T; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard (Sapotaceae) is popularly known in Brazil as "guracica." Studies with Manilkara spp indicated the presence of triterpenes, saponins, and flavonoids. Several activities have been attributed to Manilkara spp such as antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antitumoral, which indicates the great biological potential of this genus. In all, 87.19% of the hexanic extract from fruits relative composition were evaluated, in which 72.81% were beta- and alpha-amyrin esters, suggesting that they may be chemical markers for M. subsericea. Hexadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, (E)-9-octadecenoic acid ethyl ester, and octadecanoic acid ethyl ester were also identified. Ethanolic crude extracts from leaves, stems, and hexanic extract from fruits exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. These extracts had high IC50 values against Vero cells, demonstrating weak cytotoxicity. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that beta- and alpha-amyrin caproates and caprylates are described for Manilkara subsericea.

  20. Peltomexicanin, a Peltogynoid Quinone Methide from Peltogyne Mexicana Martínez Purple Heartwood.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Macías, Paulina; Peralta-Cruz, Javier; Borja-de-la-Rosa, Amparo; Barragán-Huerta, Blanca E

    2016-02-04

    Peltomexicanin (7,10-dihydroxy-6,12-dioxa-5H-tetraphen-3-one) is a new peltogynoid quinone methide isolated from Palo Morado (Peltogyne mexicana Martínez) heartwood by column chromatography. Its chemical structure was elucidated by IR, NMR (¹H, (13)C), 2D NMR experiments (COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HSQC), ESI-MS, and UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis. According to HPLC quantification, this compound is the main pigment and accounts for 1.21% of Palo Morado heartwood material. The antioxidant activity of peltomexicanin and dried methanolic extract (DEx) of purple heartwood was evaluated using the radical of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay, and the corresponding values expressed as Trolox equivalents (µmol TE/mg sample) were 4.25 and 4.57, respectively.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome reveals the phylogenetic relationship of sable Martes zibellina linkouensis.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yan; Xu, Yanchun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Over-hunting of the sable (Martes zibellina) in China since the 1950s has resulted in a dramatic decline of sable population size; and owing to effective conservation measures in recent years, sable populations in some areas are going through a rapid recovery. We first determined and annotated the whole mtDNA genome of the Lesser Khingan Mountains sable M. zibellina linkouensis to better understand the evolutionary relationship of this subspecies. The complete mitogenome is 16 460 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region. We built the phylogenetic tree of three sable subspecies in Northeast China and other 10 species of Mustelinae.

  2. Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) solms: from water parasite to potential medicinal remedy.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Enein, Ahmed M; Al-Abd, Ahmed M; Shalaby, Emad; Abul-Ela, Faten; Nasr-Allah, Amr A; Mahmoud, Ali M; El-Shemy, Hany A

    2011-06-01

    Water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms, originating in the amazonian basin, is a warm water aquatic plant. Water hyacinth is considered one of the most productive plants on earth and, accordingly, is considered one of the top 10 world's worst weeds. Water hyacinth spread to other tropical and subtropical regions by humans. It invaded about 62 countries in Africa, Asia and North America, and propagated extremely serious ecological, economical and social problems in the region between 40 degrees north and 45 degrees south. The dense weed of water hyacinth forms dense monocultures that can threaten local native species diversity and change the physical and chemical aquatic environment, thus altering ecosystem structure and function by disrupting food chains and nutrient cycling. We have separated and identified nine active fractions from water hyacinth and showed their promising therapeutic activities. Several compounds (alkaloid, phthalate derivatives, propanoid and phenyl derivatives) were identified in the extract of water hyacinth.

  3. Data mining using the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer BioMart.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Rebecca; Forbes, Simon A; Beare, David; Bamford, S; Cole, Charlotte G; Ward, Sari; Bindal, Nidhi; Gunasekaran, Prasad; Jia, Mingming; Kok, Chai Yin; Leung, Kenric; Menzies, Andrew; Butler, Adam P; Teague, Jon W; Campbell, Peter J; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) (http://www.sanger.ac.uk/cosmic) is a publicly available resource providing information on somatic mutations implicated in human cancer. Release v51 (January 2011) includes data from just over 19,000 genes, 161,787 coding mutations and 5573 gene fusions, described in more than 577,000 tumour samples. COSMICMart (COSMIC BioMart) provides a flexible way to mine these data and combine somatic mutations with other biological relevant data sets. This article describes the data available in COSMIC along with examples of how to successfully mine and integrate data sets using COSMICMart. DATABASE URL: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/genetics/CGP/cosmic/biomart/martview/.

  4. The push-pull tactic for mitigation of mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage in lodgepole and whitebark pines.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Nancy E; Mehmel, Constance J; Mori, Sylvia R; Webster, Jeffrey N; Wood, David L; Erbilgin, Nadir; Owen, Donald R

    2012-12-01

    In an attempt to improve semiochemical-based treatments for protecting forest stands from bark beetle attack, we compared push-pull versus push-only tactics for protecting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) and whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands from attack by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in two studies. The first was conducted on replicated 4.04-ha plots in lodgepole pine stands (California, 2008) and the second on 0.81-ha plots in whitebark pine stands (Washington, 2010). In both studies, D. ponderosae population levels were moderate to severe. The treatments were 1) push-only (D. ponderosae antiaggregant semiochemicals alone); 2) push-pull (D. ponderosae antiaggregants plus perimeter traps placed at regular intervals, baited with four-component D. ponderosae aggregation pheromone); and 3) untreated controls. We installed monitoring traps baited with two-component D. ponderosae lures inside each plot to assess effect of treatments on beetle flight. In California, fewer beetles were collected in push-pull treated plots than in control plots, but push-only did not have a significant effect on trap catch. Both treatments significantly reduced the rate of mass and strip attacks by D. ponderosae, but the difference in attack rates between push-pull and push-only was not significant. In Washington, both push-pull and push-only treatments significantly reduced numbers of beetles caught in traps. Differences between attack rates in treated and control plots in Washington were not significant, but the push-only treatment reduced attack rates by 30% compared with both the control and push-pull treatment. We conclude that, at these spatial scales and beetle densities, push-only may be preferable for mitigating D. ponderosae attack because it is much less expensive, simpler, and adding trap-out does not appear to improve efficacy.

  5. Comparison between soil and biomass carbon in adjacent hardwood and red pine forests

    SciTech Connect

    Perala, D.A.; Rollinger, J.L.; Wilson, D.M.

    1995-06-01

    The distribution of carbon in soil and biomass was studied across Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan, USA, in 40 pole-sized red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) plantations paired with adjacent hardwood stands. Pine and hardwood stands shared a common boundary and soil. Hardwood stands were mixed species, naturally regenerated second growth following logging. Carbon in total, standing crop averaged the same in both hardwood and red pine forest types, although the hardwoods averaged 14 years older than red pine. Coarse woody debris, shrubs, and herbs contained little carbon. Only the forest floor carbon pool was significantly different between forest types. Forest floor had a greater mass beneath red pine than hardwoods. There was no difference in total ecosystem carbon between red pine and hardwood stands. Total mineral soil aggregated across the depth profile contained the same total amount of carbon in both pine and hardwood stands; however, the carbon was found in different vertical patterns. Amounts of carbon in the upper levels of soil (0--4 cm) were higher under hardwoods, and amounts were higher under red pine at the 8--16 cm and 16--32 cm soil depths. Where July air temperatures were relatively cool, red pine stored carbon more efficiently both in the forest floor and deep in the soil. Red pine also sequestered more carbon in mineral soil with increasing April--September precipitation.

  6. [Relationships between summer drought and strong typhoon events and pine wilt disease occurrence in East Asia].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease cause huge losses to Japan, China, and South Korea in East Asia, and have received concerns from many countries. By the methods of field observation and meteorological data analysis, this paper studied the characteristics of the occurrence and prevalence of pine wilt disease and their relations to the meteorological disaster events. In Japan, China and South Korea, the meteorological extreme events of persistent summer drought and strong typhoon could trigger the occurrence of pine wilt. In extremely dry and hot environment, pine trees often appeared energy metabolism imbalance and entire tree wilt. However, in the years with lower temperature and more rainfall, less or nearly no pine wilt event occurred. It was suggested that before the attack by pine wood nematode and its vectors, the vigor of the pines had already declined, and thus, pine wilt disease could be confined in the areas often hit by summer drought and strong typhoon events. In the areas with suitable natural environment characterized by less summer drought and strong typhoon events and no improperly enlarged pine planting, there would be little possibility of widespread occurrence of pine wilt disease.

  7. Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE): A Simulated Mars Drilling Mission to Search for Subsurface Life at the Rio Tinto, Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; Lemke, Larry; Mandell, Humboldt; McKay, David; George, Jeffrey; Gomez-Alvera, Javier; Amils, Ricardo; Stevens, Todd; Miller, David

    2003-01-01

    The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project was selected by the new NASA ASTEP program, which supports field experiments having an equal emphasis on Astrobiology science and technology development relevant to future Astrobiology missions. MARTE will search for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River in southwestern Spain while also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The experiment is informed by the strategy for searching for life on Mars.

  8. Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine and Norwegian spruce

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, R.W. )

    1993-02-20

    Rates of monoterpene emissions from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norwegian spruce (Picea abies) have been measured at four sites in Sweden with a dynamic flow chamber technique. Forest floor emissions have been made in the pine forest with the static chamber technique. The compounds [Delta][sup 3]-carene and [alpha]-pinene were the predominant terpenes emitted from the crown and floor of the Scots pine forest. Alpha-pinene was the main terpene emitted from Norwegian spruce at the sites in southern and central Sweden, while [Delta][sup 3]-carene was predominant at the northern site. Emission rates, normalized to temperature, were seen to vary diurnally with a maximum at midday, and seasonally with maxima in early May and October, and a summer maximum in June-July. The possible dependence of the emission rate on needle growth rate and other plant-physiological processes is discussed. A higher emission rate and different relative composition of the emission was seen to occur when the vegetation was wet, as compared to dry vegetation. The emission from the pine forest floor was seen to have a composition different from that of the crown and a seasonality of the rate similar to that of the crown. The ground emission could not be explained by sources in the litter or ground vegetation alone, and it is suggested that the root system of the trees is also an emission source. The emission rate from the pine forest floor was of the order of 30% of the crown emission. The July rate of emission from the crown of Scots pine, normalized to 20[degrees]C and averaged over four sites in Sweden, was 0.8 [plus minus] 0.4 [mu]g (gdw (grams dry weight) h)[sup [minus]1], and for Norwegian spruce, 0.5 [plus minus] 0.7 [mu]g(gdw h)[sup [minus]1]. It would seem that previous regional and global estimates of hydrocarbon fluxes to the atmosphere have used emission factors which are too high for boreal coniferous forests. 52 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Density dependence, whitebark pine, and vital rates of grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Manen, Frank T.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Bjornlie, Daniel D; Ebinger, Michael R.; Thompson, Daniel J.; Costello, Cecily M; White, Gary C.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding factors influencing changes in population trajectory is important for effective wildlife management, particularly for populations of conservation concern. Annual population growth of the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA has slowed from 4.2–7.6% during 1983–2001 to 0.3–2.2% during 2002–2011. Substantial changes in availability of a key food source and bear population density have occurred. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), the seeds of which are a valuable but variable fall food for grizzly bears, has experienced substantial mortality primarily due to a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak that started in the early 2000s. Positive growth rates of grizzly bears have resulted in populations reaching high densities in some areas and have contributed to continued range expansion. We tested research hypotheses to examine if changes in vital rates detected during the past decade were more associated with whitebark pine decline or, alternatively, increasing grizzly bear density. We focused our assessment on known-fate data to estimate survival of cubs-of-the-year (cubs), yearlings, and independent bears (≥2 yrs), and reproductive transition of females from having no offspring to having cubs. We used spatially and temporally explicit indices for grizzly bear density and whitebark pine mortality as individual covariates. Models indicated moderate support for an increase in survival of independent male bears over 1983–2012, whereas independent female survival did not change. Cub survival, yearling survival, and reproductive transition from no offspring to cubs all changed during the 30-year study period, with lower rates evident during the last 10–15 years. Cub survival and reproductive transition were negatively associated with an index of grizzly bear density, indicating greater declines where bear densities were higher. Our analyses did not support a similar relationship for the

  10. Controls of fine root dynamics across a gradient of gap sizes in a pine woodland.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert H; Mitchell, Robert J; Stevens, Glen N; Pecot, Stephen D

    2003-01-01

    Controls of fine dynamics were investigated in a Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine) woodland subjected to two understory vegetation treatments (control versus removed) and four overstory treatments (no gap control, and canopy gaps of three sizes with constant total gap area per stand). Fine root (<2 mm diameter) dynamics were measured over 11 months using ingrowth cores (all treatments) and minirhizotrons (understory removed in no gap control and large gap treatments only). At the fine (microsite) spatial scale, pine and non-pine root mass production responded negatively to each other (P=0.033). Each life form was significantly (P< or =0.028) related to nearby overstory density, and pine root production compensated for reductions in non-pine roots if understory vegetation was removed. Soil moisture and NO(3) mineralization rate were negatively related to pine root mass production (ingrowth cores; P<0.001 and P=0.052) and positively related to pine root length production, mortality and turnover (minirhizotrons; P from <0.001 to 0.078). Temperature variance was negatively related to pine root lifespan P<0.001) and positively related to pine root turnover (P=0.003). At the ecosystem scale, pattern of overstory disturbance (gap size and number) had no significant effect on non-pine, pine, or total root production. However, the presence of gaps (versus the no-gap control) increased non-pine root mass production (ANOVA, P=0.055) in natural understory conditions, and reduced pine root mass production (P=0.035) where the understory was removed. Ecosystem-wide pine root length production, mortality and turnover were positively related to weekly soil temperature (P< or =0.02). In natural systems, fine root dynamics are highly variable and strongly affected by biotic factors. Roots quickly close belowground gaps because one life form (pine or non-pine) compensates for the absence of the other. When understory vegetation is removed, however, pine roots respond to the local

  11. Guardian or threat: does golden eagle predation risk have cascading effects on forest grouse?

    PubMed

    Lyly, Mari S; Villers, Alexandre; Koivisto, Elina; Helle, Pekka; Ollila, Tuomo; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies on intraguild predation have mainly focused on within-class assemblages, even though avian top predators may also influence mammalian mesopredator prey. By using nation-wide long-term data from Finland, northern Europe, we examined the impacts of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) together with red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and pine martens (Martes martes) on forest-dwelling herbivores, black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) and hazel grouse (Tetrastes bonasia). We hypothesized that eagles may alleviate the overall predation pressure on grouse by imposing intraguild predation risk on mesopredators. The predation impact of eagle was modelled using eagle density estimates and distance to eagle nest. Wildlife triangle counts were used as predation impact proxies of mammalian mesopredators and as measures of response in grouse. Our results show that eagle density correlated negatively with black grouse abundance indices while being positively associated with the proportion of juveniles in both grouse species, irrespective of the abundance of mesopredators. Yet, foxes and martens alone had a negative effect on the abundance indices and the proportion of young in the two grouse species. This suggests that the possible cascading effects of eagles are not mediated by decreased mesopredator numbers, but instead by fear effects. Alternatively, they may be mediated by other species than fox or marten studied here. In conclusion, we found support for the hypothesis that eagles provide protection for juvenile black and hazel grouse, whereas they are a threat for adult grouse. This important information helps us to better understand the role of avian top predators in terrestrial ecosystems.

  12. Effect of Copper Sulfate and Lead Acetate on Infection of Pines with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    PubMed Central

    Huber, M. C.; Winter, R. E. K.; Bolla, R. I.

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of 3-year-old Scots, white, and Austrian pine seedlings with copper sulfate or lead acetate significantly affected energy homeostasis and oleoresin production in the seedlings but did not induce wilting of the seedlings. Inoculation of copper sulfate-treated or lead acetate-treated white, Scots, and Austrian pine seedlings with the white pine specific pathotype of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, VPSt-1, caused a significant increase in oleoresin production, stressed energy homeostasis, and induced rapid wilting of the seedlings. Scots pine lost tolerance and Austrian pine lost resistance to VPSt-1 after the seedlings were treated with either copper sulfate or lead acetate. These results suggest that environmental pollution may significantly affect susceptibility of pines to B. xylophilus and may have a role in establishment of this nematode in uninfested areas. PMID:19287570

  13. Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Infection of Pine Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Bolla, R. I.; Fitzsimmons, K.

    1988-01-01

    White, Scots, and Austrian 3-year-old pine seedlings were treated with conditions simulating acid rain and inoculated with the white pine specific pathotype of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, VPSt-1. Oleoresin concentration increased slightly and carbohydrate concentration decreased in all seedlings treated with simulated acid rain (SAR). The changes were significantly increased after inoculation of SAR-treated white and Scots pine seedlings with VPSt-1. Wilting was delayed and nematode reproduction decreased in SAR-treated white pine seedlings inoculated with VPSt-1. SAR-treated Austrian pine seedlings were resistant to VPSt-1, but SAR-treated Scots pine seedlings lost tolerance to VPSt-1 and wilted 50-60 days after inoculation. PMID:19290259

  14. AmeriFlux US-Wi6 Pine barrens #1 (PB1)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi6 Pine barrens #1 (PB1). Site Description - The Wisconsin Pine Barrens site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the northeastern section of Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. As an assemblage, the ten Wisconsin sites are indicative of the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. In order to establish and maintain both natural and plantation jack pine stands, pine barrens undergo prescribed burns and harvesting rotations. Pine Barrens occupy 17% of the region in 2001.

  15. Reticulate evolution and incomplete lineage sorting among the ponderosa pines.

    PubMed

    Willyard, Ann; Cronn, Richard; Liston, Aaron

    2009-08-01

    Interspecific gene flow via hybridization may play a major role in evolution by creating reticulate rather than hierarchical lineages in plant species. Occasional diploid pine hybrids indicate the potential for introgression, but reticulation is hard to detect because ancestral polymorphism is still shared across many groups of pine species. Nucleotide sequences for 53 accessions from 17 species in subsection Ponderosae (Pinus) provide evidence for reticulate evolution. Two discordant patterns among independent low-copy nuclear gene trees and a chloroplast haplotype are better explained by introgression than incomplete lineage sorting or other causes of incongruence. Conflicting resolution of three monophyletic Pinus coulteri accessions is best explained by ancient introgression followed by a genetic bottleneck. More recent hybridization transferred a chloroplast from P. jeffreyi to a sympatric P. washoensis individual. We conclude that incomplete lineage sorting could account for other examples of non-monophyly, and caution against any analysis based on single-accession or single-locus sampling in Pinus.

  16. Rapid thinning of Pine Island Glacier in the early Holocene.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J S; Bentley, M J; Smith, J A; Finkel, R C; Rood, D H; Gohl, K; Balco, G; Larter, R D; Schaefer, J M

    2014-02-28

    Pine Island Glacier, a major outlet of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, has been undergoing rapid thinning and retreat for the past two decades. We demonstrate, using glacial-geological and geochronological data, that Pine Island Glacier (PIG) also experienced rapid thinning during the early Holocene, around 8000 years ago. Cosmogenic (10)Be concentrations in glacially transported rocks show that this thinning was sustained for decades to centuries at an average rate of more than 100 centimeters per year, which is comparable with contemporary thinning rates. The most likely mechanism was a reduction in ice shelf buttressing. Our findings reveal that PIG has experienced rapid thinning at least once in the past and that, once set in motion, rapid ice sheet changes in this region can persist for centuries.

  17. Biogeochemistry of bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) at treeline

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, R.L. Jr.; Konowalchuk, B.; Rosenberger, M.L. )

    1994-06-01

    Treeline along the front range in Colorado has shifted numerous times during the Holocene and the stems of bristlecone pine persevere in fossil stands above the present limit of tree survival. Bristlecone pine are also interesting because live foliage persist for up to 25 years. We measured foliage nutrient composition of different aged leaves, and also soil nitrogen and phosphorous fractions along an elevation transect in present day stands, and soil N and P fractions that are within fossil (800 yr BP) stands. Foliage N and P vary systematically according to elevation with nitrogen abundance increasing up-slope. Individual trees also show a marked island effect with both N and P soil content highest adjacent to stems. For stems in fossil stands, the island effect has persisted but only for some P fractions but not for nitrogen. Recent trends in foliar N and P contents are discussed in terms of anthropogenic nitrogen saturation at high elevation along the front range in Colorado.

  18. Ocean mixing beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Satoshi; Dutrieux, Pierre; Jenkins, Adrian; Forryan, Alexander; Naveira Garabato, Alberto; Firing, Yvonne

    2016-04-01

    Ice shelves around Antarctica are vulnerable to increase in ocean-driven melting, with the melt rate depending on ocean temperature and strength of sub-ice-shelf-cavity circulations. We present repeated measurements of velocity, temperature, salinity, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and thermal variance dissipation rate beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, collected by CTD, ADCP and turbulence sensors mounted on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The turbulence quantities measured by the AUV outside the ice shelf are in good agreement with ship-based measurements. The highest rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation is found near the grounding line, while its temporal fluctuation over seabed ridge within the cavity corresponds to the tidal fluctuation predicted in the Pine Island Bay to the west. The highest thermal variance dissipation rate is found when the AUV was 0.5 m away from the ice, and the thermal variance dissipation generally increases with decreasing distance between the AUV and ice.

  19. Soil temperature triggers the onset of photosynthesis in Korean pine.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiabing; Guan, Dexin; Yuan, Fenhui; Wang, Anzhi; Jin, Changjie

    2013-01-01

    In forest ecosystems, the onset of spring photosynthesis may have an important influence on the annual carbon balance. However, triggers for the onset of photosynthesis have yet to be clearly identified, especially for temperate evergreen conifers. The effects of climatic factors on recovery of photosynthetic capacity in a Korean pine forest were investigated in the field. No photosynthesis was detectable when the soil temperature was below 0 °C even if the air temperature was far beyond 15 °C. The onset of photosynthesis and sap flow was coincident with the time of soil thawing. The rates of recovery of photosynthetic capacity highly fluctuated with air temperature after onset of photosynthesis, and intermittent frost events remarkably inhibited the photosynthetic capacity of the needles. The results suggest that earlier soil thawing is more important than air temperature increases in triggering the onset of photosynthesis in Korean pine in temperate zones under global warming scenarios.

  20. Chemical induction of resinosis in southern pines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, J.; Outcalt, K.W.

    1982-01-01

    Research studies in the use of paraquat, a contact herbicide, for lightwood induction; i.e., the accumulation of oleoresin in the boles of living southern pine trees are summarized. The objectives of this research were to determine oleoresin yields as influenced by treatment factors, to estimate treatment costs, to uncover technical problems, both in the field and processng plants, and to assess the problem of bark beetle attacks on treated trees. Two pulp and paper mill trials using paraquat-treated wood were conducted, one with loblolly and one with slash pine. The loblolly trial yielded 40 percent more tall oil, or an extra 27.2 pounds/cord of wood. Due to limited turpentine condenser capacity, no additional turpentine was recovered. However, there is evidence to believe that an additional one gal./cord could have been realized.

  1. Chemical alterations of pine wood saccharides during heat sterilisation.

    PubMed

    Kačík, František; Šmíra, Pavel; Kačíková, Danica; Veľková, Veronika; Nasswettrová, Andrea; Vacek, Vladimír

    2015-03-06

    Alterations in saccharides during heat sterilisation of pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) were investigated. The mass loss, extractives, lignin, cellulose, holocellulose and hemicelluloses were determined. Changes in saccharides were evaluated by the determination of monosaccharides in wood, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) as well as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. During heat sterilisation of pine wood the slight mass loss, an increase in extractives and a decrease in lignin and polysaccharides were observed. Hemicelluloses are degraded approximately twice as fast as cellulose. The degree of polymerisation of cellulose decreases approximately by 10% and it increases in holocellulose (by approx. 8%) as a result of a faster degradation of shorter hemicellulose chains. FTIR spectroscopy shows that sterilisation results in the deacetylation of cellulose and the formation of new carbonyl groups, an increase in the total crystallinity index (TCI) and a decrease in the lateral order index (LOI) and the hydrogen-bond intensity (HBI).

  2. Pre-visual detection of stress in pine forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, C. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Pre-visual, or early, detection of forest stress with particular reference to detection of attacks by pine bark beetles is discussed. Preliminary efforts to obtain early detection of attacks by pine bark beetles, using MSS data from the ERIM M-7 scanner, were not sufficiently successful to demonstrate an operational capability, but indicate that joint processing of the 0.71 to 0.73, 2.00 to 2.60, and 9.3 to 11.7 micrometer bands holds some promise. Ratio processing of transformed data from the 0.45 to 0.52, 1.55 to 2.60, and 4.5 to 5.5 or 9.3 to 11.7 micrometer regions appears even more promising.

  3. Induction of anti-melanoma CTL response using DC transfected with mutated mRNA encoding full-length Melan-A/MART-1 antigen with an A27L amino acid substitution.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Zeinab; Kalady, Matthew F; Emani, Sirisha; Onaitis, Mark W; Abdel-Wahab, Omar I; Cisco, Robin; Wheless, Lee; Cheng, Tsung-Yen; Tyler, Douglas S; Pruitt, Scott K

    2003-08-01

    Modification of the parental immunodominant Melan-A/MART-1 peptide (MART-1(26-35)) by replacing the alanine with leucine (A27L) enhances its immunogenicity. Because of the reported advantages of RNA over peptides in DC vaccines, we sought to mutate the MART-1 gene to encode a full-length MART-1 antigen with an A27L amino acid substitution. Human DC were transfected with A27L-mutated MART-1 RNA (A27L RNA) or native MART-1 RNA, and then used to stimulate autologous T cells from a series of 8 HLA-A2+ volunteers. After three stimulations, all CTL induced with DC/A27L RNA exhibited more tetramer+ cells, and demonstrated stronger antigen-specific IFNgamma-secreting activity compared to CTL induced with DC/native RNA. A potent MART-1-specific, and predominantly class-I-restricted lysis was detected in most CTL induced with DC/A27L RNA, while native RNA-induced CTL showed minimal and non-specific lysis. HLA-A2+ DC and MART-1 negative/A2+ melanoma cells transfected with the A27L RNA were recognized and killed by MART-1-specific CTL, suggesting that these APC efficiently processed the A27L RNA and presented correct MART-1-specific epitope(s). In summary, introducing an A27L mutation into the MART-1 full-length mRNA sequence enhanced the immunogenicity of the encoded MART-1 Ag. The ease with which such a mutation can be made in RNA presents another potential advantage of using RNA for immunotherapy. Our results support considering this strategy for enhancing the immunogenicity of DC-based RNA vaccines.

  4. Limitation of Pb and Cd uptake by pine

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrowska, A.; Porebska, G.; Szczubialka, Z.

    2006-07-15

    Model experiments were carried out using 1-year-old pine plants grown in water cultures with the aim of investigating whether and to what extent the accumulation of Pb and Cd in plants can be decreased through decreasing the nutrient solution concentration, supplementing with forest soil, supplementing with calcium carbonate, and addition of brown coal. It was found that with increased doses of Pb and Cd in water cultures pine plants take up more of those elements. Whereas Pb accumulates mainly in the roots, about half of the Cd is transported to the above-ground part of the plants. Addition of Pb, Cd, and forest soil to the nutrition medium increased Pb uptake by pine plants compared to the control treatment. The effect of soil addition was not that evident in the case of Cd uptake. Furthermore, it was observed that addition of brown coal resulted in a slight increase of Pb accumulation in the shoots and in a considerable decrease of its accumulation in roots. A higher increase of Cd accumulation in the shoots was observed after brown coal was added to the nutrient solution. The amounts of Cd and Pb accumulated in plants, mainly in the shoots, decreased following the addition of CaCO{sub 3}. When CaCO{sub 3} and brown coal were added jointly, this effect was markedly more pronounced. The decrease of nutrient supply (down to one-quarter of the original concentration) increased the content of Pb, especially in the roots; for Cd, changes in its content in pine were not univocal.

  5. A laccase associated with lignification in loblolly pine xylem

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, W.; O'Malley, D.; Whetten, R.; Sederoff, R.R. )

    1993-04-30

    Peroxidase has been thought to be the only enzyme that oxidizes monolignol precursors to initiate lignin formation in plants. A laccase was purified from cell walls of differentiating xylem of loblolly pine and shown to coincide in time and place with lignin formation and to oxidize monolignols to dehydrogenation products in vitro. These results suggest that laccase participates in lignin biosynthesis and therefore could be an important target for genetic engineering to modify wood properties or to improve the digestibility of forage corps.

  6. Root Disease, Longleaf Pine Mortality, and Prescribed Burning

    SciTech Connect

    Otrosina, W.J; C.H. Walkinshaw; S.J. Zarnoch; S-J. Sung; B.T. Sullivan

    2001-01-01

    Study to determine factors involved in decline of longleaf pine associated with prescribed burning. Trees having symptoms were recorded by crown rating system based upon symptom severity-corresponded to tree physiological status-increased in hot burn plots. Root pathogenic fungi widespread throughout the study site. Histological studies show high fine root mortality rate in the hot burn treatment. Decline syndrome is complexed by root pathogens, soil factors, root damage and dysfunction.

  7. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE PINE STREET BRIDGE. THE LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM THE PINE STREET BRIDGE. THE LOCK ACCESS ROAD (FORMER TOW PATH) IS AT THE EXTREME LEFT, AND LOCKS 69 THROUGH 67 ARE IN THE CENTER LEFT, THE LOCK MACHINE SHOP IS IN THE MID-GROUND CENTER, AND THE ERIE CANAL MUSEUM (FORMER LOCK POWER PLANT) IN THE BACKGROUND CENTER. THE BARGE CANAL LOCK 34 IS AT THE EXTREME RIGHT. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY

  8. Tall oil precursors in the sapwood of four southern pines

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkel, D.F.; Foster, D.O.

    1980-05-01

    The composition of the tall oil precursors in the sapwood of slash, longleaf, shortleaf, and Virginia pines has been determined. Qualitative and quantitative changes occur in these precursors during kraft pulping. In addition to isomerization of fatty acids and resin acids, significant losses of resin acids occur. These losses are of economic significance in tall oil recovery, particularly in potential future recovery of lightwood resin acids (rosin) as tall oil.

  9. Pine Island Glacier - local flow mechanisms and basal sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkens, N. M.; Kleiner, T.; Humbert, A.

    2013-12-01

    Pine Island Glacier is a fast moving outlet glacier in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Several tributaries feeding the central ice stream characterise the flow field structure of this glacier. In the past decades the glacier has shown acceleration, thinning and a significant grounding line retreat. These ongoing processes are coinciding with a concentrated mass loss in the area around Pine Island Glacier, the Amundsen Sea Embayment. The area is of additional interest due to its retrograde bed slope. The postulated instability of the setting turns the glacier into an even more suitable object for modelling studies. One major challenge encountered when modelling the flow field of Pine Island Glacier is to reproduce the locally varying flow pattern, with its many tributaries. Commonly this difficulty is overcome by inversion for parameters controlling basal sliding. Our study is aimed at connecting basal sliding again to physical parameters. To achieve this we conduct experiments of Pine Island Glacier with the diagnostic 3D full-Stokes model COMice. The model is thermo-mechanically coupled and implemented with the commercial finite-element package COMSOL Multiphysics©. We use remotely sensed surface velocity data to validate our results. In a first step, the model is used to identify dominant local mechanisms that drive the flow of the different tributaries. We identify connections between the basal topography, the basal temperature, the driving stress and the basal roughness distribution. The thus gained information is used to confine basal sliding. Areas with similar qualitative characteristics are identified, and constant-sliding assumptions made for those. Additionally, the basal roughness distribution is matched onto a basal sliding parameter. This way the sliding law is again brought closer to its original meaning. Our results are important for prognostic model experiments, as we connect basal sliding to locally varying basal properties, which might lead to

  10. Pinon Pine Tree Study, Los Alamos National Laboratory: Source document

    SciTech Connect

    P. R. Fresquez; J. D. Huchton; M. A. Mullen; L. Naranjo, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    One of the dominant tree species growing within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, lands is the pinon pine (Pinus edulis) tree. Pinon pine is used for firewood, fence posts, and building materials and is a source of nuts for food--the seeds are consumed by a wide variety of animals and are also gathered by people in the area and eaten raw or roasted. This study investigated the (1) concentration of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup tot}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in soils (0- to 12-in. [31 cm] depth underneath the tree), pinon pine shoots (PPS), and pinon pine nuts (PPN) collected from LANL lands and regional background (BG) locations, (2) concentrations of radionuclides in PPN collected in 1977 to present data, (3) committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from the ingestion of nuts, and (4) soil to PPS to PPN concentration ratios (CRs). Most radionuclides, with the exception of {sup 3}H in soils, were not significantly higher (p < 0.10) in soils, PPS, and PPN collected from LANL as compared to BG locations, and concentrations of most radionuclides in PPN from LANL have decreased over time. The maximum net CEDE (the CEDE plus two sigma minus BG) at the most conservative ingestion rate (10 lb [4.5 kg]) was 0.0018 mrem (0.018 {micro}Sv). Soil-to-nut CRs for most radionuclides were within the range of default values in the literature for common fruits and vegetables.

  11. Pine invasions in treeless environments: dispersal overruns microsite heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Pauchard, Aníbal; Escudero, Adrián; García, Rafael A; de la Cruz, Marcelino; Langdon, Bárbara; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Esquivel, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    Understanding biological invasions patterns and mechanisms is highly needed for forecasting and managing these processes and their negative impacts. At small scales, ecological processes driving plant invasions are expected to produce a spatially explicit pattern driven by propagule pressure and local ground heterogeneity. Our aim was to determine the interplay between the intensity of seed rain, using distance to a mature plantation as a proxy, and microsite heterogeneity in the spreading of Pinus contorta in the treeless Patagonian steppe. Three one-hectare plots were located under different degrees of P. contorta invasion (Coyhaique Alto, 45° 30'S and 71° 42'W). We fitted three types of inhomogeneous Poisson models to each pine plot in an attempt for describing the observed pattern as accurately as possible: the "dispersal" models, "local ground heterogeneity" models, and "combined" models, using both types of covariates. To include the temporal axis in the invasion process, we analyzed both the pattern of young and old recruits and also of all recruits together. As hypothesized, the spatial patterns of recruited pines showed coarse scale heterogeneity. Early pine invasion spatial patterns in our Patagonian steppe site is not different from expectations of inhomogeneous Poisson processes taking into consideration a linear and negative dependency of pine recruit intensity on the distance to afforestations. Models including ground-cover predictors were able to describe the point pattern process only in a couple of cases but never better than dispersal models. This finding concurs with the idea that early invasions depend more on seed pressure than on the biotic and abiotic relationships seed and seedlings establish at the microsite scale. Our results show that without a timely and active management, P. contorta will invade the Patagonian steppe independently of the local ground-cover conditions.

  12. Intra- and interspecific interactions of Scots pine and European beech in mixed secondary forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erfanifard, Yousef; Stereńczak, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    By the mid successional stages, secondary forests of Scots pine in Europe are dominated by mixed stands of pioneer Scots pine and late-successional European beech. The objective of this study was to explore the interactions of pine and beech with their conspecific and heterospecific neighbours in these forests. To accomplish the objective, pine and beech trees were stem-mapped in forty 500 m2 plots randomly located within 18 mixed stands in Milomlyn Forest District, northern Poland. The interactions within and between the species were analysed through two structurally different univariate and bivariate second-order summary statistics, i.e. pair correlation function g(r) and mark correlation function kmm(r). Field measurements showed that the overstorey was dominated by even-aged pine, whereas uneven-aged beech was the only species in the understorey. Pine trees presented an aggregation, while beech trees exhibited a dispersed structure in all stands. In addition, pine trees showed strong attraction to beech trees at small spatial scales (0-2 m). Negative correlation was found between tree height and diameter at breast height of beech, while there was no correlation between height and diameter of pine trees. We conclude that pine trees exhibit negative intraspecific interactions at small spatial scales that are mostly driven by their competitive interactions. Beech trees show strong positive intraspecific interactions and form clumps within pine canopy cover. The strong positive interspecific interactions of pine and beech are the outcome of their different shade tolerance. Our results help to explain successful coexistence of pine and beech in the study site and highlight detailed tree-tree interactions of the species in mixed stands.

  13. Oviposition stimulants for the beetle,Monochamus alternatus hope, in inner bark of pine.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, T; Sakai, M; Miyawaki, S

    1989-02-01

    Field and laboratory ovipositional responses ofMonochamus alternatus Hope, respectively, to methanol and water extracts from pine inner bark were examined in comparison with those to pine inner bark, especially using a laboratory-built apparatus for the latter bioassay. Irrespective of the existence of volatiles from paraquat-induced lightwood, pine inner bark and its methanol and water extracts stimulated ovipositional response only in the presence of free moisture.

  14. Controlling herbaceous competition in pasture planted with loblolly pine seedlings. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    Three treatments designed to control herbaceous vegetation competing with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings planted in grazed and ungrazed pasture were tested. Effects of the treatments on seedling survival and growth during the first 3 years after planting were determined. The treatments were directed application of herbicides (glyphosate in the first 2 years and hexazinone in the third year), rotary mowing, and mulching with pine straw around individual pine seedlings.

  15. Geohydrologic data for selected springs in eastern Nevada through 1982, with emphasis on White Pine County

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pupacko, Alex; Wood, D.B.; Williams, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    Discharge and water-chemistry data for springs in eastern Nevada , with an emphasis on White Pine County, are compiled and tabulated. Discharge data for springs emanating from the deep carbonate rocks are included. The report contains: (1) miscellaneous discharge measurements for 131 selected springs in White Pine County and vicinity; (2) selected water quality data for 557 sampled springs in White Pine County and vicinity; and (3) discharge data for 42 regional springs in the eastern Nevada carbonate-rock system. (USGS)

  16. AmeriFlux US-NMj Northern Michigan Jack Pine Stand

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-NMj Northern Michigan Jack Pine Stand. Site Description - The jack pine site is owned by Michigan Technological University. The stand is managed, and thus thinned and harvested depending on stand age. This jack pine site is naturally regenerating following a clearcut around 1989. Heavy snow in December 2001 c

  17. Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase from Loblolly Pine 1

    PubMed Central

    Whetten, Ross W.; Sederoff, Ronald R.

    1992-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) has been purified from differentiating secondary xylem of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Native molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 280,000, with a subunit molecular weight of 74,000; isoelectric point, 5.8; and Michaelis constant for i-phenylalanine, 27 micromolar. No evidence was obtained for the existence of isoforms of the enzyme, nor for negative cooperativity of substrate binding. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase subunit and used to identify a pal clone in an expression library of xylem complementary DNA (cDNA). Polymerase chain reaction, using oligonucleotide primers made from N-terminal amino acid sequence and from the 5′ end of the clone isolated from the expression library, was also used to isolate cDNA clones. These methods yielded cDNA clones covering the protein coding region of the pal messenger RNA. Comparisons of nucleotide sequence of pal cDNAs from pine, bean, sweet potato, and rice showed 60 to 62% identity between the pine clone and the angiosperm clones. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4 PMID:16668639

  18. Nanocrystalline cellulose extracted from pine wood and corncob.

    PubMed

    Ditzel, Fernanda I; Prestes, Eduardo; Carvalho, Benjamim M; Demiate, Ivo M; Pinheiro, Luís A

    2017-02-10

    The extraction of nanocrystalline cellulose from agro-residues is an interesting alternative to recover these materials. In the present study, nanocrystalline cellulose was extracted from pine wood and corncob. In addition, microcrystalline cellulose was used as a reference to compare results. Initially, the lignocellulosic residues were submitted to delignification pre-treatments. At the end of the process, the bleached fibre was submitted to acid hydrolysis. Additionally, microparticles were obtained from the spray-drying of the nanocrystalline cellulose suspensions. The nanocrystalline cellulose yield for the pine wood was 9.0-% of the value attained for the microcrystalline cellulose. For the corncob, the value was 23.5-%. Therefore, complementary studies are necessary to improve the yield. The spray-dried microparticles showed a crystallinity index of 67.8-% for the pine wood, 70.9-% for the corncob and 79.3-% for the microcrystalline cellulose. These microparticles have great potential for use in the production of polymer composites processed by extrusion.

  19. Slope Stability Analysis of Mountain Pine Beetle Impacted Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogenschuetz, N. M.; Bearup, L. A.; Maxwell, R. M.; Santi, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae, has caused significant tree mortality within North America. Specifically, the MPB affects ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine forests within the Rocky Mountains with approximately 3.4 million acres of forest impacted over the past 20 years. The full impacts of such unprecedented tree mortality on hydrology and slope stability is not well understood. This work studies the affects of MPB infestation on slope instability. A large-scale statistical analysis of MPB and slope stability is combined with a more in-depth analysis of the factors that contribute to slope stability. These factors include: slope aspect, slope angle, root decay, regrowth and hydrologic properties, such as water table depth and soil moisture. Preliminary results show that MPB may affect a greater number of north- and east-facing slopes. This is in accordance with more water availability and a higher MPB impacted tree density on north-facing slopes which, in turn, could potentially increase the probability of slope failure. Root strength is predicted to decrease as the roots stop transpiring 3-4 years proceeding infestation. However, this effect on the hillslope is likely being counterbalanced by the regrowth of grasses, forbs, shrubs, and trees. In addition, the increase in water table height from the lack of transpiring trees is adding a driving force to the slopes. The combination of all these factors will be used in order to assess the effects of MPB tree mortality on slope stability.

  20. Enhanced airborne radioactivity during a pine pollen release episode.

    PubMed

    Tschiersch, J; Frank, G; Roth, P; Wagenpfeil, F; Watterson, F; Watterson, J

    1999-07-01

    A single episode of pine pollen release in the highly contaminated area of Novozybkov, Russian Federation, which led to enhanced atmospheric concentrations of 137Cs is discussed. The pollen grains were sampled by a rotating arm impactor and analysed by gamma-spectrometry for 137Cs activity and by image analysis for their size. In the vicinity of a forest, a maximum concentration of 4.5+/-0.4 mBq m(-3) was measured, and a mean activity per pollen grain of 260+/-80 nBq was determined. The emission rate of the Novozybkov mixed pine forest was estimated to be approximately 400 Bq m(-2) per year. Because of the large size of pine pollen grains (about 50 microm) and the short emission period of 5-8 days per year, the estimated potential annual inhalation doses are very low. Biological emissions including pollen release may be a source of increased airborne radionuclide concentrations at larger distances from the source areas as well.

  1. The geographic selection mosaic for squirrels, crossbills and Aleppo pine.

    PubMed

    Mezquida, E T; Benkman, C W

    2005-03-01

    The interactions between many species are structured in a geographic mosaic of populations among which selection is divergent. Here we tested the hypothesis that such a geographic selection mosaic arises for common crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) feeding on seeds in the cones of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) because of geographic variation in the occurrence of European red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). On the Iberian Peninsula, Sciurus exerted directional selection favouring larger cones with larger scales, which has caused cones there to be larger than in the Balearic Islands where Sciurus are absent. Moreover, cones on the Iberian Peninsula are so large that they are apparently little used by the relatively small-billed crossbills on the Peninsula; selection by Sciurus seems to have made the cones so difficult to feed on that crossbills rely mostly on the seeds of other conifers. Where crossbills are present but Sciurus are absent (Mallorca Island), cones were smaller as a result of relaxation of selection by Sciurus. However, cones on Mallorca had proportionally thicker scales in comparison to where both Sciurus and crossbills are absent (Ibiza Island), presumably as an adaptation against crossbill predation. Here crossbills specialize on Aleppo pine, have relatively large bills and have apparently coevolved in an arms race with Aleppo pine. These results suggest that Sciurus has influenced both the geographic selection mosaics for crossbills and conifers and the adaptive radiation of crossbills in Eurasia much like Tamiasciurus has done in the North America.

  2. A maritime pine antimicrobial peptide involved in ammonium nutrition.

    PubMed

    Canales, Javier; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2011-09-01

    A large family of small cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is involved in the innate defence of plants against pathogens. Recently, it has been shown that AMPs may also play important roles in plant growth and development. In previous work, we have identified a gene of the AMP β-barrelin family that was differentially regulated in the roots of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in response to changes in ammonium nutrition. Here, we present the molecular characterization of two AMP genes, PpAMP1 and PpAMP2, showing different molecular structure and physicochemical properties. PpAMP1 and PpAMP2 displayed different expression patterns in maritime pine seedlings and adult trees. Furthermore, our expression analyses indicate that PpAMP1 is the major form of AMP in the tree, and its relative abundance is regulated by ammonium availability. In contrast, PpAMP2 is expressed at much lower levels and it is not regulated by ammonium. To gain new insights into the function of PpAMP1, we over-expressed the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and demonstrated that PpAMP1 strongly inhibited yeast growth, indicating that it exhibits antimicrobial activity. We have also found that PpAMP1 alters ammonium uptake, suggesting that it is involved in the regulation of ammonium ion flux into pine roots.

  3. The effect of fire frequency on local cembra pine populations.

    PubMed

    Genries, A; Mercier, L; Lavoie, M; Muller, S D; Radakovitch, O; Carcaillet, C

    2009-02-01

    It has been predicted that global climate change will lead to increasing drought in the Alps during the 21st century, as well as an increased fire risk, fires being currently rare in these mountains. Herein we describe fire frequency reconstruction using high-resolution analyses of macroscopic sedimentary charcoal, pollen, and plant macrofossils. Sediments were sampled from a subalpine pond within the dry western French Alps. Results show that the early-Holocene expansion of Pinus cembra (7200 calibrated years BP) occurred in Acer/Alnus incana/Betula woodlands, which were affected by fires with moderate mean fire-free intervals (MFFI = 173 +/- 61 yr [mean +/- SE]). Superposed Epoch Analyses show that the abundance of P. cembra macroremains decreased significantly after burning, although they never disappeared entirely. Statistics suggest that fires spread through cembra pine communities; they were not stand-replacing fires but mainly surface fires, probably killing nonreproductive pines. An increase in fire frequency occurred 6740 years ago, when four fires appear to have occurred within 140 years. These fires may have been associated with a regional drought and could have affected the composition of the subalpine forest by depleting the local P. cembra population in the short-term. The predicted increase in drought in the future could, therefore, affect the cembra pine ecosystem in the Alps if fire frequency is reduced to intervals of less than 80 years.

  4. Adoptive transfer of MART-1 T cell receptor transgenic lymphocytes and dendritic cell vaccination in patients with metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Chodon, Thinle; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Koya, Richard C; Wu, Zhongqi; Auerbach, Martin; Ng, Charles; Avramis, Earl; Seja, Elizabeth; Villanueva, Arturo; McCannel, Tara A.; Ishiyama, Akira; Czernin, Johannes; Radu, Caius G.; Wang, Xiaoyan; Gjertson, David W.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Cornetta, Kenneth; Wong, Deborah J.L.; Kaplan-lefko, Paula; Hamid, Omid; Samlowski, Wolfram; Cohen, Peter A.; Daniels, Gregory A.; Mukherji, Bijay; Yang, Lili; Zack, Jerome A.; Kohn, Donald B.; Heath, James R.; Glaspy, John A.; Witte, Owen N.; Baltimore, David; Economou, James S.; Ribas, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Purpose It has been demonstrated that large numbers of tumor-specific T cells for adoptive cell transfer (ACT) can be manufactured by retroviral genetic engineering of autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes and expanding them over several weeks. In mouse models, this therapy is optimized when administered with dendritic cell (DC) vaccination. We developed a short one-week manufacture protocol to determine the feasibility, safety and antitumor efficacy of this double cell therapy. Experimnetal Design A clinical trial (NCT00910650) adoptively transferring MART-1 T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic lymphocytes together with MART-1 peptide pulsed DC vaccination in HLA-A2.1 patients with metastatic melanoma. Autologous TCR transgenic cells were manufactured in 6 to 7 days using retroviral vector gene transfer, and re-infused with (n = 10) or without (n = 3) prior cryopreservation. Results 14 patients with metastatic melanoma were enrolled and nine out of 13 treated patients (69%) showed evidence of tumor regression. Peripheral blood reconstitution with MART-1-specific T cells peaked within two weeks of ACT indicating rapid in vivo expansion. Administration of freshly manufactured TCR transgenic T cells resulted in a higher persistence of MART-1-specific T cells in the blood as compared to cryopreserved. Evidence that DC vaccination could cause further in vivo expansion was only observed with ACT using non-cryopreserved T cells. Conclusion Double cell therapy with ACT of TCR engineered T cells with a very short ex vivo manipulation and DC vaccines is feasible and results in antitumor activity, but improvements are needed to maintain tumor responses. PMID:24634374

  5. Impact of alien pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities-evidence from two continents.

    PubMed

    Gazol, Antonio; Zobel, Martin; Cantero, Juan José; Davison, John; Esler, Karen J; Jairus, Teele; Öpik, Maarja; Vasar, Martti; Moora, Mari

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of alien plants can influence biodiversity and ecosystems. However, its consequences for soil microbial communities remain poorly understood. We addressed the impact of alien ectomycorrhizal (EcM) pines on local arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities in two regions with contrasting biogeographic histories: in South Africa, where no native EcM plant species are present; and in Argentina, where EcM trees occur naturally. The effect of alien pines on AM fungal communities differed between these regions. In South Africa, plantations of alien EcM pines exhibited lower AM fungal richness and significantly altered community composition, compared with native fynbos. In Argentina, the richness and composition of local AM fungal communities were similar in plantations of alien EcM pines and native forest. However, the presence of alien pines resulted in slight changes to the phylogenetic structure of root AM fungal communities in both regions. In pine clearcut areas in South Africa, the richness and composition of AM fungal communities were intermediate between the native fynbos and the alien pine plantation, which is consistent with natural regeneration of former AM fungal communities following pine removal. We conclude that the response of local AM fungal communities to alien EcM pines differs between biogeographic regions with different histories of species coexistence.

  6. Use hyperspectral remote sensing technique to monitoring pine wood nomatode disease preliminary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Lin; Wang, Xianghong; Jiang, Jing; Yang, Xianchang; Ke, Daiyan; Li, Hongqun; Wang, Dingyi

    2016-10-01

    The pine wilt disease is a devastating disease of pine trees. In China, the first discoveries of the pine wilt disease on 1982 at Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum in Nanjing. It occurred an area of 77000 hm2 in 2005, More than 1540000 pine trees deaths in the year. Many districts of Chongqing in Three Gorges Reservoir have different degrees of pine wilt disease occurrence. It is a serious threat to the ecological environment of the reservoir area. Use unmanned airship to carry high spectrum remote sensing monitoring technology to develop the study on pine wood nematode disease early diagnosis and early warning and forecasting in this study. The hyper spectral data and the digital orthophoto map data of Fuling District Yongsheng Forestry had been achieved In September 2015. Using digital image processing technology to deal with the digital orthophoto map, the number of disease tree and its distribution is automatic identified. Hyper spectral remote sensing data is processed by the spectrum comparison algorithm, and the number and distribution of disease pine trees are also obtained. Two results are compared, the distribution area of disease pine trees are basically the same, indicating that using low air remote sensing technology to monitor the pine wood nematode distribution is successful. From the results we can see that the hyper spectral data analysis results more accurate and less affected by environmental factors than digital orthophoto map analysis results, and more environment variable can be extracted, so the hyper spectral data study is future development direction.

  7. Change of evapotranspiration components due to the succession from Japanese red pine to evergreen oak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Shin'ichi; Tanaka, Tadashi; Sugita, Michiaki

    2006-07-01

    Extensive measurements of water balance components in a forest under the succession from Japanese red pine ( Pinus densiflora) to evergreen oak ( Quercus myrsinaefolia) were carried out. Significant decreases of transpiration from the red pines and forest interception loss were found based on the observational results in 1984/1985 and 2001/2002. The former was the pre-succession period and the latter was the middle succession period in the study forest. Although the forest had a main canopy of the red pines in 1984/1985, the multi-layered canopies were observed in 2001/2002, which were consisted of the upper canopy layer of the red pines and of the lower canopy layer of the evergreen oaks. On the other hand, no significant difference in the amount of total evapotranspiration between the two periods was observed, because the decrease of transpiration from the red pines was compensated by the increase of transpiration from the lower canopy layer, which was about three times larger than that of the red pines. Three factors were identified to produce the large amount of transpiration from the lower canopy layer: (i) increased net radiation over the lower canopy due to the increased gaps in the canopy of red pine, (ii) a relatively small difference of total sapwood area between the red pine and the lower canopies and (iii) larger sap flux densities of main species in the lower canopy which were around two times larger than that of the red pine canopy.

  8. [Allergic contact dermatitis from colophony and turpentine in resins of untreated pine wood].

    PubMed

    Booken, D; Velten, F W; Utikal, J; Goerdt, S; Bayerl, C

    2006-11-01

    Pine wood is one of the most used raw products in furniture manufacturing in Europe. High concentrations of colophony and turpentine can be extracted from pine resins. A 45-year-old woman developed a contact dermatitis of the face and hands due to a sensitization to colophony and turpentine after she had bought untreated pine chairs. The increased use of untreated pine in the furniture industry might result in an increase of colophony and turpentine-induced contact allergies. Therefore, the slogan "untreated=harmless" should be considered critically in such cases.

  9. Differences in healthy food supply and stocking practices between small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Pelletier, Jennifer E.; Harnack, Lisa; Erikson, Darin J.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the practices for stocking and procuring healthy food in non-traditional food retailers (e.g., gas-marts, pharmacies). This study aimed to: (i) compare availability of healthy food items across small food store types, and (ii) examine owner/manager perceptions and stocking practices for healthy food across store types. Design Descriptive analyses were conducted among corner/small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies, and dollar stores. Data from store inventories were used to examine availability of 12 healthy food types and an overall healthy food supply score. Interviews with managers assessed stocking practices and profitability. Setting Small stores in Minneapolis and St. Paul, MN not participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Subjects 119 small food retailers and 71 store managers Results Availability of specific items varied across store types. Only corner/small grocery stores commonly sold fresh vegetables (63%, versus 8% of food-gas marts, 0% dollar stores, and 23% pharmacies). More than half of managers stocking produce relied on cash and carry practices to stock fresh fruit (53%) and vegetables (55%), instead of direct store delivery. Most healthy foods were perceived by managers to have at least average profitability. Conclusions Interventions to improve healthy food offerings in small stores should consider the diverse environments, stocking practices and supply mechanisms of small stores, particularly non-traditional food retailers. Improvements may require technical support, customer engagement, and innovative distribution practices. PMID:26411535

  10. Design and practices for use of automated drilling and sample handling in MARTE while minimizing terrestrial and cross contamination.

    PubMed

    Miller, David P; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Davis, Kiel

    2008-10-01

    Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) investigators used an automated drill and sample processing hardware to detect and categorize life-forms found in subsurface rock at Río Tinto, Spain. For the science to be successful, it was necessary for the biomass from other sources--whether from previously processed samples (cross contamination) or the terrestrial environment (forward contamination)-to be insignificant. The hardware and practices used in MARTE were designed around this problem. Here, we describe some of the design issues that were faced and classify them into problems that are unique to terrestrial tests versus problems that would also exist for a system that was flown to Mars. Assessment of the biomass at various stages in the sample handling process revealed mixed results; the instrument design seemed to minimize cross contamination, but contamination from the surrounding environment sometimes made its way onto the surface of samples. Techniques used during the MARTE Río Tinto project, such as facing the sample, appear to remove this environmental contamination without introducing significant cross contamination from previous samples.

  11. Demographic projection of high-elevation white pines infected with white pine blister rust: a nonlinear disease model.

    PubMed

    Field, S G; Schoettle, A W; Klutsch, J G; Tavener, S J; Antolin, M F

    2012-01-01

    Matrix population models have long been used to examine and predict the fate of threatened populations. However, the majority of these efforts concentrate on long-term equilibrium dynamics of linear systems and their underlying assumptions and, therefore, omit the analysis of transience. Since management decisions are typically concerned with the short-term (< 100 years), asymptotic analyses could lead to inaccurate conclusions or, worse yet, critical parameters or processes of ecological concern may go undetected altogether. We present a stage-structured, deterministic, nonlinear, disease model which is parameterized for the population dynamics of high-elevation white pines in the face of infection with white pine blister rust (WPBR). We evaluate the model using newly developed software to calculate sensitivity and elasticity for nonlinear population models at any projected time step. We concentrate on two points in time, during transience and at equilibrium, and under two scenarios: a regenerating pine stand following environmental disturbance and a stand perturbed by the introduction of WPBR. The model includes strong density-dependent effects on population dynamics, particularly on seedling recruitment, and results in a structure favoring large trees. However, the introduction of WPBR and its associated disease-induced mortality alters stand structure in favor of smaller stages. Populations with infection probability (beta) > or = 0.1 do not reach a stable coexisting equilibrium and deterministically approach extinction. The model enables field observations of low infection prevalence among pine seedlings to be reinterpreted as resulting from disease-induced mortality and short residence time in the seedling stage. Sensitivities and elasticities, combined with model output, suggest that future efforts should focus on improving estimates of within-stand competition, infection probability, and infection cost to survivorship. Mitigating these effects where

  12. Efficacy of verbenone for protecting ponderosa pine stands from western pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack in California.

    PubMed

    Fettig, Christopher J; McKelvey, Stephen R; Borys, Robert R; Dabney, Christopher P; Hamud, Shakeeb M; Nelson, Lori J; Seybold, Steven J

    2009-10-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a major cause of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., mortality in much of western North America. Currently, techniques for managing D. brevicomis infestations are limited. Verbenone (4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo [3.1.1] hept-3-en-2-one) is an antiaggregation pheromone of several Dendroctonus spp., including D. brevicomis, and it has been registered as a biopesticide for control of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann. We evaluated the efficacy of a 5-g verbenone pouch [82%-(-); 50 mg/d] applied at 125 Ulha for protecting P. ponderosa stands (2 ha) from D. brevicomis attack over a 3-yr period. No significant differences in levels of D. brevicomis-caused tree mortality or the percentage of unsuccessfully attacked trees were found between verbenone-treated and untreated plots during each year or cumulatively over the 3-yr period. Laboratory analyses of release rates and chemical composition of volatiles emanating from verbenone pouches after field exposure found no deterioration of the active ingredient or physical malfunction of the release device. The mean release rate of pouches from all locations and exposure periods was 44.5 mg/d. In a trapping bioassay, the range of inhibition of the 5-g verbenone pouch was determined to be statistically constant 2 m from the release device. We discuss the implications of these and other results to the development of verbenone as a semiochemical-based tool for management of D. brevicomis infestations in P. ponderosa stands.

  13. Evaluating Predators and Competitors in Wisconsin Red Pine Forests for Attraction to Mountain Pine Beetle Pheromones for Anticipatory Biological Control.

    PubMed

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Krause, Adam; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an irruptive tree-killing species native to pine forests of western North America. Two potential pathways of spread to eastern forests have recently been identified. First, warming temperatures have driven range expansion from British Columbia into Albertan jack pine forests that are contiguous with the Great Lakes region. Second, high temperatures and drought have fostered largescale outbreaks within the historical range, creating economic incentives to salvage killed timber by transporting logs to midwestern markets, which risks accidental introduction. We evaluated the extent to which local predators and competitors that exploit bark beetle semiochemicals would respond to D. ponderosae in Wisconsin. We emulated D. ponderosae attack by deploying lures containing synthetic aggregation pheromones with and without host tree compounds and blank control traps in six red pine plantations over 2 yr. Predator populations were high in these stands, as evidenced by catches in positive control traps, baited with pheromones of local bark beetles and were deployed distant from behavioral choice plots. Only one predator, Thanasimus dubius F. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was attracted to D. ponderosae's aggregation pheromones relative to blank controls, and its attraction was relatively weak. The most common bark beetles attracted to these pheromones were lower stem and root colonizers, which likely would facilitate rather than compete with D. ponderosae. There was some, but weak, attraction of potentially competing Ips species. Other factors that might influence natural enemy impacts on D. ponderosae in midwestern forests, such as phenological synchrony and exploitation of male-produced pheromones, are discussed.

  14. The legacy of attack: implications of high phloem resin monoterpene levels in lodgepole pines following mass attack by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins.

    PubMed

    Clark, E L; Huber, D P W; Carroll, A L

    2012-04-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is the most serious pest of pines (Pinus) in western North America. Host pines protect themselves from attack by producing a complex mixture of terpenes in their resin. We sampled lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta variety latifolia) phloem resin at four widely separated locations in the interior of British Columbia, Canada, both just before (beginning of July) and substantially after (end of August) the mountain pine beetle dispersal period. The sampled trees then were observed the next spring for evidence of survival, and the levels of seven resin monoterpenes were compared between July and August samples. Trees that did not survive consistently had significantly higher phloem resin monoterpene levels at the end of August compared with levels in July. Trees that did survive mainly did not exhibit a significant difference between the two sample dates. The accumulation of copious defense-related secondary metabolites in the resin of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine has important implications for describing the environmental niche that the beetle offspring survive in as well as that of parasitoids, predators, and other associates.

  15. Rapid Increases in Forest Understory Diversity and Productivity following a Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Outbreak in Pine Forests

    PubMed Central

    Pec, Gregory J.; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N.; Cigan, Paul W.; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W.; Cahill, James F.

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown. PMID:25859663

  16. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests.

    PubMed

    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  17. Removal of anionic dye Congo red from aqueous solution by raw pine and acid-treated pine cone powder as adsorbent: equilibrium, thermodynamic, kinetics, mechanism and process design.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Sara; Sen, Tushar Kanti

    2012-04-15

    Pine cone a natural, low-cost agricultural by-product in Australia has been studied for its potential application as an adsorbent in its raw and hydrochloric acid modified form. Surface study of pine cone and treated pine cone was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The modification process leads to increases in the specific surface area and decreases mean particle sizes of acid-treated pine cone when compared to raw pine cone biomass. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to remove anionic dye Congo red from aqueous solution. It was found that the extent of Congo red adsorption by both raw pine cone biomass and acid-treated biomass increased with initial dye concentration, contact time, temperature but decreased with increasing solution pH and amount of adsorbent of the system. Overall, kinetic studies showed that the dye adsorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics based on pseudo-first-order and intra-particle diffusion models. The different kinetic parameters including rate constant, half-adsorption time, and diffusion coefficient were determined at different physico-chemical conditions. Equilibrium data were best represented by Freundlich isotherm model among Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. It was observed that the adsorption was pH dependent and the maximum adsorption of 32.65 mg/g occurred at pH of 3.55 for an initial dye concentration of 20 ppm by raw pine cone, whereas for acid-treated pine cone the maximum adsorption of 40.19 mg/g for the same experimental conditions. Freundlich constant 'n' also indicated favourable adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters such as ∆G(0), ∆H(0), and ∆S(0) were calculated. A single-stage batch absorber design for the Congo red adsorption onto pine cone biomass also presented based on the Freundlich isotherm model equation.

  18. Phase I trial of a MART-1 peptide vaccine with incomplete Freund's adjuvant for resected high-risk melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Bade, E; Kuniyoshi, C; Spears, L; Jeffery, G; Marty, V; Groshen, S; Weber, J

    1999-10-01

    Twenty-five patients with high-risk resected stages IIB, III, and IV melanoma were immunized with a vaccine consisting of the minimal epitope, immunodominant 9-amino acid peptide derived from the MART-1 tumor antigen (AAGIGILTV) complexed with incomplete Freund's adjuvant. The last three patients received the MART-1(27-35) peptide with incomplete Freund's adjuvant mixed with CRL 1005, a block copolymer adjuvant. Patients were immunized with increasing doses of the MART-1(27-35) peptide in a Phase I trial to evaluate the toxicity, tolerability, and immune responses to the vaccine. Immunizations were administered every 3 weeks for a total of four injections, preceded by leukapheresis to obtain peripheral blood mononuclear cells for immune analyses, followed by a post-vaccine leukapheresis 3 weeks after the fourth vaccination. Skin testing with peptide and standard delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test reagents was also performed before and after vaccinations. Local pain and granuloma formation were observed in the majority of patients, as were fevers or lethargy of grade 1 or 2. No vaccine-related grade III/IV toxicity was observed. The vaccine was felt to be well tolerated. Twelve of 25 patients were anergic to skin testing at the initiation of the trial, and 13 of 25 developed a positive skin test response to the MART-1(27-35) peptide. Immune responses were measured by release of IFN-gamma in an ELISA assay by effector cells after multiple restimulations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of MART-1(27-35) peptide-pulsed antigen-presenting cells. An ELISPOT assay was also developed to measure more quantitatively the change in numbers of peptide-specific effector cells after vaccination. Ten of 22 patients demonstrated an immune response to peptide-pulsed targets or tumor cells by ELISA assay after vaccination, as did 12 of 20 patients by ELISPOT. Nine of 25 patients have relapsed with a median of 16 months of follow-up, and 3 patients in this

  19. Evaluating Evapotranspiration of Pine Forest, Switchgrass, and Pine- Switchgrass Intercroppings using Remote Sensing and Ground-based Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amatya, D. M.; Panda, S.; Chescheir, G. M.; Nettles, J. E.; Appelboom, T.; Skaggs, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    Vast areas of the land in the Southeastern United States are under pine forests managed primarily for timber and related byproducts. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the major loss in the water balance of this forest ecosystem. A long-term (1988-2008) study to evaluate hydrologic and nutrient balance during a life cycle of a pine stand was just completed. The study used both monitoring and modeling approaches to evaluate hydrologic and water quality effects of silvicultural and water management treatments on three 25 ha experimental watersheds in eastern North Carolina (NC). The research was extended in 2009 to include a dedicated energy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), by adding an adjacent 25 ha watershed. These multiple watersheds are being used to evaluate the hydrologic and water quality effects of switchgrass alone, young pine with natural understory, and young pine with switchgrass intercropping compared to the control (pine stand with a natural understory). The biofuels study has been further expanded to two other southern states, Alabama (AL) and Mississippi (MS). Each has five small watersheds (< 25 ha size) consisting of the above treatments and an additional woody biomass removal treatment. In this presentation we provide methods for estimating ET for these treatment watersheds in all three states (NC, AL, and MS) using remote sensing based spatial high resolution multispectral satellite imagery data with ground truthing, where possible, together with sensor technology. This technology is making ET parameter estimation a reality for various crops and vegetation surfaces. Slope-based vegetation indices like Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Green Vegetation Index (GVI) and distance-based vegetation indices like Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) and Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI) will be developed using the R and NIR bands, vegetation density, and background soil reflectance as necessary. Landsat and high resolution aerial

  20. Volatile compounds from anal glands of the wolverine, Gulo gulo.

    PubMed

    Wood, William F; Terwilliger, Miranda N; Copeland, Jeffrey P

    2005-09-01

    Dichloromethane extracts of wolverine (Gulo gulo, Mustelinae, Mustelidae) anal gland secretion were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The secretion composition was complex and variable for the six samples examined: 123 compounds were detected in total, with the number per animal ranging from 45 to 71 compounds. Only six compounds were common to all extracts: 3-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, phenylacetic acid, alpha-tocopherol, cholesterol, and a compound tentatively identified as 2-methyldecanoic acid. The highly odoriferous thietanes and dithiolanes found in anal gland secretions of some members of the Mustelinae [ferrets, mink, stoats, and weasels (Mustela spp.) and zorillas (Ictonyx spp.)] were not observed. The composition of the wolverine's anal gland secretion is similar to that of two other members of the Mustelinae, the pine and beech marten (Martes spp.).

  1. 7 CFR 160.91 - Meaning of words “pine” and “pine tree.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meaning of words âpineâ and âpine tree.â 160.91...” and “pine tree.” The words “pine” or “pine tree,” when used to designate the source of spirits of..., growing trees, the source of gum spirits of turpentine....

  2. 7 CFR 160.91 - Meaning of words “pine” and “pine tree.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meaning of words âpineâ and âpine tree.â 160.91...” and “pine tree.” The words “pine” or “pine tree,” when used to designate the source of spirits of..., growing trees, the source of gum spirits of turpentine....

  3. 7 CFR 160.91 - Meaning of words “pine” and “pine tree.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meaning of words âpineâ and âpine tree.â 160.91...” and “pine tree.” The words “pine” or “pine tree,” when used to designate the source of spirits of..., growing trees, the source of gum spirits of turpentine....

  4. 7 CFR 160.91 - Meaning of words “pine” and “pine tree.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meaning of words âpineâ and âpine tree.â 160.91...” and “pine tree.” The words “pine” or “pine tree,” when used to designate the source of spirits of..., growing trees, the source of gum spirits of turpentine....

  5. 7 CFR 160.91 - Meaning of words “pine” and “pine tree.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meaning of words âpineâ and âpine tree.â 160.91...” and “pine tree.” The words “pine” or “pine tree,” when used to designate the source of spirits of..., growing trees, the source of gum spirits of turpentine....

  6. Reviewers required major changes, including rearranging the two articles, so the new title of the first paper is: HVAC and Refrigeration Experiments at Wal-Mart Experimental Supercenters in Texas and Colorado --- original title: ASHRAE Journal DRAFT article McKinney and Aurora Wal-Mart Stores, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, J Michael; Deru, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, Wal-Mart opened experimental stores in McKinney, Texas (hot climate), and Aurora, Colo. (cold climate). With these projects Wal-Mart can: * Learn how to achieve sustainability improvements; * Gain experience with the design, design process, and operations for some specific advanced technologies; * Understand energy use patterns in their stores more clearly; * Lay groundwork for better understanding of how to achieve major carbon footprint reductions; and * Measure the potential benefits of specific technologies tested.

  7. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetonic extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Conte, Barbara; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Sorbo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains. We tested the extract against both standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinically isolated (CI) bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for bacteria and MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration for fungi were determined. The extract showed an activity against the nine bacterial strains tested, both CI and ATCC strains (MIC comprised between 32 and 128 μm/mL and MBC between 128 and 512 μm/mL), showing a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also, the tested fungi were sensitive to the extract (MIC between 125 and 250 μm/mL). The contemporaneous presence of different bioactivities in the extract from guarana suggests this plant as a source of bioactive substances.

  8. Orofacial antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliane C; Macedo, Larissa A R O; Souza, Grasielly R; Oliveira-Junior, Raimundo G; Lima-Saraiva, Sarah R G; Lavor, Érica M; Silva, Mariana G; Souza, Marilia T S; Bonjardim, Leonardo R; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Mendes, Rosemairy L; Almeida, Jackson R G S

    Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae) is a species popularly known in Brazil as "araticum" and "pinha da Caatinga". We have evaluated the antinociceptive effects of A. vepretorum in formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced orofacial nociception in mice. Male Swiss mice were pretreated with either saline (p.o.), A. vepretorum ethanol extract (Av-EtOH 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.), or morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), before formalin, capsaicin, or glutamate was injected into the right upper lip. Pre-treatment with Av-EtOH at all doses produced a reduction in face-rubbing behavior induced by formalin in both phases, and these pre-treatments also produced a significant antinociceptive effect in the capsaicin and glutamate tests. Pre-treatment with naloxone (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) did not reverse the antinociceptive activity of the extract at the dose of 100 mg/kg in the first phase of this test. Our results suggest that Av-EtOH might be useful in the treatment of orofacial pain.

  9. Canine distemper in an isolated population of fishers (Martes pennanti) from California.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stefan M; Gabriel, Mourad; Terio, Karen A; Dubovi, Edward J; VanWormer, Elizabeth; Sweitzer, Rick; Barret, Reginald; Thompson, Craig; Purcell, Kathryn; Munson, Linda

    2012-10-01

    Four fishers (Martes pennanti) from an insular population in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA died as a consequence of an infection with canine distemper virus (CDV) in 2009. Three fishers were found in close temporal and spatial relationship; the fourth fisher died 4 mo later at a 70 km distance from the initial group. Gross lesions were restricted to hyperkeratosis of periocular skin and ulceration of footpads. All animals had necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis with syncytia and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Inclusion bodies were abundant in the epithelia of urinary bladder and epididymis but were infrequent in the renal pelvis and the female genital epithelia. No histopathologic or immunohistochemical evidence for virus spread to the central nervous system was found. One fisher had encephalitis caused by Sarcocystis neurona and another had severe head trauma as a consequence of predation. The H gene nucleotide sequence of the virus isolates from the first three fishers was identical and was 99.6% identical to the isolate from the fourth fisher. Phylogenetically, the isolates clustered with other North American isolates separate from classical European wildlife lineage strains. These data suggest that the European wildlife lineage might consist of two separate subgroups that are genetically distinct and endemic in different geographic regions. The source of infection as well as pertinent transmission routes remained unclear. This is the first report of CDV in fishers and underscores the significance of CDV as a pathogen of management concern.

  10. Genetic diversity analysis of Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. using AFLP molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T G; Pereira, A M S; Coppede, J S; França, S C; Ming, L C; Bertoni, B W

    2016-02-19

    Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. is a medicinal plant native to Cerrado vegetation in Brazil, and it is popularly used to treat urogenital tract infections. The objective of the present study was to assess the genetic variability of natural C. antisyphiliticus populations using AFLP molecular markers. Accessions were collected in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Goiás. The genotyping of individuals was performed using a LI-COR® DNA Analyzer 4300. The variability within populations was found to be greater than the variability between them. The F(ST) value was 0.3830, which indicated that the populations were highly structured. A higher percentage of polymorphic loci (92.16%) and greater genetic diversity were found in the population accessions from Pratinha-MG. Gene flow was considered restricted (N(m) = 1.18), and there was no correlation between genetic and geographic distances. The populations of C. antisyphiliticus exhibited an island-model structure, which demonstrates the vulnerability of the species.

  11. High-rate composting-vermicomposting of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, Mart. Solms).

    PubMed

    Gajalakshmi, S; Ramasamy, E V; Abbasi, S A

    2002-07-01

    In an attempt to develop a system with which the aquatic weed water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, Mart. Solms) can be economically processed to generate vermicompost in large quantities, the weed was first composted by a 'high-rate' method and then subjected to vermicomposting in reactors operating at much larger densities of earthworm than recommended hitherto: 50, 62.5, 75, 87.5, 100, 112.5, 125, 137.5, and 150 adults of Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg per litre of digester volume. The composting step was accomplished in 20 days and the composted weed was found to be vermicomposted three times as rapidly as uncomposted water hyacinth [Bioresource Technology 76 (2001) 177]. The studies substantiated the feasibility of high-rate composting-vermicomposting systems, as all reactors yielded consistent vermicast output during seven months of operation. There was no earthworm mortality during the first four months in spite of the high animal densities in the reactors. In the subsequent three months a total of 79 worms died out of 1650, representing less than 1.6% mortality per month. The results also indicated that an increase in the surface-to-volume ratio of the reactors might further improve their efficiency.

  12. Non-fermented and fermented jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora Mart.) pomaces as valuable sources of functional ingredients.

    PubMed

    Morales, Patricia; Barros, Lillian; Dias, Maria Inês; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Ramirez Asquieri, Eduardo; Berrios, José De J

    2016-10-01

    Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora. Mart) is a highly perishable fruit native to Brazil, which is consumed both fresh and industrially processed in the form of juices, jams, wines and distilled liqueurs. This processing generates a large amount of waste by-products, which represent approximately 50% of the fruit weight. The by-products are of interest for obtaining valuable bioactive compounds that could be used as nutraceuticals or functional ingredients. In this study, fermented and non-fermented jabuticaba pomaces were studied regarding their hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, as well as their antioxidant properties, including: soluble sugars, organic acids and tocopherols (using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to refraction index, diode array and fluorescence detector, respectively); phenolics and anthocyanins, (using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection, and mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization); and fatty acids (using gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection). The analytical data demonstrated that jabuticaba pomaces are a rich source of bioactive compounds such as tocopherols, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds (namely hydrolyzable tannins and anthocyanins) with antioxidant potential. Therefore, jabuticaba pomace may have good potential as a functional ingredient in the fabrication of human foods and animal feed.

  13. Eduardo Martínez Alonso (1903-72): gallant surgeon who undertook special operations.

    PubMed

    Coni, Nicholas

    2010-02-01

    Eduardo Martínez Alonso was of Spanish and Uruguyan extraction and was born in Vigo in Galicia in 1903. Due to his father's occupation, he was educated in the UK and qualified from the University of Liverpool. He returned to Madrid to practise and during the Civil War he found himself in the Republican zone where his connections with the Royal Family brought him under suspicion. Threatened with execution, he escaped to serve as a surgeon in the Nationalist Army. Being bilingual, he was medical adviser to the British Embassy during World War II; because of his allegiance to this country and acting from humanitarian motives, he became a ringleader in a plot to smuggle fugitives from Nazi-occupied Europe across a pro-Axis Spain to safety. When the Gestapo was closing in on him, he was smuggled to the UK via Portugal. He underwent training as a potential undercover agent should Franco take Spain into the war but, when hostilities ceased, he returned to Madrid and became a leading thoracic surgeon.

  14. Chemical Constituents and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carla de M.; do Nascimento, Evandro A.; de Morais, Sérgio A. L.; de Oliveira, Alberto; Chang, Roberto; Cunha, Luís C. S.; Martins, Mário M.; Martins, Carlos Henrique G.; Moraes, Thaís da S.; Rodrigues, Paulla V.; da Silva, Cláudio V.; de Aquino, Francisco J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal microorganisms and cytotoxic properties. EOs of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The EO from leaves is rich in sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The three major compounds identified were germacrene-D (24.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.5%), and bicyclogermacrene (11.6%). The inner bark EO is composed mainly of sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and the major components are alpha-copaene (14.9%) and alpha-(E)-bergamotene (13.0%). The outer bark EO is composed mainly of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and long-chain alkanes, and the major components are alpha-eudesmol (4.2%) and nonacosane (5.8%). The wood EO is mainly composed of long-chain alkanes and fatty acids, and the major components are nonacosane (9.7%) and palmitic acid (16.2%). The inner bark EO showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against the anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC of 50 µg mL−1). The outer bark and wood EOs showed MICs of 100 µg mL−1 for all aerobic microorganisms tested. The EOs presented low toxicity to Vero cells. These results suggest that K. coriacea, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest. PMID:25960759

  15. Genetic diversity of four populations of Qualea grandiflora Mart. in fragments of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Antiqueira, Lia Maris Orth Ritter; Kageyama, Paulo Yoshio

    2014-02-01

    We analyzed the genetic structure and diversity of Qualea grandiflora Mart., the most abundant woody species in the Brazilian Cerrado. Eight microsatellite loci were used to analyze samples from four populations subjected to different types of anthropic pressure, distributed throughout the state of São Paulo in the regions of Assis, Brotas, Itirapina and Pedregulho. Results indicated a mean number of 12 alleles per locus, but only six effective alleles. Alleles private to particular populations and rare alleles were also detected. An excess of homozygotes and moderate levels of inbreeding were observed. No clones were identified. All populations departed from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p < 0.05). Spatial structure was observed in the distribution of specimens in distance classes ranging from 30 to 40 km and three genetic clusters were identified, with genotypes in the Pedregulho population differing from the others by up to 90 %. The influence of the Wahlund effect on the studied populations lies between 8.5 and 53.3 %. Estimates of effective population size were low (<10), and the minimum viable area for conservation in the short-, medium- and long-term was estimated to be between 4 and 184 ha. Gene flow was high enough to counter the effects of genetic drift. The genetic diversity and divergence between the studied populations indicated that the Pedregulho population should be considered an Evolutionary Significant Unit and a Management Unit.

  16. Gastric Antiulcerogenic and Hypokinetic Activities of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Paulo Humberto M.; Martins, Maria do Carmo C.; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia M.; Chaves, Mariana H.; Sousa, Elcilene A.; Leite, José Roberto S. A.; Véras, Leiz Maria; Almeida, Fernanda Regina C.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity, the antioxidant activity, and the pharmacological activity on the gastrointestinal tract of rodents of the ethanolic extract (TFEE) from the bark of Terminalia fagifolia Mart. & Zucc. (Combretaceae) and of its aqueous (TFAqF), hydroalcoholic (TFHAF), and hexanic (TFHEXF) partition fractions have been evaluated. TFEE presented low acute toxicity, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers, which was partially blocked by pretreatment with L-NAME and indomethacin. It reduced the total acidity and raised the pH of gastric secretion. Additionally, TFEE delayed gastric emptying and slightly inhibited the small intestinal transit and also presented a weakly antidiarrheal activity. The antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activity were also detected in TFAqF and TFHAF but not in TFHEXF. The antisecretory and gastroprotective activity of TFEE partially involve the nitric oxide and prostaglandin participation. Nevertheless, TFEE, TFAqF, and TFHAF drastically reduced the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall of rats treated with ethanol or indomethacin. Complementary studies are required in order to clarify the paradox of the presence of a gastroprotector activity in this plant that, at the same time, reduces the mucus layer adhered to the gastric wall. PMID:24900960

  17. Landscape genetics of fishers (Martes pennanti) in the Northeast: dispersal barriers and historical influences.

    PubMed

    Hapeman, Paul; Latch, Emily K; Fike, Jennifer A; Rhodes, Olin E; Kilpatrick, C William

    2011-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and overtrapping are thought to have resulted in severe population declines for fisher (Martes pennanti) across the northeastern United States, and by the end of the 1930s only 3 remnant populations remained. Subsequent trapping cessation, extensive reintroduction programs, and natural recolonization have helped fishers to reclaim much of their historical range. The degree to which these processes have impacted genetic structure in this species, however, remains unknown. We used 11 microsatellites from tissue samples (n = 432) of fishers to characterize contemporary population structure in light of historical population structure and thus to determine the relative influence of anthropogenic disturbances and natural landscape features in shaping genetic structure of the contemporary population. Our results indicated that 3 well-differentiated contemporary populations are present that correspond well with what would be expected based on their reported history. A course barrier to dispersal appears in the western portion of the study area associated with several lakes including Lake George and Great Sacandaga Lake. Large-scale reintroduction efforts and natural recolonizations have largely had predictable impacts on population structure. An important exception is the substantial impact of the reintroduction of fishers to Vermont.

  18. Uniform fatty acid mobilization from anatomically distinct fat depots in the sable (Martes zibellina).

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2007-07-01

    The mobilization of fatty acids (FA) is a selective process in humans, rodents and the few previously studied carnivores. The FA composition of and mobilization from different fat depots reflect the functions of adipose tissues, e.g. in energy storage or insulation. Sixteen farm-raised sables (Martes zibellina), a terrestrial mustelid, were assigned into a fed control group or fasted for 4 days. The FA composition of the sable was relatively similar to other previously studied mustelids. The masses of the different fat depots decreased by 28-55% during fasting. The subcutaneous (sc) and intraabdominal (iab) fats had a uniform FA composition and the sable could mobilize both sc and iab FA. 18:3n-3, 18:4n-3 and 16:1n-7 were effectively mobilized, while long-chain saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) increased in proportion. Relative mobilization (RM) correlated inversely with the FA chain length and Delta9-desaturation increased RM of several MUFA compared to SFA. The results reinforce the hypothesis that the terrestrial sable can utilize sc and iab fat depots as energy reserves during nutritional scarcity. The natural history of the species is an important determinant of the FA composition and RM between anatomically different fat depots.

  19. [Microsatellite analysis of two captive populations of sable (Martes zibellina L.)].

    PubMed

    Kashtanov, S N; Afanas'ev, K I; Potapov, S G; Lazebnyĭ, O E

    2011-12-01

    The high value of sable (Martes zibellina L.) fur and stable demand for it over the centuries have led to suboptimal hunting patterns and, as a result, considerable fluctuations in the sizes of natural populations of this species. To maintain the traditional export of sable fur, efforts towards commercial domestication of sable have been made in Russia. The first farm population of sable consisted of animal from eight natural populations in 1929. After the problems related to breeding in captivity were solved, directional selection began. Eighty years of breeding have resulted in sable herds with homogeneous quantitative characters. Prospects for further breeding depend on the current level of genetic diversity in the captive populations of sables formed during the first stages of domestication. The sable populations of the Pushkinsky and Saltykovsky fur farms located in Moscow oblast, which were the objects of this study, are the progenitors of the existing captive populations. The first estimation of genetic variation of this species by means of a panel of microsatellite markers was developed for this study. Two captive sable populations were analyzed using ten microsatellite loci; a total of 75 alleles were found in both populations. Population-specific alleles were identified (6 and 13 in the Pushkinsky and Saltykovsky populations, respectively). The populations studied were found to be differentiated with respect to four microsatellite loci.

  20. Adaptations to fasting in a terrestrial mustelid, the sable (Martes zibellina).

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Puukka, Matti; Saarela, Seppo; Paakkonen, Tommi; Aho, Jari; Nieminen, Petteri

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the actively wintering Palearctic sable Martes zibellina has evolved physiological adaptations to tolerate nutritional scarcity. Sixteen farm-bred male sables were divided into a fed control group and an experimental group fasted for 4 days. The rate of weight loss in the sable was similar to other medium-sized mustelids. Fasting led to hypoglycaemia and to a decreased lymphocyte percentage. The sable derived metabolic energy from both subcutaneous and intraabdominal white adipose tissues and the relative decrease in fat mass was the largest for the retroperitoneal and subcutaneous depots. Metabolic energy derived partly from body proteins indicated by the increased plasma levels of urea, uric acid and total essential amino acids. Triacylglycerols accumulated in the livers of the fasted sables and the increased plasma aminotransferase activities suggested hepatic dysfunction. The decreased plasma insulin concentrations and the elevated cortisol levels probably contributed to stimulated lipolysis and protein catabolism. Moreover, fasting increased the plasma ghrelin concentrations of the sables and down-regulated the thyroid activity.

  1. Microbial enhancement of Cu2+ removal capacity of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.).

    PubMed

    So, L M; Chu, L M; Wong, P K

    2003-09-01

    Bacteria resistant to Cu2+, Ni2+ or Zn2+ were isolated from the rhizosphere of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)) and their metal ion removal capacities (RCs) were determined. The Ni2+ and Zn2+ RCs of the respective metal ion-resistant bacteria were less than 4.1 mg g(-1), while one of the Cu2+-resistant bacteria (Strain CU-1) showed a significant high Cu2+ RC of 10.6 mg g(-1). The effect of inoculating water hyacinth with Strain CU-1 on its Cu2+ RC was further studied. Water hyacinths were treated with an antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC), to remove most rhizospheric bacteria of plant roots. Inoculation of Strain CU-1 increased the Cu2+ RC of the plant root by 1.91 (OTC-treated) and 1.56 (OTC-untreated) folds respectively when compared with the control. Results also showed that Strain CU-1 colonized onto the plant root and led to the increase of Cu2+ RC of the roots of water hyacinth.

  2. Toxicological and phytochemical studies of Aspidosperma subincanum Mart. stem bark (Guatambu).

    PubMed

    Santos, S R; Rangel, E T; Lima, J C S; Silva, R M; Lopes, L; Noldin, V F; Cechinel Filho, V; Delle Monache, F; Martins, D T O

    2009-12-01

    Aspidosperma subincanum Mart. is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat digestive disorders. In this study, acute and subchronic toxicity and cytotoxicity of stem bark ethanolic extract of Aspidosperma subincanum (EEAs) have been evaluated. In addition, phytochemical analysis was performed. The EEAs had low acute toxicity in mice with LD50 =1129 +/- 154mg/kg p.o. and 397 +/- 15 mg/kg i.p. The LC50 was 1340 +/- 428 microg/mL in the brine shrimp assay. There was no relevance of serious changes in behavioral, hematological and biochemical parameters and no deleterious effect on vital organs of rats that resulted after 30 days daily exposure to 5 and 100 mg/kg of EEAs. Phytochemical analysis of stem bark of A. subincanum revealed the presence of indole alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, steroids and tannins and resulted in the isolation of oleic acid and guatambuine as major constituents. Using the method of the dose by factor approach, the human safe dose was 210 mg/70 kg/day. The EEAs appears to be safe and non-toxic in low doses in rodents and domestic preparations used by population have relatively security.

  3. Impact of solar dehydration on composition and antioxidant properties of acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sangronis, Elba; Sanabria, Neida

    2011-03-01

    Commercial products derived from the acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) are available in Brazil, but in Venezuela, it is only known by ethnic indigenous groups of the Amazon. In this study, acai flour was made by solar dehydration and the effect of processing on the composition, microbiological quality, and antioxidant properties of such flour were evaluated. The fruit was purchased in Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela, and a portion was manually pulped. Microbiological quality, proximal composition, minerals, polyphenols, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. The remaining portion of fruit was blanched in a solution of ascorbic acid and citric acid at 98 degrees C for 1 min in the same manner, manually pulped, dried by solar dehydration and the acai flour was also analysed. From the composition of the acai flour, its high content of fat (22.9%), protein (13.7%), dietary fibre (20.5%), total polyphenols (1.60 g/kg) and antioxidant capacity (79.97%) stood out. The blanching of the fruit and the solar dehydrating of the acai pulp did not modify the composition, but they improved its microbiological quality and reduced phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. The flour obtained is stable and innocuous and could be used to diversify the diet of the indigenous people of the Amazon region.

  4. Accumulation of chromium in root tissues of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. in Cachoeira river—Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangabeira, P. A. O.; Labejof, L.; Lamperti, A.; de Almeida, A.-A. F.; Oliveira, A. H.; Escaig, F.; Severo, M. I. G.; Silva, D. da C.; Saloes, M.; Mielke, M. S.; Lucena, E. R.; Martins, M. C.; Santana, K. B.; Gavrilov, K. L.; Galle, P.; Levi-Setti, R.

    2004-06-01

    Heavy metals are not biodegradable and enter the food chain through a number of pathways causing progressive toxic actions due to the accumulation in different organs during a life span and long-term exposure to contaminated environments. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to localize chromium in Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. ICP-MS was used for the determination of Cr concentrations in water, sediments and plant samples in the Cachoeira basin, Bahia, Brazil. The results obtained by ICP-MS shows abnormally high values of Cr concentrations in water samples (0.38 μg/l), in soil samples (63 μg/g) and 70 μg/g in plant tissue. SIMS results show increased levels of Cr in the root cell wall and xylem vessel, these sites show high Cr accumulation. The ICP-MS data confirm E. crassipes like bioindicator plant. Chemical analysis using ICP-MS, confirms SIMS analysis on the presence of Cr in roots xylem cell walls. The use of ICP-MS, to investigate the same organs as the ones investigated by SIMS, provided complementary results on chromium study.

  5. Short-Term Soil Responses for an Emulated Loblolly Pine Silvopasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine (Pinus spp. L.) stands are often overstocked early in the tree rotation, prior to initial thinning. While pre- and/or post-thinning fertilizer applications are best management practices to optimize growth of southern pines, fertilization has questionable economic value due to poor N utilizati...

  6. Pine straw harvesting effects on water content of a forest soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study addresses concerns that harvesting pine straw from forests may decrease timber productivity by accelerating evaporation of soil water. Pine needles that accumulate on the forest floor help to conserve soil moisture, protect the soil surface against erosion, moderate soil temperature, inh...

  7. Reasons Why Teachers Leave the Bureau of Indian Affairs Schools on Pine Ridge Reservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, Jerome L.

    The study investigated why Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) teachers leave the Bureau schools on the Pine Ridge Oglala Sioux Reservation in South Dakota. The BIA Aberdeen Area Office was contacted to obtain information on teacher turnover. Records were examined to learn the number of teachers teaching on Pine Ridge Reservation during 1965-67 who are…

  8. INTERACTION OF GRASS COMPETITION AND OZONE STRESS ON C/N RATIO IN PONDEROSA PINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Individual ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedlings were grown with three levels of blue wild-rye grass (Elymus glaucus Buckl.) (0,32, or 88 plants m-2) to determine if the presence of a natural competitor altered ponderosa pine seedling response to ozone. Gras...

  9. Mistletoe-induced crown degradation in Scots pine in a xeric environment.

    PubMed

    Rigling, Andreas; Eilmann, Britta; Koechli, Roger; Dobbertin, Matthias

    2010-07-01

    Increasing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) mortality has been recently observed in the dry inner valleys of the European Alps. Besides drought, infection with pine mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. austriacum) seems to play an important role in the mortality dynamics of Scots pines, but how mistletoes promote pine decline remains unclear. To verify whether pine mistletoe infection weakens the host via crown degradation, as observed for dwarf mistletoes, we studied the negative effects of pine mistletoe infestation on the photosynthetic tissues and branch growth of pairs of infested and non-infested branches. Pine mistletoe infection leads to crown degradation in its host by reducing the length, the radial increment, the ramification, the needle length and the number of needle years of the infested branches. This massive loss in photosynthetic tissue results in a reduction in primary production and a subsequent decrease in carbohydrate availability. The significant reduction in needle length due to mistletoe infection is an indication for a lower water and nutrient availability in infested branches. Thus, mistletoe infection might lead to a decrease in the availability of water and carbohydrates, the two most important growth factors, which are already shortened due to the chronic drought situation in the area. Therefore, pine mistletoe increases the risk of drought-induced mortality of its host when growing in a xeric environment.

  10. 75 FR 43446 - Proposed Establishment of the Pine Mountain-Mayacmas Viticultural Area; Comment Period Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Mountain-Mayacmas Viticultural Area; Comment Period Extension AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade.... 105, Proposed Establishment of the Pine Mountain-Mayacmas Viticultural Area, a notice of proposed... materials, and any comments we receive about the proposed establishment of the Pine...

  11. 76 FR 48120 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD--Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project AGENCY...: This project proposes to treat areas newly infested by mountain pine beetles on approximately 325,000...-rocky-mountain-black-hills@fs.fed.us , with ``MPB Response Project'' in the subject line....

  12. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-04-03

    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine (Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon (Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann's pine (Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%-89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  13. Low tortoise abundances in pine forest plantations in forest-shrubland transition areas.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Caro, Roberto C; Oedekoven, Cornelia S; Graciá, Eva; Anadón, José D; Buckland, Stephen T; Esteve-Selma, Miguel A; Martinez, Julia; Giménez, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    In the transition between Mediterranean forest and the arid subtropical shrublands of the southeastern Iberian Peninsula, humans have transformed habitat since ancient times. Understanding the role of the original mosaic landscapes in wildlife species and the effects of the current changes as pine forest plantations, performed even outside the forest ecological boundaries, are important conservation issues. We studied variation in the density of the endangered spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) in three areas that include the four most common land types within the species' range (pine forests, natural shrubs, dryland crop fields, and abandoned crop fields). Tortoise densities were estimated using a two-stage modeling approach with line transect distance sampling. Densities in dryland crop fields, abandoned crop fields and natural shrubs were higher (>6 individuals/ha) than in pine forests (1.25 individuals/ha). We also found large variation in density in the pine forests. Recent pine plantations showed higher densities than mature pine forests where shrub and herbaceous cover was taller and thicker. We hypothesize that mature pine forest might constrain tortoise activity by acting as partial barriers to movements. This issue is relevant for management purposes given that large areas in the tortoise's range have recently been converted to pine plantations.

  14. Overstory and understory relationships in longleaf pine plantations 14 years after thinning and woody control.

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, Timothy, B.

    2011-09-09

    To develop silvicultural strategies for restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) savannas, mortality and growth of overstory pines and midstory hardwoods and abundance and species richness of herbs were studied for 14 years after pine thinning and nonpine woody control. Pine cover in thinned stands was about half of that in nonthinned stands through year 5, but it lagged by only 8% and 3% in years 9 and 14, respectively, because of vigorous crown responses. Despite a cumulative mortality of 64% of hardwood stems from prescribed fires in years 0, 4, and 9, hardwood basal area in thinned stands (2.1 m2/ha) was three times that in nonthinned stands (0.7 m2/ha) in year 14. Thinning was associated with 13%-22% more cover and six to eight more species of herbs in years 3-8 but only 6% more cover and two more species in year 14 because of accelerated growth of pine cover and hardwood basal area. However, similar increases in cover and richness of herb species in the woody control treatment were retained through year 14 because it had sustained reductions in hardwood and shrub abundance. Silvicultural strategies that substantially delay encroachment by pines, hardwoods, and shrubs will be those most effective at retaining herb species in longleaf pine savannas, including planting pines at wide spacing, periodic thinning and woody control, and frequent burning.

  15. Low tortoise abundances in pine forest plantations in forest-shrubland transition areas

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Caro, Roberto C.; Oedekoven, Cornelia S.; Graciá, Eva; Anadón, José D.; Buckland, Stephen T.; Esteve-Selma, Miguel A.; Martinez, Julia; Giménez, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    In the transition between Mediterranean forest and the arid subtropical shrublands of the southeastern Iberian Peninsula, humans have transformed habitat since ancient times. Understanding the role of the original mosaic landscapes in wildlife species and the effects of the current changes as pine forest plantations, performed even outside the forest ecological boundaries, are important conservation issues. We studied variation in the density of the endangered spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) in three areas that include the four most common land types within the species’ range (pine forests, natural shrubs, dryland crop fields, and abandoned crop fields). Tortoise densities were estimated using a two-stage modeling approach with line transect distance sampling. Densities in dryland crop fields, abandoned crop fields and natural shrubs were higher (>6 individuals/ha) than in pine forests (1.25 individuals/ha). We also found large variation in density in the pine forests. Recent pine plantations showed higher densities than mature pine forests where shrub and herbaceous cover was taller and thicker. We hypothesize that mature pine forest might constrain tortoise activity by acting as partial barriers to movements. This issue is relevant for management purposes given that large areas in the tortoise’s range have recently been converted to pine plantations. PMID:28273135

  16. Pine as Fast Food: Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Cockatoo in a Forestry Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Stock, William D.; Finn, Hugh; Parker, Jackson; Dods, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby’s Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby’s Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158 025 seeds ha−1) over a large area (c. 15 000 ha). Carnaby’s Cockatoos fed throughout these plantations and removed almost the entire annual crop of pine cones. Peak cockatoo abundance coincided with pine seed maturation. Pine seed had energy and protein contents equivalent to native food sources and, critically, is available in summer when breeding pairs have young offspring to feed. This strong and enduring ecological association clearly suggests that removing pine will have a significant impact on this endangered species unless restoration strategies, to establish alternative food sources, are implemented. PMID:23593413

  17. Plant competition, facilitation, and other overstory-understory interactions in longleaf pine ecosystems.

    SciTech Connect

    Imm, Donald; Blake, John I

    2006-07-01

    The Longleaf Pine Ecosystem - Ecology, Silviculture, and Restoration. Shibu Jose, Eric J. Jokela, and Deborah L. Miller, (eds.) Springer Series on Environmental Management. Springer Science and Business Media publisher. Box 10.2 Pp 330-333. An insert on overstory-understory interactions in longleaf pine ecosystems.

  18. ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLY IN WHITE AND BROWN ROOT RESPIRATION OF PONDEROSA PINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Respiratory responses of fine ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) roots of differing morphology were measured to evaluate response to excision and to changes in the shoot light environment. Ponderosa pine seedlings were subject to either a 15:9 h light/dark environment over 24...

  19. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinus aristata Engelm., Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow core geographic and elevational distribution, occurs in disjunct populations and is threatened by multiple stresses, including rapid climate change, white pine blister rust, and bark beetles. Knowledge of genetic diversity and pop...

  20. 75 FR 28643 - Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges, Lee and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife... conservation plan and environmental assessment (Draft CCP/EA) for Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and... Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee NWRs. We started the process through a notice in the...

  1. Bird species in Mediterranean pine plantations exhibit different characteristics to those in natural reforested woodlands.

    PubMed

    Galván, Ismael; Benayas, José M Rey

    2011-06-01

    Passive woodland regeneration following cropland abandonment and pine plantations are two major approaches for vegetation restoration in agricultural landscapes in the Mediterranean Basin. We compared the effects of these two contrasting approaches on local bird density in central Spain on the basis of species characteristics, including regional density, habitat breadth, life-history traits and plumage colouration. Local bird density increased with regional density and habitat breadth in both woodland and pine plantation plots following macroecological patterns of bird abundance and distribution. In woodlands, dichromatic species were more abundant than monochromatic species and bird density increased with the intensity of territory defense and as the proportion of plumage colour generated by pheomelanin decreased. Contrary to our prediction, this latter observation suggests that woodlands may induce higher levels of physiological stress in birds than pine plantations even though these represent a novel habitat change. In pine plantations, sedentary species were more abundant than migratory species and bird density was negatively related to body and egg mass. These traits of bird species in pine plantations are characteristic of successful invaders. The variation in bird density explained by phylogeny was twice as high in pine plantations as in woodlands, suggesting that pine plantations limit accessibility to some clades. Our results support, from an evolutionary perspective, the described inability of pine plantations on cropland to maintain or increase bird diversity in Mediterranean agricultural landscapes.

  2. Drawing entitled "Planting Plan Pine Hills, Gd. Sta. U.S. Department ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Drawing entitled "Planting Plan Pine Hills, Gd. Sta. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Region 5. L. Glenn Hall, landscape engineer. 11-5-35. - Pine Hills Station, Barracks, West Side of Boulder Creek Road at Engineers Road, Julian, San Diego County, CA

  3. Differences in ponderosa pine isocupressic acid concentrations across space and time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) is distributed throughout the western half of North America, where it is the most widely adapted and ubiquitous conifer. Ponderosa Pine contains isocupressic acid, a diterpene acid, which has been shown to be responsible for its abortifacient activity. The objectiv...

  4. Southern pine beetle regional outbreaks modeled on landscape, climate and infestation history

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus fromtalis, SPB) is the major insect pest of pine species in the southeastern United States. It attains outbreak population levels across the landscape at scales ranging from a single forest stand to interstate epidemics. This county level analysis selected and ...

  5. Pine as fast food: foraging ecology of an endangered cockatoo in a forestry landscape.

    PubMed

    Stock, William D; Finn, Hugh; Parker, Jackson; Dods, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Pine plantations near Perth, Western Australia have provided an important food source for endangered Carnaby's Cockatoos (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) since the 1940s. Plans to harvest these plantations without re-planting will remove this food source by 2031 or earlier. To assess the impact of pine removal, we studied the ecological association between Carnaby's Cockatoos and pine using behavioural, nutritional, and phenological data. Pine plantations provided high densities of seed (158,025 seeds ha(-1)) over a large area (c. 15,000 ha). Carnaby's Cockatoos fed throughout these plantations and removed almost the entire annual crop of pine cones. Peak cockatoo abundance coincided with pine seed maturation. Pine seed had energy and protein contents equivalent to native food sources and, critically, is available in summer when breeding pairs have young offspring to feed. This strong and enduring ecological association clearly suggests that removing pine will have a significant impact on this endangered species unless restoration strategies, to establish alternative food sources, are implemented.

  6. 75 FR 7470 - Pine Prairie Energy Center, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... Pine Prairie to: (1) Install six 5,750 hp electric motor drive compressor units instead of the four 4,700 hp natural gas-fueled units previously authorized; (2) construct and operate a new electrical substation at the Pine Prairie Gas Handling Facility and approximately 1,200 feet of aerial electric...

  7. The Pine Cone Wars: Studying Writing in a Community of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Anne Haas

    2008-01-01

    Welcome to the Pine Cone Wars, as enacted by Mrs. Kay's children in her urban first grade. The children brought these wars from the playground to the classroom, reformulating them within the possibilities and constraints of the daily writing time. The Pine Cone Wars thus illustrate the inevitable interplay between the official world we shape as…

  8. 76 FR 8334 - White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will...

  9. 76 FR 85 - Nye/White Pine County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Forest Service Nye/White Pine County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Nye/White Pine County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will hold...: The meeting will be held in Nye County at the Bureau of Land Management, 1553 S. Erie Main...

  10. 76 FR 13600 - White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee (RAC) will...

  11. 76 FR 25298 - White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The White Pine-Nye County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in...

  12. Organic acids and aldehydes in throughfall and dew in a Japanese pine forest.

    PubMed

    Chiwa, Masaaki; Miyake, Takayuki; Kimura, Nobuhito; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed low molecular weight organic acids and aldehydes in throughfall under pine forest, and organic acids in dew on chemically inert surfaces and pine needle surfaces at urban- and mountain-facing sites of pine forest in western Japan. Low molecular weight organic acids and aldehydes accounted for less than 5% of the dissolved organic carbon in throughfall at both sites. Formaldehyde at both sites and formate at the mountain-facing site were found at significantly lower concentrations in throughfall than in rainfall, which may be explained by the degradation and/or retention of these components by the pine canopy as the incident precipitation passed through it. The oxalate concentration in throughfall was significantly higher than those in rainfall at both sites, suggesting that oxalate was derived from leaching from the pine foliage. At both sites, organic acid concentrations were higher in dew on the pine needles than in throughfall or dew on chemically inert surfaces. This could be due to the long contact time of dew on pine needles, during which leached substances from pine needles and dry deposits accumulated on their surfaces can dissolve into the small volume of dew. The role of enhanced concentrations of oxalate in an aqueous phase on the plant surfaces (e.g., dew) is discussed in relation to hydroxyl radical formation via the photo-Fenton reaction.

  13. Extending pine bark supplies with wholetree and clean chip residual substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited supplies of pine bark (PB) due to a number of reasons over the past several years has caused concern among many nursery producers. This study was developed to evaluate varying ratios of pine bark (PB) with clean chip residual (CCR) or WholeTree substrate (WT), in order to assist growers with...

  14. Mountain pine beetle host-range expansion threatens the boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Dang, Sophie; Davis, Corey S; Cooke, Barry J; Coltman, David W

    2011-01-01

    The current epidemic of the mountain pine beetle (MPB), an indigenous pest of western North American pine, has resulted in significant losses of lodgepole pine. The leading edge has reached Alberta where forest composition shifts from lodgepole to jack pine through a hybrid zone. The susceptibility of jack pine to MPB is a major concern, but there has been no evidence of host-range expansion, in part due to the difficulty in distinguishing the parentals and their hybrids. We tested the utility of a panel of microsatellite loci optimized for both species to classify lodgepole pine, jack pine and their hybrids using simulated data. We were able to accurately classify simulated individuals, and hence applied these markers to identify the ancestry of attacked trees. Here we show for the first time successful MPB attack in natural jack pine stands at the leading edge of the epidemic. This once unsuitable habitat is now a novel environment for MPB to exploit, a potential risk which could be exacerbated by further climate change. The consequences of host-range expansion for the vast boreal ecosystem could be significant. PMID:21457381

  15. 75 FR 65613 - Withdrawal of Notice for Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement for the Pine Mountain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Statement for the Pine Mountain Dam & Lake Project, AR AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of...) is withdrawing its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Pine Mountain... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Pine Mountain Dam project was authorized for construction by Congress in...

  16. 77 FR 58979 - Boundary Establishment for the Au Sable, Bear Creek, Manistee, and the Pine Wild and Scenic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... Forest Service Boundary Establishment for the Au Sable, Bear Creek, Manistee, and the Pine Wild and... boundary of the Au Sable, Bear Creek, Manistee, and the Pine Wild and Scenic Rivers to Congress. FOR.... 8756. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Au Sable, Bear Creek, Manistee, and the Pine Wild and...

  17. Ethanol Production from SPORL-pretreated Lodgepole Pine: Preliminary Evaluation of Mass Balance and Process Energy Efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lodgepole pine from forest thinnings is a potential feedstock for ethanol production. In this study, lodgepole pine was converted to ethanol with a yield of 276 liters (73 gallons) per ton of wood or 72% of theoretical. The lodgepole pine chips were directly subject to the sulfite pretreatment to ...

  18. Exposure to Melan-A/MART-126-35 tumor epitope specific CD8(+)T cells reveals immune escape by affecting the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS).

    PubMed

    Ebstein, Frédéric; Keller, Martin; Paschen, Annette; Walden, Peter; Seeger, Michael; Bürger, Elke; Krüger, Elke; Schadendorf, Dirk; Kloetzel, Peter-M; Seifert, Ulrike

    2016-05-04

    Efficient processing of target antigens by the ubiquitin-proteasome-system (UPS) is essential for treatment of cancers by T cell therapies. However, immune escape due to altered expression of IFN-γ-inducible components of the antigen presentation machinery and consequent inefficient processing of HLA-dependent tumor epitopes can be one important reason for failure of such therapies. Here, we show that short-term co-culture of Melan-A/MART-1 tumor antigen-expressing melanoma cells with Melan-A/MART-126-35-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) led to resistance against CTL-induced lysis because of impaired Melan-A/MART-126-35 epitope processing. Interestingly, deregulation of p97/VCP expression, which is an IFN-γ-independent component of the UPS and part of the ER-dependent protein degradation pathway (ERAD), was found to be essentially involved in the observed immune escape. In support, our data demonstrate that re-expression of p97/VCP in Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL-resistant melanoma cells completely restored immune recognition by Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL. In conclusion, our experiments show that impaired expression of IFN-γ-independent components of the UPS can exert rapid immune evasion of tumor cells and suggest that tumor antigens processed by distinct UPS degradation pathways should be simultaneously targeted in T cell therapies to restrict the likelihood of immune evasion due to impaired antigen processing.

  19. Exposure to Melan-A/MART-126-35 tumor epitope specific CD8+T cells reveals immune escape by affecting the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)

    PubMed Central

    Ebstein, Frédéric; Keller, Martin; Paschen, Annette; Walden, Peter; Seeger, Michael; Bürger, Elke; Krüger, Elke; Schadendorf, Dirk; Kloetzel, Peter-M.; Seifert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Efficient processing of target antigens by the ubiquitin-proteasome-system (UPS) is essential for treatment of cancers by T cell therapies. However, immune escape due to altered expression of IFN-γ-inducible components of the antigen presentation machinery and consequent inefficient processing of HLA-dependent tumor epitopes can be one important reason for failure of such therapies. Here, we show that short-term co-culture of Melan-A/MART-1 tumor antigen-expressing melanoma cells with Melan-A/MART-126-35-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) led to resistance against CTL-induced lysis because of impaired Melan-A/MART-126-35 epitope processing. Interestingly, deregulation of p97/VCP expression, which is an IFN-γ-independent component of the UPS and part of the ER-dependent protein degradation pathway (ERAD), was found to be essentially involved in the observed immune escape. In support, our data demonstrate that re-expression of p97/VCP in Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL-resistant melanoma cells completely restored immune recognition by Melan-A/MART-126-35 CTL. In conclusion, our experiments show that impaired expression of IFN-γ-independent components of the UPS can exert rapid immune evasion of tumor cells and suggest that tumor antigens processed by distinct UPS degradation pathways should be simultaneously targeted in T cell therapies to restrict the likelihood of immune evasion due to impaired antigen processing. PMID:27143649

  20. Tiny moments of great importance: the Marte Meo method applied in the context of early mother-infant interaction and postnatal depression. Utilizing Daniel Stern's theory of 'schemas of being with' in understanding empirical findings and developing a stringent Marte Meo methodology.

    PubMed

    Vik, Kari; Rohde, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of basic Marte Meo video interaction guidance concepts and describes the therapeutic performance of the method applied in the context of early mother-infant interaction and postnatal depression. Weight is put upon the importance of the therapeutic relationship. Further Marte Meo therapy is understood in the light of Daniel Stern's theory of 'schemas of being with' and accompanied by clinical vignettes from therapy sessions. The empirical basis for the paper is a study of postnatal depression, mother-infant interaction and video guidance, carried out in Southern Norway. The study examined Marte Meo from a phenomenological perspective. Marte Meo was offered to mothers with either postnatal depression or depressive symptoms. In in-depth interviews the participants reported that the Marte Meo method, 'from the outside looking in', increased their reflections about their infants and their own mental states as well as their sensitive interaction with their newborn. Their mothering was improved and they reported feeling less depressed. We argue that Marte Meo methodology can guide new mothers with depressive symptoms, and contribute to the creation of new schemas of being together.

  1. Deep sequencing analyses of pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus microRNAs reveal distinct miRNA expression patterns during the pathological process of pine wilt disease.

    PubMed

    Ding, XiaoLei; Ye, JianRen; Wu, XiaoQin; Huang, Lin; Zhu, LiHua; Lin, SiXi

    2015-01-25

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is known as the causative agent of pine wilt disease with complex life cycles. In this research, four small RNA libraries derived from different infection stages of pine wilt disease were constructed and sequenced. Consequently, we obtained hundreds of evolutionarily conserved miRNAs and novel miRNA candidates. The analysis of miRNA expression patterns showed that most miRNAs were expressed at extraordinarily high levels during the middle stage of pine wilt disease. Functional analysis revealed that expression levels of miR-73 and miR-239 were mutually exclusive with their target GH45 cellulase genes. In addition, another set of atypical miRNAs, termed mirtrons, was also identified in this study. Thus, our research has provided detailed characterization of B. xylophilus miRNA expression patterns during the pathological process of pine wilt disease. These findings would contribute to more in-depth understanding of this devastating plant disease.

  2. Leptospirosis in free-ranging endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) and other small carnivores (Mustelidae, Viverridae) from southwestern France.

    PubMed

    Moinet, Marie; Fournier-Chambrillon, Christine; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Aulagnier, Stéphane; Mesplède, Alain; Blanchard, Béatrice; Descarsin, Véronique; Dumas, Philippe; Dumas, Yann; Coïc, Christophe; Couzi, Laurent; Fournier, Pascal

    2010-10-01

    To study the possible role of disease in the decline of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola), we conducted a survey of antibody prevalence and renal carriage of pathogenic leptospira (Leptospira interrogans sensu lato) using serum and kidney samples collected from 1990 to 2007 from several free-ranging small carnivores and farmed American mink (Mustela vison) in southwestern France. An indirect microscopic agglutination test using a panel of 16 serovars belonging to 6 serogroups (Australis, Autumnalis, Icterohæmorrhagiæ, Grippotyphosa, Panama, Sejroe) revealed antibodies in all species, with significant differences in antibody prevalences: 74% in European mink (n=99), 65.4% in European polecats (Mustela putorius, n=133), 86% in American mink (n=74), 89% in stone martens (Martes foina, n=19), 74% in pine martens (Martes martes, n=19), 35% in common genets (Genetta genetta, n=79), and 31% in farmed American mink (n=51). Serogroups Australis and Icterohæmorragiæ were dominant in most free-ranging species; serogroup Grippotyphosa had high prevalences in European mink. Such high antibody prevalences have never been reported. They are probably related to the large number of known reservoirs, rats (Rattus spp.), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), and coypu (Myocastor coypu), in the study area. The polymerase chain reaction test specific for pathogenic leptospiral DNA detected renal carriage in 23% of 34 European mink, 22% of 18 polecats, and 15% of 33 free-ranging American mink, with no significant differences. Renal carriage shows that mustelids may shed leptospira for short periods, but their epidemiologic role is probably limited. High antibody prevalences suggest that the disease is unlikely to be highly pathogenic for these species; however, chronic forms of the disease (abortions, renal lesions) could reduce the reproductive success or life span of infected animals. Further studies on the pathogenicity of leptospirosis in these populations are needed to

  3. Use of pine nuts by grizzly and black bears in the Yellowstone area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, Katherine C.

    1983-01-01

    The large seeds (pine nuts) of whitebark pine are commonly eaten in the spring (March-May) and fall (September-November) by grizzly and black bears in Yellowstone National Park and adjacent areas (Craighead and Craighead 1972, Blanchard 1978, Mealey 1980) and western Montana (Tisch 1961; J. Sumner and J. J. Craighead, unpubl. rep., Montant Coop. Wildl. Res. Unit, Univ. Montana, Missoula, 1973). Similar nuts from limber pine are eaten by grizzly bears on the east Rocky Mountain Front of northwestern Montana (Schallenberger and Jonkel, annual rep., Border Grizzly Project, Univ. Montana, Missoula, 1980). The nuts of the European stone pine (P. cembra) are an important food for brown bears (U. arctos) throughout the taiga zone in the Soviet Union (Pavlov and Zhdanov 1972, Ustinov 1972, Yazan 1972). Both the production of whitebark pine cones (Forcella 1977, Blanchard 1978, Mealey 1980) and the quantity of nuts consumed by bears vary annually (Mealey 1975, Blancard 1978). Pine nuts are also an important food for red squirrels in whitebark forests. In fall, squirrels remove cones from trees and cache them in middens. Bears as well as other mammalian and avian seed predators compete with squirrels for whitebark nuts (Forcella 1977, Tomback 1977). Confusion about the ripening process of whitebark pine cones has resulted in errors in the literature on the availability of pine nuts as a bear food. Whitebark cones are indehiscent and do not disintegrate (Tomback 1981). Vertebrate foraging probably leaves few, if any, seed-bearing cones on trees by late fall; the cones remaining abscise sometime thereafter (Tomback 1981). Because cones do not abscise or release their seed in fall, bears may obtain pine nuts in 2 ways. Black bears may climb whitebark pine trees and break off cone-bearing brnahces to feed on cones (Tisch 1961, Mealey 1975, Forcella 1977); or both black bears and grizzly bears may raid squirrel caches to feed on pine nuts (Tisch 1961, Craighead and Craighead 1972

  4. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of pine pollen extract in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ae-Jung; Choi, Eun-Mi

    2009-01-01

    To determine the medicinal properties of pine pollen, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of pine pollen extract (PPE) were investigated. PPE displayed a strong free radical scavenger activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and hydrogen peroxide. It was observed also that the antioxidant activity, measured by the ferric thiocyanate method, increased with the addition of PPE to the linoleic acid emulsion system. PPE was also found to inhibit significantly the amount of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls formed from liver homogenate. Like the antioxidant activity, the reducing power of PPE was excellent. Thereafter, the study investigated the effects of PPE in modulating the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the effect of PPE on interleukin (IL)-1beta-induced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) production and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation in the human synovial sarcoma cell line, SW982. PPE was found to inhibit the production of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6 in LPS-activated macrophages. Treatment with PPE at 10 microg/mL significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited IL-1beta-induced MMPs (MMP-1 and -3) production in SW982 cells. IL-1beta-induced JNK activation was inhibited by PPE (10 microg/mL), whereas p38 and ERK1/2 were not affected. These findings suggest that pine pollen is a potential antioxidant and beneficial for inflammatory conditions through down-regulation of JNK and MMPs.

  5. The ecophysiology of ozone-stressed Jeffrey pine

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of ozone on the physiological ecology of Jeffrey pine growing in the southern Sierra Nevada of California was studied over a three-year period. The extent and development of ozone-induced visible injury symptoms (foliar chlorosis and premature needle abscission) and the physiological consequence of visible injury was addressed in natural populations of Jeffrey pine. Seasonal and diurnal measurements of gas exchange, water relations and nutrient status distinguished ozone-injury related perturbations. Stable carbon isotope discrimination in conjunction with gas exchange was used to investigate the relationship between physiological capacity and ozone sensitivity in field situations. Approximately 10% of the trees studied exhibited severe ozone injury (sensitive) whereas 10% exhibited little or no visible sign of injury (resistant). Nearly 90% of the trees studied exhibited some form of visible injury symptom. Although there was a strong negative correlation between photosynthetic rate and needle chlorosis, whole plant carbon gain in sensitive trees was impacted more by the loss of photosynthetic needle area due to premature abscission than by ozone-induced reductions in photosynthetic rate. Resistant trees appeared to be experiencing less drought stress than sensitive trees. Patterns of nutrient accumulation and retranslocation suggested that sensitive trees had a smaller root system and smaller foliar pools of available nutrients to supply growing tissues. Stable carbon isotope discrimination in young needles was greater in sensitive trees and stomatal limitation varied such that intercellular CO[sub 2] concentration was always 15-20 ppm greater than in resistant trees. This suggests that sensitive trees operated at higher stomatal conductances which may have predisposed them to ozone injury. Long-term ozone stress on natural populations of Jeffrey pine resulted in both direct and indirect alterations in many physiological process.

  6. Effects and mechanism of ball milling on torrefaction of pine sawdust.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chunxiao; Huang, Jing; Feng, Chen; Wang, Guanghui; Tabil, Lope; Wang, Decheng

    2016-08-01

    The effects and mechanism of ball milling on the torrefaction process were studied. Ball- and hammer-milled (screen size 1mm) pine sawdust samples were torrefied at three temperatures (230, 260, and 290°C) and two durations (30 and 60min) to investigate into their torrefaction behavior and physicochemical properties. The results showed that, under identical torrefaction conditions, torrefied ball-milled pine sawdust had a higher carbon content and fixed carbon, and lower hydrogen and oxygen contents than torrefied hammer-milled pine sawdust. Torrefied ball-milled pine sawdust produced lower mass and energy yields, but higher heating values than torrefied hammer-milled pine sawdust. Ball milling destroyed the crystalline structure of cellulose and thus reduced the thermal stability of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, causing them to degrade at relatively lower temperatures. In conclusion, biomass pretreated with a combination of ball milling and torrefaction has the potential to produce an alternative fuel to coal.

  7. AmeriFlux US-Wi2 Intermediate red pine (IRP)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jiquan

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi2 Intermediate red pine (IRP). Site Description - The Wisconsin Intermediate Red Pine site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the northeastern section of Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. The intermediate red pine site is one of ten sites that collectively represent the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. Thinned every 7 years until they reach 100 to 150 years of age, the red pine plantations of all ages occupy approximately 25% of the region.

  8. AmeriFlux US-Wi7 Red pine clearcut (RPCC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Chen, Jiquan [Michigan State University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Wi7 Red pine clearcut (RPCC). Site Description - The Wisconsin Clearcut Red Pine site is located in the Washburn Ranger District of the northeastern section of Chequamegon National Forest. A member of the northern coniferous-deciduous biome, surveys from the mid-19th century indicate the region consisted of a mixed stand of red, white, and jack pines. After extensive timber harvesting, wildfires, and farming activity, the region turned into a fragmented mosaic of stands of various ages and composition. The red pine clearcut site is one of ten sites that collectively represent the successional stages of development in the predominant stand types of a physically homogeneous landscape. Thinned every 7 years until they reach 100 to 150 years of age, the red pine plantations or all ages occupy approximately 25% of the region.

  9. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon.

    PubMed

    Agne, Michelle C; Shaw, David C; Woolley, Travis J; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  10. Effects of Dwarf Mistletoe on Stand Structure of Lodgepole Pine Forests 21-28 Years Post-Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Central Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Agne, Michelle C.; Shaw, David C.; Woolley, Travis J.; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E.

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21–28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  11. A ponderosa pine natural area reveals its secrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig D.

    1998-01-01

    Monument Canyon Research Natural Area preserves an unlogged 259- hectare stand of old-growth ponderosa pine in the Jemez Mountains of New Mexico. This preserve, established in 1932, is the oldest research natural area in the state. This two-tiered forest displays an old-growth density of 100 stems per hectare (Muldavin et al. 1995), with an understory thicket of stagnant saplings and poles that raises the total stand density to an average of 5,954 stems per hectare, with concentrations as high as 21,617 stems per hectare (Fig. 1).

  12. Forest rodents provide directed dispersal of Jeffrey pine seeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, J.S.; Wall, S.B.V.; Jenkins, S.H.

    2009-01-01

    Some species of animals provide directed dispersal of plant seeds by transporting them nonrandomly to microsites where their chances of producing healthy seedlings are enhanced. We investigated whether this mutualistic interaction occurs between granivorous rodents and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) in the eastern Sierra Nevada by comparing the effectiveness of random abiotic seed dispersal with the dispersal performed by four species of rodents: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), yellow-pine and long-eared chipmunks (Tamias amoenus and T. quadrimaculatus), and golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis). We conducted two caching studies using radio-labeled seeds, the first with individual animals in field enclosures and the second with a community of rodents in open forest. We used artificial caches to compare the fates of seeds placed at the range of microsites and depths used by animals with the fates of seeds dispersed abiotically. Finally, we examined the distribution and survival of naturally establishing seedlings over an eight-year period.Several lines of evidence suggested that this community of rodents provided directed dispersal. Animals preferred to cache seeds in microsites that were favorable for emergence or survival of seedlings and avoided caching in microsites in which seedlings fared worst. Seeds buried at depths typical of animal caches (5–25 mm) produced at least five times more seedlings than did seeds on the forest floor. The four species of rodents differed in the quality of dispersal they provided. Small, shallow caches made by deer mice most resembled seeds dispersed by abiotic processes, whereas many of the large caches made by ground squirrels were buried too deeply for successful emergence of seedlings. Chipmunks made the greatest number of caches within the range of depths and microsites favorable for establishment of pine seedlings. Directed dispersal is an important element of the population dynamics of Jeffrey pine, a

  13. Forest rodents provide directed dispersal of Jeffrey pine seeds.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Jennifer S; Vander Wall, Stephen B; Jenkins, Stephen H

    2009-03-01

    Some species of animals provide directed dispersal of plant seeds by transporting them nonrandomly to microsites where their chances of producing healthy seedlings are enhanced. We investigated whether this mutualistic interaction occurs between granivorous rodents and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) in the eastern Sierra Nevada by comparing the effectiveness of random abiotic seed dispersal with the dispersal performed by four species of rodents: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), yellow-pine and long-eared chipmunks (Tamias amoenus and T. quadrimaculatus), and golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis). We conducted two caching studies using radio-labeled seeds, the first with individual animals in field enclosures and the second with a community of rodents in open forest. We used artificial caches to compare the fates of seeds placed at the range of microsites and depths used by animals with the fates of seeds dispersed abiotically. Finally, we examined the distribution and survival of naturally establishing seedlings over an eight-year period. Several lines of evidence suggested that this community of rodents provided directed dispersal. Animals preferred to cache seeds in microsites that were favorable for emergence or survival of seedlings and avoided caching in microsites in which seedlings fared worst. Seeds buried at depths typical of animal caches (5-25 mm) produced at least five times more seedlings than did seeds on the forest floor. The four species of rodents differed in the quality of dispersal they provided. Small, shallow caches made by deer mice most resembled seeds dispersed by abiotic processes, whereas many of the large caches made by ground squirrels were buried too deeply for successful emergence of seedlings. Chipmunks made the greatest number of caches within the range of depths and microsites favorable for establishment of pine seedlings. Directed dispersal is an important element of the population dynamics of Jeffrey pine, a

  14. Forest Modeling of Jack Pine Trees for BOREAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghhadam, Mahta; Saatchi, Sasan

    1994-01-01

    As a part of the intensive field campaign for the Boreal forest ecosystem-atmosphere research (BOREAS) project in August 1993, the NASA/JPL AIRSAR covered an area of about 100 km by 100 km near the Prince Albert National Park in Saskatchewan, Canada. At the same time, ground-truth measurements were made in several stands which have been selected as the primary study sites, as well as in some auxiliary sites. This paper focuses on an area including Jack Pine stands in the Nipawin area near the park.

  15. Biomass and biomass change in lodgepole pine stands in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Monserud, Robert A; Huang, Shongming; Yang, Yuqing

    2006-06-01

    We describe methods and results for broad-scale estimation and mapping of forest biomass for the Canadian province of Alberta. Differences over successive decades provided an estimate of biomass change. Over 1500 permanent sample plots (PSP) were analyzed from across the range of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.), the major forest tree species of Alberta. The PSP network is densest in stands aged between 70 and 100 years and is well-represented by stands of all ages to 150 years of age. Stand biomass (Mg ha(-1)) was estimated for each PSP plot as the sum of the respective biomass components for each tree (live and standing dead). The biomass components for live trees were stem, bark, branches, foliage and roots. The components for standing dead trees excluded foliage. Equations from previous biomass studies were used for biomass component estimation. Biomass estimates of additional non-tree components were attempted, but without much success. Biomass of the soil organic layer was estimated once on 452 PSPs and a mean estimate of total dead fuels on the ground (28.4 Mg ha(-1)) was available only for the entire distribution of lodgepole pine. However, values of these two components were essentially constant over time and therefore did not alter the analysis or conclusions obtained by analyzing total tree biomass alone. We then used this spatial network of 1549 plots as the basis for mapping biomass across Alberta. Mapping methods were based on Australian National University SPLINe (ANUSPLIN) software, Hutchinson's thin-plate smoothing spline in four dimensions (latitude, longitude, elevation and biomass). Total tree biomass (mean = 172 Mg ha(-1)) was dominated by stem biomass (mean = 106 Mg ha(-1)), which was an order of magnitude greater than the mean estimates for the bark (11 Mg ha(-1)), branch (12 Mg ha(-1)) and foliage (12 Mg ha(-1)) components. A close relationship was found between total tree biomass and stand stem volume (R(2) = 0

  16. Influence of plant-parasitic nematodes on longleaf pine seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ruehle, J L

    1973-01-01

    Seedlings of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) were grown in 20-cm pots for 5 to 7 months in the greenhouse following inoculation with a high or low level of one of seven species of plant-parasitic nematodes. Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Helicotylenchus dihystera had no effect on seedling growth. High inoculum densities of Hoplolaimus galeatus and Tylenchorhynchus claytoni caused a significant reduction of fresh weight of seedling roots. Root and top weights of seedlings grown in soil infested with Meloidodera floridensis or Pratylenchus brachyurus were significantly less than those of seedlings in noninfested soil. Root growth of seedlings was stimulated by the higher inoculum density of Scutellonema brachyurum.

  17. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    PubMed

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  18. Germination of pine seed in weightlessness (investigation in Kosmos 782)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platonova, R. N.; Parfenov, G. P.; Olkhovenko, V. P.; Karpova, N. I.; Pichugov, M. Y.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was made of the orientation of aboveground and underground organs of pine plants grown from seed in weightlessness. Orientation was found to be caused by the position of the seeds relative to the substrate surface. Normal growth was manifest only for the plants grown from seed oriented with embryo toward the substrate. Differences were noted between experiment and control as to the quantitative content of nucleoli in the meristematic cells of the rootlets and the shape of cells in the cotyledonous leaflets. No complete agreement was found between data obtained in weightlessness and when gravity was compensated (clinostat treatment with horizontal rotation).

  19. Estimating goodwill: an application of Pine's procedures for hospices.

    PubMed

    Doka, Kenneth J; Pine, Vanderlynn

    2004-01-01

    Hospice care is a philosophy as well as a business. As a business, especially in the current healthcare environment, it is subject to many of the same forces that affect other businesses, such as acquisitions, sales, and mergers. Yet, estimating the value of a hospice is problematic, since its most valued asset (the reputation and goodwill that it has generated within the communities it serves) is intangible. This article explores the problem of assessing the value of a hospice, applying Pine's model for estimating goodwill in funeral service as a useful approach for hospices. The article offers assumptions for assessment and examples of suggested approaches.

  20. Retrieval of pine forest biomass using JPL AIRSAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudoin, A.; Letoan, T.; Zagolski, F.; Hsu, C. C.; Han, H. C.; Kong, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) data over the Landes forest in South-West France revealed strong correlation between L- and especially P-band sigma degrees and the pine forest biomass. To explain the physical link of radar backscatter to biomass, a polarimetric backscattering model was developed and validated. Then the model was used in a simulation study to predict sigma degree sensitivity to undesired canopy and environmental parameters. Main results concerning the data analysis, modeling, and simulation at P-band are reported.