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Sample records for pine needle extract

  1. [Study on the chemical constituent from the dichloromethane extract. of the pine needles of Cedrus deodara].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Feng; Bai, Zhao-Hui; Liu, Dong-Yan; Li, Shuang

    2012-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the dichloromethane extracted from pine needles of Cedrus deodara. Compounds were isolated and purified from the dichloromethane extract of pine needles by chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and physicochemical property. Nine compounds were isolated and purified. Their structures were identified as stigmasterol (1), oleanolic acid (2), parahydroxybenzaldehyde (3), beta-sitosterol (4), syringaresinol (5), daucosterol (6), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (7), gallicin (8) and gallic acid (9). Compounds 1-3, 5 -9 are isolated from pine needles of this genus for the first time.

  2. Effects of pine needle extract on pacemaker currents in interstitial cells of Cajal from the murine small intestine.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Hyeonsook; Paudyal, Dilli Parasad; Jun, Jae Yeoul; Yeum, Cheol Ho; Yoon, Pyung Jin; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Man Yoo; So, Insuk; Kim, Ki Whan; Choi, Seok

    2005-10-31

    Extracts of pine needles (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) have diverse physiological and pharmacological actions. In this study we show that pine needle extract alters pacemaker currents in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) by modulating ATP-sensitive K+ channels and that this effect is mediated by prostaglandins. In whole cell patches at 30 degrees , ICC generated spontaneous pacemaker potentials in the current clamp mode (I = 0), and inward currents (pacemaker currents) in the voltage clamp mode at a holding potential of -70 mV. Pine needle extract hyperpolarized the membrane potential, and in voltage clamp mode decreased both the frequency and amplitude of the pacemaker currents, and increased the resting currents in the outward direction. It also inhibited the pacemaker currents in a dose-dependent manner. Because the effects of pine needle extract on pacemaker currents were the same as those of pinacidil (an ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener) we tested the effect of glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ channels blocker) on ICC exposed to pine needle extract. The effects of pine needle extract on pacemaker currents were blocked by glibenclamide. To see whether production of prostaglandins (PGs) is involved in the inhibitory effect of pine needle extract on pacemaker currents, we tested the effects of naproxen, a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitor, and AH6809, a prostaglandin EP1 and EP2 receptor antagonist. Naproxen and AH6809 blocked the inhibitory effects of pine needle extract on ICC. These results indicate that pine needle extract inhibits the pacemaker currents of ICC by activating ATP-sensitive K+ channels via the production of PGs.

  3. Furfural from Pine Needle Extract Inhibits the Growth of a Plant Pathogenic Fungus, Alternaria mali

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sun Kyun; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Lee, Ung-Soo

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal effect of pine needle extract prepared by a distinguishable extraction method and the dry distillation method, was examined. The effect of this extract itself was insignificant. The chemical components of pine needle extract were then investigated by gas chromatographic analysis, and four chemical components, acetol, furfural, 5-methyl furfural, and terpine-4-ol, were identified. The antifungal effects of those four chemical components against Alternaria mali (A. mali), an agent of Alternaria blotch of apple, were then examined. It was observed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were 6.25, 0.78, 0.78, and 12.5 (mg/ml) of acetol, furfural, 5-methyl furfural, and terpine-4-ol, respectively. MICs of furfural and 5-methyl furfural had the same order of magnitude as that of an antifungal agrochemical, chlorothalonil. Although furfural itself can not be completely substituted for an antifungal agrochemical, a partial mixture of furfural and antifungal agrochemical may be used as a substitute. The use of agrochemicals for the prevention of plant disease caused by pathogenic fungus such as A. mali could be partially reduced by the application of this mixture. PMID:24015067

  4. Dothistroma Needle Blight of Pines

    Treesearch

    Glenn W. Peterson

    1982-01-01

    Dothistroma blight is a devastating foliar disease of a wide range of pine species. The causal fungus, Dothistroma pini Hulbary, infects and kills needles. Premature defoliation caused by this fungus has resulted in complete failure of most ponderosa pine plantings in States east of the Great Plains. In the central and southern Great Plains, D. pini damages Austrian...

  5. Needle blight of ponderosa pine.

    Treesearch

    T.W. Childs

    1955-01-01

    This progress report describes the appearance and behavior of needle blight of pondersoa pine as it has been observed in central and eastern Oregon since 1945. Sorts and extent of damage are briefly discussed, results to date are presented from continuing studies, and timber marking and improvement practices are recommended for infected stands.

  6. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  7. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention.

  8. Needle oils of three pine species and species hybrids

    Treesearch

    Robert Z. Callaham

    1956-01-01

    The composition and characteristics of the needle oils of western pines may provide criteria for distinguishing pine hybrids and may help explain why some needle-feeding insects select certain pine species as hosts.

  9. Environmental distribution of PAHs in pine needles, soils, and sediments.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Ratola, Nuno; Hildebrandt, Alain; Alves, Arminda; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià

    2012-03-01

    The content of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in 60 samples from three environmental matrices (soils, sediments, and pine needles) in an effort to assess their distribution on a river basin scale. A sampling campaign was carried out in 2006, selecting urban, industrial, and agricultural sampling sites along the northeast of Spain. Techniques used included pressurized liquid extraction and solid-liquid ultrasonic extraction followed by gas chromatography-electron impact ionization mass spectrometry. The mean total PAHs concentrations were 290 < 613 < 1,628 ng/g (dry weight) in pine needles, soil, and sediments, respectively. There is a good correspondence between the total concentration of soils and pine needles, as opposed to the levels between sediments and pine needles. The high concentrations found in some Pinus halepensis samples may reflect a superior uptake potential of this species in comparison to the others studied. The three matrices present a very different PAH distribution pattern, with pine needles showing a predominance of the lighter (2-, 3-, and 4-ring) PAHs, whereas 5- and 6-ring PAHs are the most abundant in soils. Sediments display a more heterogeneous pattern, with contributions of all the PAHs but different distribution depending on the site, suggesting a wider range of input sources. Established PAH molecular ratios and principal component analysis were used to identify the origins and profiles of PAHs. While sediments showed a wide range attributed to historical inputs, soils and pine needles confirmed the compartmentalization of the PAHs, with lighter airborne PAHs accumulated in pine needles and heavier ones in soils. It can be suggested that the monitoring of several matrices is a strong tool to elucidate the contamination sources and accumulation patterns of PAHs. However, given the influence of the matrix type on this assessment, the information should be considered complementary, yet allowing a more

  10. Brown-Spot Needle Blight of Pines

    Treesearch

    W.R. Phelps; A.G. Kais; T.H. Nicholls

    1978-01-01

    Brown-spot needle blight, caused by Scirrhia acicola (Dearn.) Siggers, delays growth and causes mortality of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.). Brown spot reduces total annual growth of southern pines by more than 16 million cubic feet (0.453 million cubic meters) of timber. Damage is most severe on longleaf seedlings in the grass stage; i.e., those that have not...

  11. Properties of southern pine needles

    Treesearch

    E.T. Howard

    1973-01-01

    To investigate properties that might be related to utilization, needles were sampled on one tree of each of the four major species. Tensile strength was measured on loblolly needles only; it ranged from 4,630 to 6,980 psi. Maximum load averaged 4.1 pounds per needle, with a modulus of elasticity of 220,000 psi. Specific gravity (ovendry weight, green volume of...

  12. Replication of Pine Needle Fuel Beds

    Treesearch

    John E. Deeming; Ernest R. Elliott

    1971-01-01

    A technique for building pine needle fuel beds has been developed and tested which assures uniform rates of spread and independence of the builder. Five beds were constructed by each of two technicians. They were burned under identical conditions and a comparison made of the time the fires took to spread 24 inches. A t-test showed that there was no difference between...

  13. Biology of a Pine Needle Sheath Midge, Contarinia Acuta Gagne (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), on Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Julie C. Weatherby; John C. Moser; Raymond J. Gagné; Huey N. Wallace

    1989-01-01

    The biology of a pine needle sheath midge, Contarinia acuta Gagné is described for a new host in Louisiana. This midge was found feeding within the needle sheath on elongating needles of loblolly pine, P. taeda L. Needle droop and partial defoliation were evident on heavily infested trees. Overwintering C. acuta...

  14. Imaging and Spectroscopy of Natural Fluorophores in Pine Needles

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nari

    2018-01-01

    Many plant tissues fluoresce due to the natural fluorophores present in cell walls or within the cell protoplast or lumen. While lignin and chlorophyll are well-known fluorophores, other components are less well characterized. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of fresh or fixed vibratome-cut sections of radiata pine needles revealed the presence of suberin, lignin, ferulate, and flavonoids associated with cell walls as well as several different extractive components and chlorophyll within tissues. Comparison of needles in different physiological states demonstrated the loss of chlorophyll in both chlorotic and necrotic needles. Necrotic needles showed a dramatic change in the fluorescence of extractives within mesophyll cells from ultraviolet (UV) excited weak blue fluorescence to blue excited strong green fluorescence associated with tissue browning. Comparisons were made among fluorophores in terms of optimal excitation, relative brightness compared to lignin, and the effect of pH of mounting medium. Fluorophores in cell walls and extractives in lumens were associated with blue or green emission, compared to the red emission of chlorophyll. Autofluorescence is, therefore, a useful method for comparing the histology of healthy and diseased needles without the need for multiple staining techniques, potentially aiding visual screening of host resistance and disease progression in needle tissue. PMID:29393922

  15. Effect of ponderosa pine needle litter on grass seedling survival.

    Treesearch

    Burt R. McConnell; Justin G. Smith

    1971-01-01

    Hard fescue survival rates were followed for 6 years on four different pine needle treatment plots. Needle litter had a significant effect on initial survival of fescue seedlings, but subsequent losses undoubtedly resulted from the interaction of many factors.

  16. The effect of SO2 pollution on pine needle structure

    Treesearch

    E. A. Zhitkova; L. L. Novitskaya

    2000-01-01

    Fall and winter needles from pines growing near the Kostomuksha oredressing mill (KODM) were collected and studied by light microscopy. Fall needles showed symptoms of SO2 influence and no specific seasonal changes in mesophyll. The injury rates of needle surface and mesophyll showed that pollutants penetrate into the needles through stomata and...

  17. Separation and characterization of needle and xylem maritime pine proteins.

    PubMed

    Costa, P; Pionneau, C; Bauw, G; Dubos, C; Bahrmann, N; Kremer, A; Frigerio, J M; Plomion, C

    1999-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and image analysis are currently used for proteome analysis in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). This study presents a database of expressed proteins extracted from needles and xylem, two important tissues for growth and wood formation. Electrophoresis was carried out by isoelectric focusing (IEF) in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the second. Silver staining made it possible to detect an average of 900 and 600 spots on 2-DE gels from needles and xylem, respectively. A total of 28 xylem and 35 needle proteins were characterized by internal peptide microsequencing. Out of these 63 proteins, 57 (90%) could be identified based on amino acid similarity with known proteins, of which 24 (42%) have already been described in conifers. Overall comparison of both tissues indicated that 29% and 36% of the spots were specific to xylem and needles, respectively, while the other spots were of identical molecular weight and isoelectric point. The homology of spot location in 2-DE patterns was further validated by sequence analysis of proteins present in both tissues. A proteomic database of maritime pine is accessible on the internet (http://www.pierroton.inra.fr/genetics/2D/).

  18. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids.

    PubMed

    Snider, Douglas B; Gardner, Dale R; Janke, Bruce H; Ensley, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle consumption and detection of isocupressic acid in a sample from the dam. Stable metabolites of isocupressic acid include agathic acid, dihydroagathic acid, and tetrahydroagathic acid, which have been shown to be present in the serum of mature animals for a few days following consumption of pine needles. As maternal serum is infrequently submitted for diagnosis of cattle abortions, a diagnostic assay capable of confirming isocupressic acid exposure in other matrices would be desirable. To the authors' knowledge, no previous investigations have indicated whether these stable metabolites of isocupressic acid cross the placenta or are detectable in fetal tissues. Therefore, the presence of agathic acid, dihydroagathic acid, and tetrahydroagathic acid was evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy on fetal thoracic fluid and stomach contents collected from 2 aborted bovine fetuses with a recent herd history of pine needle consumption by the dams and a subsequent abortion outbreak in the herd. Only tetrahydroagathic acid was detected in the fetal thoracic fluid and fetal stomach contents. The current study encourages diagnosticians to collect fetal thoracic fluids to permit the detection of tetrahydroagathic acid in cases of suspected pine needle abortion. © 2014 The Author(s).

  19. Etiological study of the short needle disease of pine

    Treesearch

    Francis A. Wood; Stanley P. Pennypacker

    1976-01-01

    The short needle disease of pines consists of dwarfing, crooking, twisting, and excessive elongation of random needles, failure of buds to develop, reduced lateral branch development and the premature casting of needles. The disease was initially associated with a power plant source of air pollution in the eastern United States during 1969; at that time the cause of...

  20. Alternate Host of Jack Pine Needle rust in Northern Minnesota

    Treesearch

    Ralph L. Anderson; Neil A. Anderson

    1978-01-01

    The pine needle rust of jack pine on the Little Sioux Burn in northeastern Minnesota infected large-leaf aster but not goldenrod. The rust was most severe when asters were abundant on the plots. Les than 10 percent of the jack pine were infected over a 3-year period when asters were more than 10 feet (3.05 m) from the mil-acre plots

  1. Histological observations on needle colonization by Cronartium ribicola in susceptible and resistant seedlings of whitebark pine and limber pine

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey Stone; Anna Schoettle; Richard Sniezko; Angelia Kegley

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to white pine blister rust based on a hypersensitive response (HR) that is conferred by a dominant gene has been identified as functioning in needles of blister rust-resistant families of sugar pine, western white pine and southwestern white pine. The typical HR response displays a characteristic local necrosis at the site of infection in the needles during...

  2. [Apoptosis and activity changes of telomerase induced by essential oil from pine needles in HepG2 cell line].

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng-xiang; Li, Mei-yu; Song, Yu-hong; Li, Hong-zhi

    2008-08-01

    To study the effects of essential oil extracted from pine needles on HepG2 cell line. HepG2 cells were treated with essential oil extracted from pine needles. Cell growth rate was determined with MTF assay, cell morphologic changes were examined under transmission electromicroscope and HE straining. Flow cytometry was used to exmine apoptotic cells. Bcl-2 gene expression was determined by flow cytometry and telomerase activity by TRAP assay. Essential oils from pine needles could not only repress the growth of HepG2 cells significantly, but also induce apoptosis to them. Both dose-effect and time-effect relationship could be confirmed. Typical morphology changes of apoptosis such as nuclear enrichment and karyorrhexis were observed through transmission electromicroscope and HE straining. Telomerase activity was down regulated in the essential oil extracted from pine needles induced apoptotic cells. The expression of bcl-2 gene was suppressed after the essential oil from pine needles treatement. The essential oil extracted from pine needles can inhibit cell growth of HepG2 cell line and induce apoptosis, which may associate with inhibition of telomerase activity and bcl-2 may be involved in the regulation of telomerase activity.

  3. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Fisher, J.; Arundel, S.T.; Cannella, J.; Swift, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location: Western North America. Methods: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes

  4. Malathion aerial spray controls the pine needle -sheath miner

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Stevens

    1966-01-01

    A water emulsion malathion spray, applied by helicopter at the rate of 1 lb. of insecticide in 25 gallons of water, effectively controlled the pine needle-sheath miner (Zelleria haimbachi Busck). Numbers of insects in the sprayed area were reduced by 98.6 percent 24 hours after treatment.

  5. Conservation genetics of high elevation five-needle white pines

    Treesearch

    Andrew D. Bower; Sierra C. McLane; Andrew Eckert; Stacy Jorgensen; Anna Schoettle; Sally Aitken

    2011-01-01

    Conservation genetics examines the biophysical factors influencing genetic processes and uses that information to conserve and maintain the evolutionary potential of species and populations. Here we review published and unpublished literature on the conservation genetics of seven North American high-elevation five-needle pines. Although these species are widely...

  6. Developmental dynamics of longleaf pine seedling flushes and needles

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Stanley J. Zarnoch; James D. Haywood; Daniel Leduc; Mary A. Sword-Sayer

    2013-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings were grown for 27 weeks in containers of three cavity sizes and two cavity types (with and without copper coating) and then outplanted in central Louisiana in November 2004. Three seedlings from each plot were assessed repeatedly for shoot flush and needle development in 2007 and 2008. Cavity type had...

  7. Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

  8. Pine Needles as Potential Energy Feedstock: Availability in the Central Himalayan State of Uttarakhand, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kala, L. D.; Subbarao, P. M. V.

    2017-11-01

    The amount of pine needles (pinus roxburgii) potentially available for use as energy feedstock in the Central Himalayan state of Uttarakhand in India has been estimated. It involves estimating the gross annual amount of pine needle yield followed by a comprehensive identification and quantification of the factors that affect the net annual pine needle yield available as energy feedstock. These factors include considerations such as accessibility, alternative uses, forest fires, other losses, etc., that are influenced by aspects ranging from physical constraints to traditional societal traits. Tree canopy cover method has been used for estimating the gross annual pine needle yield. The information on canopy density is obtained from remote sensing data, that forms the basis for forest classification. The annual gross pine needle yield has been estimated at 1.9 million tonnes while the annual net pine needle yield at 1.33 million tonnes. The annual primary energy potential of pine needles available as energy feedstock has also been estimated. For annual net energy potential estimation, thermal and electrical routes are considered. Electrical energy generation from pine needles using thermochemical conversion has been examined and the corresponding potential for electricity generation been estimated. An installed capacity of 789 MW can be supported with pine needles feedstock for supplying electricity in rural areas for five hours a day. For round the clock generation, an installed capacity of 165 MW can be supported by the pine needle energy feedstock.

  9. Induction of Listeria monocytogenes infection by the consumption of ponderosa pine needles.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, C J; Neff, T E; Jackson, L L

    1979-01-01

    An infectious microorganism, identified as Listeria monocytogenes, has been isolated from the bloodstream of pregnant mice fed a diet containing Pinus ponderosa needles. When the isolate was injected into pregnant mice, reproductive dysfunction and other changes, including speckled livers, spleen atrophy, and hemorrhagic intestines, appeared to mimic the signs of the disease in pregnant mice fed pine needles. Moreover, these pathological changes are similar to those observed in cattle and other mammals experiencing abortions or toxemia, or both, attributed to the ingestion of P. ponderosa needles, suggesting that L. monocytogenes may be a part of the etiology of "pine needle abortion." PMID:113341

  10. Effect of body condition on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows.

    PubMed

    Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Welch, K D

    2008-12-01

    We determined whether cows in low (LBC) or high body condition (HBC) would consume different amounts of green pine needles (Pinus ponderosa). Cows (mature; open Hereford and Hereford x Angus) were fed a maintenance basal diet (alfalfa pellets) for Exp. 1 and 2; during Exp. 3 and 4, cows were fed high-protein and high-energy diets, respectively. Experiment 5 was a grazing study on rangeland during winter in South Dakota; diets were determined by using bite counts. Mean BCS (1 = emaciated, 9 = obese) was 7.5 for HBC cows and <4.0 for LBC cows during the experiments. During Exp. 1, LBC cows consumed more (P = 0.001) pine needles than did HBC cows (5.5 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.14 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). During Exp. 2, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC cows consumed variable, but greater, amounts of pine needles than did HBC cows (3.7 +/- 0.19 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.12 g/kg of BW daily, respectively). When fed a high-protein/low-energy diet, LBC cows ate more (P = 0.04) pine needles than did HBC cows. When fed a low-protein/high-energy diet, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) because LBC cows consumed more pine needles than did HBC cows for the first 3 d of the study, and then consumption by LBC animals decreased during the last 4 d. These experiments suggest that the protein:energy ratio may be an important factor in the ability of cows to tolerate terpenes, and that cows were not able to sustain an increased quantity of needle consumption on a low-protein diet. During the 25-d grazing study, there was a day x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) as LBC animals selected more pine needles (up to 25% of daily bites) on some days compared with HBC cows. Weather influenced pine needle consumption because pine needle bites by LBC cows were related (r(2) = 0.60; P = 0.001) to days of greater snow depth and lower minimum daily temperatures. Both LBC and HBC cows increased selection of pine needles from trees during cold, snowy weather, but

  11. Red band needle blight of pines...a tentative appraisal for California

    Treesearch

    Willis W. Wagener

    1967-01-01

    Since it first appeared in Tanganyika in 1957, red band needle blight has become a major forest disease around the world. Apparently spread by high altitude winds, the blight has been found killing Monterey and other pines in California's northwest coastal counties. About 30 pine species are susceptible. Caused by the fungus Dothistroma pini (...

  12. Changes in the rumen bacterial microbiome of cattle exposed to ponderosa pine needles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of ponderosa pine needles, as well as needles and bark from a number of other trees, can cause abortions in cattle. The abortifacient compounds in these trees are labdane resin acids, including isocupressic acid and agathic acid. Previous research has demonstrated that cattle conditioned...

  13. Stunting of southern pine seedlings by a needle nematode (Longidorus sp.)

    Treesearch

    M.M. Cram; S.W. Fraedrich; J. Fields

    2003-01-01

    An undescribed needle nematode (Longidorus sp.) was consistently associated with stunted loblolly pine seedlings at the Flint River Nursery in south Georgia. Seedlings in affected areas had root systems that were greatly reduced in size, and lacked lateral and fine roots. In a growth chamber experiment, the needle nematode significantly reduced the...

  14. Chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from pine needle (Cedrus deodara).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei-Cai; Zhang, Zeng; Gao, Hong; Jia, Li-Rong; He, Qiang

    2012-07-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil from pine needles (Cedrus deodara) was determined, and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were evaluated. Twenty-three components, representing 95.79% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The main components include α-terpineol (30.2%), linalool (24.47%), limonene (17.01%), anethole (14.57%), caryophyllene (3.14%), and eugenol (2.14%). Pine needle essential oil showed remarkable antioxidant activity in scavenging free radicals, in lipid peroxidation, and in reducing power assays. Moreover, the essential oil revealed strong antimicrobial activity against typical food-borne microorganisms, with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 0.2 to 1.56 and 0.39 to 6.25 μg/mL, respectively. Transmission electron microscope observation ascertained that the bactericidal mechanism of pine needle essential oil may be the induction of cytoplasmic outflow and plasmolysis. These results suggest that the essential oil from pine needles has potential to be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in food processing. The present study provides a theoretical basis for the potential application of essential oil from pine needles (C. deodara) to be used as a natural resource of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in food industry. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Changes in the rumen bacterial microbiome of cattle exposed to ponderosa pine needles.

    PubMed

    Welch, K D; Stonecipher, C A; Gardner, D R; Cook, D; Pfister, J A

    2017-05-01

    Consumption of ponderosa pine needles, as well as needles and bark from a number of other trees, can cause abortions in cattle. The abortifacient compounds in these trees are labdane resin acids, including isocupressic acid and agathic acid. Previous research has demonstrated that cattle conditioned to pine needles metabolize the labdane resin acids more quickly than naïve cattle. The results from that study indicated that changes had occurred in the rumen of conditioned cattle. Therefore, in this study, the changes that occurred in the rumen bacterial microflora of cattle during exposure to ponderosa pine needles were evaluated. Cattle were dosed with ground pine needles twice daily for 7 d. Rumen samples were collected on d 0, 3, 7, and 14 (7 d after treatment stopped) and ruminal bacterial microbiome analyses were performed. There were 372 different genera of bacteria identified in the rumen samples. Principal coordinate analysis indicated that there was a significant difference in the rumen bacterial composition between the time points. There were 18 genera that increased in abundance from d 0 to d 7. Twenty three genera decreased in abundance from d 0 to d 7. The results from this study demonstrated that exposure of cattle to pine needles caused a clear shift in the rumen microbiome composition. In general, this shift lasted less than 1 wk post exposure, which indicates that any prophylactic treatment to manipulate the ruminal metabolism of the abortifacient compounds in pine needles would need to be continuously administered to maintain the necessary microbial composition in the rumen.

  16. Morphology of jack pine and tamarack needles in dense stands.

    Treesearch

    Terry F. Strong; J. Zavitkovski

    1978-01-01

    Effects of position in the crown on needle morphology and surface area were studied. Needle length, surface area, and dry weight increased and specific needs area decreased from the lower to the upper third of the crown.

  17. Rooting of needle fascicles from western white pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    Ramond J. Hoff; Geral I. McDonald

    1968-01-01

    In one test, 45 out of 318 (14 percent) needle fascicles from 2-year-old seedlings of Pinus monticola Dougl. were rooted. Eight of the needle fascicles produced shoot growth. In another test, 392 out of 742 (53 percent) needle fascicles were rooted, but none of these produced shoot growth.

  18. A comparison of the metabolism of the abortifacient compounds from Ponderosa Pine needles in conditioned versus naive cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Isocupressic acid (ICA) is the abortifacient compound in ponderosa pine needles, which can cause late term abortions in cattle. However, cattle rapidly metabolize ICA to agathic acid and subsequent metabolites. When pine needles are dosed orally to cattle, no ICA is detected in their serum while a...

  19. The U.S. Forest Service's renewed focus on gene conservation of five-needle pine species

    Treesearch

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service (FS) has been actively working with five-needle pine species for decades. The main focus of this interest has been in restoration efforts involving disease-resistance screening activities in western white (Pinus monticola), sugar (Pinus lambertiana), and eastern white (Pinus strobus) pines in the face of white pine blister rust (WPBR), caused by...

  20. Strategies, tools, and challenges for sustaining and restoring high elevation five-needle white pine forests in western North America

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Keane; Anna W. Schoettle

    2011-01-01

    Many ecologically important, five-needle white pine forests that historically dominated the high elevation landscapes of western North America are now being heavily impacted by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus spp.) outbreaks, the exotic disease white pine blister rust (WPBR), and altered high elevation fire regimes. Management intervention using specially designed...

  1. Composition and Bioactivity of Lipophilic Metabolites from Needles and Twigs of Korean and Siberian Pines (Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc. and Pinus sibirica Du Tour).

    PubMed

    Shpatov, Alexander V; Popov, Sergey A; Salnikova, Olga I; Kukina, Tatyana P; Shmidt, Emma N; Um, Byung Hun

    2017-02-01

    Lipophilic extractive metabolites in different parts of the shoot system (needles and defoliated twigs) of Korean pine, Pinus koraiensis, and Siberian pine, Pinus sibirica, were studied by GC/MS. Korean pine needles comprised mainly bornyl p-coumarate, heterocyclic 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids (lambertianic acid), 10-nonacosanol, sterols and their esters. While Siberian pine needles contained less bornyl p-coumarate, lambertianic acid, sterols and their esters, but were richer in other 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids. The major components of the twig extract of P. koraiensis were lambertianic acid, abietane and isopimarane type acids, cembrane type alcohols, 8-O-functionalized labdanoids, sterols, sterol esters, and acylglycerols. The same extract of P. sibirica differed in larger amounts of other 15-O-functionalized labdane type acids and pinolenic acid glycerides, but in less quantities of cembranoids and 8-O-functionalized labdanoids. The labdane type pinusolic acid was detected for the first time in Korean pine. P. koraiensis was found to be unique in the genus for an ability to synthesize phyllocladane diterpenoids. The content of bound Δ 5 -unsaturated polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids in the twig extracts of the both pines was similar or superior to that in their seed oil. Among the pines' metabolites tested isocembrol was strongest in inhibition of both α-glucosidase (IC 50 2.9 μg/ml) and NO production in activated macrophages (IC 50 3.6 μg/ml). © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  2. Changes in the essential oil composition in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under anthropogenic stress.

    PubMed

    Judzentiene, Asta; Stikliene, Aida; Kupcinskiene, Eugenija

    2007-03-21

    Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF), a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005). Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles. Along the CF transect for current-year needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing pH of the pine bark (r = -0.582; p < 0.05) or with the increasing concentration of SO2 (r = -0.573; p < 0.05); for 1-year-old needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing pH of the bark (r = -0.534; p < 0.05). Along the OR transect, in both the current-year and 1-year-old needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing SO2 (respectively, r = -0.773; p < 0.01; r = -0.486; p < 0.05); an opposite relation was true for sesquiterpenes (respectively, r = -0.751; p < 0.01; r = 0.785; p < 0.01). The view was different along the NFF transect. For current-year needles, the percentage of monoterpenes was decreasing with the increasing NH3 (r = -0.669; p < 0.01); while the percentage of sesquiterpenes or oxysesquiterpenes was increasing with the increasing NH3 (respectively, r = 0.540; p < 0.05 and r = 0.688; p < 0.01). For each transect, cluster analysis of the percentages of components of essential oils in the needles allowed us to distinguish the most contrasting stands according to the concentration of air pollutants. Current-year needles were more effective as indicators of

  3. Effect of body condition on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined if cattle in low (LBC) or high body condition (HBC) would consume different amounts of green pine needles (Pinus ponderosa). Cattle (mature; open Hereford and Hereford x Angus) were fed an adequate basal diet (alfalfa pellets) for Trials 1 and 2; during Trials 3 and 4 cows were fed hig...

  4. Ponderosa pine needle blight in eastern Oregon during 1955 and 1956.

    Treesearch

    John Hunt; T.W. Childs

    1957-01-01

    A survey of ponderosa pine needle blight during 1955 and 1956, principally in eastern Oregon (where the disease is much more abundant than in Washington), provided information on extent of damage and on association of infection with certain environmental factors. Observations were largely confined to localities where the disease was known to be more than ordinarily...

  5. Loblolly pine needle decomposition and nutrient dynamics as affected by irrigation, fertilization, and substrate quality

    Treesearch

    Felipe G. Sanchez

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of initial litter quality and irrigation and fertilization treatments on litter decomposition rates and nutrient dynamics (N, Ca, K, Mg, and P) of loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) pine needles in the North Carolina Sand Hills over 3 years. Litter quality was based on the initial C/N ratios, with the high-quality litter having...

  6. Breeding and genetic resources of five-needle pines: Growth, adaptability, and pest resistance

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Sniezko; Safiya Samman; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Howard B. Kriebel

    2004-01-01

    This volume presents 29 overview and research papers on the breeding, genetic variation, genecology, gene conservation, and pest resistance of five-needle pines (Pinus L. subgenus Strobus Lemm.) from throughout the world. Overview papers provide information on past and present research as well as future needs for research on white...

  7. Disturbance ecology of high-elevation five-needle pine ecosystems in western North America

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth M. Campbell; Robert E. Keane; Evan R. Larson; Michael P. Murray; Anna W. Schoettle; Carmen Wong

    2011-01-01

    This paper synthesizes existing information about the disturbance ecology of high-elevation five-needle pine ecosystems, describing disturbances regimes, how they are changing or are expected to change, and the implications for ecosystem persistence. As it provides the context for ecosystem conservation/restoration programs, we devote particular attention to wildfire...

  8. Seasonal Shoot and Needle Growth of Loblolly Pine Responds to Thinning, Fertilization, and Crown Position

    Treesearch

    Zhenmin Tang; Jim L. Chambers; Suresh Guddanti; Shufang Yu; James P. Barnett

    1999-01-01

    The impacts of thinning, fertilization and crown position on seasonal growth of current-year shoots and foliage were studied in a 13-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation in the sixth post-treatment year (1994). Length of new flushes, and their needle length, leaf area, and oven-dry weight were measured in the upper and lower crown...

  9. Needle Mottle in Eastern White Pine Seedlings: A Selective Parameter for Air Pollution Sensitivity

    Treesearch

    Leon S. Dochinger; Stanford L. Arner

    1978-01-01

    Positive correlations were established between morphological characteristics in eastern white pine seedlings and subsequent tolerance or sensitivity to air pollution 5 and 7 years after outplanting in Ohio plantations. Of 11 seedling variables, needle mottling was an accurate indicator of sensitivity or tolerance to air pollution. This characteristic, which may be...

  10. A comparison of the metabolism of the abortifacient compounds from Ponderosa pine needles in conditioned versus naive cattle.

    PubMed

    Welch, K D; Gardner, D R; Pfister, J A; Panter, K E; Zieglar, J; Hall, J O

    2012-12-01

    Isocupressic acid (ICA) is the abortifacient compound in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L.) needles, which can cause late-term abortions in cattle (Bos taurus). However, cattle rapidly metabolize ICA to agathic acid (AGA) and subsequent metabolites. When pine needles are dosed orally to cattle, no ICA is detected in their serum, whereas AGA is readily detected. Recent research has demonstrated that AGA is also an abortifacient compound in cattle. The observation has been made that when cattle are dosed with labdane acids for an extended time, the concentration of AGA in serum increases for 1 to 2 d but then decreases to baseline after 5 to 6 d even though they are still being dosed twice daily. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether cattle conditioned to pine needles metabolize ICA, and its metabolites, faster than naïve cattle. Agathic acid was readily detected in the serum of naïve cattle fed ponderosa pine needles, whereas very little AGA was detected in the serum of cattle conditioned to pine needles. We also compared the metabolism of ICA in vitro using rumen cultures from pine-needle-conditioned and naïve cattle. In the rumen cultures from conditioned cattle, AGA concentrations were dramatically less than rumen cultures from naïve cattle. Thus, an adaptation occurs to cattle conditioned to pine needles such that the metabolism AGA by the rumen microflora is altered.

  11. Mountain pine beetle in high-elevation five-needle white pine ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Barbara Bentz; Elizabeth Campbell; Ken Gibson; Sandra Kegley; Jesse Logan; Diana Six

    2011-01-01

    Across western North America mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), populations are growing at exponential rates in pine ecosystems that span a wide range of elevations. As temperature increased over the past several decades, the flexible, thermally-regulated life-history strategies of mountain pine beetle have allowed...

  12. A population genetic model for high-elevation five-needle pines: Projecting population outcomes in the presence of white pine blister rust

    Treesearch

    A. W. Schoettle; J. G. Klutsch; M. F. Antolin; S. Field

    2011-01-01

    The slow growth and long generation time of the five-needle pines have historically enabled these trees to persist on the landscape for centuries, but without sufficient regeneration opportunities these same traits hinder the species' ability to adapt to novel stresses such as the non-native disease white pine blister rust (WPBR). Increasing the frequency of...

  13. COMBINED EFFECTS OF CO2 AND O3 ON ANTIOXIDATIVE AND PHOTOPROTECTIVE DEFENSE SYSTEMS IN NEEDLES OF PONDEROSA PINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine interactive effects of important environmental stresses on biochemical defense mechanisms of tree seedlings, we studied responses to elevated O3 and elevated atmospheric CO2 on antioxidative and photoprotective systems in needles of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Do...

  14. Seasonal recovery of chlorotic needles in Scotch pine

    Treesearch

    Jerry K. Jones; Jerry K. Jones

    1971-01-01

    As part of a research project on Christmas trees being carried on by the USDA Forest Service's Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, the author made a cooperative study of how discolored needles recover their normal color in February and April. Though this does not solve the Christmas tree growers' problem, it does shed some light on the process involved in...

  15. Study of geographical trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using pine needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amigo, José Manuel; Ratola, Nuno; Alves, Arminda

    2011-10-01

    In this work, pine needles were used as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) markers to study the PAHs distribution over several geographical locations in Portugal and over time. Four pine needle sampling campaigns (winter, spring, summer and autumn 2007) were carried out in 29 sites, covering the major urban centres, some industrial points, smaller cities, rural areas and remote locations. Needles from Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. trees were collected from 2005 and 2006 shoots, corresponding to one up to three years of exposure. Spatial trends of the incidence of PAHs indicate an increase from the remote to the urban and industrial sites. The mean values for the sum of 16 PAHs ranged from 96 ± 30 ng g -1 (dry weight) for remote sites to 866 ± 304 ng g -1 (dw) for industrial sites for P. pinaster needles and from 188 ± 117 ng g -1 (dw) for rural sites to 337 ± 153 ng g -1 (dw) for urban sites for P. pinea. Geographic information system tools and principal component analysis revealed that the contamination patterns of PAHs are somehow related to several socio-geographic parameters of the sampling sites. The geographical trend for the PAHs is similar between seasons in terms of PAH levels, but some diverse behaviour is found on the separation of lighter and heavier PAHs. Differences between P. pinaster and P. pinea needles are stronger in terms of PAH uptake loads than in the site type fingerprints.

  16. Pine needle abortion in cattle update: Metabolite detection in sera and fetal fluids from abortion case samples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle abortions associated with consumption of pine needles during late gestation are a serious poisonous plant problem in the Western US. Most cases of abortion have been associated with consumption of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and the causative agent was identified as the labdane diterpen...

  17. Effect of dietary protein level and quebracho tannin on consumption of pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) by beef cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ponderosa pine trees occupy over 15 million hectares of rangeland in western North America. Pregnant cows often consume pine needles (PN), and subsequently abort. The protein-to-energy ratio may be important in the ability of cattle to tolerate dietary terpenes. Tannins often co-occur with terpenes ...

  18. Observations on heat tolerance of southern pine needles. U.S

    Treesearch

    Ralph M. Nelson

    1952-01-01

    When forest fires burn through southern pine stands, effects on tree crowns range from no observable injury to complete browning and even total con­ sumption of all needles. Mortality and loss of growth that may follow are largely determined by the extent of damage to the foliage, particularly to the buds and twigs. Height of scorch line, as marked by yellowing or...

  19. Histology of white pine blister rust in needles of resistant and susceptible eastern white pine

    Treesearch

    Joel A. Jurgens; Robert A. Blanchette; Paul J. Zambino; Andrew David

    2003-01-01

    White pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola, has plagued the forests of North America for almost a century. Over past decades, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) that appear to tolerate the disease have been selected and incorporated into breeding programs. Seeds from P. strobus with putative resistance were...

  20. A major trade-off between structural and photosynthetic investments operative across plant and needle ages in three Mediterranean pines.

    PubMed

    Kuusk, Vivian; Niinemets, Ülo; Valladares, Fernando

    2018-04-01

    Pine (Pinus) species exhibit extensive variation in needle shape and size between juvenile (primary) and adult (secondary) needles (heteroblasty), but few studies have quantified the changes in needle morphological, anatomical and chemical traits upon juvenile-to-adult transition. Mediterranean pines keep juvenile needles longer than most other pines, implying that juvenile needles play a particularly significant role in seedling and sapling establishment in this environment. We studied needle anatomical, morphological and chemical characteristics in juvenile and different-aged adult needles in Mediterranean pines Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L. and Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold subsp. salzmannii (Dunal) Franco hypothesizing that needle anatomical modifications upon juvenile-to-adult transition lead to a trade-off between investments in support and photosynthetic tissues, and that analogous changes occur with needle aging albeit to a lower degree. Compared with adult needles, juvenile needles of all species were narrower with 1.6- to 2.4-fold lower leaf dry mass per unit area, and had ~1.4-fold thinner cell walls, but needle nitrogen content per dry mass was similar among plant ages. Juvenile needles also had ~1.5-fold greater mesophyll volume fraction, ~3-fold greater chloroplast volume fraction and ~1.7-fold greater chloroplast exposed to mesophyll exposed surface area ratio, suggesting overall greater photosynthetic activity. Changes in needle traits were similar in aging adult needles, but the magnitude was generally less than the changes upon juvenile to adult transition. In adult needles, the fraction in support tissues scaled positively with known ranking of species tolerance of drought (P. halepensis > P. pinea > P. nigra). Across all species, and needle and plant ages, a negative correlation between volume fractions of mesophyll and structural tissues was observed, manifesting a trade-off between biomass investments in different needle functions. These

  1. Comparing the variation of needle and wood terpenoids in Scots pine provenances.

    PubMed

    Manninen, A M; Tarhanen, S; Vuorinen, M; Kainulaine, P

    2002-01-01

    We determined variation in both the concentration and composition of terpenoids in needles and wood within nine Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) provenances. Seedlings of different provenances representing a 1200-km N-S transect from Estonia to northern Finland were cultivated in Suonenjoki nursery field, central Finland, for seven years. Growth of seedlings and the number of vertical resin ducts in wood were also determined. alpha-Pinene and 3-carene were the major monoterpenes both in the needles and wood. The total monoterpene concentration was about five times higher in the needles than in the wood. A strong positive correlation was found between proportional quantities of several terpenes of the needles and wood, particularly for 3-carene, sabinene, and terpinolene. The needles contained both labdane-type and tricyclic resin acids, whereas the wood contained only tricyclic ones. The wood had a four times higher tricyclic resin acid concentration than the needles. The highest total monoterpene concentration in the needles and in the wood occurred in the most northern Muonio provenance and in the most southern Saaremaa provenance plants, respectively. The amount of high 3-carene genotype trees decreased among the northern provenances. The wood of the most northern Muonio provenance showed the lowest total resin acid concentration, but provenance did not affect total tricyclic resin acids in the needles. Korpilahti provenance trees from central Finland had the best growth in height. In addition, Korpilahti and Ruokolahti provenance trees showed largest radial growth of stem and smallest number of vertical resin ducts. The results suggest that especially the proportional quantity of 3-carene in the needles could be used in estimating the amount of this compound in the wood and vice versa.

  2. Plasticity in mesophyll volume fraction modulates light-acclimation in needle photosynthesis in two pines.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, Ulo; Lukjanova, Aljona; Turnbull, Matthew H; Sparrow, Ashley D

    2007-08-01

    Acclimation potential of needle photosynthetic capacity varies greatly among pine species, but the underlying chemical, anatomical and morphological controls are not entirely understood. We investigated the light-dependent variation in needle characteristics in individuals of Pinus patula Schlect. & Cham., which has 19-31-cm long pendulous needles, and individuals of P. radiata D. Don., which has shorter (8-17-cm-long) stiffer needles. Needle nitrogen and carbon contents, mesophyll and structural tissue volume fractions, needle dry mass per unit total area (M(A)) and its components, volume to total area ratio (V/A(T)) and needle density (D = M(A)/(V/A(T))), and maximum carboxylase activity of Rubisco (V(cmax)) and capacity of photosynthetic electron transport (J(max)) were investigated in relation to seasonal mean integrated irradiance (Q(int)). Increases in Q(int) from canopy bottom to top resulted in proportional increases in both needle thickness and width such that needle total to projected surface area ratio, characterizing the efficiency of light interception, was independent of Q(int). Increased light availability also led to larger M(A) and nitrogen content per unit area (N(A)). Light-dependent modifications in M(A) resulted from increases in both V/A(T) and D, whereas N(A) changed because of increases in both M(A) and mass-based nitrogen content (N(M)) (N(A) = N(M)M(A)). Overall, the volume fraction of mesophyll cells increased with increasing irradiance and V/A(T) as the fraction of hypodermis and epidermis decreased with increasing needle thickness. Increases in M(A) and N(A) resulted in enhanced J(max) and V(cmax) per unit area in both species, but mass-based photosynthetic capacity increased only in P. patula. In addition, J(max) and V(cmax) showed greater plasticity in response to light in P. patula. Species differences in mesophyll volume fraction explained most of the variation in mass-based needle photosynthetic capacity between species

  3. Gas/solid particulate phthalic esters (PAEs) in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles and rhizosphere surface soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-xin; Fan, Chinbay Q

    2014-07-15

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are used in many branches of industry and are produced in huge amounts throughout the world. An investigation on particulate- and gas-phase distribution of PAEs has been conducted between January 2011 and December 2012 in Nanjing (China). Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles and rhizosphere surface soils were sampled from urban to suburban/remote sites, to investigate the pine needle/soil distribution of PAEs. The results showed that the average total PAE concentration (gas+particle) was 97.0ngm(-3). The six PAE congeners considered predominantly existed in the gas phase and the average contribution of gas phase to total PAEs ranged from 75.0% to 89.1%. The PAE concentrations in rhizosphere soils and pine needles were positively correlated with their particulate- and gas-phase concentrations, respectively, which suggested that surface soils accumulated PAEs mainly through gravity deposition of particles and pine needle stomata absorbed PAEs mainly from the gas phase. The gas/particle partitioning (KP) and soil-pine needle ratio (Rs/n) were determined. Experimentally determined KP values correlated well with the subcooled liquid vapor pressures (PL). A set of interesting relationships of logRs/n-logKP-logPL was employed to explain the experimental findings of PAEs deposition to surface soils and to needles. This data set offered a unique perspective into the influence that Rs/n played in KP and correlated with PL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Proceedings of the IUFRO joint conference: Genetics of five-needle pines, rusts of forest trees, and Strobusphere; 2014 June 15–20; Fort Collins, CO

    Treesearch

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; John T. Kliejunas

    2018-01-01

    Proceedings from the 2014 IUFRO Joint Conference: Genetics of five-needle pines, rusts of forest trees, and Strobusphere in Fort Collins, Colorado. The published proceedings include 91 papers pertaining to research conducted on the genetics and pathology of five-needle pines and rusts of forest trees. Topic areas are: ecology and climate change, common garden genetics...

  5. Seasonal changes in needle water content and needle ABA concentration of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, in declining forests on Mt. Gokurakuji, Hiroshima prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kume, Atsushi; Hanba, Yuko T; Nakane, Kaneyuki; Sakurai, Naoki; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of air pollution on the decline of Pinus densiflora forests, various research has been conducted around Mt. Gokurakuji (34 degrees 23'N, 132 degrees 19'E, 693 m a.s.l.) north of the Seto Inland Sea, west Japan. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for decreases in photosynthesis (Pn) and stomatal conductance (gl), delta13C of needles and seasonal changes in the water content (WC) and abscisic acid concentration (ABA) of needles were measured in various stands. The delta13C values were less negative in declining stands and younger needles. ABA and WC were not correlated with each other. WC decreased consistently with needle age while the ABA showed a minimum in August and a smaller content in older needles. Monthly precipitation and the daily maximum vapor pressure were not correlated with ABA and WC. In declining stands, WC and ABA tended to be higher and lower, respectively, than in nondeclining stands. These results suggest that the trees in declining stands received less water stress than those in nondeclining stands and the differences in gl and delta13C are not caused by the difference in water stress. The possibilities of the effects of air pollution and the infection of pine-wood nematode on the physiological decline on the pine needles are discussed.

  6. Distinct Litter Stabilization Dynamics Pathways for Decomposition of Pine Needle and Fine Root Within Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mambelli, S.; Filley, T. R.; Bird, J.; Dawson, T.; Torn, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    The chemical composition of litter imparts a strong control on the initial rates of microbial decay but it is unclear how plant chemistry influences the ultimate stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM) and the nature of the products stabilized. We determined the concentration and 13C enrichment of lignin phenols and substituted fatty acids (SFA) in SOM fractions from an experiment in which 13C- and 15N-labeled needles or fine roots were added to the mineral soil in a Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA, USA. 1.5 y after litter addition, we analyzed bulk soil (< 2 mm), free light fraction (LF, mean residence time (MRT) ~5 y) and alkali/acid insoluble humin (MRT ~270 y) fractions. Needles contained nearly 2 and 3x the lignin and SFA content per organic carbon unit as did roots. Lignin and SFA decreased from the free LF to the bulk soil to the humin fraction; and molecular properties were more similar within a SOM fraction regardless of the litter source. However, LF and humin from the root addition contained more lignin than from the needle addition. Based upon the relative movement of litter-derived 13C and 15N into SOM fractions during 1.5 y, it was proposed that the 13C accumulation in the humin fraction for needles was derived from high C/N, needle-derived biopolymer molecular fragments that are surficially associated with particles. In contrast, the root-derived material entering SOM fractions was much lower in C/N and was likely from microbial by-products. Consistent with this hypothesis, both lignin and SFA in the LF and humin fractions amended with enriched needles were highly enriched (+ 30-60 permil) with respect to the SOM fractions from soils amended with roots. These differences were large even considering the lower concentration of SFA and lignin in root material. Although the chemistry and MRT of LF and humin were dramatically different, the extent of 13C-enrichment among lignin and SFA were comparable for the needle

  7. Thermal behavior of extracted and delignified pine wood flour

    Treesearch

    Yao Chen; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Nicole M. Stark; Yongming Fan; Rebecca E. Ibach

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of extractives and lignin on the thermal stability of wood flour (WF), thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine thermal degradation behavior of extracted and delignified mixed pine WF. The contribution of lignin to thermal stability was greater than that of extractives. Removing extractives resulted in improved thermal stability by...

  8. Temperature dependence of needle and shoot elongation before bud break in Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Schiestl-Aalto, Pauliina; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge about the early part of needle growth is deficient compared with what is known about shoot growth. It is however important to understand growth of different organs to be able to estimate the changes in whole tree growth in a changing environment. The onset of growth in spring has been observed to occur over some certain threshold value of momentary temperature or temperature accumulation. We measured the length growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles and shoots from March until bud break over 3 years. We first compared needle growth with concurrent shoot growth. Then, we quantified threshold temperature of growth (i) with a logistic regression based on momentary temperatures and (ii) with the temperature sum accumulation method. Temperature sum was calculated with combinations of various time steps, starting dates and threshold temperature values. Needle elongation began almost concurrently with shoot elongation and proceeded linearly in relation to shoot growth until bud break. When studying the threshold temperature for growth, the method with momentary temperature effect on growth onset yielded ambiguous results in our conditions. The best fit of an exponential regression between needle growth or length and temperature sum was obtained with threshold temperatures -1 to +2 °C, with several combinations of starting date and time step. We conclude that although growth onset is a momentary event the process leading to it is a long-term continuum where past time temperatures have to be accounted for, rather than a sudden switch from quiescence to active growth. Further, our results indicate that lower temperatures than the commonly used +5 °C are sufficient for actuating the growth process. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Current-year flush and needle development in longleaf pine saplings after a dormant season prescribed fire

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; James D. Haywood; Mary Anne S. Sayer

    2015-01-01

    A longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) field performance study was established in central Louisiana in 2004. The study has received three prescribed burns (February 2006, May 2009, and February 2012) since establishment. In late April 2012, 35 saplings were selected and classified based on ocular estimates of needle mass scorch percentages. Mean...

  10. Damaged to knobcone x monterey pine hybrids and parents ... by red band needle blight in California redwood sites.

    Treesearch

    Kenneth N. Boe

    1971-01-01

    The knobcone X Monterey pine hybrid (Pinus attenuata Lemm. X P. radiata D. Don) has been outplanted in many places in California, among them the Redwood Experimental Forest and vicinity in north coastal California. Survival and growth in the early years were satisfactory. In 1966, red band needle blight was found to be infecting...

  11. Atmospheric carbon dioxide, irrigation, and fertilization effects on phenolic and nitrogen concentrations in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) needles

    Treesearch

    Fitzgerald L. Booker; Christopher A. Maier

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of total soluble phenolics, catechin, proanthocyanidins (PA), lignin and nitrogen (N) were measured in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) needles exposed to either ambient CO2 concentration ([CO2]), ambient plus 175 or ambient plus 350 µmol O2 mol-1 in branch chambers...

  12. Chemical composition of needles and cambial activity of stems of Scots pine trees affected by air pollutants in Polish forests

    Treesearch

    Wojciech Dmuchowski; Ewa U. Kurczynska; Wieslaw Wloch

    1998-01-01

    The impact of environmental pollution is defined for the chemical composition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles and cambial activity in the tree stems in Polish forests. The research investigated 20-year-old trees growing in two areas in significantly different levels of pollution. The highly polluted area was located near the Warsaw...

  13. Alterations of chemical composition, construction cost and payback time in needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) trees grown under pollution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nan; Guan, Lan-Lan; Sun, Fang-Fang; Wen, Da-Zhi

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies show that Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) stands grown at the industrially-polluted site have experienced unprecedented growth decline, but the causal mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, to understand the mechanisms of growth decline of Mason pine strands under pollution stresses, we determined the reactive oxygen species levels and chemical composition of the current-year (C) and one-year-old (C + 1) needles, and calculated the needle construction costs (CCmass) of Masson pine trees grown at an industrially-polluted site and an unpolluted remote site. Pine trees grown at the polluted site had significantly higher levels of hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion in their needles than those grown at the unpolluted site, and the former trees eventually exhibited needle early senescence. The contents of lipids, soluble phenolics and lignins in C and C + 1 needles were significantly higher at the polluted site than at the unpolluted site, but the total amounts of non-construction carbohydrates were lower in non-polluted needles than in polluted needles. Elevated levels of the reactive oxygen species and early senescence in polluted needles together led to significant increases in CCmass and a longer payback time. We infer that the lengthened payback time and needle early senescence under pollution stress may reduce the Masson pine tree growth and consequently accelerate tree decline.

  14. Ecological roles of five-needle pine in Colorado: Potential consequences of their loss

    Treesearch

    Anna Schoettle

    2004-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata Engelm.) are two white pines that grow in Colorado. Limber pine has a broad distribution throughout western North America while bristlecone pine’s distribution is almost entirely within the state of Colorado. White pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch.) was...

  15. A study in the adsorption of Fe(2+) and NO(3)(-) on pine needles based hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Ghanshyam S; Chauhan, Sandeep; Kumar, Sunil; Kumari, Anita

    2008-09-01

    Novel supports for use as cation and anion adsorbents were prepared from lignocellulosics using pine needles and their carboxymethylated forms by network/hydrogel formation with acrylamide and N,N-methylene bisacrylamide. The hydrogels thus prepared were further functionalized by partial alkaline hydrolysis with 0.5 N NaOH and were characterized by FTIR, SEM and nitrogen analysis. Adsorption of Fe(2+) on these hydrogels was carried as a function of time, temperature, pH and ionic strength. The hydrogel having the maximum adsorption capacity was loaded with Fe(2+) at the conditions those afforded maximum uptake and was used as novel anionic adsorbent for NO(3)(-). The water uptake capacities and biodegradability of the hydrogels before and after the ion loading was studied to evaluate the possible end-uses of these hydrogels as alternate materials in the removal of ionic species from water.

  16. Establishing the science foundation to sustain high-elevation five-needle pine forests threatened by novel interacting stresses in four western National Parks

    Treesearch

    A. W. Schoettle; J. Connor; J. Mack; P. Pineda Bovin; J. Beck; G. M. Baker; R. A. Sniezko; K. S. Burns

    2013-01-01

    High-elevation, five-needle white pines are among the most picturesque trees in many national parks as well as other federal, state, and private lands in western North America. These trees often live to a great age; the trees' gnarled trunks give testimony to fierce winds that buffet them on exposed rocky sites. Ancient limber pines (Pinus flexilis) in Rocky...

  17. Establishing the science foundation to sustain high-elevation five-needle pine forests threatened by novel interacting stresses in four western National Parks [Proceedings

    Treesearch

    A. W. Schoettle; Jeff Connor; John Mack; Phyllis Pineda Bovin; Jen Beck; Gretchen Baker; R. A. Sniezko; K. S. Burns

    2014-01-01

    High-elevation five-needle white pines are among the most picturesque trees in many national parks, as well as other federal, state, and private lands in western North America. These trees often live to great ages; the trees' gnarled trunks give testimony to fierce winds that buffet them on exposed rocky sites. Ancient limber pines (Pinus flexilis) in Rocky...

  18. The future of high-elevation, five-needle white pines in Western North America: Proceedings of the High Five Symposium

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Keane; Diana F. Tomback; Michael P. Murray; Cyndi M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    High elevation five-needle pines are rapidly declining throughout North America. The six species, whitebark (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.), limber (P. flexilis James), southwestern white (P. strobiformis Engelm.), foxtail (P. balfouriana Grev. & Balf.), Great Basin bristlecone (P. longaeva D.K. Bailey), and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (P. aristata Engelm.), have...

  19. Chemical composition of essential oils from needles and twigs of balkan pine (Pinus peuce grisebach) grown in Northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Koukos, P K; Papadopoulou, K I; Patiaka, D T; Papagiannopoulos, A D

    2000-04-01

    The composition of essential oils from twigs and needles of Balkan pine (Pinus peuce Gris.) grown in northern Greece was investigated. The compounds were identified by using GC-MS analysis. The twig oil was rich in alpha-pinene (7.38%), beta-pinene (12.46%), beta-phellandrene (26.93%), beta-caryophyllene (4.48%), and citronellol (12.48%), and the needle oil was rich in alpha-pinene (23.07%), camphene (5.52%), beta-pinene (22.00%), beta-phellandrene (6.78%), bornyl acetate (9.76%), beta-caryophyllene (3.05%), and citronellol (13.42%). The mean oil yield was 2.85% for twigs and 0. 57% for needles.

  20. Studies of extraction, storage, and testing of pine pollen

    Treesearch

    J. W. Duffield

    1953-01-01

    This report assembles the results of a number of small exploratory studies on the extraction, storage, and viability testing of pollen of several species of pines. These studies indicate clearly the need for more knowledge of the physiology of pollen — particularly of the relation between atmospheric humidity at the time of pollen shedding and the subsequent reactions...

  1. Monitoring environmental pollution in Poland by chemical analysis of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles.

    PubMed

    Dmuchowski, W; Bytnerowicz, A

    1995-01-01

    Maps of the distribution of environmental pollution by sulfur (S), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and arsenic (As) for the territory of Poland and the Warsaw (Warszawa) district were developed on the basis of chemical analysis of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles collected from randomly selected sampling points during 1983-1985. The maps show deposition zones for the studied elements and can help in identification of sources and directions of air pollution dispersion. This study indicated that vegetation in Poland is greatly endangered by sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and other sulfurous air pollutants, whereas Zn, Cd, Pb, and As do not pose an immediate threat to vegetation in most of the country's territory. However, in the urban-industrial agglomeration of Katowice-Cracow, very high pollution with Z, Cd, Pb and As could limit growth and development of some sensitive plant species. Higher than normal levels of As in some areas of Poland (Upper Silesia, Glogow-Lubin Copper Region, and areas close to the Russian border near Braniewo) might affect the health of humans and animals. Results of this study indicated that Poland's environment was not contaminated with Cu.

  2. Microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic extraction to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in needles and bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Ratola, Nuno; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià; Alves, Arminda

    2009-01-15

    Two different extraction strategies (microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasonic extraction (USE)) were tested in the extraction of the 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from pine trees. Extraction of needles and bark from two pine species common in the Iberian Peninsula (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) was optimized using two amounts of sample (1g and 5 g) and two PAHs spiking levels (20 ng/g and 100 ng/g). In all cases, the clean-up procedure following extraction consisted in solid-phase extraction (SPE) with alumina cartridges. Quantification was done by gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS), using five deuterated PAH surrogate standards as internal standards. Limits of detection were globally below 0.2 ng/g. The method was robust for the matrices studied regardless of the extraction procedures. Recovery values between 70 and 130% were reached in most cases, except for high molecular weight PAHs (indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene). A field study with naturally contaminated samples from eight sites (four in Portugal and four in Catalonia, Spain) showed that needles are more suitable biomonitors for PAHs, yielding concentrations from 2 to 17 times higher than those found in bark. The levels varied according to the sampling site, with the sum of the individual PAH concentrations between 213 and 1773 ng/g (dry weight). Phenanthrene was the most abundant PAH, followed by fluoranthene, naphthalene and pyrene.

  3. Characteristic accumulation of PCDD/Fs in pine needles near an MSWI and emission levels of the MSWI in Pearl River Delta: A case study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Xiao, Xiao; Mei, Jun; Cai, Ying; Tang, Yuhui; Peng, Ping'an

    2017-08-01

    Pine needle samples were collected near a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Pearl River Delta, southern China, as well as the stack gas and dust samples of the MSWI were simultaneously collected. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed following the USEPA Method 1613B. The concentration of PCDD/Fs in the pine needles (137-625 ng/kg, 25-51 ng I-TEQ/kg) is the highest level ever detected in China. Congener profile comparison and principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed the MSWI as an important emission source of environmental PCDD/Fs. The PCDD/Fs in the pine needles mainly depended on the atmospheric concentration, exposure time and also the wind direction. The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in this species did not occur at a steady rate, and the total concentrations covered up the actual photolysis information. Gas-phase partitioning of compounds in the atmosphere was the dominant process through which PCDD/Fs were adsorbed onto the pine needle surface in contrast with particle-phase deposition, and subsequent environmental behavior varied between the congeners. Photo-degradation was the major transformation process as PCDD/Fs were adsorbed onto the pine needle surfaces. Higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs were more recalcitrant to photo-degradation than those that were less chlorinated, and PCDDs were more resistant to photo-degradation than PCDFs. On the other hand, the strong ability of lipid-rich pine needles to accumulate dioxin compounds indicates they can be used as the absorption sink of PCDD/Fs in heavily polluted areas because it is easier to dispose of pine needles than it is to clean contaminated air. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pinus Monophylla (Single Needled Pinyon Pine) show morphological changes in needle cell size and stomata over the past 100 years of rising CO2 in Western Arid Ecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van De Water, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    The size, frequency, and morphology of leaf surface stomata is used to reconstruct past levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide over geologic time. This technique relies on measuring cell and cell-clusters to correlate with changes of known carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Unfortunately, not all plants are suitable because the occurrence and placement of stomatal cell-complexes differ significantly between plant families. Monocot and dicot angiosperms exhibit different types of stomata and stomatal complexes that lack order and thus are unsuitable. But, in gymnosperms, the number and distribution of stomata and pavement cells is formalized and can be used to reconstruct past atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. However, characteristic of each plant species must still be considered. For example, conifers are useful but are divided into two-needle to five-needle pines, or have irregular surface morphology (Pseudotsuga sp. and Tsuga sp. needles). This study uses Pinus monophylla an undivided needle morphology, that being a cylinder has no interior surface cells. Pinus monophylla (single needle pinyon) needles were collected along Geiger Grade (Nevada State Highway 341, Reno) in 2005 and 2013 from 1500m to 2195m. Herbarium samples were also collected from 13 historic collections made between 1911 and 1994. The study determined changes with elevation and/or over time using in these populations. Using Pinus monophylla, insured needles represented a single surface with stomata, stomatal complex cells, and co-occurring pavement cell types. Results show decreased stomatal densities (stomata/area), stomatal index (stomata/stomata + epidermal cells) and stable stomata per row (stomata/row) . Epidermal cell density (Epidermal Cells /Area), and Pavement cell density (Pavement cell/area) track stomatal density similarly. Data comparison, using elevation in the 2005 and 2013 collections showed no-significant trends. Individual stomatal complexes show no differences in the size

  5. Nitrogen fertilizer factory effects on the amino acid and nitrogen content in the needles of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Kupsinskiene, E

    2001-12-04

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the content of amino acids in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the area affected by a nitrogen fertilizer factory and to compare them with other parameters of needles, trees, and sites. Three young-age stands of Scots pine were selected at a distance of 0.5 km, 5 km, and 17 km from the factory. Examination of the current-year needles in winter of the year 2000 revealed significant (p < 0.05) differences between the site at a 0.5-km distance from the factory and the site at a 17-km distance from the factory--with the site closest to the factory showing the highest concentrations of protein (119%), total arginine (166%), total other amino acids (depending on amino acid, the effect ranged between 119 and 149%), free arginine (771%), other free amino acids (glutamic acid, threonine, serine, lysine--depending on amino acid, the effect ranged between 162 and 234%), also the longest needles, widest diameter, largest surface area, and heaviest dry weight (respectively, 133, 110, 136, and 169%). The gradient of nitrogen concentration in the needles was assessed on the selected plots over the period of 1995-2000, with the highest concentration (depending on year, 119 to 153%) documented in the site located 0.5 km from the factory. Significant correlations were determined between the total amino acid contents (r = 0.448 -0.939, p < 0.05), some free amino acid (arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, lysine, threonine, and serine) contents (r = 0.418 - 0.975, p < 0.05), and air pollutant concentration at the sites, the distance between the sites and the factory, and characteristics of the needles. No correlation was found between free or total arginine content and defoliation or retention of the needles. In conclusion, it was revealed that elevated mean monthly concentration of ammonia (26 microg m(-3)) near the nitrogen fertilizer factory caused changes in nitrogen metabolism, especially increasing (nearly eight times

  6. Seasonal changes in amino acids, protein and total nitrogen in needles of fertilized Scots pine trees.

    PubMed

    Näsholm, T; Ericsson, A

    1990-09-01

    Seasonal changes in amino acids, protein and total nitrogen in needles of 30-year-old, fertilized Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees growing in Northern Sweden were investigated over two years in field experiments. The studied plots had been fertilized annually for 17 years with (i) a high level of N, (ii) a medium level of N, or (iii) a medium level of N, P and K. Trees growing on unfertilized plots served as controls. In control trees, glutamine, glutamic acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid, aspartic acid and proline represented 50-70% of the total free amino acids determined. Arginine was present only in low concentrations in control trees throughout the year, but it was usually the most abundant amino acid in fertilized trees. Glutamine concentrations were high during the spring and summer in both years of study, whereas proline concentrations were high in the spring but otherwise low throughout the year. In the first year of study, glutamic acid concentrations were high during the spring and summer, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid was present in high concentrations during the winter months. This pattern was less pronounced in the second year of investigation. The concentrations of most amino acids, except glutamic acid, increased in response to fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization increased the foliar concentration of arginine from < 1 micromol g(dw) (-1) in control trees to a maximum of 110 micromol g(dw) (-1). Trees fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium had significantly lower arginine concentrations than trees fertilized with the same amount of nitrogen only. Protein concentrations were similar in all fertilized trees but higher than those in control trees. For all treatments, protein concentrations were high in winter and at a minimum in early spring. In summer, the protein concentration remained almost constant except for a temporary decrease which coincided with the expansion of new shoots. Apart from arginine, the amino acid composition of

  7. The trans-continental distributions of pentachlorophenol and pentachloroanisole in pine needles indicate separate origins.

    PubMed

    Kylin, Henrik; Svensson, Teresia; Jensen, Sören; Strachan, William M J; Franich, Robert; Bouwman, Hindrik

    2017-10-01

    The production and use of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was recently prohibited/restricted by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs), but environmental data are few and of varying quality. We here present the first extensive dataset of the continent-wide (Eurasia and Canada) occurrence of PCP and its methylation product pentachloroanisole (PCA) in the environment, specifically in pine needles. The highest concentrations of PCP were found close to expected point sources, while PCA chiefly shows a northern and/or coastal distribution not correlating with PCP distribution. Although long-range transport and environmental methylation of PCP or formation from other precursors cannot be excluded, the distribution patterns suggest that such processes may not be the only source of PCA to remote regions and unknown sources should be sought. We suggest that natural sources, e.g., chlorination of organic matter in Boreal forest soils enhanced by chloride deposition from marine sources, should be investigated as a possible partial explanation of the observed distributions. The results show that neither PCA nor total PCP (ΣPCP = PCP + PCA) should be used to approximate the concentrations of PCP; PCP and PCA must be determined and quantified separately to understand their occurrence and fate in the environment. The background work shows that the accumulation of airborne POPs in plants is a complex process. The variations in life cycles and physiological adaptations have to be taken into account when using plants to evaluate the concentrations of POPs in remote areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Soil and Foliar Guidelines for Phosphorus Fertilization of Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Carol G. Wells; D.M. Crutchfield; N.M. Berenyi; C.B. Davey

    1973-01-01

    Several established studies of phosphorus fertilization in 3-year-old plantations of loblolly pine were measured for tree height and sampled for soil tests and needle analysis in order to relate soil and needle content to response to fertilization. Soil tests with the extractant adopted by the North Carolina Soil Testing Laboratories and percentage of P in needles were...

  9. Comparison of moss and pine needles as bioindicators of transboundary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in central Japan.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yoshitaka

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has become a serious problem, especially in Asia, as PAHs can severely affect ecologically important mountainous areas. Using pine needles and mosses as bio-indicators, this study examined PAH pollution in a mountainous study area and evaluated the influence of transboundary PAHs. PAHs in urban areas were also evaluated for comparison. The study sites were alpine areas and urban areas (inland or coastal cities) across central Japan, in the easternmost part of Asia where atmospheric pollutants are transported from mainland Asia. The mean PAH concentrations of pine needles and mosses were 198.9 ± 184.2 ng g -1 dry weight (dw) and 131.8 ± 60.7 ng g -1 dw (mean ± SD), respectively. Pine needles preferentially accumulated PAHs with low molecular weights (LMW PAHs) and exhibited large differences in both PAH concentration and isomer ratios between alpine and urban sites. These differences can be explained by the strong influence of LMW PAHs emitted from domestic sources, which decreased and changed during transport from urban to alpine sites due to dry/wet deposition and photodegradation. In contrast, mosses accumulated a higher ratio of PAHs with high molecular weight (HMW PAHs). A comparison of isomer ratios showed that the PAH source for alpine moss was similar to that for northern coastal cities, which are typically influenced by long-transported PAHs from East Asia. Thus, these results indicate that alpine moss can also be strongly affected by the transboundary PAHs. It is likely that the uptake characteristics of moss, alpine climate, and alpine locations far from urban areas can strengthen the influence of transboundary pollution. Based on these results, the limitations and most effective use of bioindicators of PAH pollution for preserving alpine ecosystems are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Frankincense, pine needle and geranium essential oils suppress tumor progression through the regulation of the AMPK/mTOR pathway in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Peng; Ren, Xiang; Cheng, Lei; Xu, Lixin

    2018-01-01

    BC (BC), as the most common malignancy in women worldwide, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. However, chemoresistance and toxicity are the main causes that limit the success of treatment in aggressive BC cases. Thus, there is a vital need to identify and develop novel therapeutic agents. Frankincense, pine needle and geranium essential oils have been reported to play critical biological activities in cancer. However, to the best of our knowledge whether frankincense, pine needle and geranium essential oils have any effect on the progression of BC in MCF-7 cells remains unclear. In the present study, we assessed the possible effects of frankincense, pine needle and geranium essential oils on cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion as well as the possible mechanisms. MCF-7 cells were treated with oils, and associations with BC were investigated. In the present study, we clearly revealed that frankincense, pine needle and geranium essential oils suppressed cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion in human BC MCF-7 cells. Further data demonstrated that frankincense, pine needle and geranium essential oils induced apoptosis, but did not affect cell cycle progression. Consistent with the in vitro activities, frankincense essential oil was effective in inhibiting tumor growth and inducing tumor cell apoptosis in a human BC mouse model. In addition, these 3 essential oils modulated the activity of the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present study indicated that frankincense, pine needle and geranium essential oils were involved in the progression of BC cells possibly through the AMPK/mTOR pathway.

  11. Atmospheric occurrence, homologue patterns and source apportionment of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in Shanghai, China: Biomonitoring with Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Tong; Zhou, Jun; Lei, Bing-Li; Zhou, Jing-Ming; Xu, Si-Yue; Hu, Bao-Ping; Wang, De-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ping; Wu, Ming-Hong

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive survey was conducted to Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles widely distributed in Shanghai in order to investigate the levels and homologue group patterns of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs), to identify and quantitatively assess source contributions to the total CPs in pine needle samples. The concentration ranged from not detected (ND) to 13,600ngg(-1) with a geometric mean (GM) value of 63.7ngg(-1) for ΣSCCPs, from 12.4 to 33,500ngg(-1) with a GM value of 677ngg(-1) for ΣMCCPs, and from 14.0 to 45,700ngg(-1) with a GM value of 768ngg(-1) for total CPs. For different sampling units, the pollution levels both for SCCPs and MCCPs in pine needles were in the same orders: Pudong>suburbs>Puxi>Chongming. These significant differences in SCCPs and MCCPs among four sampling units could be associated with difference in industrial activities and to some extent also in population density. All pine needle samples (n=131) were divided into 2 groups by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) for SCCPs and MCCPs, the most abundant homologue groups in the bulk of pine needle samples were C11Cl5-7 and C13Cl5-7 for SCCPs, and C14Cl7-8 and C15Cl7-8 for MCCPs. Correlation analysis suggested that SCCPs and MCCPs in pine needles in the studied area may be derived from different sources. Four sources for pine needles were identified by the FA-MLR model; their relative contributions to the total CP burden in pine needles were 18.0% for F1 (attributed to commercial SCCP mixture), 42.2% for F2 (attributed to commercial MCCP mixture), 29.3% for F3 (attributed to LRAT), and 10.5% for F4 (unknown source). CP contamination of atmospheric air by point sources and long-range atmospheric transport in Shanghai should receive more attention by local government. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Relationships between soil moisture and needle-fall in Masson pine forests in acid rain region of Chongqing, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Hao; Wang, Yan-Hui; Li, Zhen-Hua; Yu, Peng-Tao; Xiong, Wei; Hao, Jia; Duan, Jian

    2012-10-01

    From March 2009 to November 2011, an investigation was conducted on the spatiotemporal variation of soil moisture and its effects on the needle-fall in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests in acid rain region of Chongqing, Southeast China, with the corresponding soil moisture thresholds determined. No matter the annual precipitation was abundant, normal or less than average, the seasonal variation of soil moisture in the forests could be obviously divided into four periods, i.e., sufficient (before May), descending (from June to July), drought (from August to September), and recovering (from October to November). With increasing soil depth, the soil moisture content increased after an initial decrease, but the difference of the soil moisture content among different soil layers decreased with decreasing annual precipitation. The amount of monthly needle-fall in the forests in growth season was significantly correlated with the water storage in root zone (0-60 cm soil layer), especially in the main root zone (20-50 cm soil layer). Soil field capacity (or capillary porosity) and 82% of field capacity (or 80% of capillary porosity) were the main soil moisture thresholds affecting the litter-fall. It was suggested that in acid rain region, Masson pine forest was easily to suffer from water deficit stress, especially in dry-summer period. The water deficit stress, together with already existed acid rain stress, would further threaten the health of the Masson forest.

  13. Effect of humidity during artificial extraction on the subsequent vigor of pine pollen

    Treesearch

    Russell A. Ryker

    1963-01-01

    Controlled pollination of pines generally has been disappointing because cones contain too few seeds. We need to develop better techniques for collecting, extracting, and storing pollen, as well as better bagging procedures. A logical first step is to learn more about collecting and extracting pollen. In a recent study I found that extracting pollen of jack pine (Pinus...

  14. The magnificent high-elevation five-needle white pines: Ecological roles and future outlook

    Treesearch

    Diana F. Tomback; Peter Achuff; Anna W. Schoettle; John W. Schwandt; Ron J. Mastrogiuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The High Five symposium is devoted to exchanging information about a small group of pines with little commercial value but great importance to the ecology of high-mountain ecosystems of the West. These High Five pines include the subalpine and treeline species - whitebark (Pinus albicaulis), Rocky Mountain bristlecone (P. aristata), Great Basin bristlecone (P. longaeva...

  15. Multi-resolution Gabor wavelet feature extraction for needle detection in 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourtaherian, Arash; Zinger, Svitlana; Mihajlovic, Nenad; de With, Peter H. N.; Huang, Jinfeng; Ng, Gary C.; Korsten, Hendrikus H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound imaging is employed for needle guidance in various minimally invasive procedures such as biopsy guidance, regional anesthesia and brachytherapy. Unfortunately, a needle guidance using 2D ultrasound is very challenging, due to a poor needle visibility and a limited field of view. Nowadays, 3D ultrasound systems are available and more widely used. Consequently, with an appropriate 3D image-based needle detection technique, needle guidance and interventions may significantly be improved and simplified. In this paper, we present a multi-resolution Gabor transformation for an automated and reliable extraction of the needle-like structures in a 3D ultrasound volume. We study and identify the best combination of the Gabor wavelet frequencies. High precision in detecting the needle voxels leads to a robust and accurate localization of the needle for the intervention support. Evaluation in several ex-vivo cases shows that the multi-resolution analysis significantly improves the precision of the needle voxel detection from 0.23 to 0.32 at a high recall rate of 0.75 (gain 40%), where a better robustness and confidence were confirmed in the practical experiments.

  16. Structural injury underlying mottling in ponderosa pine needles exposed to ambient ozone concentrations in the San Bernardino Mountains near Los Angeles, California

    Treesearch

    Pierre Vollenweider; Mark E. Fenn; Terry Menard; Madeleine Gunthardt-Goerg; Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2013-01-01

    For several decades, southern California experienced the worst ozone pollution ever reported. Peak ozone concentrations have, however, declined steadily since 1980. In this study, the structural injuries underlying ozone symptoms in needles of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) collected in summer 2006 from one of the most polluted sites in the San...

  17. Genetic variation of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) provenances and families from Oregon and Washington in juvenile height growth and needle color

    Treesearch

    Jim Hamlin; Angelia Kegley; Richard Sniezko

    2011-01-01

    A three year common garden study was conducted on whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) which included 215 families from the eight provenances or seed zones in Oregon and Washington. Total height and needle color were assessed. Height differed significantly among provenances and families, and was primarily associated with source elevation, longitude, and precipitation. A...

  18. Facile synthesis of gold coated copper(II) hydroxide pine-needle-like micro/nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Kailin; Du, Deyang; Luo, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Weiwei; Wu, Zhangting; Si, Lifang; Qiu, Teng

    2014-08-01

    This work reports a facile method to fabricate gold coated copper(II) hydroxide pine-needle-like micro/nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) application. The effects of reaction parameters on the shape, size and surface morphology of the products are systematically investigated. The as-prepared 3D hierarchical structures have the advantage of a large surface area available for the formation of hot spots and the adsorption of target analytes, thus dramatically improving the Raman signals. The finite difference time domain calculations indicate that the pine-needle-like model pattern may demonstrate a high quality SERS property owing to the high density and abundant hot spot characteristic in closely spaced needle-like arms.

  19. Needle miner infestations in lodgepole pine east of the Sierra crest

    Treesearch

    George R. Struble

    1968-01-01

    The lodgepole needle miner in the Inyo National Forest begins its 2-year-cycle in even-numbered years. In contrast, Coleotechnites milleri (Busck) in Yosemite National Park begins its in the odd-numbered years.

  20. Protective Effect of Pinus koraiensis Needle Water Extract Against Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells and Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Won, Sae Bom; Jung, Ga-young; Kim, Juhae; Chung, Young Shin; Hong, Eun Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Needles of pine species are rich in polyphenols, which may exert beneficial effects on human health. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant effects of Pinus koraiensis needle water extracts (PKW). HepG2 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of PKW (from 10−3 to 1 mg/mL) and oxidative stress was induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH). In the animal model, male ICR mice were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity, and then mice were continually fed a high-fat diet with or without orally administered PKW (400 mg/kg body weight) for 5 weeks. Pretreatment with PKW prevented significant increases in cytotoxicity and catalase activity induced by t-BOOH in HepG2 cells. Similarly, the catalase protein expression levels elevated by t-BOOH were abrogated in cells pretreated with PKW. In mice fed a high-fat diet, PKW significantly increased hepatic activities of catalase and glutathione reductase and lower lipid peroxidation levels were observed in the liver and kidney of mice with PKW supplementation. The present study demonstrates that PKW protects against oxidative stress in HepG2 cells treated with t-BOOH and in mice fed a high-fat diet. PMID:23822143

  1. Effects of feed supplemented with fermented pine needles (Pinus ponderosa) on growth performance and antioxidant status in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q J; Wang, Z B; Wang, G Y; Li, Y X; Qi, Y X

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of Aspergillus niger-fermented pine needles and nonfermented pine needles on growth performance and antioxidant capacity in broiler chicks. In total, 300 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 5 dietary treatments, which were then denoted as the control treatment (basal diet); the nonfermented treatment (containing 0.3% and 0.6% nonfermented treatment, respectively, in the starter and grower phase); or the fermented 1, fermented 2, or fermented 3 treatments. The fermented 1, fermented 2, and fermented 3 treatments contained 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% fermented treatment, respectively, in the starter phase and 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0% fermented treatment, respectively, in the growth phase for 42 d. The results showed that fermentation treated supplementation had no adverse effect on the growth performance of broilers at 42 d of age. The activity of total nitric oxide synthase was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented treatment compared with the control and nonfermented treatments in broilers at 21 d of age. Compared with the control, broilers had higher (P<0.05) total superoxide dismutase activities and total antioxidant capacity when they were provided with either the fermented 2 or fermented 3 diet. The malondialdehyde content was significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the fermented 2 and fermented 3 treatments compared with the control and nonfermented treatments. It was concluded that the addition of fermented treatment to the diet could improve antioxidant capacity in broilers, as evidenced by the decrease in malondialdehyde and the increase in total superoxide dismutase activities; however, the effect of fermentation treatment on growth performance was negligible. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Levels of short chain chlorinated paraffins in pine needles and bark and their vegetation-air partitioning in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Thanh; Yu, Junchao; Han, Shanlong; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-01-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) have been of considerable concern in recent years due to their high production volumes, environmental persistency and potential for long range atmospheric transport. Vegetation can take up considerable amounts of semivolatile organic compounds from the atmosphere and can act as indicators of local contamination. Paired pine needles and bark were sampled around Beijing during winter and summertime to investigate the distribution of SCCPs in urban areas. Levels in bark samples ranged 5.79-37.5 μg/g on a lipid normalized basis (lw) with a geometric mean (GM) of 16.9 μg/g lw whereas levels were 3.03-40.8 (GM 11.8) μ/g lw for needles. Average congener group abundance profiles showed equal contribution of all four carbon groups (C(10-13)) in wintertime where as higher abundances of C(10) and C(11) groups were found during summer. Uptake of SCCPs occurred mainly via kinetically limited gaseous deposition and particle bound deposition in the investigated area.

  3. Needle and stem wood production in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees of different age, size and competitive status.

    PubMed

    Vanninen, Petteri; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2000-04-01

    We studied effects of tree age, size and competitive status on foliage and stem production of 43 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees in southern Finland. The tree attributes related to competition included foliage density, crown ratio and height/diameter ratio. Needle mass was considered to be the primary cause of growth through photosynthesis. Both stem growth and foliage growth were strongly correlated with foliage mass. Consequently, differences in growth allocation between needles and stem wood in trees of different age, size, or position were small. However, increasing relative height increased the sum of stem growth and foliage growth per unit foliage mass, indicating an effect of available light. Suppressed trees seemed to allocate more growth to stem wood than dominant trees, and their stem growth per unit foliage mass was larger. Similarly, trees in dense stands allocated more growth to stem wood than trees in sparse stands. The results conformed to the pipe model theory but seemed to contradict the priority principle of allocation.

  4. Logging residue removal after thinning in boreal forests: long-term impact on the nutrient status of Norway spruce and Scots pine needles.

    PubMed

    Luiro, Jukka; Kukkola, Mikko; Saarsalmi, Anna; Tamminen, Pekka; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare how conventional stem harvesting (CH) and whole-tree harvesting (WTH) in the first, and in some cases also in the second, thinning affect the needle nutrient status of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands in Finland. A series of 12 long-term field experiments was studied. The experiments were established during 1978-86. The effects of logging residue removal after thinnings on the needle nutrient concentrations were generally minor and without any overall trends, but there were differences between experiments. Trees tend to maintain their current needle nutrient concentrations at the same level by re-utilizing the nutrients stored in the older tissues and by changing C allocation in the whole tree. Thus, needle analysis should be combined with stem growth data in order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of WTH on the nutrient status of trees.

  5. Genetic effects on total phenolics, condensed tannins and non-structural carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) needles.

    PubMed

    Aspinwall, Michael J; King, John S; Booker, Fitzgerald L; McKeand, Steven E

    2011-08-01

    Carbon allocation to soluble phenolics (total phenolics, proanthocyanidins (PA)) and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC; starch and soluble sugars) in needles of widely planted, highly productive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes could impact stand resistance to herbivory, and biogeochemical cycling in the southeastern USA. However, genetic and growth-related effects on loblolly pine needle chemistry are not well characterized. Therefore, we investigated genetic and growth-related effects on foliar concentrations of total phenolics, PA and TNC in two different field studies. The first study contained nine different genotypes representing a range of genetic homogeneity, growing in a 2-year-old plantation on the coastal plain of North Carolina (NC), USA. The second study contained eight clones with different growth potentials planted in a 9-year-old clonal trial replicated at two sites (Georgia (GA) and South Carolina (SC), USA). In the first study (NC), we found no genetic effects on total phenolics, PA and TNC, and there was no relationship between genotype size and foliar biochemistry. In the second study, there were no differences in height growth between sites, but the SC site showed greater diameter (diameter at breast height (DBH)) and volume, most likely due to greater tree mortality (lower stocking) which reduced competition for resources and increased growth of remaining trees. We found a significant site × clone effect for total phenolics with lower productivity clones showing 27-30% higher total phenolic concentrations at the GA site where DBH and volume were lower. In contrast to the predictions of growth-defense theory, clone volume was positively associated with total phenolic concentrations at the higher volume SC site, and PA concentrations at the lower volume GA site. Overall, we found no evidence of a trade-off between genotype size and defense, and genetic potential for improved growth may include increased allocation to some

  6. Ponderosa pine needle length: an early indicator of release treatment effectiveness

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; Carl N. Skinner; Gary O. Fiddler

    1992-01-01

    Growth responses of ponderosa pine seedlings range from fast to slow after release and often demonstrate the effectiveness of the prescribed treatments. Although several morphological parameters have have identified as being sensitive to competition, no link to future growth and treatment effectiveness has been made. Shrubs and grasses in four 1- to 3-year-old...

  7. Inter- and intraspecific grafting and breeding of five-needle pines

    Treesearch

    Clifford E. Ahlgren

    1970-01-01

    The forest tree improvement work at the Center was started in 1949 with the introduction of some of Dr. Riker's grafted eastern white pine selections. Subsequently a program of selecting, grafting, breeding and testing for resistance was begun. The work was initiated at Basswood Lake (15 miles NE of Ely, Minnesota) rather than elsewhere on a more accessible site...

  8. Empirical Allometric Models to Estimate Total Needle Biomass For Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Hector M. de los Santos-Posadas; Bruce E. Borders

    2002-01-01

    Empirical geometric models based on the cone surface formula were adapted and used to estimate total dry needle biomass (TNB) and live branch basal area (LBBA). The results suggest that the empirical geometric equations produced good fit and stable parameters while estimating TNB and LBBA. The data used include trees form a spacing study of 12 years old and a set of...

  9. Extremely low nucleotide polymorphism in Pinus krempfii Lecomte, a unique flat needle pine endemic to Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baosheng; Khalili Mahani, Marjan; Ng, Wei Lun; Kusumi, Junko; Phi, Hai Hong; Inomata, Nobuyuki; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Szmidt, Alfred E

    2014-01-01

    Pinus krempfii Lecomte is a morphologically and ecologically unique pine, endemic to Vietnam. It is regarded as vulnerable species with distribution limited to just two provinces: Khanh Hoa and Lam Dong. Although a few phylogenetic studies have included this species, almost nothing is known about its genetic features. In particular, there are no studies addressing the levels and patterns of genetic variation in natural populations of P. krempfii. In this study, we sampled 57 individuals from six natural populations of P. krempfii and analyzed their sequence variation in ten nuclear gene regions (approximately 9 kb) and 14 mitochondrial (mt) DNA regions (approximately 10 kb). We also analyzed variation at seven chloroplast (cp) microsatellite (SSR) loci. We found very low haplotype and nucleotide diversity at nuclear loci compared with other pine species. Furthermore, all investigated populations were monomorphic across all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions included in our study, which are polymorphic in other pine species. Population differentiation at nuclear loci was low (5.2%) but significant. However, structure analysis of nuclear loci did not detect genetically differentiated groups of populations. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) using nuclear sequence data and mismatch distribution analysis for cpSSR loci suggested recent expansion of the species. The implications of these findings for the management and conservation of P. krempfii genetic resources were discussed. PMID:25360263

  10. Genetic variation in horizontally transmitted fungal endophytes of pine needles reveals population structure in cryptic species.

    PubMed

    Oono, Ryoko; Lutzoni, François; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Kaye, Laurel; U'Ren, Jana M; May, Georgiana; Carbone, Ignazio

    2014-08-01

    • Fungal endophytes comprise one of the most ubiquitous groups of plant symbionts, inhabiting healthy leaves and stems of all major lineages of plants. Together, they comprise immense species richness, but little is known about the fundamental processes that generate their diversity. Exploration of their population structure is needed, especially with regard to geographic distributions and host affiliations.• We take a multilocus approach to examine genetic variation within and among populations of Lophodermium australe, an endophytic fungus commonly associated with healthy foliage of pines in the southeastern United States. Sampling focused on two pine species ranging from montane to coastal regions of North Carolina and Virginia.• Our sampling revealed two genetically distinct groups within Lophodermium australe. Our analysis detected less than one migrant per generation between them, indicating that they are distinct species. The species comprising the majority of isolates (major species) demonstrated a panmictic structure, whereas the species comprising the minority of isolates (cryptic species) demonstrated isolation by distance. Distantly related pine species hosted the same Lophodermium species, and host species did not influence genetic structure.• We present the first evidence for isolation by distance in a foliar fungal endophyte that is horizontally transmitted. Cryptic species may be common among microbial symbionts and are important to delimit when exploring their genetic structure and microevolutionary processes. The hyperdiversity of endophytic fungi may be explained in part by cryptic species without apparent ecological and morphological differences as well as genetic diversification within rare fungal species across large spatial scales. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  11. Fatty and Waxy Components of Southern Pine Bark-Amounts Present As Free Extractives

    Treesearch

    Elaine T. Howard

    1975-01-01

    Whole bark from six mature trees of each of the four major southern pines was extracted with petroleum ether and with toluene. Trees were 20 to 58 years old and 8.0 to 11.8 inches in d.b.h. Percentages of petroleum ether-solubles were: slash pine, 1.94; loblolly, 2.29; longleaf, 2.64; and shortleaf 3.05. Percentages obtained by toluene extraction were: loblolly, 3.04;...

  12. Increased Needle Nitrogen Contents Did Not Improve Shoot Photosynthetic Performance of Mature Nitrogen-Poor Scots Pine Trees.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C) acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modeling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar phosphorus (P) deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute toward lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises the

  13. Increased Needle Nitrogen Contents Did Not Improve Shoot Photosynthetic Performance of Mature Nitrogen-Poor Scots Pine Trees

    PubMed Central

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C) acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modeling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar phosphorus (P) deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute toward lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises the

  14. Water stress assessment of cork oak leaves and maritime pine needles based on LIF spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrov, A.; Utkin, A. B.; Marques da Silva, J.; Vilar, Rui; Santos, N. M.; Alves, B.

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a method for the remote assessment of the impact of fire and drought stress on Mediterranean forest species such as the cork oak ( Quercus suber) and maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster). The proposed method is based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF): chlorophyll fluorescence is remotely excited by frequency-doubled YAG:Nd laser radiation pulses and collected and analyzed using a telescope and a gated high sensitivity spectrometer. The plant health criterion used is based on the I 685/ I 740 ratio value, calculated from the fluorescence spectra. The method was benchmarked by comparing the results achieved with those obtained by conventional, continuous excitation fluorometric method and water loss gravimetric measurements. The results obtained with both methods show a strong correlation between them and with the weight-loss measurements, showing that the proposed method is suitable for fire and drought impact assessment on these two species.

  15. Age of pine seedlings with primary needles affects sensitivity to ozone and sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, C.R.

    1974-02-01

    Seedlings of Virginia (Pinus virginiana), shortleaf (P. echinata), slash (P. elliottii var. elliottii), and loblolly (P. taeda) pines at ages 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 wk were exposed to individual dosages of ozone and sulfur dioxide. Exposures were 2 hr at 655.0 +/- 65 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ for SO/sub 2/ and 477.5 +/- 48 ..mu../m/sup 3/ for O/sub 3/ (25 +/- 2.5 parts per hundred million). The two gases were equally injurious to all species, and all species were equally sensitive to each gas. Maximum sensitivity of the seedlings to the two gases, however, occurred at different ages. For ozonemore » the greatest sensitivity was 2 wk or younger, and for sulfur dioxide at 8 to 10 wk or older.« less

  16. Analysis of ethanol-soluble extractives in southern pine wood by low-field proton NMR

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Thomas Elder; Nicole Labbe

    2007-01-01

    Low-field portion NMR was evaluated as a nondestructive and rapid technique for measuring ethanol-soluble extractives in southern pine wood. Matchstick-sized wood specimens were steeped in extractive-containing solutions to generate extractive-enriched samples for analysis. decay curves obtained by the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-gill (CPMG) pulse sequence were analyzed with...

  17. Antioxidant Properties of Essential Oil Extracted from Pinus morrisonicola Hay Needles by Supercritical Fluid and Identification of Possible Active Compounds by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ming-Ching; Chang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Chih-Wei; Li, Wen-Wing; Tseng, Chin-Yin; Song, Tuzz-Ying

    2015-10-20

    Pine (Pinus morrisonicola Hay, PM) needles have been used as folk medicine for their antihypertension and lipid-lowering effects. As supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is considered an ideal technique for the extraction of essential oil from plant materials, the present work investigated the optimal SFE conditions and the protective effects of different resulting fractions of PM needles on lipid peroxidation and foam cell production in macrophages. Nine PM needle extracts (PME1-9) were obtained in 1%-4% yields using different SFE conditions, of which PME1 had the lowest yield (1.1%) and PME3 the highest (3.9%). PME3 exhibited lower cytotoxic effects and stronger inhibition of lipid peroxidation and formation of foam cell in RAW 264.7 macrophages than those of other PME extracts. PME3-1 purified from PME3 by column and thin layer chromatography inhibited LDL oxidation more effectively than did PME3 in a cell-free system oxidized by Cu(2+). PME3-1 dose-dependently (25-100 μg/mL) decreased conjugated diene levels and foam cell formation induced by ox-LDL. GC/MS analyses revealed that 1-docosene, neophytadiene, and methyl abietate were increased 5.2-, 1.7- and 4.3-fold in PME3-1 relative to PME3. A new hydrocarbon compound, cedrane-8,13-diol, was identified in PME3-1. Overall, the present study demonstrates the optimal extraction conditions of SFE of PM and identifies the most potent antioxidant fractions and possible active compounds in PM.

  18. Pines

    Treesearch

    C. Dana Nelson; Gary F. Peter; Steven E. McKeand; Eric J. Jokela; Robert B. Rummer; Les Groom; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2013-01-01

    The southern pines (yellow or hard pines, Genus Pinus Sub-genus Pinus Section Pinus Subsection Australes) occupy an immense land-base in the southeastern region of the United States (Little and Critchfield, 1969). In addition, they are planted and managed for wood production on millions of hectares worldwide including China, Brazil, Argentina, and Australia. The...

  19. Needle trap extraction for GC analysis of formic and acetic acids in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Daikuan; Lou, Dawei; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2012-07-01

    Formic and acetic acids are ubiquitous in the environment, food, and most of the natural products. Extraction of the acids from aqueous solution is required for their isotope analysis by the gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. To this objective, we have previously developed a purge-and-trap technique using the dynamic solid-phase microextraction technology, the NeedlEX. The extraction efficiency, however, remains unexamined. Here, we address this question using the flame ionization detector and isotope ratio mass spectrometer while comparing it with that of the CAR/PDMS fiber. The results show that the NeedlEX is applicable at a wide range of concentration through coordination of purge volume given the minimum amount 3.7 ng and 1.8 ng of formic and acetic, respectively, is extracted. The efficiency of NeedlEX was 6-7 times lower than the fiber at 1000 μg/mL depending on the analyte. It is, however, superior to the latter at 10 μg/mL or less owing to its lower detection limit. The extraction efficiency of both acids is equivalent in molar amount. This is, however, disguised by the different response of the flame ionization detector. The isotope ratio mass spectrometor overcomes this problem but is compromised by relatively large errors. These results are particularly useful for isotopic analysis of carboxylic acids. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The proactive strategy for sustaining five-needle pine populations: An example of its implementation in the southern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    A. W. Schoettle; B. A. Goodrich; J. G. Klutsch; K. S. Burns; S. Costello; R. A. Sniezko

    2011-01-01

    The imminent invasion of the non-native fungus, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch., that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR) and the current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, MPB) epidemic in northern Colorado limber pine forests will severely affect the forest regeneration cycle necessary for functioning ecosystems. The slow growth and maturity of...

  1. Relationships between moisture, chemistry, and ignition of Pinus contorta needles during the early stages of mountain pine beetle attack

    Treesearch

    W. Matt Jolly; Russell A. Parsons; Ann M. Hadlow; Greg M. Cohn; Sara S. McAllister; John B. Popp; Robert M. Hubbard; Jose F. Negron

    2012-01-01

    Very little is known about how foliar moisture and chemistry change after a mountain pine beetle attack and even less is known about how these intrinsic foliar characteristics alter foliage ignitability. Here, we examine the fuel characteristics and ignition potential of Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine) foliage during the early stages of a mountain pine beetle attack....

  2. Microwave-assisted organic acids extraction of chromate copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine

    Treesearch

    Bin Yu; Chung Y. Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2010-01-01

    The extraction effects of acid concentration, reaction time and temperature in a microwave reactor on recovery of CCA-treated wood were evaluated. Extraction of copper, chromium, and arsenic metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood samples with two different organic acids (i.e., acetic acid and oxalic acid) was investigated using a...

  3. Determination of terpenoid content in pine by organic solvent extraction and fast-GC analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Harman-Ware, Anne E.; Sykes, Robert; Peter, Gary F.; ...

    2016-01-25

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts frommore » the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. In conclusion, diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.« less

  4. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: control by light, temperature and stomatal conductance.

    PubMed

    Harley, Peter; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex; Monson, Russell K

    2014-09-01

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature, and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was dependent on light and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modeling of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions, which explicitly accounts for the physicochemical properties of emitted compounds, we were able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced experimentally or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light-dependent monoterpenes comprise a significant fraction of emissions in ponderosa pine. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in Δ-3-carene.

  5. Landscape biology of western white pine: implications for conservation of a widely-distributed five-needle pine at its southern range limit

    Treesearch

    Patricia Maloney; Andrew Eckert; Detlev Vogler; Camille Jensen; Annette Delfino Mix; David Neale

    2016-01-01

    Throughout much of the range of western white pine, Pinus monticola Dougl., timber harvesting, fire exclusion and the presence of Cronartium ribicola J. C. Fisch., the white pine blister rust (WPBR) pathogen, have led to negative population and genetic consequences. To address these interactions, we examined population dynamics...

  6. Novel sample preparation technique with needle-type micro-extraction device for volatile organic compounds in indoor air samples.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Ikuo; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Fujimura, Koji; Kawakubo, Susumu; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2012-10-09

    A novel needle-type sample preparation device was developed for the effective preconcentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air before gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. To develop a device for extracting a wide range of VOCs typically found in indoor air, several types of particulate sorbents were tested as the extraction medium in the needle-type extraction device. To determine the content of these VOCs, air samples were collected for 30min with the packed sorbent(s) in the extraction needle, and the extracted VOCs were thermally desorbed in a GC injection port by the direct insertion of the needle. A double-bed sorbent consisting of a needle packed with divinylbenzene and activated carbon particles exhibited excellent extraction and desorption performance and adequate extraction capacity for all the investigated VOCs. The results also clearly demonstrated that the proposed sample preparation method is a more rapid, simpler extraction/desorption technique than traditional sample preparation methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pines

    Treesearch

    C. Plomion; D. Chagne; D. Pot; S. Kumar; P.L. Wilcox; R.D. Burdon; D. Prat; D.G. Peterson; J. Paiva; P. Chaumeil; G.G. Vendramin; F. Sebastiani; C.D. Nelson; C.S. Echt; O. Savolainen; T.L. Kubisiak; M.T. Cervera; N. de Maria; M.N. Islam-Faridi

    2007-01-01

    Pinus is the most important genus within the Family Pinaceae and also within the gymnosperms by the number of species (109 species recognized by Farjon 2001) and by its contribution to forest ecosystems. All pine species are evergreen trees or shrubs. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, from tropical areas to northern areas in America and Eurasia....

  8. Streptomyces pini sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from phylloplane of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needle-like leaves.

    PubMed

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Saravanan, Venkatakrishnan Sivaraj; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Pragatheswari, Dhandapani; Santhanakrishnan, Palani; Kim, Soo-Jin; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2016-10-01

    A novel siderophore-producing actinomycete, designated PL19T, was isolated from the Scots-pine needle-like leaves collected from TNAU campus, Coimbatore, India. The isolate was chemoorganotrophic in nutrition and able to grow at 30 °C, and the optimum pH and NaCl facilitated the growth pH 6-11 and 0-8 % (w/v), respectively. The cells are filamentous and the mycelia formed are basically of wide and intricately branched substrate mycelium from which aerial mycelia arises, later gets differentiated into spores that are warty and arranged spirally. The 16S rRNA gene of strain PL19T was sequenced and was highly similar to the type strains of species of the genus Streptomyces, including Streptomyces barkulensis RC1831T (98.8 % pairwise similarity), Streptomyces fenghuangensis GIMN4.003T (98.2 %), Streptomyces nanhaiensis SCSIO 01248T (98.0 %), Streptomyces radiopugnans R97T (97.9 %), Streptomyces atacamensis C60T (97.8 %) and Streptomyces macrosporus NBRC 14749T (97.2 %), all of which were subjected to taxonomical characterization using a polyphasic approach. The strains showed unique carbon utilization patterns, and it possesses iso-C16 : 0 anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as a major cellular fatty acids. The cell-wall was dominated with ll-type diaminopimelic acid, and the menaquinone type was MK-9(H6, H8). These chemotaxonomic evidences placed strain PL19T within the genus Streptomyces. The determination of G+C ratio (69.5 mol%) and DNA-DNA hybridization values (13.4-31.8 % with the phylogenetically related species) helped in further hierarchical classification of strain PL19T. Based on morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic data as well as DNA-DNA hybridization values, strain PL19T could be distinguished from the evolutionarily closest species currently available. All these collective data show that strain PL19T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces pini sp. nov. is proposed

  9. Past and current investigations of the genetic resistance to cronartium ribicola in high-elevation five-needle pines

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Sniezko; Mary F. Mahalovich; Anna W. Schoettle; Detlev R. Vogler

    2011-01-01

    All nine species of white pines native to the U.S. or Canada are susceptible to the introduced pathogen Cronartium ribicola. Of the six high elevation white pine species, the severe infection and mortality levels of Pinus albicaulis have been the most documented, but blister rust also impacts P. aristata, P. balfouriana, P. flexilis and P. strobiformis; only P....

  10. Paleoclimatic significance of δD and δ13C values in pinon pine needles from packrat middens spanning the last 40,000 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendall, Elise; Betancourt, Julio L.; Leavitt, Steven W.

    1999-01-01

    We compared two approaches to interpreting δD of cellulose nitrate in piñon pine needles (Pinus edulis) preserved in packrat middens from central New Mexico, USA. One approach was based on linear regression between modern δD values and climate parameters, and the other on a deterministic isotope model, modified from Craig and Gordon's terminal lake evaporation model that assumes steady-state conditions and constant isotope effects. One such effect, the net biochemical fractionation factor, was determined for a new species, piñon pine. Regressions showed that δD values in cellulose nitrate from annual cohorts of needles (1989–1996) were strongly correlated with growing season (May–August) precipitation amount, and δ13C values in the same samples were correlated with June relative humidity. The deterministic model reconstructed δD values of meteoric water used by plants after constraining relative humidity effects with δ13C values; growing season temperatures were estimated via modern correlations with δD values of meteoric water. Variations of this modeling approach have been applied to tree-ring cellulose before, but not to macrofossil cellulose, and comparisons to empirical relationships have not been provided. Results from fossil piñon needles spanning the last ∼40,000 years showed no significant trend in δD values of cellulose nitrate, suggesting either no change in the amount of summer precipitation (based on the transfer function) or δD values of meteoric water or temperature (based on the deterministic model). However, there were significant differences in δ13C values, and therefore relative humidity, between Pleistocene and Holocene.

  11. Color and Surface Chemistry Changes of Pine Wood Flour after Extraction and Delignification

    Treesearch

    Yao Chen; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Jianmin Gao; Nicole M. Stark; Yongming Fan

    2014-01-01

    A detailed study was undertaken to examine the color and chemistry changes of pine wood flour when its extractives are removed and when it is delignified. The solvent systems employed were toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot-water (HW), while sodium chlorite/acetic acid were used for delignification (i.e., lignin removal (LR)). Samples were analyzed by...

  12. Emergence of white pine needle damage in the northeastern United States is associated with changes in pathogen pressure in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Wyka, Stephen A; Smith, Cheryl; Munck, Isabel A; Rock, Barrett N; Ziniti, Beth L; Broders, Kirk

    2017-01-01

    The defoliation of the eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) across the northeastern United States is an escalating concern threatening the ecological health of northern forests and economic vitality of the region's lumber industry. First documented in the spring of 2010 affecting 24 328 hectares in the state of Maine, white pine needle damage (WPND) has continued to spread and is now well established in all New England states. While causal agents of WPND are known, current research is lacking in both sampling distribution and the specific environmental factor(s) that affect the development and spread of this disease complex. This study aims to construct a more detailed distribution map of the four primary causal agents within the region, as well as utilize long-term WPND monitoring plots and data collected from land-based weather stations to develop a climatic model to predict the severity of defoliation events in the proceeding year. Sampling results showed a greater distribution of WPND than previously reported. WPND was generally found in forest stands that compromised >50% eastern white pine by basal area. No single species, nor a specific combination of species had a dominating presence in particular states or regions, thus supporting the disease complex theory that WPND is neither caused by an individual species nor by a specific combination of species. In addition, regional weather data confirmed the trend of increasing temperature and precipitation observed in this region with the previous year's May, June, and July rainfall being the best predictor of defoliation events in the following year. Climatic models were developed to aid land managers in predicting disease severity and accordingly adjust their management decisions. Our results clearly demonstrate the role changing climate patterns have on the health of eastern white pine in the northeastern United States. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: control by light, temperature and stomatal conductance

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, Peter; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was light dependent and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modelingmore » of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions which explicitly accounts for the physico-chemical properties of emitted compounds, we are able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced through experimentation or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light dependent monoterpenes can comprise a large fraction of emissions. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in Δ-3-carene.« less

  14. Stimulant Paste Preparation and Bark Streak Tapping Technique for Pine Oleoresin Extraction.

    PubMed

    Füller, Thanise Nogueira; de Lima, Júlio César; de Costa, Fernanda; Rodrigues-Corrêa, Kelly C S; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-01-01

    Tapping technique comprises the extraction of pine oleoresin, a non-wood forest product consisting of a complex mixture of mono, sesqui, and diterpenes biosynthesized and exuded as a defense response to wounding. Oleoresin is used to produce gum rosin, turpentine, and their multiple derivatives. Oleoresin yield and quality are objects of interest in pine tree biotechnology, both in terms of environmental and genetic control. Monitoring these parameters in individual trees grown in the field provides a means to examine the control of terpene production in resin canals, as well as the identification of genetic-based differences in resinosis. A typical method of tapping involves the removal of bark and application of a chemical stimulant on the wounded area. Here we describe the methods for preparing the resin-stimulant paste with different adjuvants, as well as the bark streaking process in adult pine trees.

  15. Host-tree preferences of the pine moth (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) and pine beauty moth (Lepidopera: Noctuidae) larvae in relation to needle quality

    Treesearch

    Lidia Sukovata; Andrzej Kolk; Jadwiga Jaroszynska; Urszula Krajewska; Agnieszka Purzynska; Valerii Isidorov

    2003-01-01

    The larvae of Dendrolimus pini L. and Panolis flammea (Den. et Schiff.) usually occur in high numbers on different trees within a stand. Studies that focused on the host tree-preference of these two species were conducted in the Wymiarki Forest District (Poland) in 2001. Sixteen Scots pine trees were selected to estimate the...

  16. Immunolocalization of IAA and ABA in roots and needles of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) during drought and rewatering.

    PubMed

    De Diego, N; Rodríguez, J L; Dodd, I C; Pérez-Alfocea, F; Moncaleán, P; Lacuesta, M

    2013-05-01

    Anatomical, physiological and phytohormonal changes involved in drought tolerance were examined in different Pinus radiata D. Don breeds subjected to soil drying and rewatering. Breeds with the smallest stomatal chamber size had the lowest transpiration rate and the highest intrinsic water-use efficiency. Xylem cell size was positively correlated with leaf hydraulic conductance and needle indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations, whereas transpiration rate was negatively correlated with needle abscisic acid (ABA) levels. Since these two phytohormones seem important in regulating the P. radiata drought response, they were simultaneously immunolocalized in roots and needles of the most tolerant breed (P. radiata var. radiata × var. cedrosensis) during two sequential drought cycles and after rewatering. During drought, IAA was unequally distributed into the pointed area of the needle cross-section and mainly located in mesophyll and vascular tissue cells of needles, possibly inducing needle epinasty, whereas ABA was principally located in guard cells, presumably to elicit stomata closure. In the roots, at the end of the first drought cycle, while strong IAA accumulation was observed in the cortex, ABA levels decreased probably due to translocation to the leaves. Rewatering modified the distribution of both IAA and ABA in the needles, causing an accumulation principally in vascular tissue, with residual concentrations in mesophyll, likely favouring the acclimatization of the plants for further drought cycles. Contrarily, in the roots IAA and ABA were located in the exodermis, a natural barrier that regulates the phytohormone translocation to other plant tissues and hormone losses to the soil solution after rewatering. These results confirm that immunolocalization is an efficient tool to understand the translocation of IAA and ABA in plants subjected to different water stress situations, and clarify their role in regulating physiological responses such as stomata

  17. Needle Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... needle biopsy procedures include fine-needle aspiration and core needle biopsy. Needle biopsy may be used to ... hollow needle to draw cells from your body. Core needle biopsy. This type of needle biopsy uses ...

  18. Profiling secondary metabolites of needles of ozone-fumigated white pine (Pinus strobus) clones by thermally assisted hydrolysis/methylation GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Shadkami, F; Helleur, R J; Cox, R M

    2007-07-01

    Plant secondary metabolites have an important role in defense responses against herbivores and pathogens, and as a chemical barrier to elevated levels of harmful air pollutants. This study involves the rapid chemical profiling of phenolic and diterpene resin acids in needles of two (ozone-tolerant and ozone-sensitive) white pine (Pinus strobus) clones, fumigated with different ozone levels (control, and daily events peaking at 80 and 200 ppb) for 40 days. The phenolic and resin acids were measured using thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation (THM) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Short-term fumigation affected the levels of two phenolic acids, i.e., 3-hydroxybenzoic and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids, in that both showed a substantial decrease in concentration with increased ozone dose. The decrease in concentration of these THM products may be caused by inhibition of the plant's shikimate biochemical pathway caused by ozone exposure. The combined occurrence of these two ozone-sensitive indicators has a role in biomonitoring of ozone levels and its impact on forest productivity. In addition, chromatographic profile differences in the major diterpene resin acid components were observed between ozone-tolerant and ozone-sensitive clones. The resin acids anticopalic, 3-oxoanticopalic, 3beta-hydroxyanticopalic, and 3,4-cycloanticopalic acids were present in the ozone-sensitive pine; however, only anticopalic acid was present in the ozone-tolerant clone. This phenotypic variation in resin acid composition may be useful in distinguishing populations that are differentially adapted to air pollutants.

  19. Antioxidant potential of six pine species.

    PubMed

    Guri, Anilda; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Roussis, Vassilios

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant efficacy of extracts obtained from six Pinus species (P. pinea, P. brutia, P. radiata, P. halepensis, P. attenuata, P. nigra) growing in natural forests in Southern Greece. Specimens of fresh, dry needles and pine bark were extracted and fractionated with a variety of organic solvents and the efficient concentration and their radical scavenging activity was evaluated by the Co(II)/EDTA induced luminol plateau chemiluminescence assay. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Neuroprotective Effects of Korean Red Pine(Pinus densiflora) Bark Extract and Its Phenolics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Won; Im, Sungbin; Jeong, Ha-Ram; Jung, Young-Seung; Lee, Inil; Kim, Kwan Joong; Park, Seung Kook; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2018-03-15

    Korean red pine ( Pinus densiflora ) is one of the major Pinus species in Korea. Red pine barkis removed prior to the chipping process in the wood industry and discarded aswaste. However, red pine bark contains a considerable amount of naturally occurring phenolics including flavonoids and therefore may have a variety of biological effects. In this study, we investigated if Korean red pine bark extract (KRPBE) could protect neuronal PC-12 cells from oxidative stress and inhibit cholinesterase activity.Analysis of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography results revealed four phenolics in KRPBE:vanillin, protocatechuic acid, catechin and taxifolin.Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of KRPBE were 397.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (DW) and 248.7 mg catechin equivalents/g DW, respectively. Antioxidant capacities of KRPBE measured using ABTS, DPPH, and ORAC assays were 697.3, 521.8, and 2,627.7 mg vitamin C equivalents/g DW, respectively. KRPBE and its identified phenolics protected against H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, which degrade the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to terminate neurotransmission in synaptic clefts, were inhibited by treatment with KRPBE and its identified phenolics. Taken together, these results suggest that KRPBE and its constituent antioxidative phenolics are potent neuroprotective agents that can maintain cell viability in the context of oxidative stress and inhibit cholinesterase activity.

  1. [Comparison of chemical components of essential oils in needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm from Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Shen, Changmao; Duan, Wengui; Cen, Bo; Tan, Jianhui

    2006-11-01

    Essential oils were extracted by steam distillation from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm grown in Guangxi. Various factors such as pine needle dosage and extraction time which may influence the oil yield were investigated. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: pine needle dosage 700 g, extraction time 5 h. The essential oil yields from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm were 0.45% and 0.19%, respectively. Moreover, the chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty four components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus massoniana Lamb were separated and twenty of them (98.59%) were identified while seventy three components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus elliottottii Engelm were separated and twenty nine of them (94.23%) were identified. Generally, the compositions of the essential oils from needles of the two varieties were similar but the contents of some compounds differed greatly. Especially, the content of alpha-pinene in the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb needles was 2.6 times as that from Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles, but the content of beta-pinene was less than the latter. Mono- and sesquiterpenes were the main composition of the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles.

  2. Sol-gel titania-coated needles for solid phase dynamic extraction-GC/MS analysis of desomorphine and desocodeine.

    PubMed

    Su, Chi-Ju; Srimurugan, Sankarewaran; Chen, Chinpiao; Shu, Hun-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Novel sol-gel titania film coated needles for solid-phase dynamic extraction (SPDE)-GC/MS analysis of desomorphine and desocodeine are described. The high thermal stability of titania film permits efficient extraction and analysis of poorly volatile opiate drugs. The influences of sol-gel reaction time, coating layer, extraction and desorption time and temperature on the SPDE needle performance were investigated. The deuterium labeled internal standard was introduced either during the extraction of analyte or directly injected to GC after the extraction process. The latter method was shown to be more sensitive for the analysis of water and urine samples containing opiate drugs. The proposed conditions provided a wide linear range (from 5-5000 ppb), and satisfactory linearity, with R(2) values from 0.9958 to 0.9999, and prominent sensitivity, LOQs (1.0-5.0 ng/g). The sol-gel titania film coated needle with SPDE-GC/MS will be a promising technique for desomorphine and desocodeine analysis in urine.

  3. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction of inositols from pine nuts (Pinus pinea L.).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aceituno, L; Rodríguez-Sánchez, S; Sanz, J; Sanz, M L; Ramos, L

    2014-06-15

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) has been used for the first time to extract bioactive inositols from pine nuts. The influence of extraction time, temperature and cycles of extraction in the yield and composition of the extract was studied. A quadratic lineal model using multiple linear regression in the stepwise mode was used to evaluate possible trends in the process. Under optimised PLE conditions (50°C, 18 min, 3 cycles of 1.5 mL water each one) at 10 MPa, a noticeable reduction in extraction time and solvent volume, compared with solid-liquid extraction (SLE; room temperature, 2h, 2 cycles of 5 mL water each one) was achieved; 5.7 mg/g inositols were extracted by PLE, whereas yields of only 3.7 mg/g were obtained by SLE. Subsequent incubation of PLE extracts with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (37°C, 5h) allowed the removal of other co-extracted low molecular weight carbohydrates which may interfere in the bioactivity of inositols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fire and high-elevation, five-needle pine (Pinus aristata & P. flexilis) ecosystems in the southern Rocky Mountains: What do we know?

    Treesearch

    Jonathan D. Coop; Anna W. Schoettle

    2011-01-01

    Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata Engelm) and limber pine (P. flexilis James) are high-elevation, fiveneedle pines of the southern Rocky Mountains. The pre-settlement role of fire in bristlecone and limber pine forests remains the subject of considerable uncertainty; both species likely experienced a wide range of fire regimes across gradients of site...

  5. Multi-Season Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Analysis of Pinus taeda Needle Tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine) is one of the worlds most important timber crop and accounts for a significant portion of the southeastern U.S. landcover. Biogenic voltile organic compound (BVOC) content was extracted from the tissue material of P. taeda needles and analyzed over a m...

  6. A Modified Protocol for High-Quality RNA Extraction from Oleoresin-Producing Adult Pines.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Júlio César; Füller, Thanise Nogueira; de Costa, Fernanda; Rodrigues-Corrêa, Kelly C S; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-01-01

    RNA extraction resulting in good yields and quality is a fundamental step for the analyses of transcriptomes through high-throughput sequencing technologies, microarray, and also northern blots, RT-PCR, and RTqPCR. Even though many specific protocols designed for plants with high content of secondary metabolites have been developed, these are often expensive, time consuming, and not suitable for a wide range of tissues. Here we present a modification of the method previously described using the commercially available Concert™ Plant RNA Reagent (Invitrogen) buffer for field-grown adult pine trees with high oleoresin content.

  7. Uptake of ¹³⁷Cs by berries, mushrooms and needles of Scots pine in peatland forests after wood ash application.

    PubMed

    Vetikko, Virve; Rantavaara, Aino; Moilanen, Mikko

    2010-12-01

    Increasing use of wood fuels for energy production in Finland since the 1990s implies that large quantities of the generated ashes will be available for forest fertilization. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of wood ash application on ¹³⁷Cs activity concentrations in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles and certain berries and mushrooms on drained peatlands. The study was based on field experiments carried out on two mires in Finland in 1997-1998. Two different types of wood ash were applied at dosages of 3500, 3700, 10 500 and 11 100 kg ha⁻¹. Wood ash did not increase ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in plants in the second growing season following application. On the contrary, a decrease in ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration was seen in the plants of the ecosystem on drained peatlands. This result is of importance, for instance, when recycling of ash is being planned. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High-performance supercapacitor based on three-dimensional flower-shaped Li4Ti5O12-graphene hybrid and pine needles derived honeycomb carbon.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ling-Li; Wu, Xu; Huang, Ke-Jing

    2018-06-05

    A three-dimensional (3D) flower-shaped Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 -graphene (Gr) hybrid micro/nanostructures and pine needles derived carbon nanopores (PNDCN) has been prepared by using the effective hydrothermal process. Due to the unique micro/nanostructures which can provide abundant surface active sites, the obtained 3D Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 -Gr displays a high specific capacitance of 706.52 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 . The prepared PNDCN also exhibits high specific capacitance of 314.50 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 benefiting from its interconnected honeycomb-like hierarchical and open structure, which facilitates the diffusion and reaction of electrolyte ions and enables an isotropic charging/discharging process. An asymmetric supercapacitor utilizing Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 -Gr as positive electrode and PNDCN as negative electrode has been fabricated, it delivers a high energy density of 35.06 Wh kg -1 at power density of 800.08 W kg -1 and outstanding cycling stability with 90.18% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles. The fabrication process presented in this work is facile, cost-effective, and environmentally benign, offering a feasible solution for manufacturing next-generation high-performance energy storage devices. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Mountain pine beetle infestation: GCxGCTOFMS and GC-MS of lodgepole pine (pinus contorta) acetone extractives

    Treesearch

    Roderquita K. Moore; Michael Leitch; Erick Arellano-ruiz; Jonathon Smaglick; Doreen Mann

    2015-01-01

    The Rocky Mountains and western U.S. forests are impacted by the infestation of mountain pine beetles (MPB). MPB outbreak is killing pine and spruce trees at an alarming rate. These trees present a fuel build-up in the forest, which can result in catastrophic wildland fires. MPB carry blue-stain fungi from the genus Ophiostoma and transmit infection by burrowing into...

  10. Comparison in antioxidant and antitumor activities of pine polyphenols and its seven biotransformation extracts by fungi

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Microbial transformation can strengthen the antioxidant and antitumor activities of polyphenols. Polyphenols contents, antioxidant and antitumor activities of pine polyphenols and its biotransformation extracts by Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus candidus, Trichodermas viride, Mucor wutungkiao and Rhizopus sp were studied. Significant differences were noted in antioxidant and antitumor activities. The highest antioxidant activities in Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), DPPH radical scavenging activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay and antitumor activity against LoVo cells were biotransformation extract of Aspergillus carbonarius (BAC), biotransformation extract of Mucor wutungkiao (BMW), biotransformation extract of Aspergillus carbonarius (BAC), biotransformation extract of Aspergillus niger (BAN), biotransformation extract of Aspergillus oryzae (BAO) and BMW, respectively. Correlation analysis found that antioxidant and antitumor activities were associated with polyphenols contents and types of free radicals and tumors. A. carbonarius can make polyphenol oxidation, hydroxylation and methylation, and form new polyphenols. In conclusion, A. carbonarius, A. niger and M. wutungkiao are valuable microorganisms used for polyphenols biotransformation and enhance the antioxidant and antitumor activities of polyphenols. PMID:28560092

  11. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-01-01

    Background: So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Objective: Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. Results: This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). Conclusion: The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment. PMID:26664017

  12. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-10-01

    So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment.

  13. Rapid microwave-assisted acid extraction of metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood

    Treesearch

    Bin Yu; Chung Y. Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    The effects of acid concentration, reaction time, and temperature in a microwave reactor on recovery of CCA-treated wood were evaluated. Extraction of copper, chromium, and arsenic metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood samples with three different acids (i.e., acetic acid, oxalic acid, and phosphoric acid) was investigated using in...

  14. Evaluation of needle trap micro-extraction and automatic alveolar sampling for point-of-care breath analysis.

    PubMed

    Trefz, Phillip; Rösner, Lisa; Hein, Dietmar; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2013-04-01

    Needle trap devices (NTDs) have shown many advantages such as improved detection limits, reduced sampling time and volume, improved stability, and reproducibility if compared with other techniques used in breath analysis such as solid-phase extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction. Effects of sampling flow (2-30 ml/min) and volume (10-100 ml) were investigated in dry gas standards containing hydrocarbons, aldehydes, and aromatic compounds and in humid breath samples. NTDs contained (single-bed) polymer packing and (triple-bed) combinations of divinylbenzene/Carbopack X/Carboxen 1000. Substances were desorbed from the NTDs by means of thermal expansion and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An automated CO2-controlled sampling device for direct alveolar sampling at the point-of-care was developed and tested in pilot experiments. Adsorption efficiency for small volatile organic compounds decreased and breakthrough increased when sampling was done with polymer needles from a water-saturated matrix (breath) instead from dry gas. Humidity did not affect analysis with triple-bed NTDs. These NTDs showed only small dependencies on sampling flow and low breakthrough from 1-5 %. The new sampling device was able to control crucial parameters such as sampling flow and volume. With triple-bed NTDs, substance amounts increased linearly with increasing sample volume when alveolar breath was pre-concentrated automatically. When compared with manual sampling, automatic sampling showed comparable or better results. Thorough control of sampling and adequate choice of adsorption material is mandatory for application of needle trap micro-extraction in vivo. The new CO2-controlled sampling device allows direct alveolar sampling at the point-of-care without the need of any additional sampling, storage, or pre-concentration steps.

  15. Cronartium ribicola resistance in whitebark pine, southwestern white pine, limber pine and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine - preliminary screening results from first tests at Dorena GRC

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Robert Danchok; Anna W. Schoettle; Kelly S. Burns; Dave Conklin

    2008-01-01

    All nine species of white pines (five-needle pines) native to the United States are highly susceptible to Cronartium ribicola, the fungus causing white pine blister rust. The presence of genetic resistance will be the key to maintaining or restoring white pines in many ecosystems and planning gene conservation activities. Operational genetic...

  16. Mitogenic activity of pine cone extracts against cultured splenocytes from normal and tumor-bearing animals.

    PubMed

    Kurakata, Y; Sakagami, H; Takeda, M; Konno, K; Kitajima, K; Ichikawa, S; Hata, N; Sato, T

    1989-01-01

    An acidic pine cone extract, Fr. V. of Pinus parviflora Sieb. et Zucc. significantly stimulated DNA synthesis of isolated splenocytes from both mice and rats, but only marginally affected the DNA synthesis of leukemic cell lines. The maximum stimulation level attained by Fr. V slightly exceeded that of plant lectins, whereas much weaker stimulating activity was found in natural and chemically modified antitumor polysaccharides, sialic acid-rich glycoproteins, and polyphenolic compounds such as lignin and tannic acid. In mice with subcutaneously transplanted sarcoma-180, responses of splenocytes against Con A declines in the terminal stage of tumor development, whereas responses against Fr. V remained relatively constant throughout all periods of tumor progression. The suppression of Fr. V activity by acetylation or methylation suggests the importance of the hydroxyl group in the expression of its stimulation activity.

  17. Evaluation of the systemic toxicity and mutagenicity of OLIGOPIN®, procyanidolic oligomers (OPC) extracted from French Maritime Pine Bark extract.

    PubMed

    Segal, L; Penman, M G; Piriou, Y

    2018-01-01

    The potential systemic toxicity of Oligopin®, a French Maritime Pine Bark extract (FMPBE) rich in procyanidolic oligomers, was evaluated in an acute oral limit test and a 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity study with Sprague Dawley rats. The potential mutagenicity was assessed in a bacterial reverse mutation assay and in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration assay with human lymphocytes. The results indicate that Oligopin® was nongenotoxic in both bacterial and human cell assays, was not acutely toxic via oral administration at up to 2000 mg/kg and was well tolerated following 90 days of oral administration to SD rats, with a no observed adverse effect level of 1000 mg/kg/day. The lack of significant adverse systemic effects in the 90 day study is concordant with findings from several human clinical trials. The acute toxicity and mutagenicity data are consistent with data reported by AFSSA in a summary of FMPBE safety, in which a NOAEL of 100 mg/kg/day was established. In contrast, the NOAEL derived from the 90-day study with Oligopin® was 1000 mg/kg/day, suggesting that it is less systemically toxic than other FMPBE previously evaluated in subchronic studies, and comparable to proanthocyanidins extracted from grape seeds, which are widely used as nutritional supplement ingredients.

  18. Poly(vinyl alcohol)/hydroxyapatite Monolithic In-Needle Extraction (MINE) device: Preparation and examination of drug affinity.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyńska, Monika; Czerwiński, Michał; Voelkel, Adam

    2017-07-15

    Polymer-ceramic materials based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and hydroxyapatite were applied as sorption material in Monolithic In-Needle Extraction (MINE) device. The presented device provides new possibilities for the examination of bisphosphonates affinity for bone and will be a helpful tool in evaluation of potential antiresorptive drugs suitability. A ceramic part of monoliths was prepared by incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA) into the reaction mixture or by using a soaking method (mineralization of HA on the PVA). The parameters of synthesis conditions were optimized to achieve a monolithic material having the appropriate dimensions after the soaking process enabling placing of the monolithic material inside the needle. Furthermore, the material must have had optimal dimensions after the re-soaking process to fit perfectly to the needle. Among the sixteen monolithic materials, eight of them were selected for further study, and then four of them were selected as a sorbent material for the MINE device. The material properties were examined on the basis of several parameters: swelling ratio, initial mass reversion and initial diameter reversion, mass growth due to the HA formation, and antiresorptive drug sorption. The MINE device might be then used as a tool for examination of interactions between bisphosphonate and bone. The simulated body fluid containing sodium risedronate (RSD) as a standard compound was passed through the MINE device. The obtained device allowed for sorption about 0.38mg of RSD. The desorption process was carried out in five steps allowing insightful analysis. The MINE device turned out to be a helpful tool for determination of the bisphosphonates affinity to the ceramic part of sorbent (hydroxyapatite) and to assess the usefulness of them as antiresorptive drugs in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A dose rate causes no fluctuating asymmetry indexes changes in silver birch (Betula pendula (L.) Roth.) leaves and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

    PubMed

    Kashparova, Elena; Levchuk, Sviatoslav; Morozova, Valeriia; Kashparov, Valery

    2018-06-04

    The assessment of the fluctuating asymmetry based on measurement of the parameters of left and right parts of silver birch (Betula pendula (L.) Roth.) leaves and relative sizes of pairs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles from the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) was carried out. Twelve samples of both birch leaves and pairs of needles were collected from 10 trees at 5 sites in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and also at one control site located outside the ChEZ. Values of gamma dose rate in the air varied between the sites from 0.1 to 40 μGy h -1 . Activity concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the birch leaves varied over the range of 0.9÷2460 kBq kg -1 and 0.1÷339 kBq·kg -1 (DW), respectively. In addition to the above, in the Scots pine needles, these ranges were 0.7 ÷1970 kBq kg -1 f for 90 Sr and 0.1÷78 kBq kg -1 (DW) for 137 Cs. From the values of the radionuclides activity concentrations in the plants, the internal dose rate is estimated to be in the range of 0.1 ÷ 274 μGy h -1 . The main sources of the internal dose rate were radiation of 90 Sr and 90 Y. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry of silver birch leaves and Scots pine needles varied over the range of 0.048 ± 0.007 ÷ 0.060 ± 0.009 and 0.014 ± 0.002 ÷ 0.018 ± 0.002, respectively, and did not statistically differ for all experimental sites. The indices also did not depend on the external or internal dose rate of ionizing radiation for plants. The above findings seem to be consistent with other research effort in terms of understanding the response of organisms to chronic pollutant exposure and the long-term effects of large scale nuclear accidents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of needle trap micro-extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction: Obtaining comprehensive information on volatile emissions from in vitro cultures.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Peter; Bergmann, Andreas; Fischer, Sina; Trefz, Phillip; Küntzel, Anne; Reinhold, Petra; Köhler, Heike; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2018-05-14

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from in vitro cultures may reveal information on species and metabolism. Owing to low nmol L -1 concentration ranges, pre-concentration techniques are required for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based analyses. This study was intended to compare the efficiency of established micro-extraction techniques - solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and needle-trap micro-extraction (NTME) - for the analysis of complex VOC patterns. For SPME, a 75 μm Carboxen®/polydimethylsiloxane fiber was used. The NTME needle was packed with divinylbenzene, Carbopack X and Carboxen 1000. The headspace was sampled bi-directionally. Seventy-two VOCs were calibrated by reference standard mixtures in the range of 0.041-62.24 nmol L -1 by means of GC-MS. Both pre-concentration methods were applied to profile VOCs from cultures of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis. Limits of detection ranged from 0.004 to 3.93 nmol L -1 (median = 0.030 nmol L -1 ) for NTME and from 0.001 to 5.684 nmol L -1 (median = 0.043 nmol L -1 ) for SPME. NTME showed advantages in assessing polar compounds such as alcohols. SPME showed advantages in reproducibility but disadvantages in sensitivity for N-containing compounds. Micro-extraction techniques such as SPME and NTME are well suited for trace VOC profiling over cultures if the limitations of each technique is taken into account. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Rapid microwave-assisted acid extraction of southern pine waste wood to remove metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment

    Treesearch

    Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Bin Yu

    2013-01-01

    Recovery of metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood particles was investigated by extraction in a microwave reactor with binary combinations of acetic acid (AA), oxalic acid (OxA), and phosphoric acid (PhA). Use of OxA was not successful, as insoluble copper oxalate complexes impeded copper removal. The combination of OxA and AA also had...

  2. High elevation white pines educational website

    Treesearch

    Anna W. Schoettle; Michele Laskowski

    2011-01-01

    The high elevation five-needle white pines are facing numerous challenges ranging from climate change to invasion by a non-native pathogen to escalation of pest outbreaks. This website (http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/highelevationwhitepines/) serves as a primer for managers and the public on the high elevation North American five-needle pines. It presents information on each...

  3. Ameliorative effects of pine bark extract on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Chul; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Shin, Na-Rae; Shin, In-Sik; Kim, Yun-Bae; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the dose-response effects of pine bark extract (PBE, pycnogenol ® ) on oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic changes induced by cisplatin (Csp) in rats. The ameliorating potential of PBE was evaluated after orally administering PBE at doses of 10 or 20 mg/kg for 10 days. Acute kidney injury was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Csp at 7 mg/kg on test day 5. Csp treatment caused acute kidney injury manifested by elevated levels of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CRE) with corresponding histopathological changes, including degeneration of tubular epithelial cells, hyaline casts in the tubular lumen, and inflammatory cell infiltration (interstitial nephritis). Csp also induced significant apoptotic changes in renal tubular cells. In addition, Csp treatment induced high levels of oxidative stress, as evidenced by an increased level of malondialdehyde, depletion of the reduced glutathione (GSH) content, and decreased activities of glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in kidney tissues. On the contrary, PBE treatment lowered BUN and CRE levels and effectively attenuated histopathological alterations and apoptotic changes induced by Csp. Additionally, treatment with PBE suppressed lipid peroxidation, prevented depletion of GSH, and enhanced activities of the antioxidant enzymes in kidney tissue. These results indicate that PBE has a cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic changes caused by Csp in the rat kidney, which may be attributed to both increase of antioxidant enzyme activities and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  4. Ameliorative effects of pine bark extract on spermatotoxicity by α-chlorohydrin in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, In-Chul; Baek, Hyung-Seon; Moon, Changjong; Bae, Chun-Sik; Kim, Sung-Ho; Park, Seung-Chun; Kim, Hyoung-Chin; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the protective effects of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol®, PYC, Horphag Research Ltd., Route de Belis, France) against α-chlorohydrin (ACH)-induced spermatotoxicity in rats. Rats were orally administered ACH (30 mg/kg/day) with or without PYC (20 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. Administration of ACH significantly decreased sperm motility. α-Chlorohydrin also caused histopathological alterations and apoptotic changes in caput epididymides. An increased malondialdehyde concentration and decreased glutathione content, as well as catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were also found. In contrast, PYC treatment significantly prevented ACH-induced spermatotoxicity, including decreased sperm motility, histopathological lesions, and apoptotic changes in the caput epididymis. Pycnogenol® also had an antioxidant benefit by decreasing malondialdehyde and increasing levels of the antioxidant glutathione and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase in epididymal tissues. These results indicate that PYC treatment attenuated ACH-induced spermatotoxicity through antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Qualitative and quantitative determination of extractives in heartwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ekeberg, Dag; Flaete, Per-Otto; Eikenes, Morten; Fongen, Monica; Naess-Andresen, Carl Fredrik

    2006-03-24

    A method for quantitative determination of extractives from heartwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID) was developed. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.03 mg/g wood and the linear range (r = 0.9994) was up to 10 mg/g with accuracy within +/- 10% and precision of 18% relative standard deviation. The identification of the extractives was performed using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The yields of extraction by Soxhlet were tested for solid wood, small particles and fine powder. Small particles were chosen for further analysis. This treatment gave good yields of the most important extractives: pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, resin acids and free fatty acids. The method is used to demonstrate the variation of these extractives across stems and differences in north-south direction.

  6. Establishing Longleaf Pine Seedlings Under a Loblolly Pine Canopy (User’s Guide)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    converting loblolly pine stands to longleaf pine dominance ..................... 5 3. WHERE DO THE GUIDELINES APPLY? GEOGRAPHIC, EDAPHIC, AND STAND STRUCTURE ...watching, hunting, and off-road vehicle use, and yield valuable products including quality saw- timber and pine needles for landscaping. Longleaf pines...U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2003). The foraging habitat guidelines specify characteristics of the pine canopy structure , the abundance of

  7. White pine blister rust resistance research in Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    Andrew David; Paul Berrang; Carrie Pike

    2012-01-01

    The exotic fungus Cronartium ribicola causes the disease white pine blister rust on five-needled pines throughout North America. Although the effects of this disease are perhaps better known on pines in the western portion of the continent, the disease has also impacted regeneration and growth of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. ...

  8. White pine blister rust in the interior Mountain West

    Treesearch

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Dave Conklin; Brian Geils; Jim Hoffman; Marcus Jackson; William Jacobi; Holly Kearns; Anna Schoettle

    2010-01-01

    White pine blister rust is an exotic, invasive disease of white, stone, and foxtail pines (also referred to as white pines or five-needle pines) in the genus Pinus and subgenus Strobus (Price and others 1998). Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes WPBR, requires an alternate host - currants and gooseberries in the genus Ribes and species of Pedicularis...

  9. Non-Ribes alternate hosts of white pine blister rust: What this discovery means to whitebark pine

    Treesearch

    Paul J. Zambino; Bryce A. Richardson; Geral I. McDonald; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim

    2006-01-01

    From early to present-day outbreaks, white pine blister rust caused by the fungus Cronartium ribicola, in combination with mountain pine beetle outbreaks and fire exclusion has caused ecosystem-wide effects for all five-needled pines (McDonald and Hoff 2001). To be successful, efforts to restore whitebark pine will require sound management decisions that incorporate an...

  10. Determination of breath isoprene and acetone concentration with a needle-type extraction device in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ueta, Ikuo; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Okamoto, Mitsuyoshi; Sakamaki, Hiroyuki; Hosoe, Masahiko; Ishiguro, Motoyuki; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2014-03-20

    Isoprene in human breath is said to be related to cholesterol metabolism, and the possibility of the correlations with some clinical parameters has been studied. However, at this stage, no clear benefit of breath isoprene has been reported for clinical diagnosis. In this work, isoprene and acetone concentrations were measured in the breath of healthy and obese subjects using a needle-type extraction device for subsequent analysis in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the possibility of these compounds as an indicator of possible diseases. After measuring intraday and interday variations of isoprene and acetone concentrations in breath samples of healthy subjects, their concentrations were also determined in 80 healthy and 17 obese subjects. In addition, correlation between these breath concentrations and the blood tests result was studied for these healthy and obese subjects. The results indicated successful determination of breath isoprene and acetone in this work, however, no clear correlation was observed between these measured values and the blood test results. Breath isoprene concentration may not be a useful indicator for obesity or hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Whitebark and limber pine restoration and monitoring in Glacier National Park

    Treesearch

    Jennifer M. Asebrook; Joyce Lapp; Tara. Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are keystone species important to watersheds, grizzly and black bears, squirrels, birds, and other wildlife. Both high elevation five-needled pines have dramatically declined in Glacier National Park primarily due to white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) and fire exclusion, with mountain pine...

  12. HOW to Manage Jack Pine to Reduce Damage from Jack Pine Budworm

    Treesearch

    Deborah G. McCullough; Steven Katovich; Robert L. Heyd; Shane Weber

    1994-01-01

    Jack pine budworm, Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman, is a needle feeding caterpillar that is generally considered the most significant pest of jack pine. Vigorous young jack pine stands are rarely damaged during outbreaks. The most vigorous stands are well stocked, evenly spaced, fairly uniform in height, and less than 45 years old. Stands older than 45 years that are...

  13. Brown Pine Leaf Extract and Its Active Component Trans-Communic Acid Inhibit UVB-Induced MMP-1 Expression by Targeting PI3K

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gaeun; Lim, Tae-gyu; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Song, Da Som; Jeong, Eun Hee; Lee, Charles C.; Son, Joe Eun; Seo, Sang Gwon; Lee, Eunjung; Kim, Jong Rhan; Lee, Chang Yong; Park, Jun Seong; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-01-01

    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) is widely present in China, Japan, and Korea. Its green pine leaves have traditionally been used as a food as well as a coloring agent. After being shed, pine leaves change their color from green to brown within two years, and although the brown pine leaves are abundantly available, their value has not been closely assessed. In this study, we investigated the potential anti-photoaging properties of brown pine leaves for skin. Brown pine leaf extract (BPLE) inhibited UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression to a greater extent than pine leaf extract (PLE) in human keratinocytes and a human skin equivalent model. HPLC analysis revealed that the quantity of trans-communic acid (TCA) and dehydroabietic acid (DAA) significantly increases when the pine leaf color changes from green to brown. BPLE and TCA elicited reductions in UVB-induced MMP-1 mRNA expression and activator protein-1 (AP-1) transactivation by reducing DNA binding activity of phospho-c-Jun, c-fos and Fra-1. BPLE and TCA also inhibited UVB-induced Akt phosphorylation, but not mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), known regulators of AP-1 transactivation. We additionally found that BPLE and TCA inhibited phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), the upstream kinase of Akt, in vitro. In summary, both BPLE and its active component TCA exhibit protective effects against UVB-induced skin aging. Taken together, these findings underline the potential for BPLE and TCA to be utilized as anti-wrinkling agents and cosmetic ingredients, as they suppress UVB-induced MMP-1 expression. PMID:26066652

  14. Comparison of Vibringe, EndoActivator, and needle irrigation on sealer penetration in extracted human teeth.

    PubMed

    Bolles, Jordan A; He, Jianing; Svoboda, Kathy K H; Schneiderman, Emet; Glickman, Gerald N

    2013-05-01

    Vibringe is a new device that allows continuous sonic irrigation of the canal system during endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different irrigation systems on sealer penetration into dentinal tubules of extracted single-rooted teeth. Fifty single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and randomly divided into 4 groups: group 1 (control), saline; group 2 (conventional irrigation), 17% EDTA followed by 6% NaOCl; group 3 (EndoActivator), same irrigants as group 2; group 4 (Vibringe), same irrigants as group 2. Obturation of all teeth was done with gutta-percha and SimpliSeal labeled with fluorescent dye. Transverse sections at 1 mm and 5 mm from the root apex were examined by using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration were measured by using NIS-Elements Br 3.0 imaging software. Groups 3 and 4 had a significantly greater percentage of the canal wall penetrated by sealer at the 5-mm level than group 1 (P < .0125), but not group 2. No other differences were found between the groups at either section level for both the percentage of sealer penetration and maximum depth. The 5-mm sections in each experimental group had a significantly higher percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration than did the 1-mm sections (P < .0125). The use of sonic activation with either the EndoActivator or Vibringe did not significantly improve the sealer penetration when compared with conventional irrigation. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Knot, heartwood, and sapwood extractives related to VOCs from drying southern pine lumber

    Treesearch

    Leonard L. Ingram; M. Curry Templeton; G. Wayne McGraw; Richard W. Hemingway

    2000-01-01

    The presence of knots or heartwood influences the amount and composition of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions associated with drying of southern pine lumber. Experimental kiln charges of lumber containing 0 to 5% of knot volume gave VOC emissions ranging from 2.86 to 4.25 lb of carbonldry ton of wood. Studies of emissions from sapwood and knots showed that...

  16. Syringe needle-based sampling coupled with liquid-phase extraction for determination of the three-dimensional distribution of l-ascorbic acid in apples.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sheng; Lee, Hian Kee

    2016-05-15

    A novel syringe needle-based sampling approach coupled with liquid-phase extraction (NBS-LPE) was developed and applied to the extraction of l-ascorbic acid (AsA) in apple. In NBS-LPE, only a small amount of apple flesh (ca. 10mg) was sampled directly using a syringe needle and placed in a glass insert for liquid extraction of AsA by 80 μL oxalic acid-acetic acid. The extract was then directly analyzed by liquid chromatography. This new procedure is simple, convenient, almost organic solvent free, and causes far less damage to the fruit. To demonstrate the applicability of NBS-LPE, AsA levels at different sampling points in a single apple were determined to reveal the spatial distribution of the analyte in a three-dimensional model. The results also showed that this method had good sensitivity (limit of detection of 0.0097 mg/100g; limit of quantification of 0.0323 mg/100g), acceptable reproducibility (relative standard deviation of 5.01% (n=6)), a wide linear range of between 0.05 and 50mg/100g, and good linearity (r(2)=0.9921). This interesting extraction technique and modeling approach can be used to measure and monitor a wide range of compounds in various parts of different soft-matrix fruits and vegetables, including single specimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genotoxicity of dill (Anethum graveolens L.), peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) essential oils in human lymphocytes and Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lazutka, J R; Mierauskiene, J; Slapsyte, G; Dedonyte, V

    2001-05-01

    Genotoxic properties of the essential oils extracted from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) herb and seeds, peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) herb and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles were studied using chromosome aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) tests in human lymphocytes in vitro, and Drosophila melanogaster somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in vivo. In the CA test, the most active essential oil was from dill seeds, then followed essential oils from dill herb, peppermint herb and pine needles, respectively. In the SCE test, the most active essential oils were from dill herb and seeds followed by essential oils from pine needles and peppermint herb. Essential oils from dill herb and seeds and pine needles induced CA and SCE in a clear dose-dependent manner, while peppermint essential oil induced SCE in a dose-independent manner. All essential oils were cytotoxic for human lymphocytes. In the SMART test, a dose-dependent increase in mutation frequency was observed for essential oils from pine and dill herb. Peppermint essential oil induced mutations in a dose-independent manner. Essential oil from dill seeds was almost inactive in the SMART test.

  18. Cell Wall Ultrastructure of Stem Wood, Roots, and Needles of a Conifer Varies in Response to Moisture Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Ingwers, Miles W.; Victoriano, Olivia L.

    The composition, integrity, and architecture of the macromolecular matrix of cell walls, collectively referred to as cell wall ultrastructure, exhibits variation across species and organs and among cell types within organs. Indirect approaches have suggested that modifications to cell wall ultrastructure occur in response to abiotic stress; however, modifications have not been directly observed. Glycome profiling was used to study cell wall ultrastructure by examining variation in composition and extractability of non-cellulosic glycans in cell walls of stem wood, roots, and needles of loblolly pine saplings exposed to high and low soil moisture. Soil moisture influenced physiological processes and themore » overall composition and extractability of cell wall components differed as a function of soil moisture treatments. The strongest response of cell wall ultrastructure to soil moisture was increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in the low soil moisture treatment. The higher abundance of these pectic backbone epitopes in the oxalate extract indicate that the loosening of cell wall pectic components could be associated with the release of pectic signals as a stress response. The increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in response to low soil moisture availability was more pronounced in stem wood than in roots or needles. Additional responses to low soil moisture availability were observed in lignin associated carbohydrates released in chlorite extracts of stem wood, including an increased abundance of pectic arabinogalactan epitopes. Overall, these results indicate that cell walls of loblolly pine organs undergo changes in their ultrastructural composition and extractability as a response to soil moisture availability and that cell walls of the stem wood are more responsive to low soil moisture availability compared to cell walls of roots and needles. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence, delineated by

  19. Cell Wall Ultrastructure of Stem Wood, Roots, and Needles of a Conifer Varies in Response to Moisture Availability.

    PubMed

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Ingwers, Miles W; Victoriano, Olivia L; Kandemkavil, Sindhu; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Aubrey, Doug P

    2016-01-01

    The composition, integrity, and architecture of the macromolecular matrix of cell walls, collectively referred to as cell wall ultrastructure, exhibits variation across species and organs and among cell types within organs. Indirect approaches have suggested that modifications to cell wall ultrastructure occur in response to abiotic stress; however, modifications have not been directly observed. Glycome profiling was used to study cell wall ultrastructure by examining variation in composition and extractability of non-cellulosic glycans in cell walls of stem wood, roots, and needles of loblolly pine saplings exposed to high and low soil moisture. Soil moisture influenced physiological processes and the overall composition and extractability of cell wall components differed as a function of soil moisture treatments. The strongest response of cell wall ultrastructure to soil moisture was increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in the low soil moisture treatment. The higher abundance of these pectic backbone epitopes in the oxalate extract indicate that the loosening of cell wall pectic components could be associated with the release of pectic signals as a stress response. The increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in response to low soil moisture availability was more pronounced in stem wood than in roots or needles. Additional responses to low soil moisture availability were observed in lignin-associated carbohydrates released in chlorite extracts of stem wood, including an increased abundance of pectic arabinogalactan epitopes. Overall, these results indicate that cell walls of loblolly pine organs undergo changes in their ultrastructural composition and extractability as a response to soil moisture availability and that cell walls of the stem wood are more responsive to low soil moisture availability compared to cell walls of roots and needles. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence, delineated by glycomic analyses, that

  20. Cell Wall Ultrastructure of Stem Wood, Roots, and Needles of a Conifer Varies in Response to Moisture Availability

    DOE PAGES

    Pattathil, Sivakumar; Ingwers, Miles W.; Victoriano, Olivia L.; ...

    2016-06-24

    The composition, integrity, and architecture of the macromolecular matrix of cell walls, collectively referred to as cell wall ultrastructure, exhibits variation across species and organs and among cell types within organs. Indirect approaches have suggested that modifications to cell wall ultrastructure occur in response to abiotic stress; however, modifications have not been directly observed. Glycome profiling was used to study cell wall ultrastructure by examining variation in composition and extractability of non-cellulosic glycans in cell walls of stem wood, roots, and needles of loblolly pine saplings exposed to high and low soil moisture. Soil moisture influenced physiological processes and themore » overall composition and extractability of cell wall components differed as a function of soil moisture treatments. The strongest response of cell wall ultrastructure to soil moisture was increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in the low soil moisture treatment. The higher abundance of these pectic backbone epitopes in the oxalate extract indicate that the loosening of cell wall pectic components could be associated with the release of pectic signals as a stress response. The increased extractability of pectic backbone epitopes in response to low soil moisture availability was more pronounced in stem wood than in roots or needles. Additional responses to low soil moisture availability were observed in lignin associated carbohydrates released in chlorite extracts of stem wood, including an increased abundance of pectic arabinogalactan epitopes. Overall, these results indicate that cell walls of loblolly pine organs undergo changes in their ultrastructural composition and extractability as a response to soil moisture availability and that cell walls of the stem wood are more responsive to low soil moisture availability compared to cell walls of roots and needles. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence, delineated by

  1. A Mid-IR Multivariate Analysis Study on the Gross Calorific Value in Longleaf Pine: Impact on Correlations with Lignin and Extractive Contents

    Treesearch

    Chi-Leung So; Thomas L. Eberhardt

    2013-01-01

    Twenty 70-year-old longleaf pine trees from a spacing, thinning, and pruning study were harvested, from which samples were analyzed for gross calorific value (GCV). A strong correlation was found between GCV and extractive contents for the unextracted wood samples. Although lignin content should impact GCV, no correlation was found between the variation in GCV with...

  2. A needle extraction utilizing a molecularly imprinted-sol-gel xerogel for on-line microextraction of the lung cancer biomarker bilirubin from plasma and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi; Jabbar, Dunia; Colmsjö, Anders; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2014-10-31

    In the present work, a needle trap utilizing a molecularly imprinted sol-gel xerogel was prepared for the on-line microextraction of bilirubin from plasma and urine samples. Each prepared needle could be used for approximately one hundred extractions before it was discarded. Imprinted and non-imprinted sol-gel xerogel were applied for the extraction of bilirubin from plasma and urine samples. The produced molecularly imprinted sol-gel xerogel polymer showed high binding capacity and fast adsorption/desorption kinetics for bilirubin in plasma and urine samples. The adsorption capacity of molecularly imprinted sol-gel xerogel polymer was approximately 60% higher than that of non-imprinted polymer. The effect of the conditioning, washing and elution solvents, pH, extraction time, adsorption capacity and imprinting factor were investigated. The limit of detection and the lower limit of quantification were set to 1.6 and 5nmolL(-1), respectively using plasma or urine samples. The standard calibration curves were obtained within the concentration range of 5-1000nmolL(-1) in both plasma and urine samples. The coefficients of determination values (R(2)) were ≥0.998 for all runs. The extraction recovery was approximately 80% for BR in the human plasma and urine samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts: antioxidant activity and comprehensive characterization of bioactive compounds by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea, María; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-11-06

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents.

  4. Pine Bark and Green Tea Concentrated Extracts: Antioxidant Activity and Comprehensive Characterization of Bioactive Compounds by HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María de la Luz; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins). The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+)-catechin equivalents. PMID:25383680

  5. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Pinus flexilis on Pine Mountain, Humboldt National Forest, Elko County, northeastern Nevada, U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    Detlev R. Vogler; Patricia E. Maloney; Tom Burt; Jacob W. Snelling

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, while surveying for five-needle white pine cone crops in northeastern Nevada, we observed white pine blister rust, caused by the rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola Fisch., infecting branches and stems of limber pines (Pinus flexilis James) on Pine Mountain (41.76975°N, 115.61622°W), Humboldt National Forest,...

  6. Localized enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil, spruce needles, and lake sediments linked to in-situ bitumen extraction near Cold Lake, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Korosi, J B; Irvine, G; Skierszkan, E K; Doyle, J R; Kimpe, L E; Janvier, J; Blais, J M

    2013-11-01

    The extraction of bitumen from the Alberta oil sands using in-situ technologies is expanding at a rapid rate; however, investigations into the environmental impacts of oil sands development have focused on surface mining in the Athabasca region. We measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soils, spruce needles, and lake sediment cores in the Cold Lake oil sands region to provide a historical and spatial perspective on PAH contamination related to in-situ extraction activities. A pronounced increase in PAH concentrations was recorded in one of two study lakes (Hilda Lake) corresponding to the onset of commercial bitumen production in ~1985. Distance from extraction rigs was not an important predictor of PAH concentrations in soils, although two samples located near installations were elevated in alkyl PAHs. Evidence of localized PAH contamination in Hilda Lake and two soil samples suggests that continued environmental monitoring is justified to assess PAH contamination as development intensifies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of the components extracted from the needles of Taxus baccata on protein biosynthesis in a cell-free rat liver system.

    PubMed

    Sredzińska, K; Gajko, A; Gałasiński, W; Gindzieński, A

    1999-01-01

    Various species of Taxus contain taxanes that promote polymerization and stabilization of microtubules. They have been reported as antineoplastic compounds with highly effective chemiotherapeutic application. A decrease in incorporation of the radiolabelled precursors into DNA, RNA and proteins in vivo has been reported too. The preliminary results have shown that also the other compounds present in the aqueous extract from Taxus baccata needles, participate in the inhibition of the protein biosynthesis. The binding site of eEF-2 on the ribosome seems to be the target of this inhibition process.

  8. Essential-oil composition of the needles collected from natural populations of Macedonian pine (Pinus peuce Griseb.) from the Scardo-Pindic mountain system.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Bojović, Srdjan; Matevski, Vlado; Krivošej, Zoran; Marin, Petar D

    2014-06-01

    The needle-terpene profiles of two natural Pinus peuce populations from the Scardo-Pindic mountain system (Mt. Ošljak and Mt. Pelister) were analyzed. Among the 90 detected compounds, 87 were identified. The dominant constituents were α-pinene (45.5%), germacrene D (11.1%), β-pinene (10.8%), and camphene (10.3%). The following eight additional components were found to be present in medium-to-high amounts (0.5-10%): bornyl acetate (5.0%), β-phellandrene (3.4%), β-caryophyllene (2.9%), β-myrcene (0.9%), germacrene D-4-ol (0.9%), tricyclene (0.7%), (E)-hex-2-enal (0.7%), and bicyclogermacrene (0.6%). Although the general needle-terpene profiles of the populations from Mt. Ošljak and Mt. Pelister were found to be similar to those of the populations from Zeletin, Sjekirica, and Mokra Gora (Dinaric Alps), principle component analysis (PCA) of eight terpenes (α-pinene, β-myrcene, α-terpinolene, bornyl acetate, α-terpinyl acetate, β-caryophyllene, trans-β-farnesene, and germacrene D) in 139 tree samples suggested a divergence between the two population groups, i.e., the samples from the Scardo-Pindic mountain system and those from the Dinaric Alps. Genetic analysis of the β-pinene content demonstrated a partial divergence between the two geographical groups. The profiles of both population groups differed from those published for populations from the Balkan-Rhodope mountains system (literature results), which were characterized by high contents of bornyl acetate and citronellol (Greek populations) or δ-car-3-ene (Bulgarian populations). Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  9. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: integration and action

    Treesearch

    R. S. Hunt; B. W. Geils; K. E. Hummer

    2010-01-01

    The preceding articles in this series review the history, biology and management of white pine blister rust in North America, Europe and eastern Asia. In this integration, we connect and discuss seven recurring themes important for understanding and managing epidemics of Cronartium ribicola in the white pines (five-needle pines in subgenus Strobus). Information and...

  10. Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Monoterpenes in Scots Pine and Norway Spruce Tissues Affect Pine Weevil Orientation.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, Lina; Nordlander, Göran; Björklund, Niklas; Nordenhem, Henrik; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2016-12-01

    In large parts of Europe, insecticide-free measures for protecting conifer plants are desired to suppress damage by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.). Treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a chemical elicitor already used in crop production, may enhance expression of chemical defenses in seedlings in conifer regenerations. However, in a previous experiment, MeJA treatment resulted in substantially better field protection for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) than for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Hypothesizing that the variations may be at least due partly to volatiles released by MeJA-treated seedlings and their effects on pine weevil orientation, we examined tissue extracts of seedlings (from the same batches as previously used) by two-dimensional GC-MS. We found that the MeJA treatment increased contents of the monoterpene (-)-β-pinene in phloem (the weevil's main target tissue) of both tree species, however, the (-)-β-pinene/(-)-α-pinene ratio increased more in the phloem of P. sylvestris. We also tested the attractiveness of individual monoterpenes found in conifer tissues (needles and phloem) for pine weevils using an arena with traps baited with single-substance dispensers and pine twigs. Trap catches were reduced when the pine material was combined with a dispenser releasing (-)-β-pinene, (+)-3-carene, (-)-bornyl acetate or 1,8-cineole. However, (-)-α-pinene did not have this effect. Thus, the greater field protection of MeJA-treated P. sylvestris seedlings may be due to the selective induction of increases in contents of the deterrent (-)-β-pinene, in contrast to strong increases in both non-deterrent (-)-α-pinene and the deterrent (-)-β-pinene in P. abies seedlings.

  11. Status of white pine blister rust and seed collections in california's high-elevation white pine species

    Treesearch

    J. Dunlap

    2011-01-01

    White pine blister rust (caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola) reached northern California about 80 years ago. Over the years its spread southward had been primarily recorded on sugar pine. However, observations on its occurrence had also been reported in several of the higher elevation five-needled white pine species in California. Since the late...

  12. Influence of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract on intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen

    2014-08-15

    The selective antimicrobial effect of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract (PBE) (0.5 g/L) has been studied before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. PBE (a concentrate of water-soluble bioflavonoids, mainly including phenolic compounds) has been proven to have high stability to the digestion process. Pure phenolic compounds such as gallic acid had a high antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, maintaining the lactic acid bacteria population (≈100%). Otherwise, E. coli O157:H7 only growth 50% when PBE was added to the culture media, while a slight increase on the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria was observed after exposition to the bark extract. Fresh fruit juices enriched with PBE showed the highest inhibitory effect on pathogenic intestinal bacterial growth, mainly E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis. The in vitro digestion process reduced the antibacterial effect of juices against most pathogenic bacteria in approximately 10%. However, the beneficial effect of fruit juices enriched with PBE (0.5 g/L) on gut microbiota is still considerable after digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Extraction and Chromatographic Determination of Shikimic Acid in Chinese Conifer Needles with 1-Benzyl-3-methylimidazolium Bromide Ionic Liquid Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fengli; Hou, Kexin; Li, Shuangyang; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    An ionic liquids-based ultrasound-assisted extraction (ILUAE) method was successfully developed for extracting shikimic acid from conifer needles. Eleven 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with different cations and anions were investigated and 1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide solution was selected as the solvent. The conditions for ILUAE, including the ionic liquid concentration, ultrasound power, ultrasound time, and liquid-solid ratio, were optimized. The proposed method had good recovery (99.37%–100.11%) and reproducibility (RSD, n = 6; 3.6%). ILUAE was an efficient, rapid, and simple sample preparation technique that showed high reproducibility. Based on the results, a number of plant species, namely, Picea koraiensis, Picea meyeri, Pinus elliottii, and Pinus banksiana, were identified as among the best resources of shikimic acid. PMID:24782942

  14. Influence of host resistance on the genetic structure of the white pine blister rust fungus in the western United States

    Treesearch

    B. A. Richardson; N. B. Klopfenstein; P. J. Zambino; G. I. McDonald; B. W. Geils; L. M. Carris

    2008-01-01

    Cronartium ribicola, the causal agent of white pine blister rust, has been devastating to five-needled white pines in North America since its introduction nearly a century ago. However, dynamic and complex interactions occur among C. ribicola, five-needled white pines, and the environment. To examine potential evolutionary...

  15. Inhibitory effects of Pycnogenol® (French maritime pine bark extract) on airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Shin, In-Sik; Shin, Na-Rae; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Hong, Ju-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Kim, Jong-Choon; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Hahn, Kyu-Woung; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2013-12-01

    Pycnogenol® (PYC) is a standardized extracts from the bark of the French maritime pine (Pinus maritime) and used as a herbal remedy for various diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PYC on airway inflammation using a model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and RAW264.7 cells. PYC decreased nitric oxide production and reduced the interleukine (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. PYC also reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and enhanced the expression of hemeoxygenase (HO)-1. In the in vivo experiment, PYC decreased the inflammatory cell count and the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and immunoglobulin (Ig) E in BALF or serum. These results are consistent with the histological analysis findings, which showed that PYC attenuated the airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion induced by OVA challenge. In addition, PYC enhanced the expression of HO-1. In contrast, PYC inhibited the elevated expression of iNOS and MMP-9 proteins induced by OVA challenge. In conclusion, PYC exhibits protective effects against OVA-induced asthma and LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that PYC has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic asthma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol(®)) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin.

    PubMed

    Furumura, Minao; Sato, Noriko; Kusaba, Nobutaka; Takagaki, Kinya; Nakayama, Juichiro

    2012-01-01

    French maritime pine bark extract (PBE) has gained popularity as a dietary supplement in the treatment of various diseases due to its polyphenol-rich ingredients. Oligometric proanthocyanidins (OPCs), a class of bioflavonoid complexes, are enriched in French maritime PBE and have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Previous studies have suggested that French maritime PBE helps reduce ultraviolet radiation damage to the skin and may protect human facial skin from symptoms of photoaging. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of French maritime PBE in the improvement of photodamaged facial skin, we conducted a randomized trial of oral supplementation with PBE. One hundred and twelve women with mild to moderate photoaging of the skin were randomized to either a 12-week open trial regimen of 100 mg PBE supplementation once daily or to a parallel-group trial regimen of 40 mg PBE supplementation once daily. A significant decrease in clinical grading of skin photoaging scores was observed in both time courses of 100 mg daily and 40 mg daily PBE supplementation regimens. A significant reduction in the pigmentation of age spots was also demonstrated utilizing skin color measurements. Clinically significant improvement in photodamaged skin could be achieved with PBE. Our findings confirm the efficacy and safety of PBE.

  17. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood. Part II. Hydrophilic compounds.

    PubMed

    Nuopponen, M; Willför, S; Jääskeläinen, A-S; Vuorinen, T

    2004-11-01

    Hydrophilic extracts of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) heartwood and sapwood and a solid Scots pine knotwood sample were studied by UV resonance Raman spectroscopy (UVRRS). In addition, UVRR spectra of two hydrophilic model compounds (pinosylvin and chrysin) were analysed. UV Raman spectra were collected using 244 and 257 nm excitation wavelengths. The chemical composition of the acetone:water (95:5 v/v) extracts were also determined by gas chromatography. The aromatic and oleophilic structures of pinosylvin and chrysin showed three intense resonance enhanced bands in the spectral region of 1649-1548 cm(-1). Pinosylvin showed also a relatively intense band in the aromatic substitution region at 996 cm(-1). The spectra of the heartwood acetone:water extract showed many bands typical of pinosylvin. In addition, the extract included bands distinctive for resin and fatty acids. The sapwood acetone:water extract showed bands due to oleophilic structures at 1655-1650 cm(-1). The extract probably also contained oligomeric lignans because the UVRR spectra were in parts similar to that of guaiacyl lignin. The characteristic band of pinosylvin (996 cm(-1)) was detected in the UVRR spectrum of the resin rich knotwood. In addition, several other bands typical for wood resin were observed, which indicated that the wood resin in the knotwood was resonance enhanced even more than lignin.

  18. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds in Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) wood . Part II. Hydrophilic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuopponen, M.; Willför, S.; Jääskeläinen, A.-S.; Vuorinen, T.

    2004-11-01

    Hydrophilic extracts of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) heartwood and sapwood and a solid Scots pine knotwood sample were studied by UV resonance Raman spectroscopy (UVRRS). In addition, UVRR spectra of two hydrophilic model compounds (pinosylvin and chrysin) were analysed. UV Raman spectra were collected using 244 and 257 nm excitation wavelengths. The chemical composition of the acetone:water (95:5 v/v) extracts were also determined by gas chromatography. The aromatic and oleophilic structures of pinosylvin and chrysin showed three intense resonance enhanced bands in the spectral region of 1649-1548 cm -1. Pinosylvin showed also a relatively intense band in the aromatic substitution region at 996 cm -1. The spectra of the heartwood acetone:water extract showed many bands typical of pinosylvin. In addition, the extract included bands distinctive for resin and fatty acids. The sapwood acetone:water extract showed bands due to oleophilic structures at 1655-1650 cm -1. The extract probably also contained oligomeric lignans because the UVRR spectra were in parts similar to that of guaiacyl lignin. The characteristic band of pinosylvin (996 cm -1) was detected in the UVRR spectrum of the resin rich knotwood. In addition, several other bands typical for wood resin were observed, which indicated that the wood resin in the knotwood was resonance enhanced even more than lignin.

  19. Laboratory Evaluations of Durability of Southern Pine Pressure Treated With Extractives From Durable Wood Species

    Treesearch

    Grant T. Kirker; Amy Blodgett; Patricia Lebow

    2015-01-01

    Extracts from sawdust of four naturally durable wood species [Alaskan yellow cedar, AYC, Cupressus nootkanansis D. Don 1824; eastern red cedar, ERC, Juniperus virginiana L.; honey mesquite, HM, Prosopis glandulosa Torr.; and black locust, BL, Robinia pseudoacacia L.] were used to treat...

  20. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on the functional and rheological properties of the protein fraction extracted from pine nuts.

    PubMed

    Cao, Baiying; Fang, Li; Liu, Chunlei; Min, Weihong; Liu, Jingsheng

    2018-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure treatments could increase the protein solubility (200 MPa), water holding capacity (400 MPa), and oil holding capacity (400 MPa) of pine nuts protein fractions, respectively. The exposed sufhydryl content for albumin was highest at 100 MPa while for other fractions it was 400 MPa, contrary for total sufhydryl content-generally it was at 100 MPa, except glutelin (400 MPa). Pine nuts protein fractions demonstrated the typical behavior of weak gels (G' > G″). After the treatments of high hydrostatic pressure the specific surface area of pine nuts protein particle was increased upon pressure, and the surface of protein became rough which increased the particle size. The functional groups of protein were found to be unchanged, but the characteristic peaks of pine nuts protein moved to a low-band displacement and the value of peaks was amplified accordingly to the pressure. The high hydrostatic pressure treatments were found to improve the functional properties of pine nuts protein isolates by enhancing the heat-induced gel strength of pine nuts protein isolates which make proteins more stretchable. These results suggest that high hydrostatic pressure treatments can increase the functional properties and alter the rheological properties of pine nuts protein fractions which will broaden its applications in food industry.

  1. Pine Oil Effects on Chemical and Thermal Injury in Mice and Cultured Mouse Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Clark, SP; Bollag, WB; Westlund, KN; Ma, F; Falls, G; Xie, D; Johnson, M; Isales, CM; Bhattacharyya, MH

    2013-01-01

    A commercial resin-based pine oil derived from Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii was the major focus of this investigation. Extracts of pine resins, needles and bark are folk medicines commonly used to treat skin ailments, including burns. The American Burn Association estimates that 500,000 people with burn injuries receive medical treatment each year; one-half of US burn victims are children, most with scald burns. This systematic study was initiated as follow-up to personal anecdotal evidence acquired over more than 10 years by MH Bhattacharyya regarding pine oil’s efficacy for treating burns. The results demonstrate that pine oil counteracted dermal inflammation in both a mouse ear model of contact irritant-induced dermal inflammation and a 2nd degree scald burn to the mouse paw. Furthermore, pine oil significantly counteracted the tactile allodynia and soft tissue injury caused by the scald burn. In mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuronal cultures, pine oil added to the medium blocked ATP-activated, but not capsaicin-activated, pain pathways, demonstrating specificity. These results together support the hypothesis that a pine-oil-based treatment can be developed to provide effective in-home care for 2nd degree burns. PMID:23595692

  2. Role of Phytotoxins in Pine Wilt Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Oku, Hachiro

    1988-01-01

    Characteristic rapid death of pines after infection by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus suggests the involvement of phytotoxins in the pine wilt disease syndrome. Crude extract from diseased pine is toxic to pine seedlings, whereas an extract from healthy pine is not. The response of seedlings to the crude toxin is more prominent in susceptible pine species than in resistant ones. Benzoic acid, catechol, dihydroconiferyl alcohol, 8-hydroxycarvotanacetone (carvone hydrate), and 10-hydroxyverbenone, which are toxic, low molecular weight metabolites, can be isolated from diseased pines. Other unidentified toxins are also found. The toxicity of some of these metabolites correlates positively to the susceptibility of pines to B. xylophilus. Some of these abnormal metabolites show synergistic toxicity when in combination. The D-isomer of 8-hydroxycarvotanacetone, dihydroconiferylalcohol, and 10-hydroxyverbenone inhibited the reproduction of B. xylophilus. Cellulase excreted by pinewood nematode also may be involved in rapid wilting. PMID:19290208

  3. Computer simulation of white pine blister rust epidemics

    Treesearch

    Geral I. McDonald; Raymond J. Hoff; William R. Wykoff

    1981-01-01

    A simulation of white pine blister rust is described in both word and mathematical models. The objective of this first generation simulation was to organize and analyze the available epidemiological knowledge to produce a foundation for integrated management of this destructive rust of 5-needle pines. Verification procedures and additional research needs are also...

  4. Inhibitory effects of pine nodule extract and its component, SJ-2, on acetylcholine-induced catecholamine secretion and synthesis in bovine adrenal medullary cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojia; Horishita, Takafumi; Toyohira, Yumiko; Shao, Hui; Bai, Jie; Bo, Haixia; Song, Xinbo; Ishikane, Shin; Yoshinaga, Yukari; Satoh, Noriaki; Tsutsui, Masato; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki

    2017-04-01

    Extract of pine nodules (matsufushi) formed by bark proliferation on the surface of trees of Pinus tabulaeformis or Pinus massoniana has been used as an analgesic for joint pain, rheumatism, neuralgia, dysmenorrhea and other complaints in Chinese traditional medicine. Here we report the effects of matsufushi extract and its components on catecholamine secretion and synthesis in cultured bovine adrenal medullary cells. We found that matsufushi extract (0.0003-0.005%) and its component, SJ-2 (5-hydroxy-3-methoxy-trans-stilbene) (0.3-100 μM), but not the other three, concentration-dependently inhibited catecholamine secretion induced by acetylcholine, a physiological secretagogue. Matsufushi extract (0.0003-0.005%) and SJ-2 (0.3-100 μM) also inhibited 45 Ca 2+ influx induced by acetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner, similar to its effect on catecholamine secretion. They also suppressed 14 C-catecholamine synthesis and tyrosine hydroxylase activity induced by acetylcholine. In Xenopus oocytes expressing α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, matsufushi extract (0.00003-0.001%) and SJ-2 (1-100 μM) directly inhibited the current evoked by acetylcholine. The present findings suggest that SJ-2, as well as matsufushi extract, inhibits acetylcholine-induced catecholamine secretion and synthesis by suppression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-ion channels in bovine adrenal medullary cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of ultrasound on solid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from maritime pine sawdust waste. Kinetics, optimization and large scale experiments.

    PubMed

    Meullemiestre, A; Petitcolas, E; Maache-Rezzoug, Z; Chemat, F; Rezzoug, S A

    2016-01-01

    Maritime pine sawdust, a by-product from industry of wood transformation, has been investigated as a potential source of polyphenols which were extracted by ultrasound-assisted maceration (UAM). UAM was optimized for enhancing extraction efficiency of polyphenols and reducing time-consuming. In a first time, a preliminary study was carried out to optimize the solid/liquid ratio (6g of dry material per mL) and the particle size (0.26 cm(2)) by conventional maceration (CVM). Under these conditions, the optimum conditions for polyphenols extraction by UAM, obtained by response surface methodology, were 0.67 W/cm(2) for the ultrasonic intensity (UI), 40°C for the processing temperature (T) and 43 min for the sonication time (t). UAM was compared with CVM, the results showed that the quantity of polyphenols was improved by 40% (342.4 and 233.5mg of catechin equivalent per 100g of dry basis, respectively for UAM and CVM). A multistage cross-current extraction procedure allowed evaluating the real impact of UAM on the solid-liquid extraction enhancement. The potential industrialization of this procedure was implemented through a transition from a lab sonicated reactor (3 L) to a large scale one with 30 L volume. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) wood . Part I: Lipophilic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuopponen, M.; Willför, S.; Jääskeläinen, A.-S.; Sundberg, A.; Vuorinen, T.

    2004-11-01

    The wood resin in Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) stemwood and branch wood were studied using UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. UVRR spectra of the sapwood and heartwood hexane extracts, solid wood samples and model compounds (six resin acids, three fatty acids, a fatty acid ester, sitosterol and sitosterol acetate) were collected using excitation wavelengths of 229, 244 and 257 nm. In addition, visible Raman spectra of the fatty and resin acids were recorded. Resin compositions of heartwood and sapwood hexane extracts were determined using gas chromatography. Raman signals of both conjugated and isolated double bonds of all the model compounds were resonance enhanced by UV excitation. The oleophilic structures showed strong bands in the region of 1660-1630 cm -1. Distinct structures were enhanced depending on the excitation wavelength. The UVRR spectra of the hexane extracts showed characteristic bands for resin and fatty acids. It was possible to identify certain resin acids from the spectra. UV Raman spectra collected from the solid wood samples containing wood resin showed a band at ˜1650 cm -1 due to unsaturated resin components. The Raman signals from extractives in the resin rich branch wood sample gave even more strongly enhanced signals than the aromatic lignin.

  7. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood. Part I: lipophilic compounds.

    PubMed

    Nuopponen, M; Willför, S; Jääskeläinen, A-S; Sundberg, A; Vuorinen, T

    2004-11-01

    The wood resin in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stemwood and branch wood were studied using UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. UVRR spectra of the sapwood and heartwood hexane extracts, solid wood samples and model compounds (six resin acids, three fatty acids, a fatty acid ester, sitosterol and sitosterol acetate) were collected using excitation wavelengths of 229, 244 and 257 nm. In addition, visible Raman spectra of the fatty and resin acids were recorded. Resin compositions of heartwood and sapwood hexane extracts were determined using gas chromatography. Raman signals of both conjugated and isolated double bonds of all the model compounds were resonance enhanced by UV excitation. The oleophilic structures showed strong bands in the region of 1660-1630 cm(-1). Distinct structures were enhanced depending on the excitation wavelength. The UVRR spectra of the hexane extracts showed characteristic bands for resin and fatty acids. It was possible to identify certain resin acids from the spectra. UV Raman spectra collected from the solid wood samples containing wood resin showed a band at approximately 1650 cm(-1) due to unsaturated resin components. The Raman signals from extractives in the resin rich branch wood sample gave even more strongly enhanced signals than the aromatic lignin.

  8. Pine nut use in the Early Holocene and beyond: The danger cave archaeobotanical record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    Nuts of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) from Early Holocene strata in Danger Cave, Utah, are distinguishable by seed-coat sculpturing from pine nuts of single-needled pinyon (Pinus monophylla), which occur in strata dating <7000 years BP. Owls and other taphonomic agents may deposit pine nuts in archaeological sites, but the morphology of the pine nuts in Danger Cave strongly indicate they were deposited by human foragers who brought small quantities with them for food for at least the last 7500 years. Large-scale transport of pine nuts to Danger Cave from distant hinterlands is unlikely, however. The seamless transition from limber pine to pinyon pine nuts in the Danger Cave record suggests that foragers who had utilized limber pine as a food resource easily switched to using pinyon pine nuts when pinyon pine migrated into the region at the close of the Early Holocene.

  9. PAH detection in Quercus robur leaves and Pinus pinaster needles: A fast method for biomonitoring purpose.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, F; Concha Graña, E; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J Á; López Mahía, P; Prada Rodríguez, D; Muniategui Lorenzo, S

    2016-06-01

    Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of plant matrices, new procedure should be standardized for each single biomonitor. Thus, here is described a matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction method, previously used for moss samples, improved and modified for the analyses of PAHs in Quercus robur leaves and Pinus pinaster needles, species widely used in biomonitoring studies across Europe. The improvements compared to the previous procedure are the use of Florisil added with further clean-up sorbents, 10% deactivated silica for pine needles and PSA for oak leaves, being these matrices rich in interfering compounds, as shown by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses acquired in full scan mode. Good trueness, with values in the range 90-120% for the most of compounds, high precision (intermediate precision between 2% and 12%) and good sensitivity using only 250mg of samples (limits of quantification lower than 3 and 1.5ngg(-1), respectively for pine and oak) were achieved by the selected procedures. These methods proved to be reliable for PAH analyses and, having advantage of fastness, can be used in biomonitoring studies of PAH air contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Needle reactions in resistance to Cronartium ribicola: Hypersensitivity response or not?

    Treesearch

    Katarina Sweeney; Jeffrey Stone; Kathy Cook; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Anna W. Schoettle

    2012-01-01

    White pine blister rust (WPBR) is caused by the fungal pathogen Cronartium ribicola. The pathogen is native to Eurasia and was introduced to North America early in the 20th century and is still spreading destructively throughout the range of native western white pines (Douglas ex D. Don) (McDonald and Hoff 2001). All of the North American five-needle (white) pines are...

  11. Symptomology of ozone injury to pine foliage

    Treesearch

    Kenneth Stolte

    1996-01-01

    Symptoms of ozone injury on western pines, ranging from effects on needles to effects on portions of ecosystems, can be differentiated from symptoms induced by other natural biotic and abiotic stressors occurring in the same area. Once identified in laboratory and field studies, quantification and monitoring of these symptoms can be used to provide reliable information...

  12. Foliage Sampling Guides for Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Carol G. Wells

    1969-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees were sampled to determine the effect of growth flush, crown position of pole trees, and winter temperature extremes upon the nutrient content of needles. Winter temperatures did not have an important influence upon elemental content. Because concentrations of several elements differed for Ihe first, second, and...

  13. Jack Pine

    Treesearch

    William Dent Sterrett

    1920-01-01

    Jack pine is a very frugal tree in its climatic and soil requirements. The northern limit of its natural range is within 14 degrees of the Arctic Circle and the southern is marked by the southern shores of Lake Michigan. No other North American pine grows naturally so far north and all the others grow farther south. It develops commercial stands and reproduces itself...

  14. Longleaf pine

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer; Donald W. Patterson

    1983-01-01

    Abstract:This report describes the longleaf pine forest type and the characteristics of both tree and forest that can affect management decisions.Longleaf pine is highly adaptable to a range of management goals and silvicultural systems.Management options and appropriate silvicultural methods for the regeneration and management of this species are...

  15. Comparative Transcriptomics Among Four White Pine Species.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ethan A G; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Sezen, Uzay U; Falk, Taylor; Maloney, Patricia E; Vogler, Detlev R; Delfino-Mix, Annette; Jensen, Camille; Mitton, Jeffry; Wright, Jessica; Knaus, Brian; Rai, Hardeep; Cronn, Richard; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A; Famula, Randi A; Liu, Jun-Jun; Kueppers, Lara M; Neale, David B

    2018-05-04

    Conifers are the dominant plant species throughout the high latitude boreal forests as well as some lower latitude temperate forests of North America, Europe, and Asia. As such, they play an integral economic and ecological role across much of the world. This study focused on the characterization of needle transcriptomes from four ecologically important and understudied North American white pines within the Pinus subgenus Strobus The populations of many Strobus species are challenged by native and introduced pathogens, native insects, and abiotic factors. RNA from the needles of western white pine ( Pinus monticola ), limber pine ( Pinus flexilis ), whitebark pine ( Pinus albicaulis) , and sugar pine ( Pinus lambertiana ) was sampled, Illumina short read sequenced, and de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts and their subsequent structural and functional annotations were processed through custom pipelines to contend with the challenges of non-model organism transcriptome validation. Orthologous gene family analysis of over 58,000 translated transcripts, implemented through Tribe-MCL, estimated the shared and unique gene space among the four species. This revealed 2025 conserved gene families, of which 408 were aligned to estimate levels of divergence and reveal patterns of selection. Specific candidate genes previously associated with drought tolerance and white pine blister rust resistance in conifers were investigated. Copyright © 2018 Baker et al.

  16. Comparative Transcriptomics Among Four White Pine Species

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Ethan A. G.; Wegrzyn, Jill L.; Sezen, Uzay U.; Falk, Taylor; Maloney, Patricia E.; Vogler, Detlev R.; Delfino-Mix, Annette; Jensen, Camille; Mitton, Jeffry; Wright, Jessica; Knaus, Brian; Rai, Hardeep; Cronn, Richard; Gonzalez-Ibeas, Daniel; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A.; Famula, Randi A.; Liu, Jun-Jun; Kueppers, Lara M.; Neale, David B.

    2018-01-01

    Conifers are the dominant plant species throughout the high latitude boreal forests as well as some lower latitude temperate forests of North America, Europe, and Asia. As such, they play an integral economic and ecological role across much of the world. This study focused on the characterization of needle transcriptomes from four ecologically important and understudied North American white pines within the Pinus subgenus Strobus. The populations of many Strobus species are challenged by native and introduced pathogens, native insects, and abiotic factors. RNA from the needles of western white pine (Pinus monticola), limber pine (Pinus flexilis), whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) was sampled, Illumina short read sequenced, and de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts and their subsequent structural and functional annotations were processed through custom pipelines to contend with the challenges of non-model organism transcriptome validation. Orthologous gene family analysis of over 58,000 translated transcripts, implemented through Tribe-MCL, estimated the shared and unique gene space among the four species. This revealed 2025 conserved gene families, of which 408 were aligned to estimate levels of divergence and reveal patterns of selection. Specific candidate genes previously associated with drought tolerance and white pine blister rust resistance in conifers were investigated. PMID:29559535

  17. Inhibitory Effect of a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract-Based Nutritional Supplement on TNF-α-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Kristine C. Y.; Li, Xiao-Hong; McRobb, Lucinda S.; Heather, Alison K.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to endothelial dysfunction, contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The popularity of natural product supplements has increased in recent years, especially those with purported anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effects. The efficacy and mechanism of many of these products are not yet well understood. In this study, we tested the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a supplement, HIPER Health Supplement (HIPER), on cytokine-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). HIPER is a mixture of French maritime pine bark extract (PBE), honey, aloe vera, and papaya extract. Treatment for 24 hours with HIPER reduced TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was associated with decreased NADPH oxidase 4 and increased superoxide dismutase-1 expression. HIPER inhibited TNF-α induced monocyte adhesion to HCAECs that was in keeping with decreased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and decreased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Further investigation of mechanism showed HIPER reduced TNF-α induced IκBα and p38 and MEK1/2 MAP kinases phosphorylation. Our findings show that HIPER has potent inhibitory effects on HCAECs inflammatory and oxidative stress responses that may protect against endothelial dysfunction that underlies early atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:26664450

  18. Direct assessment by electron spin resonance spectroscopy of the antioxidant effects of French maritime pine bark extract in the maxillofacial region of hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Ayaka; Yoshino, Fumihiko; Tsubata, Masahito; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Nakamura, Takeshi; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-il

    2011-01-01

    Flavangenol, one of extract of French maritime pine bark, is a complex mixture of bioflavonoids with oligometric proanthocyanidins as the major constituents. These constituents, catechin and procyanidin B1, are water-soluble derivatives of flavangenol. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant effects of flavangenol on reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and singlet oxygen using electron spin resonance and spin trapping. The effect of flavangenol on oxidative stress in the skin from the maxillofacial region of hairless mice was investigated using an in vivo L-band electron spin resonance imaging system. Flavangenol attenuated oxidative stress in the maxillofacial skin by acting as a reactive oxygen species scavenger, as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo electron spin resonance imaging analysis. The absorption and metabolism of flavangenol were also examined. After oral administration of flavangenol in human and rat, most of the catechin in plasma was in the conjugated form, while 45% to 78% of procyanidin B1 was unconjugated, indicating that non-conjugated procyanidin B1 would be active in the circulation. The ability of flavangenol to reduce reactive oxygen species levels in the circulation of the maxillofacial region suggests that this extract may be beneficial for skin protection from exposure to ultraviolet irradiation. PMID:21980222

  19. Do mountain pine beetle outbreaks change the probability of active crown fire in lodgepole pine forests?

    Treesearch

    W. Matt Jolly; Russell Parsons; J. Morgan Varner; Bret W. Butler; Kevin C. Ryan; Corey L. Gucker

    2012-01-01

    An expansive mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic is currently impacting North American forests (Raffa et al. 2008). As beetle-attacked trees die, lose their needles, and eventually fall to the ground, there are substantial changes in stand structure. These fuel changes likely affect both surface and crown fire behavior, but there is not yet a consensus among experts...

  20. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerdau, Manual; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, but that Delta-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Delta-carene.

  1. Cationized milled pine bark as an adsorbent for orthophosphate anions

    Treesearch

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; K.G. Karthikeyan; D. Wang

    2004-01-01

    More efficient adsorption media are needed for removing dissolved phosphorus in surface water runoff. We studied the use of cationized pine bark as a sorbent for dissolved phosphorus in water. Cationized pine bark was prepared by treating extracted milled pine bark with polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAA HCl) and epichlorohydrin (ECH) in aqueous medium. Attachment of...

  2. Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

    2011-12-01

    The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar.

  3. Improvement of Milk Fatty Acid Composition for Production of Functional Milk by Dietary Phytoncide Oil Extracted from Discarded Pine Nut Cones (Pinus koraiensis) in Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Jung, U Suk; Jeon, Seung Woo; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Won Seob; Lee, Sang Bum; Kim, Youn Chil; Kim, Bae Young; Wang, Tao; Lee, Hong Gu

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of adding phytoncide oil extracted from Korean pine nut cone byproduct to the diet of dairy cows on milk yield and compositions, fatty acid characteristics, complete blood count and stress response. A total of 74 Holstein cows were used for 30 days and divided into two groups. Each group was given a basal diet (C) or an experimental diet containing phytoncide additives at 0.016% (T) in feed. The results showed that phytoncide feeding had no effect on milk yield. In addition, there were no observed effects on milk composition, but the ratio of fatty acid in milk was significantly affected by the phytoncide diet, and it showed a positive effect. Not only were the major functional fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid increased, but also ω6:ω3 fatty acid ratio was reduced in milk of T group (p<0.05). In blood analysis, the complete blood count showed no significant difference between C and T group on all parameters. However, the cortisol concentration was significantly decreased in T group compared to control (p<0.05). Taken together, we suggest that phytoncide oil does not have a great influence on the physiological changes, but can be a potential feed additive that improves the milk fatty acid and stress resilience in dairy cows. In addition, it will contribute to the development of feed resource, a reduction in feed cost and a lessening of environmental pollution. PMID:27383800

  4. Effects of Direct-fed Microbial and Pine Cone Extract on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle)

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Song, Chang Soo; Rhee, Yong Joon; Song, Young Han; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    The carcass traits and meat quality of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) whose diets were supplemented with direct-fed microbial (DFM) and pine cone extract (PCE) were evaluated. Twenty head of Hanwoo steers were divided equally into four groups and for a period of 6 months were given different diets: One group was fed a basal diet as control (CON), the other three groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with DFM-1%, DFM+PCE-1% and DFM+PEC-3%, respectively. DFM+PCE3% diet resulted the lowest carcass quality grade. The loins of DFM-1% contained higher moisture and lower fat than did the loins from the CON group. The crude protein content of DFM+PCE-3% group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear force of the DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were lower than those of the CON and DFM-1% groups. The DFM-1% and 3% groups contained lower saturated fatty acid, higher unsaturated fatty acid, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, and poly-unsaturated fatty acid than did CON and DFM+PCE 1% group. Moreover, the n6:n3 ratios of DFM-1% and DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were slightly lower than that of the CON group. Thus we concluded that DFM and PCE supplementation resulted healthier Hanwoo beef with lower fat content and n6:n3 ratio. PMID:26954123

  5. Genetic mapping of Pinus flexilis major gene (Cr4) for resistance to white pine blister rust using transcriptome-based SNP genotyping

    Treesearch

    Jun-Jun Liu; Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Rona N. Sturrock; Arezoo Zamany; Holly Williams; Amanda Ha; Danelle Chan; Bob Danchok; Douglas P. Savin; Angelia Kegley

    2016-01-01

    Linkage of DNA markers with phenotypic traits provides essential information to dissect clustered genes with potential phenotypic contributions in a target genome region. Pinus flexilis E. James (limber pine) is a keystone five-needle pine species in mountain-top ecosystems of North America. White pine blister rust (WPBR), caused by a non-native fungal...

  6. Longleaf pine site response to repeated fertilization and forest floor removal by raking and prescribed burning

    Treesearch

    Kim Ludovici; Robert Eaton; Stanley Zarnoch

    2018-01-01

    Removal of forest floor litter by pine needle raking and prescribed burning is a common practice in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) stands on Coastal Plain sites in the Southeastern United States. Repeated removal of litter by raking and the loss of surface organic matter from controlled burns can affect the...

  7. Plant defenses and climate change: doom or destiny for the lodgepole pine?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lodgepole pine is a species of great importance to the forestry industry of British Columbia. However, recent climate-change associated outbreaks of insect pests (i.e. the mountain pine beetle) and diseases (Dothistroma needle blight) have limited productivity of stands throughout its northern range...

  8. Nitric Acid and Benomyl Stimulate Rapid Height Growth of Longleaf Pine

    Treesearch

    A.G. Kais; R.C. Hare; J.P. Barnett

    1984-01-01

    Rapid height growth of longleaf pine seedlings, important to production of uniform, even-aged stands, can be promoted by controlling brown-spot needle blight and weed competition, and by increasing soil fertility. Root systems of container-grown longleaf pine seedlings were dip-treated in either benomyl/clay mix (10 percent a.i. benomyl) or clay control and planted...

  9. Modeling the potential distribution of white pine blister rust in the central Rocky Mountains.

    Treesearch

    Holly S. J. Kearns; William R. Jacobi

    2006-01-01

    Cronartium ribicola (J. C. Fischer ex Rabh.), the causal agent of white pine blister rust (WPBR), was introduced to western North America via infected nursery stock imported from France to Point Grey near Vancouver, British Columbia (Mielke 1943). Primary infection of white pines occurs on the needles where fungal spores land, enter through stomata,...

  10. Response of direct seeded Pinus palustris and herbaceous vegetation to fertilization, burning, and pine straw harvesting

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood; Allan E. Tiarks; Michael L. Elliott-Smith; Henry A. Pearson

    1998-01-01

    Fallen pine straw (needles) is a renewable biological resource valued as a mulch in horticulture and for landscaping. However, its harvesting may have detrimental long-term effects on forest soils and vegetation. To compare current pine straw harvesting practices, a randomized complete block splitplot study was established during 1990 in a 34-year-old stand of direct-...

  11. Effect of vegetative competition on the moisture and nutrient status of loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    G.A. Carter; J.H. Miller; D.E. Davis; R.M. Patterson

    1984-01-01

    A field study examined the effects of competing vegetation on the moisture and nutrient status of 5-year-old loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.). Similar experiments were conducted on a Piedmont site and a Coastal Plain site using individual pines as experimental units. Predawn measurements of xylem pressure potential were made using detached needle...

  12. Translocation of 14-C in ponderosa pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1971-01-01

    The movement of 14-C from the old needles to the roots, and later to the new needles, was measured in 2-year-old ponderosa pine seedlings. The seedlings were in one of three growth stages at the time of the feeding of 14-CO-2: 9 days before spring bud break with no root activity; 7 days before spring bud break with high root activity; and 7 days after spring bud break...

  13. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest?

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L

    2013-09-01

    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine.

  14. Crown characteristics of juvenile loblolly pine 6 years after application of thinning and fertilization

    Treesearch

    Shufang Yu; Jim L. Chambers; Zhenmin Tang; James P. Barnett

    2003-01-01

    Total foliage dry mass and leaf area at the canopy hierarchical level of needle, shoot, branch and crown were measured in 48 trees harvested from a 14-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation, six growing seasons after thinning and fertilization treatments. In the unthinned treatment, upper crown needles were heavier and had more leaf area...

  15. The influence of fuelbed properties on moisture drying rates and timelags of longleaf pine litter

    Treesearch

    Ralph M. Nelson; J. Kevin Hiers

    2008-01-01

    Fire managers often model pine needles as 1 h timelag fuels, but fuelbed properties may significantly change the rate at which needles exchange moisture with the atmosphere. The problem of determining whether moisture loss from fine fuels is being controlled by individual particles or by the fuelbed remains unresolved. Results from this laboratory experiment indicate...

  16. Tall oil precursors in three western pines: ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pine

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.H.; Diehl, M.A.; Rowe, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The nonvolatile diethyl ether extracts (NVEE) from ponderosa, lodgepole, and limber pines were analyzed to determine the amounts and chemical composition of the tall oil precursors (resin acids, fatty acids, and nonsaponifiables) and turpentine precursors available from these species. The results showed that crude tall oil compositions would be approximately as follows (% resin acids, % fatty acids, % nonsaponifiables); ponderosa pine - sapwood (15, 75, 10), heartwood (78, 7, 15); lodgepole pine - sapwood (24, 57, 19), heartwood (51, 26, 23); limber pine - sapwood (10, 82, 8), heartwood (23, 60, 17). The larger nonsaponifiables content, as compared tomore » southern pines, is the major factor in explaining the greater difficulty in the distillative refining of tall oil from these western species. Eight resin acids were found in ponderosa and lodgepole pine: palustric, isopimaric, abietic, dehydroabietic, and neoabietic acids predominated. Seven resin acids were identified from limber pine: anticopalic, isopimaric, abietic, and dehydroabietic acids predominated. The free and esterfied fatty acids from these species contained predominantly oleic and linoleic acids. In addition limber pine contained major amounts of 5, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acid. The nonsaponifiables contained mostly diterpenes and the sterols, sitosterol and campesterol. The major turpentine components were: ponderosa pine - ..beta..-pinene and 3-carene; lodgepole pine - ..beta..-phellandrene; and limber pine - 3-carene, ..beta..-phellandrene, ..cap alpha..-piene, and ..beta..-pinene.« less

  17. Artificial recharge of groundwater through sprinkling infiltration: impacts on forest soil and the nutrient status and growth of Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Nöjd, Pekka; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Smolander, Aino; Derome, John; Lumme, Ilari; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko

    2009-05-01

    We studied the chemical changes in forest soil and the effects on Scots pine trees caused by continuous sprinkling infiltration over a period of two years, followed by a recovery period of two years. Infiltration increased the water input onto the forest soil by a factor of approximately 1000. After one year of infiltration, the pH of the organic layer had risen from about 4.0 to 6.7. The NH(4)-N concentration in the organic layer increased, most probably due to the NH(4) ions in the infiltration water, as the net N mineralization rate did not increase. Sprinkling infiltration initiated nitrification in the mineral soil. Macronutrient concentrations generally increased in the organic layer and mineral soil. An exception, however, was the concentration of extractable phosphorus, which decreased strongly during the infiltration period and did not show a recovery within two years. The NO(3)-N and K concentrations had reverted back to their initial level during the two-year recovery period, while the concentrations of Ca, Mg and NH(4)-N were still elevated. Nutrient concentrations in the pine needles increased on the infiltrated plots. However, the needle P concentration increased, despite the decrease in plant-available P in the soil. Despite the increase in the nutrient status, there were some visible signs of chlorosis in the current-year needles after two years of infiltration. The radial growth of the pines more than doubled on the infiltrated plots, which suggests that the very large increase in the water input onto the forest floor had no adverse effect on the functioning of the trees. However, a monitoring period of four years is not sufficient for detecting potential long term detrimental effects on forest trees.

  18. European Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    William E. Miller; Arthur R. Hastings; John F. Wootten

    1961-01-01

    In the United States, the European pine shoot moth has caused much damage in young, plantations of red pine. It has been responsible for reduced planting of red pine in many areas. Although attacked trees rarely if ever die, their growth is inhibited and many are, deformed. Scotch pine and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) are usually not so badly damaged. Swiss...

  19. Pinyon Needle Scale (FIDL)

    Treesearch

    William F. McCambridge

    1994-01-01

    The pinyon needle scale (Matsucoccus acalyptus Herbert) is a native sap-sucking insect found in the Southwest. Feeding by scales weakens trees by killing needles older than 1 year. Sometimes small trees are killed by repeated feeding and large trees weakened to such an extent that they fall victims to attack by the bark beetle Ips confusus (LeConte). Scale infestations...

  20. Volume growth of pine and hardwood in uneven-aged loblolly pine-upland hardwood mixtures

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Farrar; Paul A. Murphy; Daniel J. Leduc

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from an exploratory investigation of stand-level periodic volume growth of uneven-aged mixed loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)-upland hardwood stands on good sites in southeastern Arkansas. A restricted set of replicated observations was extracted from an extensive CFI database involving varying pine-hardwood mixtures to form an array of plots with...

  1. Needle phobia during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Searing, Kimberly; Baukus, Mary; Stark, Mary Ann; Morin, Karen H; Rudell, Barb

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the experience of a pregnant woman with needle phobia and examine its impact on her antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum experience. A case study format was employed. A 21-year-old primiparous woman with diagnosed needle phobia was interviewed, and her prenatal and delivery records were reviewed. Three tasks during pregnancy were identified: seeking trusting relationships with health care providers; establishing and maintaining control and understanding; and coping with fear of needles, pain, and invasion. As frequent caregivers during childbearing, nurses with an understanding of needle phobia can help to establish trusting relationships with women with this phobia and support them and their families during childbearing and their encounters with needles. (c) 2006, AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses

  2. Controlled release fertilizer improves quality of container longleaf pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Jeff Parkhurst; James P. Barnett

    2005-01-01

    In an operational trial, increasing the amount of nitrogen (N) applied to container longleaf pine seedlings by incorporating controlled release fertilizer (CRF) into the media improved seedling growth and quality. Compared with control seedlings that received 40 mg N, seedlings receiving 66 mg N through CRF supplemented with liquid fertilizer had needles that were 4 in...

  3. Fuel and weather influence wildfires in sand pine forests

    Treesearch

    W. A. Hough

    1973-01-01

    A complex combination of fuel and weather factors accounts for the dangerous fires that often develop during the spring in sand pine forests of Florida. Moisture content of live needles is lowest in March, and resin and energy contents reach their yearly highs during the 4-month period from February through May. These fuel properties become critical, however, only when...

  4. Image-based tracking of the suturing needle during laparoscopic interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, S.; Kroehnert, A.; Bodenstedt, S.; Kenngott, H.; Müller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.

    2015-03-01

    One of the most complex and difficult tasks for surgeons during minimally invasive interventions is suturing. A prerequisite to assist the suturing process is the tracking of the needle. The endoscopic images provide a rich source of information which can be used for needle tracking. In this paper, we present an image-based method for markerless needle tracking. The method uses a color-based and geometry-based segmentation to detect the needle. Once an initial needle detection is obtained, a region of interest enclosing the extracted needle contour is passed on to a reduced segmentation. It is evaluated with in vivo images from da Vinci interventions.

  5. Effect of water stress and fungal inoculation on monoterpene emission from an historical and a new pine host of the mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Lusebrink, Inka; Evenden, Maya L; Blanchet, F Guillaume; Cooke, Janice E K; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2011-09-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) has killed millions of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees in Western Canada, and recent range expansion has resulted in attack of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in Alberta. Establishment of MPB in the Boreal forest will require use of jack pine under a suite of environmental conditions different from those it typically encounters in its native range. Lodgepole and jack pine seedlings were grown under controlled environment conditions and subjected to either water deficit or well watered conditions and inoculated with Grosmannia clavigera, a MPB fungal associate. Soil water content, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored over the duration of the six-week study. Monoterpene content of bark and needle tissue was measured at the end of the experiment. β-Phellandrene, the major monoterpene in lodgepole pine, was almost completely lacking in the volatile emission profile of jack pine. The major compound in jack pine was α-pinene. The emission of both compounds was positively correlated with stomatal conductance. 3-Carene was emitted at a high concentration from jack pine seedlings, which is in contrast to monoterpene profiles of jack pine from more southern and eastern parts of its range. Fungal inoculation caused a significant increase in total monoterpene emission in water deficit lodgepole pine seedlings right after its application. By 4 weeks into the experiment, water deficit seedlings of both species released significantly lower levels of total monoterpenes than well watered seedlings. Needle tissue contained lower total monoterpene content than bark. Generally, monoterpene tissue content increased over time independent from any treatment. The results suggest that monoterpenes that play a role in pine-MPB interactions differ between lodgepole and jack pine, and also that they are affected by water availability.

  6. Suitability of Southern Pines, Other Selected Crops, and Nutsedge to a Longidorus sp. Associated with Stunting of Loblolly Pine Seedlings

    Treesearch

    S.W. Fraedrich; M.M. Cram; Z.A. Handoo

    2003-01-01

    An undescribed needle nematode (Longidorus sp.) has been associated with severely stunted loblolly pine seedlings at a south Georgia nursery. Containers with selected crop and weed species were infested with 100 or 200 adults and juveniles of the Longidorus individuals to evaluate host suitability. Nematode populations increased in...

  7. Chapter 15 - Composition and structure of whitebark and limber pine stands in the Interior West and the silvicultural implications (Project INT-EM-B-14-01)

    Treesearch

    James N. Long; John Shaw; Marcella Windmuller-Campione

    2018-01-01

    As forest communities continue to experience interactions between climate change and shifting disturbance regimes, there is anincreased need to link ecological understanding to applied management. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and limber pine (P. flexilis) are important high-elevation five-needle pines in the...

  8. Cutting performance orthogonal test of single plane puncture biopsy needle based on puncture force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingqiang; Zhang, Qinhe; Liu, Guowei

    2017-04-01

    Needle biopsy is a method to extract the cells from the patient's body with a needle for tissue pathological examination. Many factors affect the cutting process of soft tissue, including the geometry of the biopsy needle, the mechanical properties of the soft tissue, the parameters of the puncture process and the interaction between them. This paper conducted orthogonal experiment of main cutting parameters based on single plane puncture biopsy needle, and obtained the cutting force curve of single plane puncture biopsy needle by studying the influence of the inclination angle, diameter and velocity of the single plane puncture biopsy needle on the puncture force of the biopsy needle. Stage analysis of the cutting process of biopsy needle puncture was made to determine the main influencing factors of puncture force during the cutting process, which provides a certain theoretical support for the design of new type of puncture biopsy needle and the operation of puncture biopsy.

  9. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Ribes inerme in north-central Utah

    Treesearch

    D. R. Vogler; B. W. Geils; K. Coats

    2017-01-01

    Cronartium ribicola Fisch. has not been found infecting any of the five-needle white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) in Utah, despite being established on both white pine and Ribes hosts in the other 10 western states, defined as those west of the 102° meridian.

  10. Loblolly pine grown under elevated CO2 affects early instar pine sawfly performance.

    PubMed

    Williams, R S; Lincoln, D E; Thomas, R B

    1994-06-01

    Seedlings of loblolly pine Pinus taeda (L.), were grown in open-topped field chambers under three CO 2 regimes: ambient, 150 μl l -1 CO 2 above ambient, and 300 μl l -1 CO 2 above ambient. A fourth, non-chambered ambient treatment was included to assess chamber effects. Needles were used in 96 h feeding trials to determine the performance of young, second instar larvae of loblolly pine's principal leaf herbivore, red-headed pine sawfly, Neodiprion lecontei (Fitch). The relative consumption rate of larvae significantly increased on plants grown under elevated CO 2 , and needles grown in the highest CO 2 regime were consumed 21% more rapidly than needles grown in ambient CO 2 . Both the significant decline in leaf nitrogen content and the substantial increase in leaf starch content contributed to a significant increase in the starch:nitrogen ratio in plants grown in elevated CO 2 . Insect consumption rate was negatively related to leaf nitrogen content and positively related to the starch:nitrogen ratio. Of the four volatile leaf monoterpenes measured, only β-pinene exhibited a significant CO 2 effect and declined in plants grown in elevated CO 2 . Although consumption changed, the relative growth rates of larvae were not different among CO 2 treatments. Despite lower nitrogen consumption rates by larvae feeding on the plants grown in elevated CO 2 , nitrogen accumulation rates were the same for all treatments due to a significant increase in nitrogen utilization efficiency. The ability of this insect to respond at an early, potentially susceptible larval stage to poorer food quality and declining levels of a leaf monoterpene suggest that changes in needle quality within pines in future elevated-CO 2 atmospheres may not especially affect young insects and that tree-feeding sawflies may respond in a manner similar to herb-feeding lepidopterans.

  11. Seeding and planting pines

    Treesearch

    Ralph E. Willard; L. Max Schmollinger

    1989-01-01

    Pines that occur naturally in parts of the region, as well as those that do not, have been introduced throughout. Pines usually produce greater volumes of wood faster than hardwoods, but in many parts of the region there is no market for pine stumpage or logs. Aside from wood production, pines are established for Christmas trees, windbreaks, landscaping, erosion...

  12. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  13. Southern Pine Beetle Competitors

    Treesearch

    Fred M. Stephen

    2011-01-01

    When southern pine beetles mass attack a living pine tree, if colonization is successful the tree dies and its phloem becomes immediately available to a complex of other bark beetles and long-horned beetles, all of which, in order to reproduce, compete for the new resource. In southern pines the phloem-inhabiting guild is composed of the southern pine beetle...

  14. Forest-site relationships within an outbreak of lodgepole needle miner in central Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Richard R. Mason; Timothy C. Tigner

    1972-01-01

    The distribution of an outbreak population of lodgepole needle miner, Coleotechnites near milleri (Busck), in central Oregon was studied in relation to forest stand and site characteristics. The outbreak occurred primarily in topographic basins where lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Douglas, grows in pure...

  15. Green foliage losses from ponderosa pines induced by Abert squirrels and snowstorms: A comparison. [Sciurus aberti; Pinus pondersosa

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, W.S.; Gaud, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Abert squirrels (Sciurus aberti) are obligate herbivores on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). The inner bark of pine shoots is considered one of the predominant food resources obtained by foraging squirrels. As squirrels forage for this resource they induce green needle losses from chosen feed trees. Amounts of induced green needle losses appear to vary according to the availability of alternative foods and squirrel population densities. Weather also induces green needle losses to ponderosa pines. Results of this study indicate that, at least in some years, heavy snowstorms can induce greater amounts of green needle losses than squirrels. Squirrel herbivory wasmore » not indicated as a factor in any tree mortality. However, losses due to snowstorms are more severe since they may cause the actual depletion of trees in the forest because of the tree mortality they inflict.« less

  16. Limber Pine Dwarf Mistletoe (FIDL)

    Treesearch

    Jane E. Taylor; Robert L. Mathiason

    1999-01-01

    Limber pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum (A. Nelson ex Rydberg) Coulter & Nelson) is a damaging parasite of limber pine (Pinus flexilis James), whitebark pine (P. albicaulis Engelm.), Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (P. aristata Engelm.) and Great Basin bristlecone pine (P. longaeva D.K. Bailey). Limber pine dwarf mistletoe occurs in the Rocky...

  17. MDCA Needle 1 Replacement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    ISS035-E-025557(22 April 2013) ---Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) Hardware Replacement: Cassidy accessed the Combustion Integration Rack (CIR) Combustion Chamber and removed the MDCA Chamber Insert Assembly (CIA). He then replaced the MDCA Needle 1 due to a fuel line that was damaged during previous activities when the MDCA CIA was being removed from the Combustion Chamber.

  18. Premature Needle Loss of Spruce

    Treesearch

    Jennifer Juzwik; Joseph G. O Brien

    1990-01-01

    Premature needle loss on white, black and Norway spruce has been observed in forest plantations in Wisconsin and Minnesota during the past six years. Symptoms vary by species but usually appear first in 2-4-year old needles on lower branches. Infected needles are dropped, resulting in branch mortality that progresses upward through the crown, sometimes killing even...

  19. Biochemical Assay Detects Feeding Damage to Loblolly Pine Seeds Caused by the Leaffooted Pine Seed Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    Treesearch

    Cameron G. Lait; Daniel R. Miller; Sarah L. Bates; John H. Borden; Allison R. Kermode

    2003-01-01

    A large number of proteins in salivary gland extracts of the leaffooted pine seed bug, Leptoglossus corculus Say, were strongly recognized by a polyclonal antibody-based assay developed for detecting saliva of the western conifer seed bug, Lepfoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, in lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var...

  20. Diterpenoid fingerprints in pine foliage across an environmental and chemotypic matrix: Isoabienol content is a key trait differentiating chemotypes.

    PubMed

    Kännaste, Astrid; Laanisto, Lauri; Pazouki, Leila; Copolovici, Lucian; Suhorutšenko, Marina; Azeem, Muhammad; Toom, Lauri; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Niinemets, Ülo

    2018-03-01

    Diterpenoids constitute an important part of oleoresin in conifer needles, but the environmental and genetic controls on diterpenoid composition are poorly known. We studied the presence of diterpenoids in four pine populations spanning an extensive range of nitrogen (N) availability. In most samples, isoabienol was the main diterpenoid. Additionally, low contents of (Z)-biformene, abietadiene isomers, manoyl oxide isomers, labda-7,13,14-triene and labda-7,14-dien-13-ol were quantified in pine needles. According to the occurrence and content of diterpenoids it was possible to distinguish 'non diterpenoid pines', 'high isoabienol pines', 'manoyl oxide - isoabienol pines' and 'other diterpenoid pines'. 'Non diterpenoid pines', 'high isoabienol pines' and 'other diterpenoid pines' were characteristic to the dry forest, yet the majority of pines (>80%) of the bog Laeva represented 'high isoabienol pines'. 'Manoyl oxide - isoabienol pines' were present only in the wet sites. Additionally, orthogonal partial least-squares analysis showed, that in the bogs foliar nitrogen content per dry mass (N M ) correlated to diterpenoids. Significant correlations existed between abietadienes, isoabienol and foliar N M in 'manoyl oxide - isoabienol pines', and chemotypic variation was also associated by population genetic distance estimated by nuclear microsatellite markers. Previously, the presence of low and high Δ-3-carene pines has been demonstrated, but the results of the current study indicate that also diterpenoids form an independent axis of chemotypic differentiation. Further studies are needed to understand whether the enhanced abundance of diterpenoids in wetter sites reflects a phenotypic or genotypic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. EMISSION OF 2-METHYL-3-BUTEN-2-OL BY PINES: A POTENTIALLY LARGE NATURAL SOURCE OF REACTIVE CARBON TO THE ATMOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    High rates of emission of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) were measured from needles of several pine species. Emissions of MBO in the light were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than emissions of monoterpenes and, in contrast to monoterpene emissions from pines, were absent in the d...

  2. Prescribed Burn at Pine Bluff Arsenal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    length (ft) backfire flame length (ft) hf rate of spread (ch/hr) bf rate of spread (ch/hr) Minimum behavior headfire flame length (ft) backfire... flame length (ft) hf rate of spread (ch/hr) bf rate of spread (ch/hr) 8. FUEL AND WEATHER PRESCRIPTION Source of weather: National Weather Service...and left the site. No spots occurred. Backfire flame lengths were 0.2-3 feet through pine needles and grass. Flanking fire flame lengths were 2-4

  3. Jeffrey Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Smith

    1971-01-01

    The Jeffrey pine beetle (Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopk.), one of the bark beetles that kill trees by mining between the bark and the wood, is the principal insect enemy of Jeffrey pine. The beetle is of economic importance chiefly in California, where most of the Jeffrey pine grows, and is most destructive in old-growth stands in the timber-producing areas of northeastern...

  4. Southwestern Pine Tip Moth

    Treesearch

    Daniel T. Jennings; Robert E. Stevens

    1982-01-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar), injures young ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) in the Southwest, central Rockies, and midwestern plains. Larvae feed on and destroy new, expanding shoots, often seriously reducing terminal growth of both naturally regenerated and planted pines. The tip moth is especially damaging to trees on...

  5. Pine Tortoise Scale

    Treesearch

    Harvey J. MacAloney

    1961-01-01

    The pine tortoise scale (Toumeyella numismaticum (P. & M.)) is a soft scale that periodically causes a noticeable amount of mortality of hard pines. Although it was not described until 1920, when it was found on Scotch pine, in northern Wisconsin, there is evidence that it had caused injury much earlier in a number of localities in this and other States. Scale...

  6. Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Thatcher; Patrick J. Barry

    1982-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) is one of pine's most destructive insect enemies in the Southern United States, Mexico, and Central America. Because populations build rapidly to outbreak proportions and large numbers of trees are killed, this insect generates considerable concern among managers of southern pine forests. The beetle...

  7. White Pine Weevil

    Treesearch

    Abdul Hamid; Thomas M. O' Dell; Steven Katovich

    1995-01-01

    The white pine weevil - Pissodes strobi (Peck) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) - is a native insect attacking eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.). The latest cytogenetic and breeding studies indicate that two other North American pine weevil species - the Sitka spruce weevil and the Engelmann spruce weevil-also should be classified as Pissodes strobi. The present...

  8. Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe

    Treesearch

    Frank G. Hawksworth; Oscar J. Dooling

    1984-01-01

    Lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm.) is a native, parasitic, seed plant that occurs essentially throughout the range of lodgepole pine in North America. It is the most damaging disease agent in lodgepole pine, causing severe growth loss and increased tree mortality. Surveys in the Rocky Mountains show that the parasite is found in...

  9. Ecology of shortleaf pine

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin

    1986-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) occupies the broadest natural range of all the southern pines, and is found across a diverse range of geography, soils, topography, and habitats. Individual shortleaf trees achieve their best developmnet on deep, well-drained soils of the Upper Coastal Plain, but shortleaf pine communities are most prominent in the Ouachita...

  10. Ponderosa pine ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2005-01-01

    Ponderosa pine is a wide-ranging conifer occurring throughout the United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. Since the 1800s, ponderosa pine forests have fueled the economies of the West. In western North America, ponderosa pine grows predominantly in the moist and dry forests. In the Black Hills of South Dakota and the southern portion of its range, the...

  11. Eastern Pine Shoot Borer

    Treesearch

    Louis F. Wilson

    1978-01-01

    The eastern pineshoot borer Eucosma gloriola Heinrich 2, also known as the white pine tip moth, American pine shoot moth, white pine shoot borer, and Tordeuse americaine, du pin, injures young conifers in Northeastern North America. Because it infests the new shoots of sapling conifers, this insect is particularly destructive on planted trees destined for the Christmas...

  12. Physiology-phenology interactions in a productive semi-arid pine forest.

    PubMed

    Maseyk, Kadmiel S; Lin, Tongbao; Rotenberg, Eyal; Grünzweig, José M; Schwartz, Amnon; Yakir, Dan

    2008-01-01

    This study explored possible advantages conferred by the phase shift between leaf phenology and photosynthesis seasonality in a semi-arid Pinus halepensis forest system, not seen in temperate sites. Leaf-scale measurements of gas exchange, nitrogen and phenology were used on daily, seasonal and annual time-scales. Peak photosynthesis was in late winter, when high soil moisture, mild temperatures and low leaf vapour pressure deficit (D(L)) allowed high rates associated with high water- and nitrogen-use efficiencies. Self-sustained new needle growth through the dry and hot summer maximized photosynthesis in the following wet season, without straining carbon storage. Low rates of water loss were associated with increasing sensitivity of stomatal conductance (g(s)) to soil moisture below a relative extractable water (REW) of 0.4, and decreased g(s )sensitivity to D(L) below REW of approx. 0.2. This response was captured by the modified Ball-Berry (Leuning) model. While most physiological parameters and responses measured were typical of temperate pines, the photosynthesis-phenological phasing contributed to high productivity under warm-dry conditions. This contrasts with reported effects of short-term periodical droughts and could lead to different predictions of the effect of warming and drying climate on pine forest productivity.

  13. The O-methyltransferase PMT2 mediates methylation of pinosylvin in Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Paasela, Tanja; Lim, Kean-Jin; Pietiäinen, Milla; Teeri, Teemu H

    2017-06-01

    Heartwood extractives are important determinants of the natural durability of pine heartwood. The most important phenolic compounds affecting durability are the stilbenes pinosylvin and its monomethylether, which in addition have important functions as phytoalexins in active defense. A substantial portion of the synthesized pinosylvin is 3-methoxylated but the O-methyltransferase responsible for this modification has not been correctly identified. We studied the expression of the stilbene pathway during heartwood development as well as in response to wounding of xylem and UV-C treatment of needles. We isolated and enzymatically characterized a novel O-methyltransferase, PMT2. The methylated product was verified as pinosylvin monomethylether using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography analyses. The PMT2 enzyme was highly specific for stilbenes as substrate, in contrast to caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) and PMT1 that were multifunctional. Expression profile and multifunctional activity of CCoAOMT suggest that it might have additional roles outside lignin biosynthesis. PMT1 is not involved in the stilbene pathway and its biological function remains an open question. We isolated a new specific O-methyltransferase responsible for 3-methoxylation of pinosylvin. Expression of PMT2 closely follows stilbene biosynthesis during developmental and stress induction. We propose that PMT2 is responsible for pinosylvin methylation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), instead of the previously characterized methyltransferase, PMT1. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Evaluation of the Effects of Pinus koraiensis Needle Extracts on Serum Lipid and Oxidative Stress in Adults with Borderline Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyerang; Choue, Ryowon

    2016-01-01

    Background. Dyslipidemia has been well-known as a common metabolic disorder contributing to cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Pinus koraiensis needle extracts (PKE) on the blood cholesterol and oxidative stress. Method. We conducted a 12-week randomized, double-blinded controlled trial to examine the effect of PKE on blood lipid profiles in adults with borderline dyslipidemia. Thirty-three eligible persons were recruited and randomly assigned into PKE (n = 20) and placebo groups (n = 13). Serum lipids including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein- (HDL-) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein- (VLDL-) cholesterol, and triglyceride were measured before and after trial. Serum insulin, glucose, and antioxidant indicators were also analyzed before and after trial and anthropometry and blood pressure were measured every 4 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, PKE statically significant decreases in systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) and waist circumference (p < 0.05) were observed. Also, VLDL-cholesterol significantly decreased (from 24.4 ± 10.0 mg/dL at baseline to 18.4 ± 4.1 mg/dL after 12 weeks) (p < 0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased (6.12 ± 0.41 U/mL to 9.06 ± 0.62 U/mL) (p < 0.01) in PKE group. However, after adjustment with WC, VLDL-cholesterol was not significant between groups (p = 0.095) and while SOD remained significant between groups (p = 0.013). Conclusion. The results show that PKE was effective in improving the superoxide dismutase in the individuals with borderline dyslipidemia. PMID:27610187

  15. Robot-Assisted Needle Steering

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Kyle B.; Majewicz, Ann; Kallem, Vinutha; Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Ken; Cowan, Noah J.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    Needle insertion is a critical aspect of many medical treatments, diagnostic methods, and scientific studies, and is considered to be one of the simplest and most minimally invasive medical procedures. Robot-assisted needle steering has the potential to improve the effectiveness of existing medical procedures and enable new ones by allowing increased accuracy through more dexterous control of the needle tip path and acquisition of targets not accessible by straight-line trajectories. In this article, we describe a robot-assisted needle steering system that uses three integrated controllers: a motion planner concerned with guiding the needle around obstacles to a target in a desired plane, a planar controller that maintains the needle in the desired plane, and a torsion compensator that controls the needle tip orientation about the axis of the needle shaft. Experimental results from steering an asymmetric-tip needle in artificial tissue demonstrate the effectiveness of the system and its sensitivity to various environmental and control parameters. In addition, we show an example of needle steering in ex vivo biological tissue to accomplish a clinically relevant task, and highlight challenges of practical needle steering implementation. PMID:23028210

  16. Application of a thiourea-containing task-specific ionic liquid for the solid-phase extraction cleanup of lead ions from red lipstick, pine leaves, and water samples.

    PubMed

    Saljooqi, Asma; Shamspur, Tayebeh; Mohamadi, Maryam; Mostafavi, Ali

    2014-07-01

    Here, task-specific ionic liquid solid-phase extraction is proposed for the first time. In this approach, a thiourea-functionalized ionic liquid is immobilized on the solid sorbent, multiwalled carbon nanotubes. These modified nanotubes packed into a solid-phase extraction column are used for the selective extraction and preconcentration of ultra-trace amounts of lead(II) from aqueous samples prior to electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy determination. The thiourea functional groups act as chelating agents for lead ions retaining them and so, give the selectivity to the sorbent. Elution of the retained ions can be performed using an acidic thiourea solution. The effects of experimental parameters including pH of the aqueous solution, type and amount of eluent, and the flow rates of sample and eluent solutions on the separation efficiency are investigated. The linear dependence of absorbance of lead on its concentration in the initial solution is in the range of 0.5-40.0 ng/mL with the detection limit of 0.13 ng/mL (3(Sb)/m, n = 10). The proposed method is applicable to the analysis of red lipstick, pine leaves, and water samples for their lead contents. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Composition and Chemical Variability of the Needle Oil from Pinus halepensis growing in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Nam, Anne-Marie; Tomi, Félix; Gibernau, Marc; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2016-02-25

    The composition of oil samples isolated from needles of Pinus halepensis growing in three locations in Corsica (Saleccia, Capo di Feno and Tre Padule) has been investigated by combination of chromatographic (GC with retention indices) and spectroscopic (MS, 13 C-NMR) techniques. In total, 35 compounds that accounted for 77-100% of the whole composition have been identified. α-Pinene, myrcene and (E)-β-caryophyllene were the major component followed by α-humulene and 2-phenylethyl isovalerate. Various diterpenes have been identified as minor components. Forty seven oil samples isolated from pine needles have been analyzed and were differentiated in two groups. Oil samples of the first group (15 samples) contained myrcene (M= 28.1g/100g; SD = 10.6) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 19.0g/100g; SD = 2.2) as major components and diterpenes were absent. All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Saleccia. Oil samples of the second group (32 samples) contained mostly (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 28.7g/100g; SD = 7.9), α-pinene (M = 12.3g/100g; SD = 3.6) and myrcene (M = 11.7g/100g; SD = 7.3). All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Capo di Feno and Tre Padule. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Composition and Chemical Variability of the Needle Oil from Pinus halepensis growing in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Nam, Anne-Marie; Tomi, Félix; Gibernau, Marc; Casanova, Joseph; Bighelli, Ange

    2016-04-01

    The composition of oil samples isolated from needles of Pinus halepensis growing in three locations in Corsica (Saleccia, Capo di Feno, and Tre Padule) has been investigated by combination of chromatographic (GC with retention indices) and spectroscopic (MS and (13)C-NMR) techniques. In total, 35 compounds that accounted for 77 - 100% of the whole composition have been identified. α-Pinene, myrcene, and (E)-β-caryophyllene were the major component followed by α-humulene and 2-phenylethyl isovalerate. Various diterpenes have been identified as minor components. 47 Oil samples isolated from pine needles have been analyzed and were differentiated in two groups. Oil samples of the first group (15 samples) contained myrcene (M = 28.1 g/100 g; SD = 10.6) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 19.0 g/100 g; SD = 2.2) as major components and diterpenes were absent. All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Saleccia. Oil samples of the second group (32 samples) contained mostly (E)-β-caryophyllene (M = 28.7 g/100 g; SD = 7.9), α-pinene (M = 12.3 g/100 g; SD = 3.6), and myrcene (M = 11.7 g/100 g; SD = 7.3). All these oil samples were isolated from pine needles harvested in Capo di Feno and Tre Padule. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  19. Cone Storage and Seed Quality in Longleaf Pine

    Treesearch

    F.T. Bonner

    1987-01-01

    Immature cones of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) can be stored for at least 5 weeks without adversely affecting extraction or seed quality. Cone moisture should be below 50 percent before using heat to open cones.

  20. Aboveground Biomass of Choctawhatchee Sand Pine in Northwest Florida

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Taras

    1980-01-01

    Choctawhatchee sand pine trees 4 to 14 inches d.b.h. were selected from a natural, uneven-aged stand in northwest Florida to determine the weight and volume of above ground biomass. On the average, 85 percent of the green weight of the total tree was wood, 11 percent bark. and 4 percent needles. The average tree sampled had 82 percent of its wood in the stem and 18...

  1. Physical and chemical properties of slash pine tree parts

    Treesearch

    Elaine T. Howard

    1972-01-01

    In three 22-year-old slash pines from an unthinned plantation in central Louisiana, stemwood comprised 58.5 percent of total ovendry tree weight. Stumps and main roots made up 16.5 percent, bark 12.5, top of bole 5.0 , needles 4.0 and branches 3.5. This material now is largely wasten when a tree is harvested; methods of utilizing it would extend fiber supplies by 70...

  2. Physical and chemical properties of slash pine tree parts

    Treesearch

    E. T. Howard

    1973-01-01

    In three 22-year-old slash pines from an unthinned plantation in central Louisiana, stemwood comprised 58.5 percent of total ovendry tree weight. Stumps and main roots made up 16.5 percent, bark 12.5, top of bole 5.0, needles 4.0, and branches 3.5. This material now is largely wasted when a tree is harvested; methods of utilizing it would extend fiber supplies by 70...

  3. Effect of irrigation on needle morphology, shoot and stem growth in a drought-exposed Pinus sylvestris forest.

    PubMed

    Dobbertin, Matthias; Eilmann, Britta; Bleuler, Peter; Giuggiola, Arnaud; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Landolt, Werner; Schleppi, Patrick; Rigling, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    In Valais, Switzerland, Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) are declining, mainly following drought. To assess the impact of drought on tree growth and survival, an irrigation experiment was initiated in 2003 in a mature pine forest, approximately doubling the annual precipitation. Tree crown transparency (lack of foliage) and leaf area index (LAI) were annually assessed. Seven irrigated and six control trees were felled in 2006, and needles, stem discs and branches were taken for growth analysis. Irrigation in 2004 and 2005, both with below-average precipitation, increased needle size, area and mass, stem growth and, with a 1-year delay, shoot length. This led to a relative decrease in tree crown transparency (-14%) and to an increase in stand LAI (+20%). Irrigation increased needle length by 70%, shoot length by 100% and ring width by 120%, regardless of crown transparency. Crown transparency correlated positively with mean needle size, shoot length and ring width and negatively with specific leaf area. Trees with high crown transparency (low growth, short needles) experienced similar increases in needle mass and growth with irrigation than trees with low transparency (high growth, long needles), indicating that seemingly declining trees were able to 'recover' when water supply became sufficient. A simple drought index before and during the irrigation explained most of the variation found in the parameters for both irrigated and control trees.

  4. Composition of essential oils isolated from the needles of Pinus uncinata and P. uliginosa grown in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bonikowski, Radosław; Celiński, Konrad; Wojnicka-Półtorak, Aleksandra; Maliński, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    The compositions of mountain pine (Pinus uncinata) and peat-bog pine (P. uliginosa) needle essential oils were investigated. Enantiomeric compositions of selected monoterpene hydrocarbons were also examined. Respectively, fifty-three and seventy-six components of the essential oils were identified using GC-MS and retention indexes. The main group of essential oil components of mountain pine needles were monoterpenes, and bornyl acetate constituted approximately 30% (46.3 g/100 g) of the oil. In peat-bog pine essential oil, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes exhibited a similar content (ca. 40%). Bornyl acetate and α-pinene were the main constituents of both essential oils. In the essential oil of P. uncinata needles, limonene, camphene, myrcene and (E)-β-caryophyllene were also noticeable, while in the essential oil of P. uliginosa needles, Δ-car-3-ene, (E)-β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, δ-cadinene, germacrene D 4-ol and α-cadinol were present in notable quantities. In both essential oils, borneol propionate, isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate and isovalerate were detected. Their presence was confirmed by synthesis and analysis of the standards; retention indexes on a non-polar column are published herein.

  5. A method for the solvent extraction of low-boiling-point plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ning; Gruber, Margaret; Westcott, Neil; Soroka, Julie; Parkin, Isobel; Hegedus, Dwayne

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the extraction of volatiles from plant materials and tested on seedling tissue and mature leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana, pine needles and commercial mixtures of plant volatiles. Volatiles were extracted with n-pentane and then subjected to quick distillation at a moderate temperature. Under these conditions, compounds such as pigments, waxes and non-volatile compounds remained undistilled, while short-chain volatile compounds were distilled into a receiving flask using a high-efficiency condenser. Removal of the n-pentane and concentration of the volatiles in the receiving flask was carried out using a Vigreux column condenser prior to GC-MS. The method is ideal for the rapid extraction of low-boiling-point volatiles from small amounts of plant material, such as is required when conducting metabolic profiling or defining biological properties of volatile components from large numbers of mutant lines.

  6. Needle bar for warp knitting machines

    DOEpatents

    Hagel, Adolf; Thumling, Manfred

    1979-01-01

    Needle bar for warp knitting machines with a number of needles individually set into slits of the bar and having shafts cranked to such an extent that the head section of each needle is in alignment with the shaft section accommodated by the slit. Slackening of the needles will thus not influence the needle spacing.

  7. Modeling of SAR returns from a red pine stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R. H.; Kilic, O.; Chauhan, N. S.; Ranson, J.

    1992-01-01

    Bright P-band radar returns from red pine forests have been observed on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images in Bangor, Maine. A plot of red pine trees was selected for the characterization and modeling to understand the cause of the high P-band returns. The red pine stand under study consisted of mature trees. Diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements were made to determine stand density as a function of tree diameter. Soil moisture and bulk density measurements were taken along with ground rough surface profiles. Detailed biomass measurements of the needles, shoots, branches, and trunks were also taken. These site statistics have been used in a distorted Born approximation model of the forest. Computations indicate that the direct-reflected or the double-bounce contributions from the ground are responsible for the high observed P-band returns for HH polarization.

  8. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  9. Evaluation of white-rot fungal growth on southern yellow pine wood chips pretreated with blue-stain fungi

    Treesearch

    Suki C. Croan

    2000-01-01

    White-rotting basidiomycetes do not colonize on southern yellow pine. This study seeks to reduce the resinous extractive content of southern yellow pine by treating it with blue stain fungi. The mycelial growth of wood-inhabiting ligninolytic white-rot fungi can be achieved on pretreated southern yellow pine wood. Aureobasidium, Ceratocystis, and Ophiostoma spp....

  10. Combination of different methods to assess the fate of lignin in decomposing needle and leave litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotzbücher, Thimo; Filley, Timothy; Kaiser, Klaus; Kalbitz, Karsten

    2010-05-01

    Lignin is a major component of plant litter. However, its fate during litter decay is still poorly understood. One reason is the difficult analysis. Commonly used methods utilize different methodological approaches and focus on different aspects, e.g., content of lignin and/or of lignin-derived phenols and the degree of oxidation. The comparability and feasibility of the methods has not been tested so far. Our aims were: (1) to compare different methods with respect to track lignin degradation during plant litter decay and (2) to evaluate possible advantages of combining the different results. We assessed lignin degradation in decaying litter by 13C-TMAH thermochemolysis and CuO oxidation (each combined with GC/MS) and by determination of acid-detergent lignin (ADL) combined with near infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, water-extractable organic matter produced during litter decay was examined for indicators of lignin-derived compounds by UV absorbance at 280 nm, fluorescence spectroscopy, and 13C-TMAH GC/MS. The study included litter samples from 5 different tree species (acer, ash, beech, pine, spruce), exposed in litterbags to degradation in a spruce stand for 27 months. First results suggested stronger lignin degradation in coniferous than in deciduous litter. This was indicated by complementary results from various methods: Conifer litter showed a more pronounced decrease in ADL content and a stronger increase in oxidation degree of side chains (Ac/Al ratios of CuO oxidation and 13C-TMAH products). Furthermore water extracted organic matter from needles showed a higher aromaticity and molecule complexity. Thus properties of water extractable organic matter seemed to reflect the extents of lignin degradation in solid litter samples. Contents of lignin-derived phenols determined with the CuO method (VSC content) hardly changed during decay of needles and leaves. These results thus not matched the trends found with the ADL method. Our results suggested that water

  11. Effects of photochemical oxidant injury of ponderosa and Jeffrey pines on susceptibility of sapwood and freshly cut stumps to Fomes annosus. [Pinus ponderosa; Pinus jeffreyi; Fomes annosus; Trichoderma spp. ; Polyporus versicolor; Poria Monticola

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.L.; Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wilcox, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Ponderosa and Jeffrey pine sapwood samples and freshly cut stumps from trees with different amounts of oxidant injury were inoculated with Fomes annosus. With stumps, percentage of surface cross-section area infected and extent of vertical colonization were determined 1 mo and 6-10 mo after inoculation, respectively. Increase in surface area infection with increased oxidant injury, expressed as upper-crown needle retention, was statistically significant for ponderosa pine (P=0.01), but was not for Jeffrey pine. Also, the rate of vertical colonization was greater in stumps from severely oxidant-injured trees than in those from slightly injured trees. The relationship between injury and colonizationmore » was significant for Jeffrey pine (P = 0.05) and for ponderosa pine at one site (P = 0.03), but nonsignificant (P = 0.18) for ponderosa pine at a second site. Increased susceptibility of stumps to F. annosus appeared to be associated with decreased colonization by other fungi (especially Trichoderma spp. and blue stain fungi). Laboratory tests indicated that decay susceptibility of excised sapwood to F. annosus apparently was not affected by oxidant injury with Jeffrey pine, but weight loss of ponderosa pine sapwood was correlated with decreased injury (greater needle retention). On the other hand, weight losses of Jeffrey pine caused by Polyporus versicolor and of ponderosa pine caused by Poria monticola were correlated with increased injury (increased needle chlorosis). 27 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.« less

  12. Valuing the forest for the trees: Willingness to pay for white pine blister rust management

    Treesearch

    James R. Meldrum; Patricia A. Champ; Craig A. Bond

    2011-01-01

    The nearly two million acres of high elevation forests in the Western United States are not an important source of timber or any other market products. However, that does not mean that the forests are not highly valuable. Visitors and nonvisitors alike value the unique five-needle pine trees found in these high elevation ecosystems. In this study, we estimate the...

  13. Seasonal Changes in Carbohydrates and Ascorbic Acid and White Pine and Possible Relation to Tipburn Sensitivity

    Treesearch

    Robert L Barnes; Charles R. Berry

    1969-01-01

    Changes in amounts of total soluble carbohydrates and ascorbic acid were related to needle length of eastern white pine during June and July 1967 at Bent Creek Experimental Forest. Sugar values remained low through the early growing season, and several instances of injury to clones sensitive to tipburn occurred as late as mid-July. Sugar levels fluctuated somewhat,...

  14. Expected genetic gains and development plans for two longlead pine third-generation seedling seed orchards

    Treesearch

    C.D. Nelson; L.H. Lott; D.P. Gwaze

    2005-01-01

    Selection and thinning plans were developed for two longleaf pine (Pinus palushis Mill .), third-generation seedling seed orchards located in southeastern Mississippi and central Louisiana. The two orchards were part of several long-term experimental field tests designed to investigate genetic variation in height growth and brown spot needle blight (...

  15. Reapplication of Silvicultural Treatments Impacts Phenology and Photosynthetic Gas Exchange of Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Zhenmin Tang; Jim L. Chambers; Mary A. Sword; Shufang Yu; James P. Barnett

    2004-01-01

    A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation, established in 1981, was thinned and fertilized in 1988. Thinning and fertilization treatments were applied again in early 1995. The morphology of current flushes and needles were measured between March and October in 1995 through 1997. Physiological responses were monitored in the upper and lower crowns....

  16. Seasonal photosynthesis and water relations of juvenile loblolly pine relative to stand density and canopy position

    Treesearch

    Zhenmin Tang; Jim L. Chambers; Mary A. Sword Sayer; James P. Barnett

    2003-01-01

    To assess the effects of stand density and canopy environment on tree physiology, we measured gas exchange responses of the same needle age class of 16-year-old loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) in thinned (512 trees ha-1) and non-thinned treatment plots (2,863 trees ha-1) in central Louisiana....

  17. Seasonal branch and fine root growth of juvenile loblolly pine five growing seasons after fertilization

    Treesearch

    M.A. Sword; D.A. Gravatt; P.L. Faulkner; J.L. Chambers

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, we established two replications of two fertilization treatments in a 10-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation. Between March and September 1993, branch internode and needle fascicle expansion in the upper and lower third of crowns were measured weekly on three south-facing branches of each of four trees, and new root...

  18. Brown-spot resistance in natural stands of longleaf pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1972-01-01

    An average of 10 percent of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings in several natural populations remained nearly free of brown-spot needle blight (Scirrhia acicola (Dearn.) Siggers) year after year, despite high injection levels in the population as a whole. In one study, these individuals averaged 8 feet taller at age 24 than surviving trees that were less...

  19. Mature ponderosa pine nutrient use and allocation responses to air pollution

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Poth; Mark E. Fenn

    1998-01-01

    Current-year needles from mature ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws.) were sampled at four sites across the air pollution gradient in the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California. The sites, in order of decreasing air pollution exposure, included: Sky Forest (SF), Conference Center (CC), Camp Angelus (CA) and Heart Bar (HB)....

  20. Characterization of Optimum Physiological Responses of Field-Grown Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Zhenmin Tang; Jim L. Chambers; James P. Barnett

    1999-01-01

    Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), air temperature (Ta), needle net photosynthesis (Pn), vapor pressure difference (VPD), stomata1 conductance (gw), transpiration (E), and predawn and daytime xylem pressure potentials (XPP) were measured in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation in 1995 and 1996. Boundary-line analyses were conducted...

  1. Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Bolsunovsky, A; Dementyev, D

    2014-12-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011-2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg(-1)(131)I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg(-1)(134)Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg(-1)(137)Cs. An important finding was the detection of (134)Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2-2.6), suggesting the presence of "older", pre-Fukushima accident (137)Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two-three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident (137)Cs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of long-term chronic exposure and weather conditions on Scots pine populations.

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, Stanislav; Vasiliyev, Denis; Makarenko, Ekaterina; Volkova, Polina; Kuzmenkov, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    Over a period of 8 years (2007-2014), we were evaluating seed quality and morphological abnormalities in Scots pine trees affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The calculated dose rates for the trees at the study sites varied from background values at the reference sites to 40 mGy/year at the most contaminated site. We investigated whether radioactive contamination and/or weather factors could decrease the reproductive capacity or increase the frequency of morphological abnormalities of needles in pine trees. Scots pine seeds are characterized by high interannual variability of viability, which is largely determined by weather conditions. No consistent differences in reproductive capacity were detected between the impacted and reference populations. Brachyblasts with three needles were found only in the affected populations; however, their frequency was very low and only at the very border of significance at the p < 0.10 level.

  3. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  4. Needle and syringe sharing among Iranian drug injectors

    PubMed Central

    Rafiey, Hassan; Narenjiha, Hooman; Shirinbayan, Peymaneh; Noori, Roya; Javadipour, Morteza; Roshanpajouh, Mohsen; Samiei, Mercedeh; Assari, Shervin

    2009-01-01

    Objective The role of needle and syringe sharing behavior of injection drug users (IDUs) in spreading of blood-borne infections – specially HIV/AIDS – is well known. However, very little is known in this regard from Iran. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and associates of needle and syringe sharing among Iranian IDUs. Methods In a secondary analysis of a sample of drug dependents who were sampled from medical centers, prisons and streets of the capitals of 29 provinces in the Iran in 2007, 2091 male IDUs entered. Socio-demographic data, drug use data and high risk behaviors entered to a logistic regression to determine independent predictors of lifetime needle and syringe sharing. Results 749(35.8%) reported lifetime experience of needle and syringe sharing. The likelihood of lifetime needle and syringe sharing was increased by female gender, being jobless, having illegal income, drug use by family members, pleasure/enjoyment as causes of first injection, first injection in roofless and roofed public places, usual injection at groin, usual injection at scrotum, lifetime experience of nonfatal overdose, and history of arrest in past year and was decreased by being alone at most injections. Conclusion However this data has been extracted from cross-sectional design and we can not conclude causation, some of the introduced variables with association with needle and syringe sharing may be used in HIV prevention programs which target reducing syringe sharing among IDUs. PMID:19643014

  5. Needle breakage during an inferior alveolar nerve block in a child with KBG syndrome: A case report.

    PubMed

    Bagattoni, S; D'Alessandro, G; Marzo, G; Piana, G

    2018-04-01

    Needle breakage during the administration of dental analgesia is an extremely rare event. A case of needle breakage during the administration of an inferior alveolar nerve block occurred in a child with KBG syndrome. During the injection, a sudden movement of the child caused the breakage of the needle. The next day, the retrieval of the needle was performed surgically under general analgesia. Three months after the surgery the healing was good. Two years later the child underwent a dental extraction with the aid of nitrous oxide/oxygen analgesia/anxiolysis. Needle fracture is a possible event during the administration of dental analgesia in children.

  6. Red Pine Shoot Moth

    Treesearch

    John Hainze; David Hall

    The red pine shoot moth recently caused significant damage to red pine plantations in Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. Trees of all ages have been attacked, but the most severe damage has occurred in 20-40 year old plantations growing on sandy soils.

  7. Squirrel Damage to Pines

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    1981-01-01

    Flagging (dead branch tips) on jack pine and red pine may be caused by insects, diseases, or mechanical damage. In the Lake States, flagging is often the result of mechanical damage, sometimes girdling, caused when the cones are torn off by red squirrels.

  8. Western Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Clarence J. Jr. DeMars; Bruce H. Roettgering

    1982-01-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, can aggressively attack and kill ponderosa and Coulter pine trees of all ages and vigor classes that are 6 inches (15 cm) or larger in diameter, including apparently healthy trees. Group killing of trees is common in dense, overstocked stands of pure, even-aged, young sawtimber (fig. 1), but also occurs among...

  9. Whitebark pine planting guidelines

    Treesearch

    Ward McCaughey; Glenda L. Scott; Kay L. Izlar

    2009-01-01

    This article incorporates new information into previous whitebark pine guidelines for planting prescriptions. Earlier 2006 guidelines were developed based on review of general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard US Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations. A recent study of biotic and abiotic factors...

  10. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth

    Treesearch

    Harry O. III Yates; Nell A. Overgaard; Thomas W. Koerber

    1981-01-01

    The Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock),4 is a major forest insect pest in the United States. Its range extends from Massachusetts to Florida and west to Texas. It was found in San Diego County, California, in 1971 and traced to infested pine seedlings shipped from Georgia in 1967. The moth has since spread north and east in California and is now...

  11. Longleaf pine seedling production

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett

    2000-01-01

    Longleaf pine is a highly desirable species, resisting fire, insects and pathogens, and produces quality solid-wood products, but regeneration of the species has been difficult. Natural regeneration is feasible only on a small portion of the area considered to be longleaf pine type. Therefore, artificial regeneration must become a reliable means of regenerating the...

  12. Common Pine Shoot Beetle

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack; Daniel Kucera; Steven Passoa

    1993-01-01

    The common (or larger) pine shoot beetle, Tomicus (=Blastophagus) piniperda (L.), was discovered near Cleveland, Ohio in July 1992. As of this writing, it is now in six states: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. Adults of the common pine shoot beetle are cylindrical and range from 3 to 5 mm in length (about the size of a match head). Their...

  13. Diplodia Blight of Pines

    Treesearch

    Glenn W. Peterson

    1981-01-01

    The fungus Diplodia pinea (Desm.) Kickx is most damaging to plantings of both exotic and native pine species in the United States. The fungus is seldom found in natural pine stands. Diplodia pinea kills current-year shoots, major branches, and ultimately entire trees. The effects of this disease are most severe in landscape, windbreak, and park plantings in the Central...

  14. Finding a (pine) needle in a haystack: chloroplast genome sequence divergence in rare and widespread pines

    Treesearch

    J.B. Whittall; J. Syring; M. Parks; J. Buenrostro; C. Dick; A. Liston; R. Cronn

    2010-01-01

    Critical to conservation efforts and other investigations at low taxonomic levels, DNA sequence data offer important insights into the distinctiveness, biogeographic partitioning, and evolutionary histories of species. The resolving power of DNA sequences is often limited by insufficient variability at the intraspecific level. This is particularly true of studies...

  15. Silvical characteristics of Jeffrey pine

    Treesearch

    William E. Hallin

    1957-01-01

    The most noteworthy feature of Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf. ) is its similarity in appearance and behavior to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.), a much more widespread and better known species. At one time Jeffrey pine was considered to be a variety of ponderosa pine, and lumber markets make no...

  16. Pinus glabra Walt. Spruce Pine

    Treesearch

    Susan V. Kossuth; J.L. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Spruce pine (Pinus glabra), also called cedar pine, Walter pine, or bottom white pine, is a medium-sized tree that grows in limited numbers in swamps, river valleys, on hummocks, and along river banks of the southern Coastal Plain. Its wood is brittle, close-grained, nondurable, and is of limited commercial importance.

  17. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Treesearch

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  18. Segmentation of prostate biopsy needles in transrectal ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krefting, Dagmar; Haupt, Barbara; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Kempkensteffen, Carsten; Miller, Kurt

    2007-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Tissue extraction at different locations (biopsy) is the gold-standard for diagnosis of prostate cancer. These biopsies are commonly guided by transrectal ultrasound imaging (TRUS). Exact location of the extracted tissue within the gland is desired for more specific diagnosis and provides better therapy planning. While the orientation and the position of the needle within clinical TRUS image are limited, the appearing length and visibility of the needle varies strongly. Marker lines are present and tissue inhomogeneities and deflection artefacts may appear. Simple intensity, gradient oder edge-detecting based segmentation methods fail. Therefore a multivariate statistical classificator is implemented. The independent feature model is built by supervised learning using a set of manually segmented needles. The feature space is spanned by common binary object features as size and eccentricity as well as imaging-system dependent features like distance and orientation relative to the marker line. The object extraction is done by multi-step binarization of the region of interest. The ROI is automatically determined at the beginning of the segmentation and marker lines are removed from the images. The segmentation itself is realized by scale-invariant classification using maximum likelihood estimation and Mahalanobis distance as discriminator. The technique presented here could be successfully applied in 94% of 1835 TRUS images from 30 tissue extractions. It provides a robust method for biopsy needle localization in clinical prostate biopsy TRUS images.

  19. Fate of tannins in Corsican pine litter.

    PubMed

    Nierop, Klaas G J; Verstraten, Jacobus M

    2006-12-01

    Tannins are ubiquitous in higher plants and also in litter and soils where they affect many biogeochemical processes. Despite this well-recognized role, their fate in litter and mineral soils is hardly known, as often only trace amounts, if any, are measured. In this study, we conducted an incubation experiment with Corsican pine litter to which known amounts of tannic acid (TA) or condensed tannins (CTs) from Corsican pine were added. Using Folin-Ciocalteu as a measure for total phenolics and HCl-butanol as an assay specific for CTs, acetone/water extractable phenolics and tannins decreased with time towards very low levels. Application of thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation to litter before and after acetone/water extraction revealed that TA concentration decreased. By contrast, CTs remained to a great extent in the litter and could not be extracted suggesting that they were tightly bound.

  20. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to pierce the skin in the practice of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle. The...

  1. Fungal mycelium and decomposition of needle litter in three contrasting coniferous forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virzo De Santo, Amalia; Rutigliano, Flora Angela; Berg, Björn; Fioretto, Antonietta; Puppi, Gigliola; Alfani, Anna

    2002-08-01

    The fungal mycelium ingrowth and the rates of mass loss and respiration of needle litter of Pinus pinea, Pinus laricio, Pinus sylvestris, and Abies alba were investigated, in three coniferous forests, over a 3-year period by means of a composite set of incubations. In the early stages, the fungal flora of the decomposing needles was dominated by dematiaceous hyphomycetes and coelomycetes. Basidiomycetes reached a peak after 6 months on pine needles, but were absent from the N-rich needles of A. alba. Soil fungi ( Penicillium, Trichoderma, Absidia, Mucor sp. pl.) became most frequent in later stages. At the end of the study period, the total mycelium amount showed the lowest values in all pine needles incubated in the P. laricio forest and the highest ones in P. pinea needles incubated in the P. pinea forest. In all data sets, as in data for boreal forests examined for comparison, the concentration of litter fungal mycelium versus litter mass loss followed a common exponential model. However, in later stages, the amount of litter fungal mycelium was very close to that of the humus at the incubation site, thus supporting the hypothesis of a logistic growth pattern. Respiration rates of decomposing litters varied with season and decreased with litter age to values close to those of the humus at the incubation site. Respiration of water-saturated litter was negatively correlated with the total mycelium concentration, and this was consistent with the observation that in far-decomposed litter only a minor fraction of the total mycelium is alive.

  2. EuroPineDB: a high-coverage web database for maritime pine transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pinus pinaster is an economically and ecologically important species that is becoming a woody gymnosperm model. Its enormous genome size makes whole-genome sequencing approaches are hard to apply. Therefore, the expressed portion of the genome has to be characterised and the results and annotations have to be stored in dedicated databases. Description EuroPineDB is the largest sequence collection available for a single pine species, Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), since it comprises 951 641 raw sequence reads obtained from non-normalised cDNA libraries and high-throughput sequencing from adult (xylem, phloem, roots, stem, needles, cones, strobili) and embryonic (germinated embryos, buds, callus) maritime pine tissues. Using open-source tools, sequences were optimally pre-processed, assembled, and extensively annotated (GO, EC and KEGG terms, descriptions, SNPs, SSRs, ORFs and InterPro codes). As a result, a 10.5× P. pinaster genome was covered and assembled in 55 322 UniGenes. A total of 32 919 (59.5%) of P. pinaster UniGenes were annotated with at least one description, revealing at least 18 466 different genes. The complete database, which is designed to be scalable, maintainable, and expandable, is freely available at: http://www.scbi.uma.es/pindb/. It can be retrieved by gene libraries, pine species, annotations, UniGenes and microarrays (i.e., the sequences are distributed in two-colour microarrays; this is the only conifer database that provides this information) and will be periodically updated. Small assemblies can be viewed using a dedicated visualisation tool that connects them with SNPs. Any sequence or annotation set shown on-screen can be downloaded. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and gene annotations are provided. Conclusions The EuroPineDB with its integrated information can be used to reveal new knowledge, offers an easy-to-use collection of information to directly support experimental work (including microarray hybridisation), and

  3. Benchmarking of state-of-the-art needle detection algorithms in 3D ultrasound data volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourtaherian, Arash; Zinger, Svitlana; de With, Peter H. N.; Korsten, Hendrikus H. M.; Mihajlovic, Nenad

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle interventions are widely practiced in medical diagnostics and therapy, i.e. for biopsy guidance, regional anesthesia or for brachytherapy. Needle guidance using 2D ultrasound can be very challenging due to the poor needle visibility and the limited field of view. Since 3D ultrasound transducers are becoming more widely used, needle guidance can be improved and simplified with appropriate computer-aided analyses. In this paper, we compare two state-of-the-art 3D needle detection techniques: a technique based on line filtering from literature and a system employing Gabor transformation. Both algorithms utilize supervised classification to pre-select candidate needle voxels in the volume and then fit a model of the needle on the selected voxels. The major differences between the two approaches are in extracting the feature vectors for classification and selecting the criterion for fitting. We evaluate the performance of the two techniques using manually-annotated ground truth in several ex-vivo situations of different complexities, containing three different needle types with various insertion angles. This extensive evaluation provides better understanding on the limitations and advantages of each technique under different acquisition conditions, which is leading to the development of improved techniques for more reliable and accurate localization. Benchmarking results that the Gabor features are better capable of distinguishing the needle voxels in all datasets. Moreover, it is shown that the complete processing chain of the Gabor-based method outperforms the line filtering in accuracy and stability of the detection results.

  4. Drought stress alters the concentration of wood terpenoids in Scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings.

    PubMed

    Turtola, Satu; Manninen, Anne-Marja; Rikala, Risto; Kainulainen, Pirjo

    2003-09-01

    Drought is known to have an impact on the resistance of conifers to various pests, for example, by affecting resin flow in trees. Little is known, however, about the quantitative and qualitative changes in resin when trees are growing in low moisture conditions. We exposed Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings to medium and severe drought stress for two growing seasons and analyzed the monoterpenes and resin acids in the main stem wood after two years of treatment. In addition to secondary chemistry, we measured the level of nutrients in the needles and the growth response of seedlings. After the first year of treatment, drought stress did not affect the growth of seedlings, but in the second year, shoot growth was retarded, especially in Scots pine. In both conifer species, severe drought increased the concentrations of several individual monoterpenes and resin acids. Total monoterpenes and resin acids were 39 and 32% higher in severe drought-treated Scots pine seedlings than in the controls, and 35 and 45% higher in Norway spruce seedlings. In Scots pine needles, the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus increased, while magnesium and calcium decreased compared to controls. In Norway spruce needles, nutrient concentrations were not affected. The results suggest that drought stress substantially affects both the growth of conifers and the chemical quality of the wood. We discuss the potential trade-off in growth and defense of small conifer seedlings.

  5. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View Larger Image ... revealed the crack to be propagating through the shelf ice at a rate averaging 15 meters per day, accompanied by a slight rotation of ...

  6. Single Crystal Diamond Needle as Point Electron Source.

    PubMed

    Kleshch, Victor I; Purcell, Stephen T; Obraztsov, Alexander N

    2016-10-12

    Diamond has been considered to be one of the most attractive materials for cold-cathode applications during past two decades. However, its real application is hampered by the necessity to provide appropriate amount and transport of electrons to emitter surface which is usually achieved by using nanometer size or highly defective crystallites having much lower physical characteristics than the ideal diamond. Here, for the first time the use of single crystal diamond emitter with high aspect ratio as a point electron source is reported. Single crystal diamond needles were obtained by selective oxidation of polycrystalline diamond films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Field emission currents and total electron energy distributions were measured for individual diamond needles as functions of extraction voltage and temperature. The needles demonstrate current saturation phenomenon and sensitivity of emission to temperature. The analysis of the voltage drops measured via electron energy analyzer shows that the conduction is provided by the surface of the diamond needles and is governed by Poole-Frenkel transport mechanism with characteristic trap energy of 0.2-0.3 eV. The temperature-sensitive FE characteristics of the diamond needles are of great interest for production of the point electron beam sources and sensors for vacuum electronics.

  7. Single Crystal Diamond Needle as Point Electron Source

    PubMed Central

    Kleshch, Victor I.; Purcell, Stephen T.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond has been considered to be one of the most attractive materials for cold-cathode applications during past two decades. However, its real application is hampered by the necessity to provide appropriate amount and transport of electrons to emitter surface which is usually achieved by using nanometer size or highly defective crystallites having much lower physical characteristics than the ideal diamond. Here, for the first time the use of single crystal diamond emitter with high aspect ratio as a point electron source is reported. Single crystal diamond needles were obtained by selective oxidation of polycrystalline diamond films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Field emission currents and total electron energy distributions were measured for individual diamond needles as functions of extraction voltage and temperature. The needles demonstrate current saturation phenomenon and sensitivity of emission to temperature. The analysis of the voltage drops measured via electron energy analyzer shows that the conduction is provided by the surface of the diamond needles and is governed by Poole-Frenkel transport mechanism with characteristic trap energy of 0.2–0.3 eV. The temperature-sensitive FE characteristics of the diamond needles are of great interest for production of the point electron beam sources and sensors for vacuum electronics. PMID:27731379

  8. Single Crystal Diamond Needle as Point Electron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleshch, Victor I.; Purcell, Stephen T.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2016-10-01

    Diamond has been considered to be one of the most attractive materials for cold-cathode applications during past two decades. However, its real application is hampered by the necessity to provide appropriate amount and transport of electrons to emitter surface which is usually achieved by using nanometer size or highly defective crystallites having much lower physical characteristics than the ideal diamond. Here, for the first time the use of single crystal diamond emitter with high aspect ratio as a point electron source is reported. Single crystal diamond needles were obtained by selective oxidation of polycrystalline diamond films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Field emission currents and total electron energy distributions were measured for individual diamond needles as functions of extraction voltage and temperature. The needles demonstrate current saturation phenomenon and sensitivity of emission to temperature. The analysis of the voltage drops measured via electron energy analyzer shows that the conduction is provided by the surface of the diamond needles and is governed by Poole-Frenkel transport mechanism with characteristic trap energy of 0.2-0.3 eV. The temperature-sensitive FE characteristics of the diamond needles are of great interest for production of the point electron beam sources and sensors for vacuum electronics.

  9. BOREAS RSS-4 1994 Jack Pine Leaf Biochemistry and Modeled Spectra in the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Plummer, Stephen; Lucas, Neil; Dawson, Terry

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS RSS-4 team focused its efforts on deriving estimates of LAI and leaf chlorophyll and nitrogen concentrations from remotely sensed data for input into the Forest BGC model. This data set contains measurements of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) needle biochemistry from the BOREAS SSA in July and August 1994. The data contain measurements of current and year-1 needle chlorophyll, nitrogen, lignin, cellulose, and water content for the OJP flux tower and nearby auxiliary sites. The data have been used to test a needle reflectance and transmittance model, LIBERTY (Dawson et al., in press). The source code for the model and modeled needle spectra for each of the sampled tower and auxiliary sites are provided as part of this data set. The LIBERTY model was developed and the predicted spectral data generated to parameterize a canopy reflectance model (North, 1996) for comparison with AVIRIS, POLDER, and PARABOLA data. The data and model source code are stored in ASCII files.

  10. The longleaf pine resource

    Treesearch

    John F. Kelly; William A. Bechtold

    1989-01-01

    Area of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) in the Southern United States has declined from 12.2 to 3.8 million acres over the past 30 years. Longleaf pine, which once dominated vast portions of the region, now accounts for only 3 percent of the total timberland acreage in the 8 States where the species is found.Longleaf growing-stock volume has decreased by 12...

  11. Regulation of energy partitioning and alternative electron transport pathways during cold acclimation of lodgepole pine is oxygen dependent.

    PubMed

    Savitch, Leonid V; Ivanov, Alexander G; Krol, Marianna; Sprott, David P; Oquist, Gunnar; Huner, Norman P A

    2010-09-01

    Second year needles of Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta L.) were exposed for 6 weeks to either simulated control summer ['summer'; 25 °C/250 photon flux denisty (PFD)], autumn ('autumn'; 15°C/250 PFD) or winter conditions ('winter'; 5 °C/250 PFD). We report that the proportion of linear electron transport utilized in carbon assimilation (ETR(CO2)) was 40% lower in both 'autumn' and 'winter' pine when compared with the 'summer' pine. In contrast, the proportion of excess photosynthetic linear electron transport (ETR(excess)) not used for carbon assimilation within the total ETR(Jf) increased by 30% in both 'autumn' and 'winter' pine. In 'autumn' pine acclimated to 15°C, the increased amounts of 'excess' electrons were directed equally to 21  kPa O2-dependent and 2  kPa O2-dependent alternative electron transport pathways and the fractions of excitation light energy utilized by PSII photochemistry (Φ(PSII)), thermally dissipated through Φ(NPQ) and dissipated by additional quenching mechanism(s) (Φ(f,D)) were similar to those in 'summer' pine. In contrast, in 'winter' needles acclimated to 5 °C, 60% of photosynthetically generated 'excess' electrons were utilized through the 2  kPa O2-dependent electron sink and only 15% by the photorespiratory (21  kPa O2) electron pathway. Needles exposed to 'winter' conditions led to a 3-fold lower Φ(PSII), only a marginal increase in Φ(NPQ) and a 2-fold higher Φ(f,D), which was O2 dependent compared with the 'summer' and 'autumn' pine. Our results demonstrate that the employment of a variety of alternative pathways for utilization of photosynthetically generated electrons by Lodgepole pine depends on the acclimation temperature. Furthermore, dissipation of excess light energy through constitutive non-photochemical quenching mechanisms is O2 dependent.

  12. Regionalization of Habitat Suitability of Masson’s Pine based on geographic information system and Fuzzy Matter-Element Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiuteng; Zhao, Manxi; Zhou, Liangyun; Yang, Guang; Huang, Luqi; Yan, Cuiqi; Huang, Quanshu; Ye, Liang; Zhang, Xiaobo; Guo, Lanpin; Ke, Xiao; Guo, Jiao

    2016-01-01

    Pine needles have been widely used in the development of anti-hypertensive and anti-hyperlipidemic agents and health food. However, the widespread distribution of this tree poses great obstacles to the quality control and efficacy evaluation. To facilitate the effective and rational exploitation of Masson’s pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb), as well as ensure effective development of Masson’s pine needles as a medicinal agent, we investigated the spatial distribution of habitat suitability and evaluated the optimal ranges of ecological factors of P. massoniana with 280 samples collected from 12 provinces in China through the evaluation of four constituents known to be effective medicinally. The results of habitat suitability evaluation were also verified by Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). Finally, five ecological factors were chosen in the establishment of a habitat suitability evaluation system. The most suitable areas for P. massoniana growth were mainly concentrated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin, such as Sichuan, Guizhou, and Jiangxi provinces, while the best quality needles were from Guizhou, Sichuan, and the junction area of Chongqing, Hunan, and Hubei provinces. This information revealed that suitable areas for effective constituent accumulation of Masson’s pine needles accounted for only 7.41% of its distribution area. PMID:27694967

  13. Regionalization of Habitat Suitability of Masson’s Pine based on geographic information system and Fuzzy Matter-Element Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiuteng; Zhao, Manxi; Zhou, Liangyun; Yang, Guang; Huang, Luqi; Yan, Cuiqi; Huang, Quanshu; Ye, Liang; Zhang, Xiaobo; Guo, Lanpin; Ke, Xiao; Guo, Jiao

    2016-10-01

    Pine needles have been widely used in the development of anti-hypertensive and anti-hyperlipidemic agents and health food. However, the widespread distribution of this tree poses great obstacles to the quality control and efficacy evaluation. To facilitate the effective and rational exploitation of Masson’s pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb), as well as ensure effective development of Masson’s pine needles as a medicinal agent, we investigated the spatial distribution of habitat suitability and evaluated the optimal ranges of ecological factors of P. massoniana with 280 samples collected from 12 provinces in China through the evaluation of four constituents known to be effective medicinally. The results of habitat suitability evaluation were also verified by Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). Finally, five ecological factors were chosen in the establishment of a habitat suitability evaluation system. The most suitable areas for P. massoniana growth were mainly concentrated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin, such as Sichuan, Guizhou, and Jiangxi provinces, while the best quality needles were from Guizhou, Sichuan, and the junction area of Chongqing, Hunan, and Hubei provinces. This information revealed that suitable areas for effective constituent accumulation of Masson’s pine needles accounted for only 7.41% of its distribution area.

  14. Irrigation and fertilization effects on foliar and soil carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in a loblolly pine stand

    Treesearch

    Woo-Jung Choi; Scott X. Chang; H. Lee Allen; Daniel L. Kelting; Hee-Myong Ro

    2005-01-01

    We examined 813C and 815N in needle (current and 1-year-old) and soil samples collected on two occasions (July and September 1999) from a 15-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand in an irrigation and fertilization experiment to investigate whether these treatments leave specific isotope signals in...

  15. Effects of stand development and weather on monthly leaf biomass dynamics of a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand

    Treesearch

    P.M. Dougherty; T.C. Hennessey; Stanley J. Zarnoch; P.t> Stenberg; R.T. Holeman; R.F. Witter

    1995-01-01

    Annual leaf biomass production, monthly needle accretion and monthly needlefall were measured in an 1l- to 17-year-old thinned stand of loblolly pine. Initial thinning levels were 7.8 m2 ha-1, 12.6 m2 ha-1, and 25.5 m2 ha-1...

  16. Transect studies on pine litter organic matter: decomposition and chemical properties of upper soil layers in Polish forests

    Treesearch

    Alicja Breymeyer; Marek Degorski; David Reed

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between litter decomposition rate, some chemical properties of upper soil layers (iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, chrome in humus-mineral horizon-A), and litter (the same eight elements in needle litter fraction) in pine forests of Poland was studied. Heavy metal content in organic-mineral horizon of soils was highly correlated...

  17. Ozone injury responses of ponderosa and Jeffrey pine in the Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino Mountains in California

    Treesearch

    Paul Miller; Raleigh Guthrey; Susan Schilling; John Carroll

    1998-01-01

    Ozone injury was monitored on foliage of ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.) pines at 11 locations in the Sierra Nevada and 1 site in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California. Ozone injury on all age cohorts of needles on about 1,600 trees was surveyed annually from...

  18. Glaze Damage In 13- To 18-Year-Old, Natural, Even-Aged Stands of Loblolly Pines in Southeastern Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton

    2002-01-01

    In late December 1998, a severe winter storm deposited 2.1 inches of precipitation on the Crossett Experimental Forest in southeastern Arkansas. Ice, in the form of glaze, accumulated on needles and branches of trees, and resulted in visual damage to sapling and pulpwood-sized pines. Within 60 days after the storm, damage was assessed within naturally regenerated,...

  19. Hot water extracted wood fiber for production of wood plastic composites (WPCs)

    Treesearch

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Eini Lowell; Thomas E. Amidon; Timothy L. Chaffee

    2013-01-01

    Undebarked ponderosa pine chips were treated by hot water extraction to modify the chemical composition. In the treated pine (TP) , the mass was reduced by approximately 20%, and the extract was composed mainly of degradation products of hemicelluloses. Wood flour produced from TP and unextracted chips (untreated pine, UP) was blended with high-density polyethylene (...

  20. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich (Annonaceae) using aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Tairu, A O; Hofmann, T; Schieberle, P

    1999-08-01

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of the dried fruits of the West African peppertree Xylopia aethiopica obtained by extraction with diethyl ether followed by sublimation in vacuo revealed 28 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 4-8192, all of which could be identified. The highest FD factor was found for linalol (floral), followed by (E)-beta-ocimene (flowery), alpha-farnesene (sweet, flowery), beta-pinene (terpeny), alpha-pinene (pine needle-like), myrtenol (flowery), and beta-phellandrene (terpeny). Vanillin (vanilla-like) and 3-ethylphenol (smoky, phenolic) showing somewhat lower FD factors (FD = 128) were detected for the first time as constituents of the dried fruit.

  1. Transferable Durability: Enhancing decay resistance of non-durable species with extractives from durable wood species

    Treesearch

    G.T. Kirker; A.B. Blodgett; S. Lebow; C.A. Clausen

    2013-01-01

    Extractive content and composition is a vital component of naturally durable woods; however, variability in extractives can limit their usefulness in the field. Two extractive-free, non-durable wood species were pressure treated with ethanol-toluene extractives from 8 durable wood species. Extracted Southern pine, Paulownia and unextracted Southern pine blocks were...

  2. Blue wild-rye grass competition increases the effect of ozone on ponderosa pine seedlings.

    PubMed

    Andersen, C P; Hogsett, W E; Plocher, M; Rodecap, K; Lee, E H

    2001-03-01

    Individual ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedlings were grown in mesocosms with three densities of blue wild-rye grass (Elymus glaucus Buckl.) (equivalent to 0, 32 or 88 plants m-2) to determine if the presence of a natural competitor alters the response of ponderosa pine seedlings to ozone. After 3 years of ozone exposure, grass presence reduced total ponderosa pine dry mass by nearly 50%, whereas ozone alone had no significant effect on ponderosa pine growth. The combination of ozone and grass further reduced needle, stem and branch dry mass significantly below that induced by grass competition alone. Root:shoot ratios increased in response to the combined grass and ozone treatments. Grass competition significantly reduced soluble sugar concentrations in all ponderosa pine tissue components examined. Starch concentrations were highly variable but did not differ significantly between treatments. Ozone significantly reduced soluble sugar concentrations in fine roots and stems. In the absence of grass, ozone-treated seedlings tended to have higher tissue N concentrations than controls. In the presence of grass, ozone-treated seedlings had lower N concentrations than controls, resulting in a significant interaction between these two stresses in 1- and 2-year-old needles. Needle C:N ratios decreased in response to grass competition, as a result of increased N concentration and no change in C concentration. The opposite response was observed in ozone-treated seedlings as a result of decreased N concentrations, indicating that ozone-treated seedlings were unable to take up or retain as much nitrogen when grown in the presence of grass. We conclude that ponderosa pine seedlings are more susceptible to ozone when grown in competition with blue wild-rye grass.

  3. Health of whitebark pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreaks

    Treesearch

    Sandra Kegley; John Schwandt; Ken Gibson; Dana Perkins

    2011-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), a keystone high-elevation species, is currently at risk due to a combination of white pine blister rust (WPBR) (Cronartium ribicola), forest succession, and outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae). While recent mortality is often quantified by aerial detection surveys (ADS) or ground surveys, little...

  4. Should ponderosa pine be planted on lodgepole pine sites?

    Treesearch

    P.H. Cochran

    1984-01-01

    Repeated radiation frosts caused no apparent harm to the majority of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) seedlings planted on a pumice flat in south-central Oregon. For most but not all of the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) seedlings planted with the lodgepole pine, however, damage from radiation frost resulted in...

  5. [Allergic contact dermatitis from colophony and turpentine in resins of untreated pine wood].

    PubMed

    Booken, D; Velten, F W; Utikal, J; Goerdt, S; Bayerl, C

    2006-11-01

    Pine wood is one of the most used raw products in furniture manufacturing in Europe. High concentrations of colophony and turpentine can be extracted from pine resins. A 45-year-old woman developed a contact dermatitis of the face and hands due to a sensitization to colophony and turpentine after she had bought untreated pine chairs. The increased use of untreated pine in the furniture industry might result in an increase of colophony and turpentine-induced contact allergies. Therefore, the slogan "untreated=harmless" should be considered critically in such cases.

  6. Hydraulic adjustment of Scots pine across Europe.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Vilalta, J; Cochard, H; Mencuccini, M; Sterck, F; Herrero, A; Korhonen, J F J; Llorens, P; Nikinmaa, E; Nolè, A; Poyatos, R; Ripullone, F; Sass-Klaassen, U; Zweifel, R

    2009-10-01

    * The variability of branch-level hydraulic properties was assessed across 12 Scots pine populations covering a wide range of environmental conditions, including some of the southernmost populations of the species. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in climate, and to study the potential tradeoffs between traits. * Traits measured included wood density, radial growth, xylem anatomy, sapwood- and leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity (K(S) and K(L)), vulnerability to embolism, leaf-to-sapwood area ratio (A(L) : A(S)), needle carbon isotope discrimination (Delta13C) and nitrogen content, and specific leaf area. * Between-population variability was high for most of the hydraulic traits studied, but it was directly associated with climate dryness (defined as a combination of atmospheric moisture demand and availability) only for A(L) : A(S), K(L) and Delta13C. Shoot radial growth and A(L) : A(S) declined with stand development, which is consistent with a strategy to avoid exceedingly low water potentials as tree size increases. In addition, we did not find evidence at the intraspecific level of some associations between hydraulic traits that have been commonly reported across species. * The adjustment of Scots pine's hydraulic system to local climatic conditions occurred primarily through modifications of A(L) : A(S) and direct stomatal control, whereas intraspecific variation in vulnerability to embolism and leaf physiology appears to be limited.

  7. Modeling whole-tree carbon assimilation rate using observed transpiration rates and needle sugar carbon isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jia; Moore, David J P; Riveros-Iregui, Diego A; Burns, Sean P; Monson, Russell K

    2010-03-01

    *Understanding controls over plant-atmosphere CO(2) exchange is important for quantifying carbon budgets across a range of spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we used a simple approach to estimate whole-tree CO(2) assimilation rate (A(Tree)) in a subalpine forest ecosystem. *We analysed the carbon isotope ratio (delta(13)C) of extracted needle sugars and combined it with the daytime leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit to estimate tree water-use efficiency (WUE). The estimated WUE was then combined with observations of tree transpiration rate (E) using sap flow techniques to estimate A(Tree). Estimates of A(Tree) for the three dominant tree species in the forest were combined with species distribution and tree size to estimate and gross primary productivity (GPP) using an ecosystem process model. *A sensitivity analysis showed that estimates of A(Tree) were more sensitive to dynamics in E than delta(13)C. At the ecosystem scale, the abundance of lodgepole pine trees influenced seasonal dynamics in GPP considerably more than Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir because of its greater sensitivity of E to seasonal climate variation. *The results provide the framework for a nondestructive method for estimating whole-tree carbon assimilation rate and ecosystem GPP over daily-to weekly time scales.

  8. [Comparison of port needle with safety device between Huber Plus (HP) and Poly PERF Safe (PPS)].

    PubMed

    Shimono, Chigusa; Tanaka, Atsuko; Fujita, Ai; Ishimoto, Miki; Oura, Shoji; Yamaue, Hiroki; Sato, Morio

    2010-05-01

    An embedded port is frequently used for outpatients with advanced cancer in central venous chemotherapy or hepatic arterial chemoinfusion. The port needle with a safety device in an ambulatory treatment center is indispensable for medical employees and patient plus family to reduce the risk of a needle puncture accident and to prevent iatrogenic infection. The port needle with safety system has been already introduced in our chemotherapy center. There are two types of port needle with safety device; Huber Plus (HP, Medicon Co., Ltd.) and POLY PERF Safe (PPS, Pyolax Device, Co., Ltd.). The comparison of the feasibility between HP and PPS was conducted by both medical employees and patients plus family using an inquiry score method. HP was highly regarded for its stability plus fixation and PPS for its usefulness in puncture and extraction of the needle. PPS was found to be preferable to HP based on the overall evaluation.

  9. Soil Temperature Triggers the Onset of Photosynthesis in Korean Pine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiabing; Guan, Dexin; Yuan, Fenhui; Wang, Anzhi; Jin, Changjie

    2013-01-01

    In forest ecosystems, the onset of spring photosynthesis may have an important influence on the annual carbon balance. However, triggers for the onset of photosynthesis have yet to be clearly identified, especially for temperate evergreen conifers. The effects of climatic factors on recovery of photosynthetic capacity in a Korean pine forest were investigated in the field. No photosynthesis was detectable when the soil temperature was below 0°C even if the air temperature was far beyond 15°C. The onset of photosynthesis and sap flow was coincident with the time of soil thawing. The rates of recovery of photosynthetic capacity highly fluctuated with air temperature after onset of photosynthesis, and intermittent frost events remarkably inhibited the photosynthetic capacity of the needles. The results suggest that earlier soil thawing is more important than air temperature increases in triggering the onset of photosynthesis in Korean pine in temperate zones under global warming scenarios. PMID:23755227

  10. Does Needle Rotation Improve Lesion Targeting?

    PubMed Central

    Badaan, Shadi; Petrisor, Doru; Kim, Chunwoo; Mozer, Pierre; Mazilu, Dumitru; Gruionu, Lucian; Patriciu, Alex; Cleary, Kevin; Stoianovici, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Background Image-guided robots are manipulators that operate based on medical images. Perhaps the most common class of image-guided robots are robots for needle interventions. Typically, these robots actively position and/or orient a needle guide, but needle insertion is still done by the physician. While this arrangement may have safety advantages and keep the physician in control of needle insertion, actuated needle drivers can incorporate other useful features. Methods We first present a new needle driver that can actively insert and rotate a needle. With this device we investigate the use of needle rotation in controlled in-vitro experiments performed with a specially developed revolving needle driver. Results These experiments show that needle rotation can improve targeting and may reduce errors by as much as 70%. Conclusion The new needle driver provides a unique kinematic architecture that enables insertion with a compact mechanism. Perhaps the most interesting conclusion of the study is that lesions of soft tissue organs may not be perfectly targeted with a needle without using special techniques, either manually or with a robotic device. The results of this study show that needle rotation may be an effective method of reducing targeting errors. PMID:21360796

  11. Biomass estimation for Virginia pine trees and stands

    SciTech Connect

    Madgwick, H.A.I.

    1980-03-01

    Stands of Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.) occur on much abandoned farm land in the Appalachian Mountains and Piedmont of Virginia. Natural stands are an important source of pulpwood, and these are being augmented by plantations. Increased intensity of utilization necessitates the estimation of component weights of the trees. Data from 501 trees from 10 stands were used to develop equations for estimating dry weight of stem wood, stem bark, total stem 1-year-old needles, total needles, live branches, and total branches of individual trees. Stand weight of stems was closely related to stand basal area and mean height. Stand live-branchmore » weight varies inversely with stocking. Weight of 1-year-old foliage on the stands increased with stocking and site index. 13 references.« less

  12. Longleaf pine can catch up

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1997-01-01

    One of the principal southern pines, longleaf (Pinus palustris Mill.) is the key tree species in a fire-dependent ecosystem. In pm-settlement times, longleaf pine forests covered much of the southeastern United States.Once the most extensive forest ecosystem in North America dominated by a single species longleaf pine now occupies only about 3...

  13. Direct seeding of shortleaf pine

    Treesearch

    Corinne S. Mann; David Gwaze

    2007-01-01

    Direct seeding is a potentially viable method for regenerating shortleaf pine, but it has not been used extensively. In Missouri, an estimated 10,000 acres have been direct-seeded with shortleaf pine; half of which are at Mark Twain National Forest. Direct seeding offers a flexible and efficient alternative to planting as a way to restore shortleaf pine in the Ozarks....

  14. Southern Pine Bark Beetle Guild

    Treesearch

    T. Evan Nebeker

    2011-01-01

    Dendroctonus frontalis (southern pine beetle), D. terebrans (black turpentine beetle), Ips avulsus (small southern pine engraver or four-spined engraver), I. grandicollis (five-spined engraver), and I. calligraphus (six-spined engraver) comprise the southern pine bark beetle guild. Often they are found sharing the same hosts in the Southeastern United States. They...

  15. Seasonal ionomic and metabolic changes in Aleppo pines growing on mine tailings under Mediterranean semi-arid climate.

    PubMed

    López-Orenes, Antonio; Bueso, María C; Conesa, Héctor; Calderón, Antonio A; Ferrer, María A

    2018-05-11

    Aleppo pine is the most abundant conifer species in Mediterranean basin. Knowledge of adaptive mechanisms to cope with different environmental stresses simultaneously is necessary to improve its resilience to the predicted climatic changes and anthropogenic stressors, such as heavy metal/metal(loid)s (HMMs) pollution. Here, one year-old needles and rhizosphere soil samples from five mining and non-mining (NM) populations of Aleppo pines grown spontaneously in SE Spain were sampled in two consecutive years during spring and summer. Quantitative determination of a wide suite of edaphic, biochemical, and physiological parameters was performed, including soil physicochemical properties, ionome profile, foliar redox components, primary and secondary metabolites. Mining rhizosphere soils were characterized by elevated contents of HMMs, particularly lead and zinc, and low carbon, nitrogen and potassium levels. Multivariate data analysis based on needle ionome and antioxidative/oxidative parameters revealed a clear distinction between seasons irrespective of the population considered. Spring needles were characterized by higher levels of HMMs, sulfur, glutathione (GSH), proanthocyanidins (PAs), and soluble phenols (TPC), whereas reduced chlorophylls and increased levels of carotenoids, relative water content and K + , Na + and Cl - typified summer needles. In general mining populations had higher levels of ascorbate, and TPC, and exhibited higher antioxidant activities than the NM population. This could contribute to prevent oxidative injury induced by HMMs. Taken together, results suggest that seasonal factors have a more marked effect on the metabolism of the Aleppo pine populations studied than that exerted by soil conditions. This effect could be mediated by water availability in surface soil layers. If this conclusion is right, predicted rainfall reduction and temperature increase in the Mediterranean basin associated to global climate change would lead to pine needle

  16. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in the western United States have been adversely affected by an exotic pathogen (Cronartium ribicola, causal agent of white pine blister rust), insect outbreaks (Dendroctonus ponderosae, mountain pine beetle), and drought. We monitored individual trees from 2004 to 2013 and characterized stand-level biophysical conditions through a mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Specifically, we investigated associations between tree-level variables (duration and location of white pine blister rust infection, presence of mountain pine beetle, tree size, and potential interactions) with observations of individual whitebark pine tree mortality. Climate summaries indicated that cumulative growing degree days in years 2006–2008 likely contributed to a regionwide outbreak of mountain pine beetle prior to the observed peak in whitebark mortality in 2009. We show that larger whitebark pine trees were preferentially attacked and killed by mountain pine beetle and resulted in a regionwide shift to smaller size class trees. In addition, we found evidence that smaller size class trees with white pine blister rust infection experienced higher mortality than larger trees. This latter finding suggests that in the coming decades white pine blister rust may become the most probable cause of whitebark pine mortality. Our findings offered no evidence of an interactive effect of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust infection on whitebark pine mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Interestingly, the probability of mortality was lower for larger trees attacked by mountain pine beetle in stands with higher evapotranspiration. Because evapotranspiration varies with climate and topoedaphic conditions across the region, we discuss the potential to use this improved understanding of biophysical influences on mortality to identify microrefugia that might contribute to successful whitebark pine conservation

  17. Histological observation for needle-tissue interactions.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki; Koseki, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    We histologically investigated tissue fractures and deformations caused by ex vivo needle insertions. The tissue was formalin-fixed while the needle remained in the tissue. Following removal of the needle, the tissue was microtomed, stained, and observed microscopically. This method enabled observations of cellular and tissular conditions where deformations caused by needle insertions were approximately preserved. For this study, our novel method presents preliminary findings related with tissue fractures and the orientation of needle blade relative to muscle fibers. When the needle blade was perpendicular to the muscle fiber, transfiber fractures and relatively large longitudinal deformations occurred. When the needle blade was parallel to the muscle fiber, interfiber fractures and relatively small longitudinal deformations occurred. This made a significant difference in the resistance force of the needle insertions.

  18. Secure Container For Discarded Hypodermic Needles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Angelene M.

    1992-01-01

    Container designed for safe retention of discarded blood-collecting hypodermic needles and similar sharp objects used in life-science experiments aboard spacecraft. Needles inserted through self-closing lid and retained magnetically. They are inserted, sharp end first, through spring-loaded flap. Long needles and needles on syringes cannot turn around in container. Can be emptied, cleaned, and reused. Used on Earth to provide unusually secure containment of sharp objects.

  19. Response to lead pollution: mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris forms the biomineral pyromorphite in roots and needles.

    PubMed

    Bizo, Maria L; Nietzsche, Sandor; Mansfeld, Ulrich; Langenhorst, Falko; Majzlan, Juraj; Göttlicher, Jörg; Ozunu, Alexandru; Formann, Steffi; Krause, Katrin; Kothe, Erika

    2017-06-01

    The development of mycorrhized pine seedlings grown in the presence of lead was assessed in order to investigate how higher plants can tolerate lead pollution in the environment. Examination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that Pb uptake was prominent in the roots, while a smaller amount was found in pine needles, which requires symplastic uptake and root-to-shoot transfer. Lead was concentrated in nanocrystalline aggregates attached to the cell wall and, according to elemental microanalyses, is associated with phosphorus and chlorine. The identification of the nanocrystalline phase in roots and needles was performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction (μ-XRD), revealing the presence of pyromorphite, Pb 5 [PO 4 ] 3 (Cl, OH), in both roots and needles. The extracellular embedding of pyromorphite within plant cell walls, featuring an indented appearance of the cell wall due to a callus-like outcrop of minerals, suggests a biogenic origin. This biomineralization is interpreted as a defense mechanism of the plant against lead pollution.

  20. Rhizosphaera Needle Disease of Fir

    Treesearch

    Mike Albers; Jana Albers; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Linda Haugen; Nancy Wenner

    1996-01-01

    Rhizosphaera pini is a common plant pathogen in the Lake States, Northeastern States and Canada. A closely related pathogen, Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii, causes a common needle blight on spruce and other conifers. R. pini is often considered to be a weak pathogen, occurring on stressed foliage or foliage killed by other causes. However, it has been observed causing...

  1. Levels and sources of PAHs in selected sites from Portugal: biomonitoring with Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster needles.

    PubMed

    Ratola, Nuno; Amigo, José Manuel; Alves, Arminda

    2010-04-01

    Pine needle samples from two pine species (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) were collected at 29 sites scattered throughout Portugal, in order to biomonitor the levels and trends of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The values obtained for the sum of all PAHs ranged from 76 to 1944 ng/g [dry weight (dw)]. Despite the apparent matrix similarities between both pine species, P. pinaster needles revealed higher mean entrapment levels than P. pinea (748 and 399 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively). The urban and industrial sites have the highest average of PAH incidence [for P. pinea, 465 and 433 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively, and for P. pinaster, 1147 and 915 ng/g (dw)], followed by the rural sites [233 ng/g and 711 ng/g (dw) per site, for P. pinea and P. pinaster, respectively]. The remote sites, both from P. pinaster needles, show the least contamination, with 77 ng/g (dw) per site. A predominance of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs was observed in most samples, with phenanthrene having 30.1% of the total. Naphthalene prevailed in remote sites. Rainfall had no influence on the PAHs levels, but there was a relationship between higher wind speeds and lower concentrations. PAH molecular ratios revealed the influence of both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources.

  2. Veres needle in the pleural space.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D W; McKinney, M K; Szpak, M W; Booker, J L

    1983-11-01

    The Veres needle is designed to allow entry into body cavities without trauma to underlying organs. Its major use has been in the induction of a pneumoperitoneum for peritoneoscopy. An initial successful evaluation of its use was in the pleural space of dogs. A subsequent analysis of complications in 69 thoracenteses using the Veres needle and 152 thoracenteses using a conventional needle favored the Veres needle (P = .05). We believe that the Veres needle is a safe and technically superior instrument for thoracentesis and that it deserves further application and study.

  3. Longleaf Pine Genetics

    Treesearch

    Ronald C. Schmidtling

    1999-01-01

    There has been a movement of late toward the use of natural regeneration for iongieaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) as well as for other forest tree species. If you have a good natural stand, and have plenty of time, natural regeneration will result in a suitable stand, and genetics is not relevant.

  4. Sand Pine Symposium Proceedings

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service Southern Forest Experiment Station

    1973-01-01

    Sand pine, a species well suited to the excessively drained soils common to several million acres in the Southeast, was the subject of this well-attended 3-day meeting. Papers presented included a review of the literature plus results of current research related to this species. Subjects covered ranged from seeds and seedlings to final harvest and conversion...

  5. Diseases of lodgepole pine

    Treesearch

    Frank G. Hawksworth

    1964-01-01

    Diseases are a major concern to forest managers throughout the lodgepole pine type. In many areas, diseases constitute the primary management problem. As might be expected for a tree that has a distribution from Baja California, Mexico to the Yukon and from the Pacific to the Dakotas, the diseases of chief concern vary in different parts of the tree's range. For...

  6. Lifting Pine Seedlings

    Treesearch

    C. B. Briscoe

    1960-01-01

    One of the factors preventing more widespread planting of the true pines (Pinus spp.) in the tropics is the present necessity of using potted stock instead of barerooted seedlings, such as are used throughout the temperate regions. Potted seedlings require more space, more equipment, more labor, and more money, both to produce in the nursery and to plant in the field...

  7. Pinus L. Pine

    Treesearch

    Stanley L. Krugman; James L. Jenkinson

    1974-01-01

    Growth habit, occurrence, and use. The genus Pinus, one of the largest and most important of the coniferous genera, comprises about 95 species and numerous varieties and hybrids. Pines are widely distributed, mostly in the Northern Hemisphere from sea level (Pinus contorta var. contorta) to timberline (P...

  8. Regenerating Longleaf Pine Naturally

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Croker; William D. Boyer

    1975-01-01

    Research has developed guides for consistent natural regeneration of longleaf pine by a shelterwood system. Key measures include hardwood control by fire and other means, timely preparatory and seed cuts, seed crop monitoring, seedbed preparation, protection of established seedlings, prompt removal of parent trees when reproduction is adequate, and control of...

  9. Does bristlecone pine senesce?

    Treesearch

    R.M Lanner; Kristina F. Connor

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated hypotheses of senscence in old trees by comparing putative biomarkers of aging in great basin bristlecone pine ( Pinus longaeva) ranging in age from 23 to 4713 years. To teast a hypothesis that water and nutrient conduction is impaired in old trees we examined cambial products in the xylem and phloem. We found no statiscally significant...

  10. The Mediterranean pine engraver

    Treesearch

    Jana C. Lee; Sheri L. Smith; Steven J. Seybold

    2005-01-01

    In May 2004, a new exotic bark beetle for North America was discovered in baited flight traps in Fresno, California during an annual bark beetle and woodborer survey by the California Department of Food and Agriculture. This bark beetle was identified as Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), the Mediterranean pine engraver, a well-documented pest of...

  11. Introduced Pine Sawfly

    Treesearch

    Louis F. Wilson

    1966-01-01

    The introduced pine, sawfly (Diprion similis (Hartig)) in North America was first discovered in 1914 in a nursery in New Haven, Conn. This insect might have been introduced in the cocoon stage on nursery stock or packing material from Holland. Since its arrival, it has advanced steadily westward, reaching Pennsylvania before 1920 and Ontario by 1931. The present range...

  12. Mountain pine beetle

    Treesearch

    Ken Gibson; Sandy Kegley; Barbara Bentz

    2009-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) is a member of a group of insects known as bark beetles. Its entire life cycle is spent beneath the bark of host trees, except when adults emerge from brood trees and fly in search of new host trees.

  13. Southern Pine Seed Sources

    Treesearch

    Ronald C. Schmidtling

    2001-01-01

    The selection of an appropriate seed source is critical for successful southern pine plantations. Guidelines for selection of seed sources are presented for loblolly (Pinus taeda L.), slash (P. elliottii Engelm.), longleaf (P. palustris Mill.), Virginia (P. virginiana Mill.), shortleaf (P. echinata...

  14. Pine Beetle Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Earth Systems Science Office scientists worked with officials in St. Tammany Parish, La., to detect and battle pine beetle infestation in Fontainebleu State Park. The scientists used a new method of detecting plant stress by using special lenses and modified sensors to detect a change in light levels given off by the plant before the stress is visible to the naked eye.

  15. Longleaf Pine Seed Dispersal

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1963-01-01

    Production and dispersal of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seeds were sampled in 1955, 1957, and 1958 on the Escambia Experimental Forest in southwest Alabama.Two transects of seed traps were established at right angles to each of four forest walls enclosing a rectangular 80-acre clearing. Walls were oriented in the cardinal...

  16. Longleaf pine site zones

    Treesearch

    Phillip J. Craul; John S. Kush; William D. Boyer

    2005-01-01

    The authors delineate six major climatic areas of the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) region. They subdivide these areas into 21 site zones, each of which is deemed homogenous with respect to climate, physiography, and soils. The site zones are mapped and their climate, physiography, and soils described. The authors recommend that plantings of...

  17. Southern Pine Beetle II

    Treesearch

    R. N. Coulson; Kier Klepzig

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge base for the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has increased dramatically since the last comprehensive and interpretative summary (Thatcher and others 1980). This insect continues to be a significant pest affecting the forest environment of the Southern US and adjoining states and it is also the subject of...

  18. Longleaf pine agroforestry

    Treesearch

    Kristina Connor; Rebecca Barlow; Luben Dimov; Mark Smith

    2012-01-01

    While ecosystem restoration of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests represents a worthy ideal, it is not always a practical alternative for landowners. Agroforestry systems, which can be developed in existing agricultural land, natural forest stands, plantations, or pasturelands, offer the opportunity to provide multiple benefits: high value...

  19. Study on design and cutting parameters of rotating needles for core biopsy.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Marco; Ren, Huaqing; Cao, Jian; Ehmann, Kornel

    2018-06-15

    Core needle biopsies are widely adopted medical procedures that consist in the removal of biological tissue to better identify a lesion or an abnormality observed through a physical exam or a radiology scan. These procedures can provide significantly more information than most medical tests and they are usually performed on bone lesions, breast masses, lymph nodes and the prostate. The quality of the samples mainly depends on the forces exerted by the needle during the cutting process. The reduction of these forces is critical to extract high-quality tissue samples. The most critical factors that affect the cutting forces are the geometry of the needle tip and its motion while it is penetrating the tissue. However, optimal needle tip configurations and cutting parameters are not well established for rotating insertions. In this paper, the geometry and cutting forces of hollow needles are investigated. The fundamental goal of this study is to provide a series of guidelines for clinicians and surgeons to properly select the optimal tip geometries and speeds. Analytical models related to the cutting angles of several needle tip designs are presented and compared. Several needle tip geometries were manufactured from a 14-gauge cannula, commonly adopted during breast biopsies. The needles were then tested at different speeds and on different phantom tissues. According to these experimental measurements recommendations were formulated for rotating needle insertions. The findings of this study can be applied and extended to several biopsy procedures in which a cannula is used to extract tissue samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Compatible above-ground biomass equations and carbon stock estimation for small diameter Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.).

    PubMed

    Sakici, Oytun Emre; Kucuk, Omer; Ashraf, Muhammad Irfan

    2018-04-15

    Small trees and saplings are important for forest management, carbon stock estimation, ecological modeling, and fire management planning. Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) is a common coniferous species and comprises 25.1% of total forest area of Turkey. Turkish pine is also important due to its flammable fuel characteristics. In this study, compatible above-ground biomass equations were developed to predict needle, branch, stem wood, and above-ground total biomass, and carbon stock assessment was also described for Turkish pine which is smaller than 8 cm diameter at breast height or shorter than breast height. Compatible biomass equations are useful for biomass prediction of small diameter individuals of Turkish pine. These equations will also be helpful in determining fire behavior characteristics and calculating their carbon stock. Overall, present study will be useful for developing ecological models, forest management plans, silvicultural plans, and fire management plans.

  1. Siberian Pine Decline and Mortality in Southern Siberian Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Im, S. T.; Oskorbin, P. A.; Petrov, I. A.; Ranson, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    The causes and resulting spatial patterns of Siberian pine mortality in eastern Kuznetzky Alatau Mountains, Siberia were analyzed based on satellite (Landsat, MODIS) and dendrochronology data. Climate variables studied included temperature, precipitation and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) drought index. Landsat data analysis showed that stand mortality was first detected in the year 2006 at an elevation of 650 m, and extended up to 900 m by the year 2012. Mortality was accompanied by a decrease in MODIS derived vegetation index (EVI).. The area of dead stands and the upper mortality line were correlated with increased drought. The uphill margin of mortality was limited by elevational precipitation gradients. Dead stands (i.e., >75% tree mortality) were located mainly on southern slopes. With respect to slope, mortality was observed within a 7 deg - 20 deg range with greatest mortality occurring on convex terrain. Tree radial incrementmeasurements correlate and were synchronous with SPEI (r sq = 0.37, r(sub s) = 80). Increasing synchrony between tree ring growth and SPEI indicates that drought has reduced the ecological niche of Siberian pine. The results also showed the primary role of drought stress on Siberian pine mortality. A secondary role may be played by bark beetles and root fungi attacks. The observed Siberian pine mortality is part of a broader phenomenon of "dark needle conifers" (DNC, i.e., Siberian pine, fir and spruce) decline and mortality in European Russia, Siberia, and the Russian Far East. All locations of DNC decline coincided with areas of observed drought increase. The results obtained are one of the first observations of drought-induced decline and mortality of DNC at the southern border of boreal forests. Meanwhile if model projections of increased aridity are correct DNC, within the southern part of its range may be replaced by drought-resistant Pinus silvestris and Larix sibirica.

  2. Understanding developmental and adaptive cues in pine through metabolite profiling and co-expression network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cañas, Rafael A.; Canales, Javier; Muñoz-Hernández, Carmen; Granados, Jose M.; Ávila, Concepción; García-Martín, María L.; Cánovas, Francisco M.

    2015-01-01

    Conifers include long-lived evergreen trees of great economic and ecological importance, including pines and spruces. During their long lives conifers must respond to seasonal environmental changes, adapt to unpredictable environmental stresses, and co-ordinate their adaptive adjustments with internal developmental programmes. To gain insights into these responses, we examined metabolite and transcriptomic profiles of needles from naturally growing 25-year-old maritime pine (Pinus pinaster L. Aiton) trees over a year. The effect of environmental parameters such as temperature and rain on needle development were studied. Our results show that seasonal changes in the metabolite profiles were mainly affected by the needles’ age and acclimation for winter, but changes in transcript profiles were mainly dependent on climatic factors. The relative abundance of most transcripts correlated well with temperature, particularly for genes involved in photosynthesis or winter acclimation. Gene network analysis revealed relationships between 14 co-expressed gene modules and development and adaptation to environmental stimuli. Novel Myb transcription factors were identified as candidate regulators during needle development. Our systems-based analysis provides integrated data of the seasonal regulation of maritime pine growth, opening new perspectives for understanding the complex regulatory mechanisms underlying conifers’ adaptive responses. Taken together, our results suggest that the environment regulates the transcriptome for fine tuning of the metabolome during development. PMID:25873654

  3. Abortifacient effects of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and common juniper (Juniperus communis) on cattle.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D R; Panter, K E; James, L F; Stegelmeier, B L

    1998-10-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and common juniper (Juniperus communis) contain high levels of isocupressic acid that has been identified as the abortifacient component of ponderosa pine needles in cattle. Therefore, the abortifacient potential of P contorta and J communis needles was tested in feeding trials with pregnant cattle. Cows (2 groups of 2 each) were fed by gavage 4.5-5.5 kg/d ground dry needles from either P contorta or J communis starting on gestation day 250. Isocupressic acid (ICA) levels in P contorta needles and J communis plant material were 0.8 and 2.0% (dry weight) respectively. Cows fed P contorta received a daily dose of 62-78 mg ICA/kg body weight and aborted after 8 and 10 d. The 2 cows fed J communis received a daily dose of 190 and 245 mg ICA/kg body weight and aborted after 3 and 4 days respectively. All cows retained fetal membranes and had classical clinical signs of pine needle-induced abortion. Pinus ponderosa, P contorta, J communis, and Cupressus macrocarpa samples were also analyzed for the presence of myristate and laurate esters of 1,14-tetradecanediol and 1,12-dodecanediol. These lipid like compounds of P ponderosa have potent vasoconstrictive activity in a placentome perfusion assay and are proposed as possible abortifacients in cattle. Concentration of the vasoactive lipids were 0.028% (P ponderosa), 0.023% (P contorta), 0.001% (J communis), and none detected (C macrocarpa). It was concluded that these compounds are not required for the plant material to be abortifacient in cattle.

  4. Use hyperspectral remote sensing technique to monitoring pine wood nomatode disease preliminary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Lin; Wang, Xianghong; Jiang, Jing; Yang, Xianchang; Ke, Daiyan; Li, Hongqun; Wang, Dingyi

    2016-10-01

    The pine wilt disease is a devastating disease of pine trees. In China, the first discoveries of the pine wilt disease on 1982 at Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum in Nanjing. It occurred an area of 77000 hm2 in 2005, More than 1540000 pine trees deaths in the year. Many districts of Chongqing in Three Gorges Reservoir have different degrees of pine wilt disease occurrence. It is a serious threat to the ecological environment of the reservoir area. Use unmanned airship to carry high spectrum remote sensing monitoring technology to develop the study on pine wood nematode disease early diagnosis and early warning and forecasting in this study. The hyper spectral data and the digital orthophoto map data of Fuling District Yongsheng Forestry had been achieved In September 2015. Using digital image processing technology to deal with the digital orthophoto map, the number of disease tree and its distribution is automatic identified. Hyper spectral remote sensing data is processed by the spectrum comparison algorithm, and the number and distribution of disease pine trees are also obtained. Two results are compared, the distribution area of disease pine trees are basically the same, indicating that using low air remote sensing technology to monitor the pine wood nematode distribution is successful. From the results we can see that the hyper spectral data analysis results more accurate and less affected by environmental factors than digital orthophoto map analysis results, and more environment variable can be extracted, so the hyper spectral data study is future development direction.

  5. HS-SPME analysis of volatile organic compounds of coniferous needle litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidorov, V. A.; Vinogorova, V. T.; Rafałowski, K.

    The composition of volatile emission of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) and spruce ( Picea exelsa) litter was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and samples were collected by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method. The list of identified compounds includes over 60 organic substances of different classes. It was established that volatile emission contain not only components of essential oils of pine and spruce needles but also a large number of organic compounds which are probably secondary metabolites of litter-decomposing fungi. They include lower carbonyl compounds and alcohols as well as products of terpene dehydration and oxidation. These data show that the processes of litter decomposition are an important source of reactive organic compounds under canopy of coniferous forests.

  6. Efficiency of seed production in southern pine seed orchards

    Treesearch

    David L. Bramlett

    1977-01-01

    Seed production in southern pine seed orchards can be evaluated by estimating the efficiency of four separate stages of cone, seed, and seedling development. Calculated values are: cone efficiency (CE), the ratio of mature cones to the initial flower crop; seed efficiency (SE), the ratio of filled seeds per cone to the seed potential; extraction efficiency (EE), the...

  7. Freeze injury to southern pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    David B. South

    2006-01-01

    Freeze injury to roots and shoots of pines is affected by genotype and nursery practices. Local sources of shortleaf pine and Virginia pine that are grown in nurseries in USDA hardiness Zones 6 and 7a are relatively freeze tolerant. However, loblolly pine, slash pine, and longleaf pine seedlings have been injured by a number of freeze events (0 to 24 °F) in hardiness...

  8. Genetic Based Plant Resistance and Susceptibility Traits to Herbivory Influence Needle and Root Litter Nutrient Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, Aimee T; Chapman, Samantha K.; Whitham, Thomas G

    2007-01-01

    It is generally assumed that leaf and root litter decomposition have similar drivers and that nutrient release from these substrates is synchronized. Few studies have examined these assumptions, and none has examined how plant genetics (i.e., plant susceptibility to herbivory) could affect these relationships. Here we examine the effects of herbivore susceptibility and resistance on needle and fine root litter decomposition of pi on pine, Pinus edulis. The study population consists of individual trees that are either susceptible or resistant to herbivory by the pi on needle scale, Matsucoccus acalyptus, or the stem-boring moth, Dioryctria albovittella. Genetic analyses and experimentalmore » removals and additions of these insects have identified trees that are naturally resistant and susceptible to these insects. These herbivores increase the chemical quality of litter inputs and alter soil microclimate, both of which are important decomposition drivers. Our research leads to four major conclusions: Herbivore susceptibility and resistance effects on 1) needle litter mass loss and phosphorus (P) retention in moth susceptible and resistant litter are governed by microclimate, 2) root litter nitrogen (N) and P retention, and needle litter N retention are governed by litter chemical quality, 3) net nutrient release from litter can reverse over time, 4) root and needle litter mass loss and nutrient release are determined by location (above- vs. belowground), suggesting that the regulators of needle and root decomposition differ at the local scale. Understanding of decomposition and nutrient retention in ecosystems requires consideration of herbivore effects on above- and belowground processes and how these effects may be governed by plant genotype. Because an underlying genetic component to herbivory is common to most ecosystems of the world and herbivory may increase in climatic change scenarios, it is important to evaluate the role of plant genetics in affecting

  9. Teleoperated master-slave needle insertion.

    PubMed

    Abolhassani, Niki; Patel, Rajni V

    2009-12-01

    Accuracy of needle tip placement and needle tracking in soft tissue are of particular importance in many medical procedures. In recent years, developing autonomous and teleoperated systems for needle insertion has become an active area of research. In this study, needle insertion was performed using a master-slave set-up with multi-degrees of freedom. The effect of force feedback on the accuracy of needle insertion was investigated. In addition, this study compared autonomous, teleoperated and semi-autonomous needle insertion. The results of this study show that incorporation of force feedback can improve teleoperated needle insertion. However, autonomous and semi-autonomous needle insertions, which use feedback from a deflection model, provide significantly better performance. Development of a haptic master-slave needle insertion system, which is capable of performing some autonomous tasks based on feedback from tissue deformation and needle deflection models, can improve the performance of autonomous robotics-based insertions as well as non-autonomous teleoperated manual insertions. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Composition of the bacterial community in the gut of the pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) (Coloptera) colonizing red pine

    Treesearch

    Italo Jr. Delalibera; Archana Vasanthakumar; Benjamin J. Burwitz; Patrick D. Schloss; Kier D. Klepzig; Jo Handelsman; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2007-01-01

    The gut bacterial community of a bark beetle, the pine engraver Ips pini (Say), was characterized using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Bacteria from individual guts of larvae, pupae and adults were cultured and DNA was extracted from samples of pooled larval guts. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified directly from the gut...

  11. Chemically inducing lightwood formation in southern pines

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.R.; Peters, W.J.

    1977-06-01

    Chemical induction of lightwood formation promises to be a new method of naval stores production. A broad range of paraquat concentrations and many methods of application induced lightwood formation. Loblolly, slash, and longleaf pines were found to produce increased amounts of turpentine and tall oil in response to paraquat treatment. In one experiment, loblolly pines treated with 8 percent paraquat on a single bark streak yielded, 9 months after treatment, an average of 10 pounds more extractives per tree than did untreated trees. Most of the yield increase was in the lower portion of the tree near the wound, butmore » some increase was noted for heights as great as 27 ft. In another experiment, 8 to 10 inch DBH loblolly, slash, and longleaf pine trees were treated with 0.5, 1.0, and 2.5 percent paraquat applied in ax chops spanning one-third the circumference of the trees. All treated trees yielded more resin acids than did control trees.« less

  12. A biplanar fluoroscopic approach for the measurement, modeling, and simulation of needle and soft-tissue interaction.

    PubMed

    Hing, James T; Brooks, Ari D; Desai, Jaydev P

    2007-02-01

    A methodology for modeling the needle and soft-tissue interaction during needle insertion is presented. The approach consists of the measurement of needle and tissue motion using a dual C-arm fluoroscopy system. Our dual C-arm fluoroscopy setup allows real time 3-D extraction of the displacement of implanted fiducials in the soft tissue during needle insertion to obtain the necessary parameters for accurate modeling of needle and soft-tissue interactions. The needle and implanted markers in the tissue are tracked during the insertion and withdrawal of the needle at speeds of 1.016 mm/s, 12.7 mm/s and 25.4 mm/s. Both image and force data are utilized to determine important parameters such as the approximate cutting force, puncture force, the local effective modulus (LEM) during puncture, and the relaxation of tissue. We have also validated the LEM computed from our finite element model with arbitrary needle puncture tasks. Based on these measurements, we developed a model for needle insertion and withdrawal that can be used to generate a 1-DOF force versus position profile that can be experienced by a user operating a haptic device. This profile was implemented on a 7-DOf haptic device designed in our laboratory.

  13. Short-term effects of fertilization on photosynthesis and leaf morphology of field-grown loblolly pine following long-term exposure to elevated CO2 concentration

    Treesearch

    Chris A. Maier; Sari Palmroth; Eric Ward

    2008-01-01

    We examined effects of a first nitrogen (N) fertilizer application on upper-canopy needle morphology and gas exchange in ~20-m-tall loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) exposed to elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) for 9 years. Duke Forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) plots were split and half of...

  14. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    PubMed Central

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture. PMID:23115475

  15. Dimensions of stabident intraosseous perforators and needles.

    PubMed

    Ramlee, R A; Whitworth, J

    2001-09-01

    Problems can be encountered inserting intraosseous injection needles through perforation sites. This in vitro study examined the variability and size compatibility of Stabident intraosseous injection components. The diameters of 40 needles and perforators from a single Stabident kit were measured in triplicate with a toolmakers microscope. One-way ANOVA revealed that mean needle diameter (0.411 mm) was significantly narrower than mean perforator diameter (0.427 mm) (p < 0.001). A frequency distribution plot revealed that needle diameter followed a normal distribution, indicating tight quality control during manufacture. The diameter of perforators was haphazardly distributed, with a clustering of 15% at the lower limit of the size range. However on no occasion was the diameter of a perforator smaller than that of an injection needle. We conclude that components of the Stabident intraosseous anaesthetic system are size-compatible, but there is greater and more haphazard variability in the diameter of perforators than injection needles.

  16. Black Pine Circle Project

    SciTech Connect

    Mytko, Christine

    2014-03-31

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  17. Black Pine Circle Project

    ScienceCinema

    Mytko, Christine

    2018-05-18

    A group of seventh graders from Black Pine Circle school in Berkeley had the opportunity to experience the Advanced Light Source (ALS) as "users" via a collaborative field trip and proposal project. The project culminated with a field trip to the ALS for all seventh graders, which included a visit to the ALS data visualization room, a diffraction demonstration, a beamline tour, and informative sessions about x-rays and tomography presented by ALS scientists.

  18. Overruns - Southern Pine Logs

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Campbell

    1962-01-01

    Overrun and underrun data were collected for the four major southern pine species during a series of grade yield studies in the late 1950's in Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Each of the 1,491 logs was carefully scaled by the Doyle, Scribner Decimal C, and International ¼-inch log rule. All logs were sawed on. circle mills and the...

  19. Ecophysiological comparison of 50-year-old longleaf pine, slash pine and loblolly pine.

    Treesearch

    Lisa Samuelson; Tom Stokes; Kurt Johnsen

    2012-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), a species that once dominated the southeastern USA, is considered to be more drought tolerant than the principle plantation species in the South, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.), and so is predicted to better cope with increases in drought frequency associated with climate change. To...

  20. Developmental Changes in Scots Pine Transcriptome during Heartwood Formation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kean-Jin; Paasela, Tanja; Harju, Anni; Venäläinen, Martti; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Kärkkäinen, Katri; Teeri, Teemu H

    2016-11-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood is desired in woodworking industries due to its favorable timber characteristics and natural durability that is contributed by heartwood extractives. It has been discussed whether the Scots pine heartwood extractives (mainly stilbenes and resin acids) are synthesized in the cells of the transition zone between sapwood and heartwood, or if they are transported from the sapwood. Timing of heartwood formation during the yearly cycle has also not been unambiguously defined. We measured steady-state mRNA levels in Scots pine transition zone and sapwood using RNA sequencing. Year-round expression profiles of selected transcripts were further investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. Differentially accumulating transcripts suggest that, of the Scots pine heartwood extractives, stilbenes are synthesized in situ in the transition zone and gain their carbon-skeletons from Suc and triglycerides. Resin acids, on the other hand, are synthesized early in the spring mainly in the sapwood, meaning that they must be transported to the heartwood transition zone. Heartwood formation is marked by programmed cell death that occurs during the summer months in the transition zone. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Impact of pine tip moth attack on loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    Roy Hedden

    1999-01-01

    Data on the impact of Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana, attack on the height of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda, in the first three growing seasons after planting from three locations in eastern North Carolina (U.S.A.) was used to develop multiple linear regression models relating tree height to tip moth infestation level in each growing season. These models...

  2. Insects of whitebark pine with emphasis on mountain pine beetle

    Treesearch

    Dale L. Bartos; Kenneth E. Gibson

    1990-01-01

    Few insects that live on whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) are considered pests or potential pests. Those that inhabit cones can cause reductions in reproduction of the tree by destroying seed crops. Decreases in food for animals ranging from squirrels to grizzly bears may also result. A single insect species, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus...

  3. Loblolly pine SSR markers for shortleaf pine genetics

    Treesearch

    C. Dana Nelson; Sedley Josserand; Craig S. Echt; Jeff Koppelman

    2007-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSR) are highly informative DNA-based markers widely used in population genetic and linkage mapping studies. We have been developing PCR primer pairs for amplifying SSR markers for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) using loblolly pine DNA and EST sequence data as starting materials. Fifty primer pairs known to reliably amplify...

  4. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Treesearch

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  5. Physical Properties Of Acupuncture Needles: Do Disposable Acupuncture Needles Break With Normal Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    Lamb shank, which has complexity of tendon, fascia, and bone, was used to mimic human tissue. The needles (n=10) were stressed in the tissue substitute...needles were re-imaged after stressing and visually assessed. RESULTS: Only one manufacturing scuff mark was noted out of 90 needles before stress ...testing. Needles buckled but did not break when they were stressed beyond normal clinical use. No cracks or fractures were noted after stress

  6. Does a paresthesia during spinal needle insertion indicate intrathecal needle placement?

    PubMed

    Pong, Ryan P; Gmelch, Benjamin S; Bernards, Christopher M

    2009-01-01

    Paresthesias are relatively common during spinal needle insertion, however, the clinical significance of the paresthesia is unknown. A paresthesia may result from needle-to-nerve contact with a spinal nerve in the epidural space, or, with far lateral needle placement, may result from contact with a spinal nerve within the intervertebral foramen. However, it is also possible and perhaps more likely, that paresthesias occur when the spinal needle contacts a spinal nerve root within the subarachnoid space. This study was designed to test this latter hypothesis. Patients (n = 104) scheduled for surgery under spinal anesthesia were observed during spinal needle insertion. If a paresthesia occurred, the needle was fixed in place and the stylet removed to observe whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flowed from the hub. The presence of CSF was considered proof that the needle had entered the subarachnoid space. Paresthesias occurred in 14/103 (13.6%) of patients; 1 patient experienced a paresthesia twice. All paresthesias were transient. Following a paresthesia, CSF was observed in the needle hub 86.7% (13/15) of the time. Our data suggest that the majority of transient paresthesias occur when the spinal needle enters the subarachnoid space and contacts a spinal nerve root. Therefore, when transient paresthesias occur during spinal needle placement it is appropriate to stop and assess for the presence of CSF in the needle hub, rather than withdraw and redirect the spinal needle away from the side of the paresthesia as some authors have suggested.

  7. Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling early growth in a (longleaf pine × slash pine) × slash pine BC1 family

    Treesearch

    C. Weng; Thomas L. Kubisiak; C. Dana Nelson; M. Stine

    2002-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were employed to map the genome and quantitative trait loci controlling the early growth of a pine hybrid F1 tree (Pinus palustris Mill. × P. elliottii Engl.) and a recurrent slash pine tree (P. ellottii Engl.) in a (longleaf pine × slash pine...

  8. Mountain pine beetles use volatile cues to locate host limber pine and avoid non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine

    Treesearch

    Curtis A. Gray; Justin B. Runyon; Michael J. Jenkins; Andrew D. Giunta

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not...

  9. The HartX-synthesis: An experimental approach to water and carbon exchange of a Scots pine plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhofer, Ch.; Gay, L. W.; Granier, A.; Joss, U.; Kessler, A.; Köstner, B.; Siegwolf, R.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Vogt, R.

    1996-03-01

    In May 1992 during the interdisciplinary measurement campaign HartX (Hartheim eXperiment), several independent estimates of stand water vapor flux were compared at a 12-m high Scots pine ( Pinus silvestris) plantation on a flat fluvial terrace of the Rhine close to Freiburg, Germany. Weather during the HartX period was characterized by ten consecutive clear days with exceptionally high input of available energy for this time of year and with a slowly shifting diurnal pattern in atmospheric variables like vapor pressure deficit. Methods utilized to quantify components of stand water flux included porometry measurements on understory graminoid leaves and on pine needles and three different techniques for determining individual tree xylem sap flow. Micrometeorological methods included eddy covariance and eddy covariance energy balance techniques with six independent systems on two towers separated by 40 m. Additionally, Bowen ratio energy balance estimates of water flux were conducted and measurements of the gradients in water vapor, CO2, and trace gases within and above the stand were carried out with an additional, portable 30 m high telescoping mast. Biologically-based estimates of overstory transpiration were obtained by up-scaling tree sap flow rates to stand level via cumulative sapwood area. Tree transpiration contributed between 2.2 and 2.6 mm/day to ET for a tree leaf area index (LAI) of 2.8. The pine stand had an understory dominated by sedge and grass species with overall average LAI of 1.5. Mechanistic canopy gas exchange models that quantify both water vapor and CO2 exchange were applied to both understory and tree needle ecosystem compartments. Thus, the transpiration by graminoid species was estimated at approximately 20% of total stand ET. The modelled estimates for understory contribution to stand water flux compared well with micrometeorologically-based determinations. Maximum carbon gain was estimated from the canopy models at approximately 425 mmol

  10. Slash Pine (Pinus Elliottii), Including South Florida Slash Pine: Nomenclature and Description

    Treesearch

    Elbert L. Little; Keith W. Dorman

    1954-01-01

    Slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.), including its variation South Florida slash pine recently distinguished as a new botanical variety, has been known by several different scientific names. As a result, the common name slash pine is more precise and clearer than scientific names. The slash pine of southern Florida differs from typical slash pine in a few characters...

  11. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Treesearch

    Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Haiganoush K. Preisler; John T. Abatzoglou; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jesse A. Logan

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle...

  12. Needle traits of an evergreen, coniferous shrub growing at wind-exposed and protected sites in a mountain region: does Pinus pumila produce needles with greater mass per area under wind-stress conditions?

    PubMed

    Nagano, S; Nakano, T; Hikosaka, K; Maruta, E

    2009-11-01

    Snow depth is one of the most important determinants of vegetation, especially in mountainous regions. In such regions, snow depth tends to be low at wind-exposed sites such as ridges, where stand height and productivity are limited by stressful environmental conditions during winter. Siberian dwarf pine (Pinus pumila Regel) is a dominant species in mountainous regions of Japan. We hypothesized that P. pumila produces needles with greater mass per area at wind-exposed sites than at wind-protected sites because it invests more nitrogen (N) in cell walls at the expense of N investment in the photosynthetic apparatus, resulting in increased photosynthetic N use efficiency (PNUE). Contrary to our hypothesis, plants at wind-exposed site invested less resources in needles, as exhibited by lower biomass, N, Rubisco and cell wall mass per unit area, and had higher photosynthetic capacity, higher PNUE and shorter needle life-span than plants at a wind-protected site. N partitioning was not significantly different between sites. These results suggest that P. pumila at wind-exposed sites produces needles at low cost with high productivity to compensate for a short leaf life-span, which may be imposed by wind stress when needles appear above the snow surface in winter.

  13. Dimensional stabilization of southern pines

    Treesearch

    E.T. Choong; H.M. Barnes

    1969-01-01

    The effectiveness of five dimensional stabilizing agents and three impregnation methods on southern pine was determined. Four southern pine species were studies in order to determine the effect of wood factors. The best dimensional stability was obtained when the wood was preswollen and the chemical was impregnated by a diffusion process. In general, polyethylene...

  14. Restoration of Longleaf Pine Ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Dale G. Brockway; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Donald J. Tomczak; Everett E. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystems once occupied 38 million ha in the Southeastern United States, occurring as forests, woodlands, and savannas on a variety of sites ranging from wet flatwoods to xeric sandhills and rocky mountainous ridges. Characterized by an open parklike structure, longleaf pine ecosystems are a product of frequent fires...

  15. Natural Regeneration of Longleaf Pine

    Treesearch

    William D. Boyer

    1979-01-01

    Natural regeneration is now a reliable alternative for existing longleaf pine forests. The shelterwood system, or modifications of it, has been used experimentally to regenerate longleaf pine for over 20 years, and regional tests have confirmed its value for a wide range of site conditions. Natural regeneration, because of its low cost when compared to other...

  16. Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project

    Treesearch

    Daniel McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments around pinyon pine trees began as a simple project but ended in something more complex, enjoyable, and rewarding. The project eventually led to pinyon species (Pinus monophylla and P. quadrifolia) reforestation efforts, something that has been tried in the past with disappointing results. The Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project and current...

  17. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a stress-induced multifunctional O-methyltransferase with pinosylvin methyltransferase activity from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Chiron, H; Drouet, A; Claudot, A C; Eckerskorn, C; Trost, M; Heller, W; Ernst, D; Sandermann, H

    2000-12-01

    Formation of pinosylvin (PS) and pinosylvin 3-O-monomethyl ether (PSM), as well as the activities of stilbene synthase (STS) and S-adenosyl-1-methionine (SAM):pinosylvin O-methyltransferase (PMT), were induced strongly in needles of Scots pine seedlings upon ozone treatment, as well as in cell suspension cultures of Scots pine upon fungal elicitation. A SAM-dependent PMT protein was purified and partially characterised. A cDNA encoding PMT was isolated from an ozone-induced Scots pine cDNA library. Southern blot analysis of the genomic DNA suggested the presence of a gene family. The deduced protein sequence showed the typical highly conserved regions of O-methyltransferases (OMTs), and average identities of 20-56% to known OMTs. PMT expressed in Escherichia coli corresponded to that of purified PMT (40 kDa) from pine cell cultures. The recombinant enzyme catalysed the methylation of PS, caffeic acid, caffeoyl-CoA and quercetin. Several other substances, such as astringenin, resveratrol, 5-OH-ferulic acid, catechol and luteolin, were also methylated. Recombinant PMT thus had a relatively broad substrate specificity. Treatment of 7-year old Scots pine trees with ozone markedly increased the PMT mRNA level. Our results show that PMT represents a new SAM-dependent OMT for the methylation of stress-induced pinosylvin in Scots pine needles.

  18. Guidelines for regenerating southern pine beetle spots

    Treesearch

    J.C.G. Goelz; B.L. Strom; J.P. Barnett; M.A. Sword Sayer

    2012-01-01

    Southern pine forests are of exceptional commercial and ecological importance to the United States, and the southern pine beetle is their most serious insect pest. The southern pine beetle generally kills overstory pines, causing spots of tree mortality that are unpredictable in time and space and frequently disruptive to management activities and goals. The canopy...

  19. Southern Pine Beetle Behavior and Semiochemistry

    Treesearch

    Brian T. Sullivan

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) feeds both as adults and larvae within the inner bark of pine trees, which invariably die as a result of colonization. Populations of the SPB erupt periodically and produce catastrophic losses of pines, while at other times the beetles persist almost undetectably in the environment. The southern pine beetle has evolved behaviors that...

  20. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Ralph S. Meldahl; John S. Kush

    2006-01-01

    A fire-maintained longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem may offer the best option for carbon (C) sequestration among the southern pines. Longleaf is the longest living of the southern pines, and products from longleaf pine will sequester C longer than most since they are likely to be solid wood products such as structural lumber and poles....

  1. Growth and Yield of Slash Pine Plantations

    Treesearch

    Frank A. Bennett

    1963-01-01

    Although slash pine has the most limited range of the major southern pines, more has been planted than any other southern pine, or for that matter, than any timber species in North America. More acres of planted slash pine are also approaching a merchantable condition than any other species, even though the bulk of the plantings has been in the last 20 years....

  2. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Treesearch

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  3. Pleistocene Refugia for Longleaf and Loblolly Pines

    Treesearch

    Ronald C. Schmidtling; V. Hipkins; E. Carroll

    2000-01-01

    Longleaf pine (P. palustris Mill.) and loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) are two species that are common to the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The current natural range of the two species is largely overlapping. Loblolly pine occurs in 13 southeastern states. Longleaf pine is the more austral of the two species,...

  4. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Treesearch

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  5. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid ... Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? ...

  6. Needle Exchange Programs and Drug Injection Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSimone, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how drug injection and needle sharing propensities respond when a needle exchange program (NEP) is introduced into a city. I analyze 1989-1995 Drug Use Forecasting data on adult male arrestees from 24 large U.S. cities, in nine of which NEPs opened during the sample period. After controlling for cocaine and heroin prices, AIDS…

  7. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a...

  8. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode. (a...

  9. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... the skin in the practice of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle. The...

  10. Southern Pine Beetle Handbook: Southern Pine Beetles Can Kill Your Ornamental Pine

    Treesearch

    Robert C. Thatcher; Jack E. Coster; Thomas L. Payne

    1974-01-01

    Southern pine beetles are compulsive eaters. Each year in the South from Texas to Virginia the voracious insects conduct a movable feast across thousands of acres of pine forests. Most trees die soon after the beetles sink their teeth into them.

  11. Silvicultural treatments for converting loblolly pine to longleaf pine dominance: Effects on planted longleaf pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    Huifeng Hu; G.Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Benjamin O. Knapp

    2012-01-01

    A field study was installed to test silvicultural treatments for establishing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) in loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) stands. Harvesting was used to create seven canopy treatments, four with uniformly distributed canopies at different residual basal areas [Control (16.2 m2/ha),...

  12. [Academic origin of round magnetic needle and standardization operation].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan-Ting; Zhang, Tian-Sheng; Meng, Li-Qiang; Shi, Rui-Qi; Ji, Lai-Xi

    2014-07-01

    The origin and development of round magnetic needle was explored, and the structure of round magnetic needle was introduced in detail, including the handle, the body and the tip of the needle. The clinical opera tion of round magnetic needle were standardized from the aspects of the methods of holding needle, manipulation skill, tapping position, strength of manipulation, application scope and matters needing attention, which laid foundation for the popularization and application of round magnetic needle.

  13. Interannual variations in needle and sapwood traits of Pinus edulis branches under an experimental drought.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Marceau; Martin-Benito, Dario; von Arx, Georg; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Griffin, Kevin L; Hamdan, Rayann; McDowell, Nate G; Muscarella, Robert; Pockman, William; Gentine, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    In the southwestern USA, recent large-scale die-offs of conifers raise the question of their resilience and mortality under droughts. To date, little is known about the interannual structural response to droughts. We hypothesized that piñon pines ( Pinus edulis ) respond to drought by reducing the drop of leaf water potential in branches from year to year through needle morphological adjustments. We tested our hypothesis using a 7-year experiment in central New Mexico with three watering treatments (irrigated, normal, and rain exclusion). We analyzed how variation in "evaporative structure" (needle length, stomatal diameter, stomatal density, stomatal conductance) responded to watering treatment and interannual climate variability. We further analyzed annual functional adjustments by comparing yearly addition of needle area (LA) with yearly addition of sapwood area (SA) and distance to tip ( d ), defining the yearly ratios SA:LA and SA:LA/ d . Needle length ( l ) increased with increasing winter and monsoon water supply, and showed more interannual variability when the soil was drier. Stomatal density increased with dryness, while stomatal diameter was reduced. As a result, anatomical maximal stomatal conductance was relatively invariant across treatments. SA:LA and SA:LA/ d showed significant differences across treatments and contrary to our expectation were lower with reduced water input. Within average precipitation ranges, the response of these ratios to soil moisture was similar across treatments. However, when extreme soil drought was combined with high VPD, needle length, SA:LA and SA:LA/ d became highly nonlinear, emphasizing the existence of a response threshold of combined high VPD and dry soil conditions. In new branch tissues, the response of annual functional ratios to water stress was immediate (same year) and does not attempt to reduce the drop of water potential. We suggest that unfavorable evaporative structural response to drought is compensated

  14. [Professor WU Zhongchao's experience of penetration needling].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Bing; Zhou, Yu

    2016-08-12

    Professor WU Zhongchao has unique application of penetration needling in clinical treatment. Professor WU applies penetration needling along meridians, and the methods of penetration needling include self-meridian penetration, exterior-interior meridian penetration, identical-name meridian penetration, different meridian penetration. The meridian differentiation is performed according to different TCM syndromes, locations and natures of diseases and acupoint nature, so as to make a comprehensive assessment. The qi movement during acupuncture is focused. In addition, attention is paid on anatomy and long-needle penetration; the sequence and direction of acupuncture is essential, and the reinforcing and reducing methods have great originality, presented with holding, waiting, pressing and vibrating. Based on classical acupoint, the acupoint of penetration needling is flexible, forming unique combination of acupoints.

  15. Red Pine in the Northern Lake States

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Red pine is an important tree species for the Northern Lake States. About 4 percent of the total area of timberland is dominated by red pine but most other forest types also have red pine as a component. The red pine forest type in the region has dramatically increased in area since the 1930s. Stand-size class distribution of the red pine forest type has changed over...

  16. Particulate pollutants are capable to 'degrade' epicuticular waxes and to decrease the drought tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Pariyar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution causes the amorphous appearance of epicuticular waxes in conifers, usually called wax 'degradation' or 'erosion', which is often correlated with tree damage symptoms, e.g., winter desiccation. Previous investigations concentrated on wax chemistry, with little success. Here, we address the hypothesis that both 'wax degradation' and decreasing drought tolerance of trees may result from physical factors following the deposition of salt particles onto the needles. Pine seedlings were sprayed with dry aerosols or 50 mM solutions of different salts. The needles underwent humidity changes within an environmental scanning electron microscope, causing salt expansion on the surface and into the epistomatal chambers. The development of amorphous wax appearance by deliquescent salts covering tubular wax fibrils was demonstrated. The minimum epidermal conductance of the sprayed pine seedlings increased. Aerosol deposition potentially 'degrades' waxes and decreases tree drought tolerance. These effects have not been adequately considered thus far in air pollution research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Needle tip visibility in 3D ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Muhammad; Moelker, Adriaan; van Walsum, Theo

    2017-03-01

    Needle visibility is of crucial importance for ultrasound guided interventional procedures. However, several factors, such as shadowing by bone or gas and tissue echogenic properties similar to needles, may compromise needle visibility. Additionally, small angle between the ultrasound beam and the needle, as well as small gauged needles may reduce visibility. Variety in needle tips design may also affect needle visibility. Whereas several studies have investigated needle visibility in 2D ultrasound imaging, no data is available for 3D ultrasound imaging, a modality that has great potential for image guidance interventions1. In this study, we evaluated needle visibility using a 3D ultrasound transducer. We examined different needles in a tissue mimicking liver phantom at three angles (200, 550 and 900) and quantify their visibility. The liver phantom was made by 5% polyvinyl alcohol solution containing 1% Silica gel particles to act as ultrasound scattering particles. We used four needles; two biopsy needles (Quick core 14G and 18G), one Ablation needle (Radiofrequency Ablation 17G), and Initial puncture needle (IP needle 17G). The needle visibility was quantified by calculating contrast to noise ratio. The results showed that the visibility for all needles were almost similar at large angles. However the difference in visibility at lower angles is more prominent. Furthermore, the visibility increases with the increase in angle of ultrasound beam with needles.

  18. Radiofrequency Cauterization with Biopsy Introducer Needle

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, William F.; Wray-Cahen, Diane; Karanian, John W.; Hilbert, Stephen; Wood, Bradford J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The principal risks of needle biopsy are hemorrhage and implantation of tumor cells in the needle tract. This study compared hemorrhage after liver and kidney biopsy with and without radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the needle tract. MATERIALS AND METHODS Biopsies of liver and kidney were performed in swine through introducer needles modified to allow RF ablation with the distal 2 cm of the needle. After each biopsy, randomization determined whether the site was to undergo RF ablation during withdrawal of the introducer needle. Temperature was measured with a thermistor stylet near the needle tip, with a target temperature of 70°C–100°C with RF ablation. Blood loss was measured as grams of blood absorbed in gauze at the puncture site for 2 minutes after needle withdrawal. Selected specimens were cut for gross examination. RESULTS RF ablation reduced bleeding compared with absence of RF ablation in liver and kidney (P < .01), with mean blood loss reduced 63% and 97%, respectively. Mean amounts of blood loss (±SD) in the liver in the RF and no-RF groups were 2.03 g ± 4.03 (CI, 0.53–3.54 g) and 5.50 g ± 5.58 (CI, 3.33–7.66 g), respectively. Mean amounts of blood loss in the kidney in the RF and no-RF groups were 0.26 g ± 0.32 (CI, −0.01 to 0.53 g) and 8.79 g ± 7.72 (CI, 2.34–15.24 g), respectively. With RF ablation, thermal coagulation of the tissue surrounding the needle tract was observed. CONCLUSION RF ablation of needle biopsy tracts reduced hemorrhage after biopsy in the liver and kidney and may reduce complications of hemorrhage as well as implantation of tumor cells in the tract. PMID:14963187

  19. Know your limits? Climate extremes impact the range of Scots pine in unexpected places

    PubMed Central

    Julio Camarero, J.; Gazol, Antonio; Sancho-Benages, Santiago; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Although extreme climatic events such as drought are known to modify forest dynamics by triggering tree dieback, the impact of extreme cold events, especially at the low-latitude margin (‘rear edge’) of species distributional ranges, has received little attention. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of one such extreme cold event on a population of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) along the species’ European southern rear-edge range limit and to determine how such events can be incorporated into species distribution models (SDMs). Methods A combination of dendrochronology and field observation was used to quantify how an extreme cold event in 2001 in eastern Spain affected growth, needle loss and mortality of Scots pine. Long-term European climatic data sets were used to contextualize the severity of the 2001 event, and an SDM for Scots pine in Europe was used to predict climatic range limits. Key Results The 2001 winter reached record minimum temperatures (equivalent to the maximum European-wide diurnal ranges) and, for trees already stressed by a preceding dry summer and autumn, this caused dieback and large-scale mortality. Needle loss and mortality were particularly evident in south-facing sites, where post-event recovery was greatly reduced. The SDM predicted European Scots pine distribution mainly on the basis of responses to maximum and minimum monthly temperatures, but in comparison with this the observed effects of the 2001 cold event at the southerly edge of the range limit were unforeseen. Conclusions The results suggest that in order to better forecast how anthropogenic climate change might affect future forest distributions, distribution modelling techniques such as SDMs must incorporate climatic extremes. For Scots pine, this study shows that the effects of cold extremes should be included across the entire distribution margin, including the southern ‘rear edge’, in order to avoid biased predictions based solely

  20. Differential effects of plant ontogeny and damage type on phloem and foliage monoterpenes in jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    PubMed

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Colgan, L Jessie

    2012-08-01

    Coniferous trees have both constitutive and inducible defences that deter or kill herbivores and pathogens. We investigated constitutive and induced monoterpene responses of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to a number of damage types: a fungal associate of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey & R.W. Davidson); two phytohormones, methyl jasmonate (MJ) and methyl salicylate (MS); simulated herbivory; and mechanical wounding. We only included the fungal, MJ and mechanical wounding treatments in the field experiments while all treatments were part of the greenhouse studies. We focused on both constitutive and induced responses between juvenile and mature jack pine trees and differences in defences between phloem and needles. We found that phytohormone applications and fungal inoculation resulted in the greatest increase in monoterpenes in both juvenile and mature trees. Additionally, damage types differentially affected the proportions of individual monoterpenes: MJ-treated mature trees had higher myrcene and β-pinene than fungal-inoculated mature trees, while needles of juveniles inoculated with the fungus contained higher limonene than MJ- or MS-treated juveniles. Although the constitutive monoterpenes were higher in the phloem of juveniles than mature jack pine trees, the phloem of mature trees had a much higher magnitude of induction. Further, induced monoterpene concentrations in juveniles were higher in phloem than in needles. There was no difference in monoterpene concentration between phytohormone applications and G. clavigera inoculation in mature trees, while in juvenile trees MJ was different from both G. clavigera and simulated herbivory in needle monoterpenes, but there was no difference between phytohormone applications and simulated herbivory in the phloem.

  1. Changes in water, nitrogen and carbon cycling in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) during a mortality event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renninger, H. J.; Hornslein, N.; Siegert, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Depending on the type of disturbance, the mortality process of an individual tree may occur over an extended period leading to changes in tree and ecosystem functioning throughout this time period and before ultimate tree death is evident. Therefore, the goals of this research were to quantify physiological changes occurring in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) during an extended mortality event. In July 2015, ten trees were girdled to simulate a Southern pine beetle disturbance and trees were monitored until their eventual mortality which occurred from Aug. to Dec. of 2016. Sapflow rates and litterfall were monitored throughout the mortality process and photosynthetic rates and leaf nitrogen concentrations were measured at the height of the 2016 growing season. Girdled pines had significantly higher sapflow compared with control pines in the first month following girdling, then sapflow did not differ significantly for the remainder of the 2015 growing season. From Dec. 2015 to Dec. 2016, control trees had about 25% higher sapflow compared with girdled pines, but both groups maintained a similar relationship between sapflow and soil moisture. Extensive litterfall occurred throughout the 2016 growing season and litter had 50% higher N concentration than the prior growing season. N concentration of fresh leaves collected in 2016 did not differ in girdled vs. control pines but control pines had 64% higher maximum Rubisco-limited carboxylation rates (Vcmax) and 68% higher electron transport-limited carboxylation rates (Jmax) compared to girdled pines. Control pines also had 66% higher foliage densities and 44% larger growth ring widths than girdled pines at the end of the 2016 growing season. Taken together, these results highlight the physiological changes that occur in pines undergoing mortality before needles completely discolor and drop. Compared with control pines, girdled pines exhibited greater changes in carbon and nitrogen compared with water use suggesting that

  2. Identifying ponderosa pines infested with mountain pine beetles

    Treesearch

    William F. McCambridge

    1974-01-01

    Trees successfully and unsuccessfully attacked by mountain pine beetles have several symptoms in common, so that proper diagnosis is not always easy. Guidelines presented here enable the observer to correctly distinguish nearly all attacked trees.

  3. Pine Sawfly Larvae Destroy Shortleaf Pine Strobili in Virginia

    Treesearch

    David L. Bramlett; Jay G. Hutchinson

    1965-01-01

    Current studies of shortleaf pine seed production at the Lee Experimental Forest in the Virginia Piedmont have shown that insects can seriously reduce the number of female strobili during the a-year development period.

  4. [Infraoccipital needle-knife for cervical vertigo].

    PubMed

    Li, Shaofang; Huang, Manhua; Lin, Zhuopeng; Chen, Xinze; Lin, Dongna; Lu, Peng; Lu, Qu

    2017-03-12

    To observe the clinical effect differences between infraoccipital needle-knife and massage for cervical vertigo. A total of 366 patients with cervical vertigo were randomly assigned into a needle-knife group (186 cases) and a massage group (180 cases). With cases dropping excluded, 183 cases in the needle-knife group and 176 cases in the massage group were included. Needle-knife was used at Fengchi (GB 20), infraoccipital ashi point, etc. in the needle-knife group. The treatment was given for one course, once three days, 5 times as one course. The traditional massage was applied in the massage group for one course, including systematic stroking, kneading, and the application of pressure and plucking, etc., once every two days and 7 times as one course. The dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) score was observed before and after treatment, as well as 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment. The effects were also evaluated. The total effective rate was 92.3% (169/183) in the needle-knife group, which was better than 85.2% (150/176) in the massage group ( P <0.05). Compared with those before treatment, the DHI scores at all the observation time points after treatment were improved in the two groups (all P <0.05), with better improvements after treatment as well as 3 and 6 months after treatment in the needle-knife group (all P <0.05). There was no significant difference in the improvement of DHI scores between the two groups 12 months after treatment ( P >0.05). The recurrence rate was 10.3% (12/117) in the needle-knife group, and it was 10.7% (11/103) in the massage group 12 months after treatment ( P >0.05). Infraoccipital needle-knife achieves apparent effect for cervical vertigo, which is superior to massage in short period.

  5. Ponderosa pine mortality resulting from a mountain pine beetle outbreak

    Treesearch

    William F. McCambridge; Frank G. Hawksworth; Carleton B. Edminster; John G. Laut

    1982-01-01

    From 1965 to 1978, mountain pine beetles killed 25% of the pines taller than 4.5 feet in a study area in north-central Colorado. Average basal area was reduced from 92 to 58 square feet per acre. Mortality increased with tree diameter up to about 9 inches d.b.h. Larger trees appeared to be killed at random. Mortality was directly related to number of trees per acre and...

  6. Pinus lambertiana Dougl. Sugar Pine; Pinaceae Pine family

    Treesearch

    Bohun B. Kinloch Jr.; William H. Scheuner

    1990-01-01

    Called "the most princely of the genus" by its discoverer, David Douglas, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is the tallest and largest of all pines, commonly reaching heights of 53 to 61 m (175 to 200 ft) and d.b.h. of 91 to 152 cm (36 to 60 in). Old trees occasionally exceed 500 years and, among associated species, are second only to giant...

  7. Wood variables affecting the friction coefficient of spruce pine on steel

    Treesearch

    Truett J. Lemoine; Charles W. McMillin; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1970-01-01

    Wood of spruce pine, Pinus glabra Walk., was factorially segregated by moisture content (0, 10, and 18 percent), specific gravity (less than 0.45 and more than 0.45), and extractive content (unextracted and extractive-freE), and the kinetic coefficient of friction on steel (having surface roughness of 9 microinches RMS) determined for tangential...

  8. Differences in some chemical properties of innerwood and outerwood from five silviculturally different loblolly pine stands

    Treesearch

    Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse; Elvin T. Choong; Leslie H. Groom

    1997-01-01

    The influence of five different silviculrural management strategies on the chemical composition (extractives, Klason lignin, holocellulose, and alpha-cellulose) of loblolly pine outerwood and innerwood was investigated. Stands that were managed in a plantation setting using growth-accelerating treatments showed higher extractive contents than the other stands. Wood...

  9. The inflow of Cs-137 in soil with root litter and root exudates of Scots pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Olga; Popova, Evgenia

    2017-04-01

    In the model experiment on evaluation of Cs-137 inflow in the soil with litter of roots and woody plants root exudates on the example of soil and water cultures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was shown, that through 45 days after the deposit Cs-137 solution on pine needles (specific activity of solution was 3.718*106 Bk) of the radionuclide in all components of model systems has increased significantly: needles, small branches and trunk by Cs-137 surface contamination during the experiment; roots as a result of the internal distribution of the radionuclide in the plant; soil and soil solution due to the of receipt Cs-137 in the composition of root exudates and root litter. Over 99% of the total reserve of Cs-137 accumulated in the components of the soil and water systems, accounted for bodies subjected to external pollution (needles and small branches) and <0.5% - on the soil / soil solution, haven't been subjected to surface contamination. At the same contamination of soil and soil solution by Cs-137 in the model experiment more than a> 99.9% was due to root exudates

  10. Fine-needle aspiration by vacuum tubes.

    PubMed

    Holmquist, N D

    1989-07-01

    Fine-needle aspiration of subcutaneous masses, accepted in many parts of Europe and the Americas as a routine diagnostic technique, employs a syringe holder to facilitate the creation of a vacuum to withdraw cells. This investigation demonstrates that a vacuum tube used in venipuncture can be used to supply the negative pressure to suck cells into the needle. This apparatus is more readily available than a syringe holder in hospitals and clinics, and particularly provides the operator with a more dexterous approach to the mass because the fingers holding the needle can be much closer to the mass being immobilized by the other hand.

  11. Artificial regeneration of shortleaf pine

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett; John C. Brissette; William C. Carlson

    1986-01-01

    The artificial means for establishing stands of shortleaf pine seedlings are reviewed. In addition to the relative merits of direct seeding and planting of bare-root and container seedlings, techniques that should help ensure successful stand establishment are discussed.

  12. Wildlife and shortleaf pine management

    Treesearch

    T. Bently Wigley

    1986-01-01

    Shortleaf pine forests (Pinus echinata) are used for multiple purposes. This paper discusses the effects that timber management, livestock grazing, and recreational uses of the shortleaf forest may have on its wildlife resources.

  13. Lower incidence of postdural puncture headache using whitacre spinal needles after spinal anesthesia: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Chen, LingXiao; Chen, XingYu; Wang, XiaoBo; Li, YuLin; Ning, GuangZhi; Feng, ShiQing

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the postdural puncture headache after spinal anesthesia with Whitacre spinal needles compared with Quincke spine needles. We searched several databases, including PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until October 10th, 2014, for randomized controlled trials that compared spinal anesthesia with Whitacre spinal needles or Quincke spine needles for postdural puncture headache. Two reviewers independently screened the literature, assessed the risk for bias and extracted data. We used RevMan 5.3 software to perform the meta-analysis. Studies were included for the main end points if they addressed the following: frequency of postdural puncture headache, severity of postdural puncture headache as assessed by limitation of activities, and frequency of epidural blood patch. Nine randomized controlled trials were included for meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed that spinal anesthesia with Whitacre spinal needles achieved lower incidence of postdural puncture headache(RR 0.34; 95% CI [0.22, 0.52]; P < .00001); in addition, the severity of postdural puncture headache was lower in the Whitacre spinal needle group (RR 0.32; 95% CI [0.16, 0.66]; P = .002). Furthermore, the frequency of an epidural blood patch in the Whitacre spinal needle group was lower compared with that in the Quincke spine needle group (RR 0.15; 95% CI [0.04, 0.51]; P = .002). We suggest the Whitacre spinal needles as a superior choice for spinal anesthesia compared with Quincke spine needles. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  14. Fuel and fire behavior in high-elevation five-needle pines affected by mountain pine beetle

    Treesearch

    Michael J. Jenkins

    2011-01-01

    Bark beetle-caused tree mortality in conifer forests affects the quantity and quality of forest fuels and has long been assumed to increase fire hazard and potential fire behavior. In reality, bark beetles and their effects on fuel accumulation and subsequent fire hazard have only recently been described. We have extensively sampled fuels in three conifer forest types...

  15. Biosynthesis of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol emitted from needles of Pinus ponderosa via the non-mevalonate DOXP/MEP pathway of isoprenoid formation.

    PubMed

    Zeidler, J; Lichtenthaler, H K

    2001-06-01

    The volatile hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) is emitted from the needles of several pine species from the Western United States and contributes to ozone formation in the atmosphere. It is synthesised enzymatically from dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). We show here that needles of Pinus ponderosa Laws. incorporated [1-2H1]-1-deoxy-D-xylulose (d-DOX) into the emitted MBO, but not D,L-[2-13C]mevalonic acid lactone. Furthermore, MBO emission was inhibited by fosmidomycin, a specific inhibitor of the second enzyme of the mevalonate-independent pathway of isopentenyl diphosphate and DMAPP formation, i.e. the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate/2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathway. We thus prove that MBO emitted from needles of P. ponderosa is primarily formed via the DOXP/MEP pathway.

  16. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    This ASTER image was acquired on December 12, 2000, and covers an area of 38 x 48 km. Pine Island Glacier has undergone a steady loss of elevation with retreat of the grounding line in recent decades. Now, space imagery has revealed a wide new crack that some scientists think will soon result in a calving event. Glaciologist Robert Bindschadler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center predicts this crack will result in the calving of a major iceberg, probably in less than 18 months. Discovery of the crack was possible due to multi-year image archives and high resolution imagery. This image is located at 74.1 degrees south latitude and 105.1 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11095

  17. Pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    After devastating vast areas of pine forests in Asian countries, the pine wilt disease spread into European forests in 1999 and is causing worldwide concern. This disease involves very complicated interactions between a pathogenic nematode, its vector beetle, host pine species, and fungi in dead hosts. Pathogenicity of the pine wood nematode is determined not only by its physical and chemical traits but also by its behavioral traits. Most life history traits of the pine wood nematode, such as its phoretic relationship with vector beetles, seem to be more effective in virulent than in avirulent isolates or species. As the pathogenicity determinants, secreted enzymes, and surface coat proteins are very important, they have therefore been studied intensively. The mechanism of quick death of a large pine tree as a result of infection by a tiny nematode could be ascribed to the dysfunction of the water-conducting system caused by the death of parenchyma cells, which must have originally evolved as an inherent resistant system.

  18. Research on needle exchange: redefining the agenda.

    PubMed Central

    Hantman, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers studying needle-exchange programs in the United States pursue a two-fold agenda that requires answers to these questions: (1) Do such programs successfully reduce HIV seroprevalence among injecting drug users? (2) Do they promote drug use? Several federal laws and regulations require convincing data on each question before the release of federal funds for needle exchange. Fears that needle exchange promotes drug use are at the core of federal concerns, and these fears are shared by community leaders, scientists, and public health professionals. Nonetheless, the manner in which the "drug use" question has been framed and addressed in scientific research has been given insufficient attention. This article aims to stimulate debate about current research, and restore a focus on HIV prevention, by addressing several methodological, logical, and ethical weaknesses that characterize the scientific inquiry into whether needle exchange promotes drug use. PMID:10101379

  19. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration needles: which one and in what situation?

    PubMed

    Karadsheh, Zeid; Al-Haddad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is increasingly used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for pancreatic and other gastrointestinal disorders. Several factors affect the outcome of EUS-FNA, one of which is needle size. The decision to use a specific needle depends on factors including location, consistency, and type of the lesion; presence of onsite cytopathologist; and need for additional tissue procurement for histology. This review provides a balanced perspective on the use of different needle sizes available, highlighting the differences among them and potential niche applications of each to maximize diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Our experience using "Huber Plus" needles in our infusion center].

    PubMed

    Tazumi, Keiko; Kouji, Keiko; Matsumura, Natsuko; Nabetani, Yoshiko; Kondo, Motoi; Tomono, Kazunori; Mizuki, Masao

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a pilot trial to compare the operability and safety of two huber needles in the infusion center. In the present study, we used huber needles without the safety cover and one huber needle with the safety cover (Huber Plus(R)). Both huber needles were used nine times. The successful puncture rate of the first time puncture and the incidence of needle accidents with both huber needles were 100% and 0%, respectively. The evaluation of pain and uneasiness by VAS (Visual Analogue scale)revealed the superiority of the safety needle over the than non-safety needle(pain: 3.8 vs 2.6, uneasiness: 3.7 vs 0.5). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the safety of the huber needle in Japan. This system may be recommended in Japan to avoid needle stick injuries, patient pain and uneasiness.

  1. Feeding response of Ips paraconfusus to phloem and phloem metabolites of Heterobasidion annosum-inoculated ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa.

    PubMed

    McNee, William R; Bonello, Pierluigi; Storer, Andrew J; Wood, David L; Gordon, Thomas R

    2003-05-01

    In studies of feeding by the bark beetle, Ips paraconfusus, two pine stilbenes (pinosylvin and pinosylvin methyl ether), ferulic acid glucoside, and enantiomers of the four most common sugars present in ponderosa pine phloem (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and raffinose) did not stimulate or reduce male feeding when assayed on wet alpha-cellulose with or without stimulatory phloem extractives present. When allowed to feed on wet alpha-cellulose containing sequential extracts (hexane, methanol, and water) of ponderosa pine phloem, methanol and water extractives stimulated feeding, but hexane extractives did not. Males confined in wet alpha-cellulose containing aqueous or organic extracts of culture broths derived from phloem tissue and containing the root pathogen. Heterobasidion annosum, ingested less substrate than beetles confined to control preparations. In an assay using logs from uninoculated ponderosa pines, the mean lengths of phloem in the digestive tracts increased as time spent feeding increased. Males confined to the phloem of basal logs cut from ponderosa pines artificially inoculated with H. annosum ingested significantly less phloem than beetles in logs cut from trees that were (combined) mock-inoculated or uninoculated and did not contain the pathogen. However, individual pathogen-containing treatments were not significantly different from uninoculated controls. It was concluded that altered feeding rates are not a major factor which may explain why diseased ponderosa pines are colonized by I. paraconfusus.

  2. Transillumination for needle localization in the larynx.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Henry T; Dailey, Seth H; Bock, Jonathan M; Thibeault, Susan L; McCulloch, Timothy M

    2015-10-01

    Transillumination through laryngeal soft tissue may be used to direct percutaneous transcricothyroid membrane subepithelial needle placement in the larynx. Cadaver simulation (canine and human). Lighted devices, including sialendoscopes and fiberoptic cables, were tested as transilluminating obturators in trocars and needles through multiple studies to identify appropriate illumination, monitoring, and equipment for successful localization of needle/trocar tips placed within laryngeal tissue. Lighted 250-micron fiberoptic cables within 23-gauge needles were successfully placed percutaneously through the cricothyroid membrane and maneuvered submucosally into Reinke's space, the midlateral vocal fold, and through the thyroarytenoid gap with monitoring via flexible transnasal laryngoscopy. Technical adaptations in the course of study permitted successful simulation of clinical use in full cadaver study for accurate injection laryngoplasty, confirmed by laryngeal dissection following collagen injection. Small caliber fiberoptic cables are useful as transilluminating obturators to accurately direct needle position within laryngeal tissue. Clinical application of this new technique is anticipated to improve the accuracy of percutaneous needle localization in the larynx, as well as to assist in directed instrumentation of the larynx from an external approach. N/A. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. How Placebo Needles Differ From Placebo Pills?

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Ye-Seul; Enck, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Because acupuncture treatment is defined by the process of needles penetrating the body, placebo needles were originally developed with non-penetrating mechanisms. However, whether placebo needles are valid controls in acupuncture research is subject of an ongoing debate. The present review provides an overview of the characteristics of placebo needles and how they differ from placebo pills in two aspects: (1) physiological response and (2) blinding efficacy. We argue that placebo needles elicit physiological responses similar to real acupuncture and therefore provide similar clinical efficacy. We also demonstrate that this efficacy is further supported by ineffective blinding (even in acupuncture-naïve patients) which may lead to opposite guesses that will further enhances efficacy, as compared to no-treatment, e.g., with waiting list controls. Additionally, the manner in which placebo needles can exhibit therapeutic effects relative to placebo pills include enhanced touch sensations, direct stimulation of the somatosensory system and activation of multiple brain systems. We finally discuss alternative control strategies for the placebo effects in acupuncture therapy.

  4. HOW to Manage Eastern White Pine to Minimize Damage from Blister Rust and White Pine Weevil

    Treesearch

    Steven Katovich; Manfred E. Mielke

    1993-01-01

    White pine was once a dominant forest species in the north central and northeastern United States. Following logging in the late 1800's and the early part of this century, two major pests, white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola J.C.Fisch., and white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Peck), combined to reduce the value of white pine. Blister rust was introduced...

  5. Relative Suitability of Virginia Pine and Loblolly Pine as Host Species for Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    Jessica S. Veysey; Matthew P. Ayres; Maria J. Lombardero; Richard W. Hofstetter; Kier D. Klepzig

    2003-01-01

    Dendroctonus frontalis is a major disturbance agent in American pine forests, but attack preferences for various host species, and their relative suitability for reproduction, are poorly knowi). We studied patterns of beetle attack and reproduction during an infestation of stands contairiing Virginia pine and lol~lolly pine. Nearly all Virginia pine...

  6. Scar markers in a longleaf pine x slash pine F1 family

    Treesearch

    C. Weng; Thomas L. Kubisiak; M. Stine

    1998-01-01

    Sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were derived from random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) that segregate in a longleaf pine x slash pine F1 family. Nine RAPD fragments, five from longleaf pine and four from slash pine, were cloned and end sequenced. A total of 13 SCAR primer pairs, with lengths between 17 and 24...

  7. Limber pine forests on the leading edge of white pine blister rust distribution in Northern Colorado

    Treesearch

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Betsy A. Goodrich; Anna W. Schoettle

    2011-01-01

    The combined threats of the current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) epidemic with the imminent invasion of white pine blister rust (caused by the non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, WPBR) in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests in northern Colorado threatens the limber pine's regeneration cycle and ecosystem function. Over one million...

  8. White-pine weevil attack: susceptibility of western white pine in the Northeast

    Treesearch

    Ronald C. Wilkinson

    1981-01-01

    Heights were measured and white-pine weevil (Pissodes strobi (Peck)) attacks were recorded on 668 western white pines (Pinus monticola Douglas) interplanted among 109 eastern white pines (Pinus strobus L.) in a 10-year-old plantation in southern Maine. Less than 13 percent of the western white pines were...

  9. A ponderosa pine-lodgepole pine spacing study in central Oregon: results after 20 years.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1989-01-01

    The growth response after 20 years from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure ponderosa pine, pure lodgepole pine, and a...

  10. Influence of pine straw harvesting, prescribed fire, and fertilization on a Louisiana longleaf pine site

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood

    2009-01-01

    This research was initiated in a 34-year-old, direct-seeded stand of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) to study how pine straw management practices (harvesting, fire, and fertilization) affected the longleaf pine overstory and pine straw yields. A randomized complete block split-plot design was installed with two main plot treatments...

  11. Strategies for managing whitebark pine in the presence of white pine blister rust [Chapter 17

    Treesearch

    Raymond J. Hoff; Dennis E. Ferguson; Geral I. McDonald; Robert E. Keane

    2001-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is one of many North American white pine species (Pinus subgenus Strobus) susceptible to the fungal disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Blister rust has caused severe mortality (often reaching nearly 100 percent) in many stands of white bark pine north of 45° latitude in western North America. The rust is slowly...

  12. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Treesearch

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  13. Field Tests of Pine Oil as a Repellent for Southern Pine Bark Beetles

    Treesearch

    J.C. Nod; F.L. Hastings; A.S. Jones

    1990-01-01

    An experimental mixture of terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood pulping, BBR-2, sprayed on the lower 6 m of widely separated southern pine trees did not protect nearby trees from southern pine beetle attacks. Whether treated trees were protected from southern pine beetle was inconclusive. The pine oil mixture did not repellpsfrom treated trees or nearby untreated...

  14. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Curtis A.; Runyon, Justin B.; Jenkins, Michael J.; Giunta, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species. PMID:26332317

  15. Effects of an introduced pathogen and fire exclusion on the demography of sugar pine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Keeley, Jon E.

    2004-01-01

    An introduced pathogen, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola), has caused declines in five-needled pines throughout North America. Simultaneously, fire exclusion has resulted in dense stands in many forest types, which may create additional stress for these generally shade-intolerant pines. Fire exclusion also allows fuels to accumulate, and it is unclear how affected populations will respond to the reintroduction of fire. Although white pine blister rust and fire exclusion are widely recognized threats, long-term demographic data that document the effects of these stressors are rare. We present population trends from 2168 individuals over 5–15 years for an affected species, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), at several burned and unburned sites in the Sierra Nevada of California. Size-based matrix models indicate that most unburned populations have negative growth rates (λ range: 0.82–1.04). The growth rate of most populations was, however, indistinguishable from replacement levels (λ = 1.0), implying that, if populations are indeed declining, the progression of any such decline is slow, and longer observations are needed to clearly determine population trends. We found significant differences among population growth rates, primarily due to variation in recruitment rates. Deaths associated with blister rust and stress (i.e., resource competition) were common, suggesting significant roles for both blister rust and fire exclusion in determining population trajectories. Data from 15 prescribed fires showed that the immediate effect of burning was the death of many small trees, with the frequency of mortality returning to pre-fire levels within five years. In spite of a poor prognosis for sugar pine, our results suggest that we have time to apply and refine management strategies to protect this species.

  16. A method of determining the presence of blood in and on a dental needle after the administration of local anesthetic.

    PubMed

    Kotze, Marthinus J; Labuschagne, Willemien

    2014-06-01

    In the study reported in this article, the authors aimed to demonstrate the presence of blood on the surface and in the lumen of two gauges of dental needles after administration of local anesthetic (LA) by using three LA-administering techniques normally used for the extraction of teeth. The authors obtained standardized photographs of 200 urine dipsticks after moistening the dipstick's chemical pads for blood with the first drop of liquid discharged from the needle lumen after LA administration. Using the histogram function of a software program, the authors analyzed differences in gray-scale values of the different blood parameters for the presence of blood. They used luminol spray to expose small quantities of blood on the surface of the needle after LA administration. Blood was identified at 39 percent in the lumen and at 16 percent on the surface of the needles when analyzed after LA administration. With the method used, it was possible to demonstrate and quantify the percentage of blood present in the lumen of needles (39 percent) after the administration of dental LA. Furthermore, the technique was adequately sensitive for demonstrating the quantity of blood in two needles of different diameters. By demonstrating the presence, as well as quantifying the percentage, of blood on two dental needles of different gauges after the administration of LA, dental health care workers can be motivated to report needlestick injuries and to follow the approved protocols recommended by their institutions.

  17. Arterial puncture using insulin needle is less painful than with standard needle: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Irwani; Yau, Ying Wei; Ong, Lizhen; Chan, Yiong Huak; Kuan, Win Sen

    2015-03-01

    Arterial punctures are important procedures performed by emergency physicians in the assessment of ill patients. However, arterial punctures are painful and can create anxiety and needle phobia in patients. The pain score of radial arterial punctures were compared between the insulin needle and the standard 23-gauge hypodermic needle. In a randomized controlled crossover design, healthy volunteers were recruited to undergo bilateral radial arterial punctures. They were assigned to receive either the insulin or the standard needle as the first puncture, using blocked randomization. The primary outcome was the pain score measured on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, and secondary outcomes were rate of hemolysis, mean potassium values, and procedural complications immediately and 24 hours postprocedure. Fifty healthy volunteers were included in the study. The mean (±standard deviation) VAS score in punctures with the insulin needle was lower than the standard needle (23 ± 22 mm vs. 39 ± 24 mm; mean difference = -15 mm; 95% confidence interval = -22 mm to -7 mm; p < 0.001). The rates of hemolysis and mean potassium value were greater in samples obtained using the insulin needle compared to the standard needle (31.3% vs. 11.6%, p = 0.035; and 4.6 ±0.7 mmol/L vs. 4.2 ±0.5 mmol/L, p = 0.002). Procedural complications were lower in punctures with the insulin needle both immediately postprocedure (0% vs. 24%; p < 0.001) and at 24 hours postprocedure (5.4% vs. 34.2%; p = 0.007). Arterial punctures using insulin needles cause less pain and fewer procedural complications compared to standard needles. However, due to the higher rate of hemolysis, its use should be limited to conditions that do not require a concurrent potassium value in the same blood sample. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  18. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth Control and Loblolly Pine Growth in Intensive Pine Culture: Two-Year Results

    Treesearch

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar, Oust, and Arsenal...

  19. A comparison of loblolly pine growth and yield on pure pine and mixed pine-hardwood sites

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood; John R. Toliver

    1989-01-01

    The case histories of four loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) sites were examined to determine if differences in growth and yield could be associated with stand type. The stand types were pure loblolly pine and mixed loblolly pine-hardwood. All sites were located on silt loam soils and mechanical site preparation was carried out on all sites before...

  20. Hybrids of sugar pine by embryo culture

    Treesearch

    E. C. Stone; J. W. Duffield

    1950-01-01

    A modified embryo culture technique was used to facilitate germination of seed obtained after pollinating sugar pine with pollen from blister rust- resistant Armand and Korean pines. Resulting seedlings appear to be hybrids.

  1. Laser-photofield emission from needle cathodes for low-emittance electron beams.

    PubMed

    Ganter, R; Bakker, R; Gough, C; Leemann, S C; Paraliev, M; Pedrozzi, M; Le Pimpec, F; Schlott, V; Rivkin, L; Wrulich, A

    2008-02-15

    Illumination of a ZrC needle with short laser pulses (16 ps, 266 nm) while high voltage pulses (-60 kV, 2 ns, 30 Hz) are applied, produces photo-field emitted electron bunches. The electric field is high and varies rapidly over the needle surface so that quantum efficiency (QE) near the apex can be much higher than for a flat photocathode due to the Schottky effect. Up to 150 pC (2.9 A peak current) have been extracted by photo-field emission from a ZrC needle. The effective emitting area has an estimated radius below 50 microm leading to a theoretical intrinsic emittance below 0.05 mm mrad.

  2. Determination of glutathione in spruce needles by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gucek, Marjan; Makuc, Simon; Mlakar, Anita; Bericnik-Vrbovsek, Julija; Marsel, Joze

    2002-01-01

    For the determination of glutathione (GSH) and its oxidized form (GSSG) in spruce needles their electrospray mass and MS/MS spectra were recorded with an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS, LCQ, Finnigan) and a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer (TSQ, Quattro II, Micromass). A study of the stability of GSH in aqueous solutions shows the presence of dimeric and trimeric forms of GSH, as well as GSSG, GSH-sulfonate and GSH-sulfinic acid. The same components were also found in extracts of spruce needles. We developed an assay which is suitable for monitoring low concentrations of GSH and similar compounds in plant tissues, employing the sensitivity and specificity of LC/MS/MS. Preliminary results on the mass spectrometric determination of GSH in spruce needles are given. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effect of Needle Size in Ultrasound-guided Core Needle Breast Biopsy: Comparison of 14-, 16-, and 18-Gauge Needles.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Michela; Rinaldi, Pierluigi; Rella, Rossella; Fabrizi, Gina; Petta, Federica; Carlino, Giorgio; Di Leone, Alba; Mulè, Antonino; Bufi, Enida; Romani, Maurizio; Belli, Paolo; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (US-CNB) of breast lesions, comparing smaller needles (16- and 18-gauge) with the 14-gauge needle, and to analyze the lesion characteristics influencing US-CNB diagnostic performance. All the patients provided informed consent before the biopsy procedure. The data from breast lesions that had undergone US-CNB in our institution from January 2011 to January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criterion was the surgical histopathologic examination findings of the entire lesion or radiologic follow-up data for ≥ 24 months. The exclusion criterion was the use of preoperative neoadjuvant therapy. The US-CNB results were compared with the surgical pathologic results or with the follow-up findings in the 3 needle size groups (14-, 16-, and 18-gauge). The needle size- and lesion characteristic-specific diagnostic accuracy parameters were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using a dedicated software program, and P ≤ .01 was considered significant. A total of 1118 US-CNB cases (1042 patients) were included. Of the 1118 cases, 630 (56.3%) were in the 14-gauge group, 136 (12.2%) in the 16-gauge, and 352 (31.5%) in the 18-gauge needle group. Surgery was performed on 800 lesions (71.6%). Of these, 619 were malignant, 77 were high risk, and 104 were benign. The remaining 318 lesions (28.4%) underwent follow-up imaging studies. All the lesions were stable and, therefore, were considered benign. No differences were observed in the diagnostic accuracy parameters among the 3 needle size groups (P > .01). The false-negative rate was greater for lesions < 10 mm (7.2%) (P < .01) but without statistically significant differences among the 3 gauges (P > .01). US-CNB performed with small needles (16 and 18 gauge) had the same diagnostic accuracy as that performed with 14-gauge needles, regardless of the lesion characteristics. Copyright © 2017

  4. Comparison of Spinal Needle Deflection in a Ballistic Gel Model.

    PubMed

    Rand, Ethan; Christolias, George; Visco, Christopher; R Singh, Jaspal

    2016-10-01

    Percutaneous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are commonly used in the treatment of spinal pain. The success of these procedures depends on the accuracy of needle placement, which is influenced by needle size and shape. The purpose of this study is to examine and quantify the deviation of commonly used spinal needles based on needle tip design and gauge, using a ballistic gel tissue simulant. Six needles commonly used in spinal procedures (Quincke, Short Bevel, Chiba, Tuohy, Hustead, Whitacre) were selected for use in this study. Ballistic gel samples were made in molds of two depths, 40mm and 80 mm. Each needle was mounted in a drill press to ensure an accurate needle trajectory. Distance of deflection was recorded for each needle. In comparing the mean deflection of 22 gauge needles of all types at 80 mm of depth, deflection was greatest among beveled needles [Short Bevel (9.96 ± 0.77 mm), Quincke (8.89 ± 0.17 mm), Chiba (7.71 ± 1.16 mm)], moderate among epidural needles [Tuohy (7.64 ± 0.16 mm) and least among the pencil-point needles [Whitacre (0.73 ± 0.34 mm)]. Increased gauge (25 g) led to a significant increase in deflection among beveled needles. The direction of deflection was away from the bevel with Quincke, Chiba and Short Beveled needles and toward the bevel of the Tuohy and Hustead needles. Deflection of the Whitacre pencil-point needle was minimal. There is clinical utility in knowing the relative deflection of various needle tips. When a procedure requires a needle to be steered around obstacles, or along non-collinear targets, the predictable and large amount of deflection obtained through use of a beveled spinal needle may prove beneficial.

  5. Comparison of Spinal Needle Deflection in a Ballistic Gel Model

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Ethan; Christolias, George; Visco, Christopher; R. Singh, Jaspal

    2016-01-01

    Background Percutaneous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are commonly used in the treatment of spinal pain. The success of these procedures depends on the accuracy of needle placement, which is influenced by needle size and shape. Objectives The purpose of this study is to examine and quantify the deviation of commonly used spinal needles based on needle tip design and gauge, using a ballistic gel tissue simulant. Materials and Methods Six needles commonly used in spinal procedures (Quincke, Short Bevel, Chiba, Tuohy, Hustead, Whitacre) were selected for use in this study. Ballistic gel samples were made in molds of two depths, 40mm and 80 mm. Each needle was mounted in a drill press to ensure an accurate needle trajectory. Distance of deflection was recorded for each needle. Results In comparing the mean deflection of 22 gauge needles of all types at 80 mm of depth, deflection was greatest among beveled needles [Short Bevel (9.96 ± 0.77 mm), Quincke (8.89 ± 0.17 mm), Chiba (7.71 ± 1.16 mm)], moderate among epidural needles [Tuohy (7.64 ± 0.16 mm) and least among the pencil-point needles [Whitacre (0.73 ± 0.34 mm)]. Increased gauge (25 g) led to a significant increase in deflection among beveled needles. The direction of deflection was away from the bevel with Quincke, Chiba and Short Beveled needles and toward the bevel of the Tuohy and Hustead needles. Deflection of the Whitacre pencil-point needle was minimal. Conclusions There is clinical utility in knowing the relative deflection of various needle tips. When a procedure requires a needle to be steered around obstacles, or along non-collinear targets, the predictable and large amount of deflection obtained through use of a beveled spinal needle may prove beneficial. PMID:27847693

  6. [Effects of slow twisting needle insertion and tubing needle insertion at Neiguan (PC 6) on cardiovascular function: a comparative study].

    PubMed

    Ning, Shaoli; Zhao, Lihua; Xu, Lingjun; Huang, Yu; Pang, Yong; Huang, Dingjian

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effects between slow twisting needle insertion and tubing needle insertion. With cross-over design, 100 healthy young subjects (half male and half female) aged from 19 to 23 years were randomly divided into two groups by random digital table, 50 cases in each one. At the first stage, subjects in the group A were treated with slow twisting needle insertion while, subjects in,the group B were treated with tubing needle insertion. One week later, the procedure of second stage was performed alternately. The needle was inserted into Neiguan (PC 6) with two methods by one acupuncturist. The needle was retained for 5 min before removal. Five min before needle insertion as well as needle withdrawal and 30 min after needle withdrawal, ZXG-E automatic cardiovascular diagnostic apparatus was used to test cardiovascular function. At the tim of needle withdrawal, slow twisting needle insertion could improve effect work of kinetics (EWK), effective blood volume (BV) and reduce elastic expansion coefficient of blood vessel (FEK) and left ventricular spray blood impedance (VER), which was significantly different from tubing needle insertion (all P < 0.05). Thirty min after needle withdrawal, the differences of the indices of cardiovascular function between the two groups were not significant (all P > 0.05). The slow twisting needle insertion is significantly superior to tubing needle insertion on lowering vascular tension and VER, improving EWK and BV.

  7. Transbronchial needle aspiration with a new electromagnetically-tracked TBNA needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae; Popa, Teo; Gruionu, Lucian

    2009-02-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a common method used to collect tissue for diagnosis of different chest diseases and for staging lung cancer, but the procedure has technical limitations. These limitations are mostly related to the difficulty of accurately placing the biopsy needles into the target mass. Currently, pulmonologists plan TBNA by examining a number of Computed Tomography (CT) scan slices before the operation. Then, they manipulate the bronchoscope down the respiratory track and blindly direct the biopsy. Thus, the biopsy success rate is low. The diagnostic yield of TBNA is approximately 70 percent. To enhance the accuracy of TBNA, we developed a TBNA needle with a tip position that can be electromagnetically tracked. The needle was used to estimate the bronchoscope's tip position and enable the creation of corresponding virtual bronchoscopic images from a preoperative CT scan. The TBNA needle was made with a flexible catheter embedding Wang Transbronchial Histology Needle and a sensor tracked by electromagnetic field generator. We used Aurora system for electromagnetic tracking. We also constructed an image-guided research prototype system incorporating the needle and providing a user-friendly interface to assist the pulmonologist in targeting lesions. To test the feasibility of the accuracy of the newly developed electromagnetically-tracked needle, a phantom study was conducted in the interventional suite at Georgetown University Hospital. Five TBNA simulations with a custom-made phantom with a bronchial tree were performed. The experimental results show that our device has potential to enhance the accuracy of TBNA.

  8. Comparison of the antimicrobial efficacy of irrigation using the EndoVac to endodontic needle delivery.

    PubMed

    Miller, Todd A; Baumgartner, J Craig

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of root canal irrigation with the EndoVac (Discus Dental, Culver City, CA) to endodontic needle irrigation in the apical 5 mm of root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Bilaterally matched, extracted human teeth were sterilized and inoculated with E. faecalis. Specimens in the EndoVac group were irrigated using the EndoVac system, whereas those in the needle group were irrigated with a 30-G side-vented needle. After chemomechanical preparation, the apical 5 mm of the roots were removed, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and pulverized to expose E. faecalis in dentinal tubules or other morphologic irregularities. The number of colony forming units (cfus) of E. faecalis per mg dentin was determined. The EndoVac Group had a mean of 31.6 cfu/mg, whereas the needle group had a mean of 157 cfu/mg. This represents a bacterial reduction of 99.7% in group A and 98.8% in group B when compared with positive controls. Although there were fewer cfu/mg when using the EndoVac, there was not a statistically significant difference between the EndoVac and needle groups. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and evaluation of needle trap device geometry and packing methods for automated and manual analysis.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jamie M; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2011-12-16

    For air/headspace analysis, needle trap devices (NTDs) are applicable for sampling a wide range of volatiles such as benzene, alkanes, and semi-volatile particulate bound compounds such as pyrene. This paper describes a new NTD that is simpler to produce and improves performance relative to previous NTD designs. A NTD utilizing a side-hole needle used a modified tip, which removed the need to use epoxy glue to hold sorbent particles inside the NTD. This design also improved the seal between the NTD and narrow neck liner of the GC injector; therefore, improving the desorption efficiency. A new packing method has been developed and evaluated using solvent to pack the device, and is compared to NTDs prepared using the previous vacuum aspiration method. The slurry packing method reduced preparation time and improved reproducibility between NTDs. To evaluate the NTDs, automated headspace extraction was completed using benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene (BTEX), anthracene, and pyrene (PAH). NTD geometries evaluated include: blunt tip with side-hole needle, tapered tip with side-hole needle, slider tip with side-hole, dome tapered tip with side-hole and blunt with no side-hole needle (expanded desorptive flow). Results demonstrate that the tapered and slider tip NTDs performed with improved desorption efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a syringe pump assisted dynamic headspace sampling technique for needle trap device.

    PubMed

    Eom, In-Yong; Niri, Vadoud H; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2008-07-04

    This paper describes a new approach that combines needle trap devices (NTDs) with a dynamic headspace sampling technique (purge and trap) using a bidirectional syringe pump. The needle trap device is a 22-G stainless steel needle 3.5-in. long packed with divinylbenzene sorbent particles. The same sized needle, without packing, was used for purging purposes. We chose an aqueous mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylene (BTEX) and developed a sequential purge and trap (SPNT) method, in which sampling (trapping) and purging cycles were performed sequentially by the use of syringe pump with different distribution channels. In this technique, a certain volume (1 mL) of headspace was sequentially sampled using the needle trap; afterwards, the same volume of air was purged into the solution at a high flow rate. The proposed technique showed an effective extraction compared to the continuous purge and trap technique, with a minimal dilution effect. Method evaluation was also performed by obtaining the calibration graphs for aqueous BTEX solutions in the concentration range of 1-250 ng/mL. The developed technique was compared to the headspace solid-phase microextraction method for the analysis of aqueous BTEX samples. Detection limits as low as 1 ng/mL were obtained for BTEX by NTD-SPNT.

  11. A Hydraulically Operated Pine Cone Cutter

    Treesearch

    Carl W. Fatzinger; M.T. Proveaux

    1971-01-01

    Mature cones of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) and longleaf pine (P. palustris Mill.) can be easily bisected along their longitudinal axes with the hydraulic pine cone cutter described. This cutter eliminates the two major problems of earlier models--undue operator fatigue and the...

  12. Hybridization of foxtail and bristlecone pines

    Treesearch

    William B. < /p> Critchfield

    1977-01-01

    The pines have been more successful than most of their coniferous relatives in occupying marginal habitats at the upper and lower edges of the forest zone in western North America. Among the groups restricted to such habitats is subsection Baljourianae of Pinus, comprising the fox tail and bristlecone pines. These pines...

  13. Shortleaf pine: a species at risk?

    Treesearch

    Charles G. Tauer; Shiqin Xu; C. Dana Nelson; James M. Guldin

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1950s the existence of natural hybrids between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine has been recognized and reported in the literature. In a range-wide study of isoenzyme diversity in shortleaf pine, we found 16 percent of the trees from western populations were hybrids, based on the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) locus. In stands thought to be pure shortleaf...

  14. Shortleaf pine: a species at risk?

    Treesearch

    Charles G. Tauer; Shiqin Xu; C. Dana Nelson; James M. Guldin

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1950s the existence of natural hybrids between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine has been recognized and reported in the literature. In a range-wide study of isoenzyme diversity in shortleaf pine. we found 16 percent of the trees from western populations were hybrids. based on the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) locus. In stands thought to be pure shortleaf...

  15. Cone Analysis of Southern Pines - A Guidebook

    Treesearch

    D.L. Bramlett; E.W. Belcher; G.L. DeBarr; G.D. Hertel; Robert P. Karrfalt; C.W. Lantz; T. Miller; K.D. Ware; H.O. Yates

    1977-01-01

    Southern pine tree improvement programs require an ample supply of improved seeds, but productron from southern pine seed orchards has often been disappointing. If high productron is to be malntained yields must be monitored and causes of seed losses must be identified. Techniques for determining seed efficiency were first used for red pine, Pinus resinosa...

  16. Ecology of southwestern ponderosa pine forests

    Treesearch

    William H. Moir; Brian W. Geils; Mary Ann Benoit; Dan Scurlock

    1997-01-01

    Ponderosa pine forests are important because of their wide distribution, commercial value, and because they provide habitat for many plants and animals. Ponderosa pine forests are noted for their variety of passerine birds resulting from variation in forest composition and structure modified by past and present human use. Subsequent chapters discuss how ponderosa pine...

  17. Guidelines for whitebark pine planting prescriptions

    Treesearch

    Glenda L. Scott; Ward W. McCaughey; Kay Izlar

    2011-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a keystone species in high-elevation ecosystems of the western United States. Unfortunately many fragile subalpine ecosystems are losing whitebark pine as a functional community component due to the combined effects of an introduced disease, insects and succession. Planting whitebark pine is one part of a multifaceted restoration...

  18. Bending strength of Chilean radiata pine poles

    Treesearch

    Gina Cerda; Ronald W. Wolfe

    2003-01-01

    Because radiata pine has thrived in south-central Chile since it was introduced there more than a century ago, pine plantation productivity there has grown tremendously. Plantation owners are seeking new markets for this material. One potential market is utility poles. The American National Standards Institute 05.1 standard (ANSI 05.1) provides a means for radiata pine...

  19. Fire effects in northeastern forests: jack pine.

    Treesearch

    Cary Rouse

    1986-01-01

    The jack pine ecosystem has evolved through fire. Jack pine, although easily killed by fire, has developed serotinous cones that depend upon high heat to open and release the seeds. Without a fire to enable the cones to open, jack pine would be replaced by another species. Prescribed fire can be an economical management tool for site preparation in either a natural...

  20. Mechanical Control of Southern Pine Beetle Infestations

    Treesearch

    Ronald F. Billings

    2011-01-01

    Periodic outbreaks of the southern pine beetle (SPB) may affect thousands of acres of commercial pine forests in the Southeastern United States, Mexico, and Central America. Accordingly, this species is the target of more aggressive and effective suppression programs than any other bark beetle pest in the world. The strategy for controlling the southern pine beetle...