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Sample records for pineapple leaf fibre

  1. The effect of electron beam irradiation on the mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre (PALF) reinforced high impact polystyrene (HIPS) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siregar, J. P.; Sapuan, S. M.; Rahman, M. Z. A.; Zaman, H. M. D. K.

    2010-05-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on the mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced high impact polystyrene (HIPS) composites were studied. Two types of crosslinking agent that has been used in this study were trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) and tripropylene gylcol diacrylate (TPGDA). A 50 wt.% of PALF was blended with HIPS and crosslinking agent using Brabender melt mixer at 165 °C. The composites were then irradiated using a 3 MeV electron beam accelerator with dosage of 0-100 kGy. The tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus, notched and unnotched impat and hardness of composites were measured and the effects of crosslinking agent were also compared.

  2. A comparison of tensile properties of polyester composites reinforced with pineapple leaf fiber and pineapple peduncle fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juraidi, J. M.; Shuhairul, N.; Syed Azuan, S. A.; Intan Saffinaz Anuar, Noor

    2013-12-01

    Pineapple fiber which is rich in cellulose, relatively inexpensive, and abundantly available has the potential for polymer reinforcement. This research presents a study of the tensile properties of pineapple leaf fiber and pineapple peduncle fiber reinforced polyester composites. Composites were fabricated using leaf fiber and peduncle fiber with varying fiber length and fiber loading. Both fibers were mixed with polyester composites the various fiber volume fractions of 4, 8 and 12% and with three different fiber lengths of 10, 20 and 30 mm. The composites panels were fabricated using hand lay-out technique. The tensile test was carried out in accordance to ASTM D638. The result showed that pineapple peduncle fiber with 4% fiber volume fraction and fiber length of 30 mm give highest tensile properties. From the overall results, pineapple peduncle fiber shown the higher tensile properties compared to pineapple leaf fiber. It is found that by increasing the fiber volume fraction the tensile properties has significantly decreased but by increasing the fiber length, the tensile properties will be increased proportionally. Minitab software is used to perform the two-way ANOVA analysis to measure the significant. From the analysis done, there is a significant effect of fiber volume fraction and fiber length on the tensile properties.

  3. Modification of pineapple peel fibre with succinic anhydride for Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiuyi; Zhao, Mouming; Song, Guosheng; Huang, Huihua

    2011-01-01

    Research on chemical modification of pineapple peel fibre with succinic anhydride was carried out to create a novel adsorbent for Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ removal from aqueous solution. After pretreatment with iso-propyl alcohol and NaOH, pineapple peel fibre was modified via reaction with succinic anhydride for introduction of carboxylic functional groups. The modified pineapple peel fibre was characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and evaluated for its adsorptive ability for Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ from synthetic metal solutions. The FTIR analysis proved the introduction of carboxylic functional groups in the backbone of the modified pineapple peel fibre. The modified pineapple peel fibre showed higher adsorptive capacity for Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ compared with raw pineapple peel and pineapple peel fibre pretreated with iso-propyl alcohol. The adsorption of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ on the modified pineapple peel fibre depended on solution pH value, adsorption time and initial metal concentration. The maximum adsorption capacities of the modified fibre were observed at pH 5.4 for Cu2+ (27.68 +/- 0.83 mg g(-1) or 0.44 mmol g(-1)), at pH 7.5 for Cd2+ (34.18 +/- 1.02 mg g(-1) or 0.30 mmol g(-1)) and at pH 5.6 for Pb2+ (70.29 +/- 2.11 mg g(-1) or 0.34 mmol g(-1)) respectively. The adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and the experimental data coincided well with the Langmuir model.

  4. Purification and characterization of a pineapple crown leaf thiol protease.

    PubMed

    Singh, L Rupachandra; Devi, Th Premila; Devi, S Kunjeshwori

    2004-02-01

    A thiol protease was isolated and purified from the crown leaf of pineapple, Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. cv. Queen, by an immunoaffinity procedure. After the purification to electrophoretic homogeneity, the enzyme was characterized with respect to some of its physico-chemical and kinetic properties. The molecular weight of the protease (22.4-22.9 kDa), Km (97 microM) and kcat (8.8 s(-1)) for its esterolytic cleavage of the synthetic protease substrate N(alpha)-CBZ-L-lysine p-nitrophenyl ester, the concentration of its thiol activator L-cysteine required for half maximal activation A0.5 (9.9 microM), optimum pH (6.5) for its proteolytic action on azocasein, T(1/2) (60 degrees C) for inactivation by heating the enzyme (35.5 microg protein/mL) in citrate buffer pH 6.0 for 15 min, and SH-group content (0.98 mol/mol enzyme) were determined. Most of these physicochemical and kinetic properties were found to be similar to those of the already well-characterized stem bromelain (EC 3.4.22.32). Thus, the immunoaffinity purified crown leaf protease appeared to be closely related to stem bromelain.

  5. Study of Tensile Properties and Deflection Temperature of Polypropylene/Subang Pineapple Leaf Fiber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafizhah, R.; Juwono, A. L.; Roseno, S.

    2017-05-01

    The development of eco-friendly composites has been increasing in the past four decades because the requirement of eco-friendly materials has been increasing. Indonesia has a lot of natural fiber resources and, pineapple leaf fiber is one of those fibers. This study aimed to determine the influence of weight fraction of pineapple leaf fibers, that were grown at Subang, to the tensile properties and the deflection temperature of polypropylene/Subang pineapple leaf fiber composites. Pineapple leaf fibers were pretreated by alkalization, while polypropylene pellets, as the matrix, were extruded into sheets. Hot press method was used to fabricate the composites. The results of the tensile test and Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT) test showed that the composites that contained of 30 wt.% pineapple leaf fiber was the best composite. The values of tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and deflection temperature were (64.04 ± 3.91) MPa; (3.98 ± 0.55) GPa and (156.05 ± 1.77) °C respectively, in which increased 187.36%, 198.60%, 264.72% respectively from the pristine polypropylene. The results of the observation on the fracture surfaces showed that the failure modes were fiber breakage and matrix failure.

  6. Enzymatic, antimicrobial and toxicity studies of the aqueous extract of Ananas comosus (pineapple) crown leaf.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sangita; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2013-11-25

    Various parts of the plant pineapple (Ananas comosus) are used in traditional medicine worldwide for treatment of a number of diseases and disorders. In folk medicine, pineapple leaf extract was used as an antimicrobial, vermicide, purgative, emmenagoogue, abortifacient, anti-oedema and anti-inflammatory agent. Compared to the fruit and stem extracts of pineapple, information about its leaf extract is limited. The potential of pineapple crown leaf extract as an ethno-medicine has been evaluated in terms of its enzymatic activities related to wound healing, antimicrobial property and toxicity. Major protein components of the extract were revealed by 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by MS/MS analysis. Zymography, DQ-gelatin assay were performed to demonstrate proteolytic, fibrinolytic, gelatinase and collagenase activities. DNase and RNase activities were revealed from agarose gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically from growth inhibition. Sprague-Dawley rat model was used to measure acute and sub-acute toxicity of the extract by analyzing blood markers. The extract contains several proteins that were clustered under native condition. Proteomic studies indicated presence of fruit bromelain as major protein constituent of the extract. It showed nonspecific protease activity, gelatinolytic, collagenase, fibrinolytic, acid and alkaline phosphatase, peroxidase, DNase and RNase activities along with considerable anti-microbial property. The leaf extract did not induce any toxicity in rats after oral administration of acute and sub-acute doses. Pineapple leaf extract is nontoxic, contains enzymes related to damage tissue repairing, wound healing and possibly prevents secondary infections from microbial organisms. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterisation and potential application of pineapple pomace in an extruded product for fibre enhancement.

    PubMed

    Selani, Miriam Mabel; Brazaca, Solange Guidolin Canniatti; Dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu; Ratnayake, Wajira S; Flores, Rolando A; Bianchini, Andreia

    2014-11-15

    This study characterised pineapple pomace (PP) and evaluated its application in extrusion to enhance fibre content of the final product. The pomace had low fat (0.61%) and high dietary fibre (45.22%), showing its potential for fibre enrichment of nutritionally poor products, as some extruded snacks. Results also showed low microbiological counts, water activity, and pH indicating good microbiological quality and low risk of physicochemical deterioration. During extrusion, pomace (0%, 10.5% and 21%), moisture (14%, 15% and 16%) and temperature (140 and 160°C) were evaluated. The PP addition decreased expansion and luminosity; while increasing redness of the extrudates compared to the control (0% pomace/14% moisture/140°C). When hardness, yellowness, water absorption, and bulk density were compared to the control, there was no effect (p>0.05) of 10.5% PP addition on the extrudates, indicating that, at this level, PP could be added without affecting the properties of the final extruded product. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of mango, guava, pineapple and passion fruit dietary fibre concentrate.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ruth; Torres, Paulina; Meneses, Miguel A; Figueroa, Jorge G; Pérez-Álvarez, José A; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the chemical, technological and in vitro antioxidant properties of co-products from the industrialisation of some tropical exotic fruits, such as mango, pineapple, guava and passion fruit, and to evaluate their potential use as dietary fibre sources for food enrichment. Proximate compositions were determined, as well as the total, insoluble and soluble fibre contents. The water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities were also determined. For the antioxidant activity, three different test systems were used (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP). The dietary fibre content of the co-products varied in a range between 69.1 and 81.5g/100g on a dry matter basis with a good balanced ratio between insoluble dietary fibre and soluble dietary fibre. Phenol recovery was dependent on the fruit type and the solvent system used. Methanol:acetone was a more efficient solvent for extracting phenols than ethanol. There was a good correlation between total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of the fruit extracts. All samples analysed had good antioxidant capacity. The results of this study indicate that exotic fruit fibres obtained as co-products in the process to obtain juice may be considered a good source of natural compounds with significant antioxidant activity.

  9. Purification, characterization, and antifungal activity of chitinases from pineapple (Ananas comosus) leaf.

    PubMed

    Taira, Toki; Toma, Noriko; Ishihara, Masanobu

    2005-01-01

    Three chitinases, designated pineapple leaf chitinase (PL Chi)-A, -B, and -C were purified from the leaves of pineapple (Ananas comosus) using chitin affinity column chromatography followed by several column chromatographies. PL Chi-A is a class III chitinase having a molecular mass of 25 kDa and an isoelectric point of 4.4. PL Chi-B and -C are class I chitinases having molecular masses of 33 kDa and 39 kDa and isoelectric points of 7.9 and 4.6 respectively. PL Chi-C is a glycoprotein and the others are simple proteins. The optimum pHs of PL Chi-A, -B, and -C toward glycolchitin are pH 3, 4, and 9 respectively. The chitin-binding ability of PL Chi-C is higher than that of PL Chi-B, and PL Chi-A has lower chitin-binding ability than the others. At low ionic strength, PL Chi-B exhibits strong antifungal activity toward Trichoderma viride but the others do not. At high ionic strength, PL Chi-B and -C exhibit strong and weak antifungal activity respectively. PL Chi-A does not have antifungal activity.

  10. Insight into biosorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of crystal violet onto Ananas comosus (pineapple) leaf powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Sagnik; Chowdhury, Shamik; Saha, Papita Das

    2012-06-01

    Biosorption performance of pineapple leaf powder (PLP) for removal of crystal violet (CV) from its aqueous solutions was investigated. To this end, the influence of operational parameters such as pH, biosorbent dose, initial dye concentration and temperature were studied employing a batch experimental setup. The biosorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model with high correlation coefficients ( R 2 > 0.99) at different temperatures. The maximum monolayer biosorption capacity was found to be 78.22 mg g-1 at 293 K. The kinetic data conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The activation energy of the system was calculated as 58.96 kJ mol- 1 , indicating chemisorption nature of the ongoing biosorption process. A thermodynamic study showed spontaneous and exothermic nature of the biosorption process. Owing to its low cost and high dye uptake capacity, PLP has potential for application as biosorbent for removal of CV from aqueous solutions.

  11. Biosorption of Basic Green 4 from aqueous solution by Ananas comosus (pineapple) leaf powder.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shamik; Chakraborty, Sagnik; Saha, Papita

    2011-06-01

    Biosorption characteristics of Ananas comosus (pineapple) leaf powder was investigated for decolorization of Basic Green 4 (BG 4), a cationic dye from its aqueous solutions employing a batch experimental set-up. Parameters that influence the sorption process such as pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time, initial dye concentration and temperature were systematically studied. The optimum conditions for removal of BG 4 were found to be pH 9.0, contact time=150 min, biosorbent dosage=5.0 g L(-1), initial dye concentration=50 mg L(-1). The temperature had a strong influence on the biosorption process. Further, the biosorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) surface area and pore size analysis. Experimental biosorption data were modeled by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The biosorption process followed the Langmuir isotherm model with high coefficients of correlation (R(2)>0.99) at different temperatures. The pseudo second order kinetic model fitted well in correlation to the experimental results. Activation energy of the biosorption process (E(a)) was found to be 45.79 kJ mol(-1) by using the Arrhenius equation, indicating chemisorption nature of BG 4 sorption onto pineapple leaf powder. Thermodynamic parameters suggest that the biosorption process is spontaneous and exothermic in nature. Overall, the present findings suggest that this environmentally friendly, efficient and low-cost biosorbent may be useful for the removal of BG 4 from aqueous media. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles green-synthesized using pineapple leaf (Ananas comosus).

    PubMed

    Emeka, Elemike Elias; Ojiefoh, Oseghale Charles; Aleruchi, Chuku; Hassan, Labulo Ayomide; Christiana, Owoseni Mojisola; Rebecca, Mfon; Dare, Enock Olugbenga; Temitope, Adesuji Elijah

    2014-02-01

    Pineapple leaf was used in this study for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles based on the search for sustainable synthetic means. Indeed, this offered an economical and sustainable synthetic route relative to expensive and toxic chemical methods. The leaf extract was used and the corresponding nanoparticles obtained were subjected to UV-vis analysis at different times. The UV-vis was used to monitor the silver nanoparticle formation through sampling at time intervals. The formation of silver nanoparticles was apparently displayed within 2 min with evidence of surface plasmon bands (SPB) between 440 and 460 nm. The crystals was equally characterized using FTIR, X-ray diffraction methods and TEM. The different results obtained suggested the appearance of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) as determined by the process parameters with a particle size of 12.4 nm. The sample was further screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli using Gentamicin as control. From the results, there is evidence of inhibition towards bacteria growth. It can now be inferred from the studies that biosynthesis of nanoparticles could be a gateway to our numerous health issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanical and optical characterization of bio-nanocomposite from pineapple leaf fiber material for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikmatin, Siti; Rudwiyanti, Jerry R.; Prasetyo, Kurnia W.; Yedi, Dwi A.

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of Bio-nanocomposite material that was derived from pineapple leaf fiber as filler and tapioca starch with plasticizer glycerol as a matrix for food packaging can reduce the use of plastic that usually was made from petroleum materials. It is important to develop and producethis environmental friendly plastic because of limited availability of petroleum nowadays. The process of synthesize and characterization tapioca starch with the plasticizer glycerol bionanocomposites using print method had been conducted. There were 3 samples with different filler concentration variation; 3%, 4% and 5%.The results of mechanical test from each sample showed that bio-nanocomposite with 5% filler concentration was the optimum sample with 4.6320 MPa for tensile strength test and 24.87% for the elongation test. Based on the result of optical test for each sample was gained that along with the increasing of concentration filler would make the absorbance value of the sample became decreased, bio-nanocomposite with 5% filler concentration had several peaks with low absorbance values. The first peak was in 253 nm of wavelength regionwith absorbance of 0.131%, and the second peak was in 343 nmwavelength region and absorbance was 0.087%.

  14. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by adsorption onto pineapple leaf powder.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chih-Huang; Lin, Yao-Tung; Tzeng, Tai-Wei

    2009-10-15

    The ability of an unconventional bio-adsorbent, pineapple leaf powder (PLP) for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution was studied. It was observed that intra-particle diffusion was involved in the adsorption process and that the kinetic data fitted well with a pseudo-second-order equation. Fitting parameters revealed that the rate of adsorption increased with decrease in dye concentration and decrease in ionic strength while the mixing speed did not have a significant effect on adsorption. The adsorption was favorable at higher pH and lower temperature, and the equilibrium data were well fitted by the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity varied from 4.68 x 10(-4) to 9.28 x 10(-4)mol/g when pH increases from 3.5 to 9.5. Thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption is a typical physical process, spontaneous, and exothermic in nature. The results revealed that this agricultural waste has potential to be used as an economical adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution.

  15. Effects of fibre type and kefir, wine lemon, and pineapple marinades on texture and sensory properties of wild boar and deer longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Żochowska-Kujawska, J; Lachowicz, K; Sobczak, M

    2012-12-01

    Fibre type percentage and changes in textural parameters, sensory properties as well as mean fibre cross sectional area (CSA), fibre shape, endomysium and perimysium thickness of wild boar and deer longissimus (L) muscle subjected to ageing with kefir, dry red wine, lemon and pineapple juice marinades for 4 days were studied. Among the non-marinated and non-aged samples of muscles it was found that wild boar meat with its higher percentage of red fibres, higher CSA, thicker connective tissue as compared with deer meat, was harder, more springy and stringy. Muscles ageing, regardless of methods, resulted in a decrease in both the CSA and thickness of the connective tissue, and improve in fibre shape. As a consequence ageing caused a reduction in hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and stringiness as well as in augmentation of tenderness, juiciness and general attractiveness of the muscles studied. As demonstrated by obtained data, regardless of ageing methods, deer L muscle contained more white fibres compared to wild boar muscle, were more susceptible to tenderization. The highest structural and textural changes, but the worst general attractiveness was found in muscles marinated with pineapple juice addition. Insignificantly lower changes in both quality traits were found in muscles aged with kefir marinade which at the same time were characterized by the high tenderness, the highest juiciness and general attractiveness.

  16. Leaf margin phenotype-specific restriction-site-associated DNA-derived markers for pineapple (Ananas comosus L.).

    PubMed

    Urasaki, Naoya; Goeku, Satoko; Kaneshima, Risa; Takamine, Tomonori; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Makoto; Moromizato, Chie; Yonamine, Kaname; Hosaka, Fumiko; Terakami, Shingo; Matsumura, Hideo; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Shoda, Moriyuki

    2015-06-01

    To explore genome-wide DNA polymorphisms and identify DNA markers for leaf margin phenotypes, a restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing analysis was employed to analyze three bulked DNAs of F1 progeny from a cross between a 'piping-leaf-type' cultivar, 'Yugafu', and a 'spiny-tip-leaf-type' variety, 'Yonekura'. The parents were both Ananas comosus var. comosus. From the analysis, piping-leaf and spiny-tip-leaf gene-specific restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing tags were obtained and designated as PLSTs and STLSTs, respectively. The five PLSTs and two STSLTs were successfully converted to cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using the sequence differences between alleles. Based on the genotyping of the F1 with two SSR and three CAPS markers, the five PLST markers were mapped in the vicinity of the P locus, with the closest marker, PLST1_SSR, being located 1.5 cM from the P locus. The two CAPS markers from STLST1 and STLST3 perfectly assessed the 'spiny-leaf type' as homozygotes of the recessive s allele of the S gene. The recombination value between the S locus and STLST loci was 2.4, and STLSTs were located 2.2 cM from the S locus. SSR and CAPS markers are applicable to marker-assisted selection of leaf margin phenotypes in pineapple breeding.

  17. Leaf margin phenotype-specific restriction-site-associated DNA-derived markers for pineapple (Ananas comosus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Urasaki, Naoya; Goeku, Satoko; Kaneshima, Risa; Takamine, Tomonori; Tarora, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Makoto; Moromizato, Chie; Yonamine, Kaname; Hosaka, Fumiko; Terakami, Shingo; Matsumura, Hideo; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Shoda, Moriyuki

    2015-01-01

    To explore genome-wide DNA polymorphisms and identify DNA markers for leaf margin phenotypes, a restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing analysis was employed to analyze three bulked DNAs of F1 progeny from a cross between a ‘piping-leaf-type’ cultivar, ‘Yugafu’, and a ‘spiny-tip-leaf-type’ variety, ‘Yonekura’. The parents were both Ananas comosus var. comosus. From the analysis, piping-leaf and spiny-tip-leaf gene-specific restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing tags were obtained and designated as PLSTs and STLSTs, respectively. The five PLSTs and two STSLTs were successfully converted to cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using the sequence differences between alleles. Based on the genotyping of the F1 with two SSR and three CAPS markers, the five PLST markers were mapped in the vicinity of the P locus, with the closest marker, PLST1_SSR, being located 1.5 cM from the P locus. The two CAPS markers from STLST1 and STLST3 perfectly assessed the ‘spiny-leaf type’ as homozygotes of the recessive s allele of the S gene. The recombination value between the S locus and STLST loci was 2.4, and STLSTs were located 2.2 cM from the S locus. SSR and CAPS markers are applicable to marker-assisted selection of leaf margin phenotypes in pineapple breeding. PMID:26175625

  18. Utilization of composite membrane polyethyleneglycol-polystyrene-cellulose acetate from pineapple leaf fibers in lowering levels of methyl orange batik waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delsy, E. V. Y.; Irmanto; Kazanah, F. N.

    2017-02-01

    Pineapple leaves are agricultural waste from the pineapple that the fibers can be utilized as raw material in cellulose acetate membranes. First, made pineapple leaf fibers into pulp and then converted into cellulose acetate by acetylation process in four stages consisting of activation, acetylation, hydrolysis and purification. Cellulose acetate then used as the raw material to manufacture composite membrane with addition of polystyrene and poly (ethylene glycol) as porogen. Composite membrane is made using phase inversion method with dichloromethane-acetone as a solvent. The result of FTIR analysis (Fourier transform infra-red) showed that the absorption of the carbonyl group (C=O) is at 1643.10 cm-1 and acetyl group (C-O ) at 1227.01 cm-1, with a molecular weight of 8.05 x 104 g/mol and the contents (rate) of acetyl is 37.31%. PS-PEG-CA composite membrane had also been characterized by measuring the water flux values and its application to decrease methyl orange content (level) in batik waste. The results showed that the water flux value is of 25.62 L/(m2.hour), and the decrease percentage of methyl orange content in batik waste is 71.53%.

  19. Pineapple holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Calixte, L.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Padilla V, A.; Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Ruiz-Limón, B.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2006-02-01

    We show that juice pineapple can be considering as new unconventional holographic recorded medium, because it has good chemical and optical properties. Some structures of computers phase holograms are copied into this material by thermo-polymerization therefore in this research we present a preliminary analysis and experimental results. The major improvements from our material are: good diffraction efficiency, reduced cost, easily to apply on any substrate and the hologram is making with out develop process. the nature sweetener from pineapple can be applied for the food industry mainly in the candy industry.

  20. Strengthening three-leaf masonry with basalt fibre: Experimental and numerical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monni, Francesco; Quagliarini, Enrico; Lenci, Stefano; Maracchini, Gianluca

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the first results of a study aimed at evaluate the effectiveness of a strengthening technique able to connect masonry elements, stitching them, based on the use of basalt fibre ropes. To assess the effectiveness of proposed technique, experimental and FEM analysis has been performed. The reproduced masonry is the "three-leaf wall", where an inner core of rubble material is included between two outer brick shell, a masonry typology often found in Italian historical building heritage. The results indicate the efficacy of this dry retrofitting system, increasing the performance of masonry wall specimens.

  1. Morphology, transport characteristics and viscoelastic polymer chain confinement in nanocomposites based on thermoplastic potato starch and cellulose nanofibers from pineapple leaf.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Preetha; Sreekala, M S; Kunaver, Matjaž; Huskić, Miroslav; Thomas, Sabu

    2017-08-01

    Eco-friendly "green" nano composites were fabricated from potato starch and cellulose nanofibers from pineapple leaf. Nanocomposites of starch/cellulose nanofibers were prepared by solution mixing followed by casting. The investigation of the viscoelastic properties confirms starch macromolecular chain confinement around the nano scale cellulose surface, superior dispersion and very good interaction between thermoplastic starch and cellulose nanofibers. The degree of chain confinement was quantified. The chain confinement was associated with the immobilization of the starch macromolecular chains in the network formed by the nano-scale cellulose fibers as a result of hydrogen boding interactions. From the results, it was assumed that the starch glycerol system exhibits a heterogenous nature and cellulose nanofibers tend to move towards glycerol rich starch phase. Barrier properties also improved with the addition of nanofiller up to 3wt.% but further addition depreciated properties due to possible fiber agglomeration. The kinetics of diffusion was investigated and typical kinetic parameters were determined and found that the nanocomposites follow pseudo fickian behaviour. The outcome of the work confirms that the prepared nanocomposites films can be used as a swap for packaging applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of fibre treatments on tensile properties of ethylene vinyl acetate/natural rubber/mengkuang leaf fibre (EVA/NR/MLF) thermoplastic elastomer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Faiezah; Ismail, Hanafi; Rusli, Arjulizan

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, a great attention has been dedicated to natural fibers as reinforcement for polymer composites. Natural fibers, compared to glass fibers, exhibit better mechanical properties, such as stiffness, impact strength, flexibility and modulus. However, certain drawbacks, such as the incompatibility between fibers and polymer matrices, the tendency to form aggregates during processing and the poor resistance to moisture, reduce the use of these natural fibers as reinforcements in polymers. Several treatments and modifications are being used to improve the adhesion between fibre and matrix. In this work, the effect of bleaching treatments using hydrogen peroxide in the Mengkuang leaf fibre (MLF) was evaluated on tensile properties of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA)/Natural Rubber (NR)/MLF composites. Treated MLF were mixed with the EVA/NR blend in Haake internal mixer at 120 °C and rotor speed of 50 rpm for 10 minutes. Fibre morphology and the fibre/matrix interface ware further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tensile strength was increased by about 8% as compared to the composites with untreated fibers. The increased adhesion between fiber and matrix was also observed by SEM. Thus, EVA/NR/MLF composites reinforced with the treated fibres exhibited better tensile properties than untreated EVA/NR/MLF composites.

  3. US SEEDLESS PINEAPPLE ORANGE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, hereby releases for propagation the US SEEDLESS PINEAPPLE citrus scion selection, formerly tested as USDA 1-10-60. US SEEDLESS PINEAPPLE resulted from irradiation of Ridge Pineapple seeds by C.J. Hearn in 1970 at the U.S. Horticultu...

  4. Pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr].

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Gaurab; Mukherjee, Kalyan K

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of Agrobacterium-mediated pineapple transformation technique has been improved (mean percentage of transgenic micro-shoots regenerated from initial callus explants up to 20.6%) using a novel encapsulation-based, antibiotic selection procedure. The detailed protocol using a standard plant transformation vector (pCAMBIA1304) as reported in an 'elite' Indian variety (Queen) of pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr] can be applied to other varieties of pineapple for introgression of target genes.

  5. In vitro bacterial fermentation of tropical fruit fibres.

    PubMed

    Vong, M H; Stewart, M L

    2013-09-01

    Tropical fruits such as mango, papaya, pineapple and banana are rich sources of dietary fibre. However, few studies have examined the potential physiological effects of fibre from these tropical fruits. The aim of this study was to characterise the fermentability of dietary fibre found in banana, papaya, pineapple and mango as an estimate of the physiological effects of consuming these fruits. Freeze-dried fruit was subjected to in vitro digestion to remove digestible carbohydrates. Digestion residues were freeze-dried prior to fermentation. In vitro fermentation was carried for 24 h under anaerobic conditions to simulate conditions in the large intestine. Gas volume, pH and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) concentration were measured at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. SCFAs were analysed by gas chromatography. There was no gas production from 0 to 8 h time points for all samples. Mango fibre resulted in more gas at 12 and 24 h than pineapple, papaya and banana fibres. The slurry pH was significantly lower for mango fibre at 12 and 24 h compared to other samples. Mango fibre resulted in significantly more propionate at 8 h compared to papaya and pineapple fibres. Butyrate concentrations were only significantly different at 4 h. At 24 h total and individual SCFA production did not differ among samples. All fruit fibres were fermentable, with mango fibre being the most rapidly fermented. Additional work is necessary to confirm a benefit on digestive health.

  6. Alcohol production from pineapple waste.

    PubMed

    Ban-Koffi, L; Han, Y W

    1990-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae andZymomonas mobilis were grown on pineapple waste and their alcohol production characteristics compared. The pineapple waste consisted of 19% cellulose, 22% hemi-cellulose, 5% lignin and 53% cell soluble matters but concentration of soluble sugars, which included 5.2% sucrose, 3.1% glucose and 3.4% fructose, was relatively low and pretreatment of the substrate was needed. Pretreatment of pineapple waste with cellulase and hemi-cellulase and then fermantation withS. cerevisiae orZ. mobilis produced about 8% ethanol from pineapple waste in 48 h.

  7. PineappleDB: an online pineapple bioinformatics resource.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Richard L; Crowe, Mark L; Ripi-Koia, Jonni; Fairbairn, David J; Botella, José R

    2005-10-05

    A world first pineapple EST sequencing program has been undertaken to investigate genes expressed during non-climacteric fruit ripening and the nematode-plant interaction during root infection. Very little is known of how non-climacteric fruit ripening is controlled or of the molecular basis of the nematode-plant interaction. PineappleDB was developed to provide the research community with access to a curated bioinformatics resource housing the fruit, root and nematode infected gall expressed sequences. PineappleDB is an online, curated database providing integrated access to annotated expressed sequence tag (EST) data for cDNA clones isolated from pineapple fruit, root, and nematode infected root gall vascular cylinder tissues. The database currently houses over 5600 EST sequences, 3383 contig consensus sequences, and associated bioinformatic data including splice variants, Arabidopsis homologues, both MIPS based and Gene Ontology functional classifications, and clone distributions. The online resource can be searched by text or by BLAST sequence homology. The data outputs provide comprehensive sequence, bioinformatic and functional classification information. The online pineapple bioinformatic resource provides the research community with access to pineapple fruit and root/gall sequence and bioinformatic data in a user-friendly format. The search tools enable efficient data mining and present a wide spectrum of bioinformatic and functional classification information. PineappleDB will be of broad appeal to researchers investigating pineapple genetics, non-climacteric fruit ripening, root-knot nematode infection, crassulacean acid metabolism and alternative RNA splicing in plants.

  8. PineappleDB: An online pineapple bioinformatics resource

    PubMed Central

    Moyle, Richard L; Crowe, Mark L; Ripi-Koia, Jonni; Fairbairn, David J; Botella, José R

    2005-01-01

    Background A world first pineapple EST sequencing program has been undertaken to investigate genes expressed during non-climacteric fruit ripening and the nematode-plant interaction during root infection. Very little is known of how non-climacteric fruit ripening is controlled or of the molecular basis of the nematode-plant interaction. PineappleDB was developed to provide the research community with access to a curated bioinformatics resource housing the fruit, root and nematode infected gall expressed sequences. Description PineappleDB is an online, curated database providing integrated access to annotated expressed sequence tag (EST) data for cDNA clones isolated from pineapple fruit, root, and nematode infected root gall vascular cylinder tissues. The database currently houses over 5600 EST sequences, 3383 contig consensus sequences, and associated bioinformatic data including splice variants, Arabidopsis homologues, both MIPS based and Gene Ontology functional classifications, and clone distributions. The online resource can be searched by text or by BLAST sequence homology. The data outputs provide comprehensive sequence, bioinformatic and functional classification information. Conclusion The online pineapple bioinformatic resource provides the research community with access to pineapple fruit and root/gall sequence and bioinformatic data in a user-friendly format. The search tools enable efficient data mining and present a wide spectrum of bioinformatic and functional classification information. PineappleDB will be of broad appeal to researchers investigating pineapple genetics, non-climacteric fruit ripening, root-knot nematode infection, crassulacean acid metabolism and alternative RNA splicing in plants. PMID:16202174

  9. Pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr].

    PubMed

    Yabor, Lourdes; Espinosa, Patricia; Arencibia, Ariel D; Lorenzo, José C

    2006-01-01

    A procedure for pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genetic transformation is described, which involves temporary immersion bioreactors (TIB) for selection of transgenic plants. Success in the production of transgenic pineapple plants combines tissue culture factors. Firstly, the use of regenerable pineapple callus as starting material for transformation whose cells shown to be competent for Agrobacterium infection. Secondly, the used of filtered callus, resulting in homogeneously sized clusters, thereby increasing the contact between the cell surfaces and A. tumefaciens and releasing phenolic compounds which induce Agrobacterium virulence. Thirdly, regeneration of primary plants without selection pressure, that allowing a massive production of putative transgenic pineapples. Finally, we support that TIB technology is a powerful system to recover nonchimera transgenic plants by micropropagation with the use of an adequate selection agent.

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of pineapple (Ananas comosus L., Merr.).

    PubMed

    Mhatre, Minal

    2013-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus L., Merr.) is a commercially important crop, grown in the tropical and subtropical regions. However, the crop is faced with postharvest damage and poor varietal and nutritional improvement. Being a vegetatively propagated crop, conventional breeding programs take longer time for genetic improvement, which may not necessarily successfully develop an improved cultivar. Hence, the genetic modification of pineapple is an alternative handy approach to improve pineapple. We have established an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system using leaf bases from in vitro-grown pineapple plants. Being a monocot, acetosyringone is added to the culture medium for overnight growth of Agrobacterium and transformation to transfer a gene of interest MSI99 soybean ferritin. Leaf bases isolated from in vitro shoot cultures are treated with Agrobacterium suspension at two dilutions, 10× and 20×, for 30 min. Explants are subsequently blot dried and cultured on gelrite solidified hormone-free Pin1 medium for 2 days (cocultivation). Periodic transfer is first done to the regeneration medium (Pin1) containing cefotaxime for the suppression of Agrobacterium growth. The transformants are selected by culturing on Pin1 medium containing cefotaxime and kanamycin. Multiple shoots, regenerated in leaf bases, are further multiplied and individually rooted in the liquid RM medium amended with antibiotics to recover plants. Putative transformants are analyzed for transgene integration and expression using standard molecular biological methods of PCR, RT-PCR, and genomic Southern.

  11. 21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181... § 145.181 Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pineapple is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pineapple by § 145...

  12. 21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181... § 145.181 Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pineapple is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pineapple by § 145...

  13. 21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181... § 145.181 Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. (a) Artificially sweetened canned pineapple is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned pineapple by § 145...

  14. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reconstituted with water suitable for the purpose of maintaining essential composition and quality factors of...) Quality. (1) The standard of quality for pineapple juice is as follows: (i) The soluble solids content of...) If the quality of pineapple juice falls below the standard prescribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this...

  15. Genomic analyses of the CAM plant pineapple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jisen; Liu, Juan; Ming, Ray

    2014-07-01

    The innovation of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis in arid and/or low CO2 conditions is a remarkable case of adaptation in flowering plants. As the most important crop that utilizes CAM photosynthesis, the genetic and genomic resources of pineapple have been developed over many years. Genetic diversity studies using various types of DNA markers led to the reclassification of the two genera Ananas and Pseudananas and nine species into one genus Ananas and two species, A. comosus and A. macrodontes with five botanical varieties in A. comosus. Five genetic maps have been constructed using F1 or F2 populations, and high-density genetic maps generated by genotype sequencing are essential resources for sequencing and assembling the pineapple genome and for marker-assisted selection. There are abundant expression sequence tag resources but limited genomic sequences in pineapple. Genes involved in the CAM pathway has been analysed in several CAM plants but only a few of them are from pineapple. A reference genome of pineapple is being generated and will accelerate genetic and genomic research in this major CAM crop. This reference genome of pineapple provides the foundation for studying the origin and regulatory mechanism of CAM photosynthesis, and the opportunity to evaluate the classification of Ananas species and botanical cultivars. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Early histological, hormonal, and molecular changes during pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill) artificial flowering induction.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Maita Eulalia Ávila; Moreira, Rafael Oliveira; Lima, André Almeida; Ságio, Solange Aparecida; Barreto, Horllys Gomes; Luiz, Sara Lazara Pérez; Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Aragón; Yanes-Paz, Ermis; Ruíz, Yanelis Capdesuñer; González-Olmedo, Justo Lorenzo; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Natural flowering can cause serious scheduling problems in the pineapple (Ananas comosus) industry and increase harvest costs. Pineapple flowering is thought to be triggered by increased ethylene levels and artificial forcing of pineapple flowering is a common practice to promote flowering synchronisation. However, little is known about the early hormonal and molecular changes of pineapple flowering induction and development. Here, we aimed to analyse the molecular, hormonal, and histological changes during artificial pineapple flowering by Ethrel(®)48 treatment. Histological analyses of the shoot apical meristem, leaf gibberellic acid (GA3), and ethylene quantification were carried out during the first 72h after Ethrel(®)48 treatment. Expression profiles from ethylene biosynthesis (AcACS2 and AcACO1), gibberellin metabolism (AcGA2-ox1 and AcDELLA1), and flower development (FT-like gene (AcFT), LFY-like gene (AcLFY), and a PISTILLATA-like gene (AcPI)) genes were analysed during the first 24h after Ethrel(®)48 treatment. Differentiation processes of the shoot apical meristem into flower buds were already present in the first 72h after Ethrel(®)48 treatment. Ethrel(®)48 lead to a reduction in GA3 levels, probably triggered by elevated ethylene levels and the positive regulation AcGA2-ox1. AcLFY activation upon Ethrel(®)48 may also have contributed to the reduction of GA3 levels and, along with the up-regulation of AcPI, are probably associated with the flower induction activation. AcFT and AcDELLA1 do not seem to be regulated by GA3 and ethylene. Decreased GA3 and increased ethylene levels suggest an accumulation of AcDELLA1, which may display an important role in pineapple flowering induction. Thus, this study shows that molecular, hormonal, and histological changes are present right after Ethrel(®)48 treatment, providing new insights into how pineapple flowering occurs under natural conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Tissue distribution, synthesis stage, and ethylene induction of pineapple (Ananas comosus) chitinases.

    PubMed

    Taira, Toki; Toma, Noriko; Ichi, Marika; Takeuchi, Makoto; Ishihara, Masanobu

    2005-04-01

    We examined the tissue distribution, synthesis stage, and ethylene induction of three types of pineapple chitinase using chitinase activity gel and immunoblot analysis. Type A (acidic class III) exists in all tissues, while type B (weakly basic class I, which has strong antifungal activity) and type C (acidic class I) are localized mainly in the leaf and stem. In a pericarp, type A exists at all stages during fruit development, while type B and type C exist only at the early stage. Synthesis of type A is induced by ethylene, while that of types B and C is not affected by it. These results suggest that the physiological roles of these three types of chitinase in pineapple are different.

  18. Bromelain enzyme from pineapple: in vitro activity study under different micropropagation conditions.

    PubMed

    Vilanova Neta, Jaci Lima; da Silva Lédo, Ana; Lima, Aloisio André Bonfim; Santana, José Carlos Curvelo; Leite, Nadjma Souza; Ruzene, Denise Santos; Silva, Daniel Pereira; de Souza, Roberto Rodrigues

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the activity of bromelain in pineapple plants (Ananas comosus var. Comosus), Pérola cultivar, produced in vitro in different culture conditions. This enzyme, besides its pharmacological effects, is also employed in food industries, such as breweries and meat processing. In this work, the enzymatic activity was evaluated in the tissues of leaves and stems of plants grown in culture medium without plant growth regulator. The most significant levels of bromelain were observed in leaf tissue after 4 months of culture in vitro in medium with a filter paper bridge, followed by medium gelled by the agar. The results of this study, regarding the different structures of the pineapple (leaves and stems) in vitro showed that the activity of bromelain varied depending on the culture conditions, the time and structure of which was quantified, ensuring a viable strategy in the production of seedlings with high levels of bromelain in subsequent phases of micropropagation.

  19. The physiology of ex vitro pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr. var MD-2) as CAM or C3 is regulated by the environmental conditions: proteomic and transcriptomic profiles.

    PubMed

    Aragón, C; Pascual, P; González, J; Escalona, M; Carvalho, L; Amancio, S

    2013-11-01

    Proteomic and transcriptomic profiles of key enzymes were monitored in pineapple plants propagated under C3 and CAM-inducing metabolisms to obtain insight into the CAM-facultative metabolism and the relationship of CAM plants with oxidative stress. Pineapple is one of the most important tropical crops worldwide. The use of temporary immersion bioreactors for the first stages of pineapple propagation enables precise control of plant growth, increases the rate of plant multiplication, decreases space, energy and labor requirements for pineapple plants in commercial micropropagation. Once the plantlets are ready to be taken from the reactors, they are carefully acclimatized to natural environmental conditions, and a facultative C3/CAM metabolism in the first 2 months of growth is the characteristic of pineapple plants, depending on environmental conditions. We subjected two sets of micropropagated pineapple plants to C3 and CAM-inducing environmental conditions, determined by light intensity/relative humidity (respectively 40 μmol m−2 s−1/85 % and 260 μmol m−2 s−1/50 %). Leaves of pineapple plants grown under CAM-inducing conditions showed higher leaf thickness and more developed cuticles and hypodermic tissue. Proteomic profiles of several proteins, isoenzyme patterns and transcriptomic profiles were also measured. Five major spots were isolated and identified, two of them for the first time in Ananas comosus (OEE 1; OEE 2) and the other three corresponding to small fragments of the large subunit of Rubisco (LSU). PEPC and PEPCK were also detected by immunobloting of 2DE at the end of both ex vitro treatments (C3/CAM) during the dark period. Isoenzymes of SOD and CAT were identified by electrophoresis and the transcript levels of OEE 1 and CAT were associated with CAM metabolism in pineapple plants.

  20. Dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Escudero Alvarez, E; González Sánchez, P

    2006-05-01

    Currently and after 30 years of research, dietary fibre is part of what is considered a healthy diet. There is no single definition yet comprising the different components of dietary fibre and its functions. The main factors of fibre are complex carbohydrates and lignin, although new products may be included in the future within the concept of fibre. Dietary fibres reach the large bowel and are attacked by colonic microflora, yielding short chain fatty acids, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane as fermentation products. Short chain fatty acids represent a way of recovering energy and they are also implicated in other beneficial functions for the human organism. Although there are no yet conclusive data on recommendations of different types of fibre, it is still appropriate to indicate a diet providing 20-35 g/day of fibre from different sources. There is a consensus to recommend a mixture of fibres or fibre like soybean polysaccharide for constipation. There are few conclusive data, still, on the benefit of fibre on prevention of colorectal cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, a fibre-rich diet is recommended from early years of life since it is often associated to a lifestyle that in the long term helps controlling other risk factors.

  1. Isozyme variation in wild and cultivated pineapple

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Isozyme variation was studied in 161 accessions of pineapple including four species of Ananas and one of Pseudananas. Six enzyme systems (ADH, GPI, PGM, SKDH, TPI, UGPP) involving seven putative loci revealed 35 electromorphs . Considerable variation exists within and between species of Ananas. Sixt...

  2. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... such that the total vitamin C in each 4 fluid ounces of the finished food amounts to not less than 30...

  3. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... such that the total vitamin C in each 4 fluid ounces of the finished food amounts to not less than 30...

  4. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... such that the total vitamin C in each 4 fluid ounces of the finished food amounts to not less than 30...

  5. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... such that the total vitamin C in each 4 fluid ounces of the finished food amounts to not less than 30...

  6. Polysiloxane optical fibres and fibre structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martincek, Ivan; Pudis, Dusan

    2016-12-01

    The polysiloxane fibres made of polysiloxanes such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and poly(dimethyl)(diphenil)siloxane (PDMDPS) can be attractive for different fibre applications and fibre structures. In this paper we describe the fabrication technological process of polysiloxane fibres and fibre structures integrated with conventional single-mode optical fibres. We present two-modes interferometer prepared from PDMS biconical optical fibre taper, PDMDPS optical fibre microloop interferometer and liquid microdroplet optical fibre interferometer. We achieved interesting optical properties all these fibre structures as was confirmed from the transmission characteristics what may be attractive for utilisation in various types of optical fibre sensors.

  7. Fibre Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, H. J.; Kun, F.

    2007-12-01

    Fibre models have been introduced as simple models to describe failure. They are based on the probability distribution of broken fibres. The load redistribution after a fibre yields can be global or local and the first case can often be solved analytically. We will present an interpolation between these the local and the global case and apply it to experimental situations like the compression of granular packings. Introducing viscoelastic fibres allows to describe the creep of wood. It is even possible to deal analytically with a gradual degradation of fibres and consider damage as well as healing. In this way Basquin's law of fatigue can be reproduced and new universalities concerning the histograms of bursts and waiting times can be uncovered.

  8. Ensilage of pineapple processing waste for methane generation.

    PubMed

    Rani, D Swaroopa; Nand, Krishna

    2004-01-01

    Pineapple peel wastes, which are seasonal, comprise of peels and rags. Their disposal poses a serious environmental pollution problem. Since pineapple peel is rich in cellulose, hemicellulose and other carbohydrates it was found to be a potential substrate for methane generation by anaerobic digestion. Ensilaging of pineapple peel resulted in the conversion of 55% carbohydrates into volatile fatty acids. The ensilage of pineapple processing wastes reduced the biological oxygen demand by 91%. Biogas digester fed with ensilaged pineapple peel resulted in the biogas yield of 0.67 m3/kg volatile solids (VS) added with methane content of 65% whereas fresh and dried pineapple peels gave biogas yields of 0.55% and 0.41 m3/kg VS added and methane content of 51% and 41% respectively.

  9. Heterogeneity in pineapple fruit quality results from plant heterogeneity at flower induction

    PubMed Central

    Fassinou Hotegni, V. Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J. M.; Agbossou, Euloge K.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneity in fruit quality constitutes a major constraint in agri-food chains. In this paper the sources of the heterogeneity in pineapple in the field were studied in four experiments in commercial pineapple fields. The aims were to determine (a) whether differences in pineapple fruit quality among individual fruits are associated with differences in vigor of the individual plants within the crop at the time of artificial flower induction; and (b) whether the side shoots produced by the plant during the generative phase account for the fruit quality heterogeneity. Two pineapple cultivars were considered: cv. Sugarloaf and cv. Smooth Cayenne. Plant vigor at the time of artificial flower induction was measured by three variates: the number of functional leaves, the D-leaf length and their cross product. Fruit quality attributes measured at harvest time included external attributes (weight and height of fruit, infructescence and crown) and internal quality attributes [total soluble solids (TSS), pH, translucent flesh]. Results showed that the heterogeneity in fruit weight was a consequence of the heterogeneity in vigor of the plants at the moment of flower induction; that effect was mainly on the infructescence weight and less or not on the crown weight. The associations between plant vigor variates at flower induction and the internal quality attributes of the fruit were poor and/or not consistent across experiments. The weight of the slips (side shoots) explained part of the heterogeneity in fruit weight, infructescence weight and fruit height in cv. Sugarloaf. Possibilities for reducing the variation in fruit quality by precise cultural practices are discussed. PMID:25538714

  10. The physiology of ex vitro pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr. var MD-2) as CAM or C3 is regulated by the environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Aragón, C; Carvalho, L; González, J; Escalona, M; Amancio, S

    2012-04-01

    Many plant species grown under in vitro controlled conditions can be used as models for the study of physiological processes. Adult pineapple can display CAM physiology while in vitro it functions as a C3 plant. Ex vitro Ananas comosus has plastic morphology and physiology, both easy to modify from C3 to CAM by changing the environmental conditions. The yield of survival for a rentable propagation protocol of pineapple is closely related with the C3/CAM shift and the associated physiological characteristics. In the present work, ex vitro pineapple plants were divided in two sets and subjected to C3 and CAM-inducing environmental conditions, determined by light intensity and relative humidity, respectively, 40 μmol m(-2) s(-1)/85% and 260 μmol m(-2) s(-1)/50%. The results demonstrated that the stress imposed by the environmental conditions switched pineapple plants from C3 to CAM behavior. Comparing to CAM induced, C3-induced pineapple plants showed substandard growth parameters and morphological leaf characteristics but a better rooting process and a higher ABA production, a phenotype closer to adult plants, which are expected to produce fruits in a normal production cycle. We conclude that the upholding of these characteristics is conditioned by low light intensity plus high relative humidity, especially during the first 8 weeks of ex vitro growth. It is expected that the better understanding of pineapple acclimatization will contribute to the design of a protocol to apply as a rentable tool in the pineapple agronomic industry. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  11. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits.

    PubMed

    Koia, Jonni H; Moyle, Richard L; Botella, Jose R

    2012-12-18

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the molecular basis of pineapple fruit

  12. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Results Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. Conclusions This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the

  13. Fibre typing of intrafusal fibres

    PubMed Central

    Thornell, Lars-Eric; Carlsson, Lena; Eriksson, Per-Olof; Liu, Jing-Xia; Österlund, Catharina; Stål, Per; Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    The first descriptions of muscle spindles with intrafusal fibres containing striated myofibrils and nervous elements were given approximately 150 years ago. It took, however, another 100 years to establish the presence of two types of intrafusal muscle fibres: nuclear bag and nuclear chain fibres. The present paper highlights primarily the contribution of Robert Banks in fibre typing of intrafusal fibres: the confirmation of the principle of two types of nuclear bag fibres in mammalian spindles and the variation in occurrence of a dense M-band along the fibres. Furthermore, this paper summarizes how studies from the Umeå University group (Laboratory of Muscle Biology in the Department of Integrative Medical Biology) on fibre typing and the structure and composition of M-bands have contributed to the current understanding of muscle spindle complexity in adult humans as well as to muscle spindle development and effects of ageing. The variable molecular composition of the intrafusal sarcomeres with respect to myosin heavy chains and M-band proteins gives new perspectives on the role of the intrafusal myofibrils as stretch-activated sensors influencing tension/stiffness and signalling to nuclei. PMID:26179023

  14. [Development of cereal bar with pineapple skin].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Renata Siqueira; Del Santo, Victor Rogério; Souza, Gilberto Batista de; Pereira, Cíntia Alessandra Matiucci

    2011-06-01

    The cereal bars are multi-component products consisting of cereals, dried fruit and syrup binder and may be added to the consumable parts of fruits and vegetables which usually are not exploited and have high nutritional value, thereby reducing food waste. It was developed a jam with pineapple skin, which it was utilized in 13.5% in the cereal bar formulation. The cereal bar was sensorial evaluated and had its centesimal and mineral composition determined. The new product achieved average of 8.3 for global impression using 9 points hedonic scale, 91% of acceptance rate and 67% of purchase intent. In this first use of pineapple skin jam as food ingredient it can be concluded that its aggregation in the cereal bar formula is feasible, making an accepted product with fibers, proteins and minerals, as an alternative to traditional cereal bars.

  15. Metabolite profiling and volatiles of pineapple wine and vinegar obtained from pineapple waste.

    PubMed

    Roda, Arianna; Lucini, Luigi; Torchio, Fabrizio; Dordoni, Roberta; De Faveri, Dante Marco; Lambri, Milena

    2017-08-15

    Vinegar is an inexpensive commodity, and economic considerations require that a relatively low-cost raw material be used for its production. An investigation into the use of a new, alternative substrate - pineapple waste - is described. This approach enables the utilization of the pineapple's (Ananas comosus) peels and core, which are usually discarded during the processing or consumption of the fruit. Using physical and enzymatic treatments, the waste was saccharified, and the resulting substrate was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 7-10days under aerobic conditions at 25°C. This resulted in an alcohol yield of approximately 7%. The alcoholic medium was then used as a seed broth for acetic fermentation using Acetobacter aceti as the inoculum for approximately 30days at 32°C to obtain 5% acetic acid. Samples were analyzed at the beginning and end of the acetification cycle to assess the volatile and fixed compounds by GC-MS and UHPLC-QTOF-MS. The metabolomic analysis indicated that l-lysine, mellein, and gallic acid were significantly more concentrated in the pineapple vinegar than in the original wine. Higher alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones characterized the aroma of the final pineapple vinegar, whilst off-flavors were significantly reduced relative to the initial wine. This study is the first to highlight the metabolite profile of fruit vinegar with a slight floral aroma profile derived from pineapple waste. The potential to efficiently reduce the post-harvest losses of pineapple fruits by re-using them for products with added food values is also demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.

    PubMed

    Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

    2011-08-01

    Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ∼28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries.

  17. Temporal and spatial transcriptomic and microRNA dynamics of CAM photosynthesis in pineapple.

    PubMed

    Wai, Ching M; VanBuren, Robert; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Miao, Wenjing; Edger, Patrick P; Yim, Won C; Priest, Henry D; Meyers, Blake C; Mockler, Todd; Smith, J Andrew C; Cushman, John C; Ming, Ray

    2017-10-01

    The altered carbon assimilation pathway of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis results in an up to 80% higher water-use efficiency than C3 photosynthesis in plants making it a potentially useful pathway for engineering crop plants with improved drought tolerance. Here we surveyed detailed temporal (diel time course) and spatial (across a leaf gradient) gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns in the obligate CAM plant pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.]. The high-resolution transcriptome atlas allowed us to distinguish between CAM-related and non-CAM gene copies. A differential gene co-expression network across green and white leaf diel datasets identified genes with circadian oscillation, CAM-related functions, and source-sink relations. Gene co-expression clusters containing CAM pathway genes are enriched with clock-associated cis-elements, suggesting circadian regulation of CAM. About 20% of pineapple microRNAs have diel expression patterns, with several that target key CAM-related genes. Expression and physiology data provide a model for CAM-specific carbohydrate flux and long-distance hexose transport. Together these resources provide a list of candidate genes for targeted engineering of CAM into C3 photosynthesis crop species. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 ...

  19. Phylogeography of pink pineapple mealybugs, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) reveals the history of pineapple introduction and cultivation in China.

    PubMed

    He, Y B; Zhan, R L; Sun, G M; Wu, J B; Zhao, Y L

    2015-08-19

    The pink pineapple mealybug (PPM), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a widespread plant-sucking insect of considerable concern because it transmits the pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus. Its distribution is closely linked with its host, the pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill] because of its wingless and parthenogenetic characteristics. To investigate the history of D. brevipes introduction and the cultivation of pineapple in China, samples of D. brevipes were collected from the main pineapple production region in China, and from Thailand, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was analyzed. Homologous sequences of D. brevipes COI from Brazil, Thailand, and Philippines that are deposited in GenBank were compared. Phylogenetic analyses suggest there are close genetic relationships between PPM populations from Hawaii, Brazil, the Philippines, and from Thailand and China, which probably originate from South America. It is suggested that most PPMs in China were introduced from South America by way of Southeast Asia, being accompanied by the pineapple seedling. Conversely, some PPMs represented by Haplotype-WN from Wanning of China, and Lampang of Thailand were found to differ greatly from populations in Hawaii, Brazil, the Philippines, Thailand, and China. It is possible that another route was used for the introduction and distribution of pineapple, or that pineapple might have originated in Southeast Asia.

  20. Novel biocomposite of carboxymethyl chitosan and pineapple peel carboxymethylcellulose as sunscreen carrier.

    PubMed

    Wongkom, Lucksanee; Jimtaisong, Ampa

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to prepare of biocomposite of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from Ananas comosus (pineapple) peel for use as broad spectrum sunscreen carrier. Biocomposite was produced by using ferulic acid (FA), a plant extract, as crosslinker with the optimal ratio of CMC: CM-chitosan: FA at 1:2:4%w. FT-IR technique demonstrated that crosslinking may occur at amine group of CM-chitosan and carboxyl group of FA and hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl group of CMC and carboxyl group of FA. Biocomposite is pale yellow powder and present fibre bundle-like surface in the SEM image. DSC, TGA and XRD results indicated that new compound was formed. The particle size of biocomposite is 626nm determined by using Zetasizer. Hydrophilic TiO2 and phenylbenzimidazole sulphonic acid (PBSA) were used as sunscreen agent at ratio of TiO2: PBSA at 2:1%w. The biocomposite sunscreen possesses the SPF value of 2.47 with boost star rating of 3 at 2% compound. The results obtained indicate that the biocomposite was successfully prepared from CM-chitosan and pineapple peel CMC and the system can be used as matrix delivery system for hydrophilic sunscreens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pineapple Nematode Research in Hawaii: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, E. P.; Apt, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    The first written record of pineapple in Hawaii is from 1813. In 1901 commercial pineapple production started, and in 1924 the Experiment Station for pineapple research was established. Nematode-related problems were recognized in the early 1900s by N. A. Cobb. From 1920 to approximately 1945 nematode management in Hawaiian pineapple was based on fallowing and crop rotation. During the 1920s and 1930s G. H. Godfrey conducted research on pineapple nematode management. In the 1930s and 1940s M. B. Linford researched biological control and described several new species of nematodes including Rotylenchulus reniformis. In 1941 nematology and nematode management were advanced by Walter Carter's discovery of the first economical soil fumigant for nematodes, D-D mixture. Subsequently, DBCP was discovered and developed at the Pineapple Research Institute (PRI). Since 1945 soil fumigation has been the main nematode management strategy in Hawaiian pineapple production. Recent research has focused on the development of the nonvolatile nematicides, their potential as systemic nematicides, and their application via drip irrigation. Current and future research addresses biological and cultural alternatives to nematicide-based nematode management. PMID:19287592

  2. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity analysis of Malaysian pineapple cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiet, Chong Hang; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Hidayat, Topik; Yaakob, Harisun

    2014-03-01

    Pineapple industry is one of the important agricultural sectors in Malaysia with 76 cultivars planted throughout the country. This study aims to generate useful nutritional information as well as evaluating antioxidant properties of different pineapple commercial cultivars in Malaysia. The bioactive compound content and antioxidant capacity of `Josapine', `Morris' and `Sarawak' pineapple (Ananas comosus) were studied. The pineapple varieties were collected at commercial maturity stage (20-40% yellowish of fruit peel) and the edible portion of the fruit was used as sample for evaluation. The bioactive compound of the fruit extracts were evaluated by total phenolic and tannin content assay while the antioxidant capacity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). From the results obtained, total phenolic and tannin content was highest for `Josapine' followed by `Morris' and `Sarawak'. With respect to FRAP, `Josapine' showed highest reducing capacity, followed by `Morris' and then `Sarawak' having the least value. The bioactive compounds content are positively correlated with the antioxidant capacities of the pineapple extracts. This result indicates that the total phenolics and tannin content present in the pineapples may contribute to the antioxidant capacity of the pineapples.

  3. Pineapple nematode research in hawaii: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Caswell, E P; Apt, W J

    1989-04-01

    The first written record of pineapple in Hawaii is from 1813. In 1901 commercial pineapple production started, and in 1924 the Experiment Station for pineapple research was established. Nematode-related problems were recognized in the early 1900s by N. A. Cobb. From 1920 to approximately 1945 nematode management in Hawaiian pineapple was based on fallowing and crop rotation. During the 1920s and 1930s G. H. Godfrey conducted research on pineapple nematode management. In the 1930s and 1940s M. B. Linford researched biological control and described several new species of nematodes including Rotylenchulus reniformis. In 1941 nematology and nematode management were advanced by Walter Carter's discovery of the first economical soil fumigant for nematodes, D-D mixture. Subsequently, DBCP was discovered and developed at the Pineapple Research Institute (PRI). Since 1945 soil fumigation has been the main nematode management strategy in Hawaiian pineapple production. Recent research has focused on the development of the nonvolatile nematicides, their potential as systemic nematicides, and their application via drip irrigation. Current and future research addresses biological and cultural alternatives to nematicide-based nematode management.

  4. [Studies on phenolic constituents from leaves of pineapple (Ananas comosus)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Xing, Dong-ming; Wang, Jin-ping; Du, Li-jun

    2006-08-01

    To study the phenolic constituents of the leaves of pineapple. Chromatographic methods were used to isolate compounds from the leaves of pineapple and spectroscopic methods were used to identify the structures of the isolated compounds. 7 compounds, ananasate (1), 1-O-caffeoylglycerol (2), 1-O-p-coumaroylglycerol (3), caffeic acid (4), p-coumaric acid (5), beta-sitosterol (6) and daucosterol (7), were isolated from the leaves of pineapple. 1 was a new compound, and others were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  5. Satellite Animation Shows February Return of the Pineapple Express

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An animation of satellite imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Feb. 1 to Feb. 4, 2015 captured the movement of a stream of clouds associated with moisture called "The Pineapple Express." Cr...

  6. GOES-West Movie of the Pineapple Express Jet Stream

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A wide-field movie by GOES-WEST of the North Pacific from Dec. 9-12, 2014 reveals the violent rain storms pouring moisture on the "Pineapple Express" jet stream into California in mid-December. Cre...

  7. A taste of pineapple evolution through genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2015-12-01

    The genome sequence assembly of the highly heterozygous Ananas comosus and its varieties is an impressive technical achievement. The sequence opens the door to a greater understanding of pineapple morphology and evolution.

  8. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C.; Bowers, John E.; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C.; Priest, Henry D.; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P.; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J.; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R.; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Wright, Chris L.; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H.; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H.; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cushman, John C.; Paull, Robert E.; Yu, Qingyi

    2015-11-02

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ρ duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements associated with the regulation of circadian clock genes, providing the first cis-regulatory link between CAM and circadian clock regulation. Lastly, we found pineapple CAM photosynthesis evolved by the reconfiguration of pathways in C3 plants, through the regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting genes and not through the acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole-genome or tandem gene duplication.

  9. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    DOE PAGES

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; ...

    2015-11-02

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ρ duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAMmore » pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements associated with the regulation of circadian clock genes, providing the first cis-regulatory link between CAM and circadian clock regulation. Lastly, we found pineapple CAM photosynthesis evolved by the reconfiguration of pathways in C3 plants, through the regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting genes and not through the acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole-genome or tandem gene duplication.« less

  10. Aroma Volatile Compounds from Two Fresh Pineapple Varieties in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Liang-Yong; Sun, Guang-Ming; Liu, Yu-Ge; Lv, Ling-Ling; Yang, Wen-Xiu; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Wei, Chang-Bin

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds from two pineapples varieties (Tainong No.4 and No.6) were isolated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In the Tainong No. 4 and No. 6 pineapples, a total of 11 and 28 volatile compounds were identified according to their retention time on capillary columns and their mass spectra, and quantified with total concentrations of 1080.44 μg·kg−1 and 380.66 μg·kg−1 in the Tainong No.4 and No. 6 pineapples, respectively. The odor active values (OAVs) of volatile compounds from pineapples were also calculated. According to the OAVs, four compounds were defined as the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 4 pineapple, including furaneol, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid methyl ester, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid ethyl ester and δ-octalactone. The OAVs of five compounds including ethyl-2-methylbutyrate, methyl-2-methylbutyrate, 3-(methylthio)propanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl hexanoate and decanal were considered to be the characteristic aroma compounds for the Tainong No. 6 pineapple. PMID:22837701

  11. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C; Bowers, John E; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C; Priest, Henry D; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G; Wright, Chris L; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J Andrew C; Cushman, John C; Paull, Robert E; Yu, Qingyi

    2015-12-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water-use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties F153 and MD2 and a wild pineapple relative, Ananas bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole-genome duplication event than sequenced grass genomes and a conserved karyotype with seven chromosomes from before the ρ duplication event. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM, with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements associated with the regulation of circadian clock genes, providing the first cis-regulatory link between CAM and circadian clock regulation. Pineapple CAM photosynthesis evolved by the reconfiguration of pathways in C3 plants, through the regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting genes and not through the acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole-genome or tandem gene duplication.

  12. The cysteine proteinases of the pineapple plant.

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, A D; Buttle, D J; Barrett, A J

    1990-01-01

    The pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) was shown to contain at least four distinct cysteine proteinases, which were purified by a procedure involving active-site-directed affinity chromatography. The major proteinase present in extracts of plant stem was stem bromelain, whilst fruit bromelain was the major proteinase in the fruit. Two additional cysteine proteinases were detected only in the stem: these were ananain and a previously undescribed enzyme that we have called comosain. Stem bromelain, fruit bromelain and ananain were shown to be immunologically distinct. Enzymic characterization revealed differences in both substrate-specificities and inhibition profiles. A study of the cysteine proteinase derived from the related bromeliad Bromelia pinguin (pinguinain) indicated that in many respects it was similar to fruit bromelain, although it was found to be immunologically distinct. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2327970

  13. The cysteine proteinases of the pineapple plant.

    PubMed

    Rowan, A D; Buttle, D J; Barrett, A J

    1990-03-15

    The pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) was shown to contain at least four distinct cysteine proteinases, which were purified by a procedure involving active-site-directed affinity chromatography. The major proteinase present in extracts of plant stem was stem bromelain, whilst fruit bromelain was the major proteinase in the fruit. Two additional cysteine proteinases were detected only in the stem: these were ananain and a previously undescribed enzyme that we have called comosain. Stem bromelain, fruit bromelain and ananain were shown to be immunologically distinct. Enzymic characterization revealed differences in both substrate-specificities and inhibition profiles. A study of the cysteine proteinase derived from the related bromeliad Bromelia pinguin (pinguinain) indicated that in many respects it was similar to fruit bromelain, although it was found to be immunologically distinct.

  14. Cytokinins and auxin communicate nitrogen availability as long-distance signal molecules in pineapple (Ananas comosus).

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Vívian; Mercier, Helenice

    2007-11-01

    This work aimed at identifying a possible role of phytohormones in long-distance (root-shoot) signaling under nitrogen deficiency. Three-months old pineapple plants were transferred from Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium to nitrogen-free MS (-N). During the first 24h on -N, 20 plants were harvested every 4h. After 30 days in -N, the remaining plants were transferred back to regular MS (+N) and 20 plants harvested every 4h for the first 24h. Following the harvests, endogenous levels of nitrate (NO(3)(-)), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), isopentenyladenine (iP), isopentenyladenine riboside (iPR), zeatin (Z) and zeatin riboside (ZR) were analyzed in roots and leaves. In N-starved plants, the NO(3)(-) level dropped by 20% in roots between the first (4h) and the second harvest (8h). In leaves a reduction of 20% was found 4h later. Accumulation of IAA peaked in leaves at 16h. In roots, the accumulation of IAA only started at 16h while the leaf content was already in decline, which suggests that the hormone might have traveled from the leaves to the roots, communicating N-shortage. The contents of the four cytokinins were generally low in both, shoot and roots, and remained almost unchanged during the 24h of analysis. After N re-supply, roots showed a NO(3)(-) peak at 8h whereas the foliar concentration increased 4h later. Hormone levels in roots climaxed at 8h, this coinciding with the highest NO(3)(-) concentration. In leaf tissue, a dramatic accumulation was only observed for Z and ZR, and the peak was seen 4h later than in roots, suggesting that Z-type cytokinins might have traveled from the roots to the leaves. These findings provide evidence that there is a signaling pathway for N availability in pineapple plants, communicated upwards through cytokinins (N-supplemented plants) and downwards through auxin (N-starved plants).

  15. The pineapple genome and the evolution of CAM photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Ray; VanBuren, Robert; Wai, Ching Man; Tang, Haibao; Schatz, Michael C.; Bowers, John E.; Lyons, Eric; Wang, Ming-Li; Chen, Jung; Biggers, Eric; Zhang, Jisen; Huang, Lixian; Zhang, Lingmao; Miao, Wenjing; Zhang, Jian; Ye, Zhangyao; Miao, Chenyong; Lin, Zhicong; Wang, Hao; Zhou, Hongye; Yim, Won C.; Priest, Henry D.; Zheng, Chunfang; Woodhouse, Margaret; Edger, Patrick P.; Guyot, Romain; Guo, Hao-Bo; Guo, Hong; Zheng, Guangyong; Singh, Ratnesh; Sharma, Anupma; Min, Xiangjia; Zheng, Yun; Lee, Hayan; Gurtowski, James; Sedlazeck, Fritz J.; Harkess, Alex; McKain, Michael R.; Liao, Zhenyang; Fang, Jingping; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Weichang; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Kai; Chen, Li-Yu; Shirley, Neil; Lin, Yann-Rong; Liu, Li-Yu; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Wright, Chris L.; Bulone, Vincent; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Heath, Katy; Zee, Francis; Moore, Paul H.; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Mockler, Todd; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Freeling, Michael; Sankoff, David; Paterson, Andrew H.; Zhu, Xinguang; Yang, Xiaohan; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Cushman, John C.; Paull, Robert E.; Yu, Qingyi

    2016-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is the most economically valuable crop possessing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), a photosynthetic carbon assimilation pathway with high water use efficiency, and the second most important tropical fruit after banana in terms of international trade. We sequenced the genomes of pineapple varieties ‘F153’ and ‘MD2’, and a wild pineapple relative A. bracteatus accession CB5. The pineapple genome has one fewer ancient whole genome duplications than sequenced grass genomes and, therefore, provides an important reference for elucidating gene content and structure in the last common ancestor of extant members of the grass family (Poaceae). Pineapple has a conserved karyotype with seven pre rho duplication chromosomes that are ancestral to extant grass karyotypes. The pineapple lineage has transitioned from C3 photosynthesis to CAM with CAM-related genes exhibiting a diel expression pattern in photosynthetic tissues using beta-carbonic anhydrase (βCA) for initial capture of CO2. Promoter regions of all three βCA genes contain a CCA1 binding site that can bind circadian core oscillators. CAM pathway genes were enriched with cis-regulatory elements including the morning (CCACAC) and evening (AAAATATC) elements associated with regulation of circadian-clock genes, providing the first link between CAM and the circadian clock regulation. Gene-interaction network analysis revealed both activation and repression of regulatory elements that control key enzymes in CAM photosynthesis, indicating that CAM evolved by reconfiguration of pathways preexisting in C3 plants. Pineapple CAM photosynthesis is the result of regulatory neofunctionalization of preexisting gene copies and not acquisition of neofunctionalized genes via whole genome or tandem gene duplication. PMID:26523774

  16. Gene Expression Changes and Early Events in Cotton Fibre Development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinsuk J.; Woodward, Andrew W.; Chen, Z. Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Background Cotton is the dominant source of natural textile fibre and a significant oil crop. Cotton fibres, produced by certain species in the genus Gossypium, are seed trichomes derived from individual cells of the epidermal layer of the seed coat. Cotton fibre development is delineated into four distinct and overlapping developmental stages: fibre initiation, elongation, secondary wall biosynthesis and maturation. Scope Recent advances in gene expression studies are beginning to provide new insights into a better understanding of early events in cotton fibre development. Fibre cell development is a complex process involving many pathways, including various signal transduction and transcriptional regulation components. Several analyses using expressed sequence tags and microarray have identified transcripts that preferentially accumulate during fibre development. These studies, as well as complementation and overexpression experiments using cotton genes in arabidopsis and tobacco, indicate some similar molecular events between trichome development from the leaf epidermis and fibre development from the ovule epidermis. Specifically, MYB transcription factors regulate leaf trichome development in arabidopsis and may regulate seed trichome development in cotton. In addition, transcript profiling and ovule culture experiments both indicate that several phytohormones and other signalling pathways mediate cotton fibre development. Auxin and gibberellins promote early stages of fibre initiation; ethylene- and brassinosteroid-related genes are up-regulated during the fibre elongation phase; and genes associated with calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins are up-regulated in fibre initials. Additional genomic data, mutant and functional analyses, and genome mapping studies promise to reveal the critical factors mediating cotton fibre cell development. PMID:17905721

  17. Diversity of Fusarium species and mycotoxins contaminating pineapple.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Łukasz; Koczyk, Grzegorz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2013-08-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus) is an important perennial crop in tropical and subtropical areas. It may be infected by various Fusarium species, contaminating the plant material with mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate Fusarium species variability among the genotypes isolated from pineapple fruits displaying fungal infection symptoms and to evaluate their mycotoxigenic abilities. Forty-four isolates of ten Fusarium species were obtained from pineapple fruit samples: F. ananatum, F. concentricum, F. fujikuroi, F. guttiforme, F. incarnatum, F. oxysporum, F. polyphialidicum, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum and F. verticillioides. Fumonisins B1-B3, beauvericin (BEA) and moniliformin (MON) contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in pineapple fruit tissue. Fumonisins are likely the most dangerous metabolites present in fruit samples (the maximum FB1 content was 250 μg g(-1) in pineapple skin and 20 μg ml(-1) in juice fraction). In both fractions, BEA and MON were of minor significance. FUM1 and FUM8 genes were identified in F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, F. temperatum and F. verticillioides. Cyclic peptide synthase gene (esyn1 homologue) from the BEA biosynthetic pathway was identified in 40 isolates of eight species. Based on the gene-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, none of the isolates tested were found to be able to produce trichothecenes or zearalenone.

  18. Fibre-reinforced materials.

    PubMed

    Brown, D

    2000-11-01

    This paper considers the role of fibres in the reinforcement of composite materials, and the significance of the form the fibre takes and the material from which it is made. The current dental applications of fibre reinforcement, including dental cements and splints, fibres made into structures for use in composites, denture bases and the contemporary use of fibres in fixed partial dentures, are reviewed. Their role in biomedical implants is surveyed and their future forecast.

  19. The energetic characterization of pineapple crown leaves.

    PubMed

    Braga, R M; Queiroga, T S; Calixto, G Q; Almeida, H N; Melo, D M A; Melo, M A F; Freitas, J C O; Curbelo, F D S

    2015-12-01

    Energetic characterization of biomass allows for assessing its energy potential for application in different conversion processes into energy. The objective of this study is to physicochemically characterize pineapple crown leaves (PC) for their application in energy conversion processes. PC was characterized according to ASTM E871-82, E1755-01, and E873-82 for determination of moisture, ash, and volatile matter, respectively; the fixed carbon was calculated by difference. Higher heating value was determined by ASTM E711-87 and ash chemical composition was determined by XRF. The thermogravimetric and FTIR analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal decomposition and identify the main functional groups of biomass. PC has potential for application in thermochemical processes, showing high volatile matter (89.5%), bulk density (420.8 kg/m(3)), and higher heating value (18.9 MJ/kg). The results show its energy potential justifying application of this agricultural waste into energy conversion processes, implementing sustainability in the production, and reducing the environmental liabilities caused by its disposal.

  20. Towards sustainable use of potassium in pineapple waste.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osumanu H; Husni, M H A; Anuar, A R; Hanafi, M M

    2004-11-20

    Due to the 1997/98 haze problem in South-East Asia and the increasing need for sustainable food production and development, the usual management of crop residues (including pineapple wastes) through burning is prohibited. As a result, the need for alternative uses of pineapple wastes in pineapple production has been emphasized. This study investigated an environmentally friendly means of recycling pineapple leaves for agricultural use. Pineapple leaves were shredded and composted in a composting drum for 30 days. Part of the shredded leaves was ashed in a muffle furnace for 4 h. Humic acid (HA), K-fulvate, and K in HA and compost were analyzed using standard procedures. An ash to water ratio of 1:7 was used to extract 0.1 molar (M) KOH from the shredded leaves. The 0.1 M KOH contained 50% K and was able to extract 20% HA from the composted pineapple leaves. Percent K in the fulvate using 0.1 M KOH was 43. Besides serving as a foliar spray (supplement soil application K fertilizers), source of K for freshwater fish (e.g., tilapia), the HA produced can be used as a soil conditioner. Studies show that between 0.05-0.01 g of HA per kg soil retards runoff by 36% in sandy and sandy loam soils. The K-fulvate can be used as a fluid fertilizer. In addition, the pH of 2 of the K-fulvate suggests it could be used to dissolve phosphate rocks, particularly those in the arid regions where high soil pH does not facilitate the dissolution of these important rocks that serve as one of the sources of phosphorus fertilizer in agriculture.

  1. Plasticity of crassulacean acid metabolism at subtropical latitudes: a pineapple case study.

    PubMed

    Rainha, Nuno; Medeiros, Violante P; Câmara, Mariana; Faustino, Hélder; Leite, João P; Barreto, Maria do Carmo; Cruz, Cristina; Pacheco, Carlos A; Ponte, Duarte; Bernardes da Silva, Anabela

    2016-01-01

    Plants with the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) express high-metabolic plasticity, to adjust to environmental stresses. This article hypothesizes that irradiance and nocturnal temperatures are the major limitations for CAM at higher latitudes such as the Azores (37°45'N). Circadian CAM expression in Ananas comosus L. Merr. (pineapple) was assessed by the diurnal pattern of leaf carbon fixation into l-malate at the solstices and equinoxes, and confirmed by determining maximal phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity in plant material. Metabolic adjustments to environmental conditions were confirmed by gas exchange measurements, and integrated with environmental data to determine CAM's limiting factors: light and temperature. CAM plasticity was observed at the equinoxes, under similar photoperiods, but different environmental conditions. In spring, CAM expression was similar between vegetative and flowering plants, while in autumn, flowering (before anthesis) and fructifying (with fully developed fruit before ripening) plants accumulated more l-malate. Below 100 µmol m(-2) s(-1) , CAM phase I was extended, reducing CAM phase III during the day. Carbon fixation inhibition may occur by two major pathways: nocturnal temperature (<15°C) inhibiting PEPC activity and l-malate accumulation; and low irradiance influencing the interplay between CAM phase I and III, affecting carboxylation and decarboxylation. Both have important consequences for plant development in autumn and winter. Observations were confirmed by flowering time prediction using environmental data, emphasizing that CAM expression had a strong seasonal regulation due to a complex network response to light and temperature, allowing pineapple to survive in environments not suitable for high productivity. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. 21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181 Section 145.181 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits...

  3. 21 CFR 145.181 - Artificially sweetened canned pineapple.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned pineapple. 145.181 Section 145.181 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits...

  4. Pineapple Waste Extract for Preventing Oxidation in Model Food Systems.

    PubMed

    Segovia Gómez, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-07-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is consumed in the form of chunks (canned), cubes, fruit salad, and also in juices, concentrates, and jams. In the processes to produce these products, the waste generated represents a high percentage of the total fruit. Some studies have shown that residues of certain fruits, such as pineapple, have the same antioxidant activity as the fruit pulp. So although these residues are discarded, they could be used as an alternative source of polyphenols, as natural antioxidants. This study is focused on the antioxidant activity of wastes obtained in the production of pineapple products and their application. The polyphenols' scavenging activity was determined by the oxygen radical antioxidant capacity assay. The antioxidant potential was determined in emulsions (o/w) and in muffins, where the primary oxidation products (by peroxide value, PV) and the secondary oxidation products (by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) were analyzed. In addition the muffins were analyzed by means of a triangular sensory test. The PV method showed that pineapple waste extracts caused a reduction in oxidation products of 59% in emulsions and 91% in the muffins. The reduction in TBARs values for emulsions were 27% and for muffins were 51%. The triangular sensory test showed that the samples containing the extract were not distinguished from the control (α = 0.05). © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Postharvest internal browning of pineapple fruit originates at the phloem.

    PubMed

    Luengwilai, Kietsuda; Beckles, Diane M; Siriphanich, Jingtair

    2016-09-01

    A typical symptom of postharvest chilling injury (PCI) in pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) is internal browning (IB) near the fruit core. Since vascular bundles (VBs) are localized to this region, it was hypothesized that the VBs might be the site of IB. To test this, the anatomy and histochemistry of VBs during chilling stress in four pineapple cultivars with different levels of sensitivity to PCI were examined. Fruit were stored at 10°C for up to three weeks to stimulate translucency symptoms (TS; the initiation of IB). After three weeks of chilling exposure, the cultivars 'MD2' showed 0%, 'Pattavia' and 'Savee' showed 10-16%, and 'Trad Sri Thong' showed 100% TS and IB symptom. Scanning electron microscopy and in situ histochemical staining techniques that detect enzymes and substrates commonly associated with IB initiation were used in parallel. The TS of pineapple fruit coincided with the collapse of the phloem tissue. The VBs in the tissue where IB was initiated (i.e., the flesh adjacent to the core or F/C) had the highest activity of polyphenol oxidase, hydrogen peroxide, and phenolic compounds. The IB-resistant 'MD2' genotype had fewer VBs, but a greater proportion of sclerenchyma fibers (P<0.05) than did the susceptible 'Trad Sri Thong'. Based on these data, the first report of pineapple IB occurrence in the phloem was proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasound as pre-treatment for drying of pineapple.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Linhares, Francisco E; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2008-09-01

    Dehydration of fruits is an alternative to reduce post-harvest loss of fruits and also a process to produce dried fruits, which can be directly consumed or become part of foodstuffs like cakes, pastries and many others. The effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment and ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration, before air-drying, on dehydration of pineapple (Ananas comosus) was investigated. This study allowed estimating the water diffusivity in the air-drying process for pineapples submitted to ultrasound. Results showed that the water diffusivity increased after application of ultrasound and that the overall drying time was reduced by 8% (over 1h of air-drying time). During the ultrasonic treatment in distilled water the pineapples lost sugar (23.2% in 30 min), so in this condition the ultrasonic pre-treatment can be an interesting process to produce dried fruits with low sugar content. Results showed that the water loss increased with increasing soluble solids content of the osmotic solution and that the ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration incorporated more sugar than conventional osmotic dehydration. The water effective diffusivity of the pineapples during the air-drying process was influenced by the pre-treatment, increasing the water effective diffusivity when ultrasound was applied.

  7. Fun with optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alti, Kamlesh

    2017-07-01

    Optical fibres play a very crucial role in today’s technologies. Academic courses in optical fibres start at the undergraduate level. Nevertheless, student’s curiosity towards optical fibres starts from the school level. In this paper, some fun experiments have been designed for both school and college students, which have some concrete implications at the research level also.

  8. Fun with Optical Fibres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alti, Kamlesh

    2017-01-01

    Optical fibres play a very crucial role in today's technologies. Academic courses in optical fibres start at the undergraduate level. Nevertheless, student's curiosity towards optical fibres starts from the school level. In this paper, some fun experiments have been designed for both school and college students, which have some concrete…

  9. CW bismuth fibre laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dianov, Evgenii M; Dvoyrin, V V; Mashinsky, V M; Umnikov, A A; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, A N

    2005-12-31

    A new fibre laser based on a bismuth-doped aluminosilicate glass fibre is proposed and fabricated. CW lasing is obtained in the spectral region between 1150 and 1300 nm. The fibres are fabricated by the method of modified chemical vapour deposition. (letters)

  10. Development of Pineapple Microsatellite Markers and Germplasm Genetic Diversity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Helin; Chen, You; Wang, Jingyi; Chen, Yeyuan; Sun, Guangming; He, Junhu; Wu, Yaoting

    2013-01-01

    Two methods were used to develop pineapple microsatellite markers. Genomic library-based SSR development: using selectively amplified microsatellite assay, 86 sequences were generated from pineapple genomic library. 91 (96.8%) of the 94 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci were dinucleotide repeats (39 AC/GT repeats and 52 GA/TC repeats, accounting for 42.9% and 57.1%, resp.), and the other three were mononucleotide repeats. Thirty-six pairs of SSR primers were designed; 24 of them generated clear bands of expected sizes, and 13 of them showed polymorphism. EST-based SSR development: 5659 pineapple EST sequences obtained from NCBI were analyzed; among 1397 nonredundant EST sequences, 843 were found containing 1110 SSR loci (217 of them contained more than one SSR locus). Frequency of SSRs in pineapple EST sequences is 1SSR/3.73 kb, and 44 types were found. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats dominate, accounting for 95.6% in total. AG/CT and AGC/GCT were the dominant type of dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, accounting for 83.5% and 24.1%, respectively. Thirty pairs of primers were designed for each of randomly selected 30 sequences; 26 of them generated clear and reproducible bands, and 22 of them showed polymorphism. Eighteen pairs of primers obtained by the one or the other of the two methods above that showed polymorphism were selected to carry out germplasm genetic diversity analysis for 48 breeds of pineapple; similarity coefficients of these breeds were between 0.59 and 1.00, and they can be divided into four groups accordingly. Amplification products of five SSR markers were extracted and sequenced, corresponding repeat loci were found and locus mutations are mainly in copy number of repeats and base mutations in the flanking region. PMID:24024187

  11. Modeling the Pineapple Express phenomenon via Multivariate Extreme Value Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, G.; Cooley, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    The pineapple express (PE) phenomenon is responsible for producing extreme winter precipitation events in the coastal and mountainous regions of the western United States. Because the PE phenomenon is also associated with warm temperatures, the heavy precipitation and associated snowmelt can cause destructive flooding. In order to study impacts, it is important that regional climate models from NARCCAP are able to reproduce extreme precipitation events produced by PE. We define a daily precipitation quantity which captures the spatial extent and intensity of precipitation events produced by the PE phenomenon. We then use statistical extreme value theory to model the tail dependence of this quantity as seen in an observational data set and each of the six NARCCAP regional models driven by NCEP reanalysis. We find that most NCEP-driven NARCCAP models do exhibit tail dependence between daily model output and observations. Furthermore, we find that not all extreme precipitation events are pineapple express events, as identified by Dettinger et al. (2011). The synoptic-scale atmospheric processes that drive extreme precipitation events produced by PE have only recently begun to be examined. Much of the current work has focused on pattern recognition, rather than quantitative analysis. We use daily mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) fields from NCEP to develop a "pineapple express index" for extreme precipitation, which exhibits tail dependence with our observed precipitation quantity for pineapple express events. We build a statistical model that connects daily precipitation output from the WRFG model, daily MSLP fields from NCEP, and daily observed precipitation in the western US. Finally, we use this model to simulate future observed precipitation based on WRFG output driven by the CCSM model, and our pineapple express index derived from future CCSM output. Our aim is to use this model to develop a better understanding of the frequency and intensity of extreme

  12. Fibre Optics In Automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmer, A. L.

    1984-08-01

    Optical fibres are used in three application areas in automobiles. Illumination of the dashboard is done with a single lamp and monofilament fibres or woven tapes which illuminate the front panel. Fibre-optic multiplexing can replace the conventional wiring harness. Different trial systems (two-fibre links, bidirectional transmission, star-coupled architecture) are reviewed. Problems still exist in component performance, high costs and unknown reliability of optoelectronic systems. Fibre-optics are also used in sensors; for headlight monitoring, liquid-level sensing and other applications.

  13. Ingestion of insoluble dietary fibre increased zinc and iron absorption and restored growth rate and zinc absorption suppressed by dietary phytate in rats.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Hara, H; Asvarujanon, P; Aoyama, Y; Luangpituksa, P

    2001-10-01

    We examined the effects of ingestion of five types of insoluble fibre on growth and Zn absorption in rats fed a marginally Zn-deficient diet (6.75 mg (0.103 mmol) Zn/kg diet) with or without added sodium phytate (12.6 mmol/kg diet). The types of insoluble fibre tested were corn husks, watermelon skin, yam-bean root (Pachyrhizus erosus) and pineapple core, and cellulose was used as a control (100 g/kg diet). Body-weight gain in the cellulose groups was suppressed by 57 % by feeding phytate. Body-weight gain in phytate-fed rats was 80 % greater in the watermelon skin fibre and yam-bean root fibre group than that in the cellulose group. Zn absorption ratio in the cellulose groups was lowered by 46 and 70 % in the first (days 7-10) and second (days 16-19) measurement periods with feeding phytate. In the rats fed the phytate-containing diets, Zn absorption ratio in the watermelon skin, yam-bean root and pineapple core fibre groups was 140, 80 and 54 % higher respectively than that in the cellulose group, in the second period. Fe absorption was not suppressed by phytate, however, feeding of these three types of fibre promoted Fe absorption in rats fed phytate-free diets. The concentration of soluble Zn in the caecal contents in the watermelon skin fibre or yam-bean root fibre groups was identical to that in the control group in spite of a higher short-chain fatty acid concentration and lower pH in the caecum. These findings indicate that ingestion of these types of insoluble fibre recovered the growth and Zn absorption suppressed by feeding a high level of phytate, and factors other than caecal fermentation may also be involved in this effect of insoluble fibre.

  14. From Wine to Pineapples: Delta Company Takes on New Satellite Role

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    2011 Spring / Summer edition army Space Journal 2F Delta Company Takes on New Satellite Role FROM Wine TO PineAPPLeS WAHIAWA, Hawaii – 2011 has yet...next to pineapple fields on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Delta Company has provided network and payload control for the Defense Satellite...1. REPORT DATE 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE From Wine to Pineapples : Delta Company

  15. Therapeutic role of dietary fibre.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R.; Fedorak, R.; Frohlich, J.; McLennan, C.; Pavilanis, A.

    1993-01-01

    The current status of dietary fibre and fibre supplements in health and disease is reported, and the components of dietary fibre and its respective mechanical and metabolic effects with emphasis on its therapeutic potential are reviewed. Practical management guidelines are provided to help physicians encourage patients identified as having fibre deficiency to increase dietary fibre intake to the recommended level. PMID:8388284

  16. Ferulic acid is esterified to glucuronoarabinoxylans in pineapple cell walls.

    PubMed

    Smith, B G; Harris, P J

    2001-03-01

    The ester-linkage of ferulic acid (mainly E) to polysaccharides in primary cell walls of pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) (Bromeliaceae) was investigated by treating a cell-wall preparation with 'Driselase' which contains a mixture of endo- and exo-glycanases, but no hydroxycinnamoyl esterase activity. The most abundant feruloyl oligosaccharide released was O-[5-O-(E-feruloyl)-alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl](1-->3)-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D-xylopyranose (FAXX). This indicated that the ferulic acid is ester-linked to glucuronoarabinoxylans in the same way as in the primary walls of grasses and cereals (Poaceae). Glucuronoarabinoxylans are the major non-cellulosic polysaccharides in the pineapple cell walls.

  17. Study of pineapple peelings processing into vinegar by biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Sossou, Seyram K; Ameyapoh, Yaovi; Karou, Simplice D; de Souza, Comlan

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to reduce post-harvest losses of pineapple local variety egbenana by the transformation of juice into vinegar through biotechnological process. Vinegar was produced through two successive fermentations: alcoholic and acetic fermentations. The alcohol fermentation was carried out at 30 degrees C using yeast. Biomass, pH and Brix were evaluated daily during the fermentation. Acetic fermentation was carried out at 30 degrees C using an acetic bacteria strain isolated from pineapple wine previously exposed to ambient temperature (28 degrees C) for 5 days. Biomass, pH and acid levels were monitored each 2 days. The performance of acetic bacteria isolated was also assessed by studying their glucose and ethanol tolerance. The study allowed the isolation of yeast coded Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LAS01) and an acetic bacteria coded Acetobacter sp. (ASV03) both occurring in the pineapple juice. The monitoring of successive fermentations indicated that the pineapple juice with sugar concentration of 20 Brix, seeded with 10(6) cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LAS01) for alcoholic fermentation for 4 days and afterwards seeded with 10(6) cells of Acetobacter sp. resulted in 4.5 acetic degree vinegar at Brix 5.3% and pH 2.8 for 23 to 25 days. The study of glucose tolerance of the strain of Acetobacter sp. showed that the growth of acetic bacteria was important in a juice with high concentration of sugar. However, the concentration of ethanol did not effect on the acetic bacteria growth. These results enabled on one hand to improve the manufacturing technology of vinegar from fruits and on the other hand to produce a starter of yeast and acetic bacteria strains for this production.

  18. Research of Uncertainty Reasoning in Pineapple Disease Identification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liqun; Fan, Haifeng

    In order to deal with the uncertainty of evidences mostly existing in pineapple disease identification system, a reasoning model based on evidence credibility factor was established. The uncertainty reasoning method is discussed,including: uncertain representation of knowledge, uncertain representation of rules, uncertain representation of multi-evidences and update of reasoning rules. The reasoning can fully reflect the uncertainty in disease identification and reduce the influence of subjective factors on the accuracy of the system.

  19. Chemical Examination of Citrus sinensis Flavedo Variety Pineapple

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Geeta; Yadav, Lalita; Kalidhar, S. B.

    2009-01-01

    Phytochemical examination of Citrus sinensis flavedo var. Pineapple resulted in the isolation of six compounds characterized as tetracosane, ethyl pentacosanoate, tetratriacontanoic acid, tangertin, β-sitosteryl-β-D-glucoside and 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxy flavanone 3-O-β-glucoside. Of these 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxy flavanone 3-O-β-glucoside is a hitherto unreported compound. PMID:20376223

  20. Fibres For Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, D. N.

    1984-11-01

    Sensors which rely on the external modulation of the properties of an optical fibre (intrinsic sensors) are receiving much attention since they can be made extremely sensitive, and can be used for distributed measurements. Distributed sensing provides some particularly exciting prospects for acoustic, magnetic and electric field monitoring. To date, however, the great majority of experimental and commercial fibre sensors employ telecommunications-grade fibres, largely as a result of their ready availability. Not only does this policy frequently lead to a design compromise, but in some cases makes the performance marginal or untenable as a result of excessive environmental sensitivity. Despite this, little attention has been given to the design of special sensor fibres with enhanced (or depressed) sensitivity to specific measurands. The position is somewhat better with respect to fibres designed to eliminate sensor polarisation problems (e.g. polar isation-maintaining fibres), but even here further work is required to provide the performance demanded.

  1. Pineapple peel wastes as a potential source of antioxidant compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswaty, V.; Risdian, C.; Primadona, I.; Andriyani, R.; Andayani, D. G. S.; Mozef, T.

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is a large pineapple (Ananas comosus) producing country. Food industries in Indonesia processed this fruit for new products and further resulted wastes of which cause an environmental problems. Approximately, one pineapple fruit total weight is 400 gr of which 60 g is of peel wastes. In order to reduce such pineapple peel wastes (PPW), processing to a valuable product using an environmentally friendly technique is indispensable. PPW contained phenolic compound, ferulic acid, and vitamin A and C as antioxidant. This study aimed to PPW using ethanol and water as well as to analyze its chemical properties. Both dried and fresh PPW were extracted using mixtures of ethanol and water with various concentrations ranging from 15 to 95% (v/v) at room temperature for 24 h. The chemical properties, such as antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (Gallic acid equivalent/GAE), and total sugar content were determined. The results showed that the range of Inhibition Concentration (IC)50 value as antioxidant activity of extracts from dried and fresh PPW were in the range of 0.8±0.05 to 1.3±0.09 mg.mL-1 and 0.25±0.01 to 0.59±0.01 mg.mL-1, respectively, with the highest antioxidant activity was in water extract. The highest of total phenolic content of 0.9 mg.g-1 GAE, was also found in water extract.

  2. Natural Endophytic Occurrence of Acetobacter diazotrophicus in Pineapple Plants.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Hernández; Bustillos-Cristales; Jiménez-Salgado; Caballero-Mellado; Fuentes-Ramírez

    2000-01-01

    The presence of endophytic Acetobacter diazotrophicus was tested for pineapple plants (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) grown in the field. Diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from the inner tissues of surface sterilized roots, stems, and leaves of pineapple plants. Phenotypic tests permitted the selection of presumptive nitrogen-fixing A. diazotrophicus isolates. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of small subunit (SSU) rDNA using total DNA digested with endonuclease SphI and with endonuclease NcoI, hybridizations of RNA with an A. diazotrophicus large subunit (LSU) rRNA specific probe, as well as patterns in denaturing protein electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and multilocus enzyme tests allowed the identification of A. diazotrophicus isolates. High frequencies of isolation were obtained from propagative buds that had not been nitrogen-fertilized, and lower frequencies from 3-month-old plants that had been nitrogen-fertilized. No isolates were recovered from 5- to 7-month-old nitrogen-fertilized plants. All the A. diazotrophicus isolates recovered from pineapple plants belonged to the multilocus genotype which shows the most extensive distribution among all host species previously analyzed.

  3. HIPPI and Fibre Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Tolmie, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The High-Performance Parallel Interface (HIPPI) and Fibre Channel are near-gigabit per second data communications interfaces being developed in ANSI standards Task Group X3T9.3. HIPPI is the current interface of choice in the high-end and supercomputer arena, and Fibre Channel is a follow-on effort. HIPPI came from a local area network background, and Fibre Channel came from a mainframe to peripheral interface background.

  4. Plantain fibre bundles isolated from Colombian agro-industrial residues.

    PubMed

    Gañán, Piedad; Zuluaga, Robin; Restrepo, Adriana; Labidi, Jalel; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2008-02-01

    Comestible fruit production from Musaceas plants is an important economical activity in developing countries like Colombia. However, it generates a large amount of agro-industrial residues. Some of them are a potential resource of natural fibres, which can be used as reinforcement for composite materials. In this work, a series of commercial plantain (Musa AAB, cv "Dominico Harton") fibre bundles extracted from pseudostem, leaf sheath and rachis agricultural wastes were analyzed. Mechanical decortication and biological retting processes were used during fiber extraction. No significant differences in composition of vascular bundles were observed for both extraction processes. Gross morphological characteristics and mechanical behavior have been evaluated. Conducting tissues with spiral-like arrangement are observed attached to fibre bundles. This fact suggests a big amount of these tissues in commercial plantain plants. Both used extraction methods are not enough to remove them. Pseudostem fibre bundles have higher specific strength and modulus and lower strain at break than leaf sheath and rachis fibre bundles, having values comparable to other lignocellulosic fibres bundles.

  5. Photosynthetic characteristics of pineapple: Effects of CO{sub 2} enrichment, temperature variation and soil water deficit

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.; Goldstein, G.H.; Bartholomew, D.P.

    1995-06-01

    A six-month study of leaf gas exchange (GE; CO{sub 2} fixation, transpiration, conductance) and biomass of pineapple (Ananas Comosus (L.) Merr.), a plant with Crassulacean Acid Metabolism, was made using plants grown at 350 and 700 {mu}L L{sup -1} CO{sub 2} and day/night temperatures of 35/25, 30/25 and 30/20{degrees}C. After six months, a soil water deficit was imposed for two months. GE was monitored diurnally and leaf titratable acidity (TA), chlorophyll content, carbon isotope composition, chlorophyll fluorescence, and plant biomass were measured bimonthly. GE, TA, relative water content, and leaf osmotic and water potentials were measured every ten days during water stress. Daily carbon assimilation, water use efficiency, plant relative growth rate and net assimilation rate were significantly higher at 700 than at 350 {mu}L L{sup -1} CO{sub 2}. Total GE was greater during the day at 700 than at 350 {mu}L L{sup -1} CO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} dark fixation was greater for plants in environments with a 10 {degrees}C diurnal temperature change (35/25 and 30/20{degrees}C). After imposing water stress, GE and TA declined substantially, and daytime GE decreased more than nocturnal values.

  6. First report of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-1 in Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Ecuador, where pineapple represents one of the most important export commodities, virus testing has been neglected. In July 2014, a total of twenty MD2 hybrid pineapple plants showing virus-like symptoms (Fig. 1) were collected from a commercial planting located at the border of Santo Domingo and...

  7. Assessing the Effect of Pineapple Extract Alone and in Combination With Vancomycin on Streptococcus sanguis

    PubMed Central

    Khosropanah, Hengameh; Bazargani, Abdollah; Ebrahimi, Hooman; Eftekhar, Kimia; Emami, Zahra; Esmailzadeh, Samira

    2012-01-01

    Background Periodontitis is a major problem that affects a large number of patients in the society. Various treatment alternatives have been proposed to control this pathologic condition. Streptococcus sanguis is one of the countless pathogens involved in periodontitis. Objectives The current study aimed to assess the efficacy of pineapple extract per se and in synergy with vancomycin on the growth activity of S. Sanguis. Materials and Methods An experimental study was designed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Pineapple extract per se and in conjunction with vancomycin. The study was carried out in three stages. Serial concentrations of the aqueous pineapple extract, vancomycin, and pineapple plus vancomycin were prepared by broth microdilution technique respectively and were exposed to the standard laboratory strain of S. sanguis (10556 ATCC). The lowest concentration of the pineapple extract and the mixed pineapple/vancomycin solution which inhibited bacterial growth was recorded as the MIC. Results The minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin was determined 1 µg/ ml. The pineapple extract failed to show any inhibitory effects per se, however, once added to vancomycin, it reduced the MIC to 0.5µg/ml. Conclusion Prescription of pineapple extract along with antibiotics increases the antibacterial effects of the drug, therefore reduces the minimum inhibitory concentration of the antibiotic. PMID:24624172

  8. Intercropping Cover Crops with Pineapple for the Management of Rotylenchulus reniformis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K.-H.; Sipes, B. S.; Schmitt, D. P.

    2003-01-01

    Effect of cover crops intercropped with pineapple (Ananas comosus) on Rotylenchulus reniformis population densities and activity of nematode-trapping fungi (NTF) were evaluated in two cycles of cover crop and pineapple. Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), rapeseed (Brassica napus), African marigold (Tagetes erecta), or weeds were intercropped with pineapples. Beds planted with sunn hemp or rapeseed had lower population densities of R. reniformis than African marigold, weeds, or pineapple plots during cover crop growth, and the subsequent pineapple-growing periods. Rapeseed was a good host to Meloidogyne javanica and resulted in high population densities of M. javanica in the subsequent pineapple crop. Fireweed (Erigeron canadensis) occurred commonly and was a good host to R. reniformis. Bacterivorous nematode population densities increased (P ≤ 0.05) most in sunn hemp, especially early after planting. Nematode-trapping fungi required a long period to develop measurable population densities. Population densities of NTF were higher in cover crops than weeds or pineapples during the first crop cycle (P < 0.05). Although pineapple produced heavier fruits following sunn hemp than in the other treatments (P < 0.05), commercial yields were not different among rapeseed, weed, and sunn hemp treatments. PMID:19265973

  9. Nanoporous carbon derived from agro-waste pineapple leaves for supercapacitor electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodtipinta, Jedsada; Amornsakchai, Taweechai; Pakawatpanurut, Pasit

    2017-09-01

    By using KOH as the chemical activating agent in the synthesis, the activated carbon derived from pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) was prepared. The structure, morphology, and the surface functional groups of the as-prepared activated carbon were investigated using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior and performance of the as-synthesized activated carbon electrode were measured using the cyclic voltammetry and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte solution in three-electrode setup. The activated carbon electrode exhibited the specific capacitance of 131.3 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1 with excellent cycling stability. The capacitance retention after 1000 cycles was about 97% of the initial capacitance at a scan rate of 30 mV s-1. Given these good electrochemical properties along with the high abundance of PALF, this activated carbon electrode has the potential to be one of the materials for future large-scale production of the electrochemical capacitors. Invited talk at 5th Thailand International Nanotechnology Conference (Nano Thailand-2016), 27-29 November 2016, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.

  10. Effects of elevated temperature postharvest on color aspect, physiochemical characteristics, and aroma components of pineapple fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanhe; Liu, Yan

    2014-12-01

    In this work, 2 separate experiments were performed to describe the influence of elevated temperature treatments postharvest on the color, physiochemical characteristics and aroma components of pineapple fruits during low-temperature seasons. The L* (lightness) values of the skin and pulp of pineapple fruits were decreased. The a* (greenness-redness) and b* (blueness-yellowness) values of the skin and pulp were all markedly increased. The elevated temperature significantly increased the contents of total soluble solids (TSS) and slightly affected contents of vitamin C (nonsignificant). Titratable acidity (TA) of pineapple fruits were notably decreased, whereas the values of TSS/TA of pineapple fruits were significantly increased. The firmness of the pineapple fruits decreased and more esters and alkenes were identified. The total relative contents of esters were increased, and the total relative contents of alkenes were decreased. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Effectiveness of radiation processing for elimination of Salmonella Typhimurium from minimally processed pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr.).

    PubMed

    Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Dhokane, Varsha S; Hajare, Sachin N; Sharma, Arun; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2007-04-01

    The microbiological quality of market samples of minimally processed (MP) pineapple was examined. The effectiveness of radiation treatment in eliminating Salmonella Typhimurium from laboratory inoculated ready-to-eat pineapple slices was also studied. Microbiological quality of minimally processed pineapple samples from Mumbai market was poor; 8.8% of the samples were positive for Salmonella. D(10) (the radiation dose required to reduce bacterial population by 90%) value for S. Typhimurium inoculated in pineapple was 0.242 kGy. Inoculated pack studies in minimally processed pineapple showed that the treatment with a 2-kGy dose of gamma radiation could eliminate 5 log CFU/g of S. Typhimurium. The pathogen was not detected from radiation-processed samples up to 12 d during storage at 4 and 10 degrees C. The processing of market samples with 1 and 2 kGy was effective in improving the microbiological quality of these products.

  12. Developing single nucleotide polymorphism markers for the identification of pineapple (Ananas comosus) germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Matsumoto, Tracie; Tan, Hua-Wei; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Mischke, Sue; Wang, Boyi; Zhang, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) is the third most important tropical fruit in the world after banana and mango. As a crop with vegetative propagation, genetic redundancy is a major challenge for efficient genebank management and in breeding. Using expressed sequence tag and nucleotide sequences from public databases, we developed 213 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and validated 96 SNPs by genotyping the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service pineapple germplasm collection, maintained in Hilo, Hawaii. The validation resulted in designation of a set of 57 polymorphic SNP markers that revealed a high rate of duplicates in this pineapple collection. Twenty-four groups of duplicates were detected, encompassing 130 of the total 170 A cosmos accessions. The results show that somatic mutation has been the main source of intra-cultivar variations in pineapple. Multivariate clustering and a model-based population stratification suggest that the modern pineapple cultivars are comprised of progenies that are derived from different wild Ananas botanical varieties. Parentage analysis further revealed that both A. comosus var. bracteatus and A. comosus var. ananassoides are likely progenitors of pineapple cultivars. However, the traditional classification of cultivated pineapple into horticultural groups (e.g. ‘Cayenne’, ‘Spanish’, ‘Queen’) was not well supported by the present study. These SNP markers provide robust and universally comparable DNA fingerprints; thus, they can serve as an efficient genotyping tool to assist pineapple germplasm management, propagation of planting material, and pineapple cultivar protection. The high rate of genetic redundancy detected in this pineapple collection suggests the potential impact of applying this technology on other clonally propagated perennial crops. PMID:26640697

  13. Developing single nucleotide polymorphism markers for the identification of pineapple (Ananas comosus) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Matsumoto, Tracie; Tan, Hua-Wei; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Mischke, Sue; Wang, Boyi; Zhang, Dapeng

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) is the third most important tropical fruit in the world after banana and mango. As a crop with vegetative propagation, genetic redundancy is a major challenge for efficient genebank management and in breeding. Using expressed sequence tag and nucleotide sequences from public databases, we developed 213 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and validated 96 SNPs by genotyping the United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service pineapple germplasm collection, maintained in Hilo, Hawaii. The validation resulted in designation of a set of 57 polymorphic SNP markers that revealed a high rate of duplicates in this pineapple collection. Twenty-four groups of duplicates were detected, encompassing 130 of the total 170 A cosmos accessions. The results show that somatic mutation has been the main source of intra-cultivar variations in pineapple. Multivariate clustering and a model-based population stratification suggest that the modern pineapple cultivars are comprised of progenies that are derived from different wild Ananas botanical varieties. Parentage analysis further revealed that both A. comosus var. bracteatus and A. comosus var. ananassoides are likely progenitors of pineapple cultivars. However, the traditional classification of cultivated pineapple into horticultural groups (e.g. 'Cayenne', 'Spanish', 'Queen') was not well supported by the present study. These SNP markers provide robust and universally comparable DNA fingerprints; thus, they can serve as an efficient genotyping tool to assist pineapple germplasm management, propagation of planting material, and pineapple cultivar protection. The high rate of genetic redundancy detected in this pineapple collection suggests the potential impact of applying this technology on other clonally propagated perennial crops.

  14. Fibre and enteral nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    Silk, D B

    1989-01-01

    The recent launch of a number of fibre enriched polymeric diet in the United States and Europe has stimulated considerable interest in the topic of fibre and enteral nutrition, and several commercial concerns appear to be under considerable pressures from their consumers to produce similar products. As a means of identifying areas of potential application of fibre to enteral nutrition some of the recent knowledge gained about the physical properties of dietary fibre and the processes involved in the intestinal assimilation of fibre has been reviewed. Two areas of interest are identifiable. The first relates to the bulking properties of fibre and the application of this to the regulation of bowel function in enterally fed patients. It is clear from the clinical studies that have been reviewed that there remains a paucity of controlled data, and a great deal more research is needed before widespread use of fibre supplemented diets can be supported. Perhaps of greater interest academically is the potentially beneficial effects that appear to be exerted by the VFA's, liberated as a consequence of colonic bacterial fermentation of fibre, on morphology and function of ileal and colonic mucosa. Although there are a number of potential applications of fibre supplemented enteral diets in this area, more research is required before any firm recommendations can be made about recommending their use. The one exception concerns patients with the nutritionally inadequate short bowel syndrome. There does seem to be sufficient experimental evidence to suggest that clinical studies should be commenced using a pectin supplemented predigested 'elemental' diet in these patients. Overall therefore, one is forced to conclude that the increasing interest and use of fibre supplemented enteral diets is being driven more by market than scientific forces. Nevertheless, the promotion of these diets has already provided a powerful stimulus to the scientific community, and it remains entirely

  15. New generation of optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Dianov, E M; Semjonov, S L; Bufetov, I A

    2016-01-31

    The growing need for information in contemporary society is the motivating force behind the development of fibre optics in general and optical fibre communications in particular. Intensive research effort has been concentrated on designing new types of optical fibres and extending their application field. This paper reviews results of research on new types of optical fibres: bismuthdoped active fibres, multicore fibres and hollow-core fibres, which can be used as key components of systems that ensure further increase in optical information transfer rate. (invited paper)

  16. Structure-function relationship of bromelain isoinhibitors from pineapple stem.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Ken-ichi; Sawano, Yoriko; Tanokura, Masaru

    2002-01-01

    Bromelain isoinhibitors from pineapple stem (BIs) are unique double-chain inhibitors and inhibit the cysteine proteinase bromelain competitively. The three-dimensional structure was shown to be composed of two distinct domains, each of which is formed by a three-stranded anti-parallel beta-sheet. Unexpectedly, BIs were found to share similar folding and disulfide-bond connectivities not with the cystatin superfamily, but with Bowman-Birk trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor (BBI). The structural similarity between them suggests that BIs and BBI have evolved from a common ancestor and differentiated in function during the course of molecular evolution.

  17. Cognitive enhancing of pineapple extract and juice in scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Momtazi-borojeni, Amir Abbas; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Rabbani, Mohammed; Ghannadi, Alireza; Abdollahi, Elham

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive enhancing of pineapple juice and ethanolic extract in scopolamine-induced cognitive deficit mice. The ethanolic extract of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) was prepared by maceration method and its juice was obtained by a homogenizer. Object recognition task was used to evaluate the mice memory. Exploration time in the first and second trial was recorded. The differences in exploration time between a familiar and a novel object in the second trial were taken as a memory index. Animals were randomly assigned into 15 groups of 6 each including: control group (normal saline + vehicle), positive control group (scopolamine + rivastigmine), seven experimental groups (received scopolamine alone or scopolamine + ethanolic extract of pineapple in different doses), six other experimental groups were treated by ethanolic extract or juice of pineapple in different doses. Scopolamine (100 μL, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and pineapple juice or extract (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 40 and 30 min before starting the second trial in the experimental groups. Object discrimination was impaired after scopolamine administration. Results showed that juice and ethanolic extract of pineapple significantly restored object recognition ability in mice treated with scopolamine. These finding suggested that pineapple had a protective role against scopolamine-induced amnesia, indicating its ability in management of cognitive disorders. PMID:28626484

  18. The draft genome of MD-2 pineapple using hybrid error correction of long reads

    PubMed Central

    Redwan, Raimi M.; Saidin, Akzam; Kumar, S. Vijay

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of the elite pineapple variety, MD-2, has caused a significant market shift in the pineapple industry. Better productivity, overall increased in fruit quality and taste, resilience to chilled storage and resistance to internal browning are among the key advantages of the MD-2 as compared with its previous predecessor, the Smooth Cayenne. Here, we present the genome sequence of the MD-2 pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) by using the hybrid sequencing technology from two highly reputable platforms, i.e. the PacBio long sequencing reads and the accurate Illumina short reads. Our draft genome achieved 99.6% genome coverage with 27,017 predicted protein-coding genes while 45.21% of the genome was identified as repetitive elements. Furthermore, differential expression of ripening RNASeq library of pineapple fruits revealed ethylene-related transcripts, believed to be involved in regulating the process of non-climacteric pineapple fruit ripening. The MD-2 pineapple draft genome serves as an example of how a complex heterozygous genome is amenable to whole genome sequencing by using a hybrid technology that is both economical and accurate. The genome will make genomic applications more feasible as a medium to understand complex biological processes specific to pineapple. PMID:27374615

  19. Energy transfer in optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Biryukov, A S; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2007-04-30

    The possibility of energy transfer over long distances in the form of laser radiation propagating in dielectric optical fibres is discussed. Because nonlinear-optical phenomena in glasses prevent the transfer of high radiation powers in standard two-layer fibres, the outlook for this transfer is associated with the development of the technology of microstructure fibres with a hollow core and with further progress in the development of high-power fibre lasers. (optical fibres)

  20. Leaf Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    Leaf activities can provide a means of using basic concepts of outdoor education to learn in elementary level subject areas. Equipment needed includes leaves, a clipboard with paper, and a pencil. A bag of leaves may be brought into the classroom if weather conditions or time do not permit going outdoors. Each student should pick a leaf, examine…

  1. Acceptability of minimally processed and irradiated pineapple and watermelon among Brazilian consumers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; Behrens, Jorge Herman; Oliveira Souza, Kátia Leani; Martins Vizeu, Dirceu; Hutzler, Beatriz Weltman; Teresa Destro, Maria; Landgraf, Mariza

    2008-06-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the acceptance of MP watermelon and pineapple exposed to 1.0 and 2.5 kGy compared to non-irradiated samples. No significant differences were observed in liking between irradiated and non-irradiated samples, and also between doses of 1.0 and 2.5 kGy. Significant differences in sourness (pineapple) or sweetness (watermelon) and between intention of purchase of irradiated and non-irradiated fruits were not observed as well. Results showed that MP watermelon and pineapple could be irradiated with doses up to 2.5 kGy without significant changes in acceptability.

  2. Fibres get functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham-Rowe, Duncan

    2011-02-01

    New forms of advanced optical fibres featuring exotic glasses, carefully designed microstructures and cores that are either hollow, fluidic, semiconductor or piezoelectric are giving light guides a new lease of life, reports Duncan Graham-Rowe.

  3. Ultrafast fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermann, Martin E.; Hartl, Ingmar

    2013-11-01

    Ultrafast fibre lasers are fundamental building blocks of many photonic systems used in industrial and medical applications as well as for scientific research. Here, we review the essential components and operation regimes of ultrafast fibre lasers and discuss how they are instrumental in a variety of applications. In regards to laser technology, we discuss the present state of the art of large-mode-area fibres and their utilization in high-power, chirped-pulse amplification systems. In terms of commercial applications, we introduce industrial micromachining and medical imaging, and describe emerging applications in the mid-infrared and extreme-ultraviolet spectral regions, as facilitated by frequency shifting induced by fibre frequency combs.

  4. Fibre glass induced synovitis.

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, L G; Vernon-Roberts, B; Smith, K

    1984-01-01

    Chronic synovitis developed in the dorsal extensor sheath of the hand of a 25-year-old manufacturer of fibre glass reinforced boats and surfboards . Particles found in synovial fluid aspirates were similar in morphology and elemental content to unused fibre glass and particles found in dust from the workshop floor. It was concluded that hard disc grinding required during manufacture resulted in percutaneous implantation of small glass particles, leading to chronic synovitis and effusion. Images PMID:6742919

  5. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy System for Monitoring Pineapple Waste Saccharification

    PubMed Central

    Conesa, Claudia; Ibáñez Civera, Javier; Seguí, Lucía; Fito, Pedro; Laguarda-Miró, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used for monitoring the enzymatic pineapple waste hydrolysis process. The system employed consists of a device called Advanced Voltammetry, Impedance Spectroscopy & Potentiometry Analyzer (AVISPA) equipped with a specific software application and a stainless steel double needle electrode. EIS measurements were conducted at different saccharification time intervals: 0, 0.75, 1.5, 6, 12 and 24 h. Partial least squares (PLS) were used to model the relationship between the EIS measurements and the sugar determination by HPAEC-PAD. On the other hand, artificial neural networks: (multilayer feed forward architecture with quick propagation training algorithm and logistic-type transfer functions) gave the best results as predictive models for glucose, fructose, sucrose and total sugars. Coefficients of determination (R2) and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were determined as R2 > 0.944 and RMSEP < 1.782 for PLS and R2 > 0.973 and RMSEP < 0.486 for artificial neural networks (ANNs), respectively. Therefore, a combination of both an EIS-based technique and ANN models is suggested as a promising alternative to the traditional laboratory techniques for monitoring the pineapple waste saccharification step. PMID:26861317

  6. [Obtainment of pineapple juice powder by foam-mat drying].

    PubMed

    Beristain, C I; Cortés, R; Casillas, M A; Díaz, R

    1991-06-01

    The foam-mat production and stability using pineapple juice concentrate (25, 30 and 40 degrees Brix), adding a surfactants mixture and maltodextrin (DE 10) as co-adjuvant, stirred in a commercial mixer, was studied. Adequate foam formation conditions were as follows: concentrate of 25 degrees Brix using surface active agents (Sorbac 60-Polisorbac 80) 0.285% surface active agent/total solids, HLB = 6, and stirring time, 7 min. The foam was dehydrated in an oven dried with a horizontal air flow circulation set at 60, 70 and 80 degrees C using 3, 5 and 10 mm bed depths. The best conditions were obtained at 60 degrees C and 5 mm bed depth. The product had a particle size of sieve 40-80, and a moisture content of 3%. It was then packaged in multilayer plastic film and stored at environmental conditions. No brown color formation or mold growth was detected during storage. Pineapple juice and a refreshing drink were prepared. The general acceptability in a community indicated that 95% of the population involved accepted the product.

  7. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy System for Monitoring Pineapple Waste Saccharification.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Claudia; Ibáñez Civera, Javier; Seguí, Lucía; Fito, Pedro; Laguarda-Miró, Nicolás

    2016-02-04

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been used for monitoring the enzymatic pineapple waste hydrolysis process. The system employed consists of a device called Advanced Voltammetry, Impedance Spectroscopy & Potentiometry Analyzer (AVISPA) equipped with a specific software application and a stainless steel double needle electrode. EIS measurements were conducted at different saccharification time intervals: 0, 0.75, 1.5, 6, 12 and 24 h. Partial least squares (PLS) were used to model the relationship between the EIS measurements and the sugar determination by HPAEC-PAD. On the other hand, artificial neural networks: (multilayer feed forward architecture with quick propagation training algorithm and logistic-type transfer functions) gave the best results as predictive models for glucose, fructose, sucrose and total sugars. Coefficients of determination (R²) and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were determined as R² > 0.944 and RMSEP < 1.782 for PLS and R² > 0.973 and RMSEP < 0.486 for artificial neural networks (ANNs), respectively. Therefore, a combination of both an EIS-based technique and ANN models is suggested as a promising alternative to the traditional laboratory techniques for monitoring the pineapple waste saccharification step.

  8. Expression profiling identifies genes expressed early during lint fibre initiation in cotton.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingru; Machado, Adriane C; White, Rosemary G; Llewellyn, Danny J; Dennis, Elizabeth S

    2006-01-01

    Cotton fibres are a subset of single epidermal cells that elongate from the seed coat to produce the long cellulose strands or lint used for spinning into yarn. To identify genes that might regulate lint fibre initiation, expression profiles of 0 days post-anthesis (dpa) whole ovules from six reduced fibre or fibreless mutants were compared with wild-type linted cotton using cDNA microarrays. Numerous clones were differentially expressed, but when only those genes that are normally expressed in the ovule outer integument (where fibres develop) were considered, just 13 different cDNA clones were down-regulated in some or all of the mutants. These included: a Myb transcription factor (GhMyb25) similar to the Antirrhinum Myb AmMIXTA, a putative homeodomain protein (related to Arabidopsis ATML1), a cyclin D gene, some previously identified fibre-expressed structural and metabolic genes, such as lipid transfer protein, alpha-expansin and sucrose synthase, as well as some unknown genes. Laser capture microdissection and reverse transcription-PCR were used to show that both the GhMyb25 and the homeodomain gene were predominantly ovule specific and were up-regulated on the day of anthesis in fibre initials relative to adjacent non-fibre ovule epidermal cells. Their spatial and temporal expression pattern therefore coincided with the time and location of fibre initiation. Constitutive overexpression of GhMyb25 in transgenic tobacco resulted in an increase in branched long-stalked leaf trichomes. The involvement of cell cycle genes prompted DNA content measurements that indicated that fibre initials, like leaf trichomes, undergo DNA endoreduplication. Cotton fibre initiation therefore has some parallels with leaf trichome development, although the detailed molecular mechanisms are clearly different.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Exchange and Acidity Levels in Detached Pineapple, Ananas comosus (L.), Merr., Leaves during the Day at Various Temperatures, Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Concentrations 1

    PubMed Central

    Moradshahi, Ali; Vines, H. Max; Black, Clanton C.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of temperature, O2, and CO2 on titratable acid content and on CO2 exchange were measured in detached pineapple (Ananas comosus) leaves during the daily 15-hour light period. Comparative measurements were made in air and in CO2-free air. Increasing the leaf temperature from 20 to 35 C decreased the total CO2 uptake in air and slightly increased the total CO2 released into CO2-free air. Between 25 and 35 C, the activation energy for daily acid loss was near 12 kcal mol−1, but at lower temperatures the activation energy was much greater. Increasing O2 or decreasing the CO2 concentration decreased the total CO2 fixation in air, whereas the total CO2 released in CO2-free air was increased. The total acid content remained constant at 20 C, but it decreased progressively with increasing temperature both in air and in CO2-free air. The total acid content at 30 C remained constant in 2% O2 irrespective of CO2 concentration. The total acid content decreased in 21 and 50% O2 as the CO2 increased from 0 to 300, and 540 μl/l of CO2. The data indicate that photorespiration is present in pineapple. The lack of acid loss in 2% O2 suggests that light deacidification is dependent upon respiration and that higher O2 concentrations are required to saturate deacidification. PMID:16659832

  10. How cellulose-based leaf toughness and lamina density contribute to long leaf lifespans of shade-tolerant species.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Kaoru; Llorens, Anna-Maria; Stefanescu, Carla; Timchenko, Marta Vargas; Lucas, Peter W; Wright, S Joseph

    2012-08-01

    Cell wall fibre and lamina density may interactively affect leaf toughness and leaf lifespan. Here, we tested this with seedlings of 24 neotropical tree species differing in shade tolerance and leaf lifespan under standardized field conditions (140-867 d in gaps; longer in shade). We quantified toughness with a cutting test, explicitly seeking a mechanistic linkage to fibre. Lamina density, but not fracture toughness, exhibited a plastic response to gaps vs shade, while neither trait was affected by leaf age. Toughness corrected for lamina density, a recently recognized indicator of material strength per unit mass, was linearly correlated with cellulose content per unit dry mass. Leaf lifespan was positively correlated with cellulose and toughness in shade-tolerant species but only weakly in gap-dependent species. Leaf lifespan was uncorrelated with lamina thickness, phenolics and tannin concentrations. In path analysis including all species, leaf lifespan was directly enhanced by density and toughness, and indirectly by cellulose via its effect on toughness. Different suites of leaf traits were correlated with early seedling survival in gaps vs shade. In conclusion, cellulose and lamina density jointly enhance leaf fracture toughness, and these carbon-based physical traits, rather than phenolic-based defence, explain species differences in herbivory, leaf lifespan and shade survival.

  11. Project LEAF

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project LEAF has a goal of educating farmworkers about how to reduce pesticide exposure to their families from pesticide residues they may be inadvertently taking home on their clothing, etc. Find outreach materials.

  12. Fibre based cellular transfection.

    PubMed

    Tsampoula, X; Taguchi, K; Cizmár, T; Garces-Chavez, V; Ma, N; Mohanty, S; Mohanty, K; Gunn-Moore, F; Dholakia, K

    2008-10-13

    Optically assisted transfection is emerging as a powerful and versatile method for the delivery of foreign therapeutic agents to cells at will. In particular the use of ultrashort pulse lasers has proved an important route to transiently permeating the cell membrane through a multiphoton process. Though optical transfection has been gaining wider usage to date, all incarnations of this technique have employed free space light beams. In this paper we demonstrate the first system to use fibre delivery for the optical transfection of cells. We engineer a standard optical fibre to generate an axicon tip with an enhanced intensity of the remote output field that delivers ultrashort (~ 800 fs) pulses without requiring the fibre to be placed in very close proximity to the cell sample. A theoretical model is also developed in order to predict the light propagation from axicon tipped and bare fibres, in both air and water environments. The model proves to be in good agreement with the experimental findings and can be used to establish the optimum fibre parameters for successful cellular transfection. We readily obtain efficiencies of up to 57 % which are comparable with free space transfection. This advance paves the way for optical transfection of tissue samples and endoscopic embodiments of this technique.

  13. Fibre cables in the lacunae of Typha leaves contribute to a tensegrity structure

    PubMed Central

    Witztum, Allan; Wayne, Randy

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Cables composed of long, non-lignified fibre cells enclosed in a cover of much shorter thin-walled, crystal-containing cells traverse the air chambers (lacunae) in leaves of the taller species of Typha. The non-lignified fibre cables are anchored in diaphragms composed of stellate cells of aerenchyma tissue that segment the long air chambers into smaller compartments. Although the fibre cables are easily observed and can be pulled free from the porous-to-air diaphragms, their structure and function have been ignored or misinterpreted. Methods Leaves of various species of Typha were dissected and fibre cables were pulled free and observed with a microscope using bright-field and polarizing optics. Maximal tensile strength of freshly removed cables was measured by hanging weights from fibre cables, and Instron analysis was used to produce curves of load versus extension until cables broke. Key Results and Conclusions Polarized light microscopy revealed that the cellulose microfibrils that make up the walls of the cable fibres are oriented parallel to the long axis of the fibres. This orientation ensures that the fibre cables are mechanically stiff and strong under tension. Accordingly, the measured stiffness and tensile strength of the fibre cables were in the gigapascal range. In combination with the dorsal and ventral leaf surfaces and partitions that contain lignified fibre bundles and vascular strands that are strong in compression, the very fine fibre cables that are strong under tension form a tensegrity structure. The tensegrity structure creates multiple load paths through which stresses are redistributed throughout the 1–3 m tall upright leaves of Typha angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. × glauca, T. domingensis and T. shuttleworthii. The length of the fibre cables relative to the length of the leaf blades is reduced in the last-formed leaves of flowering individuals. Fibre cables are absent in the shorter leaves of Typha minima and, if

  14. Fibre cables in the lacunae of Typha leaves contribute to a tensegrity structure.

    PubMed

    Witztum, Allan; Wayne, Randy

    2014-04-01

    Cables composed of long, non-lignified fibre cells enclosed in a cover of much shorter thin-walled, crystal-containing cells traverse the air chambers (lacunae) in leaves of the taller species of Typha. The non-lignified fibre cables are anchored in diaphragms composed of stellate cells of aerenchyma tissue that segment the long air chambers into smaller compartments. Although the fibre cables are easily observed and can be pulled free from the porous-to-air diaphragms, their structure and function have been ignored or misinterpreted. Leaves of various species of Typha were dissected and fibre cables were pulled free and observed with a microscope using bright-field and polarizing optics. Maximal tensile strength of freshly removed cables was measured by hanging weights from fibre cables, and Instron analysis was used to produce curves of load versus extension until cables broke. Polarized light microscopy revealed that the cellulose microfibrils that make up the walls of the cable fibres are oriented parallel to the long axis of the fibres. This orientation ensures that the fibre cables are mechanically stiff and strong under tension. Accordingly, the measured stiffness and tensile strength of the fibre cables were in the gigapascal range. In combination with the dorsal and ventral leaf surfaces and partitions that contain lignified fibre bundles and vascular strands that are strong in compression, the very fine fibre cables that are strong under tension form a tensegrity structure. The tensegrity structure creates multiple load paths through which stresses are redistributed throughout the 1-3 m tall upright leaves of Typha angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. × glauca, T. domingensis and T. shuttleworthii. The length of the fibre cables relative to the length of the leaf blades is reduced in the last-formed leaves of flowering individuals. Fibre cables are absent in the shorter leaves of Typha minima and, if present, only extend for a few centimetres from the sheath

  15. Fresh-Cut Pineapple as a New Carrier of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Pasquale; de Chiara, Maria Lucia Valeria; Vernile, Anna; Amodio, Maria Luisa; Arena, Mattia Pia; Capozzi, Vittorio; Massa, Salvatore; Spano, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing interest for healthy foods, the feasibility of using fresh-cut fruits to vehicle probiotic microorganisms is arising scientific interest. With this aim, the survival of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum species, was monitored on artificially inoculated pineapple pieces throughout storage. The main nutritional, physicochemical, and sensorial parameters of minimally processed pineapples were monitored. Finally, probiotic Lactobacillus were further investigated for their antagonistic effect against Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on pineapple plugs. Our results show that at eight days of storage, the concentration of L. plantarum and L. fermentum on pineapples pieces ranged between 7.3 and 6.3 log cfu g−1, respectively, without affecting the final quality of the fresh-cut pineapple. The antagonistic assays indicated that L. plantarum was able to inhibit the growth of both pathogens, while L. fermentum was effective only against L. monocytogenes. This study suggests that both L. plantarum and L. fermentum could be successfully applied during processing of fresh-cut pineapples, contributing at the same time to inducing a protective effect against relevant foodborne pathogens. PMID:25093163

  16. New Insights for Diagnosis of Pineapple Fusariosis by MALDI-TOF MS Technique.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cledir; Ventura, José Aires; Lima, Nelson

    2016-08-01

    Fusarium is one of the most economically important fungal genus, since it includes many pathogenic species which cause a wide range of plant diseases. Morphological or molecular biology identification of Fusarium species is a limiting step in the fast diagnosis and treatment of plant disease caused by these fungi. Mass spectrometry by matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionisation-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF)-based fingerprinting approach was applied to the fungal growth monitoring and direct detection of strain Fusarium guttiforme E-480 inoculated in both pineapple cultivars Pérola and Imperial side shoots, that are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to this fungal strain. MALDI-TOF MS technique was capable to detect fungal molecular mass peaks in the susceptible pineapple stem side shoot tissue. It is assumed that these molecular masses are mainly constituted by ribosomal proteins. MALDI-TOF-based fingerprinting approach has herein been demonstrated to be sensitive and accurate for the direct detection of F. guttiforme E-480 molecular masses on both susceptible and resistant pineapple side stem free of any pre-treatment. According to the results obtained, the changing on molecular mass peaks of infected susceptible pineapple tissue together with the possibility of fungal molecular masses analysis into this pineapple tissue can be a good indication for an early diagnosis by MALDI-TOF MS of pineapple fusariosis.

  17. De novo assembly, characterization and functional annotation of pineapple fruit transcriptome through massively parallel sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ong, Wen Dee; Voo, Lok-Yung Christopher; Kumar, Vijay Subbiah

    2012-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus), is an important tropical non-climacteric fruit with high commercial potential. Understanding the mechanism and processes underlying fruit ripening would enable scientists to enhance the improvement of quality traits such as, flavor, texture, appearance and fruit sweetness. Although, the pineapple is an important fruit, there is insufficient transcriptomic or genomic information that is available in public databases. Application of high throughput transcriptome sequencing to profile the pineapple fruit transcripts is therefore needed. To facilitate this, we have performed transcriptome sequencing of ripe yellow pineapple fruit flesh using Illumina technology. About 4.7 millions Illumina paired-end reads were generated and assembled using the Velvet de novo assembler. The assembly produced 28,728 unique transcripts with a mean length of approximately 200 bp. Sequence similarity search against non-redundant NCBI database identified a total of 16,932 unique transcripts (58.93%) with significant hits. Out of these, 15,507 unique transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms. Functional annotation against Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database identified 13,598 unique transcripts (47.33%) which were mapped to 126 pathways. The assembly revealed many transcripts that were previously unknown. The unique transcripts derived from this work have rapidly increased of the number of the pineapple fruit mRNA transcripts as it is now available in public databases. This information can be further utilized in gene expression, genomics and other functional genomics studies in pineapple.

  18. Odor-active constituents in fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) by quantitative and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tokitomo, Yukiko; Steinhaus, Martin; Büttner, Andrea; Schieberle, Peter

    2005-07-01

    By application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) to an aroma distillate prepared from fresh pineapple using solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE), 29 odor-active compounds were detected in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 2 to 4,096. Quantitative measurements performed by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) and a calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) of 12 selected odorants revealed the following compounds as key odorants in fresh pineapple flavor: 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDF; sweet, pineapple-like, caramel-like), ethyl 2-methylpropanoate (fruity), ethyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity) followed by methyl 2-methylbutanoate (fruity, apple-like) and 1-(E,Z)-3,5-undecatriene (fresh, pineapple-like). A mixture of these 12 odorants in concentrations equal to those in the fresh pineapple resulted in an odor profile similar to that of the fresh juice. Furthermore, the results of omission tests using the model mixture showed that HDF and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate are character impact odorants in fresh pineapple.

  19. Application of Pineapple Juice in the Fish Digestion Process for Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Metacercaria Collection

    PubMed

    Sripan, Panupan; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Sriraj, Pranee; Songsri, Jiraporn; Boueroy, Parichart; Khueangchaingkhwang, Sukhonthip; Pumhirunroj, Benjamabhorn; Artchayasawat, Atchara

    2017-03-01

    Pepsin is common digestive enzyme used for fish digestion in the laboratory to collect trematode metacercariae. In a field study, to survey the infected fish is needed a huge yield of pepsin and it is very expensive. Therefore, our purpose of this study was to investigate the candidate enzyme from pineapple juice which has a digestive enzyme called bromelain, a mixture of proteolytic enzymes, to digest fish in order to harvest metacercariae. Fish were divided into 2 groups: one group in which metacercariae were harvested using acid pepsin as a control and other groups in which the fish was digested using fresh pineapple juices. The results showed that pineapple juice is able to digest fish similarly to pepsin. The Pattavia pineapple juice had the highest number of metacercariae similar to the control. For Trat Si Thong pineapple juice,we found the number of metacercariae was less than control. This result suggests that the Pattavia pineapple juice was optimal juice for fish digestion to metacercaria collection and can be used instread of pepsin acid. Creative Commons Attribution License

  20. Application of Pineapple Juice in the Fish Digestion Process for Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Metacercaria Collection

    PubMed Central

    Sripan, Panupan; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Pranee, Sriraj; Songsri, Jiraporn; Boueroy, Parichart; Khueangchaingkhwang, Sukhonthip; Pumhirunroj, Benjamabhorn; Artchayasawat, Atchara

    2017-01-01

    Pepsin is common digestive enzyme used for fish digestion in the laboratory to collect trematode metacercariae. In a field study, to survey the infected fish is needed a huge yield of pepsin and it is very expensive. Therefore, our purpose of this study was to investigate the candidate enzyme from pineapple juice which has a digestive enzyme called bromelain, a mixture of proteolytic enzymes, to digest fish in order to harvest metacercariae. Fish were divided into 2 groups: one group in which metacercariae were harvested using acid pepsin as a control and other groups in which the fish was digested using fresh pineapple juices. The results showed that pineapple juice is able to digest fish similarly to pepsin. The Pattavia pineapple juice had the highest number of metacercariae similar to the control. For Trat Si Thong pineapple juice, we found the number of metacercariae was less than control. This result suggests that the Pattavia pineapple juice was optimal juice for fish digestion to metacercaria collection and can be used instread of pepsin acid. PMID:28441786

  1. Pineapple juice for digestion of swamp eel viscera for harvesting infective-stage larva of Gnathostoma spp.

    PubMed

    Soogarun, Suphan; Suwansaksri, Jamsai; Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2004-06-01

    Third-stage larvae were used as antigen in the diagnosis of gnathostomiasis in Western blot analysis. Normally, the larvae were obtained from digestion of eel's liver (Fluta alba) by the enzyme pepsin. We used pineapple juice (Ananus comosus) instead of enzyme pepsin in harvesting Gnathostoma spinigerum third-stage larvae. The difference in recovered larvae numbers, between pineapple juice and pepsin, were not statistically significantly different (p>0.05). The larvae from pepsin and pineapple juice digestion were cultivated on BME for 7 days; the survival rates were not significantly different (p>0.05). Thus, pineapple juice is another enzyme of choice for recovering Gnathostoma spinigerum third-stage larvae.

  2. Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2002-01-01

    The shoot system is the basic unit of development of seed plants and is composed of a leaf, a stem, and a lateral bud that differentiates into a lateral shoot. The most specialized organ in angiosperms, the flower, can be considered to be part of the same shoot system since floral organs, such as the sepal, petal, stamen, and carpel, are all modified leaves. Scales, bracts, and certain kinds of needle are also derived from leaves. Thus, an understanding of leaf development is critical to an understanding of shoot development. Moreover, leaves play important roles in photosynthesis, respiration and photoperception. Thus, a full understanding of leaves is directly related to a full understanding of seed plants. The details of leaf development remain unclear. The difficulties encountered in studies of leaf development, in particular in dicotyledonous plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Henyn., are derived from the complex process of leaf development, during which the division and elongation of cells occur at the same time and in the same region of the leaf primordium (Maksymowych, 1963; Poethig and Sussex, 1985). Thus, we cannot divide the entire process into unit processes in accordance with the tenets of classical anatomy. Genetic approaches in Arabidopsis, a model plant (Meyerowitz and Pruitt, 1985), have provided a powerful tool for studies of mechanisms of leaf development in dicotyledonous plants, and various aspects of the mechanisms that control leaf development have been revealed in recent developmental and molecular genetic studies of Arabidopsis (for reviews, see Tsukaya, 1995 and 1998; Van Lijsebettens and Clarke, 1998; Sinha, 1999; Van Volkenburgh, 1999; Tsukaya, 2000; Byrne et al., 2001; Dengler and Kang, 2001; Dengler and Tsukaya, 2001; Tsukaya, 2001). In this review, we shall examine the information that is currently available about various mechanisms of leaf development in Arabidopsis. Vascular patterning is also an important factor in the

  3. In vivo antitumoral activity of stem pineapple (Ananas comosus) bromelain.

    PubMed

    Báez, Roxana; Lopes, Miriam T; Salas, Carlos E; Hernández, Martha

    2007-10-01

    Stem bromelain (EC 3.4.22.32) is a major cysteine proteinase, isolated from pineapple ( Ananas comosus) stem. Its main medicinal use is recognized as digestive, in vaccine formulation, antitumoral and skin debrider for the treatment of burns. To verify the identity of the principle in stem fractions responsible for the antitumoral effect, we isolated bromelain to probe its pharmacological effects. The isolated bromelain was obtained from stems of adult pineapple plants by buffered aqueous extraction and cationic chromatography. The homogeneity of bromelain was confirmed by reverse phase HPLC, SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing. The in vivo antitumoral/antileukemic activity was evaluated using the following panel of tumor lines: P-388 leukemia, sarcoma (S-37), Ehrlich ascitic tumor (EAT), Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), MB-F10 melanoma and ADC-755 mammary adenocarcinoma. Intraperitoneal administration of bromelain (1, 12.5, 25 mg/kg), began 24 h after tumor cell inoculation in experiments in which 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, 20 mg/kg) was used as positive control. The antitumoral activity was assessed by the survival increase (% survival index) following various treatments. With the exception of MB-F10 melanoma, all other tumor-bearing animals had a significantly increased survival index after bromelain treatment. The largest increase ( approximately 318 %) was attained in mice bearing EAT ascites and receiving 12.5 mg/kg of bromelain. This antitumoral effect was superior to that of 5-FU, whose survival index was approximately 263 %, relative to the untreated control. Bromelain significantly reduced the number of lung metastasis induced by LLC transplantation, as observed with 5-FU. The antitumoral activity of bromelain against S-37 and EAT, which are tumor models sensitive to immune system mediators, and the unchanged tumor progression in the metastatic model suggests that the antimetastatic action results from a mechanism independent of the primary antitumoral effect.

  4. Radioluminescence of some optical fibres.

    PubMed

    Nowotny, R

    2007-02-21

    Measurement of radiation fields with small scintillators as detectors for radiation dose is an attractive method provided that the scintillator luminescence can be discriminated against other unwanted signals. In diagnostic radiology radioluminescence of the optical fibres required for a transmission of the luminescence to an optical detector is the only source for such an impairment of the signal. To find fibres with low radioluminosity a survey of ten commercial fibres including polystyrene (PS), polystyrene wavelength shifting fibres, poly-methylmetacrylate (PMMA) and silica as fibre core material was made. Measurements were made with two photomultipliers of different spectral response and a clinical x-ray unit. Lowest radioluminosity was obtained with PMMA fibres. Depending on spectral sensitivity of the multiplier clear PS fibres give five to ten times the luminescence of PMMA. From the silica fibres only one high-OH fibre gave comparable results for wavelength up to 520 nm. Wavelength shifting fibres and silica fibres with low OH-content show strong fluorescence and are not suitable fibre materials.

  5. Fibre gratings and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, Sergei A; Medvedkov, O I; Korolev, I G; Bozhkov, A S; Kurkov, Andrei S; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2005-12-31

    A brief review is given of the state of the art in the research on the photosensitivity of fibres and photoinduced fibre gratings. The most important properties of fibre gratings are considered and the main methods of their production and their applications are discussed. The photosensitive compositions of silica glasses are presented and methods for increasing their photosensitivity are indicated. (review)

  6. Antioxidant effects of pineapple vinegar in reversing of paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Yeap, Swee Keong; Lim, Kian Lam; Yusof, Hamidah Mohd; Beh, Boon Kee; Tan, Sheau Wei; Ho, Wan Yong; Sharifuddin, Shaiful Adzni; Jamaluddin, Anisah; Long, Kamariah; Nik Abd Rahman, Nik Mohd Afizan; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus) was demonstrated to be hepatoprotective. This study aims to investigate the reversing effects of pineapple vinegar on paracetamol-induced liver damage in murine model. Pineapple juice was fermented via anaerobic and aerobic fermentation to produce pineapple vinegar. Male BALB/c mice (n = 70) were separated into 7 treatment groups (n = 10). Pineapple vinegar (0.08 and 2 mL/kg BW) and synthetic vinegar were used to treat paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice. The hepatoprotective effects were determined by serum biochemistry profiles (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and triglyceride (TG)), liver antioxidant levels (ferric-reducing ability plasma (FRAP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and reduced glutathione assays (GSH)) and histopathological examination with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The effects were further evaluated by the expression levels of iNOS, NF-κB, and cytochrome P450 2E1 by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. Vinegar samples were also tested for in vitro antioxidant (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and total phenolic content (TPC)). Soluble phenolic acid contents in the samples were identified by HPLC. Pineapple vinegar contained 169.67 ± 0.05 μg GAE/mL of TPC, with 862.61 ± 4.38 μg/mL gallic acid as the main component. Oral administration of pineapple vinegar at 2 mL/kg BW reduced serum enzyme biomarker levels, including AST (P = 0.008), ALT (P = 0.006), ALP (P = 0.002), and TG (P = 0.006) after 7 days of paracetamol treatment. Liver antioxidant levels such as hepatic glutathione (P = 0.003), SOD (P < 0.001), lipid peroxidation (P = 0.002) and FRAP (P <0.001) were restored after the treatment. Pineapple vinegar reduced the expressions of iNOS (P = 0.003) and NF-kB (P = 0.003) and the level of NO (P = 0.003) significantly

  7. Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are the most important organs for plants. Without leaves, plants cannot capture light energy or synthesize organic compounds via photosynthesis. Without leaves, plants would be unable perceive diverse environmental conditions, particularly those relating to light quality/quantity. Without leaves, plants would not be able to flower because all floral organs are modified leaves. Arabidopsis thaliana is a good model system for analyzing mechanisms of eudicotyledonous, simple-leaf development. The first section of this review provides a brief history of studies on development in Arabidopsis leaves. This history largely coincides with a general history of advancement in understanding of the genetic mechanisms operating during simple-leaf development in angiosperms. In the second section, I outline events in Arabidopsis leaf development, with emphasis on genetic controls. Current knowledge of six important components in these developmental events is summarized in detail, followed by concluding remarks and perspectives. PMID:23864837

  8. Small fibre neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Cazzato, Daniele; Lauria, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    To provide a review on the state-of-art of clinical features, diagnostics, genetics and treatments of small fibre neuropathy (SFN). The spectrum of clinical features has been widened from the classical presentation of burning feet as length-dependent SFN to that of small fibre dysfunction and/or degeneration associated with focal, diffuse and episodic neuropathic pain syndromes. The involvement of small nerve fibres in neurodegenerative diseases has been further defined, challenging the relationship between neuropathic pain symptoms and small fibre loss. The clinical reliability of skin biopsy has been strengthened by the availability of normative values for both the immunohistochemistry techniques used and their comparison, and by side and short-term follow-up analyses. Corneal confocal microscopy has implemented its diagnostic potentiality because of the availability of age-adjusted and sex-adjusted normative values. Genetic studies expanded the panel on genes involved in SFN because of the discovery of new mutations in SCN10A and SCN11A, besides the first found in SCN9A, and identification of mutations in COL6A5 in patients with itching. In the last 5 years, the chapter of SFN has been widened by new clinical and genetics descriptions leading to a more comprehensive approach to patients in clinical practice and research.

  9. Bismuth-ring-doped fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Zlenko, Aleksandr S; Dvoirin, Vladislav V; Bogatyrev, Vladimir A; Firstov, Sergei V; Akhmetshin, Ural G

    2009-11-30

    A new process for bismuth doping of optical fibres is proposed in which the dopant is introduced into a thin layer surrounding the fibre core. This enables bismuth stabilisation in the silica glass, with no limitations on the core composition. In particular, the GeO{sub 2} content of the fibre core in this study is 16 mol %. Spectroscopic characterisation of such fibres and optical gain measurements suggest that the proposed approach has considerable potential for laser applications. (optical fibres and fibreoptic sensors)

  10. Wellhead treatment costs for groundwater contaminated with pesticides: A preliminary analysis for pineapple in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon-Guerrero, Ephraim D.; Loague, Keith; Green, Richard E.

    1994-01-01

    In Hawaii, trace concentrations of pesticides used in the production of pineapple were found in the groundwater supplies of Mililani Town in the Pearl Harbor Basin on the island of Oahu. Groundwater serves as the major source of drinking water and residents pay for wellhead treatment of the contaminated water, via their monthly water bill. The agricultural chemical users within the Pearl Harbor Basin do not include these wellhead treatment costs in their production costs. The agricultural industry benefits from using pesticides but does not pay the entire societal cost of using these chemicals. In this study we evaluate the specific financial cost of wellhead treatment, and not the economic value of groundwater. While wellhead treatment costs could conceivably be shared by several parties, this study focuses on the financial impact of the pineapple industry alone. This study factors annual wellhead treatment costs into annual pineapple production costs to measure the effect on annual financial return from pineapple production. Wellhead treatment costs are calculated from the existing granulated activated carbon (GAC) water treatment facility for Millilani Wells I and II. Pineapple production costs are estimated from previous cost of production studies. The inclusion of wellhead treatment costs produces different production-cost results, depending on the scale of analysis. At the local scale, the Mililani wellhead treatment costs can be factored into the production costs of the pineapple fields, which were probably responsible for contamination of the Mililani Wells, without causing a deficit in economic return. At the larger regional scale, however, the return from all of the pineapple grown in the Pearl Harbor Basin can not sustain the cost of wellhead treatmentfor the entire water supply of the basin. Recommendations point to the prevention of groundwater contamination as more cost-effective measure than wellhead treatment.

  11. Specificity of monoclonal antibodies to strains of Dickeya sp. that cause bacterial heart rot of pineapple.

    PubMed

    Peckham, Gabriel D; Kaneshiro, Wendy S; Luu, Van; Berestecky, John M; Alvarez, Anne M

    2010-10-01

    During a severe outbreak of bacterial heart rot that occurred in pineapple plantations on Oahu, Hawaii, in 2003 and years following, 43 bacterial strains were isolated from diseased plants or irrigation water and identified as Erwinia chrysanthemi (now Dickeya sp.) by phenotypic, molecular, and pathogenicity assays. Rep-PCR fingerprint patterns grouped strains from pineapple plants and irrigation water into five genotypes (A-E) that differed from representatives of other Dickeya species, Pectobacterium carotovorum and other enteric saprophytes isolated from pineapple. Monoclonal antibodies produced following immunization of mice with virulent type C Dickeya sp. showed only two specificities. MAb Pine-1 (2D11G1, IgG1 with kappa light chain) reacted to all 43 pineapple/water strains and some reference strains (D. dianthicola, D. chrysanthemi, D. paradisiaca, some D. dadantii, and uncharacterized Dickeya sp.) but did not react to reference strains of D. dieffenbachiae, D. zeae, or one of the two Malaysian pineapple strains. MAb Pine-2 (2A7F2, IgG3 with kappa light chain) reacted to all type B, C, and D strains but not to any A or E strains or any reference strains except Dickeya sp. isolated from Malaysian pineapple. Pathogenicity tests showed that type C strains were more aggressive than type A strains when inoculated during cool months. Therefore, MAb Pine-2 distinguishes the more virulent type C strains from less virulent type A pineapple strains and type E water strains. MAbs with these two specificities enable development of rapid diagnostic tests that will distinguish the systemic heart rot pathogen from opportunistic bacteria associated with rotted tissues. Use of the two MAbs in field assays also permits the monitoring of a known subpopulation and provides additional decision tools for disease containment and management practices.

  12. A highly sensitive single-tube nested PCR assay for the detection of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-2 (PMWaV-2)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An assay was developed for the detection of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-2 (PMWaV-2), an important factor in the etiology of mealybug wilt of pineapple. The assay combines reverse transcription of RNA isolated from pineapple with a specific and very sensitive, single, closed-tube nested ...

  13. Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with...

  14. The Mechanical Properties and Microstructure Characters of Hybrid Composite Geopolymers-Pineapple Fiber Leaves (PFL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amalia, N.; Hidayatullah, S.; Nurfadilla; Subaer

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this research is to study the influence of organic fibers on the mechanical properties and microstructure characters of hybrid composite geopolymers-pineapple fibers (PFL). Geopolymers were synthesized by using alkali activated of class C-fly ash added manually with short pineapple fiber leaves (PFL) and then cured at 60°C for 1 hour. The resulting composites were stored in open air for 28 days prior to mechanical and microstructure characterizations. The samples were subjected to compressive and flexural strength measurements, heat resistance as well as acid attack (1M H2SO4 solution). The microstructure of the composites were examined by using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The measurement showed that the addition of pineapple fibers was able to improve the compressive and flexural strength of geopolymers. The resulting hybrid composites were able to resist fire to a maximum temperature of 1500°C. SEM examination showed the presence of good bond between geopolymer matrix and pineapple fibers. It was also found that there were no chemical constituents of geopolymers leached out during acid liquid treatment. It is concluded that hybrid composite geopolymers-pineapple fibers are potential composites for wide range applications.

  15. Cultivar identification and genetic relationship of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cultivars using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y S; Kuan, C S; Weng, I S; Tsai, C C

    2015-11-25

    The genetic relationships among 27 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] cultivars and lines were examined using 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The number of alleles per locus of the SSR markers ranged from 2 to 6 (average 3.19), for a total of 51 alleles. Similarity coefficients were calculated on the basis of 51 amplified bands. A dendrogram was created according to the 16 SSR markers by the unweighted pair-group method. The banding patterns obtained from the SSR primers allowed most of the cultivars and lines to be distinguished, with the exception of vegetative clones. According to the dendrogram, the 27 pineapple cultivars and lines were clustered into three main clusters and four individual clusters. As expected, the dendrogram showed that derived cultivars and lines are closely related to their parental cultivars; the genetic relationships between pineapple cultivars agree with the genealogy of their breeding history. In addition, the analysis showed that there is no obvious correlation between SSR markers and morphological characters. In conclusion, SSR analysis is an efficient method for pineapple cultivar identification and can offer valuable informative characters to identify pineapple cultivars in Taiwan.

  16. Genome-wide identification, functional and evolutionary analysis of terpene synthases in pineapple.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoe; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Liqin; Wu, Xianmiao; Cheng, Tian; Li, Guanglin

    2017-10-01

    Terpene synthases (TPSs) are vital for the biosynthesis of active terpenoids, which have important physiological, ecological and medicinal value. Although terpenoids have been reported in pineapple (Ananas comosus), genome-wide investigations of the TPS genes responsible for pineapple terpenoid synthesis are still lacking. By integrating pineapple genome and proteome data, twenty-one putative terpene synthase genes were found in pineapple and divided into five subfamilies. Tandem duplication is the cause of TPS gene family duplication. Furthermore, functional differentiation between each TPS subfamily may have occurred for several reasons. Sixty-two key amino acid sites were identified as being type-II functionally divergence between TPS-a and TPS-c subfamily. Finally, coevolution analysis indicated that multiple amino acid residues are involved in coevolutionary processes. In addition, the enzyme activity of two TPSs were tested. This genome-wide identification, functional and evolutionary analysis of pineapple TPS genes provide a new insight into understanding the roles of TPS family and lay the basis for further characterizing the function and evolution of TPS gene family. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Management of Rotylenchulus reniformis in Pineapple, Ananas comosus, by Intercycle Cover Crops

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K.-H.; Sipes, B. S.; Schmitt, D. P.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of intercycle cover crops on Rotylenchulus reniformis population densities in pineapple were evaluated in one greenhouse and two field experiments. In the greenhouse, Crotalaria juncea, Brassica napus, and Tagetes erecta were planted for 3 months and then incorporated. These treatments were compared to weedy fallow with or without 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in three soils (Makawao fallow, Wahiawa fallow, and Wahiawa pineapple) naturally infested with R. reniformis. All cover crop incorporation suppressed R. reniformis numbers in cowpea more than did the weedy treatment in the Makawao (P < 0.05) but not in the Wahiawa soils. Crotalaria juncea treatment increased bacterivorous nematodes and nematode-trapping fungal population densities more than the other treatments in Makawao fallow and Wahiawa pineapple-planted soils. The field trials included the same plants as well as Sinapis alba. Treatments with Crotalaria juncea and 1,3-D maintained lower R. reniformis population densities on pineapple longer than other cover crops or weedy fallow treatments. Crotalaria juncea could have suppressed R. reniformis because it is a poor host and because it enhances nematode-trapping fungi when incorporated into soil. Treatment with 1,3-D reduced microbial activities but produced the greatest pineapple yield. PMID:19265916

  18. Management of Rotylenchulus reniformis in pineapple, Ananas comosus, by intercycle cover crops.

    PubMed

    Wang, K-H; Sipes, B S; Schmitt, D P

    2002-06-01

    The effects of intercycle cover crops on Rotylenchulus reniformis population densities in pineapple were evaluated in one greenhouse and two field experiments. In the greenhouse, Crotalaria juncea, Brassica napus, and Tagetes erecta were planted for 3 months and then incorporated. These treatments were compared to weedy fallow with or without 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in three soils (Makawao fallow, Wahiawa fallow, and Wahiawa pineapple) naturally infested with R. reniformis. All cover crop incorporation suppressed R. reniformis numbers in cowpea more than did the weedy treatment in the Makawao (P < 0.05) but not in the Wahiawa soils. Crotalaria juncea treatment increased bacterivorous nematodes and nematode-trapping fungal population densities more than the other treatments in Makawao fallow and Wahiawa pineapple-planted soils. The field trials included the same plants as well as Sinapis alba. Treatments with Crotalaria juncea and 1,3-D maintained lower R. reniformis population densities on pineapple longer than other cover crops or weedy fallow treatments. Crotalaria juncea could have suppressed R. reniformis because it is a poor host and because it enhances nematode-trapping fungi when incorporated into soil. Treatment with 1,3-D reduced microbial activities but produced the greatest pineapple yield.

  19. FIBER OPTICS: Fibre optics: Forty years later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dianov, Evgenii M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed.

  20. Small fibre neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lauria, Giuseppe; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Faber, Catharina G

    2012-10-01

    This review summarizes the most recent advances in classification, diagnostic assessment, and treatment of small fibre neuropathy (SFN). Clinically based diagnostic criteria for SFN have been proposed and reliably supported by the recent availability of age-adjusted and sex-adjusted normative values for intraepidermal nerve fibre density. Apart from skin biopsy, corneal confocal microscopy and nociceptive evoked potentials have been implemented to investigate SFN of different causes, and correlated with skin biopsy findings, especially in diabetic patients. The association between SFN and several metabolic and immune-mediated systemic diseases, and drugs toxic to this subset of peripheral nerve fibres has been reported. An exciting advance has been the identification of gain-of-function mutations in the SCN9A gene encoding for Nav1.7 sodium channel in patients with SFN, leading to the definition of a new genetic channelopathy. SFN represents a distinct condition encountered in patients with different acquired and genetic disorders. The recent improved definition of clinical and skin biopsy criteria allows clinicians to reliably meet the diagnosis, identify the underlying cause, and prescribe appropriate treatments. This meaningful approach permits the correct management of patients in clinical practice and the design of symptomatic and disease-modifying clinical trials.

  1. Distributed ultrafast fibre laser

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xueming; Cui, Yudong; Han, Dongdong; Yao, Xiankun; Sun, Zhipei

    2015-01-01

    A traditional ultrafast fibre laser has a constant cavity length that is independent of the pulse wavelength. The investigation of distributed ultrafast (DUF) lasers is conceptually and technically challenging and of great interest because the laser cavity length and fundamental cavity frequency are changeable based on the wavelength. Here, we propose and demonstrate a DUF fibre laser based on a linearly chirped fibre Bragg grating, where the total cavity length is linearly changeable as a function of the pulse wavelength. The spectral sidebands in DUF lasers are enhanced greatly, including the continuous-wave (CW) and pulse components. We observe that all sidebands of the pulse experience the same round-trip time although they have different round-trip distances and refractive indices. The pulse-shaping of the DUF laser is dominated by the dissipative processes in addition to the phase modulations, which makes our ultrafast laser simple and stable. This laser provides a simple, stable, low-cost, ultrafast-pulsed source with controllable and changeable cavity frequency. PMID:25765454

  2. Fibre-optical microendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Gu, M; Bao, H; Kang, H

    2014-04-01

    Microendoscopy has been an essential tool in exploring micro/nano mechanisms in vivo due to high-quality imaging performance, compact size and flexible movement. The investigations into optical fibres, micro-scanners and miniature lens have boosted efficiencies of remote light delivery to sample site and signal collection. Given the light interaction with materials in the fluorescence imaging regime, this paper reviews two classes of compact microendoscopy based on a single fibre: linear optical microendoscopy and nonlinear optical microendoscopy. Due to the fact that fluorescence occurs only in the focal volume, nonlinear optical microendoscopy can provide stronger optical sectioning ability than linear optical microendoscopy, and is a good candidate for deep tissue imaging. Moreover, one-photon excited fluorescence microendoscopy as the linear optical microendoscopy suffers from severe photobleaching owing to the linear dependence of photobleaching rate on excitation laser power. On the contrary, nonlinear optical microendoscopy, including two-photon excited fluorescence microendoscopy and second harmonic generation microendoscopy, has the capability to minimize or avoid the photobleaching effect at a high excitation power and generate high image contrast. The combination of various nonlinear signals gained by the nonlinear optical microendoscopy provides a comprehensive insight into biophenomena in internal organs. Fibre-optical microendoscopy overcomes physical limitations of traditional microscopy and opens up a new path to achieve early cancer diagnosis and microsurgery in a minimally invasive and localized manner.

  3. Properties of nanocomposite PP fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smole, Majda S.; Stakne, Kristina; Svetec, Diana G.; Kleinschek, Karin S.; Ribitsch, Volker

    2005-06-01

    PP-based nanocomposite fibres were prepared by direct polymer melt intercalation. With the intention to determine the size and dispersion of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix, fibres were plasma etched and SEM observations were performed. The influence of nanofiller content and coupling agent on electrokinetic properties was studied. PP monofilament fibres exhibit hydrophobe character with negative zeta potential value. The zeta potential value of co-polymer PP fibre decreases with increasing PPAA content and the isoelectric point IEP of co-polymer samples shifts towards acid region. Addition of modified montmorillonite due to the particles electropositive character, affects the reduction of zeta potential value and a slight shift of IEP towards neutral region is observed. Nano-particles content influences electrokinetic fibres properties, i.e. ZP value is changed, however IE point is not significantly changed by different concentrations of nanofiller. In addition to, mechanical properties of nanocomposite fibres were determined.

  4. Applications of Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium Longum with Eleutherine Americana in Fresh Milk Tofu and Pineapple Juice

    PubMed Central

    Phoem, Atchara N.; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. PMID:25854832

  5. Pineapple juice and its fractions in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana [Musa (AAA group) Gros Michel].

    PubMed

    Chaisakdanugull, Chitsuda; Theerakulkait, Chockchai; Wrolstad, Ronald E

    2007-05-16

    The effectiveness of pineapple juice in enzymatic browning inhibition was evaluated on the cut surface of banana slices. After storage of banana slices at 15 degrees C for 3 days, pineapple juice showed browning inhibition to a similar extent as 8 mM ascorbic acid but less than 4 mM sodium metabisulfite. Fractionation of pineapple juice by a solid-phase C18 cartridge revealed that the directly eluted fraction (DE fraction) inhibited banana polyphenol oxidase (PPO) about 100% when compared to the control. The DE fraction also showed more inhibitory effect than 8 mM ascorbic acid in enzymatic browning inhibition of banana puree during storage at 5 degrees C for 24 h. Further identification of the DE fraction by fractionation with ion exchange chromatography and confirmation using model systems indicated that malic acid and citric acid play an important role in the enzymatic browning inhibition of banana PPO.

  6. Physicochemical changes of 'Phulae' pineapple fruit treated with short-term anoxia during ambient storage.

    PubMed

    Techavuthiporn, Chairat; Boonyaritthongchai, Panida; Supabvanich, Suriyan

    2017-08-01

    The effects of short-term anoxia exposure for 16h on physicochemical changes of 'Phulae' pineapple fruit stored at ambient temperature (25±2°C) were investigated. The respiratory rate of the fruit was induced by the anoxia treatment. However, it retarded the increase in moisture loss and maintained both flesh and pulp colour by inhibiting polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the both tissues. The anoxia exposure delayed the increase in total sugar content and enhanced total ascorbic acid content during storage. The half-cut pineapple fruit showed that the anoxia exposure completely inhibited internal transparency of the flesh tissue adjacent to core during the storage. In conclusion, the short-term anoxia exposure for 16h maintained postharvest quality, retarded physiological disorder and enhanced nutritional values of the pineapple fruit stored at ambient temperature (25±2°C). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pineapple juice as an agent for the digestion of fish prior to the harvesting of metacercariae.

    PubMed

    Prawang, Toon; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Choochote, Wej; Piangjai, Somsak

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of crude pineapple juice obtained from Ananus comosus in digesting fish for the harvesting of trematode metacercariae was investigated. No significant difference was found between the total number of metacercariae detected from fish (Cirrhina jullieni) digested by acid pepsin and those digested by freshly prepared pineapple juice that was kept for 15 days at a temperature of either -4 degrees C or -75 degrees C. However, fewer metacercariae were found when using juice that had been kept for more than 30 days. This study showed that freshly prepared pineapple juice kept frozen for 15 days could be used instead of commercial acid pepsin to digest fish for harvesting metacercariae, some of which could be used for further biological studies.

  8. Bromelain, a cysteine protease from pineapple (Ananas comosus) stem, is an inhibitor of fungal plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    López-García, B; Hernández, M; Segundo, B S

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of bromelain, a cysteine protease isolated from pineapple (Ananas comosus), on growth of several agronomically important fungal pathogens. Purification of bromelain from pineapple stems was carried out by chromatography techniques, and its antimicrobial activity was tested against the fungal pathogens Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium proliferatum by broth microdilution assay. A concentration of 0.3 μmol l(-1) of bromelain was sufficient for 90% growth inhibition of F. verticillioides. The capability of bromelain to inhibit fungal growth is related to its proteolytic activity. The study demonstrates that stem bromelain exhibits a potent antifungal activity against phytopathogens and suggests its potential use as an effective agent for crop protection. The results support the use of a natural protease that accumulates at high levels in pineapple stems as alternative to the use of chemical fungicides for crop protection. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Polymer-based alternative method to extract bromelain from pineapple peel waste.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Letícia Celia de Lencastre; Ebinuma, Valéria de Carvalho Santos; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2013-01-01

    Bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes present in all tissues of the pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr.), and it is known for its clinical therapeutic applications, food processing, and as a dietary supplement. The use of pineapple waste for bromelain extraction is interesting from both an environmental and a commercial point of view, because the protease has relevant clinical potential. We aimed to study the optimization of bromelain extraction from pineapple waste, using the aqueous two-phase system formed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(acrylic acid). In this work, bromelain partitioned preferentially to the top/PEG-rich phase and, in the best condition, achieved a yield of 335.27% with a purification factor of 25.78. The statistical analysis showed that all variables analyzed were significant to the process. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Postharvest Exogenous Application of Abscisic Acid Reduces Internal Browning in Pineapple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yulong; He, Congcong; Zhu, Shijiang

    2015-06-10

    Internal browning (IB) is a postharvest physiological disorder causing economic losses in pineapple, but there is no effective control measure. In this study, postharvest application of 380 μM abscisic acid (ABA) reduced IB incidence by 23.4-86.3% and maintained quality in pineapple fruit. ABA reduced phenolic contents and polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities; increased catalase and peroxidase activities; and decreased O2(·-), H2O2, and malondialdehyde levels. This suggests ABA could control IB through inhibiting phenolics biosynthesis and oxidation and enhancing antioxidant capability. Furthermore, the efficacy of IB control by ABA was not obviously affected by tungstate, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, nor by diphenylene iodonium, NADPH oxidase inhibitor, nor by lanthanum chloride, calcium channel blocker, suggesting that ABA is sufficient for controlling IB. This process might not involve H2O2 generation, but could involve the Ca(2+) channels activation. These results provide potential for developing effective measures for controlling IB in pineapple.

  11. Applications of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium longum with Eleutherine americana in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice.

    PubMed

    Phoem, Atchara N; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2015-04-03

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice.

  12. Continuous growth kinetics of Candida utilis in pineapple cannery effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Candida utilis was grown on a pineapple cannery effluent as the sole carbon and energy source in a chemostat at dilution rates between 0.10 and 0.62 h/sup -1/ to determine the growth kinetics. The principal sugars in the effluent were sucrose, glucose, and fructose. The cell yield coefficient on carbohydrate varied with dilution rate and a maximum value of 0.63 was observed at a dilution rate of 0.33 h/sup -1/. The steady-state concentrations of carbohydrate, reducing sugar, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) appeared to follow Monod saturation kinetics with increasing dilution rate, although none of the measured parameters represented a pure substrate. The maximum specific growth rate and reducing sugar saturation constant were 0.64 h/sup -1/ and 0.060 g/L, respectively. A maximum cell mass productivity of 2.3 g/L h was observed at a dilution rate of 0.51 h/sup -1/. At this dilution rate, only 68% of the COD was removed. A 95% COD removal was attained at a dilution rate of 0.10 h/sup -1/. Optimal yeast productivity and COD reduction occurred at a dilution rate of 0.33 h/sup -1/.

  13. Compressive failure of fibre composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiansky, B.; Fleck, N. A.

    1993-01-01

    A REVIEW OF experimental data and elementary theoretical formulas for compressive failure of polymer matrix fibre composites indicates that the dominant failure mode is by plastic kinking. Initial local fibre misalignment plays a central role in the plastic kinking process. Theoretical analyses and numerical results for compressive kinking are presented, encompassing effects of strain-hardening, kink inclination, and applied shear stress. The assumption of rigid fibres is assessed critically, and the legitimacy of its use for polymer matrix composites is established.

  14. Genetic Diversity in Various Accessions of Pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] Using ISSR and SSR Markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Sheng; He, Jun-Hu; Chen, Hua-Rui; Chen, Ye-Yuan; Qiao, Fei

    2017-05-06

    Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity of 36 pineapple accessions that were introduced from 10 countries/regions. Thirteen ISSR primers amplified 96 bands, of which 91 (93.65%) were polymorphic, whereas 20 SSR primers amplified 73 bands, of which 70 (96.50%) were polymorphic. Nei's gene diversity (h = 0.28), Shannon's information index (I = 0.43), and polymorphism information content (PIC = 0.29) generated using the SSR primers were higher than that with ISSR primers (h =  0.23, I = 0.37, PIC = 0.24), thereby suggesting that the SSR system is more efficient than the ISSR system in assessing genetic diversity in various pineapple accessions. Mean genetic similarities were 0.74, 0.61, and 0.69, as determined using ISSR, SSR, and combined ISSR/SSR, respectively. These results suggest that the genetic diversity among pineapple accessions is very high. We clustered the 36 pineapple accessions into three or five groups on the basis of the phylogenetic trees constructed based on the results of ISSR, SSR, and combined ISSR/SSR analyses using the unweighted pair-group with arithmetic averaging (UPGMA) method. The results of principal components analysis (PCA) also supported the UPGMA clustering. These results will be useful not only for the scientific conservation and management of pineapple germplasm but also for the improvement of the current pineapple breeding strategies.

  15. Pilot-scale vermicomposting of pineapple wastes with earthworms native to Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mainoo, Nana O K; Barrington, Suzelle; Whalen, Joann K; Sampedro, Luis

    2009-12-01

    Pineapple wastes, an abundant organic waste in Accra, Ghana, were vermicomposted using native earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae Kinberg) collected from the banks of streams and around bath houses of this city. Triplicate pilot-scale vermidigesters containing about 90 earthworms and three other control boxes with no earthworms were fed pineapple pulp or peels, and the loss of wet mass was monitored over 20 weeks. In a second experiment, a 1:1 mixture of pineapple peels and pulp (w/w) was fed to triplicate pilot-scale vermicomposters and control boxes during a 20 week period. One month after feeding ended, the vermicompost and composted (control) waste was air dried and analyzed. During the first experiment, the vermicomposted pineapple pulp and peels lost 99% and 87% of their wet mass, respectively, indicating the potential for vermicomposting. Fresh pineapple waste exhibited an initial pH of 4.4, but after 24 weeks, the vermicompost and compost had acquired a neutral to alkaline pH of 7.2-9.2. The vermicompost contained as much as 0.4% total N, 0.4% total P and 0.9% total K, and had a C:N ratio of 9-10. A reduction of 31-70% in the Escherichia coli plus Salmonella loads and 78-88% in the Aspergillus load was observed during vermicomposting. The rapid breakdown of pineapple wastes by E. eugeniae demonstrated the viability of vermicomposting as a simple and low cost technology recycling this waste into a soil amendment that could be used by the 2500 vegetable producers of Accra and its surrounding areas.

  16. De Novo Assembly, Characterization and Functional Annotation of Pineapple Fruit Transcriptome through Massively Parallel Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Wen Dee; Voo, Lok-Yung Christopher; Kumar, Vijay Subbiah

    2012-01-01

    Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus), is an important tropical non-climacteric fruit with high commercial potential. Understanding the mechanism and processes underlying fruit ripening would enable scientists to enhance the improvement of quality traits such as, flavor, texture, appearance and fruit sweetness. Although, the pineapple is an important fruit, there is insufficient transcriptomic or genomic information that is available in public databases. Application of high throughput transcriptome sequencing to profile the pineapple fruit transcripts is therefore needed. Methodology/Principal Findings To facilitate this, we have performed transcriptome sequencing of ripe yellow pineapple fruit flesh using Illumina technology. About 4.7 millions Illumina paired-end reads were generated and assembled using the Velvet de novo assembler. The assembly produced 28,728 unique transcripts with a mean length of approximately 200 bp. Sequence similarity search against non-redundant NCBI database identified a total of 16,932 unique transcripts (58.93%) with significant hits. Out of these, 15,507 unique transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms. Functional annotation against Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database identified 13,598 unique transcripts (47.33%) which were mapped to 126 pathways. The assembly revealed many transcripts that were previously unknown. Conclusions The unique transcripts derived from this work have rapidly increased of the number of the pineapple fruit mRNA transcripts as it is now available in public databases. This information can be further utilized in gene expression, genomics and other functional genomics studies in pineapple. PMID:23091603

  17. Fibre constituents of some foods.

    PubMed

    Rani, B; Kawatra, A

    1994-06-01

    Some plant foods viz. bottlegourd, carrot, cauliflower, cabbage, green bengalgram, pea, apple, plum, guava, karonda, blackgram husk and lentil husk were analysed for their dietary fibre components. The total dietary fibre contents of these foods varied from 14.68 to 78.21 percent on dry matter basis. As compared to fruits and vegetables, the husks had higher amount of total dietary fibre. Cellulose represented as the major fibre constituent in most of the foods whereas, husks were observed to be good sources of hemicellulose. All foods were low in pectin and lignin contents except guava.

  18. Sulphur-doped silica fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimova, V I; Rybaltovskii, A O; Chernov, P V; Mashinsky, V M; Sazhin, O D; Medvedkov, O I; Rybaltovsky, A A; Khrapko, R R

    2003-01-31

    An optical fibre with low optical losses is manufactured from a sulphur-doped quartz glass. Optical absorption spectra are measured for various parts of the fibre core. Most of the bands of these spectra are assigned to oxygen-deficient centres and colour centres containing sulphur atoms. The photosensitivity of glasses exposed to laser radiation at wavelengths of 193 and 244 nm is investigated to estimate the possibility of their application for producing photorefracting devices. A Bragg grating of the refractive index with {Delta}n = 7.8 x 10{sup -4} is written in a sulphur-doped silica fibre. (fibre optics)

  19. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric method for determination of polydimethylsiloxane residues in pineapple juice: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Parker, R D

    1990-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrophotometric method for determination of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) residues in pineapple juice was collaboratively studied by 9 laboratories. PDMS residues are extracted from pineapple juice with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and the extracted silicone is measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a nitrous oxide/acetylene flame. Collaborators analyzed 5 samples including 1 blind duplicate. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) were 13.1% at 31 ppm, 6.9% at 18 ppm, 14.8% at 7.9 ppm, and 16.1% at 4.9 ppm PDMS. The method has been approved interim official first action by AOAC.

  20. Modification of pineapple peel fiber as metal ion adsorbent through reaction with succinic anhydride in pyridine and dimethyl sulfoxide solvents.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiuyi; Zhao, Mouming; Huang, Huihua

    2010-08-01

    Reactions between saponified pineapple peel fiber (SPPF) and succinic anhydride were performed in refluxed pyridine and dimethyl sulfoxide to obtain modified pineapple peel fiber in pyridine (MPPF-PY) and modified pineapple peel fiber in dimethyl sulfoxide at room temperature (MPPF-DMRT) and at 70 degrees C (MPPF-DM70) as novel metal ionic adsorbents. The modified pineapple peel fibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The MPPF-PY, MPPF-DMRT, and MPPF-DM70 showed higher Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ adsorption capacity than raw pineapple peel fiber (RPPF) and SPPF. Dimethyl sulfoxide favored introduction of a carboxylic function group into pineapple peel fiber compared with pyridine. The elevated reaction temperature of dimethyl sulfoxide could increase the adsorption capacity of the modified pineapple fiber. Optimum pH values for Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ removal by MPPF-DM70 were pH 5.5, 7.5, and 5.5, respectively. The Cu2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ adsorptions by MPPF-DM70 followed the pseudo second-order kinetics model and Langmuir model.

  1. Applications for carbon fibre recovered from composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering; Liu, Z.; Turner, TA; Wong, KH

    2016-07-01

    Commercial operations to recover carbon fibre from waste composites are now developing and as more recovered fibre becomes available new applications for recovered fibre are required. Opportunities to use recovered carbon fibre as a structural reinforcement are considered involving the use of wet lay processes to produce nonwoven mats. Mats with random in-plane fibre orientation can readily be produced using existing commercial processes. However, the fibre volume fraction, and hence the mechanical properties that can be achieved, result in composites with limited mechanical properties. Fibre volume fractions of 40% can be achieved with high moulding pressures of over 100 bar, however, moulding at these pressures results in substantial fibre breakage which reduces the mean fibre length and the properties of the composite manufactured. Nonwoven mats made from aligned, short carbon fibres can achieve higher fibre volume fractions with lower fibre breakage even at high moulding pressure. A process for aligning short fibres is described and a composite of over 60% fibre volume fraction has been manufactured at a pressures up to 100 bar with low fibre breakage. Further developments of the alignment process have been undertaken and a composite of 46% fibre volume fraction has been produced moulded at a pressure of 7 bar in an autoclave, exhibiting good mechanical properties that compete with higher grade materials. This demonstrates the potential for high value applications for recovered carbon fibre by fibre alignment.

  2. Fluoride Glass Fibres For Telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maze, Gwenael; Cardin, Vincent; Poulain, Marcel

    1983-09-01

    Zirconium fluoride glasses are the best known and the most stable beryllium-free glasses. They offer numerous potential uses for I.R.-transmitting fibres and ultra-long repeaterless optical wave-guides. Various problems arise in the manufacturing of fluoride glass fibres, essentially because of the steep viscosity profile and the devitrification phenomena. This paper discusses the processes for manufacturing step-index preforms and for drawing fibres. Optical quality preforms have been obtained and fibres have been drawn over more than 1 km. A spectral loss measurement system has been constructed using fluoride glass optical components. Several curves showing the optical attenuation versus wavelength are presented and discussed. These fibres are now available for optical transmission in infra-red systems.

  3. Speciality optical fibres for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, S. C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2015-05-01

    Astrophotonics is a rapidly developing area of research which applies photonic technology to astronomical instrumentation. Such technology has the capability of significantly improving the sensitivity, calibration and stability of astronomical instruments, or indeed providing novel capabilities which are not possible using classical optics. We review the development and application of speciality fibres for astronomy, including multi-mode to single-mode converters, notch filters and frequency combs.In particular we focus on our development of instruments designed to filter atmospheric emission lines to enable much deeper spectroscopic observations in the near-infrared. These instruments employ two novel photonic technologies. First, we have developed complex aperiodic fibre Bragg gratings which filter over 100 irregularly spaced wavelengths in a single device, covering a bandwidth of over 200 nm. However, astronomical instruments require highly multi-mode fibres to enable sufficient coupling into the fibre, since atmospheric turbulence heavily distorts the wavefront. But photonic technologies such as fibre Bragg gratings, require single mode fibres. This problem is solved by the photonic lantern, which enables efficient coupling from a multi-mode fibre to an array of single-mode fibres and vice versa. We present the results of laboratory tests of these technologies and of on-sky experiments made using the first instruments to deploy these technologies on a telescope. These tests show that the fibre Bragg gratings suppress the night sky background by a factor of 9. Current instruments are limited by thermal and detector emission. Planned instruments should improve the background suppression even further, by optimising the design of the spectrograph for the properties of the photonic components. Finally we review ongoing research in astrophotonics, including multi-moded multicore fibre Bragg gratings, which enable multiple gratings to be written into the same device

  4. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  5. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei Strain LC-Ikematsu, Isolated from a Pineapple in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tada, Ipputa; Saitoh, Seikoh; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Shinzato, Naoya; Yamamoto, Norikuni; Arita, Masanori; Ikematsu, Shinya

    2017-02-02

    The draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei strain LC-Ikematsu, isolated from a pineapple in Okinawa, was determined. The total length of the 87 contigs was 3.08 Mb with a G+C content of 46.2% and 2,946 coding sequences. The genome analysis revealed its biosynthetic ability of 11 amino acids.

  6. Structural characteristics of pineapple pulp polysaccharides and their antitumor cell proliferation activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Tang, De-Qiang; Kuang, Yu; Lin, Feng-Jiao; Su, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Pineapple has a delicious taste and good health benefits. Bioactive polysaccharides are important components of pineapple that might contribute to its health benefits. Since little structural information on these polysaccharides is currently available, the aim of this study was to investigate their structural characteristics and bioactivities. The polysaccharides of pineapple pulp were fractionated into three fractions (PAPs 1-3) by anion exchange chromatography. Their structural characteristics were first identified, including molecular weights and glycosidic linkages. The monosaccharide compositions were revealed as PAP 1 (Ara, Xyl, Man, Glc and Gal), PAP 2 (Rha, Ara, Xyl, Man, Glc and Gal) and PAP 3 (Rha, Ara, Xyl, Man and Gal). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra suggested that PAP 2 had a backbone of → 4)-α-d-Manp-(1 → 2,4)-α-d-Manp-(1 → with branches attached to O-4 of Manp. The NMR data of α-l-Araf-(1→, →3)-α-l-Araf-(1→, →4)-β-d-Galp-(1 → and → 4)-α-d-GalpAMe-(1 → were assigned. PAPs 1 and 2 showed significant antitumor cell proliferation activities against breast carcinoma cell line and strong antioxidant activities. The above findings indicated that PAPs 1-3 contributed much to the health benefits of pineapple. They could be used as health-beneficial food additives in functional foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of pineapple genotypes grown in china.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin-Hua; Sun, De-Quan; Wu, Qing-Song; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2014-06-23

    The fruit physico-chemical properties, antioxidant activity and mineral contents of 26 pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] genotypes grown in China were measured. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of these pineapple genotypes. Sucrose was the dominant sugar in all 26 genotypes, while citric acid was the principal organic acid. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents. The ascorbic acid (AsA) content ranged from 5.08 to 33.57 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenolic (TP) content varied from 31.48 to 77.55 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g FW. The two parameters in the predominant cultivars Comte de Paris and Smooth Cayenne were relative low. However, MD-2 indicated the highest AsA and TP contents (33.57 mg/100 g and 77.55 mg GAE/100 g FM, respectively), and it also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity 22.85 and 17.30 μmol TE/g FW using DPPH and TEAC methods, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of pineapple was correlated with the contents of phenolics, flavonoids and AsA. The present study provided important information for the further application of those pineapple genotypes.

  8. Developing Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers for the identification of pineapple (Ananas comosus) germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) is the third most important tropical fruit in the world after banana and mango and a major agricultural commodity in Hawaii. As a crop with vegetative propagation, genetic redundancy is a major challenge for efficient genebank management and in breeding. Using E...

  9. Droplet vitrification technique for cryopreservation of different pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill) accessions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Germplasm conservation of pineapple is crucial to secure the genetic variability of the genus for breeding programs and supporting new research. Long-term conservation is done through cryopreservation, by storing cells or tissues at ultra-low temperature in liquid nitrogen (LN; -196°C) or in the LN ...

  10. Applied K fertilizer use efficiency in pineapples grown on a tropical peat soil under residues removal.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osumanu H; Ahmad, Husni M H; Musa, Hanafi M; Rahim, Anuar A; Rastan, Syed Omar S

    2005-01-21

    In Malaysia, pineapples are grown on peat soils, but most K fertilizer recommendations do not take into account K loss through leaching. The objective of this study was to determine applied K use efficiency under a conventionally recommended fertilization regime in pineapple cultivation with residues removal. Results showed that K recovery from applied K fertilizer in pineapple cultivation on tropical peat soil was low, estimated at 28%. At a depth of 0-10 cm, there was a sharp decrease of soil total K, exchangeable K, and soil solution K days after planting (DAP) for plots with K fertilizer. This decline continued until the end of the study. Soil total, exchangeable, and solution K at the end of the study were generally lower than prior values before the study. There was no significant accumulation of K at depths of 10-25 and 25-45 cm. However, K concentrations throughout the study period were generally lower or equal to their initial status in the soil indicating leaching of the applied K and partly explained the low K recovery. Potassium losses through leaching in pineapple cultivation on tropical peat soils need to be considered in fertilizer recommendations for efficient recovery of applied K.

  11. DNA profiling of pineapple cultivars in Japan discriminated by SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Sakiyama, Sumisu; Terakami, Shingo; Hosaka, Fumiko; Shigeta, Narumi; Nishitani, Chikako; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2012-01-01

    We developed 18 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in pineapple (Ananas comosus) by using genomic libraries enriched for GA and CA motifs. The markers were used to genotype 31 pineapple accessions, including seven cultivars and 11 breeding lines from Okinawa Prefecture, 12 foreign accessions and one from a related species. These SSR loci were highly polymorphic: the 31 accessions contained three to seven alleles per locus, with an average of 4.1. The values of expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.09 to 0.76, with an average of 0.52. All 31 accessions could be successfully differentiated by the 18 SSR markers, with the exception of ‘N67-10’ and ‘Hawaiian Smooth Cayenne’. A single combination of three markers TsuAC004, TsuAC010 and TsuAC041, was enough to distinguish all accessions with one exception. A phenogram based on the SSR genotypes did not show any distinct groups, but it suggested that pineapples bred in Japan are genetically diversed. We reconfirmed the parentage of 14 pineapple accessions by comparing the SSR alleles at 17 SSR loci in each accession and its reported parents. The obtained information will contribute substantially to protecting plant breeders’ rights. PMID:23341750

  12. Retrotransposon-like sequences integrated into the genome of pineapple, Ananas comosus.

    PubMed

    Thomson, K G; Thomas, J E; Dietzgen, R G

    1998-10-01

    Retrotransposon-like sequences have been serendipitously detected in the genome of commercial pineapple, Ananas comosus. The sequence from a 2.6 kb cloned fragment of this element had greatest similarity to the del1 Lilium henryi retrotransposon and the gypsy/Ty3 group of retroelements. The order of the genes from 5' to 3' was reverse transcriptase, ribonuclease H and integrase. The integrase domain contained the amino acid sequence motifs which have been associated with recognition of the long terminal repeats and with the cutting/joining reactions required for integration of similar retroelements into the host genome. The retrotransposon existed as a population of variable sequences which were dispersed throughout the genome of pineapple. Southern hybridisation showed that the retrotransposon had integrated repeatedly into the pineapple genome. The reading frame of the element was not interrupted by stop codons, suggesting that it is still potentially capable of transposing. This is the first report of a retrotransposon in pineapple, which we have called deal (for dispersed element of Ananas).

  13. Physical and chemical pretreatment of lignocellulosics in pineapple (Ananus comosus) peels dried for investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukkaew, Adulsman; Boonsong, Panthip; Thongpradistha, Sriubol; Intan, Maimoon

    2017-08-01

    Pineapple (Ananus comosus) Peels, once known as waste from agricultural, can be a problem when we eliminate in agriculture and industry. The current technology can help preliminarily to solve this problem. The sustainable solution to this problem is lignocellulosics pretreatments for converted saccharide as a carbon source for ethanol production. The objective of this study is the investigation of pineapple peels pretreatment to produce fermentable sugar by drying and digesting 5% sulfuric acid (H2SO4). And study of cost economic passed selection for investment. The result found that the best investment of drying was 100 °C at 11 hours for the sulphuric acid which could be easily crushed into a fine powder. Moreover, digestion of pineapple peels gave the best total sugar 252.2 g/l by 5% H2SO4 incubated for 60 minutes at room temperature. The pineapple peels were digested by 5%H2SO4 concentration by incubating for 60 minutes at room temperature, finding to be the best condition and the lowest investment. Finally, the optimisation of investment and management for lignocellulosic pretreatment will improve efficiency of strategy for economic and energy development.

  14. Transcriptome Profiling of the Pineapple under Low Temperature to Facilitate Its Breeding for Cold Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chengjie; Zhang, Yafeng; Xu, Zhiqiang; Luan, Aiping; Mao, Qi; Feng, Junting; Xie, Tao; Gong, Xue; Wang, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Hao; He, Yehua

    2016-01-01

    The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is cold sensitive. Most cultivars are injured during winter periods, especially in sub-tropical regions. There is a lack of molecular information on the pineapple’s response to cold stress. In this study, high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and gene expression analysis were performed on plantlets of a cold-tolerant genotype of the pineapple cultivar ‘Shenwan’ before and after cold treatment. A total of 1,186 candidate cold responsive genes were identified, and their credibility was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Gene set functional enrichment analysis indicated that genes related to cell wall properties, stomatal closure and ABA and ROS signal transduction play important roles in pineapple cold tolerance. In addition, a protein association network of CORs (cold responsive genes) was predicted, which could serve as an entry point to dissect the complex cold response network. Our study found a series of candidate genes and their association network, which will be helpful to cold stress response studies and pineapple breeding for cold tolerance. PMID:27656892

  15. Heavy metals removal from contaminated sewage sludge by naturally fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Dacera, Dominica Del Mundo; Babel, Sandhya

    2007-01-01

    The large amount of unutilised pineapple wastes produced every year in tropical countries, particularly in Thailand, adds to the existing environmental pollution problems of the country. This study investigated the utilisation of pineapple wastes to treat another form of waste (sludge) from wastewater treatment facilities in Thailand. Laboratory scale studies were carried out to determine the potential of using naturally fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes as a source of citric acid in the extraction of Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn from anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Results of the leaching study revealed its effectiveness in extracting Zn (at 92%) at pH 3.67 and a short leaching time of only 2 h, and Ni at almost 60% removal at the same leaching time. Chromium removal was also high at almost 75% at a longer leaching time of 11 days. Variation in metal removal efficiencies may also be attributed to the forms of metals in sludge, with metals predominantly in the exchangeable and oxidisable phases showing ease of leachability (such as Zn). Compared to citric acid, at pH approaching 4.0, naturally fermented raw liquid seemed to be more effective in the removal of Zn and Cu at the same leaching time of 2 h, and Cr at a longer leaching time of 11 days. The pineapple pulp, which is a by-product of the process, can still be used as animal feed because of its high protein content.

  16. Droplet-vitrification and morphohistological studies of cryopreserved shoot tips of cultivated and wild pineapple genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Germplasm conservation of pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Mer.] is crucial to preserve the genus’ genetic diversity to secure material for genetic improvement and to support innovative and new research. Long-term conservation is accomplished through cryopreservation that is done by storing cells or t...

  17. Random distributed feedback fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.; Babin, Sergey A.; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Vatnik, Ilya D.; Nikulin, Maxim; Podivilov, Evgenii V.

    2014-09-01

    The concept of random lasers exploiting multiple scattering of photons in an amplifying disordered medium in order to generate coherent light without a traditional laser resonator has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. This research area lies at the interface of the fundamental theory of disordered systems and laser science. The idea was originally proposed in the context of astrophysics in the 1960s by V.S. Letokhov, who studied scattering with “negative absorption” of the interstellar molecular clouds. Research on random lasers has since developed into a mature experimental and theoretical field. A simple design of such lasers would be promising for potential applications. However, in traditional random lasers the properties of the output radiation are typically characterized by complex features in the spatial, spectral and time domains, making them less attractive than standard laser systems in terms of practical applications. Recently, an interesting and novel type of one-dimensional random laser that operates in a conventional telecommunication fibre without any pre-designed resonator mirrors-random distributed feedback fibre laser-was demonstrated. The positive feedback required for laser generation in random fibre lasers is provided by the Rayleigh scattering from the inhomogeneities of the refractive index that are naturally present in silica glass. In the proposed laser concept, the randomly backscattered light is amplified through the Raman effect, providing distributed gain over distances up to 100 km. Although an effective reflection due to the Rayleigh scattering is extremely small (˜0.1%), the lasing threshold may be exceeded when a sufficiently large distributed Raman gain is provided. Such a random distributed feedback fibre laser has a number of interesting and attractive features. The fibre waveguide geometry provides transverse confinement, and effectively one-dimensional random distributed feedback leads to the generation

  18. Dichroism measurements in forensic fibre examination: part 5-pigmented fibres.

    PubMed

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L

    2012-09-01

    A number of pigmented fibre samples were examined with plane polarized light on their dichroic behaviour by optical light microscopy (OLM) and microspectrophotometry with plane polarized light (MSP-PPL). It was found that about half of the samples show a strong dichroic effect and another 20% have a weak dichroism. Both regular (80%) and inversed dichroic effects (20%) occur. The dichroic characteristics of pigmented fibres can be compared to these of sheet polarizers. It is suggested that the dichroic behaviour of pigmented fibres depends strongly on the crystal structure (shape of the pigment grains) and the draw ratio (orientation of the polymer chains).

  19. Fibre laser based on tellurium-doped active fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Alyshev, S V; Ryumkin, K E; Shubin, A V; Medvedkov, O I; Dianov, E M; Khopin, V F; Gur'yanov, A N

    2014-02-28

    We have studied the lasing properties of tellurium-doped germanosilicate fibre, identified its gain and excited-state absorption bands, and assessed the effect of cooling to low temperature (77 K) on the bands. The excitation spectrum of the near-IR luminescence in the fibre has been measured. Lasing at 1.55 mm has been demonstrated for the first time in this gain medium at liquidnitrogen temperature and pump wavelengths of 1.064 and 1.085 mm. The measured Raman spectrum of the fibre provides some insight into the structure of the near-IR luminescence centre. (letters)

  20. Effects of Canned Pineapple Consumption on Nutritional Status, Immunomodulation, and Physical Health of Selected School Children

    PubMed Central

    Cervo, Mavil May C.; Llido, Luisito O.; Barrios, Erniel B.; Panlasigui, Leonora N.

    2014-01-01

    This randomized, controlled trial examined the effects of canned pineapple consumption on immunomodulation, nutritional status, and physical health of ninety-eight (98) school children with mean age of 8.44 ± 0.20. The study participants were divided into three groups: Group A (33) includes subjects who were not given canned pineapple, Group B (33) includes those who were given 140 g, and Group C (32) includes those given 280 g of canned pineapple for nine weeks. Each major group was further divided into two groups: normal (N) and underweight (U) based on 2007 WHO Growth Reference Standards. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical examination, dietary intake, hemoglobin level, and immunological data were analyzed. Results showed a decrease in incidence of viral and bacterial infections for both Group B and Group C (normal and underweight) after canned pineapple consumption. Granulocyte production increased by 0.77–26.61% for normal weight subjects and 14.95–34.55% for underweight. CD16+56 count augmented by 20.44–22.13% for normal weight and 3.57–15.89% for underweight subjects. Thus, intake of both one can (140 g) and two cans (280 g) of canned pineapple may shorten the duration and incidence of infection and may increase the production of granulocytes and CD16+56, but intake of two cans (280 g) demonstrated higher granulocyte and CD16+56 production. This trial is registered with Philippine Health Research Registry: PHRR140826-000225. PMID:25505983

  1. Tapered optical fibres for sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martan, Tomas; Kanka, Jiri; Kasik, Ivan; Matejec, Vlastimil

    2008-11-01

    Recently, optical fibre tapers have intensively been investigated for many applications e.g. in telecommunications, medicine and (bio-) chemical sensing. The paper deals with enhancement of evanescent-field sensitivity of the solid-core microstructured fibre with steering-wheel air-cladding. Enhancement of a performance of the microstructured fibre is based on reduction of fibre core diameter down to narrow filament by tapering thereby defined part of light power is guided by an evanescent wave traveling in axial cladding air holes. The original fibre structure with outer diameter of 125 µm was reduced 2×, 2.5×, 3.33×, and 4× for increasing relatively small intensity overlap of guided core mode at wavelength of 1.55 μm with axial air holes. The inner structures of tapered microstructured fibre with steering-wheel aircladding were numerically analyzed and mode intensity distributions were calculated using the FDTD technique. Analyzed fiber tapers were prepared by constructed fibre puller employing 'flame brush technique'.

  2. Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres.

    PubMed

    Russell, P St J; Beravat, R; Wong, G K L

    2017-02-28

    Recent theoretical and experimental work on helically twisted photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) is reviewed. Helical Bloch theory is introduced, including a new formalism based on the tight-binding approximation. It is used to explore and explain a variety of unusual effects that appear in a range of different twisted PCFs, including fibres with a single core and fibres with N cores arranged in a ring around the fibre axis. We discuss a new kind of birefringence that causes the propagation constants of left- and right-spinning optical vortices to be non-degenerate for the same order of orbital angular momentum (OAM). Topological effects, arising from the twisted periodic 'space', cause light to spiral around the fibre axis, with fascinating consequences, including the appearance of dips in the transmission spectrum and low loss guidance in coreless PCF. Discussing twisted fibres with a single off-axis core, we report that optical activity in a PCF is opposite in sign to that seen in a step-index fibre. Fabrication techniques are briefly described and emerging applications reviewed. The analytical results of helical Bloch theory are verified by an extensive series of 'numerical experiments' based on finite-element solutions of Maxwell's equations in a helicoidal frame.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres

    PubMed Central

    Beravat, R.; Wong, G. K. L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental work on helically twisted photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) is reviewed. Helical Bloch theory is introduced, including a new formalism based on the tight-binding approximation. It is used to explore and explain a variety of unusual effects that appear in a range of different twisted PCFs, including fibres with a single core and fibres with N cores arranged in a ring around the fibre axis. We discuss a new kind of birefringence that causes the propagation constants of left- and right-spinning optical vortices to be non-degenerate for the same order of orbital angular momentum (OAM). Topological effects, arising from the twisted periodic ‘space’, cause light to spiral around the fibre axis, with fascinating consequences, including the appearance of dips in the transmission spectrum and low loss guidance in coreless PCF. Discussing twisted fibres with a single off-axis core, we report that optical activity in a PCF is opposite in sign to that seen in a step-index fibre. Fabrication techniques are briefly described and emerging applications reviewed. The analytical results of helical Bloch theory are verified by an extensive series of ‘numerical experiments’ based on finite-element solutions of Maxwell's equations in a helicoidal frame. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069771

  4. Helically twisted photonic crystal fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. St. J.; Beravat, R.; Wong, G. K. L.

    2017-02-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental work on helically twisted photonic crystal fibres (PCFs) is reviewed. Helical Bloch theory is introduced, including a new formalism based on the tight-binding approximation. It is used to explore and explain a variety of unusual effects that appear in a range of different twisted PCFs, including fibres with a single core and fibres with N cores arranged in a ring around the fibre axis. We discuss a new kind of birefringence that causes the propagation constants of left- and right-spinning optical vortices to be non-degenerate for the same order of orbital angular momentum (OAM). Topological effects, arising from the twisted periodic `space', cause light to spiral around the fibre axis, with fascinating consequences, including the appearance of dips in the transmission spectrum and low loss guidance in coreless PCF. Discussing twisted fibres with a single off-axis core, we report that optical activity in a PCF is opposite in sign to that seen in a step-index fibre. Fabrication techniques are briefly described and emerging applications reviewed. The analytical results of helical Bloch theory are verified by an extensive series of `numerical experiments' based on finite-element solutions of Maxwell's equations in a helicoidal frame. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  5. Pineapple translation factor SUI1 and ribosomal protein L36 promoters drive constitutive transgene expression patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Koia, Jonni; Moyle, Richard; Hendry, Caroline; Lim, Lionel; Botella, José Ramón

    2013-03-01

    The availability of a variety of promoter sequences is necessary for the genetic engineering of plants, in basic research studies and for the development of transgenic crops. In this study, the promoter and 5' untranslated regions of the evolutionally conserved protein translation factor SUI1 gene and ribosomal protein L36 gene were isolated from pineapple and sequenced. Each promoter was translationally fused to the GUS reporter gene and transformed into the heterologous plant system Arabidopsis thaliana. Both the pineapple SUI1 and L36 promoters drove GUS expression in all tissues of Arabidopsis at levels comparable to the CaMV35S promoter. Transient assays determined that the pineapple SUI1 promoter also drove GUS expression in a variety of climacteric and non-climacteric fruit species. Thus the pineapple SUI1 and L36 promoters demonstrate the potential for using translation factor and ribosomal protein genes as a source of promoter sequences that can drive constitutive transgene expression patterns.

  6. Replacement levels of elephant grass by moist pineapple by-product silage in diets of Santa Inês crossbred sheep: performance and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Neiva, José Neuman Miranda; de Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Mezzomo, Rafael; Elias, Acaína Kiss da Silva; da Mata, Vanessa Jaqueline Veloso; dos Santos, Rozilda da Conceição; Gomes, Daiany Iris

    2013-02-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of replacing elephant grass (EG) with moist pineapple by-product silage (PS) on the apparent digestibility, consumption of digestible nutrients and performance of 25 castrated male lambs Santa Ines crossbreds. The lambs had an initial body weight of 20.2 ± 3.5 kg and were housed in individual pens in a completely randomised design with five treatments (replacement of EG by PS at five proportions of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and five replicates during 74 days. There was no significant effect of PS replacement proportions on the intake of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), total carbohydrates (TC), non-fibrous carbohydrates or total digestible nutrients (TDN). The consumption of crude protein (CP) decreased linearly with the inclusion of PS in the diets. The digestibility of DM, OM and TCs as well as levels of TDN increased linearly with the addition of PS. The use of PS in the diets had no significant effect on the digestibility of CP and neutral detergent fibre corrected for ashes and protein (NDFom(n)). These results demonstrated that there was no difference in the performance of animals fed diets with or without PS.

  7. Whispering-gallery waves in optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Sychugov, V A; Torchigin, V P; Tsvetkov, M Yu

    2002-08-31

    The process of excitation of whispering-gallery waves (WGWs) in optical fibres (microcavities) with the help of a bitapered fibre is analysed. It is shown that useful information on the WGW modes can be obtained from the spectrograms recorded by scanning the exciting-radiation frequency. Based on the geometrical-optic approximation, the longitudinal sizes of the WGW modes are estimated and it is shown that the ultimate diameter of the fibre exists for optical fibres (microcavities) where a mode can be still excited with the help of a bitapered fibre. (fibre optics. optical fibres)

  8. Optical fibre sensing during critical care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, F. U.; Wang, T.; Korposh, S.; Correia, R.; Hayes-Gill, B. R.; Hromadka, J.; Mohd Hazlan, N. N.; Norris, A.; Evans, D.; Lee, S.-W.; Morgan, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    Optical fibre sensing is a platform technology for applications in biomedical and environmental monitoring. Fibre Bragg Gratings can be used to monitor parameters such as pressure and temperature. Alternatively, coating the fibres with functional layers, either at the tip of the fibre, on a U-shaped fibre, or a long period grating enables sensing of analytes in liquids and gases. This paper describes the application of optical fibre sensing techniques during mechanical ventilation via an endotracheal tube in critical care. Functional coatings on the fibres are used to monitor humidity of inspired air and can be used to monitor other analytes.

  9. Optical fibre gas detections systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culshaw, Brian

    2016-05-01

    This tutorial review covers the principles of and prospects for fibre optic sensor technology in gas detection. Many of the potential benefits common to fibre sensor technology also apply in the context of gas sensing - notably long distance - many km - access to multiple remote measurement points; invariably intrinsic safety; access to numerous important gas species and often uniquely high levels of selectivity and/or sensitivity. Furthermore, the range of fibre sensor network architectures - single point, multiple point and distributed - enable unprecedented flexibility in system implementation. Additionally, competitive technologies and regulatory issues contribute to final application potential.

  10. Dietary supplementation with fresh pineapple juice decreases inflammation and colonic neoplasia in IL-10-deficient mice with colitis.

    PubMed

    Hale, Laura P; Chichlowski, Maciej; Trinh, Chau T; Greer, Paula K

    2010-12-01

    Bromelain, a mixture of proteolytic enzymes typically derived from pineapple stem, decreases production of proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte homing to sites of inflammation. We previously showed that short-term oral treatment with bromelain purified from pineapple stem decreased the severity of colonic inflammation in C57BL/6 Il10(-/-) mice with chronic colitis. Since fresh pineapple fruit contains similar bromelain enzymes but at different proportions, this study aimed to determine whether long-term dietary supplementation with pineapple (supplied as juice) could decrease colon inflammation and neoplasia in Il10(-/-) mice with chronic colitis as compared with bromelain derived from stem. Colitis was triggered in Il10(-/-) mice by exposure to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam. Mice with colitis were supplemented with fresh vs. boiled pineapple juice or bromelain purified from stem for up to 6 months. Experimental mice readily consumed fresh pineapple juice at a level that generated mean stool proteolytic activities equivalent to 14 mg bromelain purified from stem, while control mice received boiled juice with inactive enzymes. Survival was increased in the group supplemented with fresh rather than boiled juice (P = 0.01). Mice that received fresh juice also had decreased histologic colon inflammation scores and a lower incidence of inflammation-associated colonic neoplasia (35% versus 66%; P < 0.02), with fewer neoplastic lesions/colon (P = 0.05). Flow cytometric analysis of murine splenocytes exposed to fresh pineapple juice in vitro demonstrated proteolytic removal of cell surface molecules that can affect leukocyte trafficking and activation. These results demonstrate that long-term dietary supplementation with fresh or unpasteurized frozen pineapple juice with proteolytically active bromelain enzymes is safe and decreases inflammation severity and the incidence and multiplicity of inflammation-associated colonic neoplasia in this commonly

  11. Identification of viral and non-viral reverse transcribing elements in pineapple (Ananas comosus), including members of two new badnavirus species.

    PubMed

    Gambley, C F; Geering, A D W; Steele, V; Thomas, J E

    2008-01-01

    A previously published partial sequence of pineapple bacilliform virus was shown to be from a retrotransposon (family Metaviridae) and not from a badnavirus as previously thought. Two newly discovered sequence groups isolated from pineapple were associated with bacilliform virions and were transmitted by mealybugs. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that they were members of new badnavirus species. A third caulimovirid sequence was also amplified from pineapple, but available evidence suggests that this DNA is not encapsidated, but more likely derived from an endogenous virus.

  12. Effect of UV-C radiation on bioactive compounds of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.) by-products.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Ana; Moldão-Martins, Margarida; Costa, Helena S; Albuquerque, Tânia G; Valente, Ana; Sanches-Silva, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The industrial processing of pineapple generates a high quantity of by-products. To reduce the environmental impact of these by-products and the inherent cost of their treatment, it is important to characterise and valorise these products, converting them into high added value products. Ultra-violet radiation is one of the main sustainable sanitation techniques for fruits. Since this radiation can induce plant stress which can promote the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, it is important to evaluate its effect in fruits. The amounts of vitamins (C and E) and carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, neoxanthin, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin) in pineapple by-products (core and rind) were analysed before and after treatment with UV radiation. All treated and untreated pineapple by-products contained β-carotene as the main carotenoid (rind, 2537-3225 µg; and core, 960-994 µg 100 g(-1) DW). Pineapple rind also contained lutein (288-297 µg 100 g(-1) DW) and α-carotene (89-126 µg 100 g(-1) DW). The results provide evidence of the potential of pineapple by-products as a source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be used by pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries. In addition, UV-C was shown to be a treatment that can add nutritional value to pineapple by-products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Pain in the Early Phase of Pediatric Pancreatitis (PINEAPPLE Trial): Pre-Study Protocol of a Multinational Prospective Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Zsoldos, Fanni; Párniczky, Andrea; Mosztbacher, Dóra; Tóth, Anna; Lásztity, Natália; Hegyi, Peter

    2016-01-01

    There are unexpectedly large differences between the incidences of acute pancreatitis (AP) as indicated by different hospitals. Retrospective studies suggest that the reason behind this is the large differences that exist between the local managements of abdominal pain at emergency units. Unfortunately, no evidence-based medicine (EBM) guidelines are available to give proper instruction concerning the necessity of serum pancreatic enzyme measurement during abdominal pain. Pain in Early Phase of Pediatric Pancreatitis (PINEAPPLE) is an observational, multinational observational clinical trial to explore the route from the first sign of abdominal pain to the diagnosis of pancreatitis (PINEAPPLE trial). The PINEAPPLE-R subtrial is a retrospective review on the records of children (patients under 18) appearing at emergency units - a review of their clinical symptoms, results of imaging examinations and laboratory parameters. The PINEAPPLE-P subtrial is a prospective trial designed to develop a fast and simple EBM guideline that helps to evaluate (in a reliable and cost-efficient way) the necessity of pancreatic enzyme test and abdominal ultrasonography (or even computed tomography) when a child has abdominal pain. The trial has been registered at the ISRCTN registry and has received the relevant ethical approval. The PINEAPPLE trial will help to recognize AP in children in a highly efficient manner. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Reverse micellar extraction of bromelain from pineapple peel--Effect of surfactant structure.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jing; Guo, Jingjing; Miao, Zhitong; Guo, Xia

    2016-04-15

    Pineapple peel is generally disposed or used as compost. This study was focused on extracting bromelain from pineapple peel by using reverse micelles. It was found that gemini surfactant C12-8-C12·2Br (octamethylene-α,ω-bis(dimethyldodecylammonium bromide)) showed distinctive advantage over its monomeric counterpart DTAB (dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide); under optimized condition, the bromelain extracted with C12-8-C12·2Br reverse micelle had an activity recovery of 163% and a purification fold of 3.3, while when using DTAB reverse micelle, the activity recovery was 95% and the purification fold was 1.7. Therefore, the spacer of gemini surfactant should play a positive role in bromelain extraction and may suggest the potential of gemini surfactant in protein separation since it has been so far rarely used in relative experiments or technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase expression in four pineapple varieties (Ananas comosus L.) after a chilling injury.

    PubMed

    Raimbault, Astrid-Kim; Marie-Alphonsine, Paul-Alex; Horry, Jean-Pierre; Francois-Haugrin, Madlyn; Romuald, Karell; Soler, Alain

    2011-01-12

    Pineapple internal browning (IB) is a chilling injury that produces enzymatic browning associated with flesh translucency. Pineapple biodiversity allowed the investigation of how polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities with their different isoforms are involved in the IB mechanism. Fruits of four varieties that expressed IB symptoms differently, Smooth Cayenne (SCay) and the hybrids MD2, Flhoran 41 (Flh 41), and Flhoran 53 (Flh 53), were stressed by cold. The susceptible varieties showed classical brown spots but different patterns of IB, whereas MD2 and controls showed no IB. Enzymatic activities were measured on fruit protein extracts and PPO and POD isoforms separated on mini-gels (PhastSystem). Only PPO activity was significantly enhanced in the presence of IB. Up to six PPO isoforms were identified in the susceptible varieties. PPO was barely detectable in the nonsusceptible variety MD2 and in controls. The number of PPO isoforms and the total PPO activity after chilling are varietal characteristics.

  16. Use of reverse micellar systems for the extraction and purification of bromelain from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Umesh Hebbar, H; Sumana, B; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2008-07-01

    Reverse micellar systems of CTAB/isooctane/hexanol/butanol and AOT/isooctane are used for the extraction and primary purification of bromelain from crude aqueous extract of pineapple wastes (core, peel, crown and extended stem). The effect of forward as well as back extraction process parameters on the extraction efficiency, activity recovery and purification fold is studied in detail for the pineapple core extract. The optimized conditions for the extraction from core resulted in forward and back extraction efficiencies of 45% and 62%, respectively, using reverse micellar system of cationic surfactant CTAB. A fairly good activity recovery (106%) and purification (5.2-fold) of bromelain is obtained under these conditions. Reverse micellar extraction from peel, extended stem and crown using CTAB system resulted in purification folds of 2.1, 3.5, and 1.7, respectively. Extraction from extended stem using anionic surfactant AOT in isooctane did not yield good results under the operating conditions employed.

  17. The pineapple eye gene is required for survival of Drosophila imaginal disc cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei; Stampas, Argyrios; Zapata, Cynthia; Baker, Nicholas E

    2003-01-01

    Each ommatidium of the Drosophila eye is constructed by precisely 19 specified precursor cells, generated in part during a second mitotic wave of cell divisions that overlaps early stages of ommatidial cell specification. Homozygotes for the pineapple eye mutation lack sufficient precursor cells due to apoptosis during the period of fate specification. In addition development is delayed by apoptosis during earlier imaginal disc growth. Null alleles are recessive lethal and allelic to l(2)31Ek; heteroallelic combinations can show developmental delay, abnormal eye development, and reduced fertility. Mosaic clones autonomously show extensive cell death. The pineapple eye gene was identified and predicted to encode a novel 582-amino-acid protein. The protein contains a novel, cysteine-rich domain of 270 amino acids also found in predicted proteins of unknown function from other animals. PMID:14704172

  18. Carbon nanotubes for ultrafast fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, Maria; Rozhin, Aleksey; Fedotov, Yuri; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; Kobtsev, Sergey M.; Dianov, Evgeny M.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2016-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess both remarkable optical properties and high potential for integration in various photonic devices. We overview, here, recent progress in CNT applications in fibre optics putting particular emphasis on fibre lasers. We discuss fabrication and characterisation of different CNTs, development of CNT-based saturable absorbers (CNT-SA), their integration and operation in fibre laser cavities putting emphasis on state-of-the-art fibre lasers, mode locked using CNT-SA. We discuss new design concepts of high-performance ultrafast operation fibre lasers covering ytterbium (Yb), bismuth (Bi), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm) and holmium (Ho)-doped fibre lasers.

  19. Carbon nanotubes for ultrafast fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernysheva, Maria; Rozhin, Aleksey; Fedotov, Yuri; Mou, Chengbo; Arif, Raz; Kobtsev, Sergey M.; Dianov, Evgeny M.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess both remarkable optical properties and high potential for integration in various photonic devices. We overview, here, recent progress in CNT applications in fibre optics putting particular emphasis on fibre lasers. We discuss fabrication and characterisation of different CNTs, development of CNT-based saturable absorbers (CNT-SA), their integration and operation in fibre laser cavities putting emphasis on state-of-the-art fibre lasers, mode locked using CNT-SA. We discuss new design concepts of high-performance ultrafast operation fibre lasers covering ytterbium (Yb), bismuth (Bi), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm) and holmium (Ho)-doped fibre lasers.

  20. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei Strain LC-Ikematsu, Isolated from a Pineapple in Okinawa, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, Seikoh; Aoyama, Hiroaki; Shinzato, Naoya; Yamamoto, Norikuni; Arita, Masanori; Ikematsu, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus paracasei strain LC-Ikematsu, isolated from a pineapple in Okinawa, was determined. The total length of the 87 contigs was 3.08 Mb with a G+C content of 46.2% and 2,946 coding sequences. The genome analysis revealed its biosynthetic ability of 11 amino acids. PMID:28153910

  1. Comparison of in vivo toxicity, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of coconut, nipah and pineapple juice vinegars.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Keong Yeap, Swee; Beh, Boon Keen; Romli, Muhammad Firdaus; Yusof, Hamidah Mohd; Kristeen-Teo, Ye Wen; Sharifuddin, Shaiful Adzni; Long, Kamariah; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2017-06-20

    Vinegar is widely used as a food additive, in food preparation and as a food supplement. This study compared the phenolic acid profiles and in vivo toxicities, and antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of coconut, nipah and pineapple juice vinegars, which were respectively prepared via a two-step fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae 7013 INRA and Acetobacter aceti vat Europeans. Pineapple juice vinegar, which had the highest total phenolic acid content, also exhibited the greatest in vitro antioxidant capacity compared to coconut juice and nipah juice vinegars. Following acute and sub-chronic in vivo toxicity evaluation, no toxicity and mortality were evident and there were no significant differences in the serum biochemical profiles between mice administered the vinegars versus the control group. In the sub-chronic toxicity evaluation, the highest liver antioxidant levels were found in mice fed with pineapple juice vinegar, followed by coconut juice and nipah juice vinegars. However, compared to the pineapple juice and nipah juice vinegars, the mice fed with coconut juice vinegar, exhibited a higher population of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes in the spleen, which was associated with greater levels of serum interleukin-2 and interferon-γ cytokines. Overall, the data suggested that not all vinegar samples cause acute and sub-chronic toxicity in vivo. Moreover, the in vivo immunity and organ antioxidant levels were enhanced, to varying extents, by the phenolic acids present in the vinegars. The results obtained in this study provide appropriate guidelines for further in vivo bioactivity studies and pre-clinical assessments of vinegar consumption. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effects of Inducers of Systemic Acquired Resistance on Reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and Rotylenchulus reniformis in Pineapple

    PubMed Central

    Chinnasri, B.; Sipes, B.S.; Schmitt, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    The potency of the inducers of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), acibenzolar-s-methyl, DL-α-amino-n-butyric acid (AABA), DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA), γ-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), riboflavin, and salicylic acid (SA), in reducing reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and Rotylenchulus reniformis in pineapple was investigated. All inducers were applied as foliar sprays to 1-mon-old pineapple plants (20 ml/plant) grown in 22-cm-diam. pots in the greenhouse. Two days after application, 10,000 eggs of M. javanica or R. reniformis were inoculated onto the plants. Six months after inoculation, nematode reproduction was measured. Acibenzolar decreased R. reniformis egg production by 58% compared to the nontreated control (P ≤ 0.05). Acibenzolar, BABA, and riboflavin reduced M. javanica egg production by 60% to 64% compared to the nontreated control (P ≤ 0.05). The point in the pineapple SAR pathway that each compound activates may explain the differing results between M. javanica and its giant cells and R. reniformis and its syncytia. Foliar application of acibenzolar at 100 and 200 mg/liter decreased by 30% and 60%, respectively, the number of M. javanica eggs as compared to the nontreated control. Fresh shoot weight of pineapple treated with 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/liter acibenzolar was reduced by 1.2%, 3.3%, 9.9%, and 33% compared to the nontreated pineapple, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). Foliar application of acibenzolar may activate intrinsic resistance of pineapple to M. javanica and R. reniformis and may have a role in the sustainable management of nematodes in pineapple. PMID:19259535

  3. Dietary Supplementation with Fresh Pineapple Juice Decreases Inflammation and Colonic Neoplasia in IL-10-deficient Mice with Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Laura P.; Chichlowski, Maciej; Trinh, Chau T.; Greer, Paula K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Bromelain, a mixture of proteolytic enzymes typically derived from pineapple stem, decreases production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and leukocyte homing to sites of inflammation. We previously showed that short-term oral treatment with bromelain purified from pineapple stem decreased the severity of colonic inflammation in C57BL/6 Il10−/− mice with chronic colitis. Since fresh pineapple fruit contains similar bromelain enzymes but at different proportions, this study aimed to determine whether long-term dietary supplementation with pineapple (supplied as juice) could decrease colon inflammation and neoplasia in Il10−/− mice with chronic colitis as compared with bromelain derived from stem. Results Experimental mice readily consumed fresh pineapple juice at a level that generated mean stool proteolytic activities equivalent to 16 mg bromelain purified from stem, while control mice received boiled juice with inactive enzymes. Survival was increased in the group supplemented with fresh rather than boiled juice (p = 0.01). Mice that received fresh juice also had decreased histologic colon inflammation scores and a lower incidence of inflammation-associated colonic neoplasia (35% vs. 66%; p< 0.02), with fewer neoplastic lesions/colon (p = 0.05). Flow cytometric analysis of murine splenocytes exposed to fresh pineapple juice in vitro demonstrated proteolytic removal of cell surface molecules that can affect leukocyte trafficking and activation. Conclusions These results demonstrate that long-term dietary supplementation with fresh or unpasteurized frozen pineapple juice with proteolytically active bromelain enzymes is safe and decreases inflammation severity and the incidence and multiplicity of inflammation-associated colonic neoplasia in this commonly used murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:20848493

  4. Respiratory properties and malate metabolism in Percoll-purified mitochondria isolated from pineapple, Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. cv. smooth cayenne.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hoang Thi Kim; Nose, Akihiro; Agarie, Sakae

    2004-10-01

    An investigation was made of the respiratory properties and the role of the mitochondria isolated from one phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK)-CAM plant Ananas comosus (pineapple) in malate metabolism during CAM phase III. Pineapple mitochondria showed very high malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and low malic enzyme (ME) and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activities. The mitochondria readily oxidized succinate and NADH with high rates and coupling, while they only oxidized NADPH in the presence of Ca(2+). Pineapple mitochondria oxidized malate with low rates under most assay conditions, despite increasing malate concentrations, optimizing pH, providing cofactors such as coenzyme A, thiamine pyrophosphate, and NAD(+), and supplying individually external glutamate or GOT. However, providing glutamate and GOT simultaneously strongly increased the rates of malate oxidation. The OAA easily permeated the mitochondrial membranes to import into or export out of pineapple mitochondria during malate oxidation, but the mitochondria did not consume external Asp or alpha-KG. These results suggest that OAA played a significant role in the mitochondrial malate metabolism of pineapple, in which malate was mainly oxidized by active mMDH to produce OAA which could be exported outside the mitochondria via a malate-OAA shuttle. Cytosolic GOT then consumed OAA by transamination in the presence of glutamate, leading to a large increase in respiration rates. The malate-OAA shuttle might operate as a supporting system for decarboxylation in phase III of PCK-CAM pineapple. This shuttle system may be important in pineapple to provide a source of energy and substrate OAA for cytosolic PCK activity during the day when cytosolic OAA and ATP was limited for the overall decarboxylation process.

  5. Characterization of a polyhydroxyalkanoate obtained from pineapple peel waste using Ralsthonia eutropha.

    PubMed

    Vega-Castro, Oscar; Contreras-Calderon, Jose; León, Emilson; Segura, Almir; Arias, Mario; Pérez, León; Sobral, Paulo J A

    2016-08-10

    Agro-industrial waste can be the production source of biopolymers such as polyhydroxyalkanoates. The aim of this study was to produce and characterize Polyhydroxyalkanoates produced from pineapple peel waste fermentation processes. The methodology includes different pineapple peel waste fermentation conditions. The produced biopolymer was characterized using FTIR, GC-MS and NMR. The best fermentation condition for biopolymer production was obtained using pH 9, Carbon/Nitrogen 11, carbon/phosphorus 6 and fermentation time of 60h. FTIR analyzes showed PHB group characteristics, such as OH, CH and CO. In addition, GC-MS showed two monomers with 4 and 8 carbons, referred to PHB and PHBHV. H(1) NMR analysis showed 0.88-0.97 and 5.27ppm signals, corresponding to CH3 and CH, respectively. In conclusion, polyhydroxyalkanoate production from pineapple peels waste is an alternative for the treatment of waste generated in Colombia's fruit industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sustainable biobutanol production from pineapple waste by using Clostridium acetobutylicum B 527: Drying kinetics study.

    PubMed

    Khedkar, Manisha A; Nimbalkar, Pranhita R; Gaikwad, Shashank G; Chavan, Prakash V; Bankar, Sandip B

    2017-02-01

    Present investigation explores the use of pineapple peel, a food industry waste, for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using Clostridium acetobutylicum B 527. Proximate analysis of pineapple peel shows that it contains 35% cellulose, 19% hemicellulose, and 16% lignin on dry basis. Drying experiments on pineapple peel waste were carried out in the temperature range of 60-120°C and experimental drying data was modeled using moisture diffusion control model to study its effect on ABE production. The production of ABE was further accomplished via acid hydrolysis, detoxification, and fermentation process. Maximum total sugar release obtained by using acid hydrolysis was 97g/L with 95-97% and 10-50% removal of phenolics and acetic acid, respectively during detoxification process. The maximum ABE titer obtained was 5.23g/L with 55.6% substrate consumption when samples dried at 120°C were used as a substrate (after detoxification). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of wax treatment on the physiology and cellular structure of harvested pineapple during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huigang; Li, Xueping; Dong, Chen; Chen, Weixin

    2012-07-04

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. cv. 'Paris') is sensitive to low temperature and highly susceptible to blackheart during cold storage, which causes serious fruit decay. This work investigated the effect of wax treatment (Sta-Fresh 2952, 60 g/L) on blackheart of pineapple under chilling stress. Wax treatment significantly reduced blackheart symptoms after 14 days of storage and markedly delayed changes in firmness and flesh color during the whole period of storage. The weight loss of wax-treated fruit (2.6%) was less than the control (3.1%) at the 24th day of storage. The treatment decreased the activities of PG and EGase for maintaining cell wall stability during the later period of storage. In the control fruit, the structure of flesh cells was significantly damaged under chilling stress, with looser cell wall, absence of middle lamella, loss of membrane integrity, and many cells near the vascular tissue collapsed. The subcellular elements could be barely observed in the control after storage. These destructive symptoms were significantly alleviated in the wax-treated fruit. The results suggest that wax treatment could reduce blackheart of pineapple under chilling stress via maintenance of cell integrity.

  8. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, 15-LOX, and AGEs inhibitions by pineapple stem waste.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Atul; Chompoo, Jamnian; Araki, Nobuharu; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2012-01-01

    Pineapple stem has been extensively used for bromelain extraction; however, almost no attention has been given to the waste obtained during bromelain manufacturing. In this regard, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and inhibitions against 15-lipoxygenase and advanced glycation end product formations by pineapple stem waste (PSW) obtained during bromelain manufacturing process were studied. The PSW had moderate bioactivities in all the performed assays. It also showed a considerable inhibition against fungal growth, probably due to high amounts of the benzoic acid present in the sample. These results indicate that PSW could be utilized as an economic source of preventive or therapeutic agent in disease and in different functional food industries. A large amount of wastes are generated during bromelain manufacturing from pineapple stem. So far, these wastes are not utilized and are often considered as a burden while disposing them. However, we found some important phytochemicals with considerable bioactivities in these wastes. We believe that these wastes may have a promising usage as a cheap source of one of the ingredients in functional food based industries. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Ultrasound treatment on phenolic metabolism and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Wei Keat; Ali, Asgar

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound treatment at different power output (0, 25 and 29W) and exposure time (10 and 15min) was used to investigate its effect on the phenolic metabolism enzymes, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple. Following ultrasound treatment at 25 and 29W, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) was increased significantly (P<0.05) by 2.0 and 1.9-fold, when compared to control. Meanwhile, both the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and polyphenol peroxidase (POD) in fresh-cut pineapple was significantly (P<0.05) lower than control upon subjected to ultrasound treatment. In the present study, induction of PAL was found to significantly (P<0.001) correlate with higher total phenolic content and thus higher antioxidant capacity in fresh-cut pineapple. Results suggest that hormetic dosage of ultrasound treatment can enhance the activity of PAL and total phenolic content and hence the total antioxidant capacity to encounter with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Moderate-power cw fibre lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkov, Andrei S; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2004-10-31

    A review of the development and investigation of moderate-power (10{sup -1}-10{sup 2} W) cw fibre lasers is presented. The properties of optical fibres doped with rare-earth ions and methods for fabricating double-clad fibres are considered. The methods for fabrication of fibre Bragg gratings used as selective reflectors are discussed and the grating properties are analysed. The main pump schemes for double-clad fibre lasers are described. The properties of fibre lasers doped with neodymium, ytterbium, erbium, thulium, and holmium ions are also considered. The principles of fabrication of Raman converters of laser radiation based on optical fibres of different compositions are discussed and the main results of their studies are presented. It is concluded that fibre lasers described in the review can produce moderate-power radiation at any wavelength in the spectral range from 0.9 to 2 {mu}m. (review)

  11. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark; LHCb Upgrade Scintillating Fibre Tracker Group

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  12. Dietary fibre and colonic neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, H J

    1979-01-01

    Dietary plant fibre, or plantix, is thought to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of colon cancer in humans. It is a complex polymeric substance that has several distinct components resistant to hydrolysis by the digestive enzymes of humans. These components include cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, lignin, gums, mucilages and, in certain instances, algal polysaccharides. These polymers have different physicochemical properties, and recent evidence from experimental studies in animals treated with carcinogens suggests that some may exert protective effects in the intestine and others may enhance colon carcinogenesis. This review synthesizes information on the chemical composition, methods of analysis and physicochemical properties of dietary plant fibre and reviews available studies examining the role of fibre in colonic neoplasia in animals and humans. PMID:466603

  13. Preliminary study: fibre content in pet rabbit diets, crude fibre versus total dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Molina, J; Martorell, J; Hervera, M; Pérez-Accino, J; Fragua, V; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Fibre is an important nutrient for rabbit health, and, on commercial pet rabbit packaging, it is labelled as crude fibre (CF). In several species, it is considered that CF is not an accurate representation of the fibre content in feedstuffs. The objective of this study was to compare the CF stated on the label (CFL) with laboratory analysis of CF (CFA) and the analysed content of total dietary fibre (TDF) in different commercial pet rabbit feeds. We selected 15 commercial diets and analysed CF and TDF. A mixed model was used to evaluate differences between CFL, CFA and TDF, and linear regression was performed to study the correlation between CFL and CFA with TDF. CFA and CFL were not significantly different (p = 0.836) in the feeds studied, and both were lower than TDF (p < 0.001). The correlations between TDF and both CFA and CFL were significant (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively), but the correlation was better with CFA (R = 0.86) than with CFL (R = 0.53). As expected, TDF content was higher than CF content, an average of two times. These results suggest that the CF content in rabbit diets reported on the label is not an appropriate indicator of their total fibre content, although further work with a larger sample size is required to confirm these results.

  14. Super-tough carbon-nanotube fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Alan B.; Collins, Steve; Muñoz, Edgar; Razal, Joselito M.; Ebron, Von Howard; Ferraris, John P.; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Kim, Bog G.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2003-06-01

    The energy needed to rupture a fibre (its toughness) is five times higher for spider silk than for the same mass of steel wire, which has inspired efforts to produce spider silk commercially. Here we spin 100-metre-long carbon-nanotube composite fibres that are tougher than any natural or synthetic organic fibre described so far, and use these to make fibre supercapacitors that are suitable for weaving into textiles.

  15. Optical properties of microstructure tellurite glass fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Gaponov, D A; Biryukov, A S

    2006-04-30

    The dispersion characteristics and waveguide optical losses are calculated by the multipole method for microstructure optical fibres with a continuous core, which can be made of a tellurite glass holding much promise for fibre optics. The effect of geometrical parameters on the optical properties is studied and conditions for the single-mode propagation of radiation in such fibres are determined. (optical fibres and waveguides)

  16. Structural Interaction Between GFP-Labeled Diazotrophic Endophytic Bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae RAM10 and Pineapple Plantlets ‘VitóRia’

    PubMed Central

    Estrela Borges Baldotto, Lílian; Lopes Olivares, Fábio; Bressan-Smith, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    The events involved in the structural interaction between the diazotrophic endophytic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae, strain RAM10, labeled with green fluorescent protein, and pineapple plantlets ‘Vitória’ were evaluated by means of bright-field and fluorescence microscopy, combined with scanning electron microscopy for 28 days after inoculation. After 6 hours of inoculation, H. seropedicae was already adhered to the roots, colonizing mainly root hair surface and bases, followed by epidermal cell wall junctions. Bacteria adherence in the initial periods occurred mainly in the form of solitary cells and small aggregates with pleomorphic cells. Bacteria infection of root tissue occurred through the cavities caused by the disruption of epidermal cells during the emergence of lateral roots and the endophytic establishment by the colonization of intercellular spaces of the cortical parenchyma. Moreover, within 1 day after inoculation the bacteria were colonizing the shoots. In this region, the preferred sites of epiphytic colonization were epidermal cell wall junctions, peltate scutiform trichomes and non-glandular trichomes. Subsequently, the bacteria occupied the outer periclinal walls of epidermal cells and stomata. The penetration into the shoot occurred passively through stoma aperture followed by the endophytic establishment on the substomatal chambers and spread to the intercellular spaces of spongy chlorenchyma. After 21 days of inoculation, bacterial biofilm were seen at the root hair base and on epidermal cell wall surface of root and leaf, also confirming the epiphytic nature of H. seropedicae. PMID:24031612

  17. Portable smartphone optical fibre spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    A low cost, optical fibre based spectrometer has been developed on a smartphone platform for field-portable spectral analysis. Light of visible wavelength is collected using a multimode optical fibre and diffracted by a low cost nanoimprinted diffraction grating. A measurement range over 300 nm span (λ = 400 to 700 nm) is obtained using the smartphone CMOS chip. The spectral resolution is Δλ ~ 0.42 nm/screen pixel. A customized Android application processed the spectra on the same platform and shares with other devices. The results compare well with commercially available spectrometer.

  18. Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on volatile compounds and physicochemical and antioxidant attributes of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus).

    PubMed

    Montero-Calderón, Marta; Rojas-Graü, María Alejandra; Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2010-04-28

    The effects of modified atmosphere packaging on volatile compound content and physicochemical and antioxidant attributes of Gold cultivar fresh-cut pineapples were assessed throughout storage at 5 degrees C. Fresh-cut pineapple pieces were packed under LO (low oxygen, 12% O(2), 1% CO(2)), AIR (20.9% O(2)) and HO (high oxygen, 38% O(2)) headspace atmospheres. Methyl butanoate, methyl 2-methylbutanoate, and methyl hexanoate were the most abundant volatiles regardless of the packaging atmosphere and days of storage; whereas most odor active volatiles were methyl and ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone and ethyl hexanoate. Physicochemical attributes of pineapple did not significantly vary, whereas vitamin C content and total antioxidant capacity were lower for fresh-cut pineapple in HO (488 +/- 38 mg/100 mg(fw) and 54.4 +/- 5.7%, respectively) than for LO and AIR packages. Storage life of fresh-cut pineapple was limited to 14 days by volatile compounds losses and fermentation processes.

  19. Identification and Characterization of Phospholipase D Genes Putatively Involved in Internal Browning of Pineapple during Postharvest Storage

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Keqian; Zhang, Lubin; Zhan, Rulin; Huang, Bingyu; Song, Kanghua; Jia, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) in plants plays vital roles in growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of PLDs in pineapple remains poorly understood. In this study, 10 putative PLD genes, designated as AcPLD1–AcPLD10, were identified based on the pineapple genome database. The 10 AcPLDs could be clustered into five of the six known PLD families according to sequence characterization. Their deduced amino acid sequences displayed similarities to PLDs from other plant species. Expression analyses of PLD mRNAs from pineapple pulp were performed. The 10 PLDs exhibited differential expression patterns during storage periods of fruits treated with hexaldehyde (a specific PLD inhibitor) which could alleviate internal browning (IB) of pineapple after harvest. Functional subcellular localization signaling assays of two PLD proteins (AcPLD2 and AcPLD9) were performed by fluorescence microscopy. To further detect the potential action mechanism underlying PLD involved in the IB defense response, PLD, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and H2O2 associated with antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, NADPH, and ascorbate peroxidase were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This report is the first to provide a genome-wide description of the pineapple PLD gene family, and the results should expand knowledge of this family. PMID:28674540

  20. Fusarium ananatum sp. nov. in the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex from pineapples with fruit rot in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Adriaana; Van Wyk, Pieter Schalk; Marasas, Walter F O; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2010-07-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is native to South America and widely planted as a fruit crop in the tropics and sub-tropics. This plant is susceptible to a number of fungal diseases of which the most severe is fusariosis. The disease is caused by Fusarium guttiforme and occurs only in South and Central America. The occurrence of a similar disease on pineapples in South Africa has prompted a re-evaluation of the Fusarium sp. associated with pineapple fruit rot. Phylogenetic relationships of isolates from pineapples collected in Brazil and South Africa were assessed based on sequence data for the translation elongation factor-1-α, histone H3 and β-tubulin gene regions. Analyses showed that the South African isolates represent a species distinct from Brazilian isolates. The South African isolates are characterised by a concentration of aerial mycelium at the centres of the colonies, different to the Brazilian isolates that have an even distribution of aerial mycelium. Both phylogenetic and morphological data show that the disease on pineapple in South Africa is caused by a new Fusarium species described here as F. ananatum sp. nov. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Identification and Characterization of Phospholipase D Genes Putatively Involved in Internal Browning of Pineapple during Postharvest Storage.

    PubMed

    Hong, Keqian; Zhang, Lubin; Zhan, Rulin; Huang, Bingyu; Song, Kanghua; Jia, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) in plants plays vital roles in growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of PLDs in pineapple remains poorly understood. In this study, 10 putative PLD genes, designated as AcPLD1-AcPLD10, were identified based on the pineapple genome database. The 10 AcPLDs could be clustered into five of the six known PLD families according to sequence characterization. Their deduced amino acid sequences displayed similarities to PLDs from other plant species. Expression analyses of PLD mRNAs from pineapple pulp were performed. The 10 PLDs exhibited differential expression patterns during storage periods of fruits treated with hexaldehyde (a specific PLD inhibitor) which could alleviate internal browning (IB) of pineapple after harvest. Functional subcellular localization signaling assays of two PLD proteins (AcPLD2 and AcPLD9) were performed by fluorescence microscopy. To further detect the potential action mechanism underlying PLD involved in the IB defense response, PLD, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and H2O2 associated with antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, NADPH, and ascorbate peroxidase were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This report is the first to provide a genome-wide description of the pineapple PLD gene family, and the results should expand knowledge of this family.

  2. Skeletal muscle fibre types in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, R; Gil, F; Vázquez, J M; Moreno, F; Mascarello, F; Ramirez, G

    1993-01-01

    Using a variety of histochemical methods we have investigated the mATPase reaction of skeletal muscle fibres in the dog. Types I, IIA, IIDog (peculiar to the dog) and IIC fibres were identified. The results reveal that the interpretation of the fibre type composition depends on the methods used. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8226288

  3. Friction and wear of human hair fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, James; Johnson, Simon A.; Avery, Andrew R.; Adams, Michael J.

    2016-06-01

    An experimental study of the tribological properties of hair fibres is reported, and the effect of surface treatment on the evolution of friction and wear during sliding. Specifically, orthogonally crossed fibre/fibre contacts under a compressive normal load over a series of 10 000 cycle studies are investigated. Reciprocating sliding at a velocity of 0.4 mm s-1, over a track length of 0.8 mm, was performed at 18 °C and 40%-50% relative humidity. Hair fibres retaining their natural sebum were studied, as well as those stripped of their sebum via hexane cleaning, and hair fibres conditioned using a commercially available product. Surface topography modifications resulting from wear were imaged using scanning electron microscopy and quantified using white light interferometry. Hair fibres that presented sebum or conditioned product at the fibre/fibre junction exhibited initial coefficients of friction at least 25% lower than those that were cleaned with hexane. Coefficients of friction were observed to depend on the directionality of sliding for hexane cleaned hair fibres after sufficient wear cycles that cuticle lifting was present, typically on the order 1000 cycles. Cuticle flattening was observed for fibre/fibre junctions exposed to 10 mN compressive normal loads, whereas loads of 100 mN introduced substantial cuticle wear and fibre damage.

  4. Respiratory muscle fibres: specialisation and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Polla, B; D'Antona, G; Bottinelli, R; Reggiani, C

    2004-01-01

    Skeletal muscles are composed of fibres of different types, each type being identified by the isoform of myosin heavy chain which is expressed as slow 1, fast 2A, fast 2X, and fast 2B. Slow fibres are resistant to fatigue due to their highly oxidative metabolism whereas 2X and 2B fibres are easily fatiguable and fast 2A fibres exhibit intermediate fatigue resistance. Slow fibres and fast fibres are present in equal proportions in the adult human diaphragm while intercostal muscles contain a higher proportion of fast fibres. A small fibre size, abundance of capillaries, and a high aerobic oxidative enzyme activity are typical features of diaphragm fibres and give them the resistance to fatigue required by their continuous activity. Because of their fibre composition, intercostal muscles are less resistant to fatigue. The structural and functional characteristics of respiratory muscle fibres are not fixed, however, and can be modified in response to several physiological and pathological conditions such as training (adaptation to changes in respiratory load), adaptation to hypoxia, age related changes, and changes associated with respiratory diseases. The properties of respiratory muscle fibres can also be modified by pharmacological agents such as ß2 agonists and corticosteroids used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. PMID:15333861

  5. Occupational ceramic fibres dermatitis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, M; Wojtczak, J

    2000-07-01

    Recently, the use of asbestos has been considerably limited in Poland, with the simultaneous increase in the manufacture, processing and application of man-made mineral fibres, which includes ceramic fibres. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the type and frequency of dermal changes caused by the irritant activity of ceramic fibres among workers at the plants that manufacture packing and insulation products; and (2) to compare the irritant activity of Polish-made L-2 and L-3 ceramic fibres with that of the Thermowool ceramic fibres made in England. Workers (n = 226) who were exposed to ceramic fibres underwent dermatological examination. Patch tests with the standard allergen set, together with samples of the fibres L-2, L-3, and Thermowool fibres, were applied to all the workers. It has been shown that the Polish-made L-2 and L-3 fibres differed from Thermowool fibres in that the L-2 and L-3 fibres contained zirconium and were coarser. The proportion of filaments with diameters above 3 microns was 11.1% in the L-3 fibre and 6.3% in the L-2 fibre samples. The Thermowool fibre did not contain filaments thicker than 3 microns. Evident dermal changes, resulting from strong irritant activity of the fibres, were detected in 109 (48.2%) of the workers examined. Irritant contact dermatitis acuta (maculae, sometimes papulae and small crusts on the upper extremities, trunk, and lower extremities), disappearing after 2-3 days, was found in 50 (22.1%) workers. Irritant contact dermatitis chronica (diffuse permanent erythema with numerous telangiectasiae on the lateral portions of the face and neck, on the trunk, behind the auricles) was detected in 40 (17.7%) workers. The remaining 19 (8.4%) workers had both types of dermal change. All examined workers complained of very strong itching. The results of the patch tests confirmed the irritant activity of the ceramic fibres. Erythema without oedema, persisting for up to 96 h, appeared at the places where the fibres had

  6. A method for estimating the fibre length in fibre-PLA composites.

    PubMed

    Chinga-Carrasco, G; Solheim, O; Lenes, M; Larsen, A

    2013-04-01

    Wood pulp fibres are an important component of environmentally sound and renewable fibre-reinforced composite materials. The high aspect ratio of pulp fibres is an essential property with respect to the mechanical properties a given composite material can achieve. The length of pulp fibres is affected by composite processing operations. This thus emphasizes the importance of assessing the pulp fibre length and how this may be affected by a given process for manufacturing composites. In this work a new method for measuring the length distribution of fibres and fibre fragments has been developed. The method is based on; (i) dissolving the composites, (ii) preparing the fibres for image acquisition and (iii) image analysis of the resulting fibre structures. The image analysis part is relatively simple to implement and is based on images acquired with a desktop scanner and a new ImageJ plugin. The quantification of fibre length has demonstrated the fibre shortening effect because of an extrusion process and subsequent injection moulding. Fibres with original lengths of >1 mm where shortened to fibre fragments with length of <200 μm. The shortening seems to be affected by the number of times the fibres have passed through the extruder, the amount of chain extender and the fraction of fibres in the polymer matrix. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. Fibre ring cavity semiconductor laser

    SciTech Connect

    Duraev, V P; Medvedev, S V

    2013-10-31

    This paper presents a study of semiconductor lasers having a polarisation maintaining fibre ring cavity. We examine the operating principle and report main characteristics of a semiconductor ring laser, in particular in single- and multiple-frequency regimes, and discuss its application areas. (lasers)

  8. Threshold temperature optical fibre sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stasiewicz, K. A.; Musial, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a new approach to manufacture a threshold temperature sensor based on a biconical optical fibre taper. The presented sensor employs the influence of variable state of concentration of some isotropic materials like wax or paraffin. Application of the above- mentioned materials is an attempt to prove that there is a possibility to obtain a low-cost, repeatable and smart sensor working as an in-line element. Optical fibre taper was obtained from a standard single mode fibre (SMF28®) by using a low pressure gas burner technique. The diameter of the manufactured tapers was 6.0 ± 0.5 μm with the length of elongation equal to 30.50 ± 0.16 mm. The applied technology allowed to produce tapers with the losses of 0.183 ± 0.015 dB. Application of materials with different temperature transition points made it possible to obtain the threshold work at the temperatures connected directly with their conversion temperature. External materials at the temperatures above their melting points do not influence the propagation losses. For each of them two types of the protection area and position of the optical fibre taper were applied.

  9. The development of advanced cellulosic fibres.

    PubMed

    Woodings, C R

    1995-12-01

    For the majority of the last century, commercial routes to regenerated cellulose fibres have coped with the difficulties of making a good cellulose solution by using an easy to dissolve derivative (e.g. xanthate in the case of viscose rayon) or complex (e.g. cuprammonium rayon). For the purposes of this paper, advanced cellulosic fibres are defined as those made from a process involving direct dissolution of cellulose. The first examples of such fibres have now been generically designated as lyocell fibres to distinguish them from rayons, and the first commercial lyocell fibre is Courtaulds' Tencel.

  10. A novel aspartic acid protease gene from pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus): cloning, characterization and relation to postharvest chilling stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Raimbault, Astrid-Kim; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine; Soler, Alain; Cruz de Carvalho, Maria H

    2013-11-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding a putative aspartic acid protease (AcAP1) was isolated for the first time from the flesh of pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit. The deduced sequence of AcAP1 showed all the common features of a typical plant aspartic protease phytepsin precursor. Analysis of AcAP1 gene expression under postharvest chilling treatment in two pineapple varieties differing in their resistance to blackheart development revealed opposite trends. The resistant variety showed an up-regulation of AcAP1 precursor gene expression whereas the susceptible showed a down-regulation in response to postharvest chilling treatment. The same trend was observed regarding specific AP enzyme activity in both varieties. Taken together our results support the involvement of AcAP1 in postharvest chilling stress resistance in pineapple fruits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Biology and Trapping of Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) Developing in Pineapple Residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Solórzano, José-Arturo; Gilles, Jeremie; Bravo, Oscar; Vargas, Cristina; Gomez-Bonilla, Yannery; Bingham, Georgina V.; Taylor, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with increased pineapple production has been a large increase in stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations. Stable flies are attracted to, and oviposit in, the decomposing, chopped pineapple residues. In conjunction with chemical control of developing larvae, adult trapping is an important control strategy. In this study, four blue-black fabric traps, Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu, were compared with a white sticky trap currently used for stable fly control in Costa Rica. Overall, the white sticky trap caught the highest number of stable flies, followed by the Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu. Collections on the white sticky trap increased 16 d after residues were chopped; coinciding with the expected emergence of flies developing in the pineapple residues. During this same time period, collections in the blue-black fabric traps decreased. Sex ratio decreased from >7:1 (females:males) 3–7 d after chopping to 1:1 at 24–28 d. White sticky, Nzi and Vavoua traps collected similar numbers of colonizing flies 3–7 d after residues were chopped. However, white sticky traps collected more flies once emergence from the pineapple residues began. Although white sticky traps collected more flies than fabric traps, they remain labor intensive and environmentally unsound because of their disposable and nonbiodegradable nature. PMID:26454479

  12. Biology and trapping of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in pineapple residues (Ananas comosus) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Solórzano, José-Arturo; Gilles, Jeremie; Bravo, Oscar; Vargas, Cristina; Gomez-Bonilla, Yannery; Bingham, Georgina V; Taylor, David B

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple production in Costa Rica increased nearly 300-fold during the last 30 yr, and >40,000 hectares of land are currently dedicated to this crop. At the end of the pineapple cropping cycle, plants are chopped and residues incorporated into the soil in preparation for replanting. Associated with increased pineapple production has been a large increase in stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), populations. Stable flies are attracted to, and oviposit in, the decomposing, chopped pineapple residues. In conjunction with chemical control of developing larvae, adult trapping is an important control strategy. In this study, four blue-black fabric traps, Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu, were compared with a white sticky trap currently used for stable fly control in Costa Rica. Overall, the white sticky trap caught the highest number of stable flies, followed by the Nzi, Vavoua, Model H, and Ngu. Collections on the white sticky trap increased 16 d after residues were chopped; coinciding with the expected emergence of flies developing in the pineapple residues. During this same time period, collections in the blue-black fabric traps decreased. Sex ratio decreased from >7:1 (females:males) 3-7 d after chopping to 1:1 at 24-28 d. White sticky, Nzi and Vavoua traps collected similar numbers of colonizing flies 3-7 d after residues were chopped. However, white sticky traps collected more flies once emergence from the pineapple residues began. Although white sticky traps collected more flies than fabric traps, they remain labor intensive and environmentally unsound because of their disposable and nonbiodegradable nature. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Optical fibres for high radiation dose environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henschel, H.; Kohn, O.; Schmidt, H. U.; Bawirzanski, E.; Landers, A.

    1994-06-01

    A variety of modern single mode (SM) and graded index (GI) fibres as well as a new pure silica multimode step index (MMSI) fibre with high OH content were irradiated at a Co-60 gamma ray source with a dose rate of approximately = 1.5Gy/s up to a total dose of 10(exp 6)Gy. The radiation-induced loss of all fibres was measured continuously during and after irradiation at discrete wavelengths (approximately = 850, approximately = 1070, approximately = 1300, approximately = 1550nm). With one SM fibre type also the 'breaking stress' before and after irradiation was determined. Radiation-induced losses of approximately less than 5dB/50m (at approximately = 1300nm) were found with some of the SM fibres, whereas the MMSI fibre showed a final induced loss of only 0.5dB/50m at 1070nm wavelength. The breaking stress of the SM fibre increased by about 10%.

  14. Retained laser fibre: insights and management.

    PubMed

    Lekich, C; Hannah, P

    2014-06-01

    To describe a case of retained endovenous laser fibre. To review the literature and Food and Drug Administration device failure reports. To suggest protocols for avoiding this complication and a method of removal. A case of retained fibre removal is described. Fibre removal techniques in vivo and ex vivo in a bovine model on the laboratory bench are presented. Successful in vivo and ex vivo fibre removal was performed using duplex ultrasound scan guided phlebectomy techniques. Unexplained measured fibre-length discrepancies due to misleading manufacturer's packaging was discovered. Simple ultrasound-guided micro-phlebectomy techniques can be used to remove retained laser fibres in the office environment. Laser fibre length measurements before and after treatment are recommended. Some preventive guidelines are described to avoid, or at least diagnose immediately, this complication, such as the 'Laser Eclipse Sign'. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Glass fibre paper separator for electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, F.J.T.

    1984-08-14

    A separator suitable for electrochemical cells of the lead-acid recombinant type comprises a sheet of entangled glass fibres. It has been found that significant improvements in performance can be obtained when 5 to 35% by weight of the fibres have a diameter of less than 1 ..mu..m. It has also been found surprisingly advantageous if the overall solubility of the glass fibres is greater than 3% and preferably at least 4%, by weight in 5 hours at 85/sup 0/ C. in sulphuric acid of specific gravity 1.200. It has been found that further benefits can accrue if all or a major proportion of the fibres cover a continuous range of fibre diameters and fibre lengths, and preferably a minor proportion of the fibres being over 5 mm in length.

  16. Ytterbium fibre laser with a heavily Yb{sup 3+}-doped glass fibre core

    SciTech Connect

    Bufetov, Igor' A; Semenov, S L; Kosolapov, A F; Mel'kumov, Mikhail A; Dudin, V V; Dianov, Evgenii M; Galagan, B I; Denker, B I; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Sverchkov, S E

    2006-03-31

    The use of optical fibres with a high concentration of active ions in the fibre core allows the reduction of the active fibre length and the increase in the threshold powers of various nonlinear effects in the fibre, thereby increasing the maximum output power of fibre lasers. For this purpose, we manufactured a highly concentrated ytterbium-doped ({approx}1.0x10{sup 21}cm{sup -3}) phosphate glass for the active fibre core and a pure glass of a similar composition for the fibre cladding. A single-mode fibre is fabricated from these glasses and generation is obtained in an ytterbium laser based on this fibre with the slope efficiency of no less than 60% at a wavelength of 975 nm. (letters)

  17. Changes in Plant-Parasitic Nematode Populations in Pineapple Fields Following Inter-Cycle Cover Crops

    PubMed Central

    Ko, M. P.; Schmitt, D. P.

    1996-01-01

    The use of plant-covers oat (Arena sativa L.), rhodesgrass (Chloris gayana Kunth), soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.), and marigold (Tagetes patula L.) during pineapple inter-cycle planting periods was investigated at two sites (Kunia and Whitmore, Oahu, HI) as a potential means to reduce population densities of Rotylenchulus reniformis, Helicotylenchus dihystera, and Paratylenchus spp. Clean fallow and fallow covered with pineapple-plant residues (mulch) were the controls without plant-cover. Regardless of treatments, population densities of R. reniformis declined with time at both sites to low residue levels by the end of the 6-month period. Treatment means of R. reniformis population densities in the plant-cover treatments were lower than the controls' (P = 0.05). The plant-cover treatments also effected higher rates of R. reniformis population decline at both sites during the period, being 2.0 to 2.2 times that of the mulch control and 1.2 to 1.4 times that of the fallow control. Plant-covers' effect on H. dihystera during the same period at both sites was variable, resulting in decreased, unchanged, or increased population densities. The change was especially obvious in the oat-cover treatment, where H. dihystera population densities increased 9 to 15-fold at both sites. Population of Paratylenchus spp. was absent or present at low levels at the sites throughout the period. Biological activities antagonistic to R. reniformis at Kunia were estimated at the end of 6 months by comparing the extent of nematode's reproduction (on cowpea seedlings) in the treatment soils that had been subjected to autoclaving or freezing temperature. Although higher indices of antagonistic activities were observed in soils with prior plant-cover treatments than in soils from the controls, none of the treatments resulted in conferring soils the increased ability to suppress re-introduced R. reniformis populations or enhance subsequent pineapple-plant growth. PMID:19277173

  18. Development of Guided Inquiry-Based Student Lab Worksheet on the Making of Pineapple Flavoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwiyanti, G.; Suryatna, A.; Taibah, I.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research was to develop guided inquiry based student lab worksheet on making pineapple flavour and knowing the quality of worksheet that is being developed. Research methods that is being conducted is research and development that is limited by a preliminary studies (literature studies, field surveys, and preparation of the initial product) and development of the model (within limited testing). The results from analyze the books sources and fields survey showed that the characteristic of esterification lab worksheet that currently available still in the direct instruction form (cookbook). The optimization result of making pineapple flavour experiment that was conducted are the ethanol volume 3 mL, butyric acid volume 2 mL, sulfuric acid 5 drops, saturated NaHCO3 solution volume 9 mL, and temperature of heating was 80 °C. The characteristic of guided inquiry based student lab worksheet that was developed contained phenomenon and instructions that suitable with inquiry stages to guide the students in doing the experiment of making pineapple flavour. The evaluation of designated teachers and lecturers of the developed student worksheet were very good (96,08%). Lab-experiment feasibility achieved by using guided inquiry based student lab worksheets that is being developed based on the inquiry stages that conducted by student were found very good (97,50%) and accomplishment based on students’ answer of the tasks in the worksheet were found very good (83,84%). Students’ responses of the experiments using the developed worksheet are found very good (81,84%).

  19. Trade-Offs of Flowering and Maturity Synchronisation for Pineapple Quality

    PubMed Central

    Fassinou Hotegni, V. Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J. M.; Agbossou, Euloge K.; Struik, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    In the pineapple sector of Benin, poor fruit quality prevents pineapple producers to enter the European market. We investigated effects of common cultural practices, flowering and maturity synchronisation, (1) to quantify the trade-offs of flowering and maturity synchronisation for pineapple quality and the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, and (2) to determine the effect of harvesting practice on quality attributes. Four on-farm experiments were conducted during three years using cultivars Sugarloaf and Smooth Cayenne. A split-split plot design was used in each experiment, with flowering induction practice as main factor (artificial or natural flowering induction), maturity induction practice as split factor (artificial or natural maturity induction) and harvesting practice as the split-split factor (farmers’ harvest practice or individual fruit harvesting at optimum maturity). Artificial flowering induction gave fruits with lower infructescence weight, higher ratio crown: infructescence length, and a lower proportion of fruits exportable to European markets than natural flowering induction. The costs of the improvements by natural flowering induction were huge: the longer durations from planting to flowering induction and harvesting, the higher number of harvestings of the fruits increasing the labour cost and the lower proportion of plants producing fruits compared with crops from artificially flowering-induced plants. Artificial maturity induction decreased the total soluble solids concentration in the fruits compared with natural maturity induction thus decreasing the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, at a benefit of only a slightly shorter time from flowering induction to harvesting. Harvesting individual fruits at optimum maturity gave fruits with higher total soluble solids in naturally maturity induced fruits compared with the farmers’ harvest practice. Given the huge costs of natural flowering induction, options

  20. Trade-Offs of Flowering and Maturity Synchronisation for Pineapple Quality.

    PubMed

    Fassinou Hotegni, V Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J M; Agbossou, Euloge K; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    In the pineapple sector of Benin, poor fruit quality prevents pineapple producers to enter the European market. We investigated effects of common cultural practices, flowering and maturity synchronisation, (1) to quantify the trade-offs of flowering and maturity synchronisation for pineapple quality and the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, and (2) to determine the effect of harvesting practice on quality attributes. Four on-farm experiments were conducted during three years using cultivars Sugarloaf and Smooth Cayenne. A split-split plot design was used in each experiment, with flowering induction practice as main factor (artificial or natural flowering induction), maturity induction practice as split factor (artificial or natural maturity induction) and harvesting practice as the split-split factor (farmers' harvest practice or individual fruit harvesting at optimum maturity). Artificial flowering induction gave fruits with lower infructescence weight, higher ratio crown: infructescence length, and a lower proportion of fruits exportable to European markets than natural flowering induction. The costs of the improvements by natural flowering induction were huge: the longer durations from planting to flowering induction and harvesting, the higher number of harvestings of the fruits increasing the labour cost and the lower proportion of plants producing fruits compared with crops from artificially flowering-induced plants. Artificial maturity induction decreased the total soluble solids concentration in the fruits compared with natural maturity induction thus decreasing the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, at a benefit of only a slightly shorter time from flowering induction to harvesting. Harvesting individual fruits at optimum maturity gave fruits with higher total soluble solids in naturally maturity induced fruits compared with the farmers' harvest practice. Given the huge costs of natural flowering induction, options to

  1. Low temperature alters plasma membrane lipid composition and ATPase activity of pineapple fruit during blackheart development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuchan; Pan, Xiaoping; Qu, Hongxia; Underhill, Steven J R

    2014-02-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) plays central role in triggering primary responses to chilling injury and sustaining cellular homeostasis. Characterising response of membrane lipids to low temperature can provide important information for identifying early causal factors contributing to chilling injury. To this end, PM lipid composition and ATPase activity were assessed in pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) in relation to the effect of low temperature on the development of blackheart, a form of chilling injury. Chilling temperature at 10 °C induced blackheart development in concurrence with increase in electrolyte leakage. PM ATPase activity was decreased after 1 week at low temperature, followed by a further decrease after 2 weeks. The enzyme activity was not changed during 25 °C storage. Loss of total PM phospholipids was found during postharvest senescence, but more reduction was shown from storage at 10 °C. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the predominant PM phospholipid species. Low temperature increased the level of phosphatidic acid but decreased the level of phosphatidylinositol. Both phospholipid species were not changed during storage at 25 °C. Postharvest storage at both temperatures decreased the levels of C18:3 and C16:1, and increased level of C18:1. Low temperature decreased the level of C18:2 and increased the level of C14:0. Exogenous application of phosphatidic acid was found to inhibit the PM ATPase activity of pineapple fruit in vitro. Modification of membrane lipid composition and its effect on the functional property of plasma membrane at low temperature were discussed in correlation with their roles in blackheart development of pineapple fruit.

  2. In vitro activity of pineapple extracts (Ananas comosus, Bromeliaceae) on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Feitosa, Karina Alves; Fantatto, Rafaela Regina; Rabelo, Márcio Dias; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Oliveira, Gilson Pereira de; Bechara, Gervasio Henrique; Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza

    2013-07-01

    Measures to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, based only on chemical products are becoming unsustainable, mainly because of the development of resistance. The objective of this study was to test the effect of the aqueous extract of pineapple skin (AEPS) and bromelain extracted from the stem (Sigma-Aldrich®, B4882) on engorged females and larvae of R. (B.) microplus in vitro. These substances were diluted in water and evaluated at eight concentrations. Engorged females were collected and distributed in groups of 10, with three repetitions for each treatment. After immersion in the solutions, the females were placed in an incubator for observation of survival, oviposition and larval hatching. The larval packet method was used, also with three repetitions with about 100 larvae each. The packets were incubated and the readings were performed after 24 h. The estimated reproduction and efficacy of the solutions were calculated. The LC(50) and LC(90) were estimated using the Probit procedure of the SAS program. The eight concentrations were compared within each treatment by the Tukey test. For the experiment with engorged females, the most effective concentrations were 125, 250 and 500 mg/mL: 33%, 48% and 59% for the AEPS and 27%, 51% and 55% for the bromelain. The LC(50) and LC(90) values were, respectively, 276 and 8691 mg/mL for AEPS and 373 and 5172 mg/mL for bromelain. None of the dilutions tested was effective against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus. This is the first report of the action of pineapple extracts or their constituents on cattle ticks. The results demonstrate that further studies regarding composition of tick cuticle, with evaluation of other solvents and formulations, should be conducted seeking to enhance the effect of pineapple extracts and compounds against this ectoparasite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Soluble Sugars as the Carbohydrate Reserve for CAM in Pineapple Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Carnal, Nancy Wieland; Black, Clanton C.

    1989-01-01

    Neutral ethanol-soluble sugar pools serve as carbohydrate reserves for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) leaves. Levels of neutral soluble sugars and glucans fluctuated reciprocally with concentrations of malic acid. Hexose loss from neutral soluble-sugar pools was sufficient to account for malic acid accumulation with about 95% of the required hexose accounted for by turnover of fructose and glucose pools. Hexose loss from starch or starch plus lower molecular weight glucan pools was insufficient to account for nocturnal accumulation of malic acid. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of pyrophosphate:6-phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) at 15°C was about 16 times higher than the mean maximum rate of glycolysis that occurred to support malic acid accumulation in pineapple leaves at night and 12 times higher than the mean maximum rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools. The apparent maximum catalytic capacity of ATP-PFK at 15°C was about 70% of the activity required to account for the mean maximal rate of hexose turnover from all carbohydrate pools if turnover were completely via glycolysis, and marginally sufficient to account for mean maximal rates of acidification. Therefore, at low night temperatures conducive to CAM and under subsaturating substrate concentrations, PPi-PFK activity, but not ATP-PFK activity, would be sufficient to support the rate of glycolytic carbohydrate processing required for acid accumulation. These data for pineapple establish that there are at least two types of CAM plants with respect to the nature of the carbohydrate reserve utilized to support nighttime CO2 accumulation. The data further indicate that the glycolytic carbohydrate processing that supports acidification proceeds in different subcellular compartments in plants utilizing different carbohydrate reserves. PMID:16666775

  4. Occupational exposure to 1,3-dichloropropene (Telone II) in Hawaiian pineapple culture

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, W.N.

    1987-09-01

    1,3-dichloropropene (DCP), the primary constituent of Telone II, is a subsoil fumigant that has supplanted 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) and ethylene dibromide (EDB) as primary fumigant in Hawaiian pineapple culture. To determine the potential for adverse health effects, an environmental survey was done to assess worker exposures. Exposures were predominantly below 1 ppm, which is the no-effect level determined with experimental animals, and the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).

  5. Comparative study of two methods of fractionation bromelain from pineapple core extract (Ananas comosus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febriani, K.; Wahyuni, I.; Setiasih, S.; Hudiyono, S.

    2017-07-01

    The enzyme can be purified by fractional precipitation. This can be done by salt or organic solvent. In this research, purification of bromelain from pineapple core by fractional precipitation was done by 2 compounds, ammonium sulfate, and ethanol. Fractional precipitation by ammonium sulfate proved to be more effective as it yielded a higher specific activity. Specific activity by ethanol and ammonium sulfate is 4.6480 U/mg at 0-60 % saturation and 8.2243 U/mg at 50-80 % saturation.

  6. Impact of six fruits--banana, guava, mangosteen, pineapple, ripe mango and ripe papaya--on murine hepatic cytochrome P450 activities.

    PubMed

    Chatuphonprasert, Waranya; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan

    2012-12-01

    The effects of six Thai fruits, namely banana, guava, mangosteen, pineapple, ripe mango and ripe papaya, on cytochrome P450 (P450) activities were investigated. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC(50) ) of each of the fruit juices on CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP3A11 activities were determined. Pineapple juice showed the strongest inhibitory effect against all the evaluated P450 isozyme activities in mouse hepatic microsomes, followed by mangosteen, guava, ripe mango, ripe papaya and banana. The study was further performed in male ICR mice given pineapple juice intragastrically at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1) per day for 7 or 28 days. In a concentration-dependent fashion, the pineapple juice raised ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, aniline hydroxylase and erythromycin N-demethylase activities, which are marker enzymatic reactions responsible for CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and CYP3A11, respectively. The effect of pineapple juice on the expression of CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and CYP3A11 mRNAs corresponded to their enzymatic activities. However, the pineapple juice significantly decreased methoxyresorufin O-demethylase activity. These observations supported that the six Thai fruits were a feasible cause of food-drug interaction or adverse drug effects owing to their potential to modify several essential P450 activities. Individuals consuming large quantities of pineapple for long periods of time should be cautioned of these potential adverse effects.

  7. Structural investigation of Mimosa pudica Linn fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, S. R.; Pattojoshi, P.; Tiwari, T. N.; Mallick, B.

    2017-04-01

    Sensitive plant ( Mimosa pudica Linn.) fibre is a natural fibre with electrically conductive property. Because of its electro-active sensing nature, it has been found very interesting among physicists, chemists, biologists, material scientists and technologists. So far as our knowledge is concerned; there is no report on the X-ray structure of M. pudica fibre using diffraction technique. In the present report, the M. pudica fibre has been extracted from the stem of the herb by sinking the stem in 10% NaOH solution for one week. The diffraction pattern of the fibre is found out to be cellulose-I. The effect of the fibre structure and its orientation due to different mounting have been investigated using X-ray diffraction technique. The I max of cellulose-I has been observed along (002) and (10\\overline{1)} for the perpendicular and parallel mounting of the native-fibre, respectively. Full width at half maxima of the diffraction profile turns out to be decreased with fibre orientation. Dimension of crystallite size D hkl estimated in the perpendicular mounting D_{hkl}^{ \\bot } is more as compared to that of the parallel mounting D_{hkl}^{{^{allel } }}. The smallest crystallite sizes observed in both parallel and perpendicular mounting are 18.78 and 30.78 Å respectively. It is expected that the present study may help to analyse the X-ray diffraction of fibre materials in general and natural fibres in particular.

  8. Structural investigation of Mimosa pudica Linn fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, S. R.; Pattojoshi, P.; Tiwari, T. N.; Mallick, B.

    2016-12-01

    Sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica Linn.) fibre is a natural fibre with electrically conductive property. Because of its electro-active sensing nature, it has been found very interesting among physicists, chemists, biologists, material scientists and technologists. So far as our knowledge is concerned; there is no report on the X-ray structure of M. pudica fibre using diffraction technique. In the present report, the M. pudica fibre has been extracted from the stem of the herb by sinking the stem in 10% NaOH solution for one week. The diffraction pattern of the fibre is found out to be cellulose-I. The effect of the fibre structure and its orientation due to different mounting have been investigated using X-ray diffraction technique. The I max of cellulose-I has been observed along (002) and (10overline{1)} for the perpendicular and parallel mounting of the native-fibre, respectively. Full width at half maxima of the diffraction profile turns out to be decreased with fibre orientation. Dimension of crystallite size D hkl estimated in the perpendicular mounting D_{hkl}^{ bot } is more as compared to that of the parallel mounting D_{hkl}^{{^{allel } }} . The smallest crystallite sizes observed in both parallel and perpendicular mounting are 18.78 and 30.78 Å respectively. It is expected that the present study may help to analyse the X-ray diffraction of fibre materials in general and natural fibres in particular.

  9. Genome-wide organization and expression profiling of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor family in pineapple (Ananas comosus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoyang; Xie, Tao; Chen, Chenjie; Luan, Aiping; Long, Jianmei; Li, Chuhao; Ding, Yaqi; He, Yehua

    2017-07-01

    The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of plant transcription factors, which are involved in various plant physiological and biochemical processes. Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is one of three most important tropical fruits worldwide. The completion of pineapple genome sequencing provides a great opportunity to investigate the organization and evolutionary traits of pineapple MYB genes at the genome-wide level. In the present study, a total of 94 pineapple R2R3-MYB genes were identified and further phylogenetically classified into 26 subfamilies, as supported by the conserved gene structures and motif composition. Collinearity analysis indicated that the segmental duplication events played a crucial role in the expansion of pineapple MYB gene family. Further comparative phylogenetic analysis suggested that there have been functional divergences of MYB gene family during plant evolution. RNA-seq data from different tissues and developmental stages revealed distinct temporal and spatial expression profiles of the AcMYB genes. Further quantitative expression analysis showed the specific expression patterns of the selected putative stress-related AcMYB genes in response to distinct abiotic stress and hormonal treatments. The comprehensive expression analysis of the pineapple MYB genes, especially the tissue-preferential and stress-responsive genes, could provide valuable clues for further function characterization. In this work, we systematically identified AcMYB genes by analyzing the pineapple genome sequence using a set of bioinformatics approaches. Our findings provide a global insight into the organization, phylogeny and expression patterns of the pineapple R2R3-MYB genes, and hence contribute to the greater understanding of their biological roles in pineapple.

  10. Fibre gratings for hydrogen sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouillet, Alain; Marin, Emmanuel; Veillas, Colette

    2005-05-01

    Liquid hydrogen has been intensively used in aerospace applications during the past forty years and is of great interest for future automotive applications. Following upon major explosive risks due to the use of hydrogen in air, several studies were carried out in order to develop optical fibre sensors for the detection of hydrogen leakage. This communication is aimed towards the presentation of new sensors based on the use of Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBG) and Long Period Gratings (LPG). The sensing principle based on palladium-hydrogen interaction will be presented as well as experimental results with structures including FBG, LPG or in-series LPG. Detection parameters such as response time and sensitivity will be discussed versus temperature.

  11. Ripening-dependent metabolic changes in the volatiles of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) fruit: II. Multivariate statistical profiling of pineapple aroma compounds based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Steingass, Christof Björn; Jutzi, Manfred; Müller, Jenny; Carle, Reinhold; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2015-03-01

    Ripening-dependent changes of pineapple volatiles were studied in a nontargeted profiling analysis. Volatiles were isolated via headspace solid phase microextraction and analyzed by comprehensive 2D gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC×GC-qMS). Profile patterns presented in the contour plots were evaluated applying image processing techniques and subsequent multivariate statistical data analysis. Statistical methods comprised unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to classify the samples. Supervised partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression were applied to discriminate different ripening stages and describe the development of volatiles during postharvest storage, respectively. Hereby, substantial chemical markers allowing for class separation were revealed. The workflow permitted the rapid distinction between premature green-ripe pineapples and postharvest-ripened sea-freighted fruits. Volatile profiles of fully ripe air-freighted pineapples were similar to those of green-ripe fruits postharvest ripened for 6 days after simulated sea freight export, after PCA with only two principal components. However, PCA considering also the third principal component allowed differentiation between air-freighted fruits and the four progressing postharvest maturity stages of sea-freighted pineapples.

  12. Potential of chicken feather fibre in wood MDF composites

    Treesearch

    Jerold E. Winandy; James H. Muehl; Jessie A. Micales; Ashok Raina; Walter Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    We made a series of aspen fibre medium density fibreboard panels adding various levels of chicken feather fibre to determine the relative effect of the feather fibre-wood fibre mixtures on composite panel properties. Chicken feathers are a waste product left over after processing chickens for meat. The feather fibre amounts used ranged from 20% to 95% and a 5%...

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphism for animal fibre identification.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Selvi; Karthik, T; Vijayaraaghavan, N N

    2005-03-16

    Animal fibres are highly valuable industrial products often adulterated during marketing. Currently, there is no precise method available to identify and differentiate the fibres. In this study, a PCR-RFLP technique was exploited to differentiate cashmere and wool fibres derived from goat and sheep, respectively. The presence of DNA in animal hair shafts has enabled the isolation of DNA from scoured cashmere and wool fibres. The mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences of both species were amplified by PCR using primers designed from conserved regions. The polymorphism observed between the two species was detected by restricting the amplified product by endonucleases viz., BamH1 and Ssp1. The RFLP profile clearly distinguishes the cashmere and wool fibres and this technique can also be exploited to test adulteration in animal fibres qualitatively.

  14. Pollination of pima pineapple cactus (Coryphantha sheeri var. robustispina): does pollen flow limit abundance of this endangered species?

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. McDonald; Guy R. McPherson

    2005-01-01

    Pima pineapple cactus (PPC) (Coryphantha sheeri var. robustispina), a federally listed endangered species, occurs throughout southeastern Arizona and has relatively low population densities. To determine whether pollination limits reproduction of PPC we used florescent dye to quantify pollen flow between individuals in a PPC...

  15. 77 FR 24459 - Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 9D, Maui Pineapple Company, Ltd., Kahului, Maui, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 9D, Maui Pineapple Company, Ltd., Kahului, Maui, HI Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended...

  16. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    PubMed

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.) wine production in Angola: Characterisation of volatile aroma compounds and yeast native flora.

    PubMed

    Dellacassa, Eduardo; Trenchs, Oriol; Fariña, Laura; Debernardis, Florencia; Perez, Gabriel; Boido, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2017-01-16

    A pineapple vinification process was conducted through inoculated and spontaneous fermentation to develop a process suitable for a quality beverage during two successive vintages in Huambo, Angola. Wines obtained with the conventional Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, were analysed by gas chromatography, and a total of 61 volatile constituents were detected in the volatile fraction and 18 as glycosidically bound aroma compounds. Concentration levels of carbonyl and sulphur compounds were in agreement with the limited information reported about pineapple fruits of other regions. We report, for the first time in pineapple wines, the presence of significant concentrations of lactones, ketones, terpenes, norisoprenoids and a variety of volatile phenols. Eight native yeast strains were isolated from spontaneous batches. Further single-strain fermentations allowed us to characterise their suitability for commercial fermentation. Three native strains (Hanseniaspora opuntiae, H. uvarum and Meyerozyma guilliermondii) were selected with sensory potential to ferment pineapple fruits with increased flavour diversity. Results obtained here contribute to a better understanding of quality fermentation alternatives of this tropical fruit in subtropical regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Current status of tropical fruit breeding and genetics for three tropical fruit species cultivated in Japan: pineapple, mango, and papaya

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Tatsushi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shoda, Moriyuki; Urasaki, Naoya; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Tropical fruit crops are predominantly produced in tropical and subtropical developing countries, but some are now grown in southern Japan. Pineapple (Ananas comosus), mango (Mangifera indica) and papaya (Carica papaya) are major tropical fruits cultivated in Japan. Modern, well-organized breeding systems have not yet been developed for most tropical fruit species. Most parts of Japan are in the temperate climate zone, but some southern areas such as the Ryukyu Islands, which stretch from Kyushu to Taiwan, are at the northern limits for tropical fruit production without artificial heating. In this review, we describe the current status of tropical fruit breeding, genetics, genomics, and biotechnology of three main tropical fruits (pineapple, mango, and papaya) that are cultivated and consumed in Japan. More than ten new elite cultivars of pineapple have been released with improved fruit quality and suitability for consumption as fresh fruit. New challenges and perspectives for obtaining high fruit quality are discussed in the context of breeding programs for pineapple. PMID:27069392

  19. Callus cell, shoot and stem proliferation data from pineapple crown and banana inflorescence in vitro: Biochemical and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Abm Sharif; Uddin, Musamma M

    2017-02-01

    The data article contains the experimental data and images on the callus cell, shoot and stem proliferation from pineapple crown slice and banana inflorescence in vitro. Investigated data are related to the research article "Effects of benzylaminopurine and naphthalene acetic acid on proliferation and shoot growth of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) in vitro" Alsaif et al. (2011) [1] and "Plantlet Production through Development of Competent Multiple Meristem Cultures from Male Inflorescence of Banana, Musa acuminta cv. ׳Pisang Mas׳(AA)" Wirakarnain et al. (2008) [2]. In the experimental data 1, physiological, (shoot weight, number length and stem proliferation) biochemical (total sugar and chlorophyll) and nutritional ((K(+) and NO3(-)) data using BAP, MS medium and NAA growth regulators in pineapple have been explored. In the experimental data 2, physiological, (callus weight, shoot number and length) biochemical (total sugar, chlorophyll, total phenol, DPPH) and nutritional (K(+) and NO3(-)) data employing BAP +IAA, MS medium and NAA growth regulators in banana have been exhibited. Overall quantitative measurement was observed by Spectrophotometer. In the experimental data, BAP was shown the best effective hormone for the both pineapple and banana explants regeneration.

  20. Silencing of the ACC synthase gene ACACS2 causes delayed flowering in pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.].

    PubMed

    Trusov, Yuri; Botella, José Ramón

    2006-01-01

    Flowering is a crucial developmental stage in the plant life cycle. A number of different factors, from environmental to chemical, can trigger flowering. In pineapple, and other bromeliads, it has been proposed that flowering is triggered by a small burst of ethylene production in the meristem in response to environmental cues. A 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC synthase) gene has been cloned from pineapple (ACACS2), which is induced in the meristem under the same environmental conditions that induce flowering. Two transgenic pineapple lines have been produced containing co-suppression constructs designed to down-regulate the expression of the ACACS2 gene. Northern analysis revealed that the ACACS2 gene was silenced in a number of transgenic plants in both lines. Southern hybridization revealed clear differences in the methylation status of silenced versus non-silenced plants by the inability of a methylation-sensitive enzyme to digest within the ACACS2 DNA extracted from silenced plants, indicating that methylation is the cause of the observed co-suppression of the ACACS2 gene. Flowering characteristics of the transgenic plants were studied under field conditions in South East Queensland, Australia. Flowering dynamics studies revealed significant differences in flowering behaviour, with transgenic plants exhibiting silencing showing a marked delay in flowering when compared with non-silenced transgenic plants and control non-transformed plants. It is argued that the ACACS2 gene is one of the key contributors towards triggering 'natural flowering' in mature pineapples under commercial field conditions.

  1. Development of a fibre size-specific job-exposure matrix for airborne asbestos fibres.

    PubMed

    Dement, J M; Kuempel, E D; Zumwalde, R D; Smith, R J; Stayner, L T; Loomis, D

    2008-09-01

    To develop a method for estimating fibre size-specific exposures to airborne asbestos dust for use in epidemiological investigations of exposure-response relations. Archived membrane filter samples collected at a Charleston, South Carolina asbestos textile plant during 1964-8 were analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the bivariate diameter/length distribution of airborne fibres by plant operation. The protocol used for these analyses was based on the direct transfer method published by the International Standards Organization (ISO), modified to enhance fibre size determinations, especially for long fibres. Procedures to adjust standard phase contrast microscopy (PCM) fibre concentration measures using the TEM data in a job-exposure matrix (JEM) were developed in order to estimate fibre size-specific exposures. A total of 84 airborne dust samples were used to measure diameter and length for over 18,000 fibres or fibre bundles. Consistent with previous studies, a small proportion of airborne fibres were longer than >5 microm in length, but the proportion varied considerably by plant operation (range 6.9% to 20.8%). The bivariate diameter/length distribution of airborne fibres was expressed as the proportion of fibres in 20 size-specific cells and this distribution demonstrated a relatively high degree of variability by plant operation. PCM adjustment factors also varied substantially across plant operations. These data provide new information concerning the airborne fibre characteristics for a previously studied textile facility. The TEM data demonstrate that the vast majority of airborne fibres inhaled by the workers were shorter than 5 mum in length, and thus not included in the PCM-based fibre counts. The TEM data were used to develop a new fibre size-specific JEM for use in an updated cohort mortality study to investigate the role of fibre dimension in the development of asbestos-related lung diseases.

  2. Large-scale fibre-array multiplexing

    SciTech Connect

    Cheremiskin, I V; Chekhlova, T K

    2001-05-31

    The possibility of creating a fibre multiplexer/demultiplexer with large-scale multiplexing without any basic restrictions on the number of channels and the spectral spacing between them is shown. The operating capacity of a fibre multiplexer based on a four-fibre array ensuring a spectral spacing of 0.7 pm ({approx} 10 GHz) between channels is demonstrated. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  3. Synthetic fibre granuloma of the conjunctiva.

    PubMed

    Mak, S T; Lui, Y H; Li, Kenneth K W

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic fibre granuloma of the conjunctiva, sometimes known as 'teddy bear granuloma', results from granulomatous foreign body reaction of the conjunctiva to synthetic fibres. It is often an incidental finding, most commonly found in children, is unilateral, and occurs in the lower eyelid. We present here, what we believe is the first reported case of synthetic fibre conjunctival granuloma in Hong Kong, together with a review of the condition. An awareness of this clinical entity allows early and accurate diagnosis and early treatment.

  4. Single fibre electromyography in central core disease

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, A. Cruz; Ferrer, M. T.; López-Terradas, J. M.; Pascual-Castroviejo, I.; Mingo, P.

    1979-01-01

    Single fibre electromyography in the extensor digitorum communis muscle was studied in five patients with central core disease. The average number of muscle fibre action potentials belonging to the same motor unit was higher in patients than in healthy subjects of the same age. The increase in motor unit fibre density is consistent with increased terminal innervation ratio described in other papers about central core disease. PMID:479907

  5. Growth of Byssochlamys Nivea in Pineapple Juice Under the Effect of Water Activity and Ascospore Age

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, M.; Miorelli, S.; Massaguer, P.R.; Aragão, G.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    The study of thermal resistant mould, including Byssochlamys nivea, is of extreme importance since it has been associated with fruit and fruit products. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of water activity (aw) and ascospore age (I) on the growth of Byssochlamys nivea in pineapple juice. Mold growth was carried out under different conditions of water activity (aw) (0.99, 0.96, 0.95, 0.93, 0.90) and ascospore age (I) (30, 51, 60, 69, 90 days). Growth parameters as length of adaptation phase (λ), maximum specific growth rate (µmax) and maximum diameter reached by the colony (A) were obtained through the fit of the Modified Gompertz model to experimental data (measuring radial colony diameter). Statistica 6.0 was used for statistical analyses (significance level α = 0.05). The results obtained clearly showed that water activity is statistically significant and that it influences all growth parameters, while ascospore age does not have any statistically significant influence on growth parameters. Also, these data showed that by increasing aw from 0.90 to 0.99, the λ value substantially decreased, while µmax and A values rose. The data contributed for the understanding of the behavior of B. nivea in pineapple juice. Therefore, it provided mathematical models that can well predict growth parameters, also helping on microbiological control and products’ shelf life determination. PMID:24031622

  6. Effect of acoustically assisted treatments on vitamins, antioxidant activity, organic acids and drying kinetics of pineapple.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Óscar; Gomes, Wesley; Rodrigues, Sueli; Fernandes, Fabiano A N

    2017-03-01

    The effects of the application of an acoustically assisted treatment on the vitamins (C, B1, B2, B3, and B5), the antioxidant activity (DPPH, FRAP), the polyphenol and flavonoid contents, the organic acid contents (citric and malic) and drying kinetics of pineapple (Ananas comosus var. Perola) have been studied. Treatments were carried out using two different soaking media: distilled water and pineapple juice at 30°C during 10, 20 and 30min without and with acoustic assistance (23.2W/L). After treatment, samples were dried at 60°C and 0.5m/s during 8h. The quality parameters were determined in untreated, treated, and treated-dried samples. The acoustic assistance promoted an increment of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B5, total flavonoid and malic acid contents, and a reduction of vitamin C, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and citric acid content in treated samples. However, in all treated-dried samples the final content of those quality parameters was higher than the observed in the untreated dried sample.

  7. Molecular cloning, expression, and functional characterization of a cystatin from pineapple stem.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Douglas J H; Chyan, Chia-Lin; Tzen, Jason T C; Chou, Wing-Ming

    2004-08-01

    A cDNA fragment encoding the cysteine protease inhibitor, cystatin, was cloned from pineapple (Ananas comosus) stem. This clone was constructed in a fusion vector and was easily over-expressed in Escherichia coli; satisfactory over-expression of non-fusion cystatin was achieved after an additional start codon was inserted prior to its coding sequence. Both recombinant cystatins were predominately found in the soluble fraction of the cell extract, and were demonstrated to be functionally active in a reverse zymographic assay. The fusion and non-fusion cystatins were separately purified to homogeneity via a His-tag or papain-coupling affinity column. Effective inhibitory activity against papain was detected with both the fusion and non-fusion cystatins with comparable K(i) values of 1.18 x 10(-10) M and 9.53 x 10(-11) M, respectively. The recombinant cystatins were found to be thermally stable up to 60 degrees C. Inhibition of the endogenous protease activity in minced fish muscle revealed that the recombinant pineapple cystatins might be an adequate stabilizer to prevent protein degradation during industrial food processing.

  8. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of the Pathway in Pantoea citrea Leading to Pink Disease of Pineapple

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Catherine J.; Kado, Clarence I.

    2000-01-01

    Pink disease of pineapple, caused by Pantoea citrea, is characterized by a dark coloration on fruit slices after autoclaving. This coloration is initiated by the oxidation of glucose to gluconate, which is followed by further oxidation of gluconate to as yet unknown chromogenic compounds. To elucidate the biochemical pathway leading to pink disease, we generated six coloration-defective mutants of P. citrea that were still able to oxidize glucose into gluconate. Three mutants were found to be affected in genes involved in the biogenesis of c-type cytochromes, which are known for their role as specific electron acceptors linked to dehydrogenase activities. Three additional mutants were affected in different genes within an operon that probably encodes a 2-ketogluconate dehydrogenase protein. These six mutants were found to be unable to oxidize gluconate or 2-ketogluconate, resulting in an inability to produce the compound 2,5-diketogluconate (2,5-DKG). Thus, the production of 2,5-DKG by P. citrea appears to be responsible for the dark color characteristic of the pink disease of pineapple. PMID:10735866

  9. Adsorption of caffeine on mesoporous activated carbon fibers prepared from pineapple plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, Karla K; Cazetta, André L; de Souza, Patrícia S C; Spessato, Lucas; Silva, Taís L; Almeida, Vitor C

    2017-08-21

    The present work reports the preparation of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) from pineapple plant leaves, and its application on caffeine (CFN) removal from aqueous solution. The preparation procedure was carried out using the H3PO4 as activating agent and slow pyrolysis under N2 atmosphere. The characterization of materials was performed from the N2 adsorption and desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Boehm titration and pHpzc method. ACFs showed high BET surface area value (SBET = 1031m(2) g(-1)), well-developed mesoporous structure (mesopore volume of 1.27cm³ g(-1)) and pores with average diameter (DM) of 5.87nm. Additionally, ACFs showed features of fibrous material with predominance of acid groups on its surface. Adsorption studies indicated that the pseudo-second order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models were that best fitted to the experimental data. The monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 155.50mgg(-1). thermodynamic studies revealed that adsorption process is spontaneous, exothermic and occurs preferably via physisorption. The pineapple leaves are an efficient precursor for preparation of ACFs, which were successful applied as adsorbent material for removal of caffeine from the aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Polysaccharide composition of unlignified cell walls of pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] fruit.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, B G; Harris, P J

    1995-01-01

    The polysaccharides of cell walls isolated from the fleshy, edible part of the fruit of the monocotyledon pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] (family Bromeliaceae) were analyzed chemically. These cell walls were derived mostly from parenchyma cells and were shown histochemically to be unlignified, but they contained ester-linked ferulic acid. The analyses indicated that the noncellulosic polysaccharide composition of the cell walls was intermediate between that of unlignified cell walls of species of the monocotyledon family Poaceae (grasses and cereals) and that of unlignified cell walls of dicotyledons. Glucuronoarabinoxylans were the major non-cellulosic polysaccharides in the pineapple cell walls. Xyloglucans were also present, together with small amounts of pectic polysaccharides and glucomannans (or galactoglucomannans). The large amounts of glucuronoarabinoxylans and small amounts of pectic polysaccharides resemble the noncellulosic polysaccharide composition of the unlignified cell walls of the Poaceae. However, the absence of (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-glucans, the presence of relatively large amounts of xyloglucans, and the possible structure of the xyloglucans resemble the noncellulosic polysaccharide composition of the unlignified cell walls of dicotyledons. PMID:7770529

  11. Cell wall alterations in the leaves of fusariosis-resistant and susceptible pineapple cultivars.

    PubMed

    de Farias Viégas Aquije, Glória Maria; Zorzal, Poliana Belisário; Buss, David Shaun; Ventura, José Aires; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro

    2010-10-01

    Fusariosis, caused by the fungus Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. ananas (Syn. F. guttiforme), is one of the main phytosanitary threats to pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus). Identification of plant cell responses to pathogens is important in understanding the plant-pathogen relationship and establishing strategies to improve and select resistant cultivars. Studies of the structural properties and phenolic content of cell walls in resistant (Vitoria) and susceptible (Perola) pineapple cultivars, related to resistance to the fungus, were performed. The non-chlorophyll base of physiologically mature leaves was inoculated with a conidia suspension. Analyses were performed post-inoculation by light, atomic force, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and measurement of cell wall-bound phenolic compounds. Non-inoculated leaves were used as controls to define the constitutive tissue characteristics. Analyses indicated that morphological differences, such as cell wall thickness, cicatrization process and lignification, were related to resistance to the pathogen. Atomic force microscopy indicated a considerable difference in the mechanical properties of the resistant and susceptible cultivars, with more structural integrity, associated with higher levels of cell wall-bound phenolics, found in the resistant cultivar. p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were shown to be the major phenolics bound to the cell walls and were found in higher amounts in the resistant cultivar. Leaves of the resistant cultivar had reduced fungal penetration and a faster and more effective cicatrization response compared to the susceptible cultivar.

  12. Complete chloroplast genome sequence of MD-2 pineapple and its comparative analysis among nine other plants from the subclass Commelinidae.

    PubMed

    Redwan, R M; Saidin, A; Kumar, S V

    2015-08-12

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus) is known as the king of fruits for its crown and is the third most important tropical fruit after banana and citrus. The plant, which is indigenous to South America, is the most important species in the Bromeliaceae family and is largely traded for fresh fruit consumption. Here, we report the complete chloroplast sequence of the MD-2 pineapple that was sequenced using the PacBio sequencing technology. In this study, the high error rate of PacBio long sequence reads of A. comosus's total genomic DNA were improved by leveraging on the high accuracy but short Illumina reads for error-correction via the latest error correction module from Novocraft. Error corrected long PacBio reads were assembled by using a single tool to produce a contig representing the pineapple chloroplast genome. The genome of 159,636 bp in length is featured with the conserved quadripartite structure of chloroplast containing a large single copy region (LSC) with a size of 87,482 bp, a small single copy region (SSC) with a size of 18,622 bp and two inverted repeat regions (IRA and IRB) each with the size of 26,766 bp. Overall, the genome contained 117 unique coding regions and 30 were repeated in the IR region with its genes contents, structure and arrangement similar to its sister taxon, Typha latifolia. A total of 35 repeats structure were detected in both the coding and non-coding regions with a majority being tandem repeats. In addition, 205 SSRs were detected in the genome with six protein-coding genes contained more than two SSRs. Comparative chloroplast genomes from the subclass Commelinidae revealed a conservative protein coding gene albeit located in a highly divergence region. Analysis of selection pressure on protein-coding genes using Ka/Ks ratio showed significant positive selection exerted on the rps7 gene of the pineapple chloroplast with P less than 0.05. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the recent taxonomical relation among the member of

  13. Physical and mechanical properties of poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) and its pineapple fiber-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shuiyuan

    2000-10-01

    Recently, there has been considerable research on biodegradable polymers because of the complex plastic waste management created by the mostly non-degradable polymers and polymer-based composites. In this dissertation, physical and mechanical properties of poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), a degradable polymer, and its pineapple fiber-reinforced composites are discussed. CHAPTER ONE introduces the PHBV polymer, natural cellulose fibers, and polymeric composites including the fiber/matrix interface. The degradability of PHBV is also briefly discussed. CHAPTER TWO describes the effects of thermal processing time on the properties of PHBV. At processing conditions of 180°C and 140 MPa, PHBV underwent significant, random chain scission. As a result, tensile properties deteriorated. DSC and SAXS results show that thermally degraded PHBVs had different thermal properties and lamellar morphology. CHAPTER THREE reports the effects of 60Co gamma-radiation on the properties of PHBV. Under 60Co gamma-radiation random chain scission but no cross-linking occurred in PHBV. Chain scission occurs probably in the amorphous region. As a result, thermal and tensile properties are significantly affected. CHAPTER FOUR describes properties of pineapple fibers, the interface between pineapple fiber and PHBV, and properties of pineapple fiber-reinforced PHBV "green" composites. Pineapple fiber has enough strength to be used as reinforcement in composites with intermediate strength. Interfacial shear strength was moderate. The mechanical properties of PHBV were significantly improved, and were comparable to some woods. CHAPTER FIVE presents the mechanical and thermal properties of unidirectional, degradable, environment-friendly "green" composites made from pineapple fibers and PHBV resin. Tensile and flexural properties of the "green" composites with different fiber contents were investigated. The presence of pineapple fibers did not affect the non

  14. Incomplete stomach emptying as a complication of intragastric balloon treatment and a solution suggestion: Pineapple juice drinking.

    PubMed

    Simşek, Zahide; Altınbaş, Akif; Delibaşı, Tuncay; Yüksel, Osman

    2013-01-01

    During removal of intragastric balloon, there is a great deal of gastric undigested food even after an eight-hour starvation. Bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme existing in the pineapple juice seems to be a good choice for the undigested food remnants in the stomach. We aimed to investigate the effect of drinking pineapple juice on dissolving food remnants in patients undergoing endoscopic procedure for removal of intragastric balloon. In this study, we included patients who had undergone endoscopic placement of intragastric balloon (BIB®, BioEnterics Intragastric Balloon, Inamed Health, CA, USA) between February 2009 and March 2012. First 8 patients were asked to fast the whole night before the procedure (at least 8 hours) and to apply clear liquid diet for 3 days before the endoscopic removal. A great amount of food remnants was seen in the stomach during the endoscopic balloon removal procedure. A second endoscopic procedure was planned 3 days later and, in order to decrease the food remnants, the patients were asked to drink 1 L pineapple juice per day. The next 11 patients were also advised to drink 1 liter per day of 100% pineapple juice for 3 days before the endoscopic removal. Totally, 19 obese patients (17 female, 2 male) were included in the study. Mean age was 38,68±7,95 years, mean weigh was 124,23±19,30 kg, and mean body mass index was 49,73±9,22 kg/m 2 . There was undigested food in the stomach during endoscopic removal in the first 8 patients. However, no undigested food in the stomach was found at the second endoscopic examination. In the other 11 patients, no food remnants were observed after taking pineapple juice prior to the endoscopic removal procedure. Drinking pineapple juice for 3 days before endoscopic balloon removal seems to be effective in dissolving food remnants in the stomach. Drinking pineapple juice may be recommended in all patients undergoing endoscopic procedure for removal of intragastric balloon.

  15. How to make auxetic fibre reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderson, K. L.; Simkins, V. R.; Coenen, V. L.; Davies, P. J.; Alderson, A.; Evans, K. E.

    2005-03-01

    Auxetic composite materials can be produced either from conventional components via specially designed configurations or from auxetic components. This paper reviews manufacturing methods for both these scenarios. It then looks at the possibility of property enhancements in both low velocity impact and fibre pull out due to the negative Poisson's ratio. Tests revealed that auxetic carbon fibre composites made from commercially available prepreg show evidence of increased resistance to low velocity impact and static indentation with a smaller area of damage. Also, using auxetic fibres in composite materials is shown to produce a higher resistance to fibre pullout.

  16. A compact polymer optical fibre ultrasound detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadway, Christian; Gallego, Daniel; Pospori, Andreas; Zubel, Michal; Webb, David J.; Sugden, Kate; Carpintero, Guillermo; Lamela, Horacio

    2016-03-01

    Polymer optical fibre (POF) is a relatively new and novel technology that presents an innovative approach for ultrasonic endoscopic applications. Currently, piezo electric transducers are the typical detectors of choice, albeit possessing a limited bandwidth due to their resonant nature and a sensitivity that decreases proportionally to their size. Optical fibres provide immunity from electromagnetic interference and POF in particular boasts more suitable physical characteristics than silica optical fibre. The most important of these are lower acoustic impedance, a reduced Young's Modulus and a higher acoustic sensitivity than single-mode silica fibre at both 1 MHz and 10 MHz. POF therefore offers an interesting alternative to existing technology. Intrinsic fibre structures such as Bragg gratings and Fabry-Perot cavities may be inscribed into the fibre core using UV lasers. These gratings are a modulation of the refractive index of the fibre core and provide the advantages of high reflectivity, customisable bandwidth and point detection. We present a compact in fibre ultrasonic point detector based upon a POF Bragg grating (POFBG) sensor. We demonstrate that the detector is capable of leaving a laboratory environment by using connectorised fibre sensors and make a case for endoscopic ultrasonic detection through use of a mounting structure that better mimics the environment of an endoscopic probe. We measure the effects of water immersion upon POFBGs and analyse the ultrasonic response for 1, 5 and 10 MHz.

  17. Towards the Knittability of Graphene Oxide Fibres

    PubMed Central

    Seyedin, Shayan; Romano, Mark S.; Minett, Andrew I.; Razal, Joselito M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in graphene oxide fibre (GO) processing include exciting demonstrations of hand woven textile structures. However, it is uncertain whether the fibres produced can meet the processing requirements of conventional textile manufacturing. This work reports for the first time the production of highly flexible and tough GO fibres that can be knitted using textile machinery. The GO fibres are made by using a dry-jet wet-spinning method, which allows drawing of the spinning solution (the GO dispersion) in several stages of the fibre spinning process. The coagulation composition and spinning conditions are evaluated in detail, which led to the production of densely packed fibres with near-circular cross-sections and highly ordered GO domains. The results are knittable GO fibres with Young’s modulus of ~7.9 GPa, tensile strength of ~135.8 MPa, breaking strain of ~5.9%, and toughness of ~5.7 MJ m−3. The combination of suitable spinning method, coagulation composition, and spinning conditions led to GO fibres with remarkable toughness; the key factor in their successful knitting. This work highlights important progress in realising the full potential of GO fibres as a new class of textile. PMID:26459866

  18. Reactive fibre reinforced glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Lohbauer, Ulrich; Walker, Jürgen; Nikolaenko, Sergej; Werner, Jan; Clare, Alexis; Petschelt, Anselm; Greil, Peter

    2003-08-01

    The mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements used in restorative dentistry reinforced by chopped glass fibres were investigated. Reactive glass fibres with a composition in the system SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)-CaF(2)-Na(3)AlF(6) and a thickness of 26 microm were drawn by a bushing process. The manufacturing parameters were optimized with respect to maximum strength of the glass fibre reinforced ionomer cements. Powder to liquid ratio, pre-treatment of the glass, grain size distribution and fibre volume fraction were varied. Glass fibre and cement were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques, respectively. The highest flexural strength of the reinforced cement (15.6 MPa) was found by compounding 20 vol% reactive fibres and extending the initial dry gelation period up to 30 min. Microscopic examination of the fractured cements indicated a distinct reactive layer at the fibre surface. A pronounced fibre pull out mode gives rise to an additional work-of-fracture contributed by pulling the fibres out of the fracture surface.

  19. Towards the Knittability of Graphene Oxide Fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedin, Shayan; Romano, Mark S.; Minett, Andrew I.; Razal, Joselito M.

    2015-10-01

    Recent developments in graphene oxide fibre (GO) processing include exciting demonstrations of hand woven textile structures. However, it is uncertain whether the fibres produced can meet the processing requirements of conventional textile manufacturing. This work reports for the first time the production of highly flexible and tough GO fibres that can be knitted using textile machinery. The GO fibres are made by using a dry-jet wet-spinning method, which allows drawing of the spinning solution (the GO dispersion) in several stages of the fibre spinning process. The coagulation composition and spinning conditions are evaluated in detail, which led to the production of densely packed fibres with near-circular cross-sections and highly ordered GO domains. The results are knittable GO fibres with Young’s modulus of ~7.9 GPa, tensile strength of ~135.8 MPa, breaking strain of ~5.9%, and toughness of ~5.7 MJ m-3. The combination of suitable spinning method, coagulation composition, and spinning conditions led to GO fibres with remarkable toughness; the key factor in their successful knitting. This work highlights important progress in realising the full potential of GO fibres as a new class of textile.

  20. Towards the Knittability of Graphene Oxide Fibres.

    PubMed

    Seyedin, Shayan; Romano, Mark S; Minett, Andrew I; Razal, Joselito M

    2015-10-13

    Recent developments in graphene oxide fibre (GO) processing include exciting demonstrations of hand woven textile structures. However, it is uncertain whether the fibres produced can meet the processing requirements of conventional textile manufacturing. This work reports for the first time the production of highly flexible and tough GO fibres that can be knitted using textile machinery. The GO fibres are made by using a dry-jet wet-spinning method, which allows drawing of the spinning solution (the GO dispersion) in several stages of the fibre spinning process. The coagulation composition and spinning conditions are evaluated in detail, which led to the production of densely packed fibres with near-circular cross-sections and highly ordered GO domains. The results are knittable GO fibres with Young's modulus of ~7.9 GPa, tensile strength of ~135.8 MPa, breaking strain of ~5.9%, and toughness of ~5.7 MJ m(-3). The combination of suitable spinning method, coagulation composition, and spinning conditions led to GO fibres with remarkable toughness; the key factor in their successful knitting. This work highlights important progress in realising the full potential of GO fibres as a new class of textile.

  1. Polymer photonic crystal fibre for sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, David J.

    2010-04-01

    Polymer photonic crystal fibres combine two relatively recent developments in fibre technology. On the one hand, polymer optical fibre has very different physical and chemical properties to silica. In particular, polymer fibre has a much smaller Young's modulus than silica, can survive higher strains, is amenable to organic chemical processing and, depending on the constituent polymer, may absorb water. All of these features can be utilised to extend the range of applications of optical fibre sensors. On the other hand, the photonic crystal - or microstructured - geometry also offers advantages: flexibility in the fibre design including control of the dispersion properties of core and cladding modes, the possibility of introducing minute quantities of analyte directly into the electric field of the guided light and enhanced pressure sensitivity. When brought together these two technologies provide interesting possibilities for fibre sensors, particularly when combined with fibre Bragg or long period gratings. This paper discusses the features of polymer photonic crystal fibre relevant to sensing and provides examples of the applications demonstrated to date.

  2. Structural and functional assessment of skin nerve fibres in small-fibre pathology.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, P; Nyengaard, J R; Polydefkis, M; Jensen, T S

    2015-09-01

    Damage to nociceptor nerve fibres may give rise to peripheral neuropathies, some of which are pain free and some are painful. A hallmark of many peripheral neuropathies is the loss of small nerve fibres in the epidermis, a condition called small-fibre neuropathy (SFN) when it is predominantly the small nerve fibres that are damaged. Historically, SFN has been very difficult to diagnose as clinical examination and nerve conduction studies mainly detect large nerve fibres, and quantitative sensory testing is not sensitive enough to detect small changes in small nerve fibres. However, taking a 3-mm punch skin biopsy from the distal leg and quantification of the nerve fibre density has proven to be a useful method to diagnose SFN. However, the correlation between the nerve fibre loss and other test results varies greatly. Recent studies have shown that it is possible not only to extract information about the nerve fibre density from the biopsies but also to get an estimation of the nerve fibre length density using stereology, quantify sweat gland innervation and detect morphological changes such as axonal swelling, all of which may be additional parameters indicating diseased small fibres relating to symptoms reported by the patients. In this review, we focus on available tests to assess structure and function of the small nerve fibres, and summarize recent advances that have provided new possibilities to more specifically relate structural findings with symptoms and function in patients with SFN.

  3. A validation of the fibre orientation and fibre length attrition prediction for long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Haag, J. van; Schöngart, M.

    2015-05-22

    To improve the mechanical performance of polymeric parts, fibre reinforcement has established in industrial applications during the last decades. Next to the widely used Short Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (SFT) the use of Long Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (LFT) is increasingly growing. Especially for non-polar polymeric matrices like polypropylene (PP), longer fibres can significantly improve the mechanical performance. As with every kind of discontinuous fibre reinforcement the fibre orientations (FO) show a high impact on the mechanical properties. On the contrary to SFT where the local fibre length distribution (FLD) can be often neglected, for LFT the FLD show a high impact on the material’s properties and has to be taken into account in equal measure to the FOD. Recently numerical models are available in commercial filling simulation software and allow predicting both the local FOD and FLD in LFT parts. The aim of this paper is to compare i.) the FOD results and ii) the FLD results from available orientation- and fibre length attrition-models to those obtained from experimental data. The investigations are conducted by the use of different injection moulded specimens made from long glass fibre reinforced PP. In order to determine the FOD, selected part sections are examined by means of Computed Tomographic (CT) analyses. The fully three dimensional measurement of the FOD is then performed by digital image processing using grey scale correlation. The FLD results are also obtained by using digital image processing after a thermal pyrolytic separation of the polymeric matrix from the fibres. Further the FOD and the FLD are predicted by using a reduced strain closure (RSC) as well as an anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure model (ARD-RSC) and Phelps-Tucker fibre length attrition model implemented in the commercial filling software Moldflow, Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA.

  4. A validation of the fibre orientation and fibre length attrition prediction for long fibre-reinforced thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; van Haag, J.; Schöngart, M.

    2015-05-01

    To improve the mechanical performance of polymeric parts, fibre reinforcement has established in industrial applications during the last decades. Next to the widely used Short Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (SFT) the use of Long Fibre-reinforced Thermoplastics (LFT) is increasingly growing. Especially for non-polar polymeric matrices like polypropylene (PP), longer fibres can significantly improve the mechanical performance. As with every kind of discontinuous fibre reinforcement the fibre orientations (FO) show a high impact on the mechanical properties. On the contrary to SFT where the local fibre length distribution (FLD) can be often neglected, for LFT the FLD show a high impact on the material's properties and has to be taken into account in equal measure to the FOD. Recently numerical models are available in commercial filling simulation software and allow predicting both the local FOD and FLD in LFT parts. The aim of this paper is to compare i.) the FOD results and ii) the FLD results from available orientation- and fibre length attrition-models to those obtained from experimental data. The investigations are conducted by the use of different injection moulded specimens made from long glass fibre reinforced PP. In order to determine the FOD, selected part sections are examined by means of Computed Tomographic (CT) analyses. The fully three dimensional measurement of the FOD is then performed by digital image processing using grey scale correlation. The FLD results are also obtained by using digital image processing after a thermal pyrolytic separation of the polymeric matrix from the fibres. Further the FOD and the FLD are predicted by using a reduced strain closure (RSC) as well as an anisotropic rotary diffusion - reduced strain closure model (ARD-RSC) and Phelps-Tucker fibre length attrition model implemented in the commercial filling software Moldflow, Autodesk Inc., San Rafael, CA, USA.

  5. Leaf Size in Swietenia

    Treesearch

    Charles B. Briscoe; F. Bruce. Lamb

    1962-01-01

    A study was made of the putative hybrid of bigleaf and small-leaf mahoganies. Initial measurements indicated that bigleaf mahogany can be distinguished from small-leaf mahogany by gross measurements of leaflets. Isolated mother trees yield typical progeny. Typical mother trees in mixed stands yield like progeny plus, usually, mediumleaf progeny. Mediumleaf mother trees...

  6. Surface treated polypropylene (PP) fibres for reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    López-Buendía, Angel M.; Romero-Sánchez, María Dolores; Climent, Verónica

    2013-12-15

    Surface treatments on a polypropylene (PP) fibre have contributed to the improvement of fibre/concrete adhesion in fibre-reinforced concrete. The treatments to the PP fibre were characterized by contact angle measurements, ATR-IR and XPS to analyse chemical alterations. The surface topography and fibre/concrete interaction were analysed by several microscopic techniques, namely optical petrographic, and scanning electron microscopy. Treatment modified the surface chemistry and topography of the fibre by introducing sodium moieties and created additional fibre surface roughness. Modifications in the fibre surface led to an increase in the adhesion properties between the treated fibres and concrete and an improvement in the mechanical properties of the fibre-reinforced concrete composite as compared to the concrete containing untreated PP fibres. Compatibility with the concrete and increased roughness and mineral surface was also improved by nucleated portlandite and ettringite mineral association anchored on the alkaline PP fibre surface, which is induced during treatment.

  7. Alteration of Porcine Serum Albumin Levels in Pork Meat by Marination in Kiwi or Pineapple Juice and Subsequent Pan Broiling.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sung-Sil; Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Il-Suk; Ham, Jun-Sang; Park, Beom-Young; Jang, Aera

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the changes in porcine serum albumin (PSA), a major allergen, which occur when raw pork ham is marinated with kiwi or pineapple juice, and/or when the ham is pan broiled at 300℃ for 4 min after marination. In this study, raw pork ham was soaked for 4 h or 8 h in marinades containing commercial marinating sauce only, commercial marinating sauce and 7% kiwi juice, or commercial marinating sauce and 7% pineapple juice. When the meat was marinated and then pan-broiled, pork ham meat protein was significantly denatured and hydrolyzed, and the level of PSA in the meat was significantly reduced. The PSA contents of pork broiled without marination, pork that had been marinated in commercial marinating sauce alone, pork that had been marinated in commercial marinating sauce with kiwi juice, and pork that had been marinated in commercial marinating sauce with pineapple juice, were 95.4, 43.3, 14.3, and 5.4 ng/mL, respectively (p<0.05). Marinating with pineapple juice was more effective than marinating with kiwi juice; and marination for 8 h was more effective than marinating for 4 h. These results indicate that the level of PSA in pork ham is effectively reduced, when the meat is first marinated in sauces that contain kiwi or pineapple extracts for 8 h, rather than 4 h, and then cooked. Further study is needed to determine whether marinated pork meat reduces allergenicity in vivo, as well.

  8. Simulation of complex phenomena in optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allington-Smith, Jeremy; Murray, Graham; Lemke, Ulrike

    2012-12-01

    Optical fibres are essential for many types of highly multiplexed and precision spectroscopy. The success of the new generation of multifibre instruments under construction to investigate fundamental problems in cosmology, such as the nature of dark energy, requires accurate modellization of the fibre system to achieve their signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) goals. Despite their simple construction, fibres exhibit unexpected behaviour including non-conservation of etendue (focal ratio degradation, FRD) and modal noise. Furthermore, new fibre geometries (non-circular or tapered) have become available to improve the scrambling properties that, together with modal noise, limit the achievable SNR in precision spectroscopy. These issues have often been addressed by extensive tests on candidate fibres and their terminations, but these are difficult and time-consuming. Modelling by ray tracing and wave analysis is possible with commercial software packages, but these do not address the more complex features, in particular FRD. We use a phase-tracking ray-tracing method to provide a practical description of FRD derived from our previous experimental work on circular fibres and apply it to non-standard fibres. This allows the relationship between scrambling and FRD to be quantified for the first time. We find that scrambling primarily affects the shape of the near-field pattern but has negligible effect on the barycentre. FRD helps to homogenize the near-field pattern but does not make it completely uniform. Fibres with polygonal cross-section improve scrambling without amplifying the FRD. Elliptical fibres, in conjunction with tapering, may offer an efficient means of image slicing to improve the product of resolving power and throughput, but the result is sensitive to the details of illumination. We also investigated the performance of fibres close to the limiting numerical aperture since this may affect the uniformity of the SNR for some prime focus fibre instrumentation.

  9. SUNRISE: A SpaceFibre Router

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Steve; McClements, Chris; McLaren, David; Florit, Albert Ferrer; Gonzalez Villafranca, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    SpaceFibre is a new generation of SpaceWire technology which is able to support the very high data- rates required by sensors like SAR and multi-spectral imagers. Data rates of between 1 and 16 Gbits/s are required to support several sensors currently being planned. In addition a mass-memory unit requires high performance networking to interconnect many memory modules. SpaceFibre runs over both electrical and fibre-optic media and provides and adds quality of service and fault detection, isolation and recovery technology to the network. SpaceFibre is compatible with the widely used SpaceWire protocol at the network level allowing existing SpaceWire devices to be readily incorporated into a SpaceFibre network. SpaceFibre provides 2 to 5 Gbits/s links (2.5 to 6.25 Gbits/s data signalling rate) which can be operated in parallel (multi-laning) to give higher data rates. STAR- Dundee with University of Dundee has designed and tested several SpaceFibre interface devices.The SUNRISE project is a UK Space Agency, Centre for Earth Observation and Space Technology (CEOI- ST) project in which STAR-Dundee and University of Dundee will design and prototype critical SpaceFibre router technology necessary for future on-board data- handling systems. This will lay a vital foundation for future very high data-rate sensor and telecommunications systems.This paper give a brief introduction to SpaceFibre, explains the operation of a SpaceFibre network, and then describes the SUNRISE SpaceFibre Router. The initial results of the SUNRISE project are described.

  10. Experimental study of the mutual influence of fibre Faraday elements in a spun-fibre interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Gubin, V P; Morshnev, S K; Przhiyalkovsky, Ya V; Starostin, N I; Sazonov, A I

    2015-08-31

    An all-spun-fibre linear reflective interferometer with two linked Faraday fibre coils is studied. It is found experimentally that there is mutual influence of Faraday fibre coils in this interferometer. It manifests itself as an additional phase shift of the interferometer response, which depends on the circular birefringence induced by the Faraday effect in both coils. In addition, the interferometer contrast and magneto-optical sensitivity of one of the coils change. A probable physical mechanism of the discovered effect is the distributed coupling of orthogonal polarised waves in the fibre medium, which is caused by fibre bend in the coil. (interferometry)

  11. Discovery of precursor and mature microRNAs and their putative gene targets using high-throughput sequencing in pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus).

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Noor Hydayaty Md; Ong, Wen Dee; Redwan, Raimi Mohamed; Latip, Mariam Abd; Kumar, S Vijay

    2015-10-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenous non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression, resulting in the silencing of target mRNA transcripts through mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. MiRNAs play significant roles in various biological and physiological processes in plants. However, the miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in pineapple, the model tropical non-climacteric fruit, remains largely unexplored. Here, we report a complete list of pineapple mature miRNAs obtained from high-throughput small RNA sequencing and precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) obtained from ESTs. Two small RNA libraries were constructed from pineapple fruits and leaves, respectively, using Illumina's Solexa technology. Sequence similarity analysis using miRBase revealed 579,179 reads homologous to 153 miRNAs from 41 miRNA families. In addition, a pineapple fruit transcriptome library consisting of approximately 30,000 EST contigs constructed using Solexa sequencing was used for the discovery of pre-miRNAs. In all, four pre-miRNAs were identified (MIR156, MIR399, MIR444 and MIR2673). Furthermore, the same pineapple transcriptome was used to dissect the function of the miRNAs in pineapple by predicting their putative targets in conjunction with their regulatory networks. In total, 23 metabolic pathways were found to be regulated by miRNAs in pineapple. The use of high-throughput sequencing in pineapples to unveil the presence of miRNAs and their regulatory pathways provides insight into the repertoire of miRNA regulation used exclusively in this non-climacteric model plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Amphibole fibres in Chinese chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed

    Tossavainen, A; Kotilainen, M; Takahashi, K; Pan, G; Vanhala, E

    2001-03-01

    Ten chrysotile bulk samples originating from six Chinese chrysotile mines were studied for amphibole fibres. Five of the mines operate on ultramafic rocks whereas one exploits a dolomite-hosted deposit. The asbestos fibre content in lung tissue was examined from seven deceased workers of the Shenyang asbestos plant using these raw materials. The bulk samples were pretreated with acid/alkali-digestion, and thereafter, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, selected area electron diffraction and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to identify the minerals. Sample preparation of lung tissue involved drying and low-temperature ashing. All of the bulk samples contained amphibole fibres as an impurity. The amphibole asbestos contents were between 0.002 and 0.310 w-%. Tremolite fibres were detected in every sample but anthophyllite fibres were present only in the sample originating from the dolomite-hosted deposit. In comparison, anthophyllite (71%), tremolite (9%) and chrysotile (10%) were the main fibre types in the lung tissue samples indicating faster pulmonary clearance of chrysotile fibres. The total levels ranged from 2.4 to 148.3 million fibres (over 1 microm in length) per gram of dry tissue, and they were consistent with heavy occupational exposure to asbestos.

  13. Cotton fibre cross-section properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    From a structural perspective the cotton fibre is a singularly discrete, elongated plant cell with no junctions or inter-cellular boundaries. Its form in nature is essentially unadulterated from the field to the spinning mill where its cross-section properties, as for any textile fibre, are central ...

  14. Multifunctional Carbon Fibre Tapes for Automotive Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koncherry, V.; Potluri, P.; Fernando, A.

    2016-11-01

    Cabon fibre composites are used where mechanical performance such as strength, stiffness and impact properties at low density is a critical parameter for engineering applications. Carbon fibre flat tape is one material which is traditionally used to manufacture three-dimensional composites in this area. Modifying the carbon fibre tape to incorporate other functions such as stealth, electromagnetic interference, shielding, de-icing, self-repair, energy storage, allows us to create multi-functional carbon fibre tape. Researchers have been developing such material and the technology for their manufacture in order to produce multifunctional carbon fibre based components more economically and efficiently. This paper presents the manufacturing process of a metallised carbon fibre material for a chopped fibre preforming process that uses electromagnets for preforming instead of traditional suction airflow fibre deposition. In addition, the paper further presents mechanical and magneto-static modelling that is carried out to investigate the bending properties of the material produced and its suitability for creating 3D preforms.

  15. Multifunctional Carbon Fibre Tapes for Automotive Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koncherry, V.; Potluri, P.; Fernando, A.

    2017-04-01

    Cabon fibre composites are used where mechanical performance such as strength, stiffness and impact properties at low density is a critical parameter for engineering applications. Carbon fibre flat tape is one material which is traditionally used to manufacture three-dimensional composites in this area. Modifying the carbon fibre tape to incorporate other functions such as stealth, electromagnetic interference, shielding, de-icing, self-repair, energy storage, allows us to create multi-functional carbon fibre tape. Researchers have been developing such material and the technology for their manufacture in order to produce multifunctional carbon fibre based components more economically and efficiently. This paper presents the manufacturing process of a metallised carbon fibre material for a chopped fibre preforming process that uses electromagnets for preforming instead of traditional suction airflow fibre deposition. In addition, the paper further presents mechanical and magneto-static modelling that is carried out to investigate the bending properties of the material produced and its suitability for creating 3D preforms.

  16. Interfaces between a fibre and its matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilholt, H.; Sørensen, B. F.

    2017-07-01

    The interface between a fibre and its matrix represents an important element in the characterization and exploitation of composite materials. Both theoretical models and analyses of experimental data have been presented in the literature since modern composite were developed and many experiments have been performed. A large volume of results for a wide range of composite systems exists, but rather little comparison and potential consistency have been reached for fibres and/or for matrices. Recently a materials mechanics approach has been presented to describe the interface by three parameters, the interfacial energy [J/m2], the interfacial frictional shear stress [MPa] and the mismatch strain [-] between fibre and matrix. The model has been used for the different modes of fibre pull-out and fibre fragmentation. In this paper it is demonstrated that the governing equations for the experimental parameters (applied load, debond length and relative fibre/matrix displacement) are rather similar for these test modes. A simplified analysis allows the direct determination of the three interface parameters from two plots for the experimental data. The complete analysis is demonstrated for steel fibres in polyester matrix. The analysis of existing experimental literature data is demonstrated for steel fibres in epoxy matrix and for tungsten wires in copper matrix. These latter incomplete analyses show that some results can be obtained even if all three experimental parameters are not recorded.

  17. Image analysis of insulation mineral fibres.

    PubMed

    Talbot, H; Lee, T; Jeulin, D; Hanton, D; Hobbs, L W

    2000-12-01

    We present two methods for measuring the diameter and length of man-made vitreous fibres based on the automated image analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The fibres we want to measure are used in materials such as glass wool, which in turn are used for thermal and acoustic insulation. The measurement of the diameters and lengths of these fibres is used by the glass wool industry for quality control purposes. To obtain reliable quality estimators, the measurement of several hundred images is necessary. These measurements are usually obtained manually by operators. Manual measurements, although reliable when performed by skilled operators, are slow due to the need for the operators to rest often to retain their ability to spot faint fibres on noisy backgrounds. Moreover, the task of measuring thousands of fibres every day, even with the help of semi-automated image analysis systems, is dull and repetitive. The need for an automated procedure which could replace manual measurements is quite real. For each of the two methods that we propose to accomplish this task, we present the sample preparation, the microscope setting and the image analysis algorithms used for the segmentation of the fibres and for their measurement. We also show how a statistical analysis of the results can alleviate most measurement biases, and how we can estimate the true distribution of fibre lengths by diameter class by measuring only the lengths of the fibres visible in the field of view.

  18. Development of the fibres of MOONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinouard, Isabelle; Lee, David; Schnetler, Hermine; Taylor, William; Amans, Jean-Philippe; Montgomery, David; Oliva, Ernesto

    2014-07-01

    MOONS will exploit the full 500 square arcmin field of view offered by the Nasmyth focus of the Very Large Telescope and will be equipped with two identical triple arm cryogenic spectrographs covering the wavelength range 0.8 - 1.8 μm, with a multiplex capability of approximately 1000 fibres. Each triple arm spectrograph will produce spectra for half of the targets simultaneously. The system will have both a medium resolution (R~4000-6000) mode and a high resolution (R~20000) mode. The fibres are used to pick off each sub field of 1.05 arcseconds and are used to transport the light from the instrument focal plane to the two spectrographs. Each fibre has a microlens to focus the beam into the fibre at a relative fast focal ratio of F/3.65 to reduce the Focal Ratio Degradation (FRD). This paper presents the overall design of the fibre system and describes the specific developments required to optimise its performance. The design of the fibre input optics, the choice of the fibre connector, and the layout of the slit end are described. The results of preliminary tests to measure the effect of twisting on the FRD performance of prototype fibres are also discussed.

  19. Study on evaluation of silage from pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit residue as livestock feed.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Nisarani Kollurappa Shivakumar; Vallesha, Naglapura Chandrashekara; Awachat, Vaibhav Bhagvan; Anandan, Samireddypalli; Pal, Din Taran; Prasad, Cadaba Srinivasa

    2015-03-01

    Pineapple is a commercially important fruit crop grown in Asian and African countries. Pineapple fruit residue (PFR) accounts for more than 65% of the processed fruits, and its disposal is a major problem due to its high moisture and sugar content predisposing it to fungal growth and spoilage. Silage technique was adopted to address this problem, and the PFR silage was evaluated for its feeding value. It was observed that on 15th day, the pH of PFR silage was 4.2-4.3 and lactic acid content was 6-8% (DM basis). Combination of 4 parts leafy crown and 1 part peels/pomace was found very ideal to achieve moisture content of 65-70% and produced a good quality silage with minimum fungal count (<3-4 colony forming units) on 15th day of ensiling. Nutritive value in terms of energy and minerals was superior to maize green fodder. Feeding trial in two groups of sheep with 10 numbers in each group fed total mixed ration (TMR) comprising 62% PFR/maize silage and 48% concentrate mixture (DM basis) for 75-day period did not show any adverse effects on nutrient utilization (DM, CP, NDF, ADF), serum biochemical (total protein, creatinine, urea nitrogen, SGOT, SGPT), and mineral profile (Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn) and supported a daily growth rate of 140 g. The overall performance was similar to those sheep fed TMR with maize green fodder silage. Feeding PFR silage replacing hybrid napier green fodder in two groups of cows with eight in each group showed an improvement in average daily milk yield by 3.0 lit per cow and fat content by 0.6 U fed PFR silage-based TMR as compared to cows fed hybrid napier green fodder-based TMR. In both studies (sheep or cows), there was no evidence of metabolic or health-related disorders indicating that PFR silage was effectively utilized. Pineapple fruit residue that was hitherto wasted was successfully converted to silage and was found to be a valuable alternative to conventional green fodder. Ensiling of PFR not only improved the economics of feeding

  20. Studies into the phenolic patterns of different tissues of pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr.) infructescence by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS (n) and GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Steingass, Christof B; Glock, Mona P; Schweiggert, Ralf M; Carle, Reinhold

    2015-08-01

    In a comprehensive study, more than 60 phenolic compounds were detected in methanolic extracts from different tissues of pineapple infructescence by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionisation multiple-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS (n) ) as well as by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analytical workflow combining both methods revealed numerous compounds assigned for the first time as pineapple constituents by their mass fragmentations. Pineapple crown tissue was characterised by depsides of p-coumaric and ferulic acid. In contrast, major phenolic compounds in pineapple pulp extracts were assigned to diverse S-p-coumaryl, S-coniferyl and S-sinapyl derivatives of glutathione, N-L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteine and L-cysteine, which were also identified in the peel. The latter was additionally characterised by elevated concentrations of p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acid depsides and glycerides, respectively. Two peel-specific cyanidin hexosides were found. Elevated concentrations of isomeric N,N'-diferuloylspermidines may be a useful tool for the detection of fraudulent peel usage for pineapple juice production. Mass fragmentation pathways of characteristic pineapple constituents are proposed, and their putative biological functions are discussed.

  1. Leaf growth is conformal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alim, Karen; Armon, Shahaf; Shraiman, Boris I.; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-10-01

    Growth pattern dynamics lie at the heart of morphogenesis. Here, we investigate the growth of plant leaves. We compute the conformal transformation that maps the contour of a leaf at a given stage onto the contour of the same leaf at a later stage. Based on the mapping we predict the local displacement field in the leaf blade and find it to agree with the experimentally measured displacement field to 92%. This approach is applicable to any two-dimensional system with locally isotropic growth, enabling the deduction of the whole growth field just from observation of the tissue contour.

  2. Supercontinuum generation in thulium-doped fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkov, Andrei S; Kamynin, V A; Tsvetkov, V B; Sadovnikova, Ya E; Marakulin, A V; Minashina, L A

    2012-09-30

    Supercontinuum generation in thulium-doped fibres under pumping at 1.59 {mu}m is investigated. Amplification of supercontinuum in the range of 1.8--2.0 {mu}m is found for a fibre doped to a level of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. For a fibre with an activator concentration of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} amplification is also observed in the (2.1 - 2.45)-{mu}m band, which suggests the occurrence of the {sup 3}H{sub 4} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 5} optical transition in the fibre. The occupation of the {sup 3}H{sub 4} level can be explained by cooperative effects. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  3. Erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate optical fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Zotov, K V; Medvedkov, O I; Lipatov, D S; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, Aleksei N

    2010-09-10

    We have studied the active properties of erbium-doped aluminophosphosilicate (APS) core fibres in wide ranges of erbia, alumina and phosphorus pentoxide concentrations. The absorption and luminescence spectra of the P{sub 2}O{sub 5}- or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-enriched erbium-doped APS fibres are shown to be similar to those of the erbium-doped fibres singly doped with phosphorus pentoxide or alumina, respectively. The formation of AlPO{sub 4} in APS fibres leads not only to a reduction in the refractive index of the glass but also to a marked increase in Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility in silica. (optical fibres)

  4. Metal-coated Bragg grating reflecting fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamorovskiy, Yu. K.; Butov, O. V.; Kolosovskiy, A. O.; Popov, S. M.; Voloshin, V. V.; Vorob'ev, I. L.; Vyatkin, M. Yu.

    2017-03-01

    High-temperature optical fibres (OF) with fibre Bragg gratings (FBG) arrays written over a long length and in-line metal coating have been made for the first time. The optical parameters of the FBG arrays were tested by the optical frequency domain reflectometer (OFDR) method in a wide temperature range, demonstrating no degradation in reflection at heating up to 600 °C for a fibre with Al coating. The mechanical strength of the developed fibre was practically the same as "ordinary" OF with similar coating, showing the absence of the influence of FBG writing process on fibre strength. Further experiments are necessary to evaluate the possibility of further increases in the operational temperature range.

  5. Mode conversion in magneto photonic crystal fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    otmani, Hamza; Bouchemat, Mohamed; Hocini, Abdesselam; Boumaza, Touraya; benmerkhi, ahlem

    2017-01-01

    The first concept of an integrated isolator was based on nonreciprocal TE-TM mode conversion, the nonreciprocal coupling between these modes is caused by the Faraday rotation if the magnetization is aligned along the z-axis, parallel to mode propagation. We propose to study this magneto-optical phenomenon, by the simulation of magneto photonic crystal fibre (MPCF), it consists of a periodic triangular lattice of air-holes filled with magnetic fluid which consists of magnetic nanoparticles into a BIG (Bismuth Iron Garnet) fibre. We simulated the influence of gyrotropy and the wavelength, and calculated Faraday rotation and modal birefringence. In this fibre the light is guided by internal total reflection, like classical fibres. However it was shown that they could function on a mode conversion much stronger than conventional fibres.

  6. Impact of Silicon in Plant Biomass Production: Focus on Bast Fibres, Hypotheses, and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Marie; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Lutts, Stanley; Guerriero, Gea

    2017-09-09

    Silicon (Si) is an abundant element which, when supplied to plants, confers increased vigor and resistance to exogenous stresses, as well as enhanced stem mechanical strength. Plant species vary in their ability to take Si up and to accumulate it under the form of silicon dioxide (SiO₂) in their tissues: emblematic of this is the example of Poales, among which there is rice, a high Si accumulator. Monocots usually accumulate more Si than dicots; however, the impact that Si has on dicots, notably on economically important dicots, is a subject requiring further study and scientific efforts. In this review, we discuss the impact that Si has on bast fibre-producing plants, because of the potential importance that this element has in sustainable agriculture practices and in light of the great economic value of fibre crops in fostering a bio-economy. We discuss the data already available in the literature, as well as our own research on textile hemp. In particular, we demonstrate the beneficial effect of Si under heavy metal stress, by showing an increase in the leaf fresh weight under growth on Cd 20 µM. Additionally, we propose an effect of Si on bast fibre growth, by suggesting an action on the endogenous phytohormone levels and a mechanical role involved in the resistance to the turgor pressure during elongation. We conclude our survey with a description of the industrial and agricultural uses of Si-enriched plant biomass, where woody fibres are included in the survey.

  7. Impact of Silicon in Plant Biomass Production: Focus on Bast Fibres, Hypotheses, and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lutts, Stanley

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is an abundant element which, when supplied to plants, confers increased vigor and resistance to exogenous stresses, as well as enhanced stem mechanical strength. Plant species vary in their ability to take Si up and to accumulate it under the form of silicon dioxide (SiO2) in their tissues: emblematic of this is the example of Poales, among which there is rice, a high Si accumulator. Monocots usually accumulate more Si than dicots; however, the impact that Si has on dicots, notably on economically important dicots, is a subject requiring further study and scientific efforts. In this review, we discuss the impact that Si has on bast fibre-producing plants, because of the potential importance that this element has in sustainable agriculture practices and in light of the great economic value of fibre crops in fostering a bio-economy. We discuss the data already available in the literature, as well as our own research on textile hemp. In particular, we demonstrate the beneficial effect of Si under heavy metal stress, by showing an increase in the leaf fresh weight under growth on Cd 20 µM. Additionally, we propose an effect of Si on bast fibre growth, by suggesting an action on the endogenous phytohormone levels and a mechanical role involved in the resistance to the turgor pressure during elongation. We conclude our survey with a description of the industrial and agricultural uses of Si-enriched plant biomass, where woody fibres are included in the survey. PMID:28891950

  8. Highly efficient Raman distributed feedback fibre lasers.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jindan; Alam, Shaif-ul; Ibsen, Morten

    2012-02-27

    We demonstrate highly efficient Raman distributed feedback (DFB) fibre lasers for the first time with up to 1.6 W of continuous wave (CW) output power. The DFB Bragg gratings are written directly into two types of commercially available passive germano-silica fibres. Two lasers of 30 cm length are pumped with up to 15 W of CW power at 1068 nm. The threshold power is ~2 W for a Raman-DFB (R-DFB) laser written in standard low-NA fibre, and only ~1 W for a laser written in a high-NA fibre, both of which oscillate in a narrow linewidth of <0.01 nm at ~1117 nm and ~1109 nm, respectively. The slope efficiencies are ~74% and ~93% with respect to absorbed pump power in the low-NA fibre and high-NA fibre respectively. Such high conversion efficiency suggests that very little energy is lost in the form of heat through inefficient energy transfer. Our results are supported by numerical simulations, and furthermore open up for the possibility of having narrow linewidth all-fibre laser sources in wavelength bands not traditionally covered by rare-earth doped silica fibres. Simulations also imply that this technology has the potential to produce even shorter R-DFB laser devices at the centimetre-level and with mW-level thresholds, if Bragg gratings formed in fibre materials with higher intrinsic Raman gain coefficient than silica are used. These materials include for example tellurite or chalcogenide glasses. Using glasses like these would also open up the possibility of having narrow linewidth fibre sources with DFB laser oscillating much further into the IR than what currently is possible with rare-earth doped silica glasses.

  9. Fibre-Matrix Interaction in Soft Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zaoyang

    2010-05-21

    Although the mechanical behaviour of soft tissue has been extensively studied, the interaction between the collagen fibres and the ground matrix has not been well understood and is therefore ignored by most constitutive models of soft tissue. In this paper, the human annulus fibrosus is used as an example and the potential fibre-matrix interaction is identified by careful investigation of the experimental results of biaxial and uniaxial testing of the human annulus fibrosus. First, the uniaxial testing result of the HAF along the axial direction is analysed and it is shown that the mechanical behaviour of the ground matrix can be well simulated by the incompressible neo-Hookean model when the collagen fibres are all under contraction. If the collagen fibres are stretched, the response of the ground matrix can still be described by the incompressible neo-Hookean model, but the effective stiffness of the matrix depends on the fibre stretch ratio. This stiffness can be more than 10 times larger than the one obtained with collagen fibres under contraction. This phenomenon can only be explained by the fibre-matrix interaction. Furthermore, we find that the physical interpretation of this interaction includes the inhomogeneity of the soft tissue and the fibre orientation dispersion. The dependence of the tangent stiffness of the matrix on the first invariant of the deformation tensor can also be explained by the fibre orientation dispersion. The significant effect of the fibre-matrix interaction strain energy on mechanical behaviour of the soft tissue is also illustrated by comparing some simulation results.

  10. Review article: dietary fibre-microbiota interactions.

    PubMed

    Simpson, H L; Campbell, B J

    2015-07-01

    Application of modern rapid DNA sequencing technology has transformed our understanding of the gut microbiota. Diet, in particular plant-based fibre, appears critical in influencing the composition and metabolic activity of the microbiome, determining levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) important for intestinal health. To assess current epidemiological, experimental and clinical evidence of how long-term and short-term alterations in dietary fibre intake impact on the microbiome and metabolome. A Medline search including items 'intestinal microbiota', 'nutrition', 'diet', 'dietary fibre', 'SCFAs' and 'prebiotic effect' was performed. Studies found evidence of fibre-influenced differences in the microbiome and metabolome as a consequence of habitual diet, and of long-term or short-term intervention (in both animals and humans). Agrarian diets high in fruit/legume fibre are associated with greater microbial diversity and a predominance of Prevotella over Bacteroides. 'Western'-style diets, high in fat/sugar, low in fibre, decrease beneficial Firmicutes that metabolise dietary plant-derived polysaccharides to SCFAs and increase mucosa-associated Proteobacteria (including enteric pathogens). Short-term diets can also have major effects, particularly those exclusively animal-based, and those high-protein, low-fermentable carbohydrate/fibre 'weight-loss' diets, increasing the abundance of Bacteroides and lowering Firmicutes, with long-term adherence to such diets likely increasing risk of colonic disease. Interventions to prevent intestinal inflammation may be achieved with fermentable prebiotic fibres that enhance beneficial Bifidobacteria or with soluble fibres that block bacterial-epithelial adherence (contrabiotics). These mechanisms may explain many of the differences in microbiota associated with long-term ingestion of a diet rich in fruit and vegetable fibre. © 2015 The Authors. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Uncertainty in diffusion tensor based fibre tracking.

    PubMed

    Hahn, H K; Klein, J; Nimsky, C; Rexilius, J; Peitgen, H O

    2006-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging and related fibre tracking techniques have the potential to identify major white matter tracts afflicted by an individual pathology or tracts at risk for a given surgical approach. However, the reliability of these techniques is known to be limited by image distortions, image noise, low spatial resolution, and the problem of identifying crossing fibres. This paper intends to bridge the gap between the requirements of neurosurgical applications and basic research on fibre tracking uncertainty. We acquired echo planar diffusion tensor data from both 1.5 T and 3.0 T scanners. For fibre tracking, an extended deflection-based algorithm is employed with enhanced robustness to impaired fibre integrity such as caused by diffuse or infiltrating pathological processes. Moreover, we present a method to assess and visualize the uncertainty of fibre reconstructions based on variational complex Gaussian noise, which provides an alternative to the bootstrap method. We compare fibre tracking results with and without variational noise as well as with artificially decreased image resolution and signal-to-noise. Using our fibre tracking technique, we found a high robustness to decreased image resolution and signal-to-noise. Still, the effects of image quality on the tracking result will depend on the employed fibre tracking algorithm and must be handled with care, especially when being used for neurosurgical planning or resection guidance. An advantage of the variational noise approach over the bootstrap technique is that it is applicable to any given set of diffusion tensor images. We conclude that the presented approach allows for investigating the uncertainty of diffusion tensor imaging based fibre tracking and might offer a perspective to overcome the problem of size underestimation observed by existing techniques.

  12. Project LEAF Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project LEAF has a goal of educating farmworkers about how to reduce pesticide exposure to their families from pesticide residues they may be inadvertently taking home on their clothing, etc. Find outreach materials.

  13. Simulating the Pineapple Express in the half degree Community Climate System Model, CCSM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Christine A.; Kiehl, Jeffrey T.

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric rivers are recognized as major contributors to the poleward transport of water vapor. Upon reaching land, these phenomena also play a critical role in extreme precipitation and flooding events. The Pineapple Express (PE) is defined as an atmospheric river extending out of the deep tropics and reaching the west coast of North America. Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) high-resolution ensemble simulations for the twentieth and 21st centuries are diagnosed to identify the PE. Analysis of the twentieth century simulations indicated that the CCSM4 accurately captures the spatial and temporal climatology of the PE. Analysis of the end 21st century simulations indicates a significant increase in storm duration and intensity of precipitation associated with landfall of the PE. Only a modest increase in the number of atmospheric rivers of a few percent is projected for the end of 21st century.

  14. Tapanuli Organoclay Addition Into Linear Low Density Polyethylene-Pineapple Fiber Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Adawiyah, Robiatul; Juwono, Ariadne L.; Roseno, Seto

    2010-12-23

    Linear low density polyethylene-Tapanuli organoclay-pineapple fiber composites were succesfully synthesized by a melt intercalation method. The clay was modified as an organoclay by a cation exchange reaction using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMABr) surfactant. The X-ray diffraction results of the organoclay exhibited a higher basal spacing of 1.87 nm compared to the unmodified clay of 1.46 nm. The composite tensile strength was enhanced up to 46.4% with the 1 wt% organoclay addition. Both tensile and flexural moduli increased up to 150.6% and 43% with the 3 wt% organoclay addition to the composites. However, the flexural strength of the composites was not improved with the organoclay addition. The addition of organoclay has also decreased the heat deflection temperature of the composites.

  15. [Rapid determination of ethephon residues in concentrated pineapple juice by head-space gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Chu, X G; Yong, W; Cai, H X; Pan, J W

    2001-05-01

    The method developed is based on the special property that ethephon can be easily decomposed into ethene in alkaline solution by heating. Certain amount of concentrated KOH solution was added to the sample and heated at 70 degrees C. Then, 1 mL of the gas above the sample was injected into a gas chromatograph by head-space sampler for the determination of the target compound with external standard quantitation method. The detection limit was 0.025 mg/kg and the fortified recoveries of ethephon in concentrated pineapple juice (60 +/- 1) Brix at the range of 0.1 mg/kg-10 mg/kg were 92%-98% (n = 8, for each level). The relative standard deviations were 3.99%-7.94%.

  16. Tapanuli Organoclay Addition Into Linear Low Density Polyethylene-Pineapple Fiber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adawiyah, Robiatul; Juwono, Ariadne L.; Roseno, Seto

    2010-12-01

    Linear low density polyethylene-Tapanuli organoclay-pineapple fiber composites were succesfully synthesized by a melt intercalation method. The clay was modified as an organoclay by a cation exchange reaction using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMABr) surfactant. The X-ray diffraction results of the organoclay exhibited a higher basal spacing of 1.87 nm compared to the unmodified clay of 1.46 nm. The composite tensile strength was enhanced up to 46.4% with the 1 wt% organoclay addition. Both tensile and flexural moduli increased up to 150.6% and 43% with the 3 wt% organoclay addition to the composites. However, the flexural strength of the composites was not improved with the organoclay addition. The addition of organoclay has also decreased the heat deflection temperature of the composites.

  17. Effects of different deficit irrigation on sugar accumulation of pineapple during development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Haiyan; Du, Liqing; Liu, Shenghui; Zhang, Xiumei

    2017-08-01

    The potted pineapple cultivar ‘Comte de paris’ was used to study the influence of deficit irrigation on fruit sugar accumulation in greenhouse during the fruit enlargement period. The study included a control (normal irrigation) and two treatment groups, moderate deficit (50% of the control irrigation) and severe deficit (25% of the control irrigation). The results indicated that the deficit irrigation significantly decreased the sucrose accumulation. The sucrose content in the fruits of moderate deficit irrigation was the lowest. During the mature period, the deficit irrigation decreased the sucrose phosophate synthase activity(SPS) an increased the sucrose synthase (SS) and neutral invertase (NI). The moderate deficit irrigation significantly improved the acid invertase activity(AI). However, it was inhibited by the severe deficit irrigation. In general, the moderate treatment reduced the SPS activity and enhanced the NI and AI activities, while the severe treatment decreased the SPS and AI activities.

  18. Bromelain, the enzyme complex of pineapple (Ananas comosus) and its clinical application. An update.

    PubMed

    Taussig, S J; Batkin, S

    1988-01-01

    After a short description of the uses of pineapple as folk medicine by the natives of the tropics, the more important new pharmaceutical applications of bromelain, reported between 1975 and 1978, are presented. Although the exact chemical structure of all active components of bromelain is not fully determined, this substance has shown distinct pharmacological promise. Its properties include: (1) interference with growth of malignant cells; (2) inhibition of platelet aggregation; (3) fibrinolytic activity; (4) anti-inflammatory action; (5) skin debridement properties. These biological functions of bromelain, a non-toxic compound, have therapeutic values in modulating: (a) tumor growth; (b) blood coagulation; (c) inflammatory changes; (d) debridement of third degree burns; (e) enhancement of absorption of drugs. The mechanism of action of bromelain affecting these varied biological effects relates in part to its modulation of the arachidonate cascade.

  19. Enzymatic browning and biochemical alterations in black spots of pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.].

    PubMed

    Avallone, Sylvie; Guiraud, Joseph-Pierre; Brillouet, Jean-Marc; Teisson, Claude

    2003-08-01

    Penicillium funiculosum Thom. was consistently isolated from pineapple-infected fruitlet (black spots). Polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and laccase activities were determined in extracts from contiguous and infected fruitlets. Healthy fruitlets showed a rather high level of polyphenol oxidase (optimum pH 7.0), and this activity was tremendously increased (X 10) in contiguous infected fruitlets. Furthermore, infected fruitlets also exhibited laccase activity (optimum pH 4.0), while peroxidase was rather constant in both fruitlets. Browning reactions were attributed to qualitative and quantitative modifications of the enzymatic equipment (polyphenol oxidase and laccase) (p < 0.0001). In infected fruiltets, sucrose and L-malic acid were present at significantly lower amounts than in healthy ones, likely owing to fungal metabolism (p < 0.0001), whereas cell wall material was three times higher, which could be viewed as a defense mechanism to limit expansion of the mycelium.

  20. Pineapple stem bromelain immobilized on different supports: catalytic properties in model wine.

    PubMed

    Ilaria, Benucci; Marco, Esti; Katia, Liburdi; Maria Vittoria, Garzillo Anna

    2012-01-01

    Bromelain from pineapple stem has been covalently immobilized on different supports to select the more efficient biocatalyst that should be applied toward unstable proteins in real white wine. In this preliminary study, catalytic properties of different immobilized bromelain forms were compared under wine-like conditions, against a synthetic substrate (Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-pNA).Covalent immobilization affected protease kinetic properties, even if all immobilized forms presented both a better substrate affinity and higher half-life (with the exception of a few procedures) with respect to the free enzyme. Stem bromelain was successfully immobilized on chitosan beads without glutaraldehyde thus yielding a food-safe and promising biocatalyst for unstable real wine future application.

  1. Nitric oxide mediates the hormonal control of Crassulacean acid metabolism expression in young pineapple plants.

    PubMed

    Freschi, Luciano; Rodrigues, Maria Aurineide; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Purgatto, Eduardo; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; Kaiser, Werner M; Mercier, Helenice

    2010-04-01

    Genotypic, developmental, and environmental factors converge to determine the degree of Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) expression. To characterize the signaling events controlling CAM expression in young pineapple (Ananas comosus) plants, this photosynthetic pathway was modulated through manipulations in water availability. Rapid, intense, and completely reversible up-regulation in CAM expression was triggered by water deficit, as indicated by the rise in nocturnal malate accumulation and in the expression and activity of important CAM enzymes. During both up- and down-regulation of CAM, the degree of CAM expression was positively and negatively correlated with the endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinins, respectively. When exogenously applied, ABA stimulated and cytokinins repressed the expression of CAM. However, inhibition of water deficit-induced ABA accumulation did not block the up-regulation of CAM, suggesting that a parallel, non-ABA-dependent signaling route was also operating. Moreover, strong evidence revealed that nitric oxide (NO) may fulfill an important role during CAM signaling. Up-regulation of CAM was clearly observed in NO-treated plants, and a conspicuous temporal and spatial correlation was also evident between NO production and CAM expression. Removal of NO from the tissues either by adding NO scavenger or by inhibiting NO production significantly impaired ABA-induced up-regulation of CAM, indicating that NO likely acts as a key downstream component in the ABA-dependent signaling pathway. Finally, tungstate or glutamine inhibition of the NO-generating enzyme nitrate reductase completely blocked NO production during ABA-induced up-regulation of CAM, characterizing this enzyme as responsible for NO synthesis during CAM signaling in pineapple plants.

  2. Effects of Extrusion on Fibre Length in Sisal Fibre-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathi, Sridhar; Jayaraman, Krishnan

    Natural fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites find a wide array of applications in the automobile, building and construction industries. These composites are mostly produced by injection moulding or extrusion through properly designed dies. During these production processes, the shear forces exerted by the screw or ram leads to the degradation of the natural fibres. A screwless extruder that minimises fibre degradation and employs a reliable and low technology process has already been developed. However, the fibre degradation caused by the screwless extruder has not been compared with that of the conventional extruders. So, this study is focused on the influence of extrusion processes on the degradation of natural fibres in thermoplastic composites. Sisal fibres of 10 mm length were extruded with polypropylene, to furnish extrudates with a fibre mass fraction of 25%, using conventional single screw and screwless extruders. Polypropylene in the extrudates was dissolved in Xylene in a Sohxlet process; the fibres that were extracted were analysed for length variations. While fibre degradation in the form of fibre length variation is similar in both cases, this can be minimised in screwless extrusion by extending the gap between the front face of the cone and the orifice plate.

  3. Caffeic acid and glycerol are constituents of the suberin layers in green cotton fibres.

    PubMed

    Schmutz, A; Jenny, T; Amrhein, N; Ryser, U

    1993-03-01

    The fibres of the green-lint mutant (Lg) of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) are suberized and contain a large proportion of wax. The unidentified components of the wax were separated into a colourless fluorescent fraction and a yellow pigmented fraction. Using ultraviolet spectroscopy and nuclear-magneticresonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy, esterified trans-caffeic acid was identified as the only phenolic component in the colourless fraction. This fraction was further purified and was shown to contain caffeic acid esterified to fatty acids (mainly ω-hydroxy fatty acids), and glycerol in molar ratios of 4∶5∶5. When 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4. 3. 1. 5.) was added to ovules cultured in vitro, at the beginning of secondary wall formation, the fibres remained white and the colourless caffeic-acid derivative and the yellow compounds could no longer be detected by ultraviolet spectroscopy. Fibres grown in the presence of AIP were also examined in the electron microscope. Secondary cell walls were present in the treated fibres, but the electron-opaque suberin layers were replaced by apparently empty spaces. This result indicates that cinnamic-acid derivatives are covalently linked to suberin and have a structural role within the polymer or are involved in anchoring the polymer to the cellulosic secondary wall. Purified cell walls of green cotton fibres contained about 1% (of the dry weight) of bound glycerol, 0.9% of the glycerol being extractable with the wax fraction and 0.1% remaining in the cell-wall residue. The corresponding values for white fibres were 0.03% (total), 0.02% (wax), and 0.01% (cell-wall residue). Fibres synthesizing their secondary walls in the presence of AIP contained about normal amounts of bound glycerol in the wax fraction, but glycerol accumulation in the cell-wall residue was inhibited by about 95%. These observations indicate that glycerol is an important constituent of cotton-fibre

  4. Generation of optical frequency combs in fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajnulina, M.; Chavez Boggio, J. M.; Rieznik, A. A.; Haynes, R.; Roth, M. M.

    2013-05-01

    We numerically investigated the possibility of generating high-quality ultra-short optical pulses with broad frequencycombs spectra in a system consisting of three optical fibres. In this system, the first fibre is a conventional single-mode fibre, the second one is erbium-doped, and the last one is a low-dispersion fibre. The system is pumped with a modulated sine-wave generated by two equally intense lasers with the wavelengths λ1and λ2 such that their central wavelength is at λc = (λ1 + λ2)/2 = 1531 nm. The modelling was performed using the generalised nonlinear Schrödinger equation which includes the Kerr and Raman effects, as well as the higher-order dispersion and gain. We took a close look at the pulse evolution in the first two stages and studied the pulse behaviour depending on the group-velocity dispersion and the nonlinear parameter of first fibre, as well as the initial laser frequency separation. For these parameters, the optimum lengths of fibre 1 and 2 were found that provide low-noise pulses. To characterise the pulse energy content, we introduced a figure of merit that was dependent on the group-velocity dispersion, the nonlinearity of fibre 1, and the laser separation.

  5. Controllable spatiotemporal nonlinear effects in multimode fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Logan G.; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Wise, Frank W.

    2015-05-01

    Multimode fibres are of interest for next-generation telecommunications systems and the construction of high-energy fibre lasers. However, relatively little work has explored nonlinear pulse propagation in multimode fibres. Here, we consider highly nonlinear ultrashort pulse propagation in the anomalous-dispersion regime of a graded-index multimode fibre. Low modal dispersion and strong nonlinear coupling between the fibre's many spatial modes result in interesting behaviour. We observe spatiotemporal effects reminiscent of nonlinear optics in bulk media—self-focusing and multiple filamentation—at a fraction of the usual power. By adjusting the spatial initial conditions, we generate on-demand, megawatt, ultrashort pulses tunable between 1,550 and 2,200 nm dispersive waves over one octave; intense combs of visible light; and a multi-octave-spanning supercontinuum. Our results indicate that multimode fibres present unique opportunities for observing new spatiotemporal dynamics and phenomena. They also enable the realization of a new type of tunable, broadband fibre source that could be useful for many applications.

  6. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer ( Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  7. Deer predation on leaf miners via leaf abscission.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kazuo; Sugiura, Shinji

    2008-03-01

    The evergreen oak Quercus gilva Blume sheds leaves containing mines of the leaf miner Stigmella sp. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) earlier than leaves with no mines in early spring in Nara, central Japan. The eclosion rates of the leaf miner in abscised and retained leaves were compared in the laboratory to clarify the effects of leaf abscission on leaf miner survival in the absence of deer. The leaf miner eclosed successfully from both fallen leaves and leaves retained on trees. However, sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis Kishida) feed on the fallen mined leaves. Field observations showed that deer consume many fallen leaves under Q. gilva trees, suggesting considerable mortality of leaf miners due to deer predation via leaf abscission. This is a previously unreported relationship between a leaf miner and a mammalian herbivore via leaf abscission.

  8. Fibre in beverages can enhance perceived satiety.

    PubMed

    Lyly, Marika; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Karhunen, Leila; Poutanen, Kaisa; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2009-06-01

    A high intake of dietary fibre has been suggested to support the regulation of energy intake and satiety, which could contribute favourably to the increasing obesity problem. To investigate the effects of three fibres differing in chemical and physical properties on perceived satiety and hunger-related attributes. A total of 19 healthy volunteers, age 18-30, mean BMI 23.2 kg/m(2) participated in the study. Measurement of food and satiety-related perceptions with ten attributes was performed by using 10-unit graphic intensity scales during a 120 min period after the ingestion the sample. The attributes evaluated were satiety, hunger (unipolar and bipolar scale), appetite, fullness, desire to eat something/sweet/savoury/the sample food and thirst. The sample foods used were a beverage without fibre, a guar gum beverage, a wheat bran beverage, an oat beta-glucan beverage and wheat bread was used as the control. The fibre content of the samples was 0 g (beverage without fibre), 2.4 g (wheat bread), 7.8 g (guar gum) or 10.5 g (wheat bran and oat beta-glucan beverage) per 400 g/1,000 kJ portion. The area under curve (AUC) for perceived satiety was higher (169 vs. 83 cm min; t test P = 0.026) and the desire to eat was lower (AUC -179 vs. -83 cm min; t test P = 0.008) for the guar gum beverage as compared to the beverage without fibre. Also the beverage with oat beta-glucan increased fullness and showed a trend of increasing perceived satiety and decreasing the desire to eat more than the beverage without fibre. Our results support the idea that dietary fibre in beverages can enhance their perceived satiety and decrease the desire to eat more than a beverage without fibre.

  9. Fibre-optic-based fluoroimmunosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sepaniak, M.J. ); Vodinh, T. )

    1990-01-01

    Remote sensing of chemicals can be performed using fibre optic chemical sensors that use immunochemical reagent phases. Exploiting the specificity of antibody-antigen interactions and the sensitivity of laser-excited fluorimetry, highly selective measurements of ultra-trace levels of chemicals can be performed remotely and in situ via fluoroimmunoassay techniques. In this work, heterogeneous assay protocols using immunobeads are implemented. A passive sensor that samples analyte by diffusion through a permeable membrane and is capable of a single analysis is described and used for the measurement of a naturally fluorescent compound. Subsequently, a regenerable sensor that can perform assay procedures in a repetitive fashion is described and characterized. The versatility of this sensor for performing remote measurements using a variety of established fluorimmunoassay methodologies is discussed.

  10. Twin-hollow-core optical fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyros, Alexander; Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; van Eijkelenborg, Martijn A.

    2009-05-01

    Twin-hollow-core microstructured optical fibres have been fabricated and characterised for the first time. The fibre cladding structure results in guidance by the inhibited coupling mechanism, in which there is a low overlap between the core modes and surrounding structure. This results in minimal interaction between the modes of each core in the transmission bands of the fibre and hence minimal coupling between the cores. It is shown that light is able to couple between the cores via coupling to cladding struts in the high loss wavelength bands.

  11. A temperature-independent fibre-optic magnetic-field sensor using thin-core fibre tailored fibre Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qin; Feng, Zhongyao; Rong, Qiangzhou; Wan, Yun; Qiao, Xueguang; Hu, Manli; Yang, Hangzhou; Wang, Ruohui; Shao, Zhihua; Yang, Tingting

    2017-06-01

    A temperature-independent fibre-optic magnetic-field sensor is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The device consists of a thin-core fibre (TCF) sandwiched in the upstream of a fibre Bragg grating (FBG). Because of the core-mismatch between the TCF and the single-mode fibre (SMF), the core mode is coupled to the cladding modes within the TCF cladding, and parts of them are recoupled back to the leading-in SMF by the downstream FBG. The cladding modes are sensitive to the ambient refractive index (RI), and therefore have the ability to respond to a RI change in the magnetic fluid determined by the ambient magnetic field. The intensities of the cladding-mode resonances are highly sensitive to the magnetic field change, while, in contrast, the resonance wavelengths always remain unchanged. This property can allow the sensor to act as a power-referenced reflection probe for magnetic field measurements.

  12. Mechanism of internal browning of pineapple: The role of gibberellins catabolism gene (AcGA2ox) and GAs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qin; Rao, Xiuwen; Zhang, Lubin; He, Congcong; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Shijiang

    2016-01-01

    Internal browning (IB), a physiological disorder (PD) that causes severe losses in harvested pineapple, can be induced by exogenous gibberellins (GAs). Over the years, studies have focused on roles of Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2oxs), the major GAs catabolic enzyme in plants, in the regulation of changes in morphology or biomass. However, whether GA2oxs could regulate PD has not been reported. Here, a full-length AcGA2ox cDNA was isolated from pineapple, with the putative protein sharing 23.59% to 72.92% identity with GA2oxs from five other plants. Pineapples stored at 5 °C stayed intact, while those stored at 20 °C showed severe IB. Storage at 5 °C enhanced AcGA2ox expression and decreased levels of a GAs (GA4) ‘compared with storage at 20 °C. However, at 20 °C, exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) significantly suppressed IB. ABA simultaneously upregulated AcGA2ox and reduced GA4. Ectopic expression of AcGA2ox in Arabidopsis resulted in reduced GA4, lower seed germination, and shorter hypocotyls and roots, all of which were restored by exogenous GA4/7. Moreover, in pineapple, GA4/7 upregulated polyphenol oxidase, while storage at 5 °C and ABA downregulated it. These results strongly suggest the involvement of AcGA2ox in regulation of GAs levels and a role of AcGA2ox in regulating IB. PMID:27982026

  13. Lactic acid production using two food processing wastes, canned pineapple syrup and grape invertase, as substrate and enzyme.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Takashi; Ozawa, Yasuhiro; Ishikawa, Masaki; Nakanishi, Kotoyoshi; Kimura, Toshinori

    2003-04-01

    Canned pineapple syrup, a food processing waste, was utilized as a substrate for lactic acid production by Lactococcus lactis. To improve the utilization of sucrose from the syrup, grape invertase from grape juice derived from wine production was used for sucrose hydrolysis. The highest lactic acid concentrations achieved were 20 and 92 g l-1 from 20 and 100 g total sugars l-1, respectively, without a lag period for sucrose consumption.

  14. Mechanism of internal browning of pineapple: The role of gibberellins catabolism gene (AcGA2ox) and GAs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Rao, Xiuwen; Zhang, Lubin; He, Congcong; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Shijiang

    2016-12-16

    Internal browning (IB), a physiological disorder (PD) that causes severe losses in harvested pineapple, can be induced by exogenous gibberellins (GAs). Over the years, studies have focused on roles of Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2oxs), the major GAs catabolic enzyme in plants, in the regulation of changes in morphology or biomass. However, whether GA2oxs could regulate PD has not been reported. Here, a full-length AcGA2ox cDNA was isolated from pineapple, with the putative protein sharing 23.59% to 72.92% identity with GA2oxs from five other plants. Pineapples stored at 5 °C stayed intact, while those stored at 20 °C showed severe IB. Storage at 5 °C enhanced AcGA2ox expression and decreased levels of a GAs (GA4) 'compared with storage at 20 °C. However, at 20 °C, exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) significantly suppressed IB. ABA simultaneously upregulated AcGA2ox and reduced GA4. Ectopic expression of AcGA2ox in Arabidopsis resulted in reduced GA4, lower seed germination, and shorter hypocotyls and roots, all of which were restored by exogenous GA4/7. Moreover, in pineapple, GA4/7 upregulated polyphenol oxidase, while storage at 5 °C and ABA downregulated it. These results strongly suggest the involvement of AcGA2ox in regulation of GAs levels and a role of AcGA2ox in regulating IB.

  15. A comparative study of the effects of bromelain and fresh pineapple juice on the early phase of healing in acute crush achilles tendon injury.

    PubMed

    Aiyegbusi, Ayoola I; Olabiyi, Olaleye O; Duru, Francis I O; Noronha, Cressie C; Okanlawon, Abayomi O

    2011-04-01

    Bromelain, an enzyme extracted from the stem of the pineapple plant, has been reported to reduce pain and swelling in acute soft tissue injuries, but no study has been done to compare its effect with that of fresh pineapple juice on the healing of acute tendon injuries. This study compared the effects of commercial bromelain and fresh pineapple juice on tenocyte proliferation and the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the early stage of healing in a crush injury to the Achilles tendon of Sprague-Dawley rats. Twenty-four male rats were divided randomly into three groups of eight rats each; all the rats had induced crush injury to the Achilles tendon: Group 1 (control), no treatment; Group 2, oral bromelain treatment at a dosage of 7 mg/kg of body weight daily; and Group 3, fresh diluted pineapple juice at a dosage of 30 mg/kg of body weight. Treatment was given over the first 14 days post-injury. On day 15 post-injury, the animals were sacrificed, and the tendons were excised and processed for histological study and MDA assay. Results show a significant difference in the tenocyte population between the bromelain group and the control (P < .05), whereas pineapple juice also increased the tenocyte population, although not significantly (P = .36). Pineapple juice, however, significantly lowered the MDA level compared with both the control and bromelain-treated groups. Based on this study, 600 GDU bromelain given at a dosage of 7 mg/kg had a better effect on tenocyte proliferation than fresh pineapple juice given once daily in acute tendon injury.

  16. Determination of total sulfite in shrimp, potatoes, dried pineapple, and white wine by flow injection analysis: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J J; Hollingworth, T A; Wekell, M M; Meo, V A; Saba, H H; Etemad-Moghadam, A; Eklund, C; Phillips, J G; Gump, B H

    1990-01-01

    A method for the determination of total sulfite in shrimp, potatoes, dried pineapple, and white wine by flow injection analysis (FIA) was collaboratively studied by 8 laboratories. In the method, the sample solution is reacted with sodium hydroxide to liberate aldehyde-bound sulfite. The sample stream is acidified to produce SO2 gas, which diffuses across a Teflon membrane in the gas diffusion cell into a flowing stream of malachite green. The degree of discoloration of the malachite green is proportional to the amount of sulfite in the sample solution. Red wine was included in the study but interlaboratory precision for these samples was not satisfactory and correlation with Monier-Williams results was poor. The present method is not recommended for use with these samples. For shrimp, potatoes, dried pineapple, and white wine, average reproducibility (RSDR) of results was 25% for samples at 10 ppm SO2 and 10% for samples at greater than 50 ppm. Overall average reproducibility was 14%. Recoveries of sulfite added to samples averaged 80%. Comparison of FIA with the Monier-Williams method indicated comparable results by the 2 methods. The FIA method has been adopted official first action for determination of greater than or equal to 5 ppm total sulfite in shrimp, potatoes, dried pineapple, and white wine.

  17. Isolation of bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from pineapple peel waste: Optimization of acid concentration in the hydrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Budiman; Rosyid, Nurul Huda; Effendi, Devi Bentia; Nandiyanto, Asep Bayu Dani; Mudzakir, Ahmad; Hidayat, Topik

    2016-02-01

    Isolation of needle-shaped bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline with a diameter of 16-64 nm, a fiber length of 258-806 nm, and a degree of crystallinity of 64% from pineapple peel waste using an acid hydrolysis process was investigated. Experimental showed that selective concentration of acid played important roles in isolating the bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from the cellulose source. To achieve the successful isolation of bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline, various acid concentrations were tested. To confirm the effect of acid concentration on the successful isolation process, the reaction conditions were fixed at a temperature of 50°C, a hydrolysis time of 30 minutes, and a bacterial cellulose-to-acid ratio of 1:50. Pineapple peel waste was used as a model for a cellulose source because to the best of our knowledge, there is no report on the use of this raw material for producing bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline. In fact, this material can be used as an alternative for ecofriendly and cost-free cellulose sources. Therefore, understanding in how to isolate bacterial cellulose nanocrystalline from pineapple peel waste has the potential for large-scale production of inexpensive cellulose nanocrystalline.

  18. Therapeutic use, efficiency and safety of the proteolytic pineapple enzyme Bromelain-POS in children with acute sinusitis in Germany.

    PubMed

    Braun, J M; Schneider, B; Beuth, H J

    2005-01-01

    The therapeutic efficiency and safety of the proteolytic enzyme bromelaine obtained from pineapple (Bromelain-POS, Ursapharm GmbH, Saarbrücken, Germany) was evaluated in children under the age of 11 years diagnosed with acute sinusitis. Data from 116 patients from 19 centres located across Germany were analysed in a pharmacoepidemiological cohort study. Patient cohorts were either treated with Bromelain-POS (N = 62), in combination with Bromelain-POS and standard therapies (N = 34), or with standard therapies (N = 20). The primary parameter measuring effectiveness of the different treatment groups was the duration of symptoms. The shortest mean period of symptoms was observed in patients treated with Bromelain-POS alone (6.66 days), followed by the standard therapy (7.95 days) and those treated with a combination of Bromelain-POS and the standard therapy (9.06 days). Patients of the Bromelain-POS monotherapy group showed a statistically significant faster recovery from symptoms (p = 0.005) compared to the other treatment groups. One 10-year-old male patient, with a known pineapple allergy, showed a self-limiting mild allergic reaction. No other unwanted side-effects were reported. This trial documents that the proteolytic pineapple enzyme Bromelain-POS is widely used in the treatment of young children diagnosed with acute sinusitis in Germany and that the use of proteolytic enzymes can benefit such patients.

  19. Investigation of Endophytic Bacterial Community in Supposedly Axenic Cultures of Pineapple and Orchids with Evidence on Abundant Intracellular Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Esposito-Polesi, Natalia Pimentel; de Abreu-Tarazi, Monita Fiori; de Almeida, Cristina Vieira; Tsai, Siu Mui; de Almeida, Marcílio

    2017-01-01

    Asepsis, defined as the absence of microbial contamination, is one of the most important requirements of plant micropropagation. In long-term micropropagated cultures, there may occasionally occur scattered microorganism growth in the culture medium. These microorganisms are common plant components and are known as latent endophytes. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the presence of endophytic bacteria in asymptomatic pineapple and orchid microplants, which were cultivated in three laboratories for 1 year. Isolation and characterization of bacterial isolates, PCR-DGGE from total genomic DNA of microplants and ultrastructural analysis of leaves were performed. In the culture-dependent technique, it was only possible to obtain bacterial isolates from pineapple microplants. In this case, the bacteria genera identified in the isolation technique were Bacillus, Acinetobacter, and Methylobacterium. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) analyses revealed the presence of endophytic bacteria in intracellular spaces in the leaves of pineapple and orchid microplants, independent of the laboratory or cultivation protocol. Our results strongly indicate that there are endophytic bacterial communities inhabiting the microplants before initiation of the in vitro culture and that some of these endophytes persist in their latent form and can also grow in the culture medium even after long-term micropropagation, thus discarding the concept of "truly axenic plants."

  20. Chemical profile of pineapple cv. Vitória in different maturation stages using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Elizângela M; Costa, Helber B; Ventura, José A; Caetano, Luiz Cs; Pinto, Fernanda E; Oliveira, Bruno G; Barroso, Maria Eduarda S; Scherer, Rodrigo; Endringer, Denise C; Romão, Wanderson

    2017-07-19

    Pineapple is the fruit of Ananas comosus var. comosus plant, being cultivated in tropical areas and has high energy content and nutritional value. Herein, 30 samples of pineapple cv. Vitória were analyzed as a function of the maturation stage (0-5) and their physico-chemical parameters monitored. In addition, negative-ion mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry [ESI(-)FT-ICR MS] was used to identify and semi-quantify primary and secondary metabolites present in the crude and phenolic extracts of pineapple, respectively. Physico-chemical tests show an increase in the total soluble solids (TSS) values and in the TSS/total titratable acidity ratio as a function of the maturity stage, where a maximum value was observed in stage 3 (¾ of the fruit is yellow, which corresponds to the color of the fruit peel). ESI(-)FT-ICR MS analysis for crude extracts showed the presence mainly of sugars as primary metabolites present in deprotonated molecule form ([M - H](-) and [2 M - H](-) ions) whereas, for phenolic fractions, 11 compounds were detected, being the most abundant in the third stage of maturation. This behavior was confirmed by quantitative analysis of total polyphenols. ESI-FT-ICR MS was efficient in identifying primary (carbohydrates and organic acids) and secondary metabolites (13 phenolic compounds) presents in the crude and phenolic extract of the samples, respectively. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Removal of heavy metals from contaminated sewage sludge using Aspergillus niger fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Del Mundo Dacera, Dominica; Babel, Sandhya

    2008-04-01

    The environmental benefits derived from using citric acid in the removal of heavy metals from contaminated sewage sludge have made it promising as an extracting agent in the chemical extraction process. At present, citric acid is produced commercially by fermentation of sucrose using mutant strains of Aspergillus niger (A. niger), and chemical synthesis. In recent years, various carbohydrates and wastes (such as pineapple wastes) have been considered experimentally, to produce citric acid by A. niger. This study investigated the potential of using A. niger fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes as a source of citric acid, in extracting chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Results of the study revealed that metal removal efficiencies varied with pH, forms of metals in sludge and contact time. At pH approaching 4, and contact time of 11 days, A. niger fermented liquid seemed to remove all Cr and Zn while removing 94% of Ni. Moreover, chemical speciation studies revealed that metals which are predominantly in the exchangeable and oxidizable phases seemed to exhibit ease of leachability (e.g., Zn). The by-products of the process such as pineapple pulp and mycelium which are rich in protein, can still be used as animal feed. It can be said therefore that this novel process provides a sustainable way of managing contaminated sewage sludge.

  2. Partitioning carbon dioxide emission and assessing dissolved organic carbon leaching of a drained peatland cultivated with pineapple at Saratok, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim Kim Choo, Liza Nuriati; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna

    2014-01-01

    Pineapples (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) cultivation on drained peats could affect the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere and also the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Carbon dioxide emission needs to be partitioned before deciding on whether cultivated peat is net sink or net source of carbon. Partitioning of CO2 emission into root respiration, microbial respiration, and oxidative peat decomposition was achieved using a lysimeter experiment with three treatments: peat soil cultivated with pineapple, bare peat soil, and bare peat soil fumigated with chloroform. Drainage water leached from cultivated peat and bare peat soil was also analyzed for DOC. On a yearly basis, CO2 emissions were higher under bare peat (218.8 t CO2 ha/yr) than under bare peat treated with chloroform (205 t CO2 ha/yr), and they were the lowest (179.6 t CO2 ha/yr) under cultivated peat. Decreasing CO2 emissions under pineapple were attributed to the positive effects of photosynthesis and soil autotrophic activities. An average 235.7 mg/L loss of DOC under bare peat suggests rapid decline of peat organic carbon through heterotrophic respiration and peat decomposition. Soil CO2 emission depended on moderate temperature fluctuations, but it was not affected by soil moisture.

  3. Partitioning Carbon Dioxide Emission and Assessing Dissolved Organic Carbon Leaching of a Drained Peatland Cultivated with Pineapple at Saratok, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Lim Kim Choo, Liza Nuriati; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna

    2014-01-01

    Pineapples (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) cultivation on drained peats could affect the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere and also the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Carbon dioxide emission needs to be partitioned before deciding on whether cultivated peat is net sink or net source of carbon. Partitioning of CO2 emission into root respiration, microbial respiration, and oxidative peat decomposition was achieved using a lysimeter experiment with three treatments: peat soil cultivated with pineapple, bare peat soil, and bare peat soil fumigated with chloroform. Drainage water leached from cultivated peat and bare peat soil was also analyzed for DOC. On a yearly basis, CO2 emissions were higher under bare peat (218.8 t CO2 ha/yr) than under bare peat treated with chloroform (205 t CO2 ha/yr), and they were the lowest (179.6 t CO2 ha/yr) under cultivated peat. Decreasing CO2 emissions under pineapple were attributed to the positive effects of photosynthesis and soil autotrophic activities. An average 235.7 mg/L loss of DOC under bare peat suggests rapid decline of peat organic carbon through heterotrophic respiration and peat decomposition. Soil CO2 emission depended on moderate temperature fluctuations, but it was not affected by soil moisture. PMID:25215335

  4. Low Cost Carbon Fibre for Automotive Applications Part 1: Low Cost Carbon Fibre Development

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Charles David; Das, Sujit; Wheatley, Dr. Alan

    2014-01-01

    In pursuit of the goal to produce ultra-lightweight fuel efficient vehicles, there has been great excitement during the last few years about the potential for using carbon fibre reinforced composites in high volume applications. Currently, the greatest hurdle that inhibits wider implementation of carbon fibre composites in transportation is the high cost of carbon fibre when compared to other candidate materials. However, significant research is being conducted to develop lower cost, high volume technologies for producing carbon fibre. This chapter will highlight ongoing research in this area.

  5. Polarisation effects in twin-core fibre: Application for mode locking in a fibre laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobach, I. A.; Kablukov, S. I.; Podivilov, Evgenii V.; Babin, Sergei A.; Apolonski, A. A.

    2012-09-01

    We report the first measurements of the longitudinal power distribution in a twin-core optical fibre at different input light polarisations. Experimental evidence is presented that, because of the difference in birefringence between the cores, the power in them depends on which core the beam is launched into. Experimental data are interpreted in terms of a modified polarisation model for mode coupling in twin-core fibres which takes into account the birefringence of the cores. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time the use of the polarisation properties of a twincore fibre for mode locking in a fibre laser.

  6. Damped leaf flexure hinge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong; Chen, Guisheng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-05-01

    Flexure-based mechanism like compliant actuation system embeds complex dynamics that will reduce the control bandwidth and limits their dynamic positioning precision. This paper presents a theoretical model of a leaf flexure hinge with damping layers using strain energy method and Kelvin damping model. The modified loss factor of the damped leaf flexure hinge is derived, and the equivalent viscous damping coefficient of the damped leaf hinge is obtained, which could be used to improve the pseudo-rigid-model. The free vibration signals of the hinge in three different damping configurations are measured. The experimental modal analysis also is performed on the three kinds of damped leaf flexure hinges in order to evaluate their 1st order bending natural frequency and vibration-suppressing effects. The evaluation of modified loss factor model also is performed. The experimental results indicate that the constrained layer damping can enhance the structure damping of the hinge even if only single damping layer each side, the modified loss factor model can get good predicts of a damped leaf flexure hinge in the frequency range below 1st order natural frequency, and it is necessary that the dimensional parameters of the damping layers and basic layer of the hinge should be optimized for simplification at the mechanism's design stage.

  7. Damped leaf flexure hinge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Chen, Guisheng; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-05-01

    Flexure-based mechanism like compliant actuation system embeds complex dynamics that will reduce the control bandwidth and limits their dynamic positioning precision. This paper presents a theoretical model of a leaf flexure hinge with damping layers using strain energy method and Kelvin damping model. The modified loss factor of the damped leaf flexure hinge is derived, and the equivalent viscous damping coefficient of the damped leaf hinge is obtained, which could be used to improve the pseudo-rigid-model. The free vibration signals of the hinge in three different damping configurations are measured. The experimental modal analysis also is performed on the three kinds of damped leaf flexure hinges in order to evaluate their 1st order bending natural frequency and vibration-suppressing effects. The evaluation of modified loss factor model also is performed. The experimental results indicate that the constrained layer damping can enhance the structure damping of the hinge even if only single damping layer each side, the modified loss factor model can get good predicts of a damped leaf flexure hinge in the frequency range below 1st order natural frequency, and it is necessary that the dimensional parameters of the damping layers and basic layer of the hinge should be optimized for simplification at the mechanism's design stage.

  8. Extraneous fibre traces brought by river water - A case study.

    PubMed

    Lepot, L; Vanden Driessche, T; Lunstroot, K; Barret, A; Gason, F; De Wael, K

    2017-01-01

    The fibre traces on a young victim found underwater were mostly single fibre traces besides small amounts of fibre collectives indistinguishable from his parents clothes (mainly wool). Most of those single fibre traces were blue-grey polyester fibres showing tiny differences among each other. They were unexpected according to known population fibre studies. One year after the victim's discovery experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible contamination with fibres from river water. A small amount of extraneous fibres were collected among which blue and grey-black cotton and man-made (mainly polyester) fibres. All man-made fibres were single fibre traces and small fibre collectives were only observed for cotton. These results confirmed the frequent occurrence of blue and grey-black cotton fibres as background, but also highlighted the possible contamination with single blue and grey-black man-made fibres from river water. No wool was found, strengthening the significance of the wool fibre collectives present on the victim.

  9. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Poeggel, Sven; Tosi, Daniele; Duraibabu, DineshBabu; Leen, Gabriel; McGrath, Deirdre; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas. PMID:26184228

  10. Optical Fibre Pressure Sensors in Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Poeggel, Sven; Tosi, Daniele; Duraibabu, DineshBabu; Leen, Gabriel; McGrath, Deirdre; Lewis, Elfed

    2015-07-15

    This article is focused on reviewing the current state-of-the-art of optical fibre pressure sensors for medical applications. Optical fibres have inherent advantages due to their small size, immunity to electromagnetic interferences and their suitability for remote monitoring and multiplexing. The small dimensions of optical fibre-based pressure sensors, together with being lightweight and flexible, mean that they are minimally invasive for many medical applications and, thus, particularly suited to in vivo measurement. This means that the sensor can be placed directly inside a patient, e.g., for urodynamic and cardiovascular assessment. This paper presents an overview of the recent developments in optical fibre-based pressure measurements with particular reference to these application areas.

  11. Flatus emission patterns and fibre intake.

    PubMed

    Bolin, T D; Stanton, R A

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the normal range of flatus emissions and their relationship to diet, particularly fibre, would be helpful in managing patients who complain of excessive flatus or abdominal distention. Sixty men and 60 women aged between 17 and 67 kept a three-day daily record, including one week-end day, of their flatus emissions, dietary fibre intake and beer consumption. Daily flatus emissions averaged 12.7 (range to 2-53) for men and 7.1 (range 1-32) for women. Fibre intake averaged 28+/-13 g for men and 24+/-3 g for women. Flatus emissions significantly correlated with dietary fibre intake (p<.001). There was a correlation between increased aroma of flatus emissions and beer intake in men and men recorded more aromatic flatus than women. This study of 120 normal individuals eating their choice of foods provides a basis to judge degrees of abnormality in patients complaining of excessive flatus.

  12. SpaceFibre Demonstrator (Demonstration and Testing)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfers, T.; Rastetter, P.; Papadas, C.; Parkes, S.

    2014-08-01

    Currently Astrium GmbH and ISD S.A. are planning the development of a demonstrator for SpaceFibre. The SpaceFibre demonstrator will be used to execute functional performance tests and EMC (Electro Magnetic Compatibility) tests. University of Dundee is program prime contractor and provides Astrium with the SpaceFibre IP core. The work si shared between the two partners in the following way: • Astrium: Prime Contractor and Technical Coordination; FPGA Design; EMC Testing• ISD: Development of Demonstrator Board including housing, development of test bed and functional performance testingThe driving requirements for this development are:• SpaceFibre performance, while implementing it into space equivalent components• Design and MAIT of the demonstrator in such a way that representative EMC testing is possible.

  13. Angiogenic effect induced by mineral fibres.

    PubMed

    Carbonari, Damiano; Campopiano, Antonella; Ramires, Deborah; Strafella, Elisabetta; Staffolani, Sara; Tomasetti, Marco; Curini, Roberta; Valentino, Matteo; Santarelli, Lory; Amati, Monica

    2011-10-09

    Due to the toxic effect of asbestos, other materials with similar chemical-physical characteristics have been introduced to substitute it. We evaluate the angiogenic effect of certain asbestos substitute fibres such as glass fibres (GFs), ceramic fibres (CFs) and wollastonite fibres (WFs) and then compare angiogenic responses to those induced by crocidolite asbestos fibres (AFs). An in vitro model using human endothelial cells in small islands within a culture matrix of fibroblasts (Angio-Kit) was used to evaluate vessel formation. The release of IL-6, sIL-R6, IL-8, VEGF-A and their soluble receptors, sVEGFR-1, sVEGFR-2, was determined in the conditioning medium of Angio-Kit system after fibre treatment. ROS formation and cell viability were evaluated in cultured endothelial cells (HUVEC). To evaluate the involvement of intracellular mechanisms, EGFR signalling, ROS formation and nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) pathway were then inhibited by incubating HUVEC cells with AG1478, NAC and PDTC respectively, and the cytokine and growth factor release was analyzed in the culture medium after 7 days of fibre incubation. Among the mineral fibres tested, WFs markedly induced blood vessel formation which was associated with release of IL-6 and IL-8, VEGF-A and their soluble receptors. ROS production was observed in HUVEC after WFs treatment which was associated with cell cytotoxicity. The EGFR-induced ERK phosphorylation and ROS-mediated NFκB activation were involved in the cytokine and angiogenic factor release. However, only the EGFR activation was able to induce angiogenesis. The WFs are potential angiogenic agents that can induce regenerative cytokine and angiogenic factor production resulting in the formation of new blood vessels.

  14. Simulating Fibre Suspensions: Lagrangian versus Statistical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L. H.; Andersson, H. I.; Gillissen, J. J. J.; Boersma, B. J.

    Fibre suspensions exhibit complex dynamical flow phenomena and are at the same time of immense practical importance, notably in the pulp and paper industries. NTNU and TU Delft have in a collaborative research project adopted two alternative strategies in the simulation of dilute fibre suspensions, namely a statistical approach [2] and a Lagrangian particle treatment [4]. The two approaches have their own advantages and disadvantages. In this paper we aim for the first time to compare the performance of the two.

  15. Fibre-optic sensors in health care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazia Mignani, Anna; Baldini, Francesco

    1997-05-01

    Biomedical fibre-optic sensors are attractive for the measurement of physical, chemical and biochemical parameters and for spectral measurements directly performed on the patient. An overview of fibre-optic sensors for in vivo monitoring is given, with particular attention paid to the advantages that these sensors are able to offer in different application fields such as cardiovascular and intensive care, angiology, gastroenterology, ophthalmology, oncology, neurology, dermatology and dentistry.

  16. Metal-insulator-semiconductor optoelectronic fibres.

    PubMed

    Bayindir, Mehmet; Sorin, Fabien; Abouraddy, Ayman F; Viens, Jeff; Hart, Shandon D; Joannopoulos, John D; Fink, Yoel

    2004-10-14

    The combination of conductors, semiconductors and insulators with well-defined geometries and at prescribed length scales, while forming intimate interfaces, is essential in most functional electronic and optoelectronic devices. These are typically produced using a variety of elaborate wafer-based processes, which allow for small features, but are restricted to planar geometries and limited coverage area. In contrast, the technique of fibre drawing from a preformed reel or tube is simpler and yields extended lengths of highly uniform fibres with well-controlled geometries and good optical transport characteristics. So far, this technique has been restricted to particular materials and larger features. Here we report on the design, fabrication and characterization of fibres made of conducting, semiconducting and insulating materials in intimate contact and in a variety of geometries. We demonstrate that this approach can be used to construct a tunable fibre photodetector comprising an amorphous semiconductor core contacted by metallic microwires, and surrounded by a cylindrical-shell resonant optical cavity. Such a fibre is sensitive to illumination along its entire length (tens of meters), thus forming a photodetecting element of dimensionality one. We also construct a grid of such fibres that can identify the location of an illumination point. The advantage of this type of photodetector array is that it needs a number of elements of only order N, in contrast to the conventional order N2 for detector arrays made of photodetecting elements of dimensionality zero.

  17. Dewatering of fibre suspensions by pressure filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Duncan R.; Paterson, Daniel T.; Balmforth, Neil J.; Martinez, D. Mark

    2016-06-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of dewatering of fibre suspensions by uniaxial compression is presented. Solutions of a one-dimensional model are discussed and asymptotic limits of fast and slow compression are explored. Particular focus is given to relatively rapid compression and to the corresponding development of spatial variations in the solidity and velocity profiles of the suspension. The results of complementary laboratory experiments are presented for nylon or cellulose fibres suspended in viscous fluid. The constitutive relationships for each suspension were measured independently. Measurements of the load for different fixed compression speeds, together with some direct measurements of the velocity profiles using particle tracking velocimetry, are compared with model predictions. The comparison is reasonable for nylon, but poor for cellulose fibres. An extension to the model, which allows for a strain-rate-dependent component in the network stress, is proposed, and is found to give a dramatic improvement in the model predictions for cellulose fibre suspensions. The reason for this improvement is attributed to the microstructure of cellulose fibres, which, unlike nylon fibres, are themselves porous.

  18. Reinforcing of Cement Composites by Estabragh Fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merati, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    The influence of Estabragh fibres has been studied to improve the performance characteristics of the reinforced cement composites. The concrete shrinkage was evaluated by counting the number of cracks and measuring the width of cracks on the surface of concrete specimens. Although, the Estabragh fibres lose their strength in an alkali environment of cement composites, but, the ability of Estabragh fibres to bridge on the micro cracks in the concrete matrix causes to decrease the width of the cracks on the surface of the concrete samples in comparison with the plain concrete. However, considering the mechanical properties of specimens such as bending strength and impact resistance, the specimens with 0.25 % of Estabragh fibre performed better in all respects compared to the physical and mechanical properties of reinforced cement composite of concrete. Consequently, by adding 0.25 % of Estabragh fibres to the cement composite of concrete, a remarkable improvement in physical and mechanical properties of fibre-containing cement composite is achieved.

  19. Fibre positioning algorithms for the WEAVE spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrett, David L.; Lewis, Ian J.; Dalton, Gavin; Abrams, Don Carlos; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Middleton, Kevin; Trager, Scott C.

    2014-07-01

    WEAVE is the next-generation wide-field optical spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. It is a multi-object "pick and place" fibre fed spectrograph with more than one thousand fibres, similar in concept to the Australian Astronomical Observatory's 2dF1 instrument with two observing plates, one of which is observing the sky while other is being reconfigured by a robotic fibre positioner. It will be capable of acquiring more than 10000 star or galaxy spectra a night. The WEAVE positioner concept uses two robots working in tandem in order to reconfigure a fully populated field within the expected 1 hour dwell-time for the instrument (a good match between the required exposure times and the limit of validity for a given configuration due to the effects of differential refraction). This presents additional constraints and complications for the software that determines the optimal path from one configuration to the next, particularly given the large number of fibre crossings implied by the 1000 fibre multiplex. This paper describes the algorithms and programming techniques used in the prototype implementations of the field configuration tool and the fibre positioner robot controller developed to support the detailed design of WEAVE.

  20. Effect of cassava starch coating on quality and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril cv "Pérola").

    PubMed

    Bierhals, Vânia S; Chiumarelli, Marcela; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2011-01-01

    This research studied the influence of treatment with ascorbic acid, citric acid, and calcium lactate dipping and cassava starch edible coatings on quality parameters and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple in slices during 12 d at 5 °C. After previous tests, the treatments selected for this study were samples dipped into antibrowning solution with 0.5% of ascorbic acid and 1% of citric acid, with and without 2% of calcium lactate and coated with 2% of cassava starch suspensions. Changes in weight loss, juice leakage, mechanical properties (stress at failure), color parameters (L* and H*), ascorbic acid content, sensory acceptance, and microbial growth of fruits were evaluated. Samples only treated with antibrowning agents were used as control. Edible coatings with and without calcium lactate were efficient in reducing weight loss, juice leakage, and maintaining firmness during storage. However, these samples showed more browning and the ascorbic acid content was reduced. All treatments presented good sensory acceptance (scores above 6). The determining factor of shelf life of pineapple slices was the microbial spoilage. A shelf life of 8 d was obtained for pineapple slices only treated with antibrowning agents. On the other hand, coated samples showed a reduced shelf life of 7 d and higher yeast and mold growth. Thus, although cassava starch coatings were efficient in reducing respiration rate, weight loss, and juice leakage and maintained mechanical properties, these treatments were not able to increase the shelf life of minimally processed pineapple. Practical Application: Pineapple fruit is highly appreciated for its aroma, flavor, and juiciness, but its immediate consumption is difficult. Therefore, pineapple is a potential fruit for minimal processing. However, shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple is very limited by changes in color, texture, appearance, off-flavors, and microbial growth. The use of edible coatings as gas and water vapor barrier and antibrowning

  1. Effects of pineapple byproduct and canola oil as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory qualities of low-fat beef burger.

    PubMed

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Saldaña, Erick; Spada, Fernanda P; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-02-01

    Pineapple byproduct and canola oil were evaluated as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-fat burgers. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple byproduct (PA), canola oil (CO), pineapple byproduct and canola oil (PC). Higher water and fat retention and lower cooking loss and diameter reduction were found in burgers with byproduct addition. In raw burgers, byproduct incorporation reduced L*, a*, and C* values, but these alterations were masked after cooking, leading to products similar to CN. Low-fat treatments were harder, chewier, and more cohesive than full-fat burgers. However, in Warner Bratzler shear measurements, PA and PC were as tender as CN. In QDA, no difference was found between CN and PC. Pineapple byproducts along with canola oil are promising fat replacers in beef burgers. In order to increase the feasibility of use of pineapple byproduct in the meat industry, alternative processes of byproduct preparation should be evaluated in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Effect of the addition of tropical fruits--pineapple (Ananas comosus) and papaya (Carica papaya)--on the production of biological silage from fish].

    PubMed

    Bello, R; Cardillo, E; Martínez, R

    1993-09-01

    Microbial Fish Silage was produced from under-utilized fish mixed with juice and waste fruits (pineapple and papaya) at 35 degrees C. Six different products were elaborated as following: A: fish muscle with pineapple juice; B: fish muscle with fruit wastes; C: gutted fish with pineapple juice; D: gutted fish with fruit wastes; E: whole fish with pineapple juice; F: whole fish with fruit wastes. Process development was evaluated by measuring: pH, acidity, non-protein nitrogen, consistency and exudate liquid. Results indicated a slow decrease in pH value and production of acidity during 20 storage days. The addition of fruits to silage did not have any effect on these values. Silage liquefaction or hydrolysis was related to the following parameters: consistency, non-protein nitrogen and exudate liquid. The addition of fruits was related to silage liquefaction or hydrolysis, and it was measured by the consistency. Exudate liquid and non-protein nitrogen increased during storage time. However silage made from whole fish showed highest values in those parameters than other processing conditions. This results suggested that hydrolysis involve first enzymes from guts and second enzymes from muscle and head. Pineapple juice did not contribute to hydrolysis process. Mainly sensory changes in the silage occurs during first 24 hours and they were related to chemical changes. Proximal analysis did not change during silage process and microbial counts indicated the freshness of raw material used i this study.

  3. Modulatory effect of pineapple peel extract on lipid peroxidation, catalase activity and hepatic biomarker levels in blood plasma of alcohol-induced oxidative stressed rats

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, OY; Erukainure, OL; Ajiboye, JA; Adejobi, RO; Owolabi, FO; Kosoko, SB

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the ability of the methanolic extract of pineapple peel to modulate alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation, changes in catalase activities and hepatic biochemical marker levels in blood plasma. Methods Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20% w/v) at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw in rats. After 28 days of treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected with a 2 mL syringe by cardiac puncture and was centrifuged at 3 000 rpm for 10 min. The plasma was analyzed to evaluate malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations. Results Administration of alcohol caused a drastic increase (87.74%) in MDA level compared with the control. Pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the MDA level by 60.16% at 2.5 mL/kg bw. Rats fed alcohol only had the highest catalase activity, treatment with pineapple peel extract at 2.5 mL/kg bw however, reduced the activity. Increased AST, ALP and ALT activities were observed in rats fed alcohol only respectively, treatment with pineapple peel extract drastically reduced their activities. Conclusions The positive modulation of lipid peroxidation, catalase activities as well as hepatic biomarker levels of blood plasma by the methanolic extract of pineapple peels under alcohol-induced oxidative stress is an indication of its protective ability in the management of alcohol-induced toxicity. PMID:23569717

  4. Modulatory effect of pineapple peel extract on lipid peroxidation, catalase activity and hepatic biomarker levels in blood plasma of alcohol-induced oxidative stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Okafor, O Y; Erukainure, O l; Ajiboye, J A; Adejobi, R O; Owolabi, F O; Kosoko, S B

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the ability of the methanolic extract of pineapple peel to modulate alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation, changes in catalase activities and hepatic biochemical marker levels in blood plasma. Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20% w/v) at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw in rats. After 28 days of treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood was collected with a 2 mL syringe by cardiac puncture and was centrifuged at 3 000 rpm for 10 min. The plasma was analyzed to evaluate malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations. Administration of alcohol caused a drastic increase (87.74%) in MDA level compared with the control. Pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the MDA level by 60.16% at 2.5 mL/kg bw. Rats fed alcohol only had the highest catalase activity, treatment with pineapple peel extract at 2.5 mL/kg bw however, reduced the activity. Increased AST, ALP and ALT activities were observed in rats fed alcohol only respectively, treatment with pineapple peel extract drastically reduced their activities. The positive modulation of lipid peroxidation, catalase activities as well as hepatic biomarker levels of blood plasma by the methanolic extract of pineapple peels under alcohol-induced oxidative stress is an indication of its protective ability in the management of alcohol-induced toxicity.

  5. Airborne polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and cellulose fibre levels in fibre-cement factories in seven European countries.

    PubMed

    De Raeve, H; Van Cleemput, J; Nemery, B

    2001-11-01

    Because of their relatively high diameter, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibres, as used in fibre-cement, are not fibres as defined by WHO (or other) regulations. Nevertheless, as with all particulate raw materials, it can be questioned if and to what extent particles with critical fibrous dimensions might be generated by the handling or machining of this material. In order to investigate any tendency of PVA fibres to release airborne particles with critical fibrous dimensions (WHO fibres), static and/or personal samples were taken in eight fibre-cement factories at locations where potential exposures to PVA fibres were expected to be the highest. The following locations were surveyed: the PVA fibre weighing station, where PVA bales are opened mechanically and the PVA fibres are dispersed and weighed in a dry state; the fibre-cement slate punching machine; the slate 'riven edge' cutting machine or sheet sawing machine, whichever was present in the respective factories. Since cellulose fibres are an important constituent of fibre-cement, the organic fibre concentrations observed at the machining operations include cellulose. At each factory a control sample was taken in open air. Sampling, sample preparation and sample analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed according to standard German procedures. Only very low number concentrations of organic WHO fibres, ranging from below detection limit to 0.006 f/ml, were found. These levels are lower than the typical levels of organic fibres commonly found in the normal personal environment (0.009-0.02 f/ml), stemming from the release of particles by a person's activities and from clothing and other textiles (bed sheets, blankets, pillow,.). We conclude that the handling of PVA fibres as well as the machining of PVA and cellulose fibre containing cement products in the fibre-cement factories surveyed have a low potential to release fibres with critical fibrous (WHO) dimensions.

  6. Loss of type I fibres in canine pectineus muscle hypotrophy.

    PubMed

    Ihemelandu, E C

    1980-01-01

    The total number of fibres, as well as, the number of fibres per fibre type were determined by the indirect fibre-counting method in 32 pectineus muscles from 16 dogs of mixed sexes. Eight pairs of muscles from 8 dogs were judged to be hypotrophic, while the other 8 pairs from another 8 dogs were judged to be normal. The hypotrophic muscles had extremely small muscle fibres, particularly type II fibres. They also had apparently higher percentages of type II muscle fibres within a section. The apparently higher percentage of type II fibres usually observed in the hitsochemical examination of the sections of hypotrophic pectineus muscles did not result from failure of type II fibres to transform to type I fibres. It was rather due to too few type I fibres being present in these muscles as compared to the normal muscles. It was not because there were more type II fibres present in them than in the normal muscles. The fewer type I fibres resulted most likely from loss of already differentiated type I fibres. The loss may be of neural origin.

  7. Health benefits of cereal fibre: a review of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caren E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2011-06-01

    Cereal fibre and whole-grain intakes have been consistently associated in the epidemiological literature with reduced mortality and risk of chronic disease including obesity, CVD and type 2 diabetes. The present review focuses on intervention trials with three primary aims: (1) understanding the mechanisms through which fibre consumption improves health (for example, examination of intermediate endpoints reflecting improved lipid, glucose and energy metabolism); (2) close evaluation of qualitative factors which modify fibre's effectiveness including physiochemical properties (for example, solubility, fermentability and viscosity), fibre extract molecular weight, fibre particle size and botanical structure of the fibre source grain; and (3) identification of areas in which additional research is needed. The first two aims typify the goals of nutrition research, in that improved understanding of the specific factors which determine fibre's health benefits has critical implications for dietary recommendations as well as improving understanding of physiological mechanisms. The third aim acknowledges the substantial gap between recommended and actual fibre intakes in many developed countries including the USA and the UK. In recognition of this deficit in total fibre intake, food manufacturing processes increasingly utilise fibre extracts and concentrates as food additives. However, whether fibre extracts provide similar health benefits to the fibre supplied in the constituents of whole grain is largely unexplored. The relative benefits of fibre extracts compared with whole-grain fibre sources therefore represent a critical area in which additional research is needed.

  8. EDITORIAL: Optical Fibre Sensors 17 (OFS-17)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatam, Ralph P.; Jones, Julian D. C.

    2006-05-01

    This special issue of Measurement Science and Technology provides an overview of current developments in the field of optical fibre sensors. The papers presented here are more detailed versions of those presented at the 17th Optical Fibre Sensors conference (OFS-17) held at the Oud St-Jan Art and Congress Centre in Bruges, Belgium, from 23 27 May 2005. The first OFS conference was held in London in 1983 and the conference series is now held in international locations every 18 months and is the recognized venue for presentations of papers describing recent developments in the field of fibre optic sensing. The conference in Bruges was the largest to date of the OFS series with approximately 450 attendees and consisted of a plenary talk, describing photonic crystal gas sensors, ten invited contributions, 51 oral presentations and 197 posters. A third of the papers in this special issue are concerned with fibre Bragg and long period gratings, reflecting the widespread interest in this technology. Papers describe new laser based fabrication and processing techniques, signal processing methods, and applications to the measurement of physical parameters such as radiation detection, hydrogen sensing, load monitoring in wind turbines and stress measurement for geotechnical applications. Other non-grating sensing methodologies are presented for the measurement of gases, refractive index, colour and electric field/voltage. In addition to the descriptions of optical fibres sensors and signal processing schemes there are a number of contributions describing developments in enabling technologies such as sources for use with fibre sensors including, for example, quantum dots for temperature sensing. Developments in emerging technologies such as nanostructured fibres for sensing and investigating the sensing properties of carbon nanotubes using fibre sensor techniques are described along with the use of coherent imaging fibre bundles for flow measurement applications. We hope that

  9. The effect of fibre content, fibre size and alkali treatment to Charpy impact resistance of Oil Palm fibre reinforced composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, Muhamad; Mahzan, Shahruddin

    2016-11-01

    In this research, the effect of fibre content, fibre size and alkali treatment to the impact resistance of the composite material have been investigated, The composite material employs oil palm fibre as the reinforcement material whereas the matrix used for the composite materials are polypropylene. The Oil Palm fibres are prepared for two conditions: alkali treated fibres and untreated fibres. The fibre sizes are varied in three sizes: 5mm, 7mm and 10mm. During the composite material preparation, the fibre contents also have been varied into 3 different percentages: 5%, 7% and 10%. The statistical approach is used to optimise the variation of specimen determined by using Taguchi method. The results were analyzed also by the Taguchi method and shows that the Oil Palm fibre content is significantly affect the impact resistance of the polymer matrix composite. However, the fibre size is moderately affecting the impact resistance, whereas the fibre treatment is insignificant to the impact resistance of the oil palm fibre reinforced polymer matrix composite.

  10. Comparative leaf development in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2014-02-01

    Recent accumulation of our knowledge on basic leaf development mechanisms in model angiosperm species has allowed us to pursue evolutionary development (evo/devo) studies of various kinds of leaf development. As a result, unexpected findings and clues have been unearthed aiding our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the diversity of leaf morphology, although the covered remain limited. In this review, we highlight recent findings of diversified leaf development in angiosperms.

  11. A comparison of efficiency of manual and automatic fibres search with the Maxcan fibre finder.

    PubMed

    Monard Sermier, F; Massonnet, G; Buzzini, P; Fortini, A; Gason, F; De Wael, K; Rovas, P

    2006-07-13

    The aim of this work was to study the efficiency of automatic fibre searching with the Maxcan fibre finder (Cox Analytical Systems, Sweden) in comparison to manual searching. The influence of some parameters (color, thickness, background noise) on the results of a fibre search was considered. Eighteen experimental tapes with different target fibres and different background noises were prepared in the laboratory. Searching of fibres was performed manually and with the Maxcan fibre finder by different operators from four European laboratories. Two laboratories have the Maxcan fibre finder system and the two instruments were used and compared in this study. The results show that searching with the Maxcan is generally as efficient as manual searching, except for very pale or very dark fibres. Note that the tapes used for these experiments were prepared in laboratory, and are not completely representative of the tape that could be obtained in real cases. To generalize the results obtained, further research on real case samples would be necessary.

  12. Magnesium coated bioresorbable phosphate glass fibres: investigation of the interface between fibre and polyester matrices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoling; Grant, David M; Parsons, Andrew J; Harper, Lee T; Rudd, Chris D; Ahmed, Ifty

    2013-01-01

    Bioresorbable phosphate glass fibre reinforced polyester composites have been investigated as replacement for some traditional metallic orthopaedic implants, such as bone fracture fixation plates. However, composites tested revealed loss of the interfacial integrity after immersion within aqueous media which resulted in rapid loss of mechanical properties. Physical modification of fibres to change fibre surface morphology has been shown to be an effective method to improve fibre and matrix adhesion in composites. In this study, biodegradable magnesium which would gradually degrade to Mg(2+) in the human body was deposited via magnetron sputtering onto bioresorbable phosphate glass fibres to obtain roughened fibre surfaces. Fibre surface morphology after coating was observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The roughness profile and crystalline texture of the coatings were determined via atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively. The roughness of the coatings was seen to increase from 40 ± 1 nm to 80 ± 1 nm. The mechanical properties (tensile strength and modulus) of fibre with coatings decreased with increased magnesium coating thickness.

  13. Magnesium Coated Bioresorbable Phosphate Glass Fibres: Investigation of the Interface between Fibre and Polyester Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoling; Grant, David M.; Parsons, Andrew J.; Harper, Lee T.; Rudd, Chris D.; Ahmed, Ifty

    2013-01-01

    Bioresorbable phosphate glass fibre reinforced polyester composites have been investigated as replacement for some traditional metallic orthopaedic implants, such as bone fracture fixation plates. However, composites tested revealed loss of the interfacial integrity after immersion within aqueous media which resulted in rapid loss of mechanical properties. Physical modification of fibres to change fibre surface morphology has been shown to be an effective method to improve fibre and matrix adhesion in composites. In this study, biodegradable magnesium which would gradually degrade to Mg2+ in the human body was deposited via magnetron sputtering onto bioresorbable phosphate glass fibres to obtain roughened fibre surfaces. Fibre surface morphology after coating was observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The roughness profile and crystalline texture of the coatings were determined via atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively. The roughness of the coatings was seen to increase from 40 ± 1 nm to 80 ± 1 nm. The mechanical properties (tensile strength and modulus) of fibre with coatings decreased with increased magnesium coating thickness. PMID:24066297

  14. Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Molly; Gunton, Ric

    2000-01-01

    Maple Leaf Outdoor Centre (Ontario) has added year-round outdoor education facilities and programs to help support its summer camp for disadvantaged children. Schools, youth centers, religious groups, and athletic teams conduct their own programs, collaborate with staff, or use staff-developed programs emphasizing adventure education and personal…

  15. Bacterial leaf spot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial leaf spot has been reported in Australia (Queensland), Egypt, El Salvador, India, Japan, Nicaragua, Sudan, and the United States (Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, and Wisconsin). It occasionally causes locally severe defoliation and post-emergence damping-off and stunting. The disease is...

  16. Cucumber leaf spot virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumber leaf spot virus (CLSV) was originally identified from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) in Germany, but has since been found in various parts of Europe, the UK, and the Middle East, including Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Bulgaria, Poland, and Spain. CLSV is known to cause symptoms ranging from chloroti...

  17. DESIGN NOTE: Surface microscopy and fibre characterization using a multimode-fibre reflectance microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukins, P. B.; Rehman, S.; Stevens, G. B.

    2000-04-01

    A remarkably simple scanning infrared surface-reflectance microscope based on a multimode-fibre-coupled diode laser together with straightforward electronics and scanning stage is described. The design does not require alignment and completely avoids the use of objectives, beamsplitters and other optics normally associated with such microscopes. The axial response, resolution and imaging properties for non-interferometric operation are characterized. A geometric model for the transmission of such a microscope using an idealized step/graded-index multimode fibre is presented. This model is used to explain the axial response of the microscope. Finally, a new method for determination of the numerical aperture and index-grading parameter of multimode fibres is proposed. This method is based on the geometric model together with axial-response measurements using the microscope in such a way that the fibre probe is the actual test fibre.

  18. Polarisation maintaining fibre with pure silica core and two depressed claddings for fibre optic gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbatov, A. M.; Kurbatov, R. A.; Voloshin, V. V.; Vorob'ev, I. L.; Kolosovsky, A. O.

    2016-12-01

    Polarisation maintaining (PM) fibre is described with pure silica core and two depressed claddings for fibre optic gyro (FOG) sensing coil. Detailed mathematical simulation is presented by supermodes method, which is extremely necessary for such fibre. Simulation is fulfilled by frequency domain finite difference method (FDFDM), taking into account all details of realistic index profile with stress applying parts, while the leakage/bend loss occur in the region with complex index, surrounding the fibre. Cutoff and small bend loss are theoretically predicted and experimentally measured with excellent agreement between theory and experiment. Polarisation maintaining ability is measured in the form of conventional h-parameter (7.1·10-6 1/m) for 90-μm diameter fibre with birefringence value only 3.9·10-4.

  19. Influence of fibre design and curvature on crosstalk in multi-core fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Egorova, O N; Astapovich, M S; Semjonov, S L; Dianov, E M; Melnikov, L A; Salganskii, M Yu; Mishkin, S N; Nishchev, K N

    2016-03-31

    We have studied the influence of cross-sectional structure and bends on optical cross-talk in a multicore fibre. A reduced refractive index layer produced between the cores of such fibre with a small centre-to-centre spacing between neighbouring cores (27 μm) reduces optical cross-talk by 20 dB. The cross-talk level achieved, 30 dB per kilometre of the length of the multicore fibre, is acceptable for a number of applications where relatively small lengths of fibre are needed. Moreover, a significant decrease in optical cross-talk has been ensured by reducing the winding diameter of multicore fibres with identical cores. (fiber optics)

  20. Fibre Body’: The Concept of Fibre in Eighteenth-century Medicine, c.1700–401

    PubMed Central

    Ishizuka, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts a comprehensive account of ‘fibre medicine’ elaborated by iatromechanists from c. 1700 to c. 1740. Fibre medicine, a medical theory informed by the notion of the fibre, has been neglected by medical historians despite the pivotal role played by the fibre in animal economy. Referring to a wide range of medical fields such as anatomy, physiology, pathology, therapeutics and life sciences, this paper elucidates the ways that the fibre serves as an indispensable concept for iatromechanists to establish their medical theories. This paper also highlights the metaphorical dimension of the fibre as an integral part of fibre medicine. In re-evaluating the concept of the fibre, this paper seeks to redress the neuro-centric view of eighteenth-century medicine, and attempts to locate the fibre body amidst the fundamental shift from humoralism to solidism. PMID:23112385

  1. Voronoi cells, fractal dimensions and fibre composites.

    PubMed

    Summerscales, J.; Guild, F. J.; Pearce, N. R. L.; Russell, P. M.

    2001-02-01

    The use of fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composite materials is growing at a faster rate than the gross domestic product (GDP) in many countries. An improved understanding of their processing and mechanical behaviour would extend the potential applications of these materials. For unidirectional composites, it is predicted that localized absence of fibres is related to longitudinal compression failure. The use of woven reinforcements permits more effective manufacture than for unidirectional fibres. It has been demonstrated experimentally that compression strengths of woven composites are reduced when fibres are clustered. Summerscales predicted that clustering of fibres would increase the permeability of the reinforcement and hence expedite the processing of these materials. Commercial fabrics are available which employ this concept using flow-enhancing bound tows. The net effect of clustering fibres is to enhance processability whilst reducing the mechanical properties. The effects reported above were qualitative correlations. To improve the design tools for reinforcement fabrics we have sought to quantify the changes in the micro/meso-structure of woven reinforcement fabrics. Gross differences in the appearance of laminate sections are apparent for different weave styles. The use of automated image analysis is essential for the quantification of subtle changes in fabric architecture. This paper considers Voronoi tessellation and fractal dimensions for the quantification of the microstructures of woven fibre-reinforced composites. It reviews our studies in the last decade of the process-property-structure relationships for commercial and experimental fabric reinforcements in an attempt to resolve the processing vs. properties dilemma. A new flow-enhancement concept has been developed which has a reduced impact on laminate mechanical properties.

  2. The role of dietary fibre in the human colon.

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, J H; Stephen, A M

    1980-01-01

    Several effects of dietary fibre on colonic function have been documented by experiment or deduced from epidemiologic observation. The magnitude of these changes depends on the source and the physical and chemical composition of the fibre used, and on the individual response of the subjects. Three theories of the mode of action of fibre are discussed; they relate to the water-holding capacity of fibre, the production of short-chain fatty acids from fibre in the colon and the alteration by fibre of the colonic microflora. PMID:6257366

  3. Radiation-resistant erbium-doped silica fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Zotov, K V; Likhachev, M E; Tomashuk, A L; Bubnov, M M; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, A N

    2007-10-31

    It is shown that the service life of erbium-doped fibres can be increased many times under conditions of an elevated radiation level by loading the fibre glass network with molecular hydrogen. Backdiffusion of hydrogen from the fibre in the process of its operation is virtually excluded for the fibre covered with a hermetic carbon coating. It is shown that this technique of fibre preparation allows one to slow down significantly degradation of the lasing properties of erbium fibres under the conditions characteristic of space applications. (special issue devoted to the 25th anniversary of the a.m. prokhorov general physics institute)

  4. Photosensitivity of optical fibres doped with different impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Larionov, Yu V; Rybaltovsky, A A; Semenov, S L; Vartapetov, Sergei K; Kurzanov, M A; Obidin, Aleksei Z

    2004-02-28

    Photosensitivities of hydrogen-loaded silica fibres doped with germanium, phosphorus, antimony, and aluminium are estimated and compared. It is shown that although all the fibres can be pre-exposed, the degree of this effect is noticeably different for different fibres because the induction of the refractive index is determined by a combined contribution from a one-step photochemical reaction and a two-step reaction responsible for pre-exposure. One-step reactions dominate in more photosensitive optical fibres, while two-step reactions dominate in less photosensitive fibres. (optical fibres)

  5. Collagen fibre arrangement in the tibial plateau articular cartilage of man and other mammalian species

    PubMed Central

    KÄÄB, M. J.; AP GWYNN, I.; NÖTZLI, H. P.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental animal models are frequently used to study articular cartilage, but the relevance to man remains problematic. In this study animal models were compared by examination of the collagen fibre arrangement in the medial tibial plateau of human, cow, pig, dog, sheep, rabbit and rat specimens. 24 cartilage samples from each species were prepared and maximum cartilage thickness in the central tibial plateau measured. Samples were fixed, dehydrated, freeze-fractured and imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At low magnification, 2 different arrangements of collagen fibres were observed: leaf-like (human, pig, dog) and columnar (cow, sheep, rabbit, rat). The porcine collagen structure was the most similar to that of man. This arrangement was consistent from the radial to the upper zones. Under higher magnification at the surface of the leaves, the collagen was more randomly oriented, whereas the columns consisted of parallel collagen fibrils. The maximum thickness of cartilage did not correlate with the type of collagen arrangement but was correlated with the body weight of the species (r=0.785). When using animal models for investigating human articular cartilage function or pathology, the differences in arrangement of collagen fibres in tibial plateau cartilage between laboratory animals should be considered especially if morphological evaluation is planned. PMID:9758134

  6. Isolation and characterization of a FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog from pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr).

    PubMed

    Lv, LingLing; Duan, Jun; Xie, JiangHui; Wei, ChangBin; Liu, YuGe; Liu, ShengHui; Sun, GuangMing

    2012-09-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like genes are crucial regulators of flowering in angiosperms. A homolog of FT, designated as AcFT (GenBank ID: HQ343233), was isolated from pineapple cultivar Comte de Paris by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA sequence of AcFT is 915 bp in length and contains an ORF of 534 bp, which encodes a protein of 177 aa. Molecular weight was 19.9 kDa and isoelectric point was 6.96. The deduced protein sequence of AcFT was 84% and 82% identical to homologs encoded by CgFT in Cymbidium goeringii and OgFT in Oncidium Gower Ramsey respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses showed that the expression of AcFT was high in flesh and none in leaves. qRT-PCR analyses in different stages indicated that the expression of AcFT reached the highest level on 40 d after flower inducing, when the multiple fruit and floral organs were forming. The 35S::AcFT transgenic Arabidopsis plants flowered earlier and had more inflorescences or branches than wild type plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural characterization of a glucuronoarabinoxylan from pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill) gum exudate.

    PubMed

    Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; de Souza, Lauro M; Wagner, Ricardo; Pereira, Graciele C Z; Barraza, Ruth R; Wendel, Cinthia F; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J

    2013-04-15

    Native polysaccharide from pineapple gum (PANP) was obtained following alkaline extraction of gum and fractionation with cetylpyridinium chloride. It was characterized as a glucuronoarabinoxylan using NMR, methylation data, controlled Smith degradation, carboxy-reduction, and ESI-MS of oligosaccharides produced on mild acid hydrolysis of PANP. HSPEC-MALLS-RI of carboxy-reduced fraction showed homogeneous profile (Mw 1.943×10(5) g/mol). PANP was composed of Ara, Xyl, Gal, and GlcpA (40:23:7:30 molar ratio). Its main chain presented (1→4)-linked β-xylan, highly substituted at O-2 and O-3 by side chains of 3-O- and 3,5-di-O-linked α-Araf, 2-O- and 4-O-linked α-GlcpA, and nonreducing end-units of α-Araf, β-Arap, β-Galp, and α-GlcpA. ESI-MS of a mixture of oligosaccharides formed on the mild acid hydrolysis of PANP was consistent with repetitive structures of α-GlcpA O-3 linked at β-Xylp units, whereas in others glucuronoarabinoxylan-type gum exudates, α-GlcpA units had been previously found to be linked at O-2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Therapeutic uses of pineapple-extracted bromelain in surgical care - A review.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Zehra Abdul; Ahmad, Tashfeen

    2017-01-01

    Bromelain is an extract obtained from the pineapple plant and is used as a traditional folk remedy for several ailments. In this review, a comprehensive electronic database search was carried out to compile available literature on therapeutic implications of bromelain. Pharmaceutical value of bromelain has been demonstrated in different surgical sub-specialties. Diverse biological processes like anti-inflammatory, anti-oedematous, analgesic, anti-thrombotic, exfoliation etc. are involved in bromelain's therapeutic actions, mediated through the kallikrein-kinin and arachidonic acid pathways as well as through effects on cell mediated immunity. Bromelain equals non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as an anti-inflammatory agent, but has been shown to have fewer side effects. In Europe it is approved for oral and topical use, mainly for surgical wounds, inflammation due to trauma and surgery, and debridement of deep burns. Literature suggests a promising role of bromelain in surgical care. More clinical trials to establish its utility as an anti-inflammatory agent in surgical care are recommended.

  9. Potential for land application of contaminated sewage sludge treated with fermented liquid from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Del Mundo Dacera, Dominica; Babel, Sandhya; Parkpian, Preeda

    2009-08-15

    The suitability for land application of anaerobically digested sewage sludge treated with naturally fermented and Aspergillus niger (A. niger) fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes, in terms of changes in the forms and amount of heavy metals and nutrient and pathogen content, were investigated in this study. Leaching studies for fermented liquid at optimum conditions (pH and contact time with best metal removal efficiencies) were carried out for the removal of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn from sewage sludge, with citric acid as a reference. Using the same sludge before and after leaching, sequential fractionation studies were done to observe the effect of treatment on the forms of metals in sludge and their mobility and bioavailability. Results of laboratory scale studies revealed that leaching with all extractants at selected optimum conditions resulted in a decrease in heavy metals and pathogen content of the treated sludge, presence of sufficient amount of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and dominance of residual fractions in most metals, with sludge treated with A. niger, having the best quality. The results, therefore, indicate the high potential of the treated sludge for land application, with no harm from heavy metals released and no toxicity to the soil and groundwater.

  10. A Combination Treatment Using Ethyl Formate and Phosphine to Control Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Pineapples.

    PubMed

    Yang, JeongOh; Park, Youngrong; Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Kim, Gil-Hah; Kim, Bong-Su; Lee, Byung-Ho; Ren, YongLin

    2016-12-01

    Citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso), is a known quarantine pest that is difficult to control with phosphine (PH3) or low concentrations of ethyl formate (EF), particularly at low temperatures. Methyl bromide (MB) is a fumigant used for quarantine and preshipment (QPS) that can eradicate target pests with short fumigation periods. However, MB, which is an ozone-depleting substance, is scheduled to be phased out in South Korea over the next decade. There is no ideal alternative fumigant to replace MB for QPS of perishable commodities. A laboratory study was conducted to compare the individual effects of EF and PH3 individually, and the effects of EF mixed with PH3 as an MB alternative for the control of P. citri adults, nymphs, and eggs. In comparison to treatments with EF and PH3 individually, EF mixed with PH3 resulted in high toxicity to all stages of P. citri. The eggs were more tolerant than the nymphs and adults. A mixed treatment of EF and PH3 achieved complete control of eggs infesting pineapples at concentrations of 25.1/1.0 (EF/PH3) mg/liter at 8 °C for 4 h of exposures. This new combined EF/PH3 fumigation technology could offer shorter exposure times and less damage to perishable commodities at low temperatures, and could potentially be extended to controlling other quarantine pests as a replacement treatment for fruit and vegetables in which methyl bromide is currently being used.

  11. Immobilization of a cutinase from Fusarium oxysporum and application in pineapple flavor synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nikolaivits, Efstratios; Makris, Georgios; Topakas, Evangelos

    2017-04-13

    In the present study, the immobilization of a cutinase from Fusarium oxysporum was carried out as cross-linked enzyme aggregates. Under optimal immobilization conditions, acetonitrile was selected as precipitant, utilizing 9.4 mg protein/mL and 10 mM glutaraldehyde as cross-linker. The immobilized cutinase (imFocut5a) was tested in isooctane for the synthesis of short-chain butyrate esters, displaying enhanced thermostability compared to the free enzyme. Pineapple flavor (butyl butyrate) synthesis was optimized leading to a conversion yield of >99% after 6 h, with an initial reaction rate of 18.2 mmol/L/h. Optimal reaction conditions found to be 50 (ο)C, vinyl butyrate:butanol molar ratio 3:1, vinyl butyrate concentration 100 mM and enzyme loading of 11U. Reusability studies of imFocut5a showed that after 4 consecutive runs, the reaction yield reaches the 54% of the maximum. The efficient bioconversion offers a sustainable and environmentally friendly process for the production of "natural" aroma compounds essential for the Food Industry.

  12. The effect of pineapple core fiber on dough rheology and the quality of mantou.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Sy-Yu; Wu, Ming-Yin; Liu, Yao-Ling

    2015-09-01

    The consumption of dietary fiber offers the health benefit of lowering the risk of many chronic diseases. Pineapple core fiber (PCF) in this study was extracted and incorporated into dough and mantou (i.e., steamed bread). The effects of PCF substitution and fiber size on textural and rheological properties of dough and mantou were evaluated by a texture analyzer. The substitution of wheat flour by PCF resulted in a stiffer and less extensible dough with or without fermentation. The hardness and gumminess of mantou significantly increased as the PCF substitution increased from 0% to 15%, but the cohesiveness, specific volume, and elasticity significantly decreased with the fiber substitution. Ten percent PCF-enriched dough and mantou with various fiber sizes had similar rheological and textural properties, except for the k1 and k2 values. By sensory evaluation, 5% PCF-enriched mantou and the control bread had better acceptability in texture, color, odor, and overall acceptability, compared to mantous enriched with 10% or 15% PCF. Significant correlations existed between the rheological properties of dough and textural parameters of mantou and between the sensory quality and textural parameters of mantou. Therefore, we suggest that fiber-enriched mantou can be prepared with 5% PCF substitution to increase the intake of dietary fiber and maintain the quality of mantou. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Characterization of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase from Pineapple Leaves Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. 1

    PubMed Central

    Daley, Laurence S.; Ray, Thomas B.; Vines, H. Max; Black, Clanton C.

    1977-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase has been partially purified from pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.]) leaves. Specific activities obtained show it to be a major activity in this tissue. Above 15 C, the respective activation energies for decarboxylation and carboxylation are 13 and 12 kcal/mol. Below 15 C, there are discontinuities in Arrhenius plots with an associated large increase in activation energy. The adenine nucleotides are preferred to other nucleotides as substrates. The apparent Km values in the carboxylation direction are: ADP 0.13 mm, HCO3- 3.4 mm, and phosphoenolpyruvate 5 mm. In the decarboxylation direction, the apparent Km values are: ATP 0.02 mm, ADP 0.05 mm, and oxaloacetate 0.4 mm. The decarboxylation activity had an almost equal velocity with either ADP or ATP. The pH optima are between 6.8 and 7. Inhibition of the carboxylation reaction by ATP, pyruvate, and carbonic anhydrase was demonstrated. Decarboxylase specific activities are over twice carboxylation activities. The data support a model in which phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is of physiological significance only during the light period and then only as a decarboxylase. PMID:16659905

  14. In vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy of Pineapple Extract (Bromelain) on Periodontal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Praveen, N C; Rajesh, A; Madan, Manish; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Hiremath, Neel V; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan

    2014-09-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease resulting in the destruction of periodontal tissues. Various treatment modalities have been tried in the form of mechanical therapy and surgical therapy. Antimicrobial agents have been used as a monotherapy and as an adjunct with mechanical debridement. Various plant extracts have been used as antibacterial agents. Pineapple extract (bromelian) is one such agent. Hence this study was conducted to assess the antibacterial efficacy of bromelain on both aerobic and anaerobic periodontal microorganisms. The aim was to assess the antibacterial efficacy of bromelain on both aerobic and anaerobic periodontal microorganisms. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of bromelain was tested on isolated strains of Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus fecalis Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) using serial dilution broth method. S. mutans showed sensitivity at the lowest concentration of 2 mg/ml as compared to E fecalis (31.25 mg/ml) while Pgingivalis showed sensitivity at the lowest concentration of 4.15 mg/ml as compared to Aa (16.6 mg/ml). Bromelain exerts an antibacterial effect against potent periodontal pathogens; hence, it may be used as an antibacterial agent. However, further trial has to be conducted to validate this result.

  15. Characterization of genomic sequence coding for bromelain inhibitors in pineapple and expression of its recombinant isoform.

    PubMed

    Sawano, Yoriko; Muramatsu, Tomonari; Hatano, Ken-ichi; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2002-08-02

    Bromelain inhibitor (BI) is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor isolated from pineapple stem (Reddy, M. N., Keim, P. S., Heinrikson, R. L., and Kézdy, F. J. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 1741-1750). It consists of eight isoinhibitors, and each isoinhibitor has a two-chain structure. In this study, the genomic DNA has been cloned and found to encode a precursor protein with 246 amino acids (M(r) = approximately 27,500) containing three isoinhibitor domains (BI-III, -VI, and -VII) that are 93% identical to one another in amino acid sequences. The gene structure indicated that these isoinhibitors are produced by removal of the N-terminal pre-peptide (19 residues), 3 interchain peptides (each 5 residues), 2 interdomain peptides (each 19 residues), and the C-terminal pro-peptide (18 residues). Moreover, all the amino acid sequences of bromelain isoinhibitors could be explained by removal of one or two amino acids from BI-III, -VI, and -VII with exopeptidases. A recombinant single-chain BI-VI with and without the interchain peptide showed the same and no bromelain inhibitory activity as compared with the native BI-VI, respectively. These results indicate that the interchain peptide plays an important role of the folding process of the mature isoinhibitors.

  16. Continuous ethanol production from pineapple cannery waste using immobilized yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Nigam, J N

    2000-06-23

    The cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 24553, were immobilized in k-carrageenan and packed in a tapered glass column reactor for ethanol production from pineapple cannery waste at temperature 30 degrees C and pH 4.5. The maximum productivity was 42.8 g ethanol 1(-1) h(-1) at a dilution rate of 1.5 h(-1). The volumetric ethanol productivity of the immobilized cells was ca. 11.5 times higher than the free cells. The immobilized cell reactor was operated over a period of 87 days at a dilution rate of 1.0 h(-1), without any loss in the immobilized cell activity. The maximum specific ethanol productivity and specific sugar uptake rate of the immobilized cells were 1.2 g ethanol g(-1) dry wt. cell h(-1) and 2.6 g sugar g(-1) dry wt. cell h(-1), respectively, at a dilution rate of 1.5 h(-1).

  17. Movement of bromacil and hexazinone in soils of Hawaiian pineapple fields.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ye; Li, Qing X

    2002-11-01

    Bromacil and hexazinone have been heavily used to control weeds in the pineapple fields in central Oahu, Hawaii, USA, since 1970s and 1980s, respectively. The last application prior to this study was at a rate of 0.6 kg active ingredient (a.i.) ha(-1) for hexazinone and 1.8 or 3.4 kg (a.i.) ha(-1) for bromacil in the six study fields during June-October 1998. Soils were collected from 0 to 1860 cm below the surface in January-May 1999 to survey the residue profiles of the two herbicides. Stratoprobe sampling showed to be an efficient and convenient method for deep soil cores. Bromacil was detected in all the soil samples above 60 cm (105-1338 ng g(-1) dry weight) and in 74% of the samples above 400 cm (26-473 ng g(-1)). Trace amounts of bromacil (90-113 ng g(-1)) were detected in some of the samples collected from as deep as 1540 cm. Hexazinone was detected in three of the six fields at 0-60 cm only (86-107 ng g(-1) dry weight). The more frequent detection of bromacil at higher concentrations than hexazinone is related to the prolonged higher application rates of bromacil in the fields and its higher persistence and mobility in soil.

  18. Nematicide Efficacy, Root Growth, and Fruit Yield in Drip-irrigated Pineapple Parasitized by Rotylenchulus reniformis

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, R. C.; Zhang, J.; Anders, M. M.; Bartholomew, D. P.; Caswell-Chen, E. P.

    1992-01-01

    A 3-year field trial near Kunia, Oahu, Hawaii, was conducted to evaluate four nematicide treatments for efficacy against Rotylenchulus reniformis in drip-irrigated pineapple (Ananas comosus L. (Merr.)). The treatments were (A) preplant fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) (336 liter/ ha) and postplant drip application of fenamiphos (3.4 kg/ha) with restricted irrigation, (B) preplant 1,3-D only, weekly irrigation, (C) 1,3-D fenamiphos, weekly irrigation, and (D) postplant fenamiphos only, weekly irrigation. Fenamiphos was applied at 3-month intervals for 1 year after planting in three treatments. Although nematode populations increased in all treatments 1 year after planting, no differences in fruit yield were detected among treatments in the first (plant crop) harvest 19 months after planting. In the second (ratoon) crop (33 months after planting) significant yield differences, larger fruit size, and greater root biomass were obtained in the dual nematicide treatments. Root biomass increased continuously throughout the crop cycle, was greatest near the drip line, and showed a shallow depth distribution (30-40 cm). Rotylenchulus reniformis populations and fenamiphos concentrations were negatively correlated in soil profiles taken 13 months after planting. In the absence of postplant fenamiphos applications, nematode numbers were positively correlated with root biomass. PMID:19283033

  19. Femtosecond laser processing of optical fibres for novel sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalli, Kyriacos; Theodosiou, Antreas; Ioannou, Andreas; Lacraz, Amedee

    2017-04-01

    We present results of recent research where we have utilized a femtosecond laser to micro-structure silica and polymer optical fibres in order to realize versatile optical components such as diffractive optical elements on the fibre end face, the inscription of integrated waveguide circuits in the fibre cladding and novel optical fibre sensors designs based on Bragg gratings in the core. A major hurdle in tailoring or modifying the properties of optical fibres is the development of an inscription method that can prove to be a flexible and reliable process that is generally applicable to all optical fibre types; this requires careful matching of the laser parameters and optics in order to examine the spatial limits of direct laser writing, whether the application is structuring at the surface of the optical fibre or inscription in the core and cladding of the fibre. We demonstrate a variety of optical components such as two-dimensional grating structures, Bessel, Airy and vortex beam generators; moreover, optical bridging waveguides inscribed in the cladding of single-mode fibre as a means to selectively couple light from single-core to multi-core optical fibres, and demonstrate a grating based sensor; finally, we have developed a novel femtosecond laser inscription method for the precise inscription of tailored Bragg grating sensors in silica and polymer optical fibres. We also show that this novel fibre Bragg grating inscription technique can be used to modify and add versatility to an existing, encapsulated optical fibre pressure sensor.

  20. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis by Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. Essential Oil in Pineapple Juice.

    PubMed

    Leite, Caroline Junqueira Barcellos; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Medeiros, José Alberto da Costa; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) to provoke a 5-log CFU/ml (5-log) inactivation in a mixed composite of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) juice (4°C) was assessed. Moreover, the effects of CCEO on the physicochemical and sensory quality parameters of pineapple juice were evaluated. The MIC of CCEO was 5 μl/ml against the composite mix examined. For L. monocytogenes and E. coli inoculated in juice containing CCEO (5, 2.5, and 1.25 μl/ml), a ≥5-log reduction was detected after 15 min of exposure. This same result was obtained for Salmonella Enteritidis incubated alone in pineapple juice containing CCEO at 5 and 2.5 μl/ml. Overall, Salmonella Enteritidis was the most tolerant and L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive to CCEO. The physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidic [citric acid per 100 g], and soluble solids) of pineapple juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) were maintained. Juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) exhibited similar scores for odor, appearance, and viscosity compared with juice without CCEO. However, unsatisfactory changes in taste and aftertaste were observed in juices containing CCEO. These results suggest that CCEO could be used as an alternative antimicrobial compound to ensure the safety of pineapple juice, although CCEO at the tested concentrations negatively impacted its taste. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the balance between microbial safety and taste acceptability of pineapple juice containing CCEO.

  1. On-line gas chromatography combustion/pyrolysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry (HRGC-C/P-IRMS) of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.) volatiles.

    PubMed

    Preston, Christina; Richling, Elke; Elss, Sandra; Appel, Markus; Heckel, Frank; Hartlieb, Ariane; Schreier, Peter

    2003-12-31

    By use of extracts prepared by liquid-liquid separation of the volatiles from self-prepared juices of pineapple fruits (Ananas comosus) (n = 14) as well as commercial pineapple recovery aromas/water phases (n = 3), on-line capillary gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry was employed in the combustion (C) and the pyrolysis (P) modes (HRGC-C/P-IRMS) to determine the delta(13)C(VPDB) and delta(2)H(VSMOW) values of selected pineapple flavor constituents. In addition to methyl 2-methylbutanoate 1, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate 2, methyl hexanoate 3, ethyl hexanoate 4, and 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3[2H]-furanone 5, each originating from the fruit, the delta(13)C(VPDB) and delta(2)H(VSMOW) data of commercial synthetic 1-5 and "natural" (biotechnologically derived) 1-4 were determined. With delta(13)C(VPDB) data of pineapple volatiles 1-4 varying from -12.8 to -24.4 per thousand, the range expected for CAM metabolism was observed. Compound 5 showed higher depletion from -20.9 to -28.6 per thousand. A similar situation was given for the delta(2)H(VSMOW) values of 3-5 from pineapple ranging from -118 to -191 per thousand, whereas 1 and 2 showed higher depleted values from -184 to -263 per thousand. In nearly all cases, analytical differentiation of 1-5 from pineapple and natural as well as synthetic origin was possible. In general, natural and synthetic 1-5 exhibited delta(13)C(VPDB) data ranging from -11.8 to -32.2 per thousand and -22.7 to -35.9 per thousand, respectively. Their delta(2)H(VSMOW) data were in the range from -242 to -323 per thousand and -49 to -163 per thousand, respectively.

  2. Nonlinear optics in tapered silicon fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, Anna C.; Healy, Noel

    2012-06-01

    Tapered fibres provide a unique means to manipulate pulse propagation for use in all-optical signal processing applications. Recently, we have demonstrated a new class of taper that is fabricated from our silicon core optical fibre platform. Owing to the high core-cladding index contrast, these silicon tapered fibres can accommodate large taper ratios over short millimetre lengths without introducing any appreciable loss. Such strong tapers allow for unprecedented control over the dispersion and nonlinearity parameters for the tailoring of femtosecond pulse propagation. Using numerical simulations based on realistic tapered fibres with micro to nanoscale core dimensions, we have shown that it is possible to exploit the longitudinally varying waveguide parameters for nonlinear pulse shaping in both the normal and anomalous dispersion regimes. In the normal dispersion regime, we have made use of a decreasing dispersion profile to generate linearly chirped parabolic pulses which allow for high power distortion-free propagation. Similarly, in the anomalous regime a decreasing dispersion profile can be used to compensate for the material losses to allow for soliton propagation, and even soliton compression to generate ultrashort pulses. Due to the broad optical transmission window of silicon, we anticipate that nonlinear pulse shaping in tapered silicon fibres and waveguides will find use not only in the telecoms band, but also extending into the mid-infrared for applications in the life sciences.

  3. On singular fibres in F-theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Andreas P.; Watari, Taizan

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a connection between the field theory local model (Katz-Vafa field theory) and the type of singular fibre in flat crepant resolutions of elliptic Calabi-Yau fourfolds, a class of fourfolds considered by Esole and Yau. We review the analysis of degenerate fibres for models with gauge groups SU(5) and SO(10) in detail, and observe that the naively expected fibre type is realized if and only if the Higgs vev in the field theory local model is unramified. To test this idea, we implement a linear (unramified) Higgs vev for the " E 6" Yukawa point in a model with gauge group SU(5) and verify that this indeed leads to a fibre of Kodaira type IV*. Based on this observation, we argue i) that the singular fibre types appearing in the fourfolds studied by Esole-Yau are not puzzling at all, (so that this class of fourfolds does not have to be excluded from the candidate of input data of some yet-unknown formulation of F-theory) and ii) that such fourfold geometries also contain more information than just the eigenvalues of the Higgs field vev configuration in the field theory local models.

  4. Progress and development in fibre laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horley, Ray; Norman, Stephen; Zervas, Mikhail N.

    2007-10-01

    High performance fibre lasers are now well established as an extremely robust and reliable technology enabling a growing and diverse number of demanding industrial and medical and applications. Compared to rival technologies, such as carbon-dioxide (CO II), Lamp/Diode-Pumped Solid-State (L/DPSS) and disk lasers, fibre lasers offer a number of unique characteristics that have resulted in their wide adoption in an increasing number of industrial sectors. In addition to replacing conventional lasers in existing applications, fibre lasers have been very successful in enabling new applications, both factors which explain their increasing market share. In this paper we describe the basic features of fibre lasers, and discuss their generic advantages compared with other laser technologies and consider how these may translate to defence applications. We explain our proprietary cladding-pumping technology (GTWave TM) and the laser architectures we use to implement our commercial products. We present parametric performance data that show the vast range of pulse waveforms that can be produced and discuss some new industrial applications that they have recently enabled. Finally, we reference some of the leading research results for multi-kW continuous-wave (CW) fibre lasers and summarise SPIE's published work in this field.

  5. A large Scintillating Fibre Tracker for LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greim, R.

    2017-02-01

    The LHCb experiment will be upgraded during LHC Long Shutdown 2 to be able to record data at a higher instantaneous luminosity. The readout rate is currently limited to 1 MHz by the Level 1 trigger. In order to achieve the target integrated luminosity of 50 fb-1 during LHC Run 3, all subdetectors have to be read out by a 40 MHz trigger-less readout system. Especially, the current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet suffer from large detector dead times and a small granularity in the Outer Tracker, which consists of proportional straw tubes. Therefore, the Downstream Tracker will be replaced by a Scintillating Fibre Tracker with Silicon Photomultiplier readout. The total sensitive area of 340 m2 is made up of 2.5 m long fibre mats consisting of six staggered layers of 250 μm thin scintillating fibres. The scintillation light created by the charged particles traversing the fibre mats is transported to the fibre ends via total internal reflection and detected by state-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays. This paper presents the detector concept, design, challenges, custom-made readout chips, as well as laboratory and beam test results.

  6. Mechanical Property Analysis on Sandwich Structured Hybrid Composite Made from Natural Fibre, Glass Fibre and Ceramic Fibre Wool Reinforced with Epoxy Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharat, K. R.; Abhishek, S.; Palanikumar, K.

    2017-06-01

    Natural fibre composites find wide range of applications and usage in the automobile and manufacturing industries. They find lack in desired properties, which are required for present applications. In current scenario, many developments in composite materials involve the synthesis of Hybrid composite materials to overcome some of the lacking properties. In this present investigation, two sandwich structured hybrid composite materials have been made by reinforcing Aloe Vera-Ceramic Fibre Wool-Glass fibre with Epoxy resin matrix and Sisal fibre-Ceramic Fibre Wool-Glass fibre with Epoxy resin matrix and its mechanical properties such as Tensile, Flexural and Impact are tested and analyzed. The test results from the two samples are compared and the results show that sisal fibre reinforced hybrid composite has better mechanical properties than aloe vera reinforced hybrid composite.

  7. EDITORIAL: Optical Fibre Sensors 18 (OFS-18)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Julian D. C.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2007-10-01

    The International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS-18) was held in October 2006 in Cancún, Mexico, under the general chairmanship of Dr Alexis Mendez (MCH Engineering LLC, USA) and Dr Fernando Mendoza (Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, Mexico). 'OFS', as it has become known, is firmly established as the leading international conference for the optical fibre sensor community. Since its inception, in London in 1983, and under the leadership of an international steering committee independent of any learned society or professional institution, it has been held approximately every eighteen months. The venue nominally rotates from Europe, to the Americas, and thence to Asia and the Pacific. OFS-18 demonstrated the continuing vigour of the community, with some 250 papers presented, plus two workshops, with attendance as international as ever. In recent years, it has become a tradition to publish a post-conference special issue in the journal Measurement Science and Technology, and these special issues offer a representative sample of the current status of the field. In the nearly 25 years since OFS began, many of the early ideas and laboratory-based proof-of-principle experiments have led to highly developed instrumentation systems, and to successful commercial products. Perhaps the most mature of all of these technologies is the optical fibre gyroscope, with the fibre hydrophone a close second—originally developed for defence applications for which it is now established, but with increasing relevance to the oil and gas industry; electromagnetic sensors based on the Faraday and electro-optic effects are of growing significance in the power generation and distribution industry; whilst in-fibre grating-based sensors occupy an expanding niche in structural monitoring, especially in civil engineering. It is therefore appropriate that the first day of OFS was devoted to workshops on structural health monitoring, and to commemorate the 30th anniversary of the

  8. Passively cooled 405 W ytterbium fibre laser utilising a novel metal coated active fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Jae M. O.; Simakov, Nikita; Hemming, Alexander; Clarkson, W. Andrew; Haub, John

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel metal coated triple clad active fibre design, utilising an all glass inner cladding structure and aluminium outer coating. This metal coated active fibre enables a number of benefits to high power laser design, such as increase robustness and extended operating temperature range. As a demonstration of the advantages of this design a passively cooled ytterbium fibre laser is presented. A 20 m length of active fibre was coiled into a planar arrangement and mounted onto a high emissivity heatsink. Up to 405 W of output power was achieved without the need for active water or forced air cooling. The slope efficiency of this source was 74 % and maximum outer heat sink temperature was ~140°C. This arrangement allowed for significant weight and size savings to be achieved with the active fibre laser head weighing less than 100 g. We will discuss the design choices and trade-offs of metal coated active fibre on high power fibre laser systems as well as the prospects for further power scaling to the kW level.

  9. Ca2+-activated force-generating properties of mammalian skeletal muscle fibres: histochemically identified single peeled rabbit fibres.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, S K

    1984-12-01

    Single peeled (sarcolemma removed) rabbit skeletal muscle fibres, identified histochemically from their myofibrillar ATPase and oxidative staining patterns, were characterized according to their Ca2+-activated steady-state force-generating properties at normal intracellular pH (7.0) and under acidotic (pH 6.5) conditions. Maximum force-generating capacity of each fibre was assessed by measuring steady-state isometric force generation at saturating Ca2+ concentration at both pH values. The Ca2+ sensitivity of each fibre was ascertained by determining the percentage of maximum force generated at each of several subsaturating Ca2+ concentrations at both pH values. Fibres were selected from soleus, tibialis anterior and adductor magnus muscles. At subsaturating Ca2+ concentrations only two functional groups of fibres were distinguishable, corresponding to the histochemical classifications type I and type II. Type I fibres were more sensitive to Ca2+ and less depressed by acidosis than type II fibres in the subsaturating range of Ca2+ concentrations. At saturating Ca2+ concentrations, the acidotic depression of maximum force was significantly less for type I fibres than type II nonoxidative fibres regardless of their muscle of origin. Type II oxidative fibre maximum force properties depended upon the muscle of origin and demonstrated subgroups of these fibres that were different from type II nonoxidative fibres and similar to type I fibres.

  10. Cutaneous receptive fields and topography of mossy fibres and climbing fibres projecting to cat cerebellar C3 zone

    PubMed Central

    Garwicz, Martin; Jörntell, Henrik; Ekerot, Carl-Fredrik

    1998-01-01

    The topographical organization of mossy fibre input to the forelimb area of the paravermal C3 zone in cerebellar lobules IV and V was investigated in barbiturate-anaesthetized cats and compared with the previously described microzonal organization of climbing fibre input to the same part of the cortex. Recordings were made in the Purkinje cell and granule cell layers from single climbing fibre and mossy fibre units, respectively, and the organization of cutaneous receptive fields was assessed for both types of afferents.Based on spatial characteristics, receptive fields of single mossy fibres could be systematized into ten classes and a total of thirty-two subclasses, mainly in accordance with a scheme previously used for classification of climbing fibres. Different mossy fibres displayed a substantial range of sensitivity to natural peripheral stimulation, responded preferentially to phasic or tonic stimuli and were activated by brushing of hairs or light tapping of the skin.Overall, mossy fibres to any given microzone had receptive fields resembling the climbing fibre receptive field defining that microzone. However, compared with the climbing fibre input, the mossy fibre input had a more intricate topographical organization. Mossy fibres with very similar receptive fields projected to circumscribed cortical regions, with a specific termination not only in the mediolateral, but also in some cases in the rostrocaudal and dorsoventral, dimensions of the zone. On the other hand, mossy fibre units with non-identical, albeit usually similar, receptive fields were frequently found in the same microelectrode track. PMID:9729638

  11. Study of injection moulded long glass fibre-reinforced polypropylene and the effect on the fibre length and orientation distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parveeen, B.; Caton-Rose, P.; Costa, F.; Jin, X.; Hine, P.

    2014-05-01

    Long glass fibre (LGF) composites are extensively used in manufacturing to produce components with enhanced mechanical properties. Long fibres with length 12 to 25mm are added to a thermoplastic matrix. However severe fibre breakage can occur in the injection moulding process resulting in shorter fibre length distribution (FLD). The majority of this breakage occurs due to the melt experiencing extreme shear stress during the preparation and injection stage. Care should be taken to ensure that the longer fibres make it through the injection moulding process without their length being significantly degraded. This study is based on commercial 12 mm long glass-fibre reinforced polypropylene (PP) and short glass fibre Nylon. Due to the semi-flexiable behaviour of long glass fibres, the fibre orientation distribution (FOD) will differ from the orientation distribution of short glass fibre in an injection molded part. In order to investigate the effect the change in fibre length has on the fibre orientation distribution or vice versa, FOD data was measured using the 2D section image analyser. The overall purpose of the research is to show how the orientation distribution chnages in an injection moulded centre gated disc and end gated plaque geometry and to compare this data against fibre orientation predictions obtained from Autodesk Moldflow Simulation Insight.

  12. The in vivo biological activity of ceramic fibres.

    PubMed

    Brown, R C; Hoskins, J A; Glass, L R

    1995-10-01

    The well-known health effects following exposure to amphibole asbestos have led to some concern about the potential for other fibrous materials to cause similar diseases. This paper presents a summary of some of the inhalation experiments conducted with ceramic fibres in both rats and hamsters at the Research and Consulting Company, Geneva. One ceramic fibre (designated RCF1) was tested in rats at four exposure levels, this fibre was also tested in hamsters. Three other fibres were only tested in rats at the highest level--30 mg m-3. The increased incidence of tumours in these experiments has been contrasted with the negative results obtained with glass or mineral wools. However, there is evidence that the ceramic fibres were longer than the glass fibres and that long ceramic fibres were retained in lung tissue to a greater extent. This is sufficient to explain the results without recourse to explanations based on chemical differences between fibres.

  13. Short-fibre reinforcement of calcium phosphate bone cement.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, F; Gallagher, L; Jack, V; Dunne, N

    2007-02-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) sets to form hydroxyapatite, a major component of mineral bone, and is gaining increasing interest in bone repair applications. However, concerns regarding its brittleness and tendency to fragment have limited its widespread use. In the present study, short-fibre reinforcement of an apatitic calcium phosphate has been investigated to improve the fracture behaviour. The fibres used were polypropylene (PP) fibres, 50 microm in diameter and reduced in length by cryogenic grinding. The compressive strength and fracture behaviour were examined. Fibre addition of up to 10 wt % had a significant effect on composite properties, with the energy absorbed during failure being significantly increased, although this tended to be accompanied with a slight drop in compressive strength. The fibre reinforcement mechanisms appeared to be crack bridging and fibre pull-out. The setting time of the CPC with fibre reinforcement was also investigated and was found to increase with fibre volume fraction.

  14. Capillary droplet propulsion on a fibre.

    PubMed

    Haefner, Sabrina; Bäumchen, Oliver; Jacobs, Karin

    2015-09-21

    A viscous liquid film coating a fibre becomes unstable and decays into droplets due to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability (RPI). Here, we report on the generation of uniform droplets on a hydrophobized fibre by taking advantage of this effect. In the late stages of liquid column breakup, a three-phase contact line can be formed at one side of the droplet by spontaneous rupture of the thinning film. The resulting capillary imbalance leads to droplet propulsion along the fibre. We study the dynamics and the dewetting speed of the droplet as a function of molecular weight as well as temperature and compare to a force balance model based on purely viscous dissipation.

  15. Nonlinear optics of fibre event horizons.

    PubMed

    Webb, Karen E; Erkintalo, Miro; Xu, Yiqing; Broderick, Neil G R; Dudley, John M; Genty, Goëry; Murdoch, Stuart G

    2014-09-17

    The nonlinear interaction of light in an optical fibre can mimic the physics at an event horizon. This analogue arises when a weak probe wave is unable to pass through an intense soliton, despite propagating at a different velocity. To date, these dynamics have been described in the time domain in terms of a soliton-induced refractive index barrier that modifies the velocity of the probe. Here we complete the physical description of fibre-optic event horizons by presenting a full frequency-domain description in terms of cascaded four-wave mixing between discrete single-frequency fields, and experimentally demonstrate signature frequency shifts using continuous wave lasers. Our description is confirmed by the remarkable agreement with experiments performed in the continuum limit, reached using ultrafast lasers. We anticipate that clarifying the description of fibre event horizons will significantly impact on the description of horizon dynamics and soliton interactions in photonics and other systems.

  16. Multimode fibres for micro-endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtaev, Sergey; Leite, Ivo T.; Čižmár, Tomáš

    2015-12-01

    There has been a tremendous effort in modern microscopy towards miniaturisation and fibre-based technology, driven by the need to access hostile or difficult environments in situ and in vivo. Most of these rely on reducing the size of endoscopes based on fibre-optic bundles, and systems incorporating microfabricated lenses. Recently, the use of standard multimode optical fibres for lensless microscopy has become possible mainly due to advances in holographic beam shaping. This article reviews the methods and techniques behind this progress paving theway towards minimally invasive in vivo imaging as well as other applications of multimode waveguides including on-chip integration of optical micro-manipulation and numerous other biophotonics techniques.

  17. Turbulence hierarchy in a random fibre laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Iván R. Roa; Lima, Bismarck C.; Pincheira, Pablo I. R.; Brum, Arthur A.; Macêdo, Antônio M. S.; Vasconcelos, Giovani L.; de S. Menezes, Leonardo; Raposo, Ernesto P.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Kashyap, Raman

    2017-05-01

    Turbulence is a challenging feature common to a wide range of complex phenomena. Random fibre lasers are a special class of lasers in which the feedback arises from multiple scattering in a one-dimensional disordered cavity-less medium. Here we report on statistical signatures of turbulence in the distribution of intensity fluctuations in a continuous-wave-pumped erbium-based random fibre laser, with random Bragg grating scatterers. The distribution of intensity fluctuations in an extensive data set exhibits three qualitatively distinct behaviours: a Gaussian regime below threshold, a mixture of two distributions with exponentially decaying tails near the threshold and a mixture of distributions with stretched-exponential tails above threshold. All distributions are well described by a hierarchical stochastic model that incorporates Kolmogorov's theory of turbulence, which includes energy cascade and the intermittence phenomenon. Our findings have implications for explaining the remarkably challenging turbulent behaviour in photonics, using a random fibre laser as the experimental platform.

  18. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  19. Trace elements in hazardous mineral fibres.

    PubMed

    Bloise, Andrea; Barca, Donatella; Gualtieri, Alessandro Francesco; Pollastri, Simone; Belluso, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Both occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos-mineral fibres can be associated with lung diseases. The pathogenic effects are related to the dimension, biopersistence and chemical composition of the fibres. In addition to the major mineral elements, mineral fibres contain trace elements and their content may play a role in fibre toxicity. To shed light on the role of trace elements in asbestos carcinogenesis, knowledge on their concentration in asbestos-mineral fibres is mandatory. It is possible that trace elements play a synergetic factor in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by the inhalation of mineral fibres. In this paper, the concentration levels of trace elements from three chrysotile samples, four amphibole asbestos samples (UICC amosite, UICC anthophyllite, UICC crocidolite and tremolite) and fibrous erionite from Jersey, Nevada (USA) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For all samples, the following trace elements were measured: Li, Be, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Pb, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Th, U. Their distribution in the various mineral species is thoroughly discussed. The obtained results indicate that the amount of trace metals such as Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn is higher in anthophyllite and chrysotile samples, whereas the amount of rare earth elements (REE) is higher in erionite and tremolite samples. The results of this work can be useful to the pathologists and biochemists who use asbestos minerals and fibrous erionite in-vitro studies as positive cyto- and geno-toxic standard references.

  20. Improved tractography using asymmetric fibre orientation distributions.

    PubMed

    Bastiani, Matteo; Cottaar, Michiel; Dikranian, Krikor; Ghosh, Aurobrata; Zhang, Hui; Alexander, Daniel C; Behrens, Timothy E; Jbabdi, Saad; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N

    2017-09-01

    Diffusion MRI allows us to make inferences on the structural organisation of the brain by mapping water diffusion to white matter microstructure. However, such a mapping is generally ill-defined; for instance, diffusion measurements are antipodally symmetric (diffusion along x and -x are equal), whereas the distribution of fibre orientations within a voxel is generally not symmetric. Therefore, different sub-voxel patterns such as crossing, fanning, or sharp bending, cannot be distinguished by fitting a voxel-wise model to the signal. However, asymmetric fibre patterns can potentially be distinguished once spatial information from neighbouring voxels is taken into account. We propose a neighbourhood-constrained spherical deconvolution approach that is capable of inferring asymmetric fibre orientation distributions (A-fods). Importantly, we further design and implement a tractography algorithm that utilises the estimated A-fods, since the commonly used streamline tractography paradigm cannot directly take advantage of the new information. We assess performance using ultra-high resolution histology data where we can compare true orientation distributions against sub-voxel fibre patterns estimated from down-sampled data. Finally, we explore the benefits of A-fods-based tractography using in vivo data by evaluating agreement of tractography predictions with connectivity estimates made using different in-vivo modalities. The proposed approach can reliably estimate complex fibre patterns such as sharp bending and fanning, which voxel-wise approaches cannot estimate. Moreover, histology-based and in-vivo results show that the new framework allows more accurate tractography and reconstruction of maps quantifying (symmetric and asymmetric) fibre complexity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Presynaptic Calcium Signalling in Cerebellar Mossy Fibres

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Louiza B.; Jörntell, Henrik; Midtgaard, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Whole-cell recordings were obtained from mossy fibre terminals in adult turtles in order to characterize the basic membrane properties. Calcium imaging of presynaptic calcium signals was carried out in order to analyse calcium dynamics and presynaptic GABA B inhibition. A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive fast Na+ spike faithfully followed repetitive depolarizing pulses with little change in spike duration or amplitude, while a strong outward rectification dominated responses to long-lasting depolarizations. High-threshold calcium spikes were uncovered following addition of potassium channel blockers. Calcium imaging using Calcium-Green dextran revealed a stimulus-evoked all-or-none TTX-sensitive calcium signal in simple and complex rosettes. All compartments of a complex rosette were activated during electrical activation of the mossy fibre, while individual simple and complex rosettes along an axon appeared to be isolated from one another in terms of calcium signalling. CGP55845 application showed that GABA B receptors mediated presynaptic inhibition of the calcium signal over the entire firing frequency range of mossy fibres. A paired-pulse depression of the calcium signal lasting more than 1 s affected burst firing in mossy fibres; this paired-pulse depression was reduced by GABA B antagonists. While our results indicated that a presynaptic rosette electrophysiologically functioned as a unit, topical GABA application showed that calcium signals in the branches of complex rosettes could be modulated locally, suggesting that cerebellar glomeruli may be dynamically sub-compartmentalized due to ongoing inhibition mediated by Golgi cells. This could provide a fine-grained control of mossy fibre-granule cell information transfer and synaptic plasticity within a mossy fibre rosette. PMID:20162034

  2. The role of aqueous extract of pineapple fruit parts on the healing of acute crush tendon injury.

    PubMed

    Aiyegbusi, A I; Duru, F I O; Awelimobor, D; Noronha, C C; Okanlawon, A O

    2010-01-01

    The Pineapple plant contains the enzyme bromelain which has been acclaimed to reduce pain and swellings following acute muscle injuries as well as carotenoids and polyphenols which are powerful antioxidants. It is yet to be determined if these constituents are distributed throughout the plant and what effect they have on the healing of acute tendon injuries. This study therefore investigated the effects of the aqueous extract of different parts of the pineapple plant on tenoblast proliferation and the tendon Malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the early stage of healing in a crush injury to the achilles tendon of Sprague-Dawley rats. Forty male rats were divided randomly into five groups; all had induced crush injury to the left Achilles tendon. Group 1; injury and nil treatment, Group 2; leaves extract, Group 3; fruit flesh extract, Group 4; bark extract, Group 5; core extract. The extract was given at a dosage of 30 mg/kg body weight daily over the first 14 days post-injury. On the 15th day post injury, the animals were sacrificed and the tendons excised and processed for histological study and MDA assay. The flesh and bark extract induced a proliferation of tenoblasts which however was not significantly different from that of the untreated tendon while the leaves and core extracts reduced the population of the tenocytes. The flesh extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the MDA level while the leaves and core extract significantly (p < 0.001) increased it. The bark extract had no significant impact on the MDA level compared with the untreated tendon. This study suggests that the anti-oxidant constituents of the pineapple plant are concentrated in the flesh while the bark and flesh extracts have the potential to promote healing by stimulating tenoblast proliferation.

  3. Classification of Wood Pulp Fibre Cross-Sectional Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, Asuka; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary

    This work presents a comparison of two statistical approaches for automatic classification of fibre shapes, i.e. Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) and Mahalanobis Discriminant Analysis (MLDA). The discriminant analyses were applied to identify and classify several fibre cross-sectional shapes, including e.g. intact, collapsed, touching and fibrillated fibres. The discriminant analyses perform differently, giving clear indications of their suitability for classifying a given group of fibre elements. Compared to CDA, MLDA was more reliable and relatively stable.

  4. The Significance of Defects on the Failure of Fibre Composites,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    effects produced by discontinuous and kinked plies in unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced plastic under tension. The mean stress at failure on the...5 to6.5%) void contents on changes in torsional properties of carbon fibre reinforced plastic when exposed at various temperatures to dry or wet...properties of carbon fibre/Kevlar fibre reinforced plastic hybrid composites." RAE Technical Report 76057 (1976)* 15 G. Dorey, D.J. Portsmouth, Private

  5. Peculiarities of the photosensitivity of low-loss phosphosilica fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Larionov, Yu V; Rybaltovsky, A A; Semenov, S L; Bubnov, M M; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2002-02-28

    The peculiarities of the refractive-index change in low-loss heavily P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-doped silica fibres fabricated by the MCVD method caused by irradiation with UV light are studied. The pre-exposure effect is found in these fibres. The mechanisms of the refractive-index change in phosphosilica and germanosilica fibres are considered and compared in the presence of this effect. (optical fibres)

  6. Dichroism measurements in forensic fibre examination. Part 2 - dyed polyamide, wool and silk fibres.

    PubMed

    De Wael, K; Vanden Driessche, T

    2011-12-01

    A number of dyed polyamide, wool and silk samples were examined with plane polarized light on their dichroic behavior by optical light microscopy (OLM) and microspectrophotometry with plane polarized light (MSP-PPL). It was found that most of these acid dyed peptidic fibres possess dichroism, but these are weaker than the effects previously described for polyester fibres. The small effects may be not observed, especially for wool, but these can be measured using MSP-PPL. In the three peptidic fibre classes, for the first time, a so called "inverse dichroism" is observed which appears in the absorption spectra as a hyperchromic effect.

  7. OPTICAL FIBRES Experimental and theoretical study of optical losses in straight and bent Bragg fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshkina, S. S.; Likhachev, M. E.; Uspenskii, Yurii A.; Bubnov, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    The leakage loss in straight and bent Bragg fibres has been studied experimentally and theoretically using five fibres differing in the core diameter, the number of layers in the Bragg mirror and their refractive indices. Simple analytical formulas have been derived within ray-optics theory which describe leakage and bending losses. The optical loss calculated using these formulas agrees well with our experimental data. Analysis of the theoretical and experimental results enables us to assess the effect of parameters of the waveguiding system on the optical loss in straight and bent fibres.

  8. Spinothalamic fibres, pain conduction and cordotomy.

    PubMed

    Moffie, D

    1975-01-01

    Description of four cases of cordotomy for intractable pain in which autopsy could be performed. In two of the cases the lesion had been placed (unintentionally) in the posterior quadrant of the spinal cord with good results as to the abolishing of pain. It is concluded that the conduction of pain and temperature stimuli is not restricted to the anterolateral part of the spinal cord but that this conduction may also take place along fibres in the posterolateral quadrant. A further conclusion is that the results of cordotomy are related to the number of cut fibres.

  9. [INVITED] Developments in optical fibre sensors for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwis, L.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T. V.

    2016-04-01

    It can be seen that optical fibre sensing technology has huge potential to address industrial applications. They offer various advantages over the conventional electrical systems and are increasingly becoming cost effective. Different types of fibre structure and configurations can be utilised to tailor specific applications. The paper aims to highlight the developments in optical fibre sensors for industrial applications.

  10. Molybdenum blue: binding to collagen fibres and microcrystal formation.

    PubMed

    Harris, J Robin; Reiber, Andreas; Therese, Helen Annal; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Collagen fibres have been shown by transmission electron microscopy to progressively bind the polyoxomolybdate ring-complex, termed molybdenum blue. Nucleation of cuboidal molybdenum blue microcrystals occurs on the surface of the collagen fibres, leading eventually to extensive coating of the fibres with microcrystals.

  11. Modelling fibre laydown and web uniformity in nonwoven fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battocchio, F.; Sutcliffe, M. P. F.

    2017-04-01

    The mechanical and functional performance of nonwoven fabric critically depends on the fibre architecture. The fibre laydown process plays a key role in controlling this architecture. The fibre dynamic behaviour during laydown is studied through a finite element model which describes the role of the parameters in defining the area covered by a single fibre when deposited on the conveyor belt. The path taken by a fibre is described in terms of the radius of gyration, which characterises the area covered by the fibre in the textile, and the spectrum of curvature, which describes the degree of fibre looping as a function of the arc length. Starting from deterministic and idealised fibre curvature spectra, stochastic Monte Carlo simulations are undertaken to generate full nonwoven web samples and reproduce the uniformity of fibre density. A novel image analysis technique that allows measurement of the uniformity of real spunbonded nonwoven samples from images of textiles is used to confirm the validity of the model. It is shown that the main parameter that governs the fibre density uniformity is the ratio of the fibre spinning velocity to the velocity of conveyor belt, while fibre oscillations prior to deposition play a secondary role.

  12. Pectin Methylesterase and Pectin Remodelling Differ in the Fibre Walls of Two Gossypium Species with Very Different Fibre Properties

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qinxiang; Talbot, Mark; Llewellyn, Danny J.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin, a major component of the primary cell walls of dicot plants, is synthesized in Golgi, secreted into the wall as methylesters and subsequently de-esterified by pectin methylesterase (PME). Pectin remodelling by PMEs is known to be important in regulating cell expansion in plants, but has been poorly studied in cotton. In this study, genome-wide analysis showed that PMEs are a large multi-gene family (81 genes) in diploid cotton (Gossypium raimondii), an expansion over the 66 in Arabidopsis and suggests the evolution of new functions in cotton. Relatively few PME genes are expressed highly in fibres based on EST abundance and the five most abundant in fibres were cloned and sequenced from two cotton species. Their significant sequence differences and their stage-specific expression in fibres within a species suggest sub-specialisation during fibre development. We determined the transcript abundance of the five fibre PMEs, total PME enzyme activity, pectin content and extent of de-methylesterification of the pectin in fibre walls of the two cotton species over the first 25–30 days of fibre growth. There was a higher transcript abundance of fibre-PMEs and a higher total PME enzyme activity in G. barbadense (Gb) than in G. hirsutum (Gh) fibres, particularly during late fibre elongation. Total pectin was high, but de-esterified pectin was low during fibre elongation (5–12 dpa) in both Gh and Gb. De-esterified pectin levels rose thereafter when total PME activity increased and this occurred earlier in Gb fibres resulting in a lower degree of esterification in Gb fibres between 17 and 22 dpa. Gb fibres are finer and longer than those of Gh, so differences in pectin remodelling during the transition to wall thickening may be an important factor in influencing final fibre diameter and length, two key quality attributes of cotton fibres. PMID:23755181

  13. The relationship of voluntary running to fibre type composition, fibre area and capillary supply in rat soleus and plantaris muscles.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, A; Inoue, N; Katsuta, S

    1991-01-01

    Twenty 4-week-old Wistar rats exercised voluntarily in running wheels each day for 45 days. Fibre type composition, fibre cross-sectional area and the number of capillaries around a fibre of the slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch plantaris muscles were examined and compared with animals which had no access to running wheels. The exercise group had a higher percentage of fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG) fibres and a lower percentage of fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) fibres in the deep portion of the plantaris muscle. The area of FOG fibres in the surface portion of the plantaris muscle was also greater in the exercise group. In the exercised animals, there was a positive relationship between the running distance and the area of FOG fibres in both the deep and surface portions of the plantaris muscle. In addition, the running distance correlated positively with the percentage of FOG fibres and negatively with that of FG fibres in the deep portion of the plantaris muscle. There were no relationships between the running distance and fibre type composition, or fibre area and capillary supply in the soleus muscle. These results suggested that the increase in the percentage and area of FOG fibres in the fast-twitch muscle was closely related to voluntary running.

  14. Wood Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Fibre Geometry and Coupling Agent on Physico-Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bledzki, Andrzej K.; Faruk, Omar

    2003-11-01

    Wood fibre reinforced polypropylene composites at fibre content 50% by weight have been prepared and different types of wood fibres (hard wood fibre, soft wood fibre, long wood fibre and wood chips) were treated with coupling agent (MAH-PP) to increase the interfacial adhesion with the matrix to improve the dispersion of the particles and to decrease the water sorption properties of the final composite. The present study investigated the tensile, flexural, charpy impact and impact properties of wood fibre reinforced polypropylene composites as a function of coupling agent and fibre length and structure. From the results it is observed that wood chips-PP composites showed better tensile and flexural properties comparative with the other wood fibre-PP composites with the addition of 5%MAH-PP, which is around 65% and 50% for tensile strength and flexural strength respectively. Hard wood fibre-PP composites showed better impact characteristic values comparative to other wood fibre-PP composites with the addition of 5%MAH-PP and damping index decreased about to 60%. Charpy impact strength also increased up to 60% with the addition of 5%MAH-PP for long wood fibre-PP composites. Water absorption and scanning electron microscopy of the composites are also investigated.

  15. Composite second-order performance improvement in optical fibre CATV transmission system using chirped fibre grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qing; Liu, Feng; Cai, Hai-Wen; Qu, Rong-Hui; Fang, Zu-Jie

    2005-05-01

    Theoretically, we analyse the dispersion compensation characteristics of the chirped fibre grating (CFG) in an optical fibre cable television (CATV) system and obtain the analytic expression of the composite second-order (CSO) distortion using the time-domain form of the field envelope wave equation. The obtained result is in good agreement with the numerical simulation result. Experimentally, we verify the result by making use of the tunable characteristics of CFG to change the dispersion compensation amount and obtain an optimal CSO performance in a 125km fibre transmission link. Both the theoretical and experimental results show that the CSO performance can be improved by properly choosing the dispersion compensation amount for a certain fibre transmission link.

  16. Sensitivity of a fibre scattered-light interferometer to external phase perturbations in an optical fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A E; Potapov, V T; Gorshkov, B G

    2015-10-31

    Sensitivity of a fibre scattered-light interferometer to external phase perturbations is studied for the first time. An expression is derived for an average power of a useful signal at the interferometer output under external harmonic perturbations in a signal fibre of the interferometer. It is shown that the maximum sensitivity of the scattered-light interferometer depends on the dispersion of the interferogram intensity. An average signal-to-noise ratio is determined theoretically and experimentally at the output of the interferometer at different amplitudes of external perturbations. Using the measured dependences of the signal-to-noise ratio, the threshold sensitivity of the fibre scattered-light interferometer to external phase perturbations is found. The results obtained can be used to optimise characteristics of optical time-domain reflectometers and to design individual phase-sensitive fibre-optic sensors. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  17. The worldwide leaf economics spectrum.

    PubMed

    Wright, Ian J; Reich, Peter B; Westoby, Mark; Ackerly, David D; Baruch, Zdravko; Bongers, Frans; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Chapin, Terry; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Diemer, Matthias; Flexas, Jaume; Garnier, Eric; Groom, Philip K; Gulias, Javier; Hikosaka, Kouki; Lamont, Byron B; Lee, Tali; Lee, William; Lusk, Christopher; Midgley, Jeremy J; Navas, Marie-Laure; Niinemets, Ulo; Oleksyn, Jacek; Osada, Noriyuki; Poorter, Hendrik; Poot, Pieter; Prior, Lynda; Pyankov, Vladimir I; Roumet, Catherine; Thomas, Sean C; Tjoelker, Mark G; Veneklaas, Erik J; Villar, Rafael

    2004-04-22

    Bringing together leaf trait data spanning 2,548 species and 175 sites we describe, for the first time at global scale, a universal spectrum of leaf economics consisting of key chemical, structural and physiological properties. The spectrum runs from quick to slow return on investments of nutrients and dry mass in leaves, and operates largely independently of growth form, plant functional type or biome. Categories along the spectrum would, in general, describe leaf economic variation at the global scale better than plant functional types, because functional types overlap substantially in their leaf traits. Overall, modulation of leaf traits and trait relationships by climate is surprisingly modest, although some striking and significant patterns can be seen. Reliable quantification of the leaf economics spectrum and its interaction with climate will prove valuable for modelling nutrient fluxes and vegetation boundaries under changing land-use and climate.

  18. Ripening-dependent metabolic changes in the volatiles of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) fruit: I. Characterization of pineapple aroma compounds by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Steingass, Christof Björn; Carle, Reinhold; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2015-03-01

    Qualitative ripening-dependent changes of pineapple volatiles were studied via headspace solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography quadrupole mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC×GC-qMS). Early green-ripe stage, post-harvest ripened, and green-ripe fruits at the end of their commercial shelf-life were compared to air-freighted pineapples harvested at full maturity. In total, more than 290 volatiles could be identified by mass spectrometry and their linear retention indices. The majority of compounds comprise esters (methyl and ethyl esters of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, acetates), terpenes, alcohols, aldehydes, 2-ketones, free fatty acids, and miscellaneous γ- and δ-lactones. The structured separation space obtained by GC×GC allowed revealing various homologous series of compound classes as well as clustering of sesquiterpenes. Post-harvest ripening increased the diversity of the volatile profile compared to both early green-ripe maturity stages and on-plant ripened fruits.

  19. Cloning, localization and expression analysis of vacuolar sugar transporters in the CAM plant Ananas comosus (pineapple).

    PubMed

    Antony, Edna; Taybi, Tahar; Courbot, Mikaël; Mugford, Sam T; Smith, J Andrew C; Borland, Anne M

    2008-01-01

    In photosynthetic tissues of the CAM plant pineapple (Ananas comosus), storage of soluble sugars in the central vacuole during the daytime and their remobilization at night is required to provide carbon skeletons for nocturnal CO(2) fixation. However, soluble sugars produced photosynthetically must also be exported to support growth processes in heterotrophic tissues. To begin to address how vacuolar sugar storage and assimilate partitioning are regulated in A. comosus, degenerate PCR and cDNA library screening were used to clone three candidate sugar transporters from the leaves of this species. Subcellular localization of the three transporters was investigated via expression of YFP-fusion proteins in tobacco epidermal cells and their co-localization with subcellular markers by confocal microscopy. Using this strategy, a putative hexose transporter (AcMST1) and a putative inositol transporter (AcINT1) were identified that both localized to the tonoplast, whereas a putative sucrose transporter (AcSUT1) was found to localize to prevacuolar compartments. A cDNA (AcMST2) with high similarity to a recently characterized tonoplast hexose transporter in Arabidopsis was also identified from an A. comosus fruit EST database. Analyses of transcript abundance indicated that AcMST1 was more highly expressed in fruits compared to leaves of A. comosus, whilst transcripts of AcINT1, AcSUT1, and AcMST2 were more abundant in leaves. Transcript abundance of AcINT1, the putative inositol transporter, showed day-night changes comparable to those of other CAM-related transcripts described in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. The results are discussed in terms of the role of vacuolar sugar transporters in regulating carbon flow during the diel cycle in CAM plants.

  20. Cloning and expression analysis of a PISTILLATA homologous gene from pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr).

    PubMed

    Lv, Ling-Ling; Duan, Jun; Xie, Jiang-Hui; Liu, Yu-Ge; Wei, Chang-Bin; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Xia; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    PISTILLATA (PI)-like genes are crucial regulators of flowering in angiosperms. A homologue of PI, designated as AcPI (Genbank accession number HQ717796), was isolated from pineapple cultivar Comte de Paris by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA sequence of AcPI is 907 bp in length and contains an open reading frame of 594 bp, which encodes a protein of 197 amino acids. The molecular weight was 2.29 kDa and the isoelectric point was 9.28. The alignment showed that AcPI had a high identity with CsPIC2 (78.6%), AoPI (77.4%), OrcPI (75.7%) and HPI2 (72.4%). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses in different tissues showed that the expression pattern of AcPI was different from the B-class genes in eudicots. AcPI was expressed in all the tissues investigated. The expression level was very low in fruit stems, bracts, leaves and sepals, high in petals and carpels, and moderate in apical meristems, flesh and stamens. The qRT-PCR analyses in different stages indicated that the expression of AcPI reached the highest level at 40 days after flower inducement, when the multiple fruit and floral organs were forming. It proved the important role of AcPI in floral organs and fruit development. The 35S::AcPI transgenic Arabidopsis plants flowered earlier and had more inflorescences or branches than wild type plants.

  1. Cattle management practices and milk production on mixed smallholder organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nalubwama, S; Kabi, F; Vaarst, M; Smolders, G; Kiggundu, M

    2016-12-01

    A longitudinal study to assess animal management practices and milk production was conducted for a period of 12 months on 30 smallholder farms keeping dairy cattle and certified organic pineapple production in Luwero and Kayunga districts, based on questionnaire and on-farm collected data. Farm sizes were 9.3 ± 6.7 acres in tethering system and 4.3 ± 2.6 acres in zero-grazing. Fifty-four percent of the zero-grazing herds had animal housing facilities. All farmers in tethering system kept cows on earthen floors and calves without bedding. Hygiene level in existing farms was low. Majority of calves were fed once a day by restricted suckling (77 %). Seventy-four percent of tethered cows were only fed on natural grass, while cows under zero-grazing system had a more diversified diet but with 82 % feeding mainly Napier grass. Most farms (87 %) used bulls for breeding. Milk production was higher (P < 0.05) in zero-grazing (6.5 L/cow/day) than tethering system, and higher (P < 0.05) for Holstein-Friesian crossbred cows (5.2 L/cow/day) than local breed cows (2.6 L/cow/day). Less than 1 L of milk per farm per day on average was sold. Disease treatments were exclusively for helminths, East Coast fever, and trypanasomiasis. Spraying of ticks and deworming were important control measures of vector-borne diseases. There is potential to develop alternative feed resources for dairy cattle and biorational pesticides for control and treatment of vector-borne diseases.

  2. Destabilization of Human Insulin Fibrils by Peptides of Fruit Bromelain Derived From Ananas comosus (Pineapple).

    PubMed

    Das, Sromona; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2017-05-26

    Deposition of insulin aggregates in human body leads to dysfunctioning of several organs. Effectiveness of fruit bromelain from pineapple in prevention of insulin aggregate was investigated. Proteolyses of bromelain was done as par human digestive system and the pool of small peptides was separated from larger peptides and proteins. Under conditions of growth of insulin aggregates from its monomers, this pool of peptides restricted the reaction upto formation of oligomers of limited size. These peptides also destabilized preformed insulin aggregates to oligomers. These processes were followed fluorimetrically using Thioflavin T and 1-ANS, size-exclusion HPLC, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Sequences of insulin (A and B chains) and bromelain were aligned using Clustal W software to predict most probable sites of interactions. Synthetic tripeptides corresponding to the hydrophobic interactive sites of bromelain showed disaggregation of insulin suggesting specificity of interactions. The peptides GG and AAA serving as negative controls showed no potency in destabilization of aggregates. Disaggregation potency of the peptides was also observed when insulin was deposited on HepG2 liver cells where no formation of toxic oligomers occurred. Amyloidogenic des-octapeptide (B23-B30 of insulin) incapable of cell signaling showed cytotoxicity similar to insulin. This toxicity could be neutralized by bromelain derived peptides. FT-IR and far-UV circular dichroism analysis indicated that disaggregated insulin had structure distinctly different from that of its hexameric (native) or monomeric states. Based on the stoichiometry of interaction and irreversibility of disaggregation, the mechanism/s of the peptides and insulin interactions has been proposed. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-16, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effect of pesticides used in banana and pineapple plantations on aquatic ecosystems in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Diepens, Noël J; Pfennig, Sascha; Van den Brink, Paul J; Gunnarsson, Jonas S; Ruepert, Clemens; Castillo, Luisa E

    2014-01-01

    Current knowledge on fate and effect of agricultural pesticides comes is mainly from temperate ecosystems. More studies are needed in tropical systems in order to assess contamination risks to nontarget endemic tropical species from the extensive use of pesticides e.g. in banana and pineapple plantations. In this study, acute laboratory toxicity tests with organophosphate pesticides ethoprophos and chlorpyrifos were conducted on two Costa Rican species, cladoceran Daphnia ambigua and fish Parachromis dovii. Tests showed that chlorpyrifos was more toxic than ethoprophos to D. ambigua and P. dovii and that D. ambigua was also more sensitive than P. dovii to both pesticides. Additionally, bioassays were performed by exposing D. magna and P. dovii to contaminated water collected from the field. Chemical analyses of field water revealed that fungicides were generally the most frequent pesticide group found, followed by insecticides/nematicides and herbicides. The bioassays and values obtained from the literature confirmed that D. magna was more sensitive to pesticide contamination than P. dovii and that D. ambigua was more sensitive than D. magna, suggesting that the native cladoceran is a more suitable test species than its temperate counterpart. Species sensitivity distributions showed no significant difference in sensitivity between tropical and temperate fish and the arthropod species exposed to chlorpyrifos in this study. Choline esterase activity (ChE) was measured in P. dovii in laboratory tests in order to assess the applicability of this biomarker. ChE inhibition in P. dovii was observed in the laboratory at levels below the LC10 of both ethoprophos and chlorpyrifos, confirming that ChE is an efficient biomarker of exposure. Both indigenous Costa Rican species used in this study were found to be suitable standard tropical test species. Further studies are needed to investigate how protective the safe environmental concentrations, derived from LC50 of native

  4. Cloning and Expression Analysis of a PISTILLATA Homologous Gene from Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr)

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ling-Ling; Duan, Jun; Xie, Jiang-Hui; Liu, Yu-Ge; Wei, Chang-Bin; Liu, Sheng-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Xia; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    PISTILLATA (PI)-like genes are crucial regulators of flowering in angiosperms. A homologue of PI, designated as AcPI (Genbank accession number HQ717796), was isolated from pineapple cultivar Comte de Paris by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA sequence of AcPI is 907 bp in length and contains an open reading frame of 594 bp, which encodes a protein of 197 amino acids. The molecular weight was 2.29 kDa and the isoelectric point was 9.28. The alignment showed that AcPI had a high identity with CsPIC2 (78.6%), AoPI (77.4%), OrcPI (75.7%) and HPI2 (72.4%). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses in different tissues showed that the expression pattern of AcPI was different from the B-class genes in eudicots. AcPI was expressed in all the tissues investigated. The expression level was very low in fruit stems, bracts, leaves and sepals, high in petals and carpels, and moderate in apical meristems, flesh and stamens. The qRT-PCR analyses in different stages indicated that the expression of AcPI reached the highest level at 40 days after flower inducement, when the multiple fruit and floral organs were forming. It proved the important role of AcPI in floral organs and fruit development. The 35S::AcPI transgenic Arabidopsis plants flowered earlier and had more inflorescences or branches than wild type plants. PMID:22312303

  5. Pineapple bromelain induces autophagy, facilitating apoptotic response in mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kulpreet; Tyagi, Shilpa; Prakash, Bharti; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2010-01-01

    Bromelain, from pineapple, possesses potent anticancer effects. We investigated autophagic phenomenon in mammary carcinoma cells (estrogen receptor positive and negative) under bromelain treatment and also illustrated the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 cells exposed to bromelain showed delayed growth inhibitory response and induction of autophagy, identified by monodansylcadaverine localization. It was succeeded by apoptotic cell death, evident by sub-G1 cell fraction and apoptotic features like chromatin condensation and nuclear cleavage. 3-Methyladenine (MA, autophagy inhibitor) pretreatment reduced the bromelain-induced autophagic level, also leading to decline in apoptotic population, indicating that here autophagy facilitates apoptosis. However, addition of caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK augmented the autophagy levels, inhibited morphological apoptosis but did not prevent cell death. Next, we found that bromelain downregulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase ½ (ERK½), whereas that of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase were upregulated. Also, MA had no influence on bromelain-suppressed ERK½ activation, yet, it downregulated JNK and p38 activation. Also, addition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors enhanced the autophagic ratios, which suggested the role of MAP kinases in bromelain-induced autophagy. All three MAPKs were seen to be constantly activated over the time. Bromelain was seen to induce the expressions of autophagy-related proteins, light chain 3 protein B II (LC3BII), and beclin-1. Using ERK½ inhibitor, expressions of LC3BII and beclin-1 increased, whereas p38 and JNK inhibitors decreased this protein expression, indicating that bromelain-induced autophagy was positively regulated by p38 and JNK but negatively regulated by ERK½. Autophagy-inducing property of bromelain can be further exploited in breast cancer therapy.

  6. Development of High Modulus Polydiacetylene Fibres for Use in Fibre-Reinforced Composites.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    fibres of this diameter ( 20Am ). It tends to increase as the fibre diameter is reduced reflecting the size dependence of the fracture stress and strain (10...T i. 4I~ ip lop~B .~jj ~14 ", 4.? i Ike, .~ All~’~ L *ZiI 4 * ~ ~ ~ l XV4~ ~ pt ~~<Lto 14 -aPIP wo] i uii ’. , C~ -u . F’C.R 6 OI CD (Q CDO I CD I

  7. The structure of boron in boron fibres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, J.; Krawitz, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The structure of noncrystalline, chemically vapour-deposited boron fibres was investigated by computer modelling the experimentally obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. The diffraction patterns from the models were computed using the Debye scattering equation. The modelling was done utilizing the minimum nearest-neighbour distance, the density of the model, and the broadening and relative intensity of the various peaks as boundary conditions. The results suggest that the fibres consist of a continuous network of randomly oriented regions of local atomic order, about 2 nm in diameter, containing boron atoms arranged in icosahedra. Approximately half of these regions have a tetragonal structure and the remaining half a distorted rhombohedral structure. The model also indicates the presence of many partial icosahedra and loose atoms not associated with any icosahedra. The partial icosahedra and loose atoms indicated in the present model are in agreement with the relaxing sub-units which have been suggested to explain the anelastic behavior of fibre boron and the loosely bound boron atoms which have been postulated to explain the strengthening mechanism in boron fibres during thermal treatment.

  8. Fabrication of Polymer Optical Fibre (POF) Gratings

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yanhua; Yan, Binbin; Zhang, Qijin; Peng, Gang-Ding; Wen, Jianxiang; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2017-01-01

    Gratings inscribed in polymer optical fibre (POF) have attracted remarkable interest for many potential applications due to their distinctive properties. This paper overviews the current state of fabrication of POF gratings since their first demonstration in 1999. In particular we summarize and discuss POF materials, POF photosensitivity, techniques and issues of fabricating POF gratings, as well as various types of POF gratings. PMID:28273844

  9. Force measurements in skinned muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    Hellam, D. C.; Podolsky, R. J.

    1969-01-01

    1. Isometric force was measured in skinned segments of frog semitendinosus muscle fibres exposed to solutions in which the calcium ion concentration was controlled with EGTA. 2. The threshold for force development, calculated from an apparent stability constant for the CaEGTA complex of 106.69 M-1 at pH 7·0, was generally close to pCa 7·5. Maximum force was reached at about pCa 6·0. 3. Maximum force is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the fibres. 4. The rate of force development was slower than that expected from simple diffusion of a substance from the bathing solution into the fibre. The delay appears to be due to slow equilibration of the EGTA buffer system during calcium uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 5. Addition of deoxycholate (DOC) to the bathing solution produced a reversible increase in the rate of force development. The steady force was also increased for values of pCa that gave less than maximum force, which shifted the force—pCa relation toward lower calcium concentrations by about 0·5 pCa unit. 6. The length—force relation in partially activated preparations is similar to that reported for electrically activated intact fibres. This result suggests that in the region of myofilament overlap the affinity of the binding sites for calcium is uniform along the length of the calciumbinding myofilament. PMID:5765859

  10. Radiation curing of carbon fibre composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spadaro, G.; Alessi, S.; Dispenza, C.; Sabatino, M. A.; Pitarresi, G.; Tumino, D.; Przbytniak, G.

    2014-01-01

    Epoxy/carbon fibre reinforced composites were produced by means of e-beam irradiation through a pulsed 10 MeV electron beam accelerator. The matrix consisted of a difunctional epoxy monomer (DGEBA) and an initiator of cationic polymerisation, while the reinforcement was a unidirectional high modulus carbon fibre fabric. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis was carried out in order to determine the cross-linking degree. The analysis pointed out a nonuniformity in the cross-linking degree of the e-beam cured panels, with the formation of clusters at low Tg (glass transition temperature) and clusters at high Tg. An out-of-mould post irradiation thermal treatment on e-beam cured samples provides a higher uniformity in the network although some slight degradation effects. Mode I delamination fracture toughness and Interlaminar Shear Strength (ISS) were also investigated by means of Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and Short Beam Shear tests, respectively. Results from this mechanical characterisation allowed to correlate fracture toughness of the bulk matrix resin, cross-linking density and fibre/matrix interaction to the delamination fracture behaviour of the fibre reinforced material.

  11. Compressive Behaviour of PBZ Fibres in Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    fibre wihincreasing load. Helical compresive %:!nlbands in zy"indricaiiy orthotro-pic materials such asIK wood and P’PTA have been studied by DeTeresa 2... radial sheets. He b concluded that the formation of kinkbands in orthotropic materials I result from shearing between the planes of easy shear slip. This

  12. A novel technique for active fibre production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner-Erny, Ruth; Di Labio, Loredana; Lüthy, Willy

    2007-04-01

    Active fibre devices are conventionally manufactured using MCVD technique. Recently it has been shown that nearly equivalent results can also be obtained with sol-gel technology. Now we present a novel technique allowing simplification of the manufacturing process even more. The required constituents are mixed in the form of dry micro- and nano-sized particles. A silica glass tube forming the future core region of a fibre preform is filled with a powder mix of SiO 2, 1% Nd (as Nd 2O 3) and 10% Al (as Al 2O 3). This tube is mounted in the centre of a larger tube forming the future cladding. The empty space between the two tubes is filled with SiO 2 powder. After preheating, the evacuated preform is drawn to a fibre. A length of 45 cm, cladding-pumped with a diode laser at 808 nm as well as a core-pumped fibre of 5.1 cm length showed laser action between 1.05 and 1.1 μm.

  13. The tensile properties of single sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachtiar, D.; Sapuan, S. M.; Zainudin, E. S.; Khalina, A.; Dahlan, K. Z. M.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a brief description and characterization of the sugar palm fibres, still rare in the scientific community, compared to other natural fibres employed in polymeric composites. Sugar palm fibres are cellulose-based fibres extracted from the Arenga pinnata plant. The characterization consists of tensile test and the morphological examination. The average tensile properties results of fibres such as Young's modulus is equal to 3.69 GPa, tensile strength is equal to 190.29 MPa, and strain at failure is equal to 19.6%.

  14. Post-microbuckling of fibre bridging kink bands under compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueguang, Wei; Wei, Yang

    1993-02-01

    Surface originated kink bands consist of an important failure mode for fibre-reinforced composites under compression. The mechanical behavior of the fibre bridging kink bands is explored herein in the context of the post-microbuckling theory. Expressions of bridging force are obtained for the entire postbuckling process of the fibres exhibiting weak or strong hardening. The postbuckling formulation of the fibres is applied to yield the toughness increment due to the advancing kink bands, and consequently leads to a quantitative prediction on the overall compressive stress strain curves of the fibre-reinforced composites.

  15. Leaf development: a cellular perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kalve, Shweta; De Vos, Dirk; Beemster, Gerrit T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Through its photosynthetic capacity the leaf provides the basis for growth of the whole plant. In order to improve crops for higher productivity and resistance for future climate scenarios, it is important to obtain a mechanistic understanding of leaf growth and development and the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the process. Cells are both the basic building blocks of the leaf and the regulatory units that integrate genetic and environmental information into the developmental program. Therefore, to fundamentally understand leaf development, one needs to be able to reconstruct the developmental pathway of individual cells (and their progeny) from the stem cell niche to their final position in the mature leaf. To build the basis for such understanding, we review current knowledge on the spatial and temporal regulation mechanisms operating on cells, contributing to the formation of a leaf. We focus on the molecular networks that control exit from stem cell fate, leaf initiation, polarity, cytoplasmic growth, cell division, endoreduplication, transition between division and expansion, expansion and differentiation and their regulation by intercellular signaling molecules, including plant hormones, sugars, peptides, proteins, and microRNAs. We discuss to what extent the knowledge available in the literature is suitable to be applied in systems biology approaches to model the process of leaf growth, in order to better understand and predict leaf growth starting with the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25132838

  16. From nanoparticles to fibres: effect of dispersion composition on fibre properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, Katharina S. U.; Esrafilzadeh, Dorna; Thompson, Brianna C.; Quigley, Anita F.; Kapsa, Robert M. I.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2015-06-01

    A polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-stabilized polypyrrole nanodispersion has been optimised for conductivity and processability by decreasing the quantity of PVA before and after synthesis. A reduction of PVA before synthesis leads to the formation of particles with a slight increase in dry particle diameter (51 ± 6 to 63 ± 3 nm), and conversely a reduced hydrodynamic diameter. Conductivity of the dried nanoparticle films was not measureable after a reduction of PVA prior to synthesis. Using filtration of particles after synthesis, PVA content was sufficiently reduced to achieve dried thin film conductivity of 2 S cm-1, while the electroactivity of the dispersed particles remained unchanged. The as-synthesized and PVA-reduced polypyrrole particles were successfully spun into all-nanoparticle fibres using a wet-extrusion approach without the addition of any polymer or gel matrix. Using nanoparticles as a starting material is a novel approach, which allowed the production of macro-scale fibres that consisted entirely of polypyrrole nanoparticles. Fibres made from PVA-reduced polypyrrole showed higher electroactivity compared to fibres composed of the dispersion high in PVA. The mechanical properties of the fibres were also improved by reducing the amount of PVA present, resulting in a stronger, more ductile and less brittle fibre, which could find potential application in various fields.

  17. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. [49 FR 16758, Apr. 20, 1984] ...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. [49 FR 16759, Apr. 20, 1984] ...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. ...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. ...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. [49 FR 16759, Apr. 20, 1984] ...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. ...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. [49 FR 16758, Apr. 20, 1984] ...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. ...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3033 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3033 Section 29.3033 Agriculture Regulations... Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. [49 FR 16758, Apr. 20, 1984] ...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2528 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. ...

  7. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. [49 FR 16755, Apr. 20, 1984. Redesignated at 51 FR 25027, July...

  8. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. [49 FR 16755, Apr. 20, 1984. Redesignated at 51 FR 25027, July...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. ...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. ...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3525 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf. 29.3525 Section 29.3525 Agriculture Regulations... Type 95) § 29.3525 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. [49 FR 16759, Apr. 20, 1984] ...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1028 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leaf. 29.1028 Section 29.1028 Agriculture Regulations... Type 92) § 29.1028 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. [49 FR 16755, Apr. 20, 1984. Redesignated at 51 FR 25027, July...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2528 - Leaf.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leaf. 29.2528 Section 29.2528 Agriculture Regulations...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2528 Leaf. Whole, unstemmed leaf. Leaf, when applied to tobacco in strip form, shall describe the divided unit of a whole leaf. ...

  14. Relationships of leaf dark respiration to leaf nitrogen, specific leaf area and leaf life-span: a test across biomes and functional groups

    Treesearch

    Peter B. Reich; Michael B. Walters; David S. Ellsworth; [and others; [Editor’s note: James M.. Vose is the SRS co-author for this publication.

    1998-01-01

    Based on prior evidence of coordinated multiple leaf trait scaling, the authors hypothesized that variation among species in leaf dark respiration rate (Rd) should scale with variation in traits such as leaf nitrogen (N), leaf life-span, specific leaf area (SLA), and net photosynthetic capacity (Amax). However, it is not known whether such scaling, if it exists, is...

  15. Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-05-01

    The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 16S Ribosomal DNA Characterization of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Banana (Musa spp.) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril)

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães Cruz, Leonardo; Maltempi de Souza, Emanuel; Weber, Olmar Baler; Baldani, José Ivo; Döbereiner, Johanna; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from banana (Musa spp.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) were characterized by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans, Burkholderia brasilensis, and Burkholderia tropicalis were identified. Eight other types were placed in close proximity to these genera and other alpha and beta Proteobacteria. PMID:11319127

  17. PineElm_SSRdb: a microsatellite marker database identified from genomic, chloroplast, mitochondrial and EST sequences of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill).

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Sakshi; Mishra, Bharat Kumar; Vivek, Thiruvettai; Magadum, Santoshkumar; Yasin, Jeshima Khan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Sequence Repeats or microsatellites are resourceful molecular genetic markers. There are only few reports of SSR identification and development in pineapple. Complete genome sequence of pineapple available in the public domain can be used to develop numerous novel SSRs. Therefore, an attempt was made to identify SSRs from genomic, chloroplast, mitochondrial and EST sequences of pineapple which will help in deciphering genetic makeup of its germplasm resources. A total of 359511 SSRs were identified in pineapple (356385 from genome sequence, 45 from chloroplast sequence, 249 in mitochondrial sequence and 2832 from EST sequences). The list of EST-SSR markers and their details are available in the database. PineElm_SSRdb is an open source database available for non-commercial academic purpose at http://app.bioelm.com/ with a mapping tool which can develop circular maps of selected marker set. This database will be of immense use to breeders, researchers and graduates working on Ananas spp. and to others working on cross-species transferability of markers, investigating diversity, mapping and DNA fingerprinting.

  18. Effects of high-pressure argon and nitrogen treatments on respiration, browning and antioxidant potential of minimally processed pineapples during shelf life.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-shuang; Zhang, Min; Wang, Shao-jin

    2012-08-30

    High-pressure (HP) inert gas processing causes inert gas and water molecules to form clathrate hydrates that restrict intracellular water activity and enzymatic reactions. This technique can be used to preserve fruits and vegetables. In this study, minimally processed (MP) pineapples were treated with HP (∼10 MPa) argon (Ar) and nitrogen (N) for 20 min. The effects of these treatments on respiration, browning and antioxidant potential of MP pineapples were investigated after cutting and during 20 days of storage at 4 °C. Lower respiration rate and ethylene production were found in HP Ar- and HP N-treated samples compared with control samples. HP Ar and HP N treatments effectively reduced browning and loss of total phenols and ascorbic acid and maintained antioxidant capacity of MP pineapples. They did not cause a significant decline in tissue firmness or increase in juice leakage. HP Ar treatments had greater effects than HP N treatments on reduction of respiration rate and ethylene production and maintenance of phenolic compounds and DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) radical-scavenging activities. Both HP Ar and HP N processing had beneficial effects on MP pineapples throughout 20 days of storage at 4 °C. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Survival and expression of acid resistance genes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli acid adapted in pineapple juice and exposed to synthetic gastric fluid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aims: The aim of this research was to examine relative transcriptional expression of acid resistance (AR) genes, rpoS, gadA and adiA, in O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes after adaptation to pineapple juice (PJ) and subsequently to determine survival with e...

  20. Expression patterns, activities and carbohydrate-metabolizing regulation of sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase and neutral invertase in pineapple fruit during development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Wei; Du, Li-Qing; Xie, Jiang-Hui; Yao, Yan-Li; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI) activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582) and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581) were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated distinct patterns related to sugar accumulation and composition of pineapple fruits. It suggests that differential expressions of multiple gene families are necessary for sugar metabolism in various parts and developmental stages of pineapple fruit. A cycle of sucrose breakdown in the cytosol of sink tissues could be mediated through both Ac-SuSy and Ac-NI, and Ac-NI could be involved in regulating crucial steps by generating sugar signals to the cells in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion.