Science.gov

Sample records for pink hibiscus mealybug

  1. Expression of feeding symptons from pink hibiscus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by commerically important cultivars of hibiscus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), is a highly polyphagous pest that invaded southern Florida in 2002 and is now widely established throughout most of the state. Although Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. is a preferred and economically important host of M. hirsutus, the suscepti...

  2. Genes expressed in field-caught pink hibiscus mealybugs, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We advanced the understanding of the biology of an invasive pest, the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by using a genomics approach to identify genes expressed within field collected PHM. The information produced provides valuable, new and unique info...

  3. Proteins expressed in the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We produced a dataset of 315 protein sequences which we isolated from the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The dataset was published under accession numbers: EF070444-EF070605 and EF092085-EF091933, in the National Center for Biotechnology Informatio...

  4. Validation of two pheromonal compounds for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (Macconelicoccus hirsutus (Green)) was detected, in 2004, in Valle de Banderas, at municipalities Bahía de Banderas, Nayarit, and Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México, affecting fruit trees, native and ornamental plants. This pest insect is native to Asia and Australia, and has ...

  5. Field evaluation of two systemic neonicotinoid insecticides against pink hibiscus mealybug (Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green))on mulberry trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infestations of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), in ornamental trees were already in an advanced state at the time of its discovery in the Imperial Valley of California (USA) in August 1999. Concern about the spread of M. hirsutus beyond the Imperial Valley led to the p...

  6. Sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, contains an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aijun; Amalin, Divina; Shirali, Shyam; Serrano, Miguel S.; Franqui, Rosa A.; Oliver, James E.; Klun, Jerome A.; Aldrich, Jeffrey R.; Meyerdirk, Dale E.; Lapointe, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    Two compounds that together constitute the female sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus, were isolated, identified, and synthesized. They are (R)-2-isopropenyl-5-methyl-4-hexenyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [common name is (R)-lavandulyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate] and [(R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(1-methylethylidene)cyclobutyl]methyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [which we refer to as (R)-maconelliyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate]. Maconelliol is an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene, and its structure has been established by enantioselective synthesis from precursors of known structure and configuration. A 1:5 synthetic mixture of the two RS esters (1 μg per rubber septum) proved to be a potent attractant of males in field bioassays. The pheromone component, maconelliyl 2-methylbutanoate, represents a heretofore undescribed natural product. PMID:15197282

  7. Comparison of sex pheromone traps for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Vitullo, Justin; Wang, Shifa; Zhang, Aijun; Mannion, Catharine; Bergh, J Christopher

    2007-04-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a highly polyphagous pest that invaded Florida in 2002 and has recently been reported from several locations in Louisiana. Although identification of its sex pheromone in 2004 improved monitoring capabilities tremendously, the effectiveness and efficiency of different pheromone trap designs for capturing males has not been evaluated. We deployed green Delta, Pherocon IlB, Pherocon V, Jackson, and Storgard Thinline traps in Homestead, FL, and compared the number of male M. hirsutus captured per trap, the number captured per unit of trapping surface area, the amount of extraneous material captured, and the time taken to count trapped mealybugs. Pheromone-baited traps with larger trapping surfaces (green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V) captured more males per trap than those with smaller surfaces (Jackson and Storgard Thinline), and fewest males were captured by Storgard Thinline traps. However, Jackson traps captured as many or more males per square centimeter of trapping surface as those with larger surfaces, and the time required to count males in Jackson traps was significantly less than in green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V traps. Although all trap designs accumulated some debris and nontarget insects, it was rated as light to moderate for all designs. Based on our measures of effectiveness and efficiency, the Jackson trap is most suitable for monitoring M. hirsutus populations. Additionally, unlike the other traps evaluated, which must be replaced entirely or inspected in the field and then redeployed, only the sticky liners of Jackson traps require replacement, enhancing the efficiency of trap servicing.

  8. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; Ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  9. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions. PMID:27313962

  10. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in Malaysia, with two new country records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartiami, Dewi; Watson, Gillian W.; Mohamad Roff, M. N.; Idris, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    A survey of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking the national flower of Malaysia, Hibiscus rosa-sisnensis L. and Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) was conducted in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from January to March 2016. Adult females were mounted on microscope slides in Canada balsam. The five species identified were Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel & Miller. Two of these, the invasive species Ferrisia dasylirii and P. solenopsis were introduced and first recorded in Malaysia.

  11. Bioclimatic thresholds, thermal constants and survival of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in response to constant temperatures on hibiscus.

    PubMed

    Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa -sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai's linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants.

  12. Bioclimatic Thresholds, Thermal Constants and Survival of Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Response to Constant Temperatures on Hibiscus

    PubMed Central

    Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa-sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai’s linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants. PMID:24086597

  13. Hibiscus

    MedlinePlus

    ... effectiveness of chloroquine. People taking chloroquine for the treatment or prevention of malaria should avoid hibiscus products.MajorDo not take this combination.Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)Hibiscus might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes ...

  14. Design, development, and use of molecular primers and probes for the detection of Gluconacetobacter species in the pink sugarcane mealybug.

    PubMed

    Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; O'Shea, Michael G; Leonard, Graham J; Sly, Lindsay I

    2005-07-01

    Molecular tools for the species-specific detection of Gluconacetobacter sacchari, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens from the pink sugarcane mealybug (PSMB) Saccharicoccus sacchari Cockerell (Homiptera: Pseudococcidae) were developed and used in polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and in fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH) to better understand the microbial diversity and the numerical significance of the acetic acid bacteria in the PSMB microenvironment. The presence of these species in the PSMB occurred over a wide range of sites, but not in all sites in sugarcane-growing areas of Queensland, Australia, and was variable over time. Molecular probes for use in FISH were also designed for the three acetic acid bacterial species, and shown to be specific only for the target species. Use of these probes in FISH of "squashed" whole mealybugs indicated that these acetic acid bacteria species represent only a small proportion of the microbial population of the PSMB. Despite the detection of Glac. sacchari, Glac. diazotrophicus, and Glac. liquefaciens by PCR from different mealybugs isolated at various times and from various sugarcane-growing areas in Queensland, Australia, these bacteria do not appear to be significant commensals in the PSMB environment.

  15. Widespread infestation of the exotic mealybug species, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on cotton in India.

    PubMed

    Nagrare, V S; Kranthi, S; Biradar, V K; Zade, N N; Sangode, V; Kakde, G; Shukla, R M; Shivare, D; Khadi, B M; Kranthi, K R

    2009-10-01

    A survey was conducted in 47 locations in nine cotton-growing states of India to identify the composition of mealybug species occurring on cotton. Results of the taxonomic study showed that two mealybug species, the solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley), and the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), were found to infest cotton plants from all nine cotton growing states of the country. However, P. solenopsis was found to be the predominant mealybug species, comprising 95% of the samples examined. P. solenopsis, which was hitherto not reported to occur in India, now appears to be widespread on cotton in almost all cotton-growing states of the country. P. solenopsis is an exotic species originated from the USA and was reported to damage cotton and crops of 14 families. This report discusses the implications of the introduction of this exotic polyphagous pest species and the necessary steps to mitigate its potential threat to agriculture in India.

  16. Acetic Acid Bacterial Biota of the Pink Sugar Cane Mealybug, Saccharococcus sacchari, and Its Environs

    PubMed Central

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Inkerman, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    Saccharococcus sacchari is the primary colonizer of the developing “sterile” tissue between the leaf sheath and stem of sugar cane. The honeydew secreted by the mealybugs is acidic (about pH 3) and supports an atypical epiphytic microbiota dominated by acetobacter-like bacteria and acidophilic yeast species. However, Erwinia and Leuconostoc species predominate within the leaf sheath pocket region when the mealybugs die out. The unidentified acetobacters were readily isolated from S. sacchari throughout its life cycle and from other genera of mealybugs on sugar cane and various other plants, both above and below ground. No other insect present on sugar cane was a significant vector of acetic acid bacteria. The major factors restricting microbial diversity within the environs of mealybugs were considered to be yeast activity along with bacterial production of acetic acid, ketogluconic acids, and gamma-pyrones, in association with their lowering of pH. The microbial products may aid in suppressing the attack by the parasitic mold Aspergillus parasiticus on mealybugs but could act as attractants for the predatory fruit fly Cacoxenus perspicax. PMID:16348144

  17. Phylogeography of pink pineapple mealybugs, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) reveals the history of pineapple introduction and cultivation in China.

    PubMed

    He, Y B; Zhan, R L; Sun, G M; Wu, J B; Zhao, Y L

    2015-08-19

    The pink pineapple mealybug (PPM), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a widespread plant-sucking insect of considerable concern because it transmits the pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus. Its distribution is closely linked with its host, the pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill] because of its wingless and parthenogenetic characteristics. To investigate the history of D. brevipes introduction and the cultivation of pineapple in China, samples of D. brevipes were collected from the main pineapple production region in China, and from Thailand, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was analyzed. Homologous sequences of D. brevipes COI from Brazil, Thailand, and Philippines that are deposited in GenBank were compared. Phylogenetic analyses suggest there are close genetic relationships between PPM populations from Hawaii, Brazil, the Philippines, and from Thailand and China, which probably originate from South America. It is suggested that most PPMs in China were introduced from South America by way of Southeast Asia, being accompanied by the pineapple seedling. Conversely, some PPMs represented by Haplotype-WN from Wanning of China, and Lampang of Thailand were found to differ greatly from populations in Hawaii, Brazil, the Philippines, Thailand, and China. It is possible that another route was used for the introduction and distribution of pineapple, or that pineapple might have originated in Southeast Asia.

  18. ‘Hapa White’, 'Hapa Pink', and 'Hapa Red' Interspecific Hybrid Hibiscus Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hibiscus mutabilis, also known as confederate rose, is native to southeastern China, but it is also grown as an ornamental throughout the southeastern United States and is hardy in USDA zone 7 to 9. It is popular for its large, soft, gray-green foliage during the summer, and large, showy flowers pro...

  19. The native ant, Tapinoma melanocephalum, improves the survival of an invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, by defending it from parasitoids

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Dong-Dong; Michaud, J.P.; Li, Pan; Zhou, Zhong-Shi; Xu, Zai-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Mutualistic ants can protect their partners from natural enemies in nature. Aenasius bambawalei is an important parasitoid of the the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis. We hypothesized that mutualism between native ants and mealybugs would favor survival of mealybugs. To test this, we examined effects of tending by the native mutualistic ant Tapinoma melanocephalum on growth of P. solenopsis colonies on Chinese hibiscus, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, in a field setting. Ant workers with access to honeydew of mealybugs lived much longer than those provisioned only with water in the laboratory, and number of ant workers foraging increased significantly with growth of mealybug colonies in the field. In later observations, there were significant differences in densities of mealybugs between ant-tended and -excluded treatments. Survival rate of mealybugs experiencing parasitoid attack was significantly higher on ant-tended plants than on ant-excluded plants. When the parasitoid was excluded, there was no difference in survival rate of mealybugs between ant-tended and -excluded plants. In most cases, ants directly attacked the parasitoid, causing the parasitoid to take evasive action. We conclude that native ants such as T. melanocephalum have the potential to facilitate invasion and spread of P. solenopsis in China by providing them with protection from parasitoids. PMID:26503138

  20. Efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) on the leaf phylloplane over time for controlling Madeira mealybug nymphs preshipping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea (= PFR 97®) on the leaf phylloplane over time for controlling Madeira mealybug nymphs before shipping plant products was assessed under laboratory conditions. Hibiscus leaves were dipped into beakers filled with 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10 g of PFR 97® / L of water and t...

  1. Hibiscus acetosella 'Sahara Sunset'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, hereby release to nurserymen a new African Hibiscus, Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern., named ‘Sahara Sunset’. This cultivar, tested as HAC06-11 was selected from a group seedlings grown at the Thad Cochran Southern Horti...

  2. Pink lesions.

    PubMed

    Giacomel, Jason; Zalaudek, Iris

    2013-10-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy or surface microscopy) is an ancillary dermatologic tool that in experienced hands can improve the accuracy of diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant pigmented skin tumors. The early and more accurate diagnosis of nonpigmented, or pink, tumors can also be assisted by dermoscopy. This review focuses on the dermoscopic diagnosis of pink lesions, with emphasis on blood vessel morphology and pattern. A 3-step algorithm is presented, which facilitates the timely and more accurate diagnosis of pink tumors and subsequently guides the management for such lesions.

  3. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – or ... yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, when ...

  4. Conjunctivitis or pink eye

    MedlinePlus

    Inflammation - conjunctiva; Pink eye; Chemical conjunctivitis, Pinkeye; Pink-eye ... Tears most often protect the eyes by washing away the germs and irritants. Tears contain proteins and antibodies that kill germs. Pink eye is most often caused ...

  5. Are some prepupae and pupae of male mealybugs and root mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae and Rhizoecidae) mobile?

    PubMed

    Williams, D J; Hodgson, Chris J

    2013-12-17

    It is hypothesised here that some mealybug (Pseudococcidae) and root mealybug (Rhizoecidae) prepupae and pupae are mobile. The prepupa and pupa of the mealybug Promyrmococcus dilli Williams and the prepupa of the root mealybug Ripersiella malschae (Williams) are described and illustrated and their probable mobility is discussed. It is also suggested that the prepupae and pupae of the mealybug Macrocepicoccus loranthi Morrison can move rapidly on the leaves when disturbed.

  6. Are some prepupae and pupae of male mealybugs and root mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae and Rhizoecidae) mobile?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D.J.; Hodgson, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract It is hypothesised here that some mealybug (Pseudococcidae) and root mealybug (Rhizoecidae) prepupae and pupae are mobile. The prepupa and pupa of the mealybug Promyrmococcus dilli Williams and the prepupa of the root mealybug Ripersiella malschae (Williams) are described and illustrated and their probable mobility is discussed. It is also suggested that the prepupae and pupae of the mealybug Macrocepicoccus loranthi Morrison can move rapidly on the leaves when disturbed. PMID:24453543

  7. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... have allergic conjunctivitis. Preventing the spread of pink eye Practice good hygiene to control the spread of ... return to school or child care. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to bacteria ...

  8. Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-10-01

    Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species--Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)--and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

  9. Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-10-01

    Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species— Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)—and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

  10. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varietal selection is an important aspect for successful commercial production of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Maximizing the production and processing efficiency of a selected kenaf crop is not only dependent of the production location and cultural aspects, and the differences in yield componen...

  11. Understanding pink eye

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  12. Molecular identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on Korean pears.

    PubMed

    Park, Doo-Sang; Leem, Yu Jin; Hahn, Kyu-Woong; Suh, Soo-Jung; Hong, Ki-Jeong; Oh, Hyun-Woo

    2010-02-01

    Mealybugs are under a strict regulation at foreign trades of agricultural products because they are one of the most economically damaging groups of insects on food crops and ornamental plants. However, the absence of morphological characteristics enabling the discrimination of early life stages often cause a significant delay or rejection of a shipment when infested fruit is discovered, causing significant economic loss. A polymerase chain reaction-based method for species identification was developed for six mealybug species known to infest Korean pears including two regulated insects, Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana) and Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa). Six sets of species-specific primers were designed based on the sequence comparison of the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 regions. Efficiency tests against 29 mealybug samples showed that this method could effectively discriminate different mealybug species regardless of their developmental stages. Blind tests against 11 field collected mealybug nymph samples indicated that a single polymerase chain reaction is enough to discriminate unidentified mealybugs collected on Korean pears. This new method will facilitate trade and export requirements, as well as identify the species at any stage of mealybug intercepted.

  13. 'Lufkin Red' and 'Lufkin White' winter-hardy hibiscus (Hibiscus x laevis All.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA ARS announces the release of ‘Lufkin Red’ and ‘Lufkin White’ winter-hardy native hibiscuses.Both clones have desirable horticultural traits in combination with demonstrated high levels of field resistance to the leaf spot complex that is problematic on winter-hardy hibiscus clones in areas wit...

  14. Anthocyanin Content in Leaves and Flowers of Several Hibiscus Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hibiscus species contain bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceuticals to be utilized in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. Twenty eight Hibiscus species consisting of more than 300 accessions are conserved at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit, Griffin, GA. Anthocya...

  15. Chemistry of the pheromones of mealybug and scale insects.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yunfan; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2015-07-01

    This article comprehensively reviews the syntheses of all known sex pheromones of scales and mealybugs, describes how they were identified, and how the synthetic pheromones are used in insect management.

  16. Chemistry and quality of Hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa) for developing the natural-product industry in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Juliani, H R; Welch, C R; Wu, Q; Diouf, B; Malainy, D; Simon, J E

    2009-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess and improve the quality of the hibiscus calyces from Senegal over 2 production seasons (2004 to 2005), to develop and adapt new procedures for the determination of hibiscus anthocyanins and analysis of the 2 major ones, delphinidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside. The foreign matter, total ashes, and acid insoluble ashes showed that the calyces harvested in 2005 were produced following hygienic practices, while the color assessment of the calyces and analysis of hibiscus active principles also showed higher amounts of anthocyanins in 2005. A protocol to measure anthocyanins by pH-differential UV-Vis spectrophotometry was adapted to measure the hibiscus anthocyanins from a water extract. The spectrophotometric method for quantitation of total anthocyanins showed a close correlation (r(2)= 0.82) when compared with the HPLC method, suggesting the use of the colorimetric method in quality control programs as an affordable alternative method to assess anthocyanin content in hibiscus. New and raised standards for the cleanliness and active principle content in hibiscus are also proposed. This study demonstrated that the implementation of a quality control program and the application of agricultural good practices in the production and processing of hibiscus calyces can lead to higher quality natural plant products.

  17. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mealybugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mealybug specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, spec...

  18. Citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) movement and population dynamics in an arbor-trained vineyard.

    PubMed

    Cid, M; Pereiro, S; Cabaleiro, C; Segura, A

    2010-06-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the main grapevine pest in vineyards in some countries, such as Spain and Brazil. In Galician vineyards (northwestern Spain), mealybug population levels are low because the accumulated degree-days are lower than in other grapevine-growing areas. The main problem caused by mealybugs is the transmission of viruses, even at low infestation levels. The active period of citrus mealybug in the study vineyard lasted from July until December, with an important movement peak at the end of July and August and a lower peak in November. The mealybug mainly moved upward along arbor-trained plants, and there were no important downward movements at the end of the season as has been described for other grapevine mealybugs. The mealybugs were normally restricted to the woody organs and were only present on leaves, branches, and green canes (always close to woody parts) in plants with high infestations. The movement of mealybugs between plants does not seem to take place by contact between green organs. Passive aerial transport and movement of pruning remains may play an important role in mealybug movement and thus in spread of the virus. The number of mealybugs carrying Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) was found to represent approximately 75% of mealybugs caught in a GLRaV-3 infected vineyard.

  19. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns ... Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Adenovirus Non-Polio Enterovirus Parent Portal Language: English Español (Spanish) File ...

  20. Moon's Pink Mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.; Taylor, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 2010 remote-sensing discovery of lunar regolith rich in Mg-Al spinel on the rims and central peaks of impact craters and inner rings of basins on the Moon, researchers have been designing experiments to better understand the origin and formation history of spinel-rich rocks and what they mean for the construction of the lunar crust. The newly detected rock type is referred to as pink spinel anorthosite, or PSA, due to high plagioclase and low abundance (<5%) of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Two recent studies tested specific hypotheses of PSA production on the Moon. Juliane Gross (American Museum of Natural History and the Lunar and Planetary Institute, LPI) and colleagues at the LPI, University of Hawaii, and NASA Johnson Space Center conducted experiments to model the crystallization of spinel in impact melts from impact events. Tabb Prissel (Brown University) and colleagues from Brown conducted experiments to model a plutonic formation of spinel from magma-wallrock interactions. In each study, comparisons of the remote sensing data with Apollo lunar samples or lunar meteorites were crucial for testing the PSA formation hypotheses with the experimental results. Definitive answers aren't in yet. PSA could form from impact melting of the right target rocks. Equally likely is PSA formation by reaction of basaltic magma and crust. One big unknown is the effect space weathering has in determining the amount of spinel in the PSA..

  1. Phenology of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Florida based on attraction of adult males to pheromone traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted in Florida to assess the phenology of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), based on numbers of adult males captured at traps baited with a synthetic pheromone. Trapping was conducted at three locations in east central Florida in ornamental plantings of hib...

  2. Physiological Response of Orchids to Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infestation.

    PubMed

    Kmieć, K; Kot, I; Golan, K; Górska-Drabik, E; Łagowska, B; Rubinowska, K; Michałek, W

    2016-10-25

    The harmfulness of mealybugs resulting from sucking plant sap, secreting honeydew, and transmitting plant viruses can give them the status of serious pests. This study documents the influence of Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) infestation on alterations in selected physiological parameters of Phalaenopsis x hybridum 'Innocence'. The condition of the cytoplasmic membranes was expressed as the value of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. We have determined changes in the activities of catalase and guaiacol peroxidase and measured the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (Y), photochemical quenching (qP), and nonphotochemical quenching (qN). The strongest physiological response of orchids was recorded in the initial period of mealybugs infestation. Prolonged insect feeding suppressed lipid peroxidation, peroxidase and catalase activity, as well as photosynthesis photochemistry. The pattern of changes was dependent on mealybug species. This indicated the complexity of the processes responsible for plant tolerance. Data generated in this study have provided a better understanding of the impact of two mealybug species infestation on Phalaenopsis and should be useful in developing pest management strategies.

  3. Cospeciation between the primary endosymbionts of mealybugs and their hosts.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Linda; Baumann, Paul

    2005-02-01

    Mealybugs have an association with prokaryotic endosymbionts that are located in specialized cells called bacteriocytes. In order to compare the phylogeny of the host with that of the previously published phylogeny of the endosymbionts, 3.1 to 3.2 kilobase DNA fragments containing mitochondrial cytB (part), nd1,16S ribosomal DNA(rDNA), and 12S rDNA (part) were amplified and sequenced. A phylogenetic analysis of the data and a comparison with the trees obtained from endosymbiont genes and host 18S and 28S rDNA indicated that all the trees were similar. This result is consistent with an infection of a mealybug ancestor with a precursor of the endosymbiont followed by the vertical transmission of the endosymbiont to progeny. Comparison of the guanine + cytosine (G + C) contents of the mealybug mitochondrial genes with the same genes from other members of Sternorrhyncha and Arthropoda indicated that the mealybug genes had unusually low G + C contents in their DNAs (10.2 to 11.1 mol%).

  4. Development of a multiplex PCR for identification of vineyard mealybugs.

    PubMed

    Daane, Kent M; Middleton, Mathew C; Sforza, René; Cooper, Monica L; Walton, Vaughn M; Walsh, Douglas B; Zaviezo, Tania; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2011-12-01

    A simple molecular tool was developed and tested to identify seven mealybug species found in North American vineyards: Pseudococcus maritimus Ehrhorn, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzeti), Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Planococcus citri (Risso), and Ferrisia gilli Gullan. The developed multiplex PCR is based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit one gene. In tests, this single-step multiplex PCR correctly identified 95 of 95 mealybug samples, representing all seven species and collected from diverse geographic regions. To test the sensitivity, single specimen samples with different Pl. ficus developmental stages (egg to adult female and adult male) were processed PCR and the resulting output provided consistent positive identification. To test the utility of this protocol for adult males caught in sex baited pheromone traps, Pl. ficus adult males were placed in pheromone traps, aged at a constant temperature of 26±2°C, and processed with the multiplex each day thereafter for 8 d. Results showed consistent positive identification for up to 6 d (range, 6-8 d). Results are discussed with respect to the usefulness of this molecular tool for the identification of mealybugs in pest management programs and biosecurity of invasive mealybugs.

  5. A cilevirus infects ornamental hibiscus in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Michael J; Simbajon, Nelson; Carillo, James; Borth, Wayne B; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Kitajima, Elliot W; Neupane, Kabi R; Hu, John S

    2013-11-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a virus infecting ornamental hibiscus (Hibiscus sp.) in Hawaii with symptoms of green ringspots on senescing leaves was determined from double-stranded RNA isolated from symptomatic tissue. Excluding polyadenylated regions at the 3' termini, the bipartite RNA genome was 8748 and 5019 nt in length for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively. The genome organization was typical of a cilevirus: RNA1 encoded a large replication-associated protein with methyltransferase, protease, helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains as well as a 29-kDa protein of unknown function. RNA2 possessed five open reading frames that potentially encoded proteins with molecular masses of 15, 7, 62, 32, and 24 kDa. The 32-kDa protein is homologous to 3A movement proteins of RNA viruses; the other proteins are of unknown function. A proteome comparison revealed that this virus was 92 % identical to citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2), a recently characterized cilevirus infecting citrus with leprosis-like symptoms in Colombia. The high sequence similarity suggests that the virus described in this study could be a strain of CiLV-C2, but since the new genus Cilevirus does not have species demarcation criteria established at present, the classification of this virus infecting hibiscus is open to interpretation. This study represents the first documented case of a cilevirus established in the United States and provides insight into the diversity within the genus Cilevirus.

  6. A cilevirus infects ornamental hibiscus in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Michael J.; Simbajon, Nelson; Carillo, James; Borth, Wayne B.; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Neupane, Kabi R.; Hu, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a virus infecting ornamental hibiscus (Hibiscus sp.) in Hawaii with symptoms of green ringspots on senescing leaves was determined from double-stranded RNA isolated from symptomatic tissue. Excluding polyadenylated regions at the 3′ termini, the bipartite RNA genome was 8748 and 5019 nt in length for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively. The genome organization was typical of a cilevirus: RNA1 encoded a large replication-associated protein with methyltransferase, protease, helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains as well as a 29-kDa protein of unknown function. RNA2 possessed five open reading frames that potentially encoded proteins with molecular masses of 15, 7, 62, 32, and 24 kDa. The 32-kDa protein is homologous to 3A movement proteins of RNA viruses; the other proteins are of unknown function. A proteome comparison revealed that this virus was 92% identical to citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2), a recently characterized cilevirus infecting citrus with leprosis-like symptoms in Colombia. The high sequence similarity suggests that the virus described in this study could be a strain of CiLV-C2, but since the new genus Cilevirus does not have species demarcation criteria established at present, the classification of this virus infecting hibiscus is open to interpretation. This study represents the first documented case of a cilevirus established in the United States and provides insight into the diversity within the genus Cilevirus. PMID:23732930

  7. 'USS Alabama', 'USS Mississippi', 'USS Missouri', 'USS Tennessee' and 'USS Texas' Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinenis L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five new Chinese hibiscus cultivars are products from a planned hibiscus breeding program conducted by the inventors at Poplarville, MS. The goal of the research is to produce new clones with a combination of desirable horticultural traits. Desirable floral traits include early bloom, uniform flower...

  8. Cytological examination of pink eye afflicted tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye is a tuber disorder of undetermined cause that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses throughout North America. Pink eye symptoms progress from ephemeral light pink colorations around bud-end eyes to water-soaked or dried and cracked “corky-patch” periderm. Late s...

  9. Molecular and Histological Characterization of Primary (Betaproteobacteria) and Secondary (Gammaproteobacteria) Endosymbionts of Three Mealybug Species

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Paul; Forgie, Shaun A.; Kaji, Ryohei; Christeller, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic localization of endosymbiotic bacteria in three species of mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus, the long-tailed mealybug; Pseudococcus calceolariae, the citrophilus mealybug; and Pseudococcus viburni, the obscure mealybug) showed these organisms were confined to bacteriocyte cells within a bacteriome centrally located within the hemocoel. Two species of bacteria were present, with the secondary endosymbiont, in all cases, living within the primary endosymbiont. DNA from the dissected bacteriomes of all three species of mealybug was extracted for analysis. Sequence data from selected 16S rRNA genes confirmed identification of the primary endosymbiont as “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps,” a betaproteobacterium, and the secondary endosymbionts as gammaproteobacteria closely related to Sodalis glossinidius. A single 16S rRNA sequence of the primary endosymbiont was found in all individuals of each mealybug species. In contrast, the presence of multiple divergent strains of secondary endosymbionts in each individual mealybug suggests different evolutionary and transmission histories of the two endosymbionts. Mealybugs are known vectors of the plant pathogen Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. To examine the possible role of either endosymbiont in virus transmission, an extension of the model for interaction of proteins with bacterial chaperonins, i.e., GroEL protein homologs, based on mobile-loop amino acid sequences of their GroES homologs, was developed and used for analyses of viral coat protein interactions. The data from this model are consistent with a role for the primary endosymbiont in mealybug transmission of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. PMID:22156418

  10. Molecular and histological characterization of primary (betaproteobacteria) and secondary (gammaproteobacteria) endosymbionts of three mealybug species.

    PubMed

    Gatehouse, Laurence N; Sutherland, Paul; Forgie, Shaun A; Kaji, Ryohei; Christeller, John T

    2012-02-01

    Microscopic localization of endosymbiotic bacteria in three species of mealybug (Pseudococcus longispinus, the long-tailed mealybug; Pseudococcus calceolariae, the citrophilus mealybug; and Pseudococcus viburni, the obscure mealybug) showed these organisms were confined to bacteriocyte cells within a bacteriome centrally located within the hemocoel. Two species of bacteria were present, with the secondary endosymbiont, in all cases, living within the primary endosymbiont. DNA from the dissected bacteriomes of all three species of mealybug was extracted for analysis. Sequence data from selected 16S rRNA genes confirmed identification of the primary endosymbiont as "Candidatus Tremblaya princeps," a betaproteobacterium, and the secondary endosymbionts as gammaproteobacteria closely related to Sodalis glossinidius. A single 16S rRNA sequence of the primary endosymbiont was found in all individuals of each mealybug species. In contrast, the presence of multiple divergent strains of secondary endosymbionts in each individual mealybug suggests different evolutionary and transmission histories of the two endosymbionts. Mealybugs are known vectors of the plant pathogen Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. To examine the possible role of either endosymbiont in virus transmission, an extension of the model for interaction of proteins with bacterial chaperonins, i.e., GroEL protein homologs, based on mobile-loop amino acid sequences of their GroES homologs, was developed and used for analyses of viral coat protein interactions. The data from this model are consistent with a role for the primary endosymbiont in mealybug transmission of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3.

  11. The Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Damaging Vineyards in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Galzer, E C W; Malausa, T; Germain, J F; Kaydan, M B; Botton, M

    2016-08-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the Serra Gaúcha region of southern Brazil where the major Brazilian wineries are concentrated. Eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). This is a principal mealybug pest of vineyards worldwide, and this is the first record of damage from this species in Brazil.

  12. Antioxidant and drug detoxification potentials of Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salawu, Nasir A; Yakubu, Musa T; Oladiji, Adenike T; Akanji, Musbau A; Okogun, Joseph I

    2011-04-01

    The antioxidant and drug metabolizing potentials of Hibiscus anthocyanin extract in CCl(4)- induced oxidative damage of rat liver was investigated. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract effectively scavenge α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion, and hydrogen peroxide. It produced a 92% scavenging effect of DPPH radical at a concentration of 2.0 mg/mL. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a 69 and 90% scavenging effect on superoxide ion and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, at 1.0 mg/mL, which compared favorably with the synthetic antioxidant (butylated hydroanisole and α-tocopherol). A reducing power of this anthocyanin was examined using K(3)Fe(CN)(6). Hibiscus anthocyanin extract has reducing power that is approximately 2-fold that of the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroanisole. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a significantly increase and completely attenuated the CCl(4)-mediated decrease in antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). However, the level of nonenzymic antioxidant molecules (i.e., vitamins C and E) were significant preserved by Hibiscus anthocyanin extract. There was an induction of phase II drug-detoxifying enzymes: glutathione S-transferase, NAD(H):quinone oxidoreductase, and uridyl diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase by 65, 45, and 57%, respectively. In view of these properties, Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract can act as a prophylactic by intervening as a free radical scavenger both in vitro and in vivo as well as inducing the phase II drug detoxification enzymes.

  13. Anthocyanins of Hibiscus sabdiffera calyces from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Cahliková, Lucie; Ali, Badreldin H; Havliková, Lucie; Ločárek, Mirek; Siatka, Tomáš; Opletal, Lubomir; Blunden, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Extracts of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa are widely used in folk medicine to combat many illnesses. The active constituents of the extracts have been shown on several occasions to be anthocyanins. In our current studies the biological activities of an extract of H. sabdariffa calyces purchased in Oman, but grown in Sudan, are being compared with those of the anthocyanins isolated from them, and, for this, the anthocyanin profile of the extract needed to be ascertained. Although several anthocyanins were detected by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS, delphinidin-3-sambubioside (major) and cyanidin-3-sambubioside were predominant.

  14. Enlightening the Pink: Use of Confocal Microscopy in Pink Lesions.

    PubMed

    Gill, Melissa; González, Salvador

    2016-10-01

    Solitary pink lesions can pose a particular challenge to dermatologists because they may be almost or completely featureless clinically and dermoscopically, previously requiring biopsy to exclude malignancy. However, these lesions usually are not particularly challenging histopathologically. Thus, the incorporation of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy into the clinical practice, which allows for noninvasive examination of the skin at the cellular level revealing features previously seen only on histopathology, is particularly useful for this subset of clinically difficult lesions.

  15. Sexual maturation and aging of adult male mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Jasrotia, P; Silva, E B; Zada, A; Franco, J C

    2012-08-01

    The physiological age of adult males of seven mealybug species was measured in relation to the elongation of the male pair of the waxy caudal filaments. These filaments begin to emerge after eclosion and reached their maximum length from 29.4-46.6 h. The studied males were divided into three age groups, expressed as percentages of the total waxy caudal filaments length. Attraction to a sex pheromone source was significantly higher in the oldest male group (maximum filaments growth) compared with youngest one. Only the oldest male group copulated successfully; few of the younger males tested displayed 'courtship' behavior towards conspecific virgin females. The calculated duration of the sexually active phase of the adult male life cycle varied among species ranging from 34.4 to 46.6 h. There were marked variations in the strength of attraction to a pheromone source according to time of day. There was a continuous decrease in sexual activity from morning to evening. Our findings reveal clear maturation periods for adult males of the seven studied species. The long immature phase of the adult male mealybug is probably also related to several physiological processes that are needed to complete male maturation. The most noticeable change is the elongation of the waxy caudal filaments. However, mating may be performed at any time ambient conditions are suitable. Whereas male mealybug flight towards a pheromone source is restricted to a few hours, the male may continue mating activity throughout its sexually active period.

  16. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of mango mealybug, Drosicha mangiferae from Punjab.

    PubMed

    Banta, Geetika; Jindal, Vikas; Mohindru, Bharathi; Sharma, Sachin; Kaur, Jaimeet; Gupta, V K

    2016-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are major pests of a wide range of crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Their high degree of morphological similarity makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. In the present study, four Indian populations of mango mealybug (mango, litchi, guava from Gurdaspur and mango from Jalandhar) were analyzed. The mtCOI region was amplified, cloned, the nucleotide sequences were determined and analysed. All the four species were found to be D. mangiferae. The population from Litchi and Mango from Gurdaspur showed 100% homologus sequence. The population of Guava-Gurdaspur and Mango-Jalandhar showed a single mutation of 'C' instead of 'T' at 18th and 196th position, respectively. Indian populations were compared with populations from Pakistan (21) and Japan (1). The phylogenetic tree resulted in two main clusters. Cluster1 represent all the 4 populations of Punjab, India, 20 of Pakistan (Punjab, Sind, Lahore, Multan, Faisalabad and Karak districts) with homologous sequences. The two population collected from Faisalabad district of Pakistan and Japan made a separate cluster 2 because the gene sequence used in analysis was from the COI-3p region. However, all the other sequence of D. mangiferae samples under study showed a low nucleotide divergence. The homologus mtCO1 sequence of Indian and Pakistan population concluded that the genetic diversity in mealybug population was quite less over a large geographical area.

  17. Is the striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata, a vector of huanglongbing bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ (Las) present in striped mealybugs feeding on Las-infected periwinkle plants. In November 2010, specimens of a common greenhouse pest, the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Pseudococcidae; Hemiptera), were collected from Las-infected periw...

  18. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest.

    PubMed

    Moore, Aubrey; Watson, Gillian W; Bamba, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed.

  19. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed. PMID:24855439

  20. Convergent patterns in the evolution of mealybug symbioses involving different intrabacterial symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Gitta; Schulz, Frederik; Toenshoff, Elena R; Volland, Jean-Marie; Finkel, Omri M; Belkin, Shimshon; Horn, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Mealybugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) maintain obligatory relationships with bacterial symbionts, which provide essential nutrients to their insect hosts. Most pseudococcinae mealybugs harbor a unique symbiosis setup with enlarged betaproteobacterial symbionts (‘Candidatus Tremblaya princeps'), which themselves contain gammaproteobacterial symbionts. Here we investigated the symbiosis of the manna mealybug, Trabutina mannipara, using a metagenomic approach. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the intrabacterial symbiont of T. mannipara represents a novel lineage within the Gammaproteobacteria, for which we propose the tentative name ‘Candidatus Trabutinella endobia'. Combining our results with previous data available for the nested symbiosis of the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri, we show that synthesis of essential amino acids and vitamins and translation-related functions partition between the symbiotic partners in a highly similar manner in the two systems, despite the distinct evolutionary origin of the intrabacterial symbionts. Bacterial genes found in both mealybug genomes and complementing missing functions in both symbioses were likely integrated in ancestral mealybugs before T. mannipara and P. citri diversified. The high level of correspondence between the two mealybug systems and their highly intertwined metabolic pathways are unprecedented. Our work contributes to a better understanding of the only known intracellular symbiosis between two bacteria and suggests that the evolution of this unique symbiosis included the replacement of intrabacterial symbionts in ancestral mealybugs. PMID:27983719

  1. PINK1-dependent phosphorylation of PINK1 and Parkin is essential for mitochondrial quality control

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Na; Li, Lin; Chen, She; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to the pathogenesis of a large number of inherited diseases in humans, including Parkinson's disease, the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. The Parkinson's disease genes pink1 and parkin, which encode a mitochondrially targeted protein kinase, and an E3 ubiquitin ligase, respectively, participate in a key mitochondrial quality-control pathway that eliminates damaged mitochondria. In the current study, we established an in vivo PINK1/Parkin-induced photoreceptor neuron degeneration model in Drosophila with the aim of dissecting the PINK1/Parkin pathway in detail. Using LC-MS/MS analysis, we identified Serine 346 as the sole autophosphorylation site of Drosophila PINK1 and found that substitution of Serine 346 to Alanine completely abolished the PINK1 autophosphorylation. Disruption of either PINK1 or Parkin phosphorylation impaired the PINK1/Parkin pathway, and the degeneration phenotype of photoreceptor neurons was obviously alleviated. Phosphorylation of PINK1 is not only required for the PINK1-mediated mitochondrial recruitment of Parkin but also induces its kinase activity toward Parkin. In contrast, phosphorylation of Parkin by PINK1 is dispensable for its translocation but required for its activation. Moreover, substitution with autophosphorylation-deficient PINK1 failed to rescue pink1 null mutant phenotypes. Taken together, our findings suggest that autophosphorylation of PINK1 is essential for the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin and for subsequent phosphorylation and activation of Parkin. PMID:27906179

  2. Study of large nonlinear change phase in Hibiscus Sabdariffa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trejo-Durán, M.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Andrade-Lucio, J. A.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Vázquez-Guevara, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    High intensities electromagnetic energy interacting with organic media gives rise to nonlinear optical effects. Hibiscus Sabdariffa is a flower whose concentrated solution presents interesting nonlinear optical properties. This organic material shows an important self-phase modulation with changes bigger than 2π. We present a diffraction ring patterns study of the Hibiscus Sabdariffa solution. Numerical results of transmittance, with refraction and simultaneous absorption, are shown.

  3. An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommereau, J.-P.; Garnier, A.; Held, G.; Gomes, A. M.; Goutail, F.; Durry, G.; Borchi, F.; Hauchecorne, A.; Montoux, N.; Cocquerez, P.; Letrenne, G.; Vial, F.; Hertzog, A.; Legras, B.; Pisso, I.; Pyle, J. A.; Harris, N. R. P.; Jones, R. L.; Robinson, A. D.; Hansford, G.; Eden, L.; Gardiner, T.; Swann, N.; Knudsen, B.; Larsen, N.; Nielsen, J. K.; Christensen, T.; Cairo, F.; Fierli, F.; Pirre, M.; Marécal, V.; Huret, N.; Rivière, E. D.; Coe, H.; Grosvenor, D.; Edvarsen, K.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Ricaud, P.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Godefroy, M.; Seran, E.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.

    2011-03-01

    The EU HIBISCUS project consisted of a series of field campaigns during the intense convective summers in 2001, 2003 and 2004 in the State of São Paulo in Brazil. Its objective was to investigate the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the lower stratosphere by providing a new set of observational data on meteorology, tracers of horizontal and vertical transport, water vapour, clouds, and chemistry in the tropical Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere (UT/LS). This was achieved using short duration research balloons to study local phenomena associated with convection over land, and long-duration balloons circumnavigating the globe to study the contrast between land and oceans. Analyses of observations of short-lived tracers, ozone and ice particles show strong episodic local updraughts of cold air across the lapse rate tropopause up to 18 or 19 km (420-440 K) in the lower stratosphere by overshooting towers. The long duration balloon and satellite measurements reveal a contrast between the composition of the lower stratosphere over land and oceanic areas, suggesting significant global impact of such events. The overshoots are shown to be well captured by non-hydrostatic meso-scale Cloud Resolving Models indicating vertical velocities of 50-60 m s-1 at the top of the Neutral Buoyancy Level (NBL) at around 14 km, but, in contrast, are poorly represented by global Chemistry-Transport Models (CTM) forced by Numerical Weather Forecast Models (NWP) underestimating the overshooting process. Finally, the data collected by the HIBISCUS balloons have allowed a thorough evaluation of temperature NWP analyses and reanalyses, as well as satellite ozone, nitrogen oxide, water vapour and bromine oxide measurements in the tropics.

  4. Mealybugs with distinct endosymbiotic systems living on the same host plant.

    PubMed

    Koga, Ryuichi; Nikoh, Naruo; Matsuura, Yu; Meng, Xian-Ying; Fukatsu, Takema

    2013-01-01

    Mealybugs (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) possess a large bacteriome consisting of a number of bacteriocytes whose cytoplasm is populated by endosymbiotic bacteria. In many mealybugs of the subfamily Pseudococcinae, a peculiar endosymbiotic configuration has been identified: within the bacteriocytes, the primary betaproteobacterial endosymbiont Tremblaya princeps endocellularly harbor secondary gammaproteobacterial endosymbionts in a nested manner. Meanwhile, some mealybugs of the subfamily Phenacoccinae are associated only with a betaproteobacterial endosymbiont, designated as Tremblaya phenacola, which constitutes a distinct sister clade of T. princeps. However, cytological configuration of the endosymbiotic system in the phenacoccine mealybugs has not been established. Here, we investigated the endosymbiotic systems of the azalea mealybugs Crisicoccus azaleae (Pseudococcinae) and Phenacoccus azaleae (Phenacoccinae) living on the same host plants. Crisicoccus azaleae possessed a nested endosymbiotic system with T. princeps within the bacteriocyte cytoplasm and itself endocellularly harboring gammaproteobacterial cells, whereas P. azaleae exhibited a simple endosymbiotic system in which T. phenacola cells are localized within the bacteriocytes without additional gammaproteobacterial associates. Considering that these mealybugs live on the identical plant phloem sap, these different endosymbiotic consortia likely play similar biological roles for their host insects. The findings presented here should be helpful for future functional and comparative genomics toward elucidating evolutionary pathways of mealybugs and their endosymbionts.

  5. The pink rim sign: location of pink as an indicator of melanoma in dermoscopic images.

    PubMed

    Rader, Ryan K; Payne, Katie S; Guntupalli, Uday; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Maggie C; Drugge, Rhett J; Malters, Joseph J; Stoecker, William V

    2014-01-01

    Background. In dermoscopic images, multiple shades of pink have been described in melanoma without specifying location of these areas within the lesion. Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the statistics for the presence of centrally and peripherally located pink melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions. Methods. Three observers, untrained in dermoscopy, each retrospectively analyzed 1290 dermoscopic images (296 melanomas (170 in situ and 126 invasive), 994 benign melanocytic nevi) and assessed the presence of any shade of pink in the center and periphery of the lesion. Results. Pink was located in the peripheral region in 14.5% of melanomas and 6.3% of benign melanocytic lesions, yielding an odds ratio of 2.51 (95% CI: 1.7-3.8, P < 0.0001). Central pink was located in 12.8% of melanomas and 21.8% of benign lesions, yielding an odds ratio of 0.462 (95% CI: 0.67, P = 0.204). Pink in melanoma in situ tended to be present throughout the lesion (68% of pink lesions). Pink in invasive melanoma was present in 17% of cases, often presenting as a pink rim. Conclusions. The presence of pink in the periphery or rim of a dermoscopic melanocytic lesion image provides an indication of malignancy. We offer the "pink rim sign" as a clue to the dermoscopic diagnosis of invasive melanoma.

  6. The Pink Rim Sign: Location of Pink as an Indicator of Melanoma in Dermoscopic Images

    PubMed Central

    Rader, Ryan K.; Payne, Katie S.; Rabinovitz, Harold S.; Oliviero, Maggie C.; Drugge, Rhett J.; Malters, Joseph J.; Stoecker, William V.

    2014-01-01

    Background. In dermoscopic images, multiple shades of pink have been described in melanoma without specifying location of these areas within the lesion. Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the statistics for the presence of centrally and peripherally located pink melanoma and benign melanocytic lesions. Methods. Three observers, untrained in dermoscopy, each retrospectively analyzed 1290 dermoscopic images (296 melanomas (170 in situ and 126 invasive), 994 benign melanocytic nevi) and assessed the presence of any shade of pink in the center and periphery of the lesion. Results. Pink was located in the peripheral region in 14.5% of melanomas and 6.3% of benign melanocytic lesions, yielding an odds ratio of 2.51 (95% CI: 1.7–3.8, P < 0.0001). Central pink was located in 12.8% of melanomas and 21.8% of benign lesions, yielding an odds ratio of 0.462 (95% CI: 0.67, P = 0.204). Pink in melanoma in situ tended to be present throughout the lesion (68% of pink lesions). Pink in invasive melanoma was present in 17% of cases, often presenting as a pink rim. Conclusions. The presence of pink in the periphery or rim of a dermoscopic melanocytic lesion image provides an indication of malignancy. We offer the “pink rim sign” as a clue to the dermoscopic diagnosis of invasive melanoma. PMID:24639898

  7. What Does Daniel Pink Have to Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2007-01-01

    In Daniel Pink's vision of the near future, Americans value artists and creative thinkers as much as computer programmers, good design is a necessity, and empathy is essential to all products and services. In this article, the author discusses what Pink, author of "A Whole New Mind: Why Right-Brainers will Rule the Future," has to say on creative…

  8. An interdependent metabolic patchwork in the nested symbiosis of mealybugs

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, John P.; von Dohlen, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Highly reduced genomes of 144–416 kilobases have been described from nutrient-provisioning bacterial symbionts of several insect lineages [1–5]. Some host insects have formed stable associations with pairs of bacterial symbionts that live in specialized cells and provide them with essential nutrients; genomic data from these systems have revealed remarkable levels of metabolic complementary between the symbiont pairs [3, 4, 6, 7]. The mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), contains dual bacterial symbionts existing with an unprecedented organization: an unnamed Gammaproteobacteria, for which we propose the name Candidatus Moranella endobia, lives inside the Betaproteobacteria Candidatus Tremblaya princeps [8]. Here we describe the complete genomes and metabolic contributions of these unusual nested symbionts. We show that while there is little overlap in retained genes involved in nutrient production between symbionts, several essential amino acid pathways in the mealybug assemblage require a patchwork of interspersed gene products from Tremblaya, Moranella, and possibly P. citri. Furthermore, while Tremblaya has the smallest cellular genome yet described, it contains a genomic inversion present in both orientations in individual insects, starkly contrasting the extreme structural stability typical of highly reduced bacterial genomes [4, 9, 10]. PMID:21835622

  9. Phylogenetic congruence of mealybugs and their primary endosymbionts.

    PubMed

    Downie, D A; Gullan, P J

    2005-03-01

    Tight interactions between unrelated organisms such as is seen in plant-insect, host-parasite, or host-symbiont associations may lead to speciation of the smaller partners when their hosts speciate. Totally congruent phylogenies of interacting taxa have not been observed often but a number of studies have provided evidence that various hemipteran insect taxa and their primary bacterial endosymbionts share phylogenetic histories. Like other hemipterans, mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) harbour multiple intracellular bacterial symbionts, which are thought to be strictly vertically inherited, implying codivergence of hosts and symbionts. Here, robust estimates of phylogeny were generated from four fragments of three nuclear genes for mealybugs of the subfamily Pseudococcinae, and a substantial fragment of the 16S-23S rDNA of their P-endosymbionts. Phylogenetic congruence was highly significant, with 75% of nodes on the two trees identical, and significant correlation of branch lengths indicated coincident timing of cladogenesis. It is suggested that the low level of observed incongruence was influenced by uncertainty in phylogenetic estimation, but evolutionary outcomes other than congruence, including host shifts, could not be rejected.

  10. Evolutionary relationships among primary endosymbionts of the mealybug subfamily phenacoccinae (hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Gruwell, Matthew E; Hardy, Nate B; Gullan, Penny J; Dittmar, Katharina

    2010-11-01

    Mealybugs (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) are sap-sucking plant parasites that harbor bacterial endosymbionts within specialized organs. Previous studies have identified two subfamilies, Pseudococcinae and Phenacoccinae, within mealybugs and determined the primary endosymbionts (P-endosymbionts) of the Pseudococcinae to be Betaproteobacteria ("Candidatus Tremblaya princeps") containing Gammaproteobacteria secondary symbionts. Here, the P-endosymbionts of phenacoccine mealybugs are characterized based on 16S rRNA from the bacteria of 20 species of phenacoccine mealybugs and four outgroup Puto species (Coccoidea: Putoidae) and aligned to more than 100 published 16S rRNA sequences from symbiotic and free-living bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses recovered three separate lineages of bacteria from the Phenacoccinae, and these are considered to be the P-endosymbionts of their respective mealybug hosts, with those from (i) the mealybug genus Rastrococcus belonging to the Bacteroidetes, (ii) the subterranean mealybugs, tribe Rhizoecini, also within Bacteroidetes, in a clade sister to cockroach endosymbionts (Blattabacterium), and (iii) the remaining Phenacoccinae within the Betaproteobacteria, forming a well-supported sister group to "Candidatus Tremblaya princeps." Names are proposed for two strongly supported lineages: "Candidatus Brownia rhizoecola" for P-endosymbionts of Rhizoecini and "Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola" for P-endosymbionts of Phenacoccinae excluding Rastrococcus and Rhizoecini. Rates of nucleotide substitution among lineages of Tremblaya were inferred to be significantly faster than those of free-living Betaproteobacteria. Analyses also recovered a clade of Gammaproteobacteria, sister to the P-endosymbiont lineage of aphids ("Candidatus Buchnera aphidicola"), containing the endosymbionts of Putoidae, the secondary endosymbionts of pseudococcine mealybugs, and the endosymbionts of several other insect groups.

  11. Evolutionary Relationships among Primary Endosymbionts of the Mealybug Subfamily Phenacoccinae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) ▿

    PubMed Central

    Gruwell, Matthew E.; Hardy, Nate B.; Gullan, Penny J.; Dittmar, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Mealybugs (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) are sap-sucking plant parasites that harbor bacterial endosymbionts within specialized organs. Previous studies have identified two subfamilies, Pseudococcinae and Phenacoccinae, within mealybugs and determined the primary endosymbionts (P-endosymbionts) of the Pseudococcinae to be Betaproteobacteria (“Candidatus Tremblaya princeps”) containing Gammaproteobacteria secondary symbionts. Here, the P-endosymbionts of phenacoccine mealybugs are characterized based on 16S rRNA from the bacteria of 20 species of phenacoccine mealybugs and four outgroup Puto species (Coccoidea: Putoidae) and aligned to more than 100 published 16S rRNA sequences from symbiotic and free-living bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses recovered three separate lineages of bacteria from the Phenacoccinae, and these are considered to be the P-endosymbionts of their respective mealybug hosts, with those from (i) the mealybug genus Rastrococcus belonging to the Bacteroidetes, (ii) the subterranean mealybugs, tribe Rhizoecini, also within Bacteroidetes, in a clade sister to cockroach endosymbionts (Blattabacterium), and (iii) the remaining Phenacoccinae within the Betaproteobacteria, forming a well-supported sister group to “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps.” Names are proposed for two strongly supported lineages: “Candidatus Brownia rhizoecola” for P-endosymbionts of Rhizoecini and “Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola” for P-endosymbionts of Phenacoccinae excluding Rastrococcus and Rhizoecini. Rates of nucleotide substitution among lineages of Tremblaya were inferred to be significantly faster than those of free-living Betaproteobacteria. Analyses also recovered a clade of Gammaproteobacteria, sister to the P-endosymbiont lineage of aphids (“Candidatus Buchnera aphidicola”), containing the endosymbionts of Putoidae, the secondary endosymbionts of pseudococcine mealybugs, and the endosymbionts of several other insect groups. PMID:20851962

  12. Transmission of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 by the vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus).

    PubMed

    Tsai, C-W; Chau, J; Fernandez, L; Bosco, D; Daane, K M; Almeida, R P P

    2008-10-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease is caused by grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaVs). Within this virus complex, GLRaV-3 is the predominant species in the world. Several GLRaVs have been shown to be transmitted from vine to vine by mealybugs although a detailed characterization of transmission biology is lacking. The introduction of the vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus) in California and other regions of the world may result in increasing disease incidence of established GLRaVs. We studied the characteristics of GLRaV-3 transmission by the vine mealybug. Our results indicate that the vine mealybug transmits GLRaV-3 in a semipersistent manner. First instars were more efficient vectors than adult mealybugs. GLRaV-3 transmission lacked a latent period in the vector. Virus transmission occurred with a 1-h acquisition access period (AAP) and peaked with a 24-h AAP. Mealybugs inoculated GLRaV-3 with a 1-h inoculation access period (IAP), and transmission efficiency increased with longer plant access period up to 24 h, after which transmission rate remained constant. After an AAP of 24 h, mealybugs lost GLRaV-3 and infectivity 4 days after virus acquisition. In addition, GLRaV-3 was not transovarially transmitted from infected females to their progeny as detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In summary, we systematically analyzed transmission parameters of GLRaV-3 by the vine mealybug and showed that transmission of this virus occurs in a semipersistent manner. This research fills in important gaps in knowledge of leafroll virus transmission, which is critical for development of leafroll disease management practices.

  13. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3049 - Pink or pinkish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pink or pinkish. 29.3049 Section 29.3049 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Pink or pinkish. A color term applied to pink or pinkish tobacco. Any leaf which has a pink or...

  18. Pink Breast Milk: Serratia marcescens Colonization.

    PubMed

    Valle, Cipatli Ayuzo Del; Salinas, Emilio Treviño

    2014-11-01

    Background Breast milk can turn pink with Serratia marcescens colonization, this bacterium has been associated with several diseases and even death. It is seen most commonly in the intensive care settings. Discoloration of the breast milk can lead to premature termination of nursing. We describe two cases of pink-colored breast milk in which S. marsescens was isolated from both the expressed breast milk. Antimicrobial treatment was administered to the mothers. Return to breastfeeding was successful in both the cases. Conclusions Pink breast milk is caused by S. marsescens colonization. In such cases,early recognition and treatment before the development of infection is recommended to return to breastfeeding.

  19. A multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Saccaggi, D L; Krüger, K; Pietersen, G

    2008-02-01

    Molecular species identification is becoming more wide-spread in diagnostics and ecological studies, particularly with regard to insects for which morphological identification is difficult or time-consuming. In this study, we describe the development and application of a single-step multiplex PCR for the identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) associated with grapevine in South Africa: Planococcus ficus (vine mealybug), Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) and Pseudococcus longispinus (longtailed mealybug). Mealybugs are pests on many commercial crops, including grapevine, in which they transmit viral diseases. Morphological identification of mealybug species is usually time-consuming, requires a high level of taxonomic expertise and usually only adult females can be identified. The single-step multiplex PCR developed here, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO I) gene, is rapid, reliable, sensitive, accurate and simple. The entire identification protocol (including DNA extraction, PCR and electrophoresis) can be completed in approximately four hours. Successful DNA extraction from laboratory and unparasitized field-collected individuals stored in absolute ethanol was 97%. Specimens from which DNA could be extracted were always correctly identified (100% accuracy). The technique developed is simple enough to be implemented in any molecular laboratory. The principles described here can be extended to any organism for which rapid, reliable identification is needed.

  20. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

  1. Nonanoic Acid, an Antifungal Compound from Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yun-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Lee, In-Kyoung; Kang, Si-Yong; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2012-06-01

    The root of Hibiscus syriacus (Malvaceae) has been used for treatment of fungal diseases such as tinea pedis (athlete's foot). In this study, we investigated the antifungal constituent of the root of Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma, which was produced by a mutation breeding using gamma ray irradiation, and compared the antifungal activity of H. syriacus Ggoma and its parent type. According to the results, the methanolic extract of H. syriacus Ggoma exhibited four times higher antifungal activity than its parent type against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Following purification through various column chromatographies, the antifungal substance was identified as nonanoic acid on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.

  2. Nonanoic Acid, an Antifungal Compound from Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yun-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    The root of Hibiscus syriacus (Malvaceae) has been used for treatment of fungal diseases such as tinea pedis (athlete's foot). In this study, we investigated the antifungal constituent of the root of Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma, which was produced by a mutation breeding using gamma ray irradiation, and compared the antifungal activity of H. syriacus Ggoma and its parent type. According to the results, the methanolic extract of H. syriacus Ggoma exhibited four times higher antifungal activity than its parent type against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Following purification through various column chromatographies, the antifungal substance was identified as nonanoic acid on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. PMID:22870060

  3. Density-dependent benefits in ant-hemipteran mutualism? The case of the ghost ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aiming; Kuang, Beiqing; Gao, Yingrui; Liang, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Although density-dependent benefits to hemipterans from ant tending have been measured many times, few studies have focused on integrated effects such as interactions between ant tending, natural enemy density, and hemipteran density. In this study, we tested whether the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is affected by tending by ghost ants (Tapinoma melanocephalum), the presence of parasitoids, mealybug density, parasitoid density and interactions among these factors. Our results showed that mealybug colony growth rate and percentage parasitism were significantly affected by ant tending, parasitoid presence, and initial mealybug density separately. However, there were no interactions among the independent factors. There were also no significant interactions between ant tending and parasitoid density on either mealybug colony growth rate or percentage parasitism. Mealybug colony growth rate showed a negative linear relationship with initial mealybug density but a positive linear relationship with the level of ant tending. These results suggest that benefits to mealybugs are density-independent and are affected by ant tending level.

  4. Evaluation of pharmacological activity of Hibiscus tiliaceus.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Awal, S M; Nazmir, Sonia; Nasrin, Sonia; Nurunnabi, Tauhidur Rahman; Uddin, Shaikh Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus tiliaceus, locally known as Bhola was examined for phytochemical properties and its cytotoxic, antibacterial, analgesic and neuropharmacological activities using the ethanol extract of leaf and bark. The phytochemical analysis of the leaf extract indicated the presence of tannins, whereas bark extract indicated the presence of alkaloid, reducing sugar and tannins. A preliminary cytotoxicity of these extracts was determined by a simple and low cost assay using brine shrimp lethality. The leaf extract of the plant exhibited moderate cytotoxic effect (LC50: 20 µg/ml, LC90: 40 µg/ml) whereas the bark extract exhibited low cytotoxic effect (LC50: 50 µg/ml). In the analgesic test, the leaf extract showed comparatively high analgesic action than bark extract. There was no activity found in the leaf extract against the test bacterial strains, however bark extract exhibited a very little inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In the neuropharmacological test, the leaf and bark extract produced a decrease in both the time of onset of sleeping and the total sleeping time. The present study showed evidence that both leaf and bark extract of H. tiliaceus contain medicinally important bioactive compounds, thereby used as traditional medicine.

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pink shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, Rosemarie

    1984-01-01

    Shrimp support the most valuable seafood industry in the United States (Roedel 1973; National Marine Fisheries Service 1983). The three most important commercial species are the white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus L.), brown shrimp (P. aztecus Ives), and pink shrimp (P. duorarum Burkenroad). Adult pink shdmp are caught "in commercial quantities throughout most of the geographic ranqe of the species (L indner 1957), and juveni les support a sizable bait shrimp industry along the Florida coast and throughout the Gulf of Mexico (Saloman 1965).

  6. Cathodoluminescence of natural, plastically deformed pink diamonds.

    PubMed

    Gaillou, E; Post, J E; Rose, T; Butler, J E

    2012-12-01

    The 49 type I natural pink diamonds examined exhibit color restricted to lamellae or bands oriented along {111} that are created by plastic deformation. Pink diamonds fall into two groups: (1) diamonds from Argyle in Australia and Santa Elena in Venezuela are heavily strained throughout and exhibit pink bands alternating with colorless areas, and (2) diamonds from other localities have strain localized near the discrete pink lamellae. Growth zones are highlighted by a blue cathodoluminescence (CL) and crosscut by the pink lamellae that emit yellowish-green CL that originates from the H3 center. This center probably forms by the recombination of nitrogen-related centers (A-aggregates) and vacancies mobilized by natural annealing in the Earth's mantle. Twinning is the most likely mechanism through which plastic deformation is accommodated for the two groups of diamonds. The plastic deformation creates new centers visible through spectroscopic methods, including the one responsible for the pink color, which remains unidentified. The differences in the plastic deformation features, and resulting CL properties, for the two groups might correlate to the particular geologic conditions under which the diamonds formed; those from Argyle and Santa Elena are deposits located within Proterozoic cratons, whereas most diamonds originate from Archean cratons.

  7. Mealybug Chromosome Cycle as a Paradigm of Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Prantera, Giorgio; Bongiorni, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Recently, epigenetics has had an ever-growing impact on research not only for its intrinsic interest but also because it has been implied in biological phenomena, such as tumor emergence and progression. The first epigenetic phenomenon to be described in the early 1960s was chromosome imprinting in some insect species (sciaridae and coccoideae). Here, we discuss recent experimental results to dissect the phenomenon of imprinted facultative heterochromatinization in Lecanoid coccids (mealybugs). In these insect species, the entire paternally derived haploid chromosome set becomes heterochromatic during embryogenesis in males. We describe the role of known epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, in this phenomenon. We then discuss the models proposed to explain the noncanonical chromosome cycle of these species. PMID:22567404

  8. Phenolphthalein—Pink Tornado Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-04-01

    The phenolphthalein-pink tornado demonstration utilizes the vortex generated by a spinning magnetic stirring bar in a 1 L graduated cylinder containing 0.01 M HCl to demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle as it applies to the phenolphthalein equilibrium in water H 2 In + 2H 2 O 2H 2 O + + In 2 - where H 2 In is phenophthalein. The addition of 3-4 drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution followed immediately by 3-4 drops of 50% (w/w) NaOH to the vortex of the HCl solution results in a shift to the right in the equilibrium owing to the reaction of OH - + H 3 O + to form water. This shift is accompanied by the vortex becoming visible by the appearance of a pinkish-red color caused by an increase in In 2- concentration within the localized region of the vortex. The demonstration also provides one an excellent opportunity to discuss the topics of limiting reagent and reagent in excess. Some insight regarding the extent to which uniform mixing is achieved when using a magnetic stirrer is also provided. Included is a note from the Feature Editor, Ed Vitz.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Anthocyanins from Hibiscus sabdariffa Flowers.

    PubMed

    Grajeda-Iglesias, Claudia; Figueroa-Espinoza, Maria C; Barouh, Nathalie; Baréa, Bruno; Fernandes, Ana; de Freitas, Victor; Salas, Erika

    2016-07-22

    The intense red-colored Hibiscus sabdariffa flowers are an inexpensive source of anthocyanins with potential to be used as natural, innocuous, and health-beneficial colorants. An anthocyanin-rich extract from hibiscus flowers was obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction. By a single-step process fractionation using a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge, the main hibiscus anthocyanins, delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside (Dp-samb) and cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside (Cy-samb), were separated and then characterized via NMR and HPLC-ESIMS data. Since Dp-samb was the most abundant anthocyanin identified in the extract, its colorant properties were studied by the pH jumps method, which allowed the calculation of the single acid-base equilibrium (pK'a 2.92), the acidity (pKa 3.70), and the hydration constants (pKh 3.02). Moreover, by using size-exclusion chromatography, new cyanidin-derived anthocyanins (with three or more sugar units) were successfully identified and reported for the first time in the hibiscus extract.

  10. United States kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) cultivar review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivar selection is an important aspect for successful commercial production of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Maximizing production and processing efficiency of a specific kenaf crop is dependent on production location and cultural aspects, and differences in yield components among kenaf cultiv...

  11. An overview of the HIBISCUS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommereau, J.-P.; Garnier, A.; Held, G.; Gomes, A.-M.; Goutail, F.; Durry, G.; Borchi, F.; Hauchecorne, A.; Montoux, N.; Cocquerez, P.; Letrenne, G.; Vial, F.; Hertzog, A.; Legras, B.; Pisso, I.; Pyle, J. A.; Harris, N. R. P.; Jones, R. L.; Robinson, A.; Hansford, G.; Eden, L.; Gardiner, T.; Swann, N.; Knudsen, B.; Larsen, N.; Nielsen, J.; Christensen, T.; Cairo, F.; Pirre, M.; Marécal, V.; Huret, N.; Riviére, E.; Coe, H.; Grosvenor, D.; Edvarsen, K.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Ricaud, P.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Godefroy, M.; Seran, E.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.

    2007-02-01

    HIBISCUS was a field campaign for investigating the impact of deep convection on the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) and the Lower Stratosphere, which took place during the Southern Hemisphere summer in February-March 2004 in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Its objective was to provide a set of new observational data on meteorology, tracers of horizontal and vertical transport, water vapour, clouds, and chemistry in the tropical UT/LS from balloon observations at local scale over a land convective area, as well as at global scale using circumnavigating long-duration balloons. Overall, the composition of the TTL, the region between 14 and 19 km of intermediate lapse rate between the almost adiabatic upper troposphere and the stable stratosphere, appears highly variable. Tracers and ozone measurements performed at both the local and the global scale indicate a strong quasi-horizontal isentropic exchange with the lowermost mid-latitude stratosphere suggesting that the barrier associated to the tropical jet is highly permeable at these levels in summer. But the project also provides clear indications of strong episodic updraught of cold air, short-lived tracers, low ozone, humidity and ice particles across the lapse rate tropopause at about 15 km, up to 18 or 19 km at 420-440 K potential levels in the lower stratosphere, suggesting that, in contrast to oceanic convection penetrating little the stratosphere, fast daytime developing land convective systems could be a major mechanism in the troposphere-stratosphere exchange at the global scale. The present overview is meant to provide the background of the project, as well as overall information on the instrumental tools available, on the way they have been used within the highly convective context of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, and a brief summary of the results, which will be detailed in several other papers of this special issue.

  12. Microbial associates of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under different rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Robinson, Wyatt E; Sharon, Rakefet; Droby, Samir; Perlman, Steve J; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2015-01-01

    Sap-feeding insects harbor diverse microbial endosymbionts that play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including contributing to host pest status. The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, is a serious pest of grapevines, vectoring a number of pathogenic grape viruses. Previous studies have shown that virus transmission is abolished when mealybugs are raised in the laboratory on potato. To examine the possible role of microbial symbionts in virus transmission, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of field and laboratory P. ficus were characterized using molecular and classical microbiological methods. Lab and field colonies of P. ficus harbored different microbiota. While both were dominated by the bacterial obligate nutritional symbionts Moranella and Tremblaya, field samples also harbored a third bacterium that was allied with cluster L, a lineage of bacterial symbionts previously identified in aphids. Archaea were not found in any of the samples. Fungal communities in field-collected mealybugs were dominated by Metschnikowia and Cladosporium species, while those from laboratory-reared mealybugs were dominated by Alternaria and Cladosporium species. In conclusion, this study has identified a diverse set of microbes, most of which appear to be facultatively associated with P. ficus, depending on environmental conditions. The role of various members of the mealybug microbiome, as well as how the host plant affects microbial community structure, remains to be determined.

  13. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian vineyards.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  14. Molecular and Morphological Identification of Mealybug Species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian Vineyards

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

  15. PINK1 function in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Deas, Emma; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Wood, Nicholas W

    2009-01-01

    The role of mitochondria in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) has been debated for a little over 20 years since the description of complex I deficiency in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of PD patients. However, the identification of recessive pathogenic mutations in the pink1 gene in familial PD cases firmly re-ignited interest in the pathophysiology of mitochondria in PD. PINK1 is a putative mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, which protects cells against oxidative stress induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which this is achieved and the effect of the pathogenic mutations has been an area of intensive research over the past five years. Significant progress has been made and, in this review, we summarize the physiological roles that have been assigned to PINK1 and the potential mechanisms behind pathogenesis. PMID:20049715

  16. Chirality and bioactivity of the sex pheromone of Madeira mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsiao-Yung; Ko, Chi-Hung; Cheng, Chao-Chih; Su, Yu-Ting; Pola, Someshwar

    2011-06-01

    Two compounds (trans-1R,3R-chrysanthemyl R-2-methylbutanoate and R-lavandulyl R-2-methylbutanoate) identified from aeration extracts of virgin female Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were synthesized and tested in field bioassays in northern Taiwan over a 1-mo period. In total, 1,492 male P. madeirensis were captured in sticky traps. Our results showed that 1 microg of synthetic trans-1R,3R-chrysanthemyl R-2-methylbutanoate released from a plastic tube dispenser was attractive to the mealybugs. Different stereoisomers of chrysanthemyl 2-methylbutanoate also were tested. The insect-produced stereoisomer was the most attractive of all the isomers tested, and the stereochemistry of the acid moiety proved to be more critical than that of the alcohol moiety. The minor component found in extracts, R-lavandulyl R-2-methylbutanoate, alone was not attractive to male Madeira mealybugs nor did it act synergistically or additively with the main component.

  17. Pink prehnite from Michigan: a mineral much confused.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huber, N.K.

    1983-01-01

    Both pink prehnite and thomsonite occur in amygdales in volcanic rocks of Keweenawan age in the Lake Superior region. Although the pink prehnite superficially resembles thomsonite, it does not develop the spectacular patterns with colour variations of gem quality thomsonite. The pink prehnite has long been misidentified and a history of this problem is presented. The pink colour of the prehnite is caused by internal reflections from very fine and evenly disseminated inclusions of native copper. (Preceding abstracts)-R.S.M.

  18. Hibiscus sabdariffa L., roselle calyx, from ethnobotany to pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce María; Orta-Flores, Zaida; Hayward-Jones, Patricia Margaret; Nolasco-Hipólito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, M Guadalupe; Miranda-Medina, Anilú; Bujang, Kopli Bin

    2012-01-01

    Using MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases, a review of the literature from the pioneering study of 1991 until 2010 was performed on the effects on biological models of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. roselle calyx, its extracts mainly in polar solvents, or pure components found in extracts, as well as their possible relationship to these effects. Three relevant effects on lipid metabolism, antihypertensive activity, and apoptosis were observed. Our chronological review of the studies mentioned in the literature provides another opportunity to see how humans compile scientific knowledge of a chemical structure–physiological activity relationship starting from an ethnobotanical–ethnopharmagognosy contribution. The chemical components that are the main active principles in the physiological activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyx are anthocyanins and polyphenols (protocatechuic acid and quercetin). Advances have also been made in the elucidation of action mechanisms. Additionally, it has become clear that the lack of standardization in terms of chemical components of the material arising from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. used in testing on biological models imposes limits on the possibility of carrying out comparative analyses between studies. Fortunately, more recent studies are overcoming this obstacle by reporting component concentrations of assumed active principles; however, complete analysis of the extract, if this is to be considered as a therapeutic agent, is not commonly reported in the aforesaid studies. If one of the eventual scenarios for Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyx is as a therapeutic agent in communities with economic limitations, then studies of a pharmacological nature should guarantee the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of this material, which is widely accepted to be associated with chemical complexity, thus making this knowledge necessary. PMID:27186114

  19. Nonlocal nonlinear refraction in Hibiscus sabdariffa with large phase shifts.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Martínez, D; Alvarado-Méndez, E; Trejo-Durán, M; Vázquez-Guevara, M A

    2014-10-20

    In this work we present a study of nonlinear optical properties in organic materials (hibiscus sabdariffa). Our results demonstrate that the medium exhibits a highly nonlocal nonlinear response. We show preliminary numerical results of the transmittance as nonlocal response by considering, simultaneously, the nonlinear absorption and refraction in media. Numerical results are accord to measurement obtained by Z- scan technique where we observe large phase shifts. We also analyze the far field diffraction ring patterns of the sample.

  20. Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

    2013-03-01

    The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks.

  1. Investigation on the phytosanitary status of major ornamental hibiscus species in Italy to assess virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Hibiscus (family Malvaceae) includes about 250 species that vary from annual to perennial herbs, and shrubs to small trees that are native to tropical, sub-tropical and temperate climates. A study in 2010-2011 examined viruses associated with symptoms observed on hibiscus plants in Italy....

  2. Investigation on the phytosanitary status of major ornamental hibiscus species in Italy to assess virus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Hibiscus (family Malvaceae) includes more than 250 species that vary from annual to perennial herbs, and shrubs to small trees that are native to tropical, sub-tropical and temperate climates. A study in 2010-2011 examined viruses associated with symptoms observed on hibiscus plants in It...

  3. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (H. cannabinus L.) and roselle (H. sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterc...

  4. Two New Disease-Resistant Hibiscus: 'Lufkin Red' and 'Lufkin White'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, has released Hibiscus laevis ‘Lufkin Red’ and ‘Lufkin White’, two new hardy native ornamental hibiscus. These cultivars are recommended for trial by gardeners and horticulturists as summer flowering perennial landscape pl...

  5. Seeing the World Through "Pink-Colored Glasses": The Link Between Optimism and Pink.

    PubMed

    Kalay-Shahin, Lior; Cohen, Allon; Lemberg, Rachel; Harary, Gil; Lobel, Thalma E

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated optimism, which is considered a personality trait, from the grounded cognition perspective. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the association between pink and optimism. In Experiment 1A, 22 undergraduates (10 females; Mage  = 23.68) were asked to classify words as optimistic or pessimistic as fast as possible. Half the words were presented in pink and half in black. Experiment 1B (N = 24; 14 females; Mage  = 22.82) was identical to 1A except for the color of the words-black and light blue instead of pink-to rule out the possible influence of brightness. Experiment 2 exposed 144 participants (74 females; Mage  = 25.18) to pink or yellow and then measured their optimism level. The findings for Experiments 1A and 1B indicated an association between pink and optimism regardless of brightness. Experiment 2 found that mere exposure to pink increased optimism levels for females. These results contribute to the dynamic view of personality, current views on optimism, and the growing literature on grounded cognition.

  6. Sleep deepening effect of steady pink noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Kawada, T.; Ogawa, M.; Aoki, S.

    1991-12-01

    Sleep under a steady pink noise was studied by a hypnogram of EEG. A young male subject slept all night under a steady pink noise of 40, 50 or 60 dB(A) for 4 to 5 nights, and for 10 nights under unexposed conditions with 35 dB(A). The hypnogram showed a significant decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2, at 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise exposure. The proportion of stage 3 increased significantly at 40 and 50 dB(A) as compared with 35 dB(A). The average depth of a night's sleep at 60 dB(A), calculated postulating stage W, 1, 2, 3 and 4 to be 0·0, 1·0, 2·0, 3·0 and 4·0, respectively, and REM to be 1·5, was significantly deeper than that at 35 and 40 dB(A). These findings are all sleep deepening effects of a steady noise. A second experiments was carried out with four other subjects exposed to a night of 60 dB(A) of steady pink noise and a paired quiet night. All four subjects also showed a decrease in the proportion of REM and an increase in the proportion of stage 2 at this exposure level. No significant change in subjective sleep was observed in either experiment. An inhibition pulse from the cortex may suppress the activation of reticular formation, which could make sleep under a steady noise deeper. However, the meaning of a depressed proportion of REM under steady pink noise is not clear.

  7. DNA markers to disentangle complexes of cryptic taxa in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are major pests of a wide range of crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Their high degree of morphological similarity makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. We aimed to identify a set of markers for the genetic characterization...

  8. Molecular identification of two closely related species of mealybugs of the genus Planococcus (Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morphological identification of the mealybug species Planococcus citri (Risso) and P. minor (Maskell), two serious agricultural pests, is often complicated by the existence of intermediate forms and a lack of knowledge of the intraspecific variation that occurs in each species. In this paper, we hav...

  9. Systematic revision of the mealybug genus Delottococcus Cox & Ben-Dov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A systematic revision of the mealybug genus Delottococcus Cox & Ben-Dov is presented. Nine species are treated, including D. millari which is described as new. The 8 previously described species are: Delottococcus aberiae (De Lotto), D. confusus (De Lotto), D. elisabethae (Brain), D. euphorbiae (E...

  10. Preparation of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for genetic characterization and morphological examination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on a wide range of crops. Due to their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide...

  11. Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

  12. A new class of mealybug pheromones: a hemiterpene ester in the sex pheromone of Crisicoccus matsumotoi.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Jun; Narai, Yutaka; Sawamura, Nobuo; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Sugie, Hajime

    2012-07-01

    Mealybugs, which include several agricultural pests, are small sap feeders covered with a powdery wax. They exhibit clear sexual dimorphism; males are winged but fragile and short lived, whereas females are windless and less mobile. Thus, sex pheromones emitted by females facilitate copulation and reproduction by serving as a key navigation tool for males. Although the structures of the hitherto known mealybug pheromones vary among species, they have a common structural motif; they are carboxylic esters of monoterpene alcohols with irregular non-head-to-tail linkages. However, in the present study, we isolated from the Matsumoto mealybug, Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa), a pheromone with a completely different structure. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified the pheromone as 3-methyl-3-butenyl 5-methylhexanoate. Its attractiveness to males was confirmed in a series of field trapping experiments involving comparison between the isolated natural product and a synthetic sample. This is the first report of a hemiterpene mealybug pheromone. In addition, the acid moiety (5-methylhexanoate) appears to be rare in insect pheromones.

  13. A new class of mealybug pheromones: a hemiterpene ester in the sex pheromone of Crisicoccus matsumotoi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabata, Jun; Narai, Yutaka; Sawamura, Nobuo; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Sugie, Hajime

    2012-07-01

    Mealybugs, which include several agricultural pests, are small sap feeders covered with a powdery wax. They exhibit clear sexual dimorphism; males are winged but fragile and short lived, whereas females are windless and less mobile. Thus, sex pheromones emitted by females facilitate copulation and reproduction by serving as a key navigation tool for males. Although the structures of the hitherto known mealybug pheromones vary among species, they have a common structural motif; they are carboxylic esters of monoterpene alcohols with irregular non-head-to-tail linkages. However, in the present study, we isolated from the Matsumoto mealybug, Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa), a pheromone with a completely different structure. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified the pheromone as 3-methyl-3-butenyl 5-methylhexanoate. Its attractiveness to males was confirmed in a series of field trapping experiments involving comparison between the isolated natural product and a synthetic sample. This is the first report of a hemiterpene mealybug pheromone. In addition, the acid moiety (5-methylhexanoate) appears to be rare in insect pheromones.

  14. Effect of Temperature on the life history of the mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink was investigated in the laboratory. Paracoccus marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18, 20, 25, and 30 ± 1°C. At 15, 34, and 35°C, the eggs hatched after 27, 6,...

  15. Efficiency and establishment of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study on the efficiency and establishment of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae, Anagyrus loecki, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana) to control the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus was made in 2005 and 2006, at three locations in Homestead (Miami-Dade County), Florida. In each ...

  16. Molecular evidence for ongoing complementarity and horizontal gene transfer in endosymbiotic systems of mealybugs

    PubMed Central

    López-Madrigal, Sergio; Beltrà, Aleixandre; Resurrección, Serena; Soto, Antonia; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés; Gil, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial supply of essential amino acids is common among sap-feeding insects, thus complementing the scarcity of nitrogenous compounds in plant phloem. This is also the role of the two mealybug endosymbiotic systems whose genomes have been sequenced. In the nested endosymbiotic system from Planococcus citri (Pseudococcinae), “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps” and “Candidatus Moranella endobia” cooperate to synthesize essential amino acids, while in Phenacoccus avenae (Phenacoccinae) this function is performed by its single endosymbiont “Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola.” However, little is known regarding the evolution of essential amino acid supplementation strategies in other mealybug systems. To address this knowledge gap, we screened for the presence of six selected loci involved in essential amino acid biosynthesis in five additional mealybug species. We found evidence of ongoing complementarity among endosymbionts from insects of subfamily Pseudococcinae, as well as horizontal gene transfer affecting endosymbionts from insects of family Phenacoccinae, providing a more comprehensive picture of the evolutionary history of these endosymbiotic systems. Additionally, we report two diagnostic motifs to help identify invasive mealybug species. PMID:25206351

  17. Guiding Classical Biological Control of an Invasive Mealybug Using Integrative Taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Beltrà, Aleixandre; Addison, Pia; Ávalos, Juan Antonio; Crochard, Didier; Garcia-Marí, Ferran; Guerrieri, Emilio; Giliomee, Jan H; Malausa, Thibaut; Navarro-Campos, Cristina; Palero, Ferran; Soto, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug of Southern African origin that has recently been introduced into Eastern Spain. It causes severe distortions on young citrus fruits and represents a growing threat to Mediterranean citrus production. So far, biological control has proven unsatisfactory due to the absence of efficient natural enemies in Spain. Hence, the management of this pest currently relies only on chemical control. The introduction of natural enemies of D. aberiae from the native area of the pest represents a sustainable and economically viable alternative to reduce the risks linked to pesticide applications. Since biological control of mealybugs has been traditionally challenged by taxonomic misidentification, an intensive survey of Delottococcus spp. and their associated parasitoids in South Africa was required as a first step towards a classical biological control programme. Combining morphological and molecular characterization (integrative taxonomy) a total of nine mealybug species were identified in this study, including three species of Delottococcus. Different populations of D. aberiae were found on wild olive trees, in citrus orchards and on plants of Chrysanthemoides monilifera, showing intra-specific divergences according to their host plants. Interestingly, the invasive mealybug populations from Spanish orchards clustered together with the population on citrus from Limpopo Province (South Africa), sharing COI haplotypes. This result pointed to an optimum location to collect natural enemies against the invasive mealybug. A total of 14 parasitoid species were recovered from Delottococcus spp. and identified to genus and species level, by integrating morphological and molecular data. A parasitoid belonging to the genus Anagyrus, collected from D. aberiae in citrus orchards in Limpopo, is proposed here as a good biological control agent to be introduced into Spain.

  18. Infection dynamics of coexisting beta- and gammaproteobacteria in the nested endosymbiotic system of mealybugs.

    PubMed

    Kono, Marie; Koga, Ryuichi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the infection dynamics of endosymbiotic bacteria in the developmental course of the mealybugs Planococcus kraunhiae and Pseudococcus comstocki. Molecular phylogenetic analyses identified a betaproteobacterium and a gammaproteobacterium from each of the mealybug species. The former bacterium was related to the beta-endosymbionts of other mealybugs, i.e., "Candidatus Tremblaya princeps," and formed a compact clade in the Betaproteobacteria. Meanwhile, the latter bacterium was related to the gamma-endosymbionts of other mealybugs but belonged to distinct clades in the Gammaproteobacteria. Whole-mount in situ hybridization confirmed the peculiar nested formation in the endosymbiotic system of the mealybugs: the beta-endosymbiont cells were present in the cytoplasm of the bacteriocytes, and the gamma-endosymbiont cells were located in the beta-endosymbiont cells. In nymphal and female development, a large oval bacteriome consisting of a number of bacteriocytes was present in the abdomen, wherein the endosymbionts were harbored. In male development, strikingly, the bacteriome progressively degenerated in prepupae and pupae and became almost unrecognizable in adult males. In the degeneration process, the gamma-endosymbionts disappeared more rapidly than the beta-endosymbionts did. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that (i) the population dynamics of the endosymbionts in female development reflected the reproductive activity of the insects, (ii) the population dynamics of the endosymbionts were strikingly different between female development and male development, (iii) the endosymbiont populations drastically decreased in male development, and (iv) the gamma-endosymbiont populations decreased more rapidly than the beta-endosymbiont populations in male development. Possible mechanisms underlying the uncoupled regulation of the beta- and gamma-endosymbiont populations are discussed in relation to the establishment and evolution of this unique prokaryote

  19. Guiding Classical Biological Control of an Invasive Mealybug Using Integrative Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Beltrà, Aleixandre; Addison, Pia; Ávalos, Juan Antonio; Crochard, Didier; Garcia-Marí, Ferran; Guerrieri, Emilio; Giliomee, Jan H.; Malausa, Thibaut; Navarro-Campos, Cristina; Palero, Ferran; Soto, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug of Southern African origin that has recently been introduced into Eastern Spain. It causes severe distortions on young citrus fruits and represents a growing threat to Mediterranean citrus production. So far, biological control has proven unsatisfactory due to the absence of efficient natural enemies in Spain. Hence, the management of this pest currently relies only on chemical control. The introduction of natural enemies of D. aberiae from the native area of the pest represents a sustainable and economically viable alternative to reduce the risks linked to pesticide applications. Since biological control of mealybugs has been traditionally challenged by taxonomic misidentification, an intensive survey of Delottococcus spp. and their associated parasitoids in South Africa was required as a first step towards a classical biological control programme. Combining morphological and molecular characterization (integrative taxonomy) a total of nine mealybug species were identified in this study, including three species of Delottococcus. Different populations of D. aberiae were found on wild olive trees, in citrus orchards and on plants of Chrysanthemoides monilifera, showing intra-specific divergences according to their host plants. Interestingly, the invasive mealybug populations from Spanish orchards clustered together with the population on citrus from Limpopo Province (South Africa), sharing COI haplotypes. This result pointed to an optimum location to collect natural enemies against the invasive mealybug. A total of 14 parasitoid species were recovered from Delottococcus spp. and identified to genus and species level, by integrating morphological and molecular data. A parasitoid belonging to the genus Anagyrus, collected from D. aberiae in citrus orchards in Limpopo, is proposed here as a good biological control agent to be introduced into Spain. PMID:26047349

  20. Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Gr...

  1. Influence of weeds on Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and obscure mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in a central California vineyard.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael J; Welch, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Obscure mealybug is a pest of grapes in the cool climate regions of coastal California, is found on some vineyard weeds, and is tended by the Argentine ant. A study was conducted at a vineyard in Arroyo Grande, CA, to evaluate the impact of weeds on ant activity on grapevines, and the role that ants and weeds have on obscure mealybug infestation in grape clusters. The incidence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was recorded as well. Treatments were weed exclusion versus the presence of weeds, and ant exclusion versus the presence of ants. Ant activity was evaluated weekly using sugar-based monitoring stations, and mealybug infestation and Botrytis incidence of clusters were evaluated at harvest. Ant exclusion reduced the overall number of ant visits by 82%, and ants increased mealybug infestation of clusters by 53%. Ant activity was 33% higher in the weeds treatment, but there was no impact of weeds on mealybug infestation. We suggest that the higher ant activity recorded in the weeds treatment may have been an artifact of the sugar-based sampling method. Botrytis incidence was three times higher with ants, but did not differ between weeds and weed exclusion treatments. The study supports other research showing a relationship between mealybug infestation and the presence of ants, as well as the lack of impact of floor vegetation on mealybug infestation of grape clusters. It is the first report of a relationship between ants and Botrytis, although it is more likely that the higher Botrytis incidence found here is a result of increased mealybug density than a direct effect by ants.

  2. First record of the Kuwana pine mealybug Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana) in Italy: a new threat to Italian pine forests?

    PubMed

    Boselli, Mauro; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-02-19

    The Asiatic Kuwana pine mealybug, Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana, 1902) (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae), is reported in Italy for the first time. It was detected in September 2015 on maritime pine, Pinus pinaster, and stone pine, Pinus pinea, trees growing in the town of Cervia (Ravenna Province), Northern Italy. The mealybug has caused yellowing and decline of the pine trees. Pinus pinea is recorded here as a new host for C. pini.

  3. Pyruvate stimulates mitophagy via PINK1 stabilization.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungwoo; Choi, Seon-Guk; Yoo, Seung-Min; Nah, Jihoon; Jeong, Eunil; Kim, Hyunjoo; Jung, Yong-Keun

    2015-09-01

    Damaged mitochondria are targeted for degradation by an autophagy pathway known as mitophagy. Despite efforts to unravel the mechanisms underlying mitophagy, aspects of mitophagy regulation remain largely unknown. In this study, by using a cell-based fluorescence assay reflecting CCCP-induced mitophagy, we have screened cDNA expression library encoding mitochondrial proteins and identified PDK4 as a mitophagy regulator. Ectopic expression of PDK4 stimulated the clearance of mitochondrial proteins during CCCP-induced mitophagy and enhanced pyruvate levels in both the cytosol and mitochondria. Interestingly, mitochondrial degradation during the mitophagy was not efficient in the absence of pyruvate. Pyruvate was required for PINK1 stabilization during mitochondrial depolarization and subsequent PARK2 translocation and LC3 recruitment onto damaged mitochondria. This pyruvate-mediated mitophagy was not affected by OXPHOS or cellular ATP levels, thus independent of energy metabolism. Rather, pyruvate was required for the interaction between PINK1 and TOMM20 under CCCP condition. These results suggest that pyruvate is required for CCCP-induced PINK1/PARK2-mediated mitophagy.

  4. Isolation and identification of an allelopathic substance from Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    PubMed

    Suwitchayanon, Prapaipit; Pukclai, Piyatida; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2015-05-01

    In this study, an allelopathic substance was isolated from an aqueous methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. by column chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. The chemical structure of the substance was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry as trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate. Trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate inhibited the growth of cress hypocotyls and roots at concentrations greater than 10 mM. The concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition of the hypocotyls and roots of cress were 20.3 and 14.4 mM, respectively. The inhibitory activity of trimethyl allo-hydroxycitrate suggests that the substance may act as an allelopathic substance of H. sabdariffa.

  5. The balloon flights in the Tropics of the HIBISCUS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, A.; Pommereau, J. P.; Cocquerez, P.; Held, G.

    2005-08-01

    HIBISCUS is a project for studying the dynamics, microphysics and chemistry of the Tropical Tropopause Layer based on balloon measurements. Thirteen heavy sondes and 18 short duration balloons of different types have been used for local process studies. Eight superpressure (BP) and 3 Infra Red Montgolfier (MIR) long duration balloons have been flown for extending the investigations at global scale around the world. Overall the campaign has been very successful operationally as well as scientifically. The paper provides a description of the balloons, the instruments and the strategy used for meeting at best the goals of the project.

  6. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Hibiscus syriacus.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hae-Yun; Kim, Joon-Hyeok; Kim, Sea-Hyun; Park, Ji-Min; Lee, Hyoshin

    2016-09-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Hibiscus syriacus L. is presented in this study. The genome is composed of 161 019 bp in length, with a typical circular structure containing a pair of inverted repeats of 25 745 bp of length separated by a large single-copy region and a small single-copy region of 89 698 bp and 19 831 bp of length, respectively. The overall GC content is 36.8%. One hundred and fourteen genes were annotated, including 81 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes and 29 transfer RNA genes.

  7. Histological appearance of postmortem pink teeth: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Bk Charan; Sivapathasundharam, B; Chatterji, Ananjan; Chatterji, B L

    2015-01-01

    This article presents images and histological changes in the dentin of two cases involving posmortem pink teeth. Postmortem pink teeth were noted among two deceased male individuals. Pink teeth were noted during autopsy examination after twelve days in one corpse, and eight days following death in the second case. During the examination decomposition and putrefaction of the body was noted. Cause of death was drowning in one case and haemorrhages and shock in another. A central incisor tooth was obtained from each body. Both teeth exhibited a pink appearance and the intensity was more pronounced in the cervical region. Although pink teeth can be noted in death due to asphyxia, carbon monoxide poisoning and so on, it is necessary to study the exact role behind the appearance of pink teeth and try to incorporate the finding medico legally.

  8. Function and characteristics of PINK1 in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Satoru; Kitagishi, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Mayumi

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homologue-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause recessively inherited Parkinson's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Studies support the notion of neuroprotective roles for the PINK1, as it protects cells from damage-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and cell apoptosis. PARL is a mitochondrial resident rhomboid serine protease, and it has been reported to mediate the cleavage of the PINK1. Interestingly, impaired mitophagy, an important autophagic quality control mechanism that clears the cells of damaged mitochondria, may also be an underlying mechanism of disease pathogenesis in patients for Parkinson's disease with the PARL mutations. Functional studies have revealed that PINK1 recruits Parkin to mitochondria to initiate the mitophagy. PINK1 is posttranslationally processed, whose level is definitely regulated in healthy steady state of mitochondria. As a consequence, PINK1 plays a pivotal role in mitochondrial healthy homeostasis.

  9. Interspecific hybridization among cultivars of hardy Hibiscus species section Muenchhusia

    PubMed Central

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik; Christensen, Brian; Müller, Renate

    2016-01-01

    Rose mallows belong to the Muenchhusia section of the Hibiscus genus. They represent a small group of cold tolerant North American plants and are popular ornamentals mainly because of their abundant, large and colorful flowers. Due to their geographical origin they are well suited for garden use in temperate regions worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate hybridization barriers in crosses among cultivars of Hibiscus species from the Muenchhusia section: H. coccineus, H. laevis and H. moscheutos. Crossing barriers were identified as both pre- and post-zygotic. The analysis of pollen tube growth revealed inhibition of pollen tubes and their abnormal growth. In specific crosses the fertilization success was low. The pre-fertilization barriers did not cause a complete reproductive isolation between the hybridization partners. In relation to post-fertilization barriers, the occurrence of hybrid incompatibilities such as unviability, chlorosis, necrosis, stunted growth and albinism were the main drawback in production of hybrids. The appearance of symptoms of hybrid incompatibilities was dependent upon specific parental plants. The obtained progeny had intermediate leaf morphology and flower morphology compared to parental plants. Hybridity state was verified by morphological analysis and RAPD markers. Based on the overall plant morphology, 472 hybrid progenies were obtained. PMID:27162501

  10. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. - a phytochemical and pharmacological review.

    PubMed

    Da-Costa-Rocha, Inês; Bonnlaender, Bernd; Sievers, Hartwig; Pischel, Ivo; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-12-15

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs, roselle; Malvaceae) has been used traditionally as a food, in herbal drinks, in hot and cold beverages, as a flavouring agent in the food industry and as a herbal medicine. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as some clinical trials provide some evidence mostly for phytochemically poorly characterised Hs extracts. Extracts showed antibacterial, anti-oxidant, nephro- and hepato-protective, renal/diuretic effect, effects on lipid metabolism (anti-cholesterol), anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive effects among others. This might be linked to strong antioxidant activities, inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE), and direct vaso-relaxant effect or calcium channel modulation. Phenolic acids (esp. protocatechuic acid), organic acid (hydroxycitric acid and hibiscus acid) and anthocyanins (delphinidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside) are likely to contribute to the reported effects. More well designed controlled clinical trials are needed which use phytochemically characterised preparations. Hs has an excellent safety and tolerability record.

  11. Interspecific hybridization among cultivars of hardy Hibiscus species section Muenchhusia.

    PubMed

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik; Christensen, Brian; Müller, Renate

    2016-03-01

    Rose mallows belong to the Muenchhusia section of the Hibiscus genus. They represent a small group of cold tolerant North American plants and are popular ornamentals mainly because of their abundant, large and colorful flowers. Due to their geographical origin they are well suited for garden use in temperate regions worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate hybridization barriers in crosses among cultivars of Hibiscus species from the Muenchhusia section: H. coccineus, H. laevis and H. moscheutos. Crossing barriers were identified as both pre- and post-zygotic. The analysis of pollen tube growth revealed inhibition of pollen tubes and their abnormal growth. In specific crosses the fertilization success was low. The pre-fertilization barriers did not cause a complete reproductive isolation between the hybridization partners. In relation to post-fertilization barriers, the occurrence of hybrid incompatibilities such as unviability, chlorosis, necrosis, stunted growth and albinism were the main drawback in production of hybrids. The appearance of symptoms of hybrid incompatibilities was dependent upon specific parental plants. The obtained progeny had intermediate leaf morphology and flower morphology compared to parental plants. Hybridity state was verified by morphological analysis and RAPD markers. Based on the overall plant morphology, 472 hybrid progenies were obtained.

  12. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea): Monoculture and polyculture production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

  13. Monoculture and polyculture: Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) are fast growing summer annual crops with numerous commercial applications (fibers, biofuels, bioremediation, paper pulp, building materials, cover crops, and livestock forages). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (...

  14. Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that

  15. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee.

    PubMed

    Culik, Mark P; Martins, David dos Santos; Gullan, Penny J

    2006-01-01

    Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga ( Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora , which are new host records for these mealybugs.

  16. Molecular-based approach to the differentiation of mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) species.

    PubMed

    Beuning, L L; Murphy, P; Wu, E; Batchelor, T A; Morris, B A

    1999-04-01

    The rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 4 mealybug species, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), P. longispinus (Targiono-Tozzetti), P. calceolariae (Maskell), and P. similans (Lidgett), was isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, cloned, and sequenced. In this region of the genome there were numerous differences, including nucleotide substitutions, insertions, or deletions between P. viburni, P. longispinus, and P. calceolariae, whereas P. calceolariae and P. similans were very similar. Based on sequence differences between the ITS regions, we designed PCR primers that were able to differentiate the 4 mealybug species and that correlated with morphological differences found between adult females of these species. The PCR amplification by using the species-specific primers enabled the differentiation of not only adult females but also eggs, juveniles, and adult males, which was not previously possible by using conventional identification methods.

  17. Horizontal gene transfer from diverse bacteria to an insect genome enables a tripartite nested mealybug symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Husnik, Filip; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Ross, Laura; Duncan, Rebecca P; Fujie, Manabu; Tanaka, Makiko; Satoh, Nori; Bachtrog, Doris; Wilson, Alex C C; von Dohlen, Carol D; Fukatsu, Takema; McCutcheon, John P

    2013-06-20

    The smallest reported bacterial genome belongs to Tremblaya princeps, a symbiont of Planococcus citri mealybugs (PCIT). Tremblaya PCIT not only has a 139 kb genome, but possesses its own bacterial endosymbiont, Moranella endobia. Genome and transcriptome sequencing, including genome sequencing from a Tremblaya lineage lacking intracellular bacteria, reveals that the extreme genomic degeneracy of Tremblaya PCIT likely resulted from acquiring Moranella as an endosymbiont. In addition, at least 22 expressed horizontally transferred genes from multiple diverse bacteria to the mealybug genome likely complement missing symbiont genes. However, none of these horizontally transferred genes are from Tremblaya, showing that genome reduction in this symbiont has not been enabled by gene transfer to the host nucleus. Our results thus indicate that the functioning of this three-way symbiosis is dependent on genes from at least six lineages of organisms and reveal a path to intimate endosymbiosis distinct from that followed by organelles.

  18. First records of two mealybug species in Brazil and new potential pests of papaya and coffee

    PubMed Central

    Culik, Mark P.; dos Santos Martins, David; Gullan, Penny J.

    2006-01-01

    Five mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) plant pest species: Dysmicoccus grassii (Leonardi), Ferrisia malvastra (McDaniel), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus tucumanus Granara de Willink, and Pseudococcus elisae Borchsenius are recorded for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. These are the first records of D. grassii in Brazil, from papaya (Carica papaya, Caricaceae), and from coffee (Coffea canephora, Rubiaceae). Ferrisia malvastra is also newly recorded in Brazil, where it was found on Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae). Ferrisia virgata was collected from an unidentified weed and Phenacoccus tucumanus from Citrus sp. (Rutaceae). Plotococcus capixaba Kondo was found on pitanga (Eugenia cf. pitanga, Myrtaceae) and Pseudococcus elisae on Coffea canephora, which are new host records for these mealybugs. PMID:19537975

  19. Spatial and temporal transcriptome changes occurring during flower opening and senescence of the ephemeral hibiscus flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.

    PubMed

    Trivellini, Alice; Cocetta, Giacomo; Hunter, Donald A; Vernieri, Paolo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance. The senescence of the flower was associated with increased abundance of many hydrolytic genes, including aspartic and cysteine proteases, vacuolar processing enzymes, and nucleases. Pathway analysis suggested that transcripts altering significantly in abundance were enriched in functions related to cell wall-, aquaporin-, light/circadian clock-, autophagy-, and calcium-related genes. Finding enrichment in light/circadian clock-related genes fits well with the observation that hibiscus floral development is highly synchronized with light and the hypothesis that ageing/senescence of the flower is orchestrated by a molecular clock. Further study of these genes will provide novel insight into how the molecular clock is able to regulate the timing of programmed cell death in tissues.

  20. Spatial and temporal transcriptome changes occurring during flower opening and senescence of the ephemeral hibiscus flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Trivellini, Alice; Cocetta, Giacomo; Hunter, Donald A.; Vernieri, Paolo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance. The senescence of the flower was associated with increased abundance of many hydrolytic genes, including aspartic and cysteine proteases, vacuolar processing enzymes, and nucleases. Pathway analysis suggested that transcripts altering significantly in abundance were enriched in functions related to cell wall-, aquaporin-, light/circadian clock-, autophagy-, and calcium-related genes. Finding enrichment in light/circadian clock-related genes fits well with the observation that hibiscus floral development is highly synchronized with light and the hypothesis that ageing/senescence of the flower is orchestrated by a molecular clock. Further study of these genes will provide novel insight into how the molecular clock is able to regulate the timing of programmed cell death in tissues. PMID:27591432

  1. Full-genome sequence of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus from Israel.

    PubMed

    Luria, Neta; Reingold, Victoria; Lachman, Oded; Dombrovsky, Aviv

    2013-12-12

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of the most prevalent ornamental plants grown in private and public gardens. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the Carmovirus genus, with a positive single-strand RNA that putatively encodes seven proteins. The complete genome of the first Israeli isolate of HCRSV, HCRSV-IL, comprises 3,908 nucleotides and shows 93% nucleotide sequence identity to the Singapore isolate and 87% identity to the Taiwanese isolate.

  2. Full-Genome Sequence of Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus from Israel

    PubMed Central

    Luria, Neta; Reingold, Victoria; Lachman, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of the most prevalent ornamental plants grown in private and public gardens. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the Carmovirus genus, with a positive single-strand RNA that putatively encodes seven proteins. The complete genome of the first Israeli isolate of HCRSV, HCRSV-IL, comprises 3,908 nucleotides and shows 93% nucleotide sequence identity to the Singapore isolate and 87% identity to the Taiwanese isolate. PMID:24336382

  3. Evaluation of potential RNA-interference-target genes to control cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcuidae).

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif M; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Khan, Azhar A; Naseem, Muhammad T; Mansoor, Shahid

    2017-03-18

    RNA interference (RNAi) of vital insect genes is a potential tool for targeted pest control. However, selection of the right target genes is a challenge because the RNAi efficacy is known to vary among insect species. Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, is a phloem-feeding economically important crop pest. We evaluated the RNAi of two vital genes, Bursicon (PsBur) and V-ATPase (PsV-ATPase) as potential targets in P. solenopsis for its control. PCR fragments of PsBur and PsV-ATPase were amplified using cDNA synthesized from the total RNA. The PCR amplicons were cloned into Potato virus X (PVX) to develop recombinant PVX for the inoculation of Nicotiana tabacum plants for bioassays with healthy P. solenopsis. Reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to validate the expression of transgenes in the recombinant-PVX-inoculated plants (treated), and suppression of the target genes in the mealybugs exposed to them. The RT-PCR confirmed the expression of transgenes in the treated plants. Mealybug individuals on treated plants either died or showed physical deformities. Further, the population of mealybug was significantly reduced by feeding on N. tabacum expressing RNAi triggers against PsBur and PsV-ATPase. The results conclude that RNAi is activated in P. solenopsis by feeding on N. tabacum expressing RNAi triggering elements of PsBur and PsV-ATPase genes through recombinant PVX vector. Further, V-ATPase and Bursicon genes are potential targets for RNAi mediated control of P. solenopsis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of extract of Hibiscus on the ultrastructure of the testis in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Yomna Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is a popular beverage in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Although, Hibiscus tea is known for its medicinal effects for thousands of years, scientific evidence of its systemic safety is very limited. The current study aimed to assess the potential adverse effects of H. sabdariffa extract on sperm morphology and testicular ultrastructure of albino mice. Thirty adult male albino mice were divided into three equal groups and were given: (a) distilled water, (b) cold Hibiscus aqueous extract, and (c) boiled Hibiscus aqueous extract. Hibiscus extract was administered orally daily for 4 weeks in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight/mouse. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, mice were decapitated and the testes and epididymides were excised and processed for transmission electron microscopy to assess ultrastructural and sperm abnormalities. The results clearly demonstrate that aqueous extracts from dried calyx of H. sabdariffa, either cold or boiled, alter normal sperm morphology and testicular ultrastructure and adversely influence the male reproductive fertility in albino mice. The current data suggest that Hibiscus extract should be consumed with caution, and reasonable estimates of the human risk associated with its consumption should be provided.

  5. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense', a new phytoplasma taxon associated with hibiscus witches' broom disease.

    PubMed

    Montano, H G; Davis, R E; Dally, E L; Hogenhout, S; Pimentel, J P; Brioso, P S

    2001-05-01

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a valuable ornamental species widely planted in Brazil. Many plants are affected by witches' broom disease, which is characterized by excessive axillary branching, abnormally small leaves, and deformed flowers, symptoms that are characteristic of diseases attributed to phytoplasmas. A phytoplasma was detected in diseased Hibiscus by amplification of rRNA operon sequences by PCRs, and was characterized by RFLP and nucleotide sequence analyses of 16S rDNA. The collective RFLP patterns of amplified 16S rDNA differed from the patterns described previously for other phytoplasmas. On the basis of the RFLP patterns, the hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma was classified in a new 16S rRNA RFLP group, designated group 16SrXV. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from this and other phytoplasmas identified the hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma as a member of a distinct subclade (designated subclade xiv) of the class Mollicutes. A phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences was consistent with the hypothesis that there was divergent evolution of hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma and its closest relatives (members of 16S rRNA RFLP group 16SrII) from a common ancestor. On the basis of unique properties of the DNA from hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma, it is proposed that it represents a new taxon, namely 'Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense'.

  6. Impacts of Hibiscus esculentus extract on glucose and lipid profile of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Fatemeh; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Mirhoseini, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Hajian, Shabnam; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction:Hibiscus esculentus is capable to produce various molecules including phenolic and flavonoid compounds, phytosteroids with antioxidant property. Therefore, it has the potential to show antidiabetic activities. Objectives: This study was aimed to evaluate the impacts of Hibiscus esculentus extract on glucose and lipid profile of diabetic rats. The flavonoid, flavonol and phenolic components, as well as antioxidant activity of Hibiscus esculentus was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: In a preclinical study, 40 male Wistar rats were designated into four 10-member groups, i.e., control, diabetic control, diabetic Hibiscus esculentus, and diabetic glibenclamide. The Alloxan-induced diabetic rats received extracts orally for four weeks. Then, the serum biochemical factors were measured and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased in diabetic Hibiscus esculentus rats compared to diabetic control ones (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Improving the blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats indicates that Hibiscus esculentus extract might be beneficial in diabetic patients.

  7. Decrease of Plasma Glucose by Hibiscus taiwanensis in Type-1-Like Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin-Yu; Chung, Hsien-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus taiwanensis (Malvaceae) is widely used as an alternative herb to treat disorders in Taiwan. In the present study, it is used to screen the effect on diabetic hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). The extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis showed a significant plasma glucose-lowering action in STZ-diabetic rats. Stems of Hibiscus taiwanensis are more effective than other parts to decrease the plasma glucose in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis three times daily for 3 days into STZ-diabetic rats increased the sensitivity to exogenous insulin showing an increase in insulin sensitivity. Moreover, similar repeated administration of Hibiscus taiwanensis for 3 days in STZ-diabetic rats produced a marked reduction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression in liver and an increased expression of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT 4) in skeletal muscle. Taken together, our results suggest that Hibiscus taiwanensis has the ability to lower plasma glucose through an increase in glucose utilization via elevation of skeletal GLUT 4 and decrease of hepatic PEPCK in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:23690841

  8. Impacts of Hibiscus esculentus extract on glucose and lipid profile of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Fatemeh; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Mirhoseini, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Hajian, Shabnam; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hibiscus esculentus is capable to produce various molecules including phenolic and flavonoid compounds, phytosteroids with antioxidant property. Therefore, it has the potential to show antidiabetic activities. Objectives: This study was aimed to evaluate the impacts of Hibiscus esculentus extract on glucose and lipid profile of diabetic rats. The flavonoid, flavonol and phenolic components, as well as antioxidant activity of Hibiscus esculentus was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: In a preclinical study, 40 male Wistar rats were designated into four 10-member groups, i.e., control, diabetic control, diabetic Hibiscus esculentus, and diabetic glibenclamide. The Alloxan-induced diabetic rats received extracts orally for four weeks. Then, the serum biochemical factors were measured and compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: Serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly decreased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased in diabetic Hibiscus esculentus rats compared to diabetic control ones (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Improving the blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats indicates that Hibiscus esculentus extract might be beneficial in diabetic patients. PMID:28197508

  9. A review of the legged mealybugs on bamboo (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) occurring in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Chao; Tsai, Ming-Yu; Wu, San-An

    2014-12-23

    Twenty-two species of legged mealybugs occur on bamboo (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) in China. These species are reviewed and two of them are described for the first time: Dysmicoccus luoyangensis Li & Wu, sp. nov. and Trionymus indocalamus Li & Wu, sp. nov. Two new combinations are established: Pseudococcus bambusicola Takahashi and Kaicoccus bambusus Wu are transferred to genus Formicococcus Takahashi as F. bambusicola (Takahashi) comb. nov. and F. bambusus (Wu) comb. nov., respectively. Formicococcus bambusicola, Heliococcus bambusae (Takahashi), Neoripersia miscanthicola Takahashi and Trionymus formosanus Takahashi are redescribed and reillustrated based on type specimens. Brief notes are provided for Balanococcus kwoni Pellizari & Danzig, B. zhejiangensis Li & Wu, Dysmicoccus dengwuensis Ferris, D. indocalamus Wu, Eumyrmococcus smithii Silvestri, Ferrisicoccus angustus Ezzat & McConnell, Heliococcus lingnaniae Wang, H. takae (Kuwana), Heterococcus abludens Borchsenius, Miscanthicoccus miscanthi (Takahashi), Palmicultor lumpurensis (Takahashi), Paraporisaccus guizhouensis Lu & Wu, Paraserrolecanium fargesii Wu, Pseudantonina magnotubulata Borchsenius and Trionymus bambusae (Green). A key to the species of legged mealybugs on bamboo occurring in China is given. A list of bamboo mealybugs worldwide is also provided. 

  10. Molecular and morphological characterization of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Chilean vineyards.

    PubMed

    Correa, M C G; Germain, J-F; Malausa, T; Zaviezo, T

    2012-10-01

    Mealybugs are major pests of grapevines worldwide. They cause economic losses by lowering the cosmetic value of fruits, reducing yields, transmitting viruses and resulting in the quarantine or rejection of produce in international trade. Knowledge of the species present in a vineyard is important for the adjustment of management strategies. We surveyed and accurately characterized the mealybugs infesting vineyards in one of the main production areas of Chile; 164 mealybugs were sampled from 26 vineyards in four regions of Chile and identified by DNA sequencing for two markers (cytochrome oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 2) and morphological examination. Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) was the most common species, followed by Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado and Pseudococcus cribata González. Molecular variability at the COI and ITS2 loci was observed in both P. viburni and P. cribata. A comparison of haplotypes of P. viburni worldwide provides support for a recent hypothesis that this species is native to South America, a finding with direct consequences for management. Neither Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni & Tozzetti) nor Planococcus ficus Signoret were found.

  11. Preparation of Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for Genetic Characterization and Morphological Examination.

    PubMed

    Bahder, B W; Bollinger, M L; Sudarshana, M R; Zalom, F G

    2015-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on many different crops. Because of their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide-mounted specimen. The standard mounting technique does not allow for analysis of the genome of the specimen. Conversely, preparatory techniques for genetic analysis of mealybugs cause either loss of the entire individual or physical damage that can make morphology-based identification difficult. This study describes a simple protocol that does not impact physical integrity of the specimen for fixation and microscopic examination yet enables simultaneous DNA extraction for DNA-based identification of four mealybug species. All species prepared yielded high quality slide mounts, identified as Planococcus citri Risso, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana, or Rhizoecus californicus Ferris. DNA extracted in this manner had higher purity and yield in the final eluate than in samples extracted using standard methods. DNA extracted was successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers for the cytochrome oxidase I gene and subsequently sequenced for all specimens. This protocol is likely to be applicable to other Hemiptera taxa that are preserved by slide mounting, allowing for both the preparation of a high-quality voucher specimen for morphological identification and simultaneous analysis of DNA for the same specimen. The methods used are technically less challenging than current standard procedures.

  12. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France

    PubMed Central

    Malausa, Thibaut; Delaunay, Mathilde; Fleisch, Alexandre; Groussier-Bout, Géraldine; Warot, Sylvie; Crochard, Didier; Guerrieri, Emilio; Delvare, Gérard; Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Kaydan, M. Bora; Al-Khateeb, Nadia; Germain, Jean-François; Brancaccio, Lisa; Le Goff, Isabelle; Bessac, Melissa; Ris, Nicolas; Kreiter, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus) were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids. PMID:27362639

  13. Identification of mealybug pest species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Egypt and France, using a DNA barcoding approach.

    PubMed

    Abd-Rabou, S; Shalaby, H; Germain, J-F; Ris, N; Kreiter, P; Malausa, T

    2012-10-01

    Pseudococcidae (mealybugs) is a large taxonomic group, including a number of agronomic pests. Taxonomic identification of mealybug species is a recurrent problem and represents a major barrier to the establishment of adequate pest management strategies. We combined molecular analysis of three DNA markers (28S-D2, cytochrome oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 2) with morphological examination, for the identification of 176 specimens collected from 40 mealybug populations infesting various crops and ornamental plants in Egypt and France. This combination of DNA and morphological analyses led to the identification of 17 species: seven in Egypt (Planococcus citri (Risso), Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison and Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell)) and 11 in France (Planococcus citri, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana), Rhizoecus amorphophalli Betrem, Trionymus bambusae (Green), Balanococcus diminutus (Leonardi), Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, Planococcus vovae (Nasonov), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) and Phenacoccus aceris Signoret), Pl. citri being found in both countries. We also found genetic variation between populations considered to belong to the same species, justifying further investigation of the possible occurrence of complexes of cryptic taxa.

  14. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni.

    PubMed

    Correa, Margarita C G; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-11-12

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and population structure was carried out, genotyping 529 Ps. viburni individuals with 21 microsatellite markers. Samples from 16 localities were analyzed using Bayesian and spatially-explicit methods and the genetic dataset was confronted to host-plant, management and environmental data. Chilean crops were found to be infested by Ps. viburni, Pseudococcus meridionalis, Pseudococcus longispinus and Planococcus citri, with Ps. viburni and Ps. meridionalis showing contrasting distribution and host-plant preference patterns. Ps. viburni samples presented low genetic diversity levels but high genetic differentiation. While no significant genetic variance could be assigned to host-plant or management strategy, climate and geography were found to correlate significantly with genetic differentiation levels. The genetic characterization of Ps. viburni within Chile will contribute to future studies tracing back the origin and improving the management of this worldwide invader.

  15. Investigating Biological Control Agents for Controlling Invasive Populations of the Mealybug Pseudococcus comstocki in France.

    PubMed

    Malausa, Thibaut; Delaunay, Mathilde; Fleisch, Alexandre; Groussier-Bout, Géraldine; Warot, Sylvie; Crochard, Didier; Guerrieri, Emilio; Delvare, Gérard; Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Kaydan, M Bora; Al-Khateeb, Nadia; Germain, Jean-François; Brancaccio, Lisa; Le Goff, Isabelle; Bessac, Melissa; Ris, Nicolas; Kreiter, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Pseudococcus comstocki (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a mealybug species native to Eastern Asia and present as an invasive pest in northern Italy and southern France since the start of the century. It infests apple and pear trees, grapevines and some ornamental trees. Biocontrol programmes against this pest proved successful in central Asia and North America in the second half of the 20th century. In this study, we investigated possible biocontrol agents against P. comstocki, with the aim of developing a biocontrol programme in France. We carried out systematic DNA-barcoding at each step in the search for a specialist parasitoid. First we characterised the French target populations of P. comstocki. We then identified the parasitoids attacking P. comstocki in France. Finally, we searched for foreign mealybug populations identified a priori as P. comstocki and surveyed their hymenopteran parasitoids. Three mealybug species (P. comstocki, P. viburni and P. cryptus) were identified during the survey, together with at least 16 different parasitoid taxa. We selected candidate biological control agent populations for use against P. comstocki in France, from the species Allotropa burrelli (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Acerophagus malinus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The coupling of molecular and morphological characterisation for both pests and natural enemies facilitated the programme development and the rejection of unsuitable or generalist parasitoids.

  16. Hot water treatment and insecticidal coatings for disinfesting limes of mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Gould, W P; McGuire, R G

    2000-06-01

    Hot water immersion and insecticidal coatings were tested to determine if they could be used to disinfest Persian limes, Citrus latifolia Tanaka, of the mealybug pests Planococcus citri Risso and Pseudococcus odermatti Miller & Williams. A 20-min 49 degrees C hot water immersion treatment is effective in killing mealybugs and all other arthropods tested found externally on limes, or under the calyx. No insects or mites were found to survive after the 20-min hot water treatment. In this test, 7,200 limes were treated with 1,308 insects killed and zero survivors. Treatment at 49 degrees C for 20 min did not significantly affect quality when treated fruit were compared with untreated control fruit. Four coatings were tested at a 3% rate: two petroleum-based oils (Ampol and Sunspray oil), a vegetable oil (natural oil), and a soap (Mpede). The coatings gave up to 94% kill (Ampol) of mealybugs, which is not sufficient to provide quarantine security. The coatings might be effective as a postharvest dip before shipment.

  17. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Margarita C. G.; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and population structure was carried out, genotyping 529 Ps. viburni individuals with 21 microsatellite markers. Samples from 16 localities were analyzed using Bayesian and spatially-explicit methods and the genetic dataset was confronted to host-plant, management and environmental data. Chilean crops were found to be infested by Ps. viburni, Pseudococcus meridionalis, Pseudococcus longispinus and Planococcus citri, with Ps. viburni and Ps. meridionalis showing contrasting distribution and host-plant preference patterns. Ps. viburni samples presented low genetic diversity levels but high genetic differentiation. While no significant genetic variance could be assigned to host-plant or management strategy, climate and geography were found to correlate significantly with genetic differentiation levels. The genetic characterization of Ps. viburni within Chile will contribute to future studies tracing back the origin and improving the management of this worldwide invader. PMID:26559636

  18. Repeated replacement of an intrabacterial symbiont in the tripartite nested mealybug symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Husnik, Filip; McCutcheon, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Stable endosymbiosis of a bacterium into a host cell promotes cellular and genomic complexity. The mealybug Planococcus citri has two bacterial endosymbionts with an unusual nested arrangement: the γ-proteobacterium Moranella endobia lives in the cytoplasm of the β-proteobacterium Tremblaya princeps. These two bacteria, along with genes horizontally transferred from other bacteria to the P. citri genome, encode gene sets that form an interdependent metabolic patchwork. Here, we test the stability of this three-way symbiosis by sequencing host and symbiont genomes for five diverse mealybug species and find marked fluidity over evolutionary time. Although Tremblaya is the result of a single infection in the ancestor of mealybugs, the γ-proteobacterial symbionts result from multiple replacements of inferred different ages from related but distinct bacterial lineages. Our data show that symbiont replacement can happen even in the most intricate symbiotic arrangements and that preexisting horizontally transferred genes can remain stable on genomes in the face of extensive symbiont turnover. PMID:27573819

  19. Seasonal phenology, spatial distribution, and sampling plan for the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Beltrá, A; Garcia-Marí, F; Soto, A

    2013-06-01

    Phlenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug of Neotropical origin. In recent years it has invaded the Mediterranean Basin causing significant damages in bougainvillea and other ornamental plants. This article examines its phenology, location on the plant and spatial distribution, and presents a sampling plan to determine P. peruvianus population density for the management of this mealybug in southern Europe. Six urban green spaces with bougainvillea plants were periodically surveyed between March 2008 and September 2010 in eastern Spain, sampling bracts, leaves, and twigs. Our results show that P. peruvianus abundance was high in spring and summer, declining to almost undetectable levels in autumn and winter. The mealybugs showed a preference for settling on bracts and there were no significant migrations between plant organs. P. peruvianus showed a highly aggregated distribution on bracts, leaves, and twigs. We recommend abinomial sampling of 200 leaves and an action threshold of 55% infested leaves for integrated pest management purposes on urban landscapes and enumerative sampling for ornamental nursery management and additional biological studies.

  20. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) with oral rim ducts; description of a new genus and species from Turkey, and discussion of their higher classification within the Pseudococcidae.

    PubMed

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Szita, Éva

    2017-02-03

    A new monotypic mealybug genus with oral rim ducts, Bromusicoccus Kaydan gen. n. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae: Pseudococcinae), is described from Turkey. The higher classification of mealybug genera with oral rim tubular ducts worldwide is discussed and a key is provided to separate them.

  1. A highly sensitive single-tube nested PCR assay for the detection of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-2 (PMWaV-2)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An assay was developed for the detection of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-2 (PMWaV-2), an important factor in the etiology of mealybug wilt of pineapple. The assay combines reverse transcription of RNA isolated from pineapple with a specific and very sensitive, single, closed-tube nested ...

  2. Density-Dependent Benefits in Ant-Hemipteran Mutualism? The Case of the Ghost Ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the Invasive Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Aiming; Kuang, Beiqing; Gao, Yingrui; Liang, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Although density-dependent benefits to hemipterans from ant tending have been measured many times, few studies have focused on integrated effects such as interactions between ant tending, natural enemy density, and hemipteran density. In this study, we tested whether the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is affected by tending by ghost ants (Tapinoma melanocephalum), the presence of parasitoids, mealybug density, parasitoid density and interactions among these factors. Our results showed that mealybug colony growth rate and percentage parasitism were significantly affected by ant tending, parasitoid presence, and initial mealybug density separately. However, there were no interactions among the independent factors. There were also no significant interactions between ant tending and parasitoid density on either mealybug colony growth rate or percentage parasitism. Mealybug colony growth rate showed a negative linear relationship with initial mealybug density but a positive linear relationship with the level of ant tending. These results suggest that benefits to mealybugs are density-independent and are affected by ant tending level. PMID:25886510

  3. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces to Control Aichi Virus.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Doris H; Dice, Lezlee; Davidson, P Michael

    2016-06-01

    Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts possess antimicrobial properties with limited information available on their antiviral effects. Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis. Vaccines are currently unavailable to prevent their disease transmission. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous H. sabdariffa extracts against AiV. AiV at ~5 log PFU/ml was incubated with undiluted (200 mg/ml), 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extract (pH 3.6), phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control), or malic acid (pH 3.0, acid control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Treatments were stopped by serially diluting in cell-culture media containing fetal bovine serum and titers were determined using plaque assays on confluent Vero cells. Each treatment was replicated thrice and assayed in duplicate. AiV did not show any significant reduction with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) or 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted aqueous hibiscus extracts or malic acid after 0.5, 1, or 2 h at 37 °C. However, AiV titers were reduced to non-detectable levels after 24 h with all the three tested concentrations, while malic acid showed only 0.93 log PFU/ml reduction after 24 h. AiV was reduced by 0.5 and 0.9 log PFU/ml with undiluted extracts (200 mg/ml) after 2 and 6 h, respectively. AiV treated with 1:1 (100 mg/ml) and 1:5 (40 mg/ml) diluted extracts showed a minimal ~0.3 log PFU/ml reduction after 6 h. These extracts show promise to reduce AiV titers mainly through alteration of virus structure, though higher concentrations may have improved effects.

  4. Description of a new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae), a promising biological control agent of the invasive Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Rameshkumar, A; Noyes, J S; Poorani, J; Chong, J H

    2013-01-01

    Anagyrus amnestos sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a promising parasitoid of the invasive Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is described based on material collected from India. This parasitoid was identified as Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope Noyes & Menezes in recent literature, and was initially collected in Georgia, USA. It was found to be a specific parasitoid of the Madeira mealybug and its biological attributes and potential as a biological control agent of this pest were studied. In what appears to be a case of fortuitous introduction, we detected this parasitoid in large numbers on Madeira mealybugs from the southern Indian state of Karnataka, where the mealybug is a recently introduced invasive pest. In view of its economic importance as a potential biological control agent of the Madeira mealybug, it is formally described and illustrated here. Comparative accounts of the new species vis-a-vis its close relatives in India and the Americas are provided.

  5. Host instar susceptibility and selection and interspecific competition of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Mannion, Catharine M; Epsky, Nancy D

    2010-10-01

    Three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff [Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae]) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were studied for their host instar susceptibility and sex ratio, host instar selection, and interspecific competition in the laboratory. All three parasitoids were able to develop in the second instars, third-instar females, and adult females of P. marginatus. No progeny emerged from first-instar mealybugs. The proportion of female emergence was increased with increasing host size. Parasitoids selected their host instars for oviposition when they had a choice. Between second- and third-instar hosts, A. papayae and P. mexicana had significantly higher parasitism in second-instar mealybugs, whereas A. loecki had higher parasitism in the third-instar mealybugs. When competed with either one or two parasitoid species, A. papayae was significantly more successful in second-instar hosts and A. loecki was significantly more successful in third-instar mealybugs. P. mexicana was significantly less competitive when with A. papayae in both second and third instars, with A. loecki in third instars and with both A. papayae and A. loecki in second and third instars. Overall, A. papayae provided a better control of the host, when present singly or with the other two parasitoids. This information is important in evaluating the efficiency of A. papayae, A. loecki, and P. mexicana and understanding the outcome of their recovery and establishment in field studies conducted in Florida.

  6. Diversity of ampeloviruses in mealybug and soft scale vectors and in grapevine hosts from leafroll-affected vineyards.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M; Marsella-Herrick, P; Loeb, G M; Martinson, T E; Hoch, H C

    2009-10-01

    The occurrence and diversity of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1) and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) in the soft scales Parthenolecanium corni and Pulvinaria innumerabilis and in the mealybug Pseudococcus maritimus was determined in leafroll-affected vineyards in the Finger Lakes region of New York. Groups of 1 to 4 specimens were collected under loose grapevine bark and tested by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for segments of the second diverged copy of the GLRaV-1 coat protein gene or GLRaV-3 heat-shock protein 70-homologue gene. Virus-specific RT-PCR products were amplified from immature insect vectors and adult mealybugs. Single viral amplicons were obtained mostly from immature vectors (35%, 30 of 85) and dual viral amplicons from immature (16%, 10 of 61) and adult (100%, 14 of 14) mealybugs, including individuals. These observations suggested a simultaneous uptake of GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 by individual mealybugs. Furthermore, a comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of viral amplicons from soft scales, mealybugs, and grapevines from which vectors were collected showed identical or highly similar haplotypes, indicating that uptake of GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 likely occurred by direct feeding of vectors on their host plants.

  7. Mutant PINK1 upregulates tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine levels, leading to vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi Dong; Refai, Fathima Shaffra; Xie, Shao Ping; Ng, Shin Hui; Chan, Christine Hui Shan; Ho, Patrick Ghim Hoe; Zhang, Xiao Dong; Lim, Tit Meng; Tan, Eng King

    2014-03-01

    PINK1 mutations cause autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson disease (PD). Previous studies suggest that the neuroprotective function of wild-type (WT) PINK1 is related to mitochondrial homeostasis. PINK1 can also localize to the cytosol; however, the cytosolic function of PINK1 has not been fully elucidated. In this study we demonstrate that the extramitochondrial PINK1 can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and dopamine (DA) content in dopaminergic neurons in a PINK1 kinase activity-dependent manner. We demonstrate that overexpression of full-length (FL) WT PINK1 can downregulate TH expression and DA content in dopaminergic neurons. In contrast, overexpression of PD-linked G309D, A339T, and E231G PINK1 mutations upregulates TH and DA levels in dopaminergic neurons and increases their vulnerability to oxidative stress. Furthermore transfection of FL WT PINK1 or PINK1 fragments with the PINK1 kinase domain can inhibit TH expression, whereas kinase-dead (KD) FL PINK1 or KD PINK1 fragments upregulate TH level. Our findings highlight a potential novel function of extramitochondrial PINK1 in dopaminergic neurons. Deregulation of these functions of PINK1 may contribute to PINK1 mutation-induced dopaminergic neuron degeneration. However, deleterious effects caused by PINK1 mutations may be alleviated by iron-chelating agents and antioxidant agents with DA quinone-conjugating capacity.

  8. Factors influencing extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa staining of rat testes.

    PubMed

    Bassey, R B; Bakare, A A; Peter, A I; Oremosu, A A; Osinubi, A A

    2012-08-01

    Some plant extracts can be used in biology and medicine to reveal or identify cellular components and tissues. We investigated the effects of time and concentration on staining of histological sections of rat testes by an acidified extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa. An ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa was diluted using 1% acetic acid in 70% ethanol to stain histological sections of testes at concentrations of 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/ml for 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. The sections of testes were stained deep red. The staining efficiency of H. sabdariffa was greater at a high concentration and required less time to achieve optimal staining. H. sabdariffa is a strongly basic dye that can be used for various diagnostic purposes. Staining time and concentration must be considered to achieve optimal results.

  9. Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

    2014-02-15

    Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. β-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), β-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature.

  10. Cirrus clouds in convective outflow during the HIBISCUS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierli, F.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Cairo, F.; Zampieri, M.; Orlandi, E.

    2007-05-01

    Light-weight microlidar measurements were taken on-board a stratospheric balloon during the HIBISCUS 2004 campaign, held in Bauru, Brazil (22 S, 49 W). Tropical cirrus observations showed high mesoscale variability in optical and microphysical properties. The cirrus clouds were observed throughout the flight between 12 and 15 km height. It was found that the clouds were composed of different layers, characterized by a marked variability in height, thickness and optical properties. Trajectory analysis and mesoscale transport simulations clearly revealed that the clouds had formed in the outflow of a large and persistent convective region, while the observed optical properties and cloud structure variability could be linked to different residence times of convective-processed air in the upper troposphere. Mesoscale simulations were able to reproduce the supersaturation due to recent outflow, while it was necessary to consider the presence of other formation processes than convective hydration for cirrus forming in aged detrained anvils.

  11. Comparative chemical and biochemical analysis of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    PubMed

    Sindi, Heba A; Marshall, Lisa J; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts have attracted attention because of potentially useful bioactivity. However, there have been no systematic studies of extraction efficiencies of H. sabdariffa. The nature of extracts used in different studies has varied considerably, making comparisons difficult. Therefore, a systematic study of extracts of H. sabdariffa made with different solvents was carried out using water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane in the presence/absence of formic acid, using different extraction times and temperatures. The extracts were analysed for total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity using DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays, and specific anthocyanins were determined using HPLC and LC-MS. The results showed the highest antioxidant capacities were obtained by extracting using water, with or without formic acid, for 10 min at 100°C. These extracts provided the highest concentrations of cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside. It will be important to use extraction conditions giving optimal extraction efficiencies for subsequent bioactivity experiments.

  12. Deciduous shrubs for ozone bioindication: Hibiscus syriacus as an example.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Elena; Ferrara, Anna Maria; Calatayud, Vicent; Cerveró, Júlia; Giannetti, Fabio; Sanz, María José; Manning, William J

    2009-03-01

    Ozone-like visible injury was detected on Hibiscus syriacus plants used as ornamental hedges. Weekly spray of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU, 300ppm) confirmed that the injury was induced by ambient ozone. EDU induced a 75% reduction in visible injury. Injury was more severe on the western than on the eastern exposure of the hedge. This factor of variability should be considered in ozone biomonitoring programmes. Seeds were collected and seedlings were artificially exposed to ozone in filtered vs. not-filtered (+30ppb) Open-Top Chambers. The level of exposure inducing visible injury in the OTC seedlings was lower than that in the ambient-grown hedge. The occurrence of visible injury in the OTC confirmed that the ozone sensitivity was heritable and suggested that symptomatic plants of this deciduous shrub population can be successfully used as ozone bioindicators. EDU is recommended as a simple tool for diagnosing ambient ozone visible injury on field vegetation.

  13. Protocols for Callus and Somatic Embryo Initiation for Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae): Influence of Explant Type, Sugar, and Plant Growth Regulators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant work on callus induction and somatic embryogenesis was realized for Hibiscus sabdariffa. Two genotypes (Hibiscus sabdariffa and Hibiscus sabdariffa var. altissima) two sugars (sucrose and glucose) and three concentrations (1 %, 2%, 3%) of each sugar, 3 explant types (root, hypocotyl, c...

  14. Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined in both field and laboratory studies. Salinity is directly relevant to restoration because the salinity regimes of South Florida estuaries, critical nursery habitat for the pink shrimp, will be altered by changes in the quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater inflow planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP). Here we suggest performance measures based on pink shrimp density (number per square meter) in the estuaries and propose a restoration assessment and scoring scheme using these performance measures that can readily be communicated to managers, policy makers, and the interested public. The pink shrimp is an appropriate restoration indicator because of its ecological as well as its economic importance and also because scientific interest in pink shrimp in South Florida has produced a wealth of information about the species and relatively long time series of data on both juveniles in estuarine nursery habitats and adults on the fishing grounds. We suggest research needs for improving the pink shrimp performance measure.

  15. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, Brad; Tonnis, Brandon; Davis, Jerry; Pederson, Gary A

    2012-07-04

    The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterculic and vernolic acids. The fatty acid composition in the oil can directly affect oil quality and its utilization. However, the variability in oil content and fatty acid composition for these two species is unclear. For these two species, 329 available accessions were acquired from the USDA germplasm collection. Their oil content and fatty acid composition were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Using NMR and GC analyses, we found that Hibiscus seeds on average contained 18% oil and seed oil was composed of six major fatty acids (each >1%) and seven minor fatty acids (each <1%). Hibiscus cannabinus seeds contained significantly higher amounts of oil (18.14%), palmitic (20.75%), oleic (28.91%), vernolic acids (VA, 4.16%), and significantly lower amounts of stearic (3.96%), linoleic (39.49%), and dihydrosterculic acids (DHSA, 1.08%) than H. sabdariffa seeds (17.35%, 18.52%, 25.16%, 3.52%, 4.31%, 44.72%, and 1.57%, respectively). For edible oils, a higher oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratio and lower level of DHSA are preferred, and for industrial oils a high level of VA is preferred. Our results indicate that seeds from H. cannabinus may be of higher quality than H. sabdariffa seeds for these reasons. Significant variability in oil content and major fatty acids was also detected within both species. The variability in oil content and fatty acid composition revealed from this study will be useful for exploring seed utilization and developing new cultivars in these Hibiscus species.

  16. M81 Galaxy is Pretty in Pink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The perfectly picturesque spiral galaxy known as Messier 81, or M81, looks sharp in this new composite from NASA's Spitzer and Hubble space telescopes and NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. M81 is a 'grand design' spiral galaxy, which means its elegant arms curl all the way down into its center. It is located about 12 million light-years away in the Ursa Major constellation and is one of the brightest galaxies that can be seen from Earth through telescopes.

    The colors in this picture represent a trio of light wavelengths: blue is ultraviolet light captured by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer; yellowish white is visible light seen by Hubble; and red is infrared light detected by Spitzer. The blue areas show the hottest, youngest stars, while the reddish-pink denotes lanes of dust that line the spiral arms. The orange center is made up of older stars.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of the endosymbionts of mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) based on 16S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Munson, M A; Baumann, P; Moran, N A

    1992-03-01

    A portion of the gene coding for the 16S ribosomal RNA from the endosymbionts of three species of mealybugs [Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), and Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley)] was cloned, sequenced, and compared to a homologous fragment from bacteria representative of aphid endosymbionts as well as major subdivisions of the Proteobacteria. Parsimony analysis of the sequences indicated that the mealybug endosymbionts are related and belong to the beta-subdivision; in contrast, previous studies showed that aphid endosymbionts are part of the gamma-subdivision. These findings suggest that the endosymbiosis of mealybugs is a consequence of a single bacterial infection and indicate that this ancestor was different from the ancestor involved in aphid endosymbiosis.

  18. Notice to nurserymen of the naming and release for propagation of lufkin red an american hardy hibiscus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hibiscus laevis ‘Lufkin Red’, a new hardy native ornamental hibiscus is recommended for trial by nurserymen and horticulturists as a summer flowering perennial landscape plant nationwide but is particularly adapted to conditions in the South. ‘Lufkin Red’ was selected for its outstanding red flowe...

  19. Notice to nurserymen of the nameing and release for propagation of lufin white an american hardy hibiscus cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hibiscus laevis ‘LUFKIN WHITE’, a new hardy native ornamental hibiscus cultivar is recommended for trial by nurserymen and horticulturists as a summer flowering perennial landscape plant nationwide but is particularly adapted to conditions in the South. ‘LUFKIN WHITE’ was selected for its exception...

  20. Comparison of metabolic profiles and bioactivities of the leaves of three edible Congolese Hibiscus species.

    PubMed

    Kapepula, Paulin Mutwale; Kabamba Ngombe, Nadege; Tshisekedi Tshibangu, Pascal; Tsumbu, César; Franck, Thierry; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange; Mumba, Dieudonné; Tshala-Katumbay, Désiré; Serteyn, Didier; Tits, Monique; Angenot, Luc; Kalenda, Pascal Dibungi T; Frédérich, Michel

    2017-03-21

    Methanolic and dichloromethane extracts from the leaves of Congolese Hibiscus species were characterised by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques and their in vitro biochemical activities against ROS production were evaluated in cellular models and on an enzyme, myeloperoxidase (MPO), involved in inflammation. Hibiscus acetosella has a chemical fingerprint different from Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus sabdariffa both having similar fingerprints. Major compounds were polyphenols, represented mainly by caffeoyl-hydroxycitric acid for H. acetosella and neochlorogenic acid for the two other species. All extracts displayed high cellular antioxidant activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.5 to 3 μg mL(-1) using lucigenin on neutrophils. Dichloromethane extracts showed more efficient effects on extracellular ROS production and MPO activity. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of caffeoyl-hydroxycitric acid were significantly higher than those of neochlorogenic acid. The bioactivities of Hibiscus species were positively correlated with their phytochemical content and could justify their use as local nutraceutical resources and medicines.

  1. Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rod shop, roof and truss detail showing older pink roof truss, newer pratt truss, and longitudinal, truss for overhead traveling crane - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  2. Mycoplasma and associated bacteria isolated from ovine pink-eye.

    PubMed

    Langford, E V

    1971-01-01

    A mycoplasma was recovered from the untreated conjunctival membranes of nine sheep affected by Pink-eye. It was neither isolated from the conjunctiva of treated animals which were affected nor from the conjunctiva of normal animals either in contact or not in contact with affected animals. Bacteria found on normal conjunctival membranes were Neisseria ovis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermididis, Streptococcus and Bacillus spp. Bacteria found in clinical cases of Pink-eye were N. ovis, E. coli, a Streptococcus and Pseudomonas spp.

  3. The post-mortem pink teeth phenomenon: a case report.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Evelyne-Pessoa; Carvalho, Marcus-Vitor-Diniz de; Santos, Francisco-Bernardo Dos; Mendoza, Clóvis-César de; Araújo, Maria-do Socorro-Dantas de; Campello, Reginaldo-Inojosa-Carneiro

    2009-07-01

    This study presents the case of the post-mortem pink teeth phenomenon observed during an autopsy procedure performed on the body of a man who was kidnapped and murdered approximately 30 days before the examination. The corpse was in an advanced stage of decomposition and putrefaction. Both maxillary and jaw bones were intact, as well as the permanent teeth which presented the "pink teeth phenomenon", probably due to a haemorrhage in the pulp chambers. The pink discolouration was most pronounced at the neck of the teeth. The cause of death was asphyxia. Although the examiners stressed that post-mortem pink teeth must not be considered as a reliable odontological parameter for determining the cause of death, the results of other studies have shown that the pink teeth phenomenon is a common finding related to cases of asphyxia such as strangulation, drowning or suffocation. Thus, the pink teeth phenomenon must be studied in order to determine its role as a post-mortem finding. As of now, an exact relationship between the cause of death and this phenomenon remains unknown.

  4. Origin of the pinking phenomenon of white wines.

    PubMed

    Andrea-Silva, Jenny; Cosme, Fernanda; Ribeiro, Luís Filipe; Moreira, Ana S P; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Coimbra, Manuel A; Domingues, M Rosário M; Nunes, Fernando M

    2014-06-18

    Pinking is the terminology used for the salmon-red blush color that may appear in white wines produced exclusively from white grape varieties. The isolation of pinking compounds and their analysis by RP-HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS(n) showed that the origin of the pinking phenomenon in white wines from Vitis vinifera L. of Sı́ria grape variety are the anthocyanins, mainly malvidin-3-O-glucoside. The analysis showed that the anthocyanins were located both in the pulp and in the skin. Wine pinking severity was negatively related with the increase of the average temperature of the first 10 days of October, the final period of grape maturation. The minimum amount of anthocyanins needed for the pink color visualization in wine was 0.3 mg/L. The appearance of pinking in white wines after bottling is due to the lowering of free sulfur dioxide, which leads to an increase of the relative amount of the anthocyanins red flavylium form and their polymerization, resulting in the formation of colored compounds resistant to pH changes and sulfur dioxide bleaching.

  5. Relationships between anthocyanins and other compounds and sensory acceptability of Hibiscus drinks.

    PubMed

    Bechoff, Aurélie; Cissé, Mady; Fliedel, Geneviève; Declemy, Anne-Laure; Ayessou, Nicolas; Akissoe, Noel; Touré, Cheikh; Bennett, Ben; Pintado, Manuela; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith I

    2014-04-01

    Chemical composition of Hibiscus drinks (Koor and Vimto varieties, commercial and traditional, infusions and syrups) (n=8) was related to sensory evaluation and acceptance. Significant correlations between chemical composition and sensory perception of drinks were found (i.e. anthocyanin content and Hibiscus taste) (p<0.05). Consumers (n=160) evaluated drink acceptability on a 9-point verbal hedonic scale. Three classes of behaviour were identified: (a) those who preferred syrup (43% of consumers); (b) those who preferred infusion (36%); and (c) those who preferred all of the samples (21%). Acceptability of 'syrup likers' was positively correlated to sweet taste, reducing sugar content and inversely correlated to acidic taste and titratable acidity (p<0.10). Acceptability of 'infusion likers' was positively correlated to the taste of Hibiscus drink and anthocyanin content. The study showed that the distinctions between the acceptability groups are very clear with respect to the chemical composition and rating of sensory attributes.

  6. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults.

    PubMed

    McKay, Diane L; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Saltzman, Edward; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2010-02-01

    In vitro studies show Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an ingredient found in many herbal tea blends and other beverages, has antioxidant properties, and, in animal models, extracts of its calyces have demonstrated hypocholesterolemic and antihypertensive properties. Our objective in this study was to examine the antihypertensive effects of H. sabdariffa tisane (hibiscus tea) consumption in humans. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 65 pre- and mildly hypertensive adults, age 30-70 y, not taking blood pressure (BP)-lowering medications, with either 3 240-mL servings/d of brewed hibiscus tea or placebo beverage for 6 wk. A standardized method was used to measure BP at baseline and weekly intervals. At 6 wk, hibiscus tea lowered systolic BP (SBP) compared with placebo (-7.2 +/- 11.4 vs. -1.3 +/- 10.0 mm Hg; P = 0.030). Diastolic BP was also lower, although this change did not differ from placebo (-3.1 +/- 7.0 vs. -0.5 +/- 7.5 mm Hg; P = 0.160). The change in mean arterial pressure was of borderline significance compared with placebo (-4.5 +/- 7.7 vs. -0.8 +/- 7.4 mm Hg; P = 0.054). Participants with higher SBP at baseline showed a greater response to hibiscus treatment (r = -0.421 for SBP change; P = 0.010). No effects were observed with regard to age, gender, or dietary supplement use. These results suggest daily consumption of hibiscus tea, in an amount readily incorporated into the diet, lowers BP in pre- and mildly hypertensive adults and may prove an effective component of the dietary changes recommended for people with these conditions.

  7. Controlled Atmosphere Treatment for Control of Grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Harvested Table Grapes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled atmosphere (CA) treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO) alone and in combinations with 50% carbon dioxide were studied to control grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) on harvested table grapes. Two ultralow oxygen levels, ˜30 ppm and <1 ppm, were tested in both ULO and ULO+50% ...

  8. Biotransfer of Cd along a soil-plant- mealybug-ladybird food chain: A comparison with host plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingmin; Zhang, Can; Qiu, Baoli; Ashraf, Umair; Azad, Rashid; Wu, Jianhui; Ali, Shaukat

    2017-02-01

    Agro-ecosystem contamination by the heavy metals present in different agricultural products is a serious challenge faced by the living organisms. This study explains the cadmium (Cd) transfer from soils contaminated with different cadmium concentrations through a plant (eggplant and tomato) - mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes) - predator (Cryptolaemus-montrouzieri) food chain. The soils were amended with Cd at the rates of 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg (w/w). Our findings showed that considerably higher Cd transfer through tomato plant. Cadmium was biomagnified during soil-root transfer while bio-minimization of Cd was observed for shoot-mealybug - ladybird transfer. Our results further showed sequestration of Cd during the metamorphosis of ladybird beetle whilst transfer of Cd through soil-plant-mealybug-ladybird multi-trophic food chain increased in a dose dependent manner. Our results emphasize the need of further studies to elaborate possible mechanisms of Cd bio-minimization by plants, mealybugs and ladybirds observed during this study.

  9. The effect of mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) infestation of different density on physiological responses of Phalaenopsis × hybridum 'Innocence'.

    PubMed

    Kot, I; Kmieć, K; Górska-Drabik, E; Golan, K; Rubinowska, K; Łagowska, B

    2015-06-01

    Cultivated orchids are the most abundantly attacked by polyphagous mealybugs. This study documented how different density of mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) infestation is associated with a response of antioxidative systems of Phalaenopsis × hybridum 'Innocence'. The degree of cell damage, estimated by electrolyte leakage measurement and the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), the content of pigments as well as the activity of antioxidative enzymes and proline level, as measurements of stress and stress compensation in moth orchid were examined. The highest electrolyte leakage (E L) value among samples from colonized plants was found in the orchids from series III (50 individuals/plant), whereas the lowest in the plants from series II (20 individuals/plant). The TBARS content reached the highest level at the lowest number of feeding insects (series I). Peroxidase activity toward guaiacol was significantly increased in series I (5 individuals/plant). The highest catalase activity was recorded in plants colonized by the highest number of scale insects (series III). Whereas, the highest value of proline was in series II. The content of individual photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids) in plant tissues did not vary significantly between control and colonized orchids. The results have not confirmed hypothesis that the increasing number of mealybugs occurring on plant enhanced plant physiological response. The degree of longtailed mealybug infestation on plants was positively correlated only with electrolyte leakage and catalase activity in leaf tissues.

  10. Characterization of microsatellite DNA libraries from three mealybug species and development of microsatellite markers for Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Correa, M C G; Zaviezo, T; Le Maguet, J; Herrbach, E; Malausa, T

    2014-04-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are important pests for crops worldwide. Different species, cryptic taxa under the same species name or even populations within a species can differ in biological characteristics, such as phenology, resistance to insecticides, virus transmission and susceptibility to natural enemies. Therefore, their management efficacy depends on their accurate identification. Microsatellite genetic markers are efficient in revealing the fine-scale taxonomic status of insects, both at inter- and intra-specific level. Despite their potential uses, microsatellites have been developed only for one mealybug species so far. Hence, it is unclear whether microsatellites may be useful to assess mealybug population differentiation and structuring. In this work, we tested the feasibility of developing microsatellite markers in mealybugs by: (i) producing and characterizing microsatellite DNA libraries for three species: Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus comstocki and Heliococcus bohemicus, and (ii) by developing and testing markers for Ps. viburni. The obtained libraries contained balanced percentages of dinucleotide (ranging from 15 to 25%) and trinucleotide (from 5 to 17%) motifs. The marker setup for Ps. viburni was successful, although 70% of the primers initially tested were discarded for a lack of polymorphism. Finally, 25 markers were combined in two multiplex polymerase chain reactions with 21 displaying no evidence of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Ps. viburni markers were tested on one population from France and one from Chile. The markers revealed a significant genetic differentiation between the two populations with an Fst estimate of 0.266.

  11. Z-scan and optical limiting properties of Hibiscus Sabdariffa dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, A.; Zongo, S.; Mthunzi, P.; Rehman, S.; Alqaradawi, S. Y.; Soboyejo, W.; Maaza, M.

    2014-12-01

    The intensity-dependent refractive index n 2 and the nonlinear susceptibility χ (3) of Hibiscus Sabdariffa dye solutions in the nanosecond regime at 532 nm are reported. More presicely, the variation of n 2, β, and real and imaginary parts of χ (3) versus the natural dye extract concentration has been carried out by z-scan and optical limiting techniques. The third-order nonlinearity of the Hibiscus Sabdariffa dye solutions was found to be dominated by nonlinear refraction, which leads to strong optical limiting of laser.

  12. Nutrient composition and biological evaluation of mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds.

    PubMed

    Rao, P U

    1996-01-01

    Two varieties of mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seeds were analysed for their proximal composition. Their protein (18.8-22.3%), fat (19.1-22.8%) and dietary fiber (39.5-42.6%) content were found to be high. The seeds were found to be a good source of minerals like phosphorus, magnesium and calcium. Their lysine and tryptophan contents were also high. Sulphur containing amino acids were limiting in this seed protein and the chemical score of mesta seed protein was 40 and 57 for AMV-2 and Bhimili-1 varieties respectively. Mesta seed oil is rich in unsaturate fatty acids (70%), of which linoleic acid constituted 44%. Weanling rats were fed with 10% mesta seed protein before and after cooking for 4 weeks. Food intake of animals receiving raw mesta seed diets was significantly lower than those receiving cooked mesta seed diets as well as the casein control diet. Protein and dry matter digestibilities of raw and cooked mesta seed diets were lower than that of casein control diet. Cooking improved the food intake, gain in body weight, dry matte and protein digestibility of mesta seed diets. PER and NPU of cooked mesta seed diets were significantly higher than the corresponding raw diets. These results indicate that cooked mesta seed protein is of relatively good quality.

  13. The Effects of Cold Stress on Photosynthesis in Hibiscus Plants.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Miriam; Quiles, María José

    2015-01-01

    The present work studies the effects of cold on photosynthesis, as well as the involvement in the chilling stress of chlororespiratory enzymes and ferredoxin-mediated cyclic electron flow, in illuminated plants of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Plants were sensitive to cold stress, as indicated by a reduction in the photochemistry efficiency of PSII and in the capacity for electron transport. However, the susceptibility of leaves to cold may be modified by root temperature. When the stem, but not roots, was chilled, the quantum yield of PSII and the relative electron transport rates were much lower than when the whole plant, root and stem, was chilled at 10°C. Additionally, when the whole plant was cooled, both the activity of electron donation by NADPH and ferredoxin to plastoquinone and the amount of PGR5 polypeptide, an essential component of the cyclic electron flow around PSI, increased, suggesting that in these conditions cyclic electron flow helps protect photosystems. However, when the stem, but not the root, was cooled cyclic electron flow did not increase and PSII was damaged as a result of insufficient dissipation of the excess light energy. In contrast, the chlororespiratory enzymes (NDH complex and PTOX) remained similar to control when the whole plant was cooled, but increased when only the stem was cooled, suggesting the involvement of chlororespiration in the response to chilling stress when other pathways, such as cyclic electron flow around PSI, are insufficient to protect PSII.

  14. The Effects of Cold Stress on Photosynthesis in Hibiscus Plants

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Miriam; Quiles, María José

    2015-01-01

    The present work studies the effects of cold on photosynthesis, as well as the involvement in the chilling stress of chlororespiratory enzymes and ferredoxin-mediated cyclic electron flow, in illuminated plants of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Plants were sensitive to cold stress, as indicated by a reduction in the photochemistry efficiency of PSII and in the capacity for electron transport. However, the susceptibility of leaves to cold may be modified by root temperature. When the stem, but not roots, was chilled, the quantum yield of PSII and the relative electron transport rates were much lower than when the whole plant, root and stem, was chilled at 10°C. Additionally, when the whole plant was cooled, both the activity of electron donation by NADPH and ferredoxin to plastoquinone and the amount of PGR5 polypeptide, an essential component of the cyclic electron flow around PSI, increased, suggesting that in these conditions cyclic electron flow helps protect photosystems. However, when the stem, but not the root, was cooled cyclic electron flow did not increase and PSII was damaged as a result of insufficient dissipation of the excess light energy. In contrast, the chlororespiratory enzymes (NDH complex and PTOX) remained similar to control when the whole plant was cooled, but increased when only the stem was cooled, suggesting the involvement of chlororespiration in the response to chilling stress when other pathways, such as cyclic electron flow around PSI, are insufficient to protect PSII. PMID:26360248

  15. Fullerene-Based Symmetry in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Kleber; Guerra, Sara; Debut, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The fullerene molecule belongs to the so-called super materials. The compound is interesting due to its spherical configuration where atoms occupy positions forming a mechanically stable structure. We first demonstrate that pollen of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a strong symmetry regarding the distribution of its spines over the spherical grain. These spines form spherical hexagons and pentagons. The distance between atoms in fullerene is explained applying principles of flat, spherical, and spatial geometry, based on Euclid’s “Elements” book, as well as logic algorithms. Measurements of the pollen grain take into account that the true spine lengths, and consequently the real distances between them, are measured to the periphery of each grain. Algorithms are developed to recover the spatial effects lost in 2D photos. There is a clear correspondence between the position of atoms in the fullerene molecule and the position of spines in the pollen grain. In the fullerene the separation gives the idea of equal length bonds which implies perfectly distributed electron clouds while in the pollen grain we suggest that the spines being equally spaced carry an electrical charge originating in forces involved in the pollination process. PMID:25003375

  16. Wound Healing Potential of Formulated Extract from Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyx

    PubMed Central

    Builders, P. F.; Kabele-Toge, B.; Builders, M.; Chindo, B. A.; Anwunobi, Patricia A.; Isimi, Yetunde C.

    2013-01-01

    Wound healing agents support the natural healing process, reduce trauma and likelihood of secondary infections and hasten wound closure. The wound healing activities of water in oil cream of the methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) was evaluated in rats with superficial skin excision wounds. Antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Echerichia coli were determined. The total flavonoid content, antioxidant properties and thin layer chromatographic fingerprints of the extract were also evaluated. The extract demonstrated antioxidant properties with a total flavonoid content of 12.30±0.09 mg/g. Six reproducible spots were obtained using methanol:water (95:5) as the mobile phase. The extract showed no antimicrobial activity on the selected microorganisms, which are known to infect and retard wound healing. Creams containing H. sabdariffa extract showed significant (P<0.05) and concentration dependent wound healing activities. There was also evidence of synergism with creams containing a combination of gentamicin and H. sabdariffa extract. This study, thus, provides evidence of the wound healing potentials of the formulated extract of the calyces of H. sabdariffa and synergism when co-formulated with gentamicin. PMID:23901160

  17. Changes in protein patterns and in vivo protein synthesis during senescence of hibiscus petals. [Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

    SciTech Connect

    Woodson, W.R.; Handa, A.K.

    1986-04-01

    Changes in proteins associated with senescence of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was studied using SDS-PAGE. Total extractable protein from petals decreased with senescence. Changes were noted in patterns of proteins from aging petals. Flower opening and senescence was associated with appearance and disappearance of several polypeptides. One new polypeptide with an apparent mw of 41 kd was first seen the day of flower opening and increased to over 9% of the total protein content of senescent petal tissue. Protein synthesis during aging was investigated by following uptake and incorporation of /sup 3/H-leucine into TCA-insoluble fraction of petal discs. Protein synthesis, as evidenced by the percent of label incorporated into the TCA-insoluble fraction, was greatest (32%) the day before flower opening. Senescent petal tissue incorporated 4% of label taken up into protein. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and labelled polypeptides identified by fluorography. In presenescent petal tissue, radioactivity was distributed among several major polypeptides. In senescent tissue, much of the radioactivity was concentrated in the 41 kd polypeptide.

  18. Unravelling the structure of Magnus' pink salt.

    PubMed

    Lucier, Bryan E G; Johnston, Karen E; Xu, Wenqian; Hanson, Jonathan C; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Yao, Siyu; Bourassa, Megan W; Srebro, Monika; Autschbach, Jochen; Schurko, Robert W

    2014-01-29

    A combination of multinuclear ultra-wideline solid-state NMR, powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), X-ray absorption fine structure experiments, and first principles calculations of platinum magnetic shielding tensors has been employed to reveal the previously unknown crystal structure of Magnus' pink salt (MPS), [Pt(NH3)4][PtCl4], study the isomeric Magnus' green salt (MGS), [Pt(NH3)4][PtCl4], and examine their synthetic precursors K2PtCl4 and Pt(NH3)4Cl2·H2O. A simple synthesis of MPS is detailed which produces relatively pure product in good yield. Broad (195)Pt, (14)N, and (35)Cl SSNMR powder patterns have been acquired using the WURST-CPMG and BRAIN-CP/WURST-CPMG pulse sequences. Experimentally measured and theoretically calculated platinum magnetic shielding tensors are shown to be very sensitive to the types and arrangements of coordinating ligands as well as intermolecular Pt-Pt metallophilic interactions. High-resolution (195)Pt NMR spectra of select regions of the broad (195)Pt powder patterns, in conjunction with an array of (14)N and (35)Cl spectra, reveal clear structural differences between all compounds. Rietveld refinements of synchrotron pXRD patterns, guided by first principles geometry optimization calculations, yield the space group, unit cell parameters, and atomic positions of MPS. The crystal structure has P-1 symmetry and resides in a pseudotetragonal unit cell with a distance of >5.5 Å between Pt sites in the square-planar Pt units. The long Pt-Pt distances and nonparallel orientation of Pt square planes prohibit metallophilic interactions within MPS. The combination of ultra-wideline NMR, pXRD, and computational methods offers much promise for future investigation and characterization of Pt-containing systems.

  19. Effects of transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton on non-target mealybug pest Ferrisia virgata and its predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Ping; Xie, Jiaqin; He, Yunyu; Deng, Congshuang; De Clercq, Patrick; Pang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A first study on the effects of transgenic cotton on a non-target mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was performed by comparing its development, survival and body weight on transgenic cotton leaves expressing Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) with those on its near-isogenic non-transgenic line. Furthermore, the development, survival, body weight, fecundity, adult longevity and feeding preference of the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was assessed when fed F. virgata maintained on transgenic cotton. In order to investigate potential transfer of Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins via the food chain, protein levels in cotton leaves, mealybugs and ladybirds were quantified. Experimental results showed that F. virgata could infest this bivalent transgenic cotton. No significant differences were observed in the physiological parameters of the predator C. montrouzieri offered F. virgata reared on transgenic cotton or its near-isogenic line. Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins were detected in transgenic cotton leaves, but no detectable levels of both proteins were present in the mealybug or its predator when reared on transgenic cotton leaves. Our bioassays indicated that transgenic cotton poses a negligible risk to the predatory coccinellid C. montrouzieri via its prey, the mealybug F. virgata.

  20. Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest Ferrisia virgata and Its Predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Ping; Xie, Jiaqin; He, Yunyu; Deng, Congshuang; De Clercq, Patrick; Pang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A first study on the effects of transgenic cotton on a non-target mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was performed by comparing its development, survival and body weight on transgenic cotton leaves expressing Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) with those on its near-isogenic non-transgenic line. Furthermore, the development, survival, body weight, fecundity, adult longevity and feeding preference of the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was assessed when fed F. virgata maintained on transgenic cotton. In order to investigate potential transfer of Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins via the food chain, protein levels in cotton leaves, mealybugs and ladybirds were quantified. Experimental results showed that F. virgata could infest this bivalent transgenic cotton. No significant differences were observed in the physiological parameters of the predator C. montrouzieri offered F. virgata reared on transgenic cotton or its near-isogenic line. Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins were detected in transgenic cotton leaves, but no detectable levels of both proteins were present in the mealybug or its predator when reared on transgenic cotton leaves. Our bioassays indicated that transgenic cotton poses a negligible risk to the predatory coccinellid C. montrouzieri via its prey, the mealybug F. virgata. PMID:24751821

  1. PINK1 signaling in mitochondrial homeostasis and in aging (Review).

    PubMed

    Kitagishi, Yasuko; Nakano, Noriko; Ogino, Mako; Ichimura, Mayuko; Minami, Akari; Matsuda, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the pathology of Parkinson's disease, an age-associated neurodegenerative disorder. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase protein 1 (PINK1) is responsible for the most common form of recessive Parkinson's disease. PINK1 is a mitochondrial kinase that is involved in mitrochondrial quality control and promotes cell survival. PINK1 has been shown to protect against neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress. Accordingly, PINK1 deficiency is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction as well as increased oxidative cellular stress and subsequent neuronal cell death. In addition, several mitochondrial chaperone proteins have been shown to be substrates of the PINK1 kinase. In this review, we discuss recent studies concerning the signaling cascades and molecular mechanisms involved in the process of mitophagy, which is implicated in neurodegeneration and in related aging associated with oxidative stress. Particular attention will be given to the molecular mechanisms proposed to explain the effects of natural compounds and/or food ingredients against oxidative stress. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in this cellular protection could be critical for developing treatments to prevent and control excessive progression of neurodegenerative disorders.

  2. Reduction of protein translation and activation of autophagy protect against PINK1 pathogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Liu, Song; Lu, Bingwei

    2010-12-09

    Mutations in PINK1 and Parkin cause familial, early onset Parkinson's disease. In Drosophila melanogaster, PINK1 and Parkin mutants show similar phenotypes, such as swollen and dysfunctional mitochondria, muscle degeneration, energy depletion, and dopaminergic (DA) neuron loss. We previously showed that PINK1 and Parkin genetically interact with the mitochondrial fusion/fission pathway, and PINK1 and Parkin were recently proposed to form a mitochondrial quality control system that involves mitophagy. However, the in vivo relationships among PINK1/Parkin function, mitochondrial fission/fusion, and autophagy remain unclear; and other cellular events critical for PINK1 pathogenesis remain to be identified. Here we show that PINK1 genetically interacted with the protein translation pathway. Enhanced translation through S6K activation significantly exacerbated PINK1 mutant phenotypes, whereas reduction of translation showed suppression. Induction of autophagy by Atg1 overexpression also rescued PINK1 mutant phenotypes, even in the presence of activated S6K. Downregulation of translation and activation of autophagy were already manifested in PINK1 mutant, suggesting that they represent compensatory cellular responses to mitochondrial dysfunction caused by PINK1 inactivation, presumably serving to conserve energy. Interestingly, the enhanced PINK1 mutant phenotype in the presence of activated S6K could be fully rescued by Parkin, apparently in an autophagy-independent manner. Our results reveal complex cellular responses to PINK1 inactivation and suggest novel therapeutic strategies through manipulation of the compensatory responses.

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Properties of Acid-Base Indicator of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Okoduwa, Stanley I. R.; Mbora, Lovina O.; Adu, Matthew E.; Adeyi, Ameh A.

    2015-01-01

    The need to develop effective alternative for synthetic indicators is the demand of present-day chemistry. The acid-base indicator properties of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) flowers were examined. Colour pigments were extracted from the flowers via cold and solvent extraction using soxhlet extractor. The pH value of the extracts with wavelengths of absorption was determined using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. From the results obtained, all the extracts exhibited sharp contrast between their colours in acid and base. Their pH was found to be 5.5 for cold extract of Rose and 5.6 for solvent extraction, 5.24 for cold extract of a Hibiscus and 6.52 for solvent extraction, 5.35 for cold extract of Allamanda, and 5.45 for solvent extraction. The maximum wavelengths of absorption obtained for all the extract fall within the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. These values are almost similar to that obtained from synthetic indicators. It is on these bases that we concluded that natural indicators could be an excellent replacement for synthetic indicators since they are cheap, readily available, simple to extract, not toxic, user and environmentally friendly. PMID:26819757

  4. Comparative Analysis of the Properties of Acid-Base Indicator of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) Flowers.

    PubMed

    Okoduwa, Stanley I R; Mbora, Lovina O; Adu, Matthew E; Adeyi, Ameh A

    2015-01-01

    The need to develop effective alternative for synthetic indicators is the demand of present-day chemistry. The acid-base indicator properties of Rose (Rosa setigera), Allamanda (Allamanda cathartica), and Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) flowers were examined. Colour pigments were extracted from the flowers via cold and solvent extraction using soxhlet extractor. The pH value of the extracts with wavelengths of absorption was determined using ultraviolet spectrophotometer. From the results obtained, all the extracts exhibited sharp contrast between their colours in acid and base. Their pH was found to be 5.5 for cold extract of Rose and 5.6 for solvent extraction, 5.24 for cold extract of a Hibiscus and 6.52 for solvent extraction, 5.35 for cold extract of Allamanda, and 5.45 for solvent extraction. The maximum wavelengths of absorption obtained for all the extract fall within the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. These values are almost similar to that obtained from synthetic indicators. It is on these bases that we concluded that natural indicators could be an excellent replacement for synthetic indicators since they are cheap, readily available, simple to extract, not toxic, user and environmentally friendly.

  5. Salicylic Acid Improved In Viro Meristem Regeneration and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to induce abiotic stress, including salt tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to determine whether application of various exogenous SA concentrations to in vitro grown meristem shoots could induce salt tolerance in two Hibiscus species. The effec...

  6. Molecular characterization of ferulate 5-hydroxylase gene from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research was to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) F5H gene that encodes ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Kenaf is well known as a fast growing dicotyledonous plant, which makes it a valuable biomass plant. The ...

  7. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) impact on post-germination seedling growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the post-germination growth of five plant species...

  8. PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Eiyama, Akinori; Okamoto, Koji

    2015-04-01

    Mitochondria-specific autophagy (mitophagy) is a fundamental process critical for maintaining mitochondrial fitness in a myriad of cell types. Particularly, mitophagy contributes to mitochondrial quality control by selectively eliminating dysfunctional mitochondria. In mammalian cells, the Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin act cooperatively in sensing mitochondrial functional state and marking damaged mitochondria for disposal via the autophagy pathway. Notably, ubiquitin and deubiquitinases play vital roles in modulating Parkin activity and mitophagy efficiency. In this review, we highlight recent breakthroughs addressing the key issues of how PINK1 activates Parkin in response to mitochondrial malfunction, how Parkin localizes specifically to impaired mitochondria, and how ubiquitination and deubiquitination regulate PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy.

  9. Parkin and PINK1: Much More than Mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Scarffe, Leslie A.; Stevens, Daniel A.; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes a debilitating movement disorder. While most cases of PD appear to be sporadic, rare Mendelian forms have provided tremendous insight into disease pathogenesis. Accumulating evidence suggests that impaired mitochondria underpin PD pathology. In support of this theory, data from multiple PD models has linked PINK1 and parkin, two recessive PD genes, in a common pathway impacting mitochondrial health, prompting a flurry of research to identify their mitochondrial targets. Recent work has focused on the role of PINK1 and parkin in mediating mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), however, emerging evidence casts parkin and PINK1 as key players in multiple domains of mitochondrial health and quality control. PMID:24735649

  10. PINK1 deficiency enhances autophagy and mitophagy induction

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M S; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Rodríguez-Arribas, Mario; Climent, Vicente; Martin-Cano, Francisco E; González-Soltero, María E; Tandon, Anurag; Fuentes, José M; González-Polo, Rosa A

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with poorly understood etiology. Increasing evidence suggests that age-dependent compromise of the maintenance of mitochondrial function is a key risk factor. Several proteins encoded by PD-related genes are associated with mitochondria including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which was first identified as a gene that is upregulated by PTEN. Loss-of-function PINK1 mutations induce mitochondrial dysfunction and, ultimately, neuronal cell death. To mitigate the negative effects of altered cellular functions cells possess a degradation mechanism called autophagy for recycling damaged components; selective elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy is termed mitophagy. Our study indicates that autophagy and mitophagy are upregulated in PINK1-deficient cells, and is the first report to demonstrate efficient fluxes by one-step analysis. We propose that autophagy is induced to maintain cellular homeostasis under conditions of non-regulated mitochondrial quality control. PMID:27308585

  11. PINK1 deficiency enhances autophagy and mitophagy induction.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M S; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Rodríguez-Arribas, Mario; Climent, Vicente; Martin-Cano, Francisco E; González-Soltero, María E; Tandon, Anurag; Fuentes, José M; González-Polo, Rosa A

    2016-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with poorly understood etiology. Increasing evidence suggests that age-dependent compromise of the maintenance of mitochondrial function is a key risk factor. Several proteins encoded by PD-related genes are associated with mitochondria including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which was first identified as a gene that is upregulated by PTEN. Loss-of-function PINK1 mutations induce mitochondrial dysfunction and, ultimately, neuronal cell death. To mitigate the negative effects of altered cellular functions cells possess a degradation mechanism called autophagy for recycling damaged components; selective elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy is termed mitophagy. Our study indicates that autophagy and mitophagy are upregulated in PINK1-deficient cells, and is the first report to demonstrate efficient fluxes by one-step analysis. We propose that autophagy is induced to maintain cellular homeostasis under conditions of non-regulated mitochondrial quality control.

  12. IR-stimulated visible fluorescence in pink and brown diamond.

    PubMed

    Byrne, K S; Chapman, J G; Luiten, A N

    2014-03-19

    Irradiation of natural pink and brown diamond by middle-ultraviolet light (photon energy ϵ ≥ 4.1 eV ) is seen to induce anomalous fluorescence phenomena at N3 defect centres (structure N3-V). When diamonds primed in this fashion are subsequently exposed to infrared light (even with a delay of many hours), a transient burst of blue N3 fluorescence is observed. The dependence of this IR-triggered fluorescence on pump wavelength and intensity suggest that this fluorescence phenomena is intrinsically related to pink diamond photochromism. An energy transfer process between N3 defects and other defect species can account for both the UV-induced fluorescence intensity changes, and the apparent optical upconversion of IR light. From this standpoint, we consider the implications of this N3 fluorescence behaviour for the current understanding of pink diamond photochromism kinetics.

  13. Paradoxical darkening and removal of pink tattoo ink.

    PubMed

    Kirby, William; Kaur, Ravneet Ruby; Desai, Alpesh

    2010-06-01

    It is widely accepted that Q-switched lasers are the gold-standard treatment for the resolution of unwanted tattoo ink. Although much safer than other tattoo removal modalities, the treatment of tattoo ink with Q-switched devices may be associated with long-term adverse effects including undesired pigmentary alterations such as tattoo ink darkening. Darkening of tattoo ink is most often reported in cosmetic, flesh-toned, white, peach, and pink tattoos. In this paper, we briefly review a case of pink tattoo ink that initially darkened paradoxically but eventually resolved with continued Q-switched laser treatments.

  14. Pink hypopyon in a patient with Serratia marcescens corneal ulceration.

    PubMed

    Stefater, James A; Borkar, Durga S; Chodosh, James

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented to the emergency ward at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary with 2 days of redness, irritation, photophobia, and diminished vision in her left eye. She was found to have a large central corneal ulcer with a small hypopyon. On the following day, after initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics, the patient had improved symptoms but now had a 2-mm hypopyon that was distinctly pink in color. Cultures were positive for Serratia marcescens. A pink hypopyon, a rare occurrence, alerted the authors to a causative agent of Enterobacteriacae, either Klebsiella or Serratia. Immediate and intensive treatment was subsequently initiated.

  15. Quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and fatty acid content among several Hibiscus sabdariffa accession calyces based on maturity in a greenhouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavonols including quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, and fatty acids in plants have many useful health attributes including antioxidants, cholesterol lowering, and cancer prevention. Six accessions of roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces were evaluated for quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin conte...

  16. Evaluation of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) leaf and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit rind for activity against Meloidogyne incognita

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) leaves have been used in traditional medicine, including as anthelmintics. Methanolic extracts from these plants were investigated for activity against the southern root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita. Dried, ground p...

  17. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  18. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  19. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  20. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  1. 7 CFR 301.52-9 - Movement of live pink bollworms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of live pink bollworms. 301.52-9 Section 301... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pink Bollworm Quarantine and Regulations § 301.52-9 Movement of live pink bollworms. Regulations requiring a permit for, and...

  2. 75 FR 52364 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Cultural Items: Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... Memphis Pink Palace Museum, Memphis, TN, that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under... objects from the site. Officials of the Memphis Pink Palace Museum have determined that, pursuant to 25...

  3. 76 FR 70062 - Fraser River Sockeye and Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Pink Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Orders AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... orders of the Commission's Fraser River Panel for U.S. sockeye and pink salmon fisheries in the Fraser... and pink salmon Tribal and non-Tribal commercial fishing unless opened by Panel orders that are...

  4. 78 FR 26308 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand Dunes Tiger Beetle and Designation of Critical Habitat AGENCY: Fish and..., proposed listing decision and proposed designation of critical habitat for Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger... Agreement and Strategy for the Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle, and an amended required...

  5. PINK1 protects against oxidative stress by phosphorylating mitochondrial chaperone TRAP1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause an autosomal recessive form of Parkinson's disease (PD). So far, no substrates of PINK1 have been reported, and the mechanism by which PINK1 mutations lead to neurodegeneration is unknown. Here we report the identification of tumor n...

  6. DNA barcodes for two scale insect families, mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).

    PubMed

    Park, D-S; Suh, S-J; Hebert, P D N; Oh, H-W; Hong, K-J

    2011-08-01

    Although DNA barcode coverage has grown rapidly for many insect orders, there are some groups, such as scale insects, where sequence recovery has been difficult. However, using a recently developed primer set, we recovered barcode records from 373 specimens, providing coverage for 75 species from 31 genera in two families. Overall success was >90% for mealybugs and >80% for armored scale species. The G·C content was very low in most species, averaging just 16.3%. Sequence divergences (K2P) between congeneric species averaged 10.7%, while intra-specific divergences averaged 0.97%. However, the latter value was inflated by high intra-specific divergence in nine taxa, cases that may indicate species overlooked by current taxonomic treatments. Our study establishes the feasibility of developing a comprehensive barcode library for scale insects and indicates that its construction will both create an effective system for identifying scale insects and reveal taxonomic situations worthy of deeper analysis.

  7. Evidence for gene flow between two sympatric mealybug species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species--the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of 'hybrid females' among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. 'hybrid females' from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects.

  8. BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF THE APPLE MEALYBUG PHENACOCCUS ACERIS (SIGNORET) IN BELGIUM.

    PubMed

    Bangels, E; Peusens, G; Bylemans, D; Belien, T

    2014-01-01

    Although in general very rare, some outbreaks of the apple mealybug Phenococcus aceris (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were reported in the Belgian fruit growing area recently. This insect is known to be geographically widespread, to have a broad host range and to infest apple trees. Damage at harvest is considerable when sooty molds, a consequence of the pest's honeydew production, cover the fruits. Indirect damage of an infection is caused in cherry cultivation through transmission of the Little cherry virus (LChV2). Efficacy trials were executed in infested apple orchards in the Belgian fruit growing area and the life cycle of the pest on apple was studied more into detail. Apple mealybugs are univoltine, overwinter as 2nd instar nymphs inside a white cocoon on the tree (under the bark, in crevices) and leave their overwintering site in early spring (mid March). On sunny days the nymphs become active, move around and attach to start feeding (mid April). After a final moult into the adult form, females lay eggs in a cocoon-like white structure (from flowering on). Following hatching (end May), massive numbers of young nymphs spread out on the underside of the leaves (mid June) where they feed through suction. In order to manage this pest the efficacy of several plant protection products was tested in two infested apple orchards. Results indicated that mortality was high after an application of compounds belonging to the neonicotinoid insecticides. Different application timings and control strategies are possible, with active nymphs being the most vulnerable life stage. The observed degree of parasitation in our trial orchards also indicates a biological control contribution of parasitic wasps that should be taken into account. A decent IPM-strategy based on our results solved the problem in both apple orchards.

  9. Evidence for Gene Flow between Two Sympatric Mealybug Species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species – the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of ‘hybrid females’ among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. ‘hybrid females’ from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects. PMID:24523894

  10. Development and optimization of methods for using sex pheromone for monitoring the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards.

    PubMed

    Millar, Jocelyn G; Daane, Kent M; McElfresh, J Steven; Moreira, Jardel A; Malakar-Kuenen, Raksha; Guillén, Marta; Bentley, Walt J

    2002-08-01

    The sex pheromone of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus Signoret has been identified as a single component, lavandulyl senecioate. Racemic lavandulyl senecioate was as attractive to male mealybugs as the insect-produced (S)-enantiomer, indicating that the unnatural enantiomer is not inhibitory. Lavandulol, which also was found in extracts from virgin females, antagonized attraction of males at higher doses. Rubber septum lures loaded with 10- to 1,000-microg doses of the pheromone were equally attractive, and lures loaded with 100 microg of racemic pheromone remained attractive for at least 12 wk under field conditions. Delta traps were more effective than double-sided sticky cards and minimized captures of nontarget insects. Pheromone-baited traps had an effective range of at least 50 m. Comparison of visual sampling methods and sampling of males with pheromone-baited traps revealed that trap catches were significantly correlated with the results from visual sampling methods, and with economic damage.

  11. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species.

  12. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species. PMID:27199595

  13. Stabilizing Oils from Smoked Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smoking of meats and fish is one of the earliest preservation technologies developed by humans. In this study, the smoking process was evaluated as a method for reducing oxidation of Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) oils and also maintaining the quality of oil in aged fish prior to oil extractio...

  14. Girls, Computers, and "Becoming": "The Pink Voice" Writing Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Sarah Jane

    2011-01-01

    Through a feminist content analysis of young women's writing and reflections, this study gives evidence of how a school-based new literacy project shared knowledge in a public voice about the irreducible and complex world of "becoming" a girl. This project, called "The Pink Voice," was conducted in a large urban centre on the…

  15. Motivated to Learn: A Conversation with Daniel Pink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    The author has looked at four decades of scientific research on human motivation and found a mismatch between what science tells us and what organizations actually do. In this interview with "Educational Leadership," Pink shares his insights on how schools can create more optimal conditions for learning--and how they can dial up…

  16. A new species of mealybug in the genus Paracoccus Ezzat & McConnell from North America (Insecta: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Stocks, Ian C

    2014-10-14

    A probably adventive mealybug species, Paracoccus gillianae sp. n. is described from North America. Its entry into the United States was likely to have been via the horticultural trade of Agave spp. (Liliales: Agavaceae) and other host plants in the family Agavaceae. Illustrations of the adult female and male, and diagnosis from congeners in the New World and from other Paracoccus species known to feed on Agavaceae, are provided.

  17. Performance of the Striped Mealybug Ferrisia virgata Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under Variable Conditions of Temperature and Mating.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M D; Barbosa, P R R; Silva-Torres, C S A; Torres, J B

    2014-02-01

    Mealybugs have strong associations with their host plants due to their limitations for dispersal. Thus, environmental conditions and host quality may impact the biological traits of mealybugs. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report on the biology of a Brazilian population of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), which has recently been reported to infest cotton in Brazil. We evaluated the development and reproductive performance of F. virgata reared under different temperatures (25, 27, and 28°C) and mating status. The type of reproduction was also studied with insects reared on a factitious host and on cotton plants. Shorter development was obtained at 28°C as follows: nymphs generating males and females exhibited three and four instars with a mean duration of 19.1 and 20.5 days, respectively. The nymphal viability ranged from 77 to 96%, and was highest at 25°C. Females reared at 28°C initiated reproduction earlier (16.4 days), but the reproductive period was similar in all temperatures (∼16.2 days). Females produced more nymphs at 27 and 28°C (440 and 292 neonates) than at 25°C (277 neonates), although they lived longer at 25°C (63 days). Ferrisia virgata females exhibited only sexual reproduction. Thus, only mated females produced offspring, whereas unmated females died without reproducing. Therefore, the studied population of F. virgata exhibited only sexual reproduction with high survival and offspring production when fed cotton. Furthermore, pumpkin is a feasible host for mass rearing this mealybug species in the laboratory, an opening avenue for future studies.

  18. Diuretic effect of compounds from Hibiscus sabdariffa by modulation of the aldosterone activity.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Alarcón-Alonso, Javier; Aguilar-Rojas, Arturo; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Ferrer C, Itzia; Tortoriello, Jaime; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. have demonstrated that it presents diuretic, natriuretic, and potassium sparing effects. However, the mechanism that induces these effects has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the possible mechanism of action for the diuretic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and its fractions.The aqueous extract from this plant and the fractions obtained with solvents of different polarities were administered to adrenalectomized rats, and the diuretic effect was measured in the presence of deoxycorticosterone acetate (aldosterone analog).The effect on renal filtration was also evaluated in an in situ kidney model, and finally, the effect of diuretic active extracts on gene expression of the alpha subunit from the transporter (αENaC) of renal epithelial cell was quantified. The subsequent results were obtained: The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa presented the following chemical composition, 32.4 mg/g delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside, 11.5 mg/g cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside, 11.5 mg/g quercetin, and chlorogenic acid 2.7 mg/g. The concentration of anthocyanins was diminished until disappearance due to decrease of the polarity of the solvents used in the extraction process, in contrast to the flavonoids and chlorogenic acid, which had their concentration increased. The diuretic effect caused by adrenalectomy in rats was reversed by deoxycorticosterone acetate activity. However, the effect of deoxycorticosterone acetate was antagonized by spironolactone, the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, and the acetonitrile : methanol 5 : 5 mixture extract, administered orally. A similar effect was observed on renal filtration obtained from the isolated kidney model.When the gene expression levels of αENaC was measured in adrenalectomized rats, it was observed that spironolactone, the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, the acetonitrile : methanol 5 : 5 mixture, as well as the

  19. Homology difference analysis of invasive mealybug species Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley in Southern China with COI gene sequence variability.

    PubMed

    Wu, F Z; Ma, J; Hu, X N; Zeng, L

    2015-02-01

    The mealybug species Phenacoccus solenopsis (P. solenopsis) has caused much agricultural damage since its recent invasion in China. However, the source of this invasion remains unclear. This study uses molecular methods to clarify the relationships among different population of P. solenopsis from China, USA, Pakistan, India, and Vietnam to determine the geographic origin of the introduction of this species into China. P. solenopsis samples were collected from 25 different locations in three provinces of Southern China. Samples from the USA, Pakistan, and Vietnam were also obtained. Parts of the mitochondrial genes for cytochrome oxidase I (COI) were sequenced for each sample. Homologous DNA sequences of the samples from the USA and India were downloaded from Gen Bank. Two haplotypes were found in China. The first was from most samples from the Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan populations in the China and Pakistan groups, and the second from a few samples from the Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan populations in the China, Pakistan, India, and Vietnam groups. As shown in the maximum likelihood of trees constructed using the COI sequences, these samples belonged to two clades. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that most P. solenopsis mealybugs in Southern China are probably closely related to populations in Pakistan. The variation, relationship, expansion, and probable geographic origin of P. solenopsis mealybugs in Southern China are also discussed.

  20. SARM1 and TRAF6 bind to and stabilize PINK1 on depolarized mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Kataoka, Ken; Huh, Nam-ho

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) or parkin cause autosomal recessive forms of Parkinson's disease. Recent work suggests that loss of mitochondrial membrane potential stabilizes PINK1 and that accumulated PINK1 recruits parkin from the cytoplasm to mitochondria for elimination of depolarized mitochondria, which is known as mitophagy. In this study, we find that PINK1 forms a complex with sterile α and TIR motif containing 1 (SARM1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 6 (TRAF6), which is important for import of PINK1 in the outer membrane and stabilization of PINK1 on depolarized mitochondria. SARM1, which is known to be an adaptor protein for Toll-like receptor, binds to PINK1 and promotes TRAF6-mediated lysine 63 chain ubiquitination of PINK1 at lysine 433. Down-regulation of SARM1 and TRAF6 abrogates accumulation of PINK1, followed by recruitment of parkin to damaged mitochondria. Some pathogenic mutations of PINK1 reduce the complex formation and ubiquitination. These results indicate that association of PINK1 with SARM1 and TRAF6 is an important step for mitophagy. PMID:23885119

  1. The effects of racemization rate for age estimation of pink teeth.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Ayaka; Saitoh, Hisako; Ishii, Namiko; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-03-01

    Pink teeth is thought to result from the seepage of hemoglobin caused by dental pulp decomposition. We investigated whether racemization can be applied for age estimation in cases of pink teeth where the whole tooth is used. The pink teeth used were three cases and the normal teeth for control were five mandibular canines of known age. Age of the pink teeth was calculated on the basis of regression formula obtained from the five control teeth. Only a slight error was noted between the actual and estimated ages of the pink teeth (R(2) = 0.980, r = 0.990): Cases 1-3 actually aged 23, 53, and 59 years were estimated to be 26, 52, and 60 years. Based on our results of testing pink teeth of known age, we suggest that racemization techniques allow for the age estimation of pink teeth using the same methods for normally colored teeth.

  2. The Yeast Complex I Equivalent NADH Dehydrogenase Rescues pink1 Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Vilain, Sven; Esposito, Giovanni; Haddad, Dominik; Schaap, Onno; Dobreva, Mariya P.; Vos, Melissa; Van Meensel, Stefanie; Morais, Vanessa A.; De Strooper, Bart; Verstreken, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Pink1 is a mitochondrial kinase involved in Parkinson's disease, and loss of Pink1 function affects mitochondrial morphology via a pathway involving Parkin and components of the mitochondrial remodeling machinery. Pink1 loss also affects the enzymatic activity of isolated Complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC); however, the primary defect in pink1 mutants is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ETC deficiency is upstream of other pink1-associated phenotypes. We expressed Saccaromyces cerevisiae Ndi1p, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex I, or sea squirt Ciona intestinalis AOX, an enzyme that bypasses ETC Complex III and IV, in pink1 mutant Drosophila and find that expression of Ndi1p, but not of AOX, rescues pink1-associated defects. Likewise, loss of function of subunits that encode for Complex I–associated proteins displays many of the pink1-associated phenotypes, and these defects are rescued by Ndi1p expression. Conversely, expression of Ndi1p fails to rescue any of the parkin mutant phenotypes. Additionally, unlike pink1 mutants, fly parkin mutants do not show reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that Ndi1p acts downstream or parallel to Pink1, but upstream or independent of Parkin. Furthermore, while increasing mitochondrial fission or decreasing mitochondrial fusion rescues mitochondrial morphological defects in pink1 mutants, these manipulations fail to significantly rescue the reduced enzymatic activity of Complex I, indicating that functional defects observed at the level of Complex I enzymatic activity in pink1 mutant mitochondria do not arise from morphological defects. Our data indicate a central role for Complex I dysfunction in pink1-associated defects, and our genetic analyses with heterologous ETC enzymes suggest that Ndi1p-dependent NADH dehydrogenase activity largely acts downstream of, or in parallel to, Pink1 but upstream of Parkin and mitochondrial remodeling. PMID:22242018

  3. Polyphenol extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus attenuate nephropathy in experimental type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Chin; Wang, Chau-Jong; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Hsu, Jen-Dong; Cheng, Su-Ya; Chen, Hong-Chen; Lee, Huei-Jane

    2009-03-25

    Diabetic nephropathy progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is found in type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Oxidative stress is one of the precipitation factors in diabetic nephropathy. Previously, Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus and its polyphenol extracts were found to possess antioxidative effects. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. polyphenol extract (HPE) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic nephropathy. The results show that HPE reduced kidney mass induced by STZ significantly, as well as improving hydropic change of renal proximal convoluted tubules in the rats. HPE also significantly reduced serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL in STZ induced rats. Treatment with HPE significantly increased the activity of catalase and glutathione and reduced lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS). The findings of this research show the beneficial effects of HPE on STZ induced diabetic nephropathy including pathology, serum lipid profile and oxidative marker in kidney.

  4. The hypolipidemic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols via inhibiting lipogenesis and promoting hepatic lipid clearance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mon-Yuan; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Yang, Yi-Sun; Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2010-01-27

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) was shown to lower the plasma lipid level and reduce the liver damage. In the present study, we investigated if Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols (HPE) exerted a hypolipidemic effect and its putative mechanism on liver. HPE exhibited more potency to decrease plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol than the crude extract HSE, and increased HDL cholesterol dose-dependently. It decreased the lipid content of hepatocyte through the activation of AMPK and reduction of SREBP-1, thus inhibiting the expression of fatty acid synthase and HMG-CoA reductase. LDLR and LDL binding of HepG2 cells were enhanced when treated with HPE. In conclusion, HPE is worthy of being further investigated and could be developed as an adjunctive for hepatic lipid control and hypolipidemic therapy.

  5. Phytochemical analysis of Hibiscus caesius using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ain, Quratul; Naveed, Muhammad Na; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad; Farman, Muhammad; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Khalid, Nauman

    2015-09-01

    Various species in genus Hibiscus are traditionally known for their therapeutic attributes. The present study focused on the phytochemical analysis of a rather unexplored species Hibiscus caesius (H. caesius), using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The analysis revealed five major compounds in the aqueous extract, viz. vanillic acid, protocatechoic acid, quercetin, quercetin glucoside and apigenin, being reported for the first time in H. caesius. Literature suggests that these compounds have important pharmacological traits such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and hepatoprotective etc. however, this requires further pharmacological investigations at in vitro and in vivo scale. The above study concluded the medicinal potential of H. caesius.

  6. Effects of water extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn (Malvaceae) 'Roselle' on excretion of a diclofenac formulation.

    PubMed

    Fakeye, T O; Adegoke, A O; Omoyeni, O C; Famakinde, A A

    2007-01-01

    The effect of beverages prepared from the dried calyx of the flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the excretion of diclofenac was investigated using a controlled study in healthy human volunteers. A high pressure liquid chromatographic method was used to analyse the 8 h urine samples collected after the administration of diclofenac with 300 mL (equivalent to 8.18 mg anthocyanins) of the beverage administered daily for 3 days. An unpaired two-tailed t-test was used to analyse for significant difference observed in the amount of diclofenac excreted before and after administration of the beverage. There was a reduction in the amount of diclofenac excreted and the wide variability observed in the control with the water beverage of Hibiscus sabdariffa (p < 0.05). There is an increasing need to counsel patients against the use of plant beverages with drugs.

  7. Evaluation of various physico-chemical properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Rasdhari, M; Parekh, T; Dave, N; Patel, V; Subhash, R

    2008-09-01

    The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis 18.85 to 24.90 mL/50 g of sample, % inhibition 12.32 to 59.43, TS 21.27 to 24.90 g% and beta-galactosidase activity 1.041 to 3.277. The protein content ranged between 4.11 and 4.14 g% while the fat content ranged between 3.43 and 3.49 g%. No major changes in sensory evaluation were observed on the day of manufacture and during storage for 7 days. Sabdariffa added yoghurt showed a higher score in almost all sensory attributes. Microbial analysis showed a total plate count ranging from 1.8 x 10(4) to 1.85 x 10(7) cfu mL(-1). Yeast and mold counts were negligible in the Sabdariffa yoghurts. Thus the study concludes that incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in yoghurt improved the total antioxidant property, organoleptic qualities and decreased the exudation of whey proteins (Syneresis). Thus, Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces has beneficial influence on the quality of L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.

  8. The flower of Hibiscus trionum is both visibly and measurably iridescent.

    PubMed

    Vignolini, Silvia; Moyroud, Edwige; Hingant, Thomas; Banks, Hannah; Rudall, Paula J; Steiner, Ullrich; Glover, Beverley J

    2015-01-01

    Living organisms can use minute structures to manipulate the reflection of light and display colours based on interference. There has been debate in recent literature over whether the diffractive optical effects produced by epoxy replicas of petals with folded cuticles persist and induce iridescence in the original flowers when the effects of petal pigment and illumination are taken into account. We explored the optical properties of the petal of Hibiscus trionum by macro-imaging, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and visible and ultraviolet (UV) angle-resolved spectroscopy of the petal. The flower of Hibiscus trionum is visibly iridescent, and the iridescence can be captured photographically. The iridescence derives from a diffraction grating generated by folds of the cuticle. The iridescence of the petal can be quantitatively characterized by spectrometric measurements with several square-millimetres of sample area illuminated. The flower of Hibiscus trionum has the potential to interact with its pollinators (honeybees, other bees, butterflies and flies) through iridescent signals produced by its cuticular diffraction grating.

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanism of delphinidin 3-sambubioside, a Hibiscus anthocyanin.

    PubMed

    Sogo, Takayuki; Terahara, Norihiko; Hisanaga, Ayami; Kumamoto, Takuma; Yamashiro, Takaaki; Wu, Shusong; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Delphinidin 3-sambubioside (Dp3-Sam), a Hibiscus anthocyanin, was isolated from the dried calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa L, which has been used for folk beverages and herbal medicine although the molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. Based on the properties of Dp3-Sam and the information of inflammatory processes, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanisms in both cell and animal models in the present study. In the cell model, Dp3-Sam and Delphinidin (Dp) reduced the levels of inflammatory mediators including iNOS, NO, IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-α induced by LPS. Cellular signaling analysis revealed that Dp3-Sam and Dp downregulated NF-κB pathway and MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling. In animal model, Dp3-Sam and Dp reduced the production of IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α and attenuated mouse paw edema induced by LPS. Our in vitro and in vivo data demonstrated that Hibiscus Dp3-Sam possessed potential anti-inflammatory properties.

  10. Impact of tropical convection on UTLS at global scale: the HIBISCUS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, A.; Pommereau, J. P.; Cocquerez, P.; Held, G.

    The HIBISCUS project supported by the European Commission and CNES, and carried out in collaboration with the State University of Sao Paulo, is to study the impact of the tropical deep convection on the UTLS. Specific objectives are to address vertical and horizontal transport, microphysics through the formation of sub-visual cirrus clouds, radiation and chemistry, including NOx production by lightning, and additionally to validate a number of satellite experiments such as ENVISAT, SAGE 3 and ODIN. The HIBISCUS field campaign, which took place in January-March 2004 in Brazil together with the aircraft EU TROCCINOX and the Brazilian TROCCIBRAS projects, used of variety of balloons of different type and radio-sondes. The flight carried out include Infra-Red Montgolfier (MIR) and constant level superpressure (BP) long duration balloons to explore the UTLS at global scale, two 10 000 m3 (10 ZL) and four 3 000 m3 (3 SF) short duration balloons for slow descent across the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). The objective of the talk is to show how the capacities of these balloons have been used to address the specific problems of the TTL science. http://www.aero.jussieu.fr/projet/HIBISCUS/index.html

  11. The Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on Lipid Profile, Creatinine, and Serum Electrolytes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mohagheghi, Abbas; Maghsoud, Shirin; Khashayar, Patricia; Ghazi-Khansari, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Background. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. (HS), a member of malvaceae family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its effect on reducing serum lipids is mentioned in several studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in reducing the serum's lipids in hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods. Ninety hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to receive Hibiscus Sabdariffa (HS) tea or black tea for 15 days. The patients were asked to drink the tea within 20 minutes following its preparation. This process had to be repeated two times, daily. Patient's FBS and lipid profile were collected at the first visit day (day 0) and on the day 30. Results. There was no significant differences between pre and post experiment values within the two groups. An upward trend in total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL cholesterol was evident in both groups. The increase in total and HDL cholesterol in both groups relative to their initial values were significant. Conclusion. Hibiscus Sabdariffa is probably a safe medicinal plant. No significant harmful changes in cholesterol, triglyceride, BUN, serum creatinine, Na and K levels were observed within 15 days after the discontinuation of the medication. PMID:21991538

  12. Pink Moon: The petrogenesis of pink spinel anorthosites and implications concerning Mg-suite magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prissel, T. C.; Parman, S. W.; Jackson, C. R. M.; Rutherford, M. J.; Hess, P. C.; Head, J. W.; Cheek, L.; Dhingra, D.; Pieters, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    NASA's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) has identified and characterized a new lunar rock type termed pink spinel anorthosite (PSA) (Pieters et al., 2011). Dominated by anorthitic feldspar and rich in MgAl2O4 spinel, PSA appears to have an unusually low modal abundance of mafic silicates, distinguishing it from known lunar spinel-bearing samples. The interaction between basaltic melts and the lunar crust and/or assimilation of anorthitic plagioclase have been proposed as a possible mechanism for PSA formation (Gross and Treiman, 2011; Prissel et al., 2012). To test these hypotheses, we have performed laboratory experiments exploring magma-wallrock interactions within the lunar crust. Lunar basaltic melts were reacted with anorthite at 1400 °C and pressures between 0.05-1.05 GPa. Results indicate that PSA spinel compositions are best explained via the interaction between Mg-suite parental melts and anorthositic crust. Mare basalts and picritic lunar glasses produce spinels too rich in Fe and Cr to be consistent with the M3 observations. The experiments suggest that PSA represents a new member of the plutonic Mg-suite. If true, PSA can be used as a proxy for spectrally identifying areas of Mg-suite magmatism on the Moon. Moreover, the presence of PSA on both the lunar nearside and farside (Pieters et al., in press) indicates Mg-suite magmatism may have occurred on a global scale. In turn, this implies that KREEP is not required for Mg-suite petrogenesis (as KREEP is constrained to the nearside of the Moon) and is only necessary to explain the chemical make-up of nearside Mg-suite samples.

  13. Differential submitochondrial localization of PINK1 as a molecular switch for mediating distinct mitochondrial signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Fallaize, Dana; Chin, Lih-Shen; Li, Lian

    2015-12-01

    Mutations in mitochondrial kinase PINK1 cause Parkinson disease (PD), but the submitochondrial site(s) of PINK1 action remains unclear. Here, we report that three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) enables super-resolution imaging of protein submitochondrial localization. Dual-color 3D-SIM imaging analysis revealed that PINK1 resides in the cristae membrane and intracristae space but not on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) of healthy mitochondria. Under normal physiological conditions, PINK1 colocalizes with its substrate TRAP1 in the cristae membrane and intracristae space. In response to mitochondrial depolarization, PINK1, but not TRAP1, translocates to the OMM. The PINK1 translocation to the OMM of depolarized mitochondria is independent of new protein synthesis and requires combined action of PINK1 transmembrane domain and C-terminal region. We found that mitochondrial depolarization-induced PINK1 OMM translocation is required for recruitment of parkin to the OMM of damaged mitochondria. Our findings suggest that differential submitochondrial localization of PINK1 serves as a molecular switch for mediating two distinct mitochondrial signaling pathways in maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis. Furthermore, our study provides evidence for the involvement of deregulated PINK1 submitochondrial localization in PD pathogenesis.

  14. Three Pink Decades: Breast Cancer Coverage in Magazine Advertisements.

    PubMed

    AbiGhannam, Niveen; Chilek, Lindsay A; Koh, Hyeseung E

    2017-02-02

    Breast cancer advocacy has experienced tremendous success since the 1980s. Yet, the quality and authenticity of breast cancer information in the media are sometimes questionable. Using a content analysis, we examined the informative (donation information, breast cancer advocacy content, etc.) and persuasive (appeals used, cues to action, etc.) contents of magazine advertisements relevant to breast cancer. While ads offered minimal informative content about the disease or about ways by which sales will contribute to the breast cancer cause, they integrated "breast cancer appeals," such as the color pink, the pink ribbon, and mostly positive depictions of survivorship and hope, into the ads. Breast cancer thus took center stage in the persuasive content of the ads, but a back seat when it came to their informative content. We discuss the implications of those findings in light of the meanings and purposes of cause-related marketing campaigns.

  15. Visual motion with pink noise induces predation behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Wataru; Watanabe, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Visual motion cues are one of the most important factors for eliciting animal behaviour, including predator-prey interactions in aquatic environments. To understand the elements of motion that cause such selective predation behaviour, we used a virtual plankton system where the predation behaviour in response to computer-generated prey was analysed. First, we performed motion analysis of zooplankton (Daphnia magna) to extract mathematical functions for biologically relevant motions of prey. Next, virtual prey models were programmed on a computer and presented to medaka (Oryzias latipes), which served as predatory fish. Medaka exhibited predation behaviour against several characteristic virtual plankton movements, particularly against a swimming pattern that could be characterised as pink noise motion. Analysing prey-predator interactions via pink noise motion will be an interesting research field in the future. PMID:22355733

  16. Nitric Oxide Induction of Parkin Translocation in PTEN-induced Putative Kinase 1 (PINK1) Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji-Young; Kang, Min-Ji; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Han, Pyung-Lim; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Ha, Ji-Young; Son, Jin H.

    2015-01-01

    The failure to trigger mitophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of familial Parkinson disease that is caused by PINK1 or Parkin mutations. According to the prevailing PINK1-Parkin signaling model, mitophagy is promoted by the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin, an essential PINK1-dependent step that occurs via a previously unknown mechanism. Here we determined that critical concentrations of NO was sufficient to induce the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin even in PINK1 deficiency, with apparent increased interaction of full-length PINK1 accumulated during mitophagy, with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Specifically, optimum levels of NO enabled PINK1-null dopaminergic neuronal cells to regain the mitochondrial translocation of Parkin, which appeared to be significantly suppressed by nNOS-null mutation. Moreover, nNOS-null mutation resulted in the same mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) enzyme deficits as PINK1-null mutation. The involvement of mitochondrial nNOS activation in mitophagy was further confirmed by the greatly increased interactions of full-length PINK1 with nNOS, accompanied by mitochondrial accumulation of phospho-nNOS (Ser1412) during mitophagy. Of great interest is that the L347P PINK1 mutant failed to bind to nNOS. The loss of nNOS phosphorylation and Parkin accumulation on PINK1-deficient mitochondria could be reversed in a PINK1-dependent manner. Finally, non-toxic levels of NO treatment aided in the recovery of PINK1-null dopaminergic neuronal cells from mitochondrial ETC enzyme deficits. In summary, we demonstrated the full-length PINK1-dependent recruitment of nNOS, its activation in the induction of Parkin translocation, and the feasibility of NO-based pharmacotherapy for defective mitophagy and ETC enzyme deficits in Parkinson disease. PMID:25716315

  17. Anthocyanin extracted from Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa sinensis L.) as a photosensitizer on nanostructured-TiO2 dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramelan, A. H.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Rosyida, N. A.; Supriyanto, E.; Saputro, S.; Hanif, Q. A.; Rinawati, L.

    2016-02-01

    Anthocyanin extracted from Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa sinensis L) as a photosensitizer in nanostructured-TiO2 dye sensitized solar cells has been fabricated. Ultravisible visible absorption spectra of anthocyanin show an ability absorbing light in the visible region. While the nanostructed-TiO2 powder in this research was prepared by sol-gel method following annealled at a temperature of 600°C. Subsequently, the TiO2 nanostructures were characterized by XRD, XRF, and SEM. The difractogram X-ray results shown that TiO2 was built from f anatase and rutile phase. Element analysis of synthesized TiO2 by X-ray Fluorecence (XRF) shown the TiO2 content of 98,67 wt%. TiO2 layer prepared at different thickness showed the average size of cavity about 0.83 µm. These several thickness of solar cells were fabricated and were immersed into anthocyanin for 24 hours to gain sensitized TiO2 photoanode for Dye sensitised solar cells (DSSCs). These DSSCS performance were measured using I-V Keithley 2602A. The results exhibited that the sample with a TiO2 layer thickness of 4.75 ± 0.8 µm has the highest efficiency.

  18. Thermus and the Pink Discoloration Defect in Cheese.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Daniel J; Daly, David; O'Sullivan, Orla; Burdikova, Zuzana; Vana, Rostislav; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; McSweeney, Paul L H; Giblin, Linda; Sheehan, Jeremiah J; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    A DNA sequencing-based strategy was applied to study the microbiology of Continental-type cheeses with a pink discoloration defect. The basis for this phenomenon has remained elusive, despite decades of research. The bacterial composition of cheese containing the defect was compared to that of control cheese using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing as well as quantitative PCR (qPCR). Throughout, it was apparent that Thermus, a carotenoid-producing genus, was present at higher levels in defect-associated cheeses than in control cheeses. Prompted by this finding and data confirming the pink discoloration to be associated with the presence of a carotenoid, a culture-based approach was employed, and Thermus thermophilus was successfully cultured from defect-containing cheeses. The link between Thermus and the pinking phenomenon was then established through the cheese defect equivalent of Koch's postulates when the defect was recreated by the reintroduction of a T. thermophilus isolate to a test cheese during the manufacturing process. IMPORTANCE Pink discoloration in cheese is a defect affecting many cheeses throughout the world, leading to significant financial loss for the dairy industry. Despite decades of research, the cause of this defect has remained elusive. The advent of high-throughput, next-generation sequencing has revolutionized the field of food microbiology and, with respect to this study, provided a means of testing a possible microbial basis for this defect. In this study, a combined 16S rRNA, whole-genome sequencing, and quantitative PCR approach was taken. This resulted in the identification of Thermus, a carotenoid-producing thermophile, in defect-associated cheeses and the recreation of the problem in cheeses to which Thermus was added. This finding has the potential to lead to new strategies to eliminate this defect, and our method represents an approach that can be employed to investigate the role of microbes in other food defects

  19. Tidal and seasonal effects on transport of pink shrimp postlarvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criales, Maria M.; Wang, Jingyuan; Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Transport simulations were conducted to investigate a large seasonal peak in postlarvae of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum that occurs every summer on the northwestern border of Florida Bay. Daily vertical migration, a known behavior in pink shrimp postlarvae, was assumed in all scenarios investigated. A Lagrangian trajectory model was developed using a current field derived from a 3 yr ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) time series. To fit the estimated planktonic development time of pink shrimp, the model simulated larvae traveling at night over a 30 d period. We investigated 2 types of effects: (1) the effect of mismatch periodicity between tidal constituents and daily migration, and (2) the effect of seasonal changes in night length. The maximum eastward displacement with the semidiurnal lunar tidal constituent (M2) was 4 km, with periods of enhanced transport in both summer and winter. In contrast, eastward displacement with the semidiurnal solar tidal constituent (S2) and the lunisolar diurnal K1 was 65 km and the period of maximum distance occurred in summer every year. Because the periods of S2 and K1 are so close to the 24 h vertical migration period, and the eastward current (flood) of these constituents matches the diel cycle over extended intervals, they can induce strong horizontal transport during summer. Thus, diel vertical migration can interact with the S2 and the K1 tidal constituents and with the annual cycle of night length to produce a distinct annual cycle that may enhance transport of pink shrimp and other coastal species during summer in shallow areas of the Gulf of Mexico. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  20. Thermus and the Pink Discoloration Defect in Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Lisa; O’Sullivan, Daniel J.; Daly, David; O’Sullivan, Orla; Burdikova, Zuzana; Vana, Rostislav; Beresford, Tom P.; Ross, R. Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; McSweeney, Paul L. H.; Giblin, Linda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A DNA sequencing-based strategy was applied to study the microbiology of Continental-type cheeses with a pink discoloration defect. The basis for this phenomenon has remained elusive, despite decades of research. The bacterial composition of cheese containing the defect was compared to that of control cheese using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing as well as quantitative PCR (qPCR). Throughout, it was apparent that Thermus, a carotenoid-producing genus, was present at higher levels in defect-associated cheeses than in control cheeses. Prompted by this finding and data confirming the pink discoloration to be associated with the presence of a carotenoid, a culture-based approach was employed, and Thermus thermophilus was successfully cultured from defect-containing cheeses. The link between Thermus and the pinking phenomenon was then established through the cheese defect equivalent of Koch’s postulates when the defect was recreated by the reintroduction of a T. thermophilus isolate to a test cheese during the manufacturing process. IMPORTANCE Pink discoloration in cheese is a defect affecting many cheeses throughout the world, leading to significant financial loss for the dairy industry. Despite decades of research, the cause of this defect has remained elusive. The advent of high-throughput, next-generation sequencing has revolutionized the field of food microbiology and, with respect to this study, provided a means of testing a possible microbial basis for this defect. In this study, a combined 16S rRNA, whole-genome sequencing, and quantitative PCR approach was taken. This resulted in the identification of Thermus, a carotenoid-producing thermophile, in defect-associated cheeses and the recreation of the problem in cheeses to which Thermus was added. This finding has the potential to lead to new strategies to eliminate this defect, and our method represents an approach that can be employed to investigate the role of microbes in other

  1. Origin and diversification of Hibiscus glaber, species endemic to the oceanic Bonin Islands, revealed by chloroplast DNA polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Koji; Ohi-Toma, Tetsuo; Kudoh, Hiroshi; Kato, Hidetoshi

    2005-04-01

    Abstract Two woody Hibiscus species co-occur in the Bonin Islands of the northwestern Pacific Ocean: Hibiscus glaber Matsum. is endemic to the islands, and its putative ancestral species, Hibiscus tiliaceus L., is widely distributed in coastal areas of the tropics and subtropics. To infer isolating mechanisms that led to speciation of H. glaber and the processes that resulted in co-occurrence of the two closely related species on the Bonin Islands, we conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences. Materials collected from a wide area of the Pacific and Indian Oceans were used, and two closely related species, Hibiscus hamabo Siebold Zucc. and Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb., were also included in the analyses. The constructed tree suggested that H. glaber has been derived from H. tiliaceus, and that most of the modern Bonin populations of H. tiliaceus did not share most recent ancestry with H. glaber. Geographic isolation appears to be the most important mechanism in the speciation of H. glaber. The co-occurrence of the two species can be attributed to multiple migrations of different lineages into the islands. While a wide and overlapping geographical distribution of haplotypes was found in H. tiliaceus, localized geographical distribution of haplotypes was detected in H. glaber. It is hypothesized that a shift to inland habitats may have affected the mode of seed dispersal from ocean currents to gravity and hence resulted in geographical structuring of H. glaber haplotypes.

  2. (Patho-)physiological relevance of PINK1-dependent ubiquitin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Fiesel, Fabienne C; Ando, Maya; Hudec, Roman; Hill, Anneliese R; Castanedes-Casey, Monica; Caulfield, Thomas R; Moussaud-Lamodière, Elisabeth L; Stankowski, Jeannette N; Bauer, Peter O; Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo; Ferrer, Isidre; Arbelo, José M; Siuda, Joanna; Chen, Li; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Ross, Owen A; Dickson, Dennis W; Springer, Wolfdieter

    2015-09-01

    Mutations in PINK1 and PARKIN cause recessive, early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Together, these two proteins orchestrate a protective mitophagic response that ensures the safe disposal of damaged mitochondria. The kinase PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin (Ub) at the conserved residue S65, in addition to modifying the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin. The structural and functional consequences of Ub phosphorylation (pS65-Ub) have already been suggested from in vitro experiments, but its (patho-)physiological significance remains unknown. We have generated novel antibodies and assessed pS65-Ub signals in vitro and in cells, including primary neurons, under endogenous conditions. pS65-Ub is dependent on PINK1 kinase activity as confirmed in patient fibroblasts and postmortem brain samples harboring pathogenic mutations. We show that pS65-Ub is reversible and barely detectable under basal conditions, but rapidly induced upon mitochondrial stress in cells and amplified in the presence of functional Parkin. pS65-Ub accumulates in human brain during aging and disease in the form of cytoplasmic granules that partially overlap with mitochondrial, lysosomal, and total Ub markers. Additional studies are now warranted to further elucidate pS65-Ub functions and fully explore its potential for biomarker or therapeutic development.

  3. (Patho-)physiological relevance of PINK1-dependent ubiquitin phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Fiesel, Fabienne C; Ando, Maya; Hudec, Roman; Hill, Anneliese R; Castanedes-Casey, Monica; Caulfield, Thomas R; Moussaud-Lamodière, Elisabeth L; Stankowski, Jeannette N; Bauer, Peter O; Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo; Ferrer, Isidre; Arbelo, José M; Siuda, Joanna; Chen, Li; Dawson, Valina L; Dawson, Ted M; Wszolek, Zbigniew K; Ross, Owen A; Dickson, Dennis W; Springer, Wolfdieter

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in PINK1 and PARKIN cause recessive, early-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). Together, these two proteins orchestrate a protective mitophagic response that ensures the safe disposal of damaged mitochondria. The kinase PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin (Ub) at the conserved residue S65, in addition to modifying the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin. The structural and functional consequences of Ub phosphorylation (pS65-Ub) have already been suggested from in vitro experiments, but its (patho-)physiological significance remains unknown. We have generated novel antibodies and assessed pS65-Ub signals in vitro and in cells, including primary neurons, under endogenous conditions. pS65-Ub is dependent on PINK1 kinase activity as confirmed in patient fibroblasts and postmortem brain samples harboring pathogenic mutations. We show that pS65-Ub is reversible and barely detectable under basal conditions, but rapidly induced upon mitochondrial stress in cells and amplified in the presence of functional Parkin. pS65-Ub accumulates in human brain during aging and disease in the form of cytoplasmic granules that partially overlap with mitochondrial, lysosomal, and total Ub markers. Additional studies are now warranted to further elucidate pS65-Ub functions and fully explore its potential for biomarker or therapeutic development. PMID:26162776

  4. Cycles, stochasticity and density dependence in pink salmon population dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Krkošek, Martin; Hilborn, Ray; Peterman, Randall M.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    Complex dynamics of animal populations often involve deterministic and stochastic components. A fascinating example is the variation in magnitude of 2-year cycles in abundances of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) stocks along the North Pacific rim. Pink salmon have a 2-year anadromous and semelparous life cycle, resulting in odd- and even-year lineages that occupy the same habitats but are reproductively isolated in time. One lineage is often much more abundant than the other in a given river, and there are phase switches in dominance between odd- and even-year lines. In some regions, the weak line is absent and in others both lines are abundant. Our analysis of 33 stocks indicates that these patterns probably result from stochastic perturbations of damped oscillations owing to density-dependent mortality caused by interactions between lineages. Possible mechanisms are cannibalism, disease transmission, food depletion and habitat degradation by which one lineage affects the other, although no mechanism has been well-studied. Our results provide comprehensive empirical estimates of lagged density-dependent mortality in salmon populations and suggest that a combination of stochasticity and density dependence drives cyclical dynamics of pink salmon stocks. PMID:21147806

  5. Secondary (gamma-Proteobacteria) endosymbionts infect the primary (beta-Proteobacteria) endosymbionts of mealybugs multiple times and coevolve with their hosts.

    PubMed

    Thao, MyLo Ly; Gullan, Penny J; Baumann, Paul

    2002-07-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae) are plant sap-sucking insects that have within their body cavities specialized cells containing prokaryotic primary endosymbionts (P-endosymbionts). The P-endosymbionts have the unusual property of containing within their cytoplasm prokaryotic secondary endosymbionts (S-endosymbionts) [C. D. von Dohlen, S. Kohler, S. T. Alsop, and W. R. McManus, Nature (London) 412:433-436, 2001]. Four-kilobase fragments containing 16S-23S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were obtained from the P-endosymbionts of 22 mealybug species and the S-endosymbionts of 12 representative species. Phylogenetic analyses of the P-endosymbionts indicated that they have a monophyletic origin and are members of the beta-subdivision of the Proteobacteria; these organisms were subdivided into five different clusters. The S-endosymbionts were members of the gamma-subdivision of the Proteobacteria and were grouped into clusters similar to those observed with the P-endosymbionts. The S-endosymbiont clusters were distinct from each other and from other insect-associated bacteria. The similarity of the clusters formed by the P- and S-endosymbionts suggests that the P-endosymbionts of mealybugs were infected multiple times with different precursors of the S-endosymbionts and once the association was established, the P- and S-endosymbionts were transmitted together. The lineage consisting of the P-endosymbionts of mealybugs was given the designation "Candidatus Tremblaya" gen. nov., with a single species, "Candidatus Tremblaya princeps" sp. nov. The results of phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA fragments encoding cytochrome oxidase subunits I and II from four representative mealybug species were in agreement with the results of 16S-23S rDNA analyses, suggesting that relationships among strains of "Candidatus T. princeps" are useful in inferring the phylogeny of their mealybug hosts.

  6. PINK1 disables the anti-fission machinery to segregate damaged mitochondria for mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Pryde, Kenneth R; Smith, Heather L; Chau, Kai-Yin; Schapira, Anthony H V

    2016-04-25

    Mitochondrial fission is essential for the degradation of damaged mitochondria. It is currently unknown how the dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1)-associated fission machinery is selectively targeted to segregate damaged mitochondria. We show that PTEN-induced putative kinase (PINK1) serves as a pro-fission signal, independently of Parkin. Normally, the scaffold protein AKAP1 recruits protein kinase A (PKA) to the outer mitochondrial membrane to phospho-inhibit DRP1. We reveal that after damage, PINK1 triggers PKA displacement from A-kinase anchoring protein 1. By ejecting PKA, PINK1 ensures the requisite fission of damaged mitochondria for organelle degradation. We propose that PINK1 functions as a master mitophagy regulator by activating Parkin and DRP1 in response to damage. We confirm that PINK1 mutations causing Parkinson disease interfere with the orchestration of selective fission and mitophagy by PINK1.

  7. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2013-05-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The, Doan Thi; Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao; An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instarsmealybug.

  9. Mealybugs nested endosymbiosis: going into the ‘matryoshka’ system in Planococcus citri in depth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In all branches of life there are plenty of symbiotic associations. Insects are particularly well suited to establishing intracellular symbiosis with bacteria, providing them with metabolic capabilities they lack. Essential primary endosymbionts can coexist with facultative secondary symbionts which can, eventually, establish metabolic complementation with the primary endosymbiont, becoming a co-primary. Usually, both endosymbionts maintain their cellular identity. An exception is the endosymbiosis found in mealybugs of the subfamily Pseudoccinae, such as Planococcus citri, with Moranella endobia located inside Tremblaya princeps. Results We report the genome sequencing of M. endobia str. PCVAL and the comparative genomic analyses of the genomes of strains PCVAL and PCIT of both consortium partners. A comprehensive analysis of their functional capabilities and interactions reveals their functional coupling, with many cases of metabolic and informational complementation. Using comparative genomics, we confirm that both genomes have undergone a reductive evolution, although with some unusual genomic features as a consequence of coevolving in an exceptional compartmentalized organization. Conclusions M. endobia seems to be responsible for the biosynthesis of most cellular components and energy provision, and controls most informational processes for the consortium, while T. princeps appears to be a mere factory for amino acid synthesis, and translating proteins, using the precursors provided by M. endobia. In this scenario, we propose that both entities should be considered part of a composite organism whose compartmentalized scheme (somehow) resembles a eukaryotic cell. PMID:23548081

  10. The cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: first records, potential distribution, and an identification key.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; Kondo, Takumasa; Winotai, Amporn

    2012-01-01

    Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX distribution model. The article also presents a taxonomic key that separates P. manihoti from all other mealybug species associated with the genus Manihot. Model predictions suggest P. manihoti imposes an important, yet differential, threat to cassava production in Asia. Predicted risk is most acute in the southern end of Karnataka in India, the eastern end of the Ninh Thuan province in Vietnam, and in most of West Timor in Indonesia. The model also suggests P. manihoti is likely to be limited by cold stress across Vietnam's northern regions and in the entire Guangxi province in China, and by high rainfall across the wet tropics in Indonesia and the Philippines. Predictions should be particularly important to guide management decisions for high risk areas where P. manihoti is absent (e.g., India), or where it has established but populations remain small and localized (e.g., South Vietnam). Results from this article should help decision-makers assess site-specific risk of invasion, and develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response.

  11. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment for the solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fang; Li, Weidi; Li, Xiuqiong; Bei, Yawei; Lin, Wencai; Lu, Yaobin; Wang, Bingkui

    2014-03-01

    Phenacoccus solenopsis is an aggressively invasive species that targets agricultural and ornamental plants, thereby threatening the world cotton industry and other crops. P. solenopsis has been listed as a quarantine insect in Europe and China. The utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment for disinfesting agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in recent years. A reasonable dose of radiation to eliminate P. solenopsis needs to be determined, taking into account the side effects of radiation on agricultural products and the species-specific tolerance of the insect to radiation. We applied radiation ranging from 50 to 200 Gy to P. solenopsis to determine the optimal dose. Both the radiation dose and the developmental stage of the insect were independent variables. Higher doses of radiation or lesser mature insect stages provided more effective treatment. In nymphs, a radiation dose of 100 Gy caused extinction of the irradiated population by disrupting ovary development, while 150 Gy caused 100% mortality. In adults, all tested doses of irradiation did not affect longevity, but we were able to prevent reproduction with high (150 and 200 Gy) doses. In P. solenopsis, a 100 Gy dose of radiation could eliminate the irradiated population in two generations. The mortality curve showed a steep slope beyond 150 Gy; thus, if killing all of the insects in a shorter amount of time is necessary, 200 Gy may be a reasonable dose for the quarantine treatment of the solenopsis mealybug.

  12. The Cassava Mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: First Records, Potential Distribution, and an Identification Key

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; Kondo, Takumasa; Winotai, Amporn

    2012-01-01

    Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX distribution model. The article also presents a taxonomic key that separates P. manihoti from all other mealybug species associated with the genus Manihot. Model predictions suggest P. manihoti imposes an important, yet differential, threat to cassava production in Asia. Predicted risk is most acute in the southern end of Karnataka in India, the eastern end of the Ninh Thuan province in Vietnam, and in most of West Timor in Indonesia. The model also suggests P. manihoti is likely to be limited by cold stress across Vietnam's northern regions and in the entire Guangxi province in China, and by high rainfall across the wet tropics in Indonesia and the Philippines. Predictions should be particularly important to guide management decisions for high risk areas where P. manihoti is absent (e.g., India), or where it has established but populations remain small and localized (e.g., South Vietnam). Results from this article should help decision-makers assess site-specific risk of invasion, and develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response. PMID:23077659

  13. Regulation of PINK1 by NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in ischemic neuronal injury.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yuexin; Liu, Baosong; Li, Lijun; Chang, Ning; Li, Lei; Wang, Hanbin; Wang, Dianshi; Feng, Hua; Cheung, Carol; Liao, Mingxia; Cui, Tianyuan; Sugita, Shuzo; Wan, Qi

    2009-12-01

    Dysfunction of PTEN-induced kinase-1 (PINK1) is implicated in neurodegeneration. We report here that oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro insult mimicking ischemic neuron injury, resulted in a significant reduction of PINK1 protein expression in cultured cortical neurons. The decrease of PINK1 expression was blocked by the antagonists of NMDA receptors. We revealed that the overactivation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors (NR2BRs) was responsible for the OGD-induced PINK1 reduction. The overactivated NR2BRs also inhibited the phosphorylation, but not the protein expression, of the cell survival-promoting kinase Akt after OGD insult, indicating that OGD-induced reduction of PINK1 protein is specific in the injury paradigm. We further showed that enhancing the protein expression of PINK1 antagonized OGD-induced reduction of Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that Akt may be a downstream target of PINK1 in ischemic neuron injury. Importantly, we provided evidence that both NR2BR antagonist and PINK1 over-expression protected against OGD-induced neuronal death. These results suggest that the overactivation of NR2BRs may contribute to ischemic neuron death through suppressing PINK1-dependent survival signaling. Thus, selectively antagonizing NR2BR signal pathway-induced neurotoxicity may be a potential neuroprotection strategy.

  14. Identifying constituents of whey protein concentrates that reduce the pink color defect in cooked ground turkey.

    PubMed

    Sammel, L M; Claus, J R; Greaser, M L; Lucey, J A

    2007-12-01

    Whey protein concentrate constituents were tested for their ability to reduce naturally occurring pink color defect and pink cooked color induced by sodium nitrite (10ppm) and nicotinamide (1.0%) in ground turkey. β-lactoglobulin (1.8%), α-lactalbumin (0.8%), bovine serum albumin (0.15-0.3%), lactose (1.0-3.0%), potassium chloride (500-1500ppm), and ferrous iron chloride (0.3-30ppm) had no effects on cooked pink color. Lactoferrin (30-5000ppm) increased or decreased pink color depending on its concentration in samples without added sodium nitrite or nicotinamide. Annatto (0.1-1.0ppm) reduced pink color whereas the higher concentration of magnesium chloride (22-88ppm) and ferric iron chloride (0.3-30ppm) increased pink color in samples with added nicotinamide. Calcium chloride (160-480ppm) was the only tested constituent that consistently reduced pink cooked color in samples with and without added nitrite and nicotinamide. Due to the variability of whey protein concentrates and the number of constituents that do not reduce pink cooked color, the addition of calcium alone or dried milk minerals containing calcium, phosphate, and citrate, represents a better means to regularly prevent the pink color defect in cooked ground turkey.

  15. Pretty in pink: The early development of gender-stereotyped colour preferences.

    PubMed

    Lobue, Vanessa; Deloache, Judy S

    2011-09-01

    Parents commonly dress their baby girls in pink and their baby boys in blue. Although there is research showing that children prefer the colour blue to other colours (regardless of gender), there is no evidence that girls actually have a special preference for the colour pink. This is the focus of the current investigation. In a large cross-sectional study, children aged 7 months to 5 years were offered eight pairs of objects and asked to choose one. In every pair, one of the objects was always pink. By the age of 2, girls chose pink objects more often than boys did, and by the age of 2.5, they had a significant preference for the colour pink over other colours. At the same time, boys showed an increasing avoidance of pink. These results thus reveal that sex differences in young children's preference for the colour pink involves both an increasing attraction to pink by young girls and a growing avoidance of pink by boys.

  16. A dimeric PINK1-containing complex on depolarized mitochondria stimulates Parkin recruitment.

    PubMed

    Okatsu, Kei; Uno, Midori; Koyano, Fumika; Go, Etsu; Kimura, Mayumi; Oka, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Keiji; Matsuda, Noriyuki

    2013-12-20

    Parkinsonism typified by sporadic Parkinson disease is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1), a mitochondrial Ser/Thr protein kinase, or PARKIN, a ubiquitin-protein ligase, cause familial parkinsonism. The accumulation and autophosphorylation of PINK1 on damaged mitochondria results in the recruitment of Parkin, which ultimately triggers quarantine and/or degradation of the damaged mitochondria by the proteasome and autophagy. However, the molecular mechanism of PINK1 in dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) has not been fully elucidated. Here we show by fluorescence-based techniques that the PINK1 complex formed following a decrease in ΔΨm is composed of two PINK1 molecules and is correlated with intermolecular phosphorylation of PINK1. Disruption of complex formation by the PINK1 S402A mutation weakened Parkin recruitment onto depolarized mitochondria. The most disease-relevant mutations of PINK1 inhibit the complex formation. Taken together, these results suggest that formation of the complex containing dyadic PINK1 is an important step for Parkin recruitment onto damaged mitochondria.

  17. A new species of eriophyoid mite, Aceria tripuraensis sp. n. (Acari: Eriophyoidea), on Hibiscus macrophyllus from India.

    PubMed

    Menon, Pratibha; Joshi, Sushila; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor Venkataraman

    2014-02-04

    A new species of Eriophyidae (Acari: Prostigmata: E riophyoidea) mite, Aceria tripuraensis n. sp., is described from the closed bud galls of Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem. (Malvaceae) in India. Aceria tripuraensis n. sp. is distinguished by having a prodorsal shield with distinct rounded lobes on the postero-lateral margins and two pairs of submedian lines. The tarsal solenidia with unusual transverse sculptures, are 2.5x longer than the empodia. Twenty Aceria species are now known to inhabit malvaceous plant hosts and those are listed here along with type localities and host plant details. A key to all known species of Aceria recorded from Hibiscus spp. is also provided.

  18. Potential of South African entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) for control of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    van Niekerk, Sonnica; Malan, Antoinette P

    2012-10-01

    Planococcus citri, the citrus mealybug, is the most important species of mealybug known to infest citrus in South Africa. Various laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the potential of entomopathogenic nematodes to control P. citri. Adult female P. citri were screened for susceptibility to six indigenous nematode species. P. citri was found to be most susceptible to Steinernema yirgalemense and Heterorhabditis zealandica, causing 97% and 91% mortality, respectively. The development of nematodes after infecting adult female P. citri showed both H. zealandica and S. yirgalemense were able to complete their life cycles inside the host. Further bioassays illustrated a linear relationship between mealybug mortality and the concentration of nematodes applied, with the highest level of control using a concentration of 80 infective juveniles (IJs)/insect. As nematodes would be used as an above-ground application to control P. citri in citrus orchards, available water is a major limiting factor. Insecticidal activity proved to be dependent on the available surface moisture after nematode application. The water activity (a(w)) bioassay indicated that S. yirgalemense to be two times more tolerant to lower levels of free water, with a(w50)=0.96 and a(w90)=0.99, compared to H. zealandica with a(w50)=0.98 and a(w)90=1.0. After application, nematodes have a limited time frame in which to locate and infect hosts, as the level of available free water gradually decreases, as trees dry out. S. yirgalemense proved able to locate and infect P. citri quicker than H. zealandica. Nematode activity was not significantly affected when exposed to 15°C, 20°C and 25°C. IJs were able to infect P. citri at an exposure time as short as half an hour. Results also showed that the first 2-4h post application is the most decisive time for establishing successful infection of mealybugs. This is the first report on the potential use of nematodes for the control of P. citri.

  19. The classical pink-eyed dilution mutation affects angiogenic responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michael S; Boyartchuk, Victor; Rohan, Richard M; Birsner, Amy E; Dietrich, William F; D'Amato, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed from existing vessels. Mammalian populations, including humans and mice, harbor genetic variations that alter angiogenesis. Angiogenesis-regulating gene variants can result in increased susceptibility to multiple angiogenesis-dependent diseases in humans. Our efforts to dissect the complexity of the genetic diversity that regulates angiogenesis have used laboratory animals due to the availability of genome sequence for many species and the ability to perform high volume controlled breeding. Using the murine corneal micropocket assay, we have observed more than ten-fold difference in angiogenic responsiveness among various mouse strains. This degree of difference is observed with either bFGF or VEGF induced corneal neovascularization. Ongoing mapping studies have identified multiple loci that affect angiogenic responsiveness in several mouse models. In this study, we used F2 intercrosses between C57BL/6J and the 129 substrains 129P1/ReJ and 129P3/J, as well as the SJL/J strain, where we have identified new QTLs that affect angiogenic responsiveness. In the case of AngFq5, on chromosome 7, congenic animals were used to confirm the existence of this locus and subcongenic animals, combined with a haplotype-based mapping approach that identified the pink-eyed dilution mutation as a candidate polymorphism to explain AngFq5. The ability of mutations in the pink-eyed dilution gene to affect angiogenic response was demonstrated using the p-J allele at the same locus. Using this allele, we demonstrate that pink-eyed dilution mutations in Oca2 can affect both bFGF and VEGF-induced corneal angiogenesis.

  20. Pink topaz from the Thomas Range, Juab County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Chirnside, W.; Lichte, F.E.; Briggs, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Thomas Range is world-famous for its production of topaz Al2SiO4(F,OH)2, occurring in lithophysal cavities in rhyolite. Topaz Valley, at the southern end of the range, is perhaps the single most famous locality. While fine-quality, sherry-orange crystals to 5 cm or more in length occur at various localities, pale to medium pink crystals were first reported from the Thomas Range in 1934. The cause of the unusual coloration, unknown for 60 years, is now believed to be substitution of Mn3+ ?? Fe3+ for Al3+. -Authors

  1. [Salmon-pink colored conjunctival tumor with amyloid deposits].

    PubMed

    Müller, P L; Loeffler, K U; Holz, F G; Fischer, H-P; Herwig, M C

    2016-07-01

    An 82-year-old male patient presented with a salmon-pink colored conjunctival tumor of the left eye. A circumscribed, dense and whitish portion was detected by clinical examination. The histophological and immunhistochemical examination of the biopsy tissue revealed a CD20+ marginal zone lymphoma of the conjunctiva with amyloid deposits. Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma at this site is the most common lymphoma of the ocular adnexa and accounts for 5-10% of malignant diseases. An association with amyloid production is very rare and according to the current state of knowledge has no known impact on the outcome.

  2. Sex pheromone of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus in Israel: occurrence of a second component in a mass-reared population.

    PubMed

    Zada, A; Dunkelblum, E; Assael, F; Harel, M; Cojocaru, M; Mendel, Z

    2003-04-01

    Two pheromonal components were detected in airborne collections from the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) mass-reared on potato sprouts. The compounds were identified as (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I) and (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (II) by GC and GC-MS by comparison with synthetic standards. Chiral GC analysis on a cyclodextrin column established their chirality. Compound I was identified recently as the sex pheromone of P. ficus in California. The attraction of vine mealybug males to both components I and II was demonstrated in a Petri dish bioassay and in a flight assay in the rearing chamber. Indoors, both compounds displayed a similar level of attractiveness to the mass-reared males. However, trials in a vineyard indicated that feral males were attracted only to compound I. Reanalysis of the airborne pheromone indicated that laboratory first generation daughters of females that were collected in the vineyard produce only (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I). The relative amount of (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (II) increased gradually in each subsequent generation of P. ficus reared on potatoes. These findings indicate that feral P. ficus mealybugs produce and respond only to (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I), whereas mealybugs that were reared in the laboratory on potato sprouts produce and respond to both (S)-lavandulyl senecioate (I) and (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (II).

  3. Isolation of methyl 27-caffeoyloxyoleanolate--a new oleanane Triterpenoid from the roots of Hibiscus vitifolius.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Duraisamy; Saraswathy, Ariamuthu

    2013-04-01

    A new oleanane triterpenoid, methyl 27-caffeoyloxyoleanolate (2), together with eight known compounds viz. oleanolic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-D-rhamnopyranoside, gossypin, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and mangiferin were isolated from the ethanol extract of roots of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. The structure of the new compound 2 was elucidated from spectroscopic, ESI-MS and physical data. The eight known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature.

  4. Optimization of the sonication extraction method of Hibiscus tiliaceus L. flowers.

    PubMed

    Melecchi, Maria Inês Soares; Péres, Valéria Flores; Dariva, Cláudio; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz; Abad, Fernanda Contieri; Martinez, Migdália Miranda; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2006-04-01

    The influence of several experimental parameters on the ultrasonic extraction of Hibiscus tiliaceus L. flowers were investigated: extraction time, solvent polarity, sample amount, solvent volume and sample particle size. It was concluded that the most influential variables were extraction time and solvent polarity. The optimized procedure employed 5 g of ground flowers, 150 mL of methanol and 140 min of extraction. The extracts were fractionated using preparative silica columns and the resulting fractions were analyzed by GC/MS. Some saturated hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, phytosterols, and vitamin E were identified in the plant extracts.

  5. Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W.; Bost, G.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined

  6. Effect of silicon-based fertilizer applications on the reproduction and development of the citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) feeding on green coleus.

    PubMed

    Hogendorp, Brian K; Cloyd, Raymond A; Swiader, John M

    2009-12-01

    Mealybugs are major insect pests of greenhouses, interiorscapes, and conservatories because they feed on a wide-range of horticultural crops. Furthermore, mealybugs are difficult to regulate with insecticides due to the presence of a nearly impervious protective waxy covering, which means that alternative management strategies are required. As such, this study, involving two replicated experiments, was designed to determine the value of applying silicon-based fertilizers, as potassium silicate, to coleus, Solenstemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd, plants as a way to prevent outbreaks of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The first experiment evaluated the effects of different application methods (foliar and drench), at 50 ppm silicon, using the commercially-available product, ProTek 0-0-3 The Silicon Solution. The second experiment entailed applying the silicon-based fertilizer as a drench to the growing medium at different rates (0, 100, 400, 800, and 1,600 ppm silicon). We determined the effects of the silicon-based fertilizer treatments on citrus mealybug life history parameters including number of eggs laid by the adult female, body size, and developmental time from first instar to ovipositing adult female. Furthermore, we used a plant alkaline fusion technique to assess the concentration (milligrams per kilogram or ppm) of silicon in the coleus plant tissues at variable time intervals (days). In general, this technique involved dry-ashing plant tissue in a muffle furnace, followed by alkaline fusion and then colormetric analysis. The silicon-based fertilizer application treatments, in both experiments, did not negatively affect any of the citrus mealybug life history parameters measured. In the first experiment, citrus mealybug female egg load ranged from 199.5 (drench application) to 219.4 (combination spray and drench application), and developmental time (days) from first instar crawler to ovipositing female ranged from

  7. Biology of the Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis on Cotton in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Vennila, S; Deshmukh, AJ; Pinjarkar, D; Agarwal, M; Ramamurthy, W; Joshi, S; Kranthi, KR; Bambawale, OM

    2010-01-01

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) has been the current topic of research for insect taxonomists and applied entomologists in India due to its invasiveness, rapid spread, morphological and biological variations and the need for establishing an effective control strategy. The biology of the mealybug P. solenopsis was studied on cotton under laboratory conditions between August and October of 2009 with mean temperature and relative humidity of 23.3–30.2°C and 40.5–92.5% RH, respectively, in central India. Neonate crawlers that emerged from a field population were collected and constituted the study population. The developmental period from immature crawler to adult stage was greater for males (18.7 ± 0.9 days) compared to females (13.2 ± 1.8 days), probably due to the additional molt to the pupal stage in males. Survival of second instars was lower (45.5%) than first and third instars (71.4%). Females showed dynamic patterns of fecundity with the number of crawlers produced per female ranging between 128 and 812, with a mean of 344 ± 82. The reproductive period lasted 30.2 ± 8.2 days. Parthenogenesis with ovoviviparity (96.5%) was dominant over the oviparous (3.5%) mode of reproduction. Adult females lived 42.4 ± 5.7 days. Males accounted for less than 5% of the population, and lived 1.5 ± 0.1 days. The life history parameters of P. solenopsis adult females are discussed relative to the appearance of symptoms on the cotton crop, and the importance of making management interventions during the effective reproductive period of the insect. PMID:20874596

  8. Male behaviors reveal multiple pherotypes within vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Levi-Zada, Anat; Franco, José Carlos; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Protasov, Alex; Eliyaho, Miriam; Mendel, Zvi

    2010-12-01

    The vine mealybug (VM) females collected in Israel produce two sex pheromone compounds: lavandulyl senecioate (LS) and (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (LI). The males display ambiguous behavior to LI: repulsion in the vineyard and attraction of laboratory-reared males. We addressed the question of individual male behavior, i.e., do males respond to both LS and LI, or might they display a distinct response to each of the two pheromone compounds. We compared male pherotype frequencies between wild-caught and laboratory-reared populations. Then, we examined the relationship between pherotype composition and male capture rates in pheromone traps. Finally, we addressed the heredity of the pherotypes. The Israeli VM populations contain nine different male pherotypes, as defined according to the male behavior to pheromone compounds. The studied Portuguese populations included five of the nine pherotypes; none of the Portuguese males were attracted to LI. It seems that the high frequency of males that were attracted to LI is related to dense VM populations. It is hypothesized that selection for the male pherotypes, I males, those that respond to LI, occur under high-density rearing conditions. This may result from shorter development times of males and females that produce more I male pherotypes. The lower relative frequency of trapping of males in LI-baited traps than expected from the percentage determined in a Petri dish arena suggests that males that respond solely to LS (S males) are better fliers. The results also suggest that the pherotype trait is inherited by both sexes of the VM.

  9. Male behaviors reveal multiple pherotypes within vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae) populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Levi-Zada, Anat; Franco, José Carlos; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Protasov, Alex; Eliyaho, Miriam; Mendel, Zvi

    2010-12-01

    The vine mealybug (VM) females collected in Israel produce two sex pheromone compounds: lavandulyl senecioate (LS) and ( S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (LI). The males display ambiguous behavior to LI: repulsion in the vineyard and attraction of laboratory-reared males. We addressed the question of individual male behavior, i.e., do males respond to both LS and LI, or might they display a distinct response to each of the two pheromone compounds. We compared male pherotype frequencies between wild-caught and laboratory-reared populations. Then, we examined the relationship between pherotype composition and male capture rates in pheromone traps. Finally, we addressed the heredity of the pherotypes. The Israeli VM populations contain nine different male pherotypes, as defined according to the male behavior to pheromone compounds. The studied Portuguese populations included five of the nine pherotypes; none of the Portuguese males were attracted to LI. It seems that the high frequency of males that were attracted to LI is related to dense VM populations. It is hypothesized that selection for the male pherotypes, I males, those that respond to LI, occur under high-density rearing conditions. This may result from shorter development times of males and females that produce more I male pherotypes. The lower relative frequency of trapping of males in LI-baited traps than expected from the percentage determined in a Petri dish arena suggests that males that respond solely to LS (S males) are better fliers. The results also suggest that the pherotype trait is inherited by both sexes of the VM.

  10. Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus

    PubMed Central

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Αntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

  11. Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Chong, Juang-Horng; Epsky, Nancy D; Mannion, Catharine M

    2008-12-01

    Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was investigated in the laboratory. P. marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18, 20, 25, and 30 +/- 1 degrees C. At 15, 34, and 35 degrees C, the eggs hatched after 27.5, 5.9, and 5.5 d of incubation, respectively, but further development of the first-instar nymphs was arrested. No eggs hatched at 37 degrees C. The developmental time for egg to adult was the longest at 18 degrees C for both males and females. Approximately 80-90% of the eggs survived between 20 and 30 degrees C. The highest fecundity was at 25 degrees C with each female producing an average of 300 eggs. Adult longevity, and preoviposition and oviposition periods increased with decreasing temperature up to 25 degrees C. The proportion of females was approximately 42% at 25 degrees C and was between 70 and 80% at 18, 20, and 30 degrees C. Adult males and females required 303.0 and 294.1 degree-days (DD), respectively, to complete their development. The estimated minimum temperature thresholds for the adult males and females were 14.5 and 13.9 degrees C, respectively. For adult males, the estimated optimum and maximum temperature thresholds were 28.7 and 31.9 degrees C; and for adult females, they were 28.4 and 32.1 degrees C, respectively. The ability of P. marginatus to develop, survive, and reproduce successfully between 18 and 30 degrees C suggests that it has the capability to develop and establish in areas within this temperature range.

  12. The potential distribution of cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti), a threat to food security for the poor

    PubMed Central

    Yonow, Tania; Ota, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    The cassava mealybug is a clear and present threat to the food security and livelihoods of some of the world's most impoverished citizens. Niche models, such as CLIMEX, are useful tools to indicate where and when such threats may extend, and can assist with planning for biosecurity and the management of pest invasions. They can also contribute to bioeconomic analyses that underpin the allocation of resources to alleviate poverty. Because species can invade and establish in areas with climates that are different from those that are found in their native range, it is essential to define robust range-limiting mechanisms in niche models. To avoid spurious results when applied to novel climates, it is necessary to employ cross-validation techniques spanning different knowledge domains (e.g., distribution data, experimental results, phenological observations). We build upon and update a CLIMEX niche model by Parsa et al. (PloS ONE 7: e47675), correcting inconsistent parameters and re-fitting it based on a careful examination of geographical distribution data and relevant literature. Further, we consider the role of irrigation, the known distribution of cassava production and a targeted review of satellite imagery to refine, validate and interpret our model and results. In so doing, we bring new insights into the potential spread of this invasive insect, enabling us to identify potential bio-security threats and biological control opportunities. The fit of the revised model is improved, particularly in relation to the wet and dry limits to establishment, and the parameter values are biologically plausible and accord with published scientific literature. PMID:28296903

  13. Sexual versus Asexual Reproduction: Distinct Outcomes in Relative Abundance of Parthenogenetic Mealybugs following Recent Colonization.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Jun; Ichiki, Ryoko T; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Kageyama, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Asexual reproduction, including parthenogenesis in which embryos develop within a female without fertilization, is assumed to confer advantages over sexual reproduction, which includes a "cost of males." Sexual reproduction largely predominates in animals, however, indicating that this cost is outweighed by the genetic and/or ecological benefits of sexuality, including the acquisition of advantageous mutations occurring in different individuals and the elimination of deleterious mutations. But the evolution of sexual reproduction remains unclear, because we have limited examples that demonstrate the relative success of sexual lineages in the face of competition from asexual lineages in the same environment. Here we investigated a sympatric occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction in the pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes. This pest invaded southwestern Japan, including Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, in the 1930s in association with imported pineapple plants. Our recent censuses demonstrated that on Okinawa sexually reproducing individuals can coexist with and even dominate asexual individuals in the presence of habitat and resource competition, which is considered to be severe for this nearly immobile insect. Molecular phylogeny based on partial DNA sequences in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, as well as the endosymbiotic bacterial genome, revealed that the asexual lineage diverged from a common sexual ancestor in the relatively recent past. In contrast, only the asexual lineage exhibiting obligate apomictic thelytoky was discovered on Ishigaki. Co-existence of the two lineages cannot be explained by the results of laboratory experiments, which showed that the intrinsic rate of increase in the sexual lineage was not obviously superior to that of the asexual lineage. Differences in biotic and/or abiotic selective forces operating on the two islands might be the cause of this discrepancy. This biological system offers a unique opportunity to assess

  14. Adjuvants to improve aerial control of the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) using entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    van Niekerk, S; Malan, A P

    2015-03-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is a highly destructive pest of citrus, occurring only in the aerial parts of plants. Humidity will be one of the key factors to consider when using entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) as biological control agents. Different adjuvants can be added to suspensions of EPNs, to improve control as a foliar application. An aqueous suspension containing Heterorhabditis zealandica and 0.3% Zeba® significantly increased P. citri mortality by 22% at 80% relative humidity (RH) with a temperature cycle starting at 22°C for 14 h and 11°C for 11 h. The same polymer formulation was tested for Steinernema yirgalemense and mortality of P. citri increased by 21% at 60% RH and by 27% at 80% RH. The addition of Nu-Film-P® and Zeba® to H. zealandica suspensions did not significantly retard application run-off on citrus leaves. The combination of Nu-Film-P® and Zeba®, however, was able to significantly retard sedimentation, increasing the average number of nematodes deposited on 2-cm2 leaf discs by 10 nematodes. In an aqueous suspension, nematodes settle rapidly to the bottom, resulting in an uneven distribution of nematodes. Xanthan gum, at a concentration of 0.2%, was highly effective at retarding sedimentation, with 72% of the initial nematode number still in suspension after 1 h. Zeba®, at a concentration of 0.3%, despite not being as effective as Xanthan gum, nevertheless still retarded sedimentation significantly. This is the first report of the potential of Nu-Film-P® and Zeba® to improve EPN performance against P. citri when used above ground in citrus orchards.

  15. Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.

    PubMed

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used.

  16. The potential distribution of cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti), a threat to food security for the poor.

    PubMed

    Yonow, Tania; Kriticos, Darren J; Ota, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    The cassava mealybug is a clear and present threat to the food security and livelihoods of some of the world's most impoverished citizens. Niche models, such as CLIMEX, are useful tools to indicate where and when such threats may extend, and can assist with planning for biosecurity and the management of pest invasions. They can also contribute to bioeconomic analyses that underpin the allocation of resources to alleviate poverty. Because species can invade and establish in areas with climates that are different from those that are found in their native range, it is essential to define robust range-limiting mechanisms in niche models. To avoid spurious results when applied to novel climates, it is necessary to employ cross-validation techniques spanning different knowledge domains (e.g., distribution data, experimental results, phenological observations). We build upon and update a CLIMEX niche model by Parsa et al. (PloS ONE 7: e47675), correcting inconsistent parameters and re-fitting it based on a careful examination of geographical distribution data and relevant literature. Further, we consider the role of irrigation, the known distribution of cassava production and a targeted review of satellite imagery to refine, validate and interpret our model and results. In so doing, we bring new insights into the potential spread of this invasive insect, enabling us to identify potential bio-security threats and biological control opportunities. The fit of the revised model is improved, particularly in relation to the wet and dry limits to establishment, and the parameter values are biologically plausible and accord with published scientific literature.

  17. Sexual versus Asexual Reproduction: Distinct Outcomes in Relative Abundance of Parthenogenetic Mealybugs following Recent Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Jun; Ichiki, Ryoko T.; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Kageyama, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Asexual reproduction, including parthenogenesis in which embryos develop within a female without fertilization, is assumed to confer advantages over sexual reproduction, which includes a “cost of males.” Sexual reproduction largely predominates in animals, however, indicating that this cost is outweighed by the genetic and/or ecological benefits of sexuality, including the acquisition of advantageous mutations occurring in different individuals and the elimination of deleterious mutations. But the evolution of sexual reproduction remains unclear, because we have limited examples that demonstrate the relative success of sexual lineages in the face of competition from asexual lineages in the same environment. Here we investigated a sympatric occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction in the pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes. This pest invaded southwestern Japan, including Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, in the 1930s in association with imported pineapple plants. Our recent censuses demonstrated that on Okinawa sexually reproducing individuals can coexist with and even dominate asexual individuals in the presence of habitat and resource competition, which is considered to be severe for this nearly immobile insect. Molecular phylogeny based on partial DNA sequences in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, as well as the endosymbiotic bacterial genome, revealed that the asexual lineage diverged from a common sexual ancestor in the relatively recent past. In contrast, only the asexual lineage exhibiting obligate apomictic thelytoky was discovered on Ishigaki. Co-existence of the two lineages cannot be explained by the results of laboratory experiments, which showed that the intrinsic rate of increase in the sexual lineage was not obviously superior to that of the asexual lineage. Differences in biotic and/or abiotic selective forces operating on the two islands might be the cause of this discrepancy. This biological system offers a unique opportunity to

  18. Shades of Pink: Preschoolers Make Meaning in a Reggio-Inspired Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bo Sun

    2012-01-01

    Shades of Pink study describes how six preschoolers and their teacher engaged in a collaborative learning project through which they learned about the shades of a color--in this case, pink. As the children learned through experimenting and discussing their theories, they represented ideas using art as a tool for discovery and learning. The study…

  19. Revisiting the Pink Triangle Exercise: An Exploration of Experiential Learning in Graduate Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Greg L.

    2014-01-01

    The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…

  20. Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Mannion, Catharine M; Epsky, Nancy D

    2012-10-01

    Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were studied in the laboratory to understand the outcome of their recovery in field studies conducted in the United States. The developmental time of both male and female A. papayae and A. loecki was shorter than the developmental time of male and female P. mexicana. Male parasitoids of all three species had a shorter developmental time than their females. All parasitoids had a shorter developmental time in adult-female mealybugs than in second instars. Mating status (unmated and mated) had no effect on the male longevity. Unmated and mated females that were not allowed to oviposit had similar longevity and lived longer than those that were allowed to oviposit. Virgin females produced male only progeny with higher number of males from A. loecki or P. mexicana than from A. papayae. The number of females and the cumulative progeny was smaller for A. papayae than for A. loecki or P. mexicana. The progeny sex ratio (proportion of females) was not different among the parasitoids. A. papayae had the shortest reproductive period followed by A. loecki and P. mexicana, respectively. This information is important in evaluating the efficiency, recovery and establishment of A. papayae, A. loecki, and P. mexicana.

  1. Pheromone-baited traps for assessment of seasonal activity and population densities of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in nurseries producing ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Rebeccah A; Redak, Richard A; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2011-04-01

    Operational parameters of traps baited with the pheromones of three mealybug species were optimized in nurseries producing ornamental plants. All pheromone doses (1-320 microg) attracted Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) and Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) males, with the lowest dose (1 microg) attracting the fewest males for both species. Doses of 3.2-100 microg were as attractive to male P. longispinus as the highest dose (320 microg); doses from 10 to 320 microg were equally attractive for P. viburni males. Lures containing 25-microg doses of either pheromone had effective field lifetimes of at least 12 wk. Experiments were performed to test the efficacy of combining multiple pheromones to attract several species of mealybugs simultaneously. Lures loaded with a mixture of the pheromones of P. longispinus, P. viburni, and Planococcus citri (Risso) were as attractive to P. viburni and P. citri as lures with their individual pheromones. Response of P. longispinus to the blend was decreased by 38% compared with its pheromone as a single component. A subsequent trial with two-component blends showed that the pheromone ofP. citri was responsible for this modest decrease in P. longispinus response. This should not affect the overall efficacy of using these lures for monitoring the presence of all three mealybug species simultaneously. Pheromone traps were used to detect infestations of P. longispinus throughout the season and to track population cycles. When pheromone-baited traps for P. longispinus were compared with manual sampling, trap counts of male mealybugs were significantly correlated with mealybugs counted on plants in the vicinity of the traps.

  2. Biochemical and molecular analysis of pink tomatoes: deregulated expression of the gene encoding transcription factor SlMYB12 leads to pink tomato fruit color.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Molthoff, Jos; de Vos, Ric; Hekkert, Bas te Lintel; Orzaez, Diego; Fernández-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Tripodi, Pasquale; Grandillo, Silvana; Martin, Cathie; Heldens, Jos; Ykema, Marieke; Granell, Antonio; Bovy, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    The color of tomato fruit is mainly determined by carotenoids and flavonoids. Phenotypic analysis of an introgression line (IL) population derived from a cross between Solanum lycopersicum 'Moneyberg' and the wild species Solanum chmielewskii revealed three ILs with a pink fruit color. These lines had a homozygous S. chmielewskii introgression on the short arm of chromosome 1, consistent with the position of the y (yellow) mutation known to result in colorless epidermis, and hence pink-colored fruit, when combined with a red flesh. Metabolic analysis showed that pink fruit lack the ripening-dependent accumulation of the yellow-colored flavonoid naringenin chalcone in the fruit peel, while carotenoid levels are not affected. The expression of all genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes involved in the production of the flavonol rutin from naringenin chalcone was down-regulated in pink fruit, suggesting that the candidate gene underlying the pink phenotype encodes a regulatory protein such as a transcription factor rather than a biosynthetic enzyme. Of 26 MYB and basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors putatively involved in regulating transcription of genes in the phenylpropanoid and/or flavonoid pathway, only the expression level of the MYB12 gene correlated well with the decrease in the expression of structural flavonoid genes in peel samples of pink- and red-fruited genotypes during ripening. Genetic mapping and segregation analysis showed that MYB12 is located on chromosome 1 and segregates perfectly with the characteristic pink fruit color. Virus-induced gene silencing of SlMYB12 resulted in a decrease in the accumulation of naringenin chalcone, a phenotype consistent with the pink-colored tomato fruit of IL1b. In conclusion, biochemical and molecular data, gene mapping, segregation analysis, and virus-induced gene silencing experiments demonstrate that the MYB12 transcription factor plays an important role in regulating the flavonoid pathway in tomato fruit

  3. Laser removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penide, J.; Quintero, F.; Riveiro, A.; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Comesaña, R.; del Val, J.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2013-11-01

    Morelia is an important city sited in Mexico. Its historical center reflects most of their culture and history, especially of the colonial period; in fact, it was appointed World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Sadly, there is a serious problem with graffiti in Morelia and its historical center is the worst affected since its delicate charming is definitely damaged. Hitherto, the conventional methods employed to remove graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry (the most used building stone in Morelia) are quite aggressive to the appearance of the monuments, so actually, they are not a very good solution. In this work, we performed a study on the removal of graffiti from Pink Morelia Quarry by high power diode laser. We carried out an extensive experimental study looking for the optimal processing parameters, and compared a single-pass with a multi-pass method. Indeed, we achieved an effective cleaning without producing serious side effects in the stone. In conclusion, the multi-pass method emitting in continuous wave was revealed as the more effective operating modes to remove the graffiti.

  4. Responses of pink salmon to CO2-induced aquatic acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Michelle; Hamilton, Trevor J.; Eom, Junho; Lyall, Emily M.; Gallup, Joshua; Jiang, Amy; Lee, Jason; Close, David A.; Yun, Sang-Seon; Brauner, Colin J.

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification negatively affects many marine species and is predicted to cause widespread changes to marine ecosystems. Similarly, freshwater ecosystems may potentially be affected by climate-change-related acidification; however, this has received far less attention. Freshwater fish represent 40% of all fishes, and salmon, which rear and spawn in freshwater, are of immense ecosystem, economical and cultural importance. In this study, we investigate the impacts of CO2-induced acidification during the development of pink salmon, in freshwater and following early seawater entry. At this critical and sensitive life stage, we show dose-dependent reductions in growth, yolk-to-tissue conversion and maximal O2 uptake capacity; as well as significant alterations in olfactory responses, anti-predator behaviour and anxiety under projected future increases in CO2 levels. These data indicate that future populations of pink salmon may be at risk without mitigation and highlight the need for further studies on the impact of CO2-induced acidification on freshwater systems.

  5. An overlooked pink species of land iguana in the Galapagos.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Gabriele; Fabiani, Anna; Marquez, Cruz; Snell, Howard L; Snell, Heidi M; Tapia, Washington; Sbordoni, Valerio

    2009-01-13

    Despite the attention given to them, the Galápagos have not yet finished offering evolutionary novelties. When Darwin visited the Galápagos, he observed both marine (Amblyrhynchus) and land (Conolophus) iguanas but did not encounter a rare pink black-striped land iguana (herein referred to as "rosada," meaning "pink" in Spanish), which, surprisingly, remained unseen until 1986. Here, we show that substantial genetic isolation exists between the rosada and syntopic yellow forms and that the rosada is basal to extant taxonomically recognized Galápagos land iguanas. The rosada, whose present distribution is a conundrum, is a relict lineage whose origin dates back to a period when at least some of the present-day islands had not yet formed. So far, this species is the only evidence of ancient diversification along the Galápagos land iguana lineage and documents one of the oldest events of divergence ever recorded in the Galápagos. Conservation efforts are needed to prevent this form, identified by us as a good species, from extinction.

  6. Field Performance of a Genetically Engineered Strain of Pink Bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Gregory S.; McKemey, Andrew R.; Morrison, Neil I.; O'Connell, Sinead; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Claus, John; Fu, Guoliang; Tang, Guolei; Sledge, Mickey; Walker, Adam S.; Phillips, Caroline E.; Miller, Ernie D.; Rose, Robert I.; Staten, Robert T.; Donnelly, Christl A.; Alphey, Luke

    2011-01-01

    Pest insects harm crops, livestock and human health, either directly or by acting as vectors of disease. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) – mass-release of sterile insects to mate with, and thereby control, their wild counterparts – has been used successfully for decades to control several pest species, including pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton. Although it has been suggested that genetic engineering of pest insects provides potential improvements, there is uncertainty regarding its impact on their field performance. Discrimination between released and wild moths caught in monitoring traps is essential for estimating wild population levels. To address concerns about the reliability of current marking methods, we developed a genetically engineered strain of pink bollworm with a heritable fluorescent marker, to improve discrimination of sterile from wild moths. Here, we report the results of field trials showing that this engineered strain performed well under field conditions. Our data show that attributes critical to SIT in the field – ability to find a mate and to initiate copulation, as well as dispersal and persistence in the release area – were comparable between the genetically engineered strain and a standard strain. To our knowledge, these represent the first open-field experiments with a genetically engineered insect. The results described here provide encouragement for the genetic control of insect pests. PMID:21931649

  7. More than meets the eye: the 'pink salmon patch'.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, Ranjita; Popescu-Martinez, Andrea

    2014-08-28

    Ocular adnexal lymphomas account for 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Conjunctiva is the primary site of involvement in one-third of cases. We present a case of a 47-year-old Hispanic woman who presented with left eye itching and irritation associated with a painless pink mass. Physical examination revealed the presence of a 'pink salmon-patch' involving her left medial conjunctiva. Orbital CT showed a subcentimeter left preseptal soft tissue density. Biopsy revealed a dense subepithelial lymphoid infiltrate comprised predominantly of B cells that did not coexpress CD5 or CD43. These findings were consistent with B-cell marginal zone lymphoma. Further staging assessment did not reveal disseminated disease. She had stage 1E extranodal marginal zone lymphoma as per Ann Arbor staging system. She received external beam radiotherapy to her left eye with complete resolution of the lymphoma in 2 months and continues to remain tumour free at 8-month follow-up. She will be followed up closely for development of any local (unilateral or contralateral eye) or systemic recurrence in the long run.

  8. Phytochemical, sensory attributes and aroma stability of dense phase carbon dioxide processed Hibiscus sabdariffa beverage during storage.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Rodrigues, Milena M; Plaza, Maria L; Azeredo, Alberto; Balaban, Murat O; Marshall, Maurice R

    2012-10-01

    The effect of dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) processing (34.5 MPa, 8% CO₂, 6.5 min, and 40 °C) on phytochemical, sensory and aroma compounds of hibiscus beverage was compared to a conventional thermal process (HTST) (75 °C for 15 s) and a control (untreated beverage) during refrigerated storage (4 °C). The overall likeability of the hibiscus beverage for all treatments was not affected by storage up to week 5. DPCD process retained more aroma volatiles as compared to HTST. Aroma profiles in the beverages were mainly composed of alcohols and aldehydes with 1-octen-3-ol, decanal, octanal, 1-hexanol, and nonanal as the compounds with the highest relative percentage peak areas. A loss of only 9% anthocyanins was observed for the DPCD processed hibiscus beverage. Phytochemical profiles in the hibiscus beverage included caffeoylquinic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonols. No major changes in total phenolics and antioxidant capacity occurred during the 14 weeks of storage.

  9. Hibiscus virus S is a new subgroup II tobamovirus: evidence from its unique coat protein and movement protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K G; Narendrakumar, R; Wong, S M

    2002-08-01

    The coat protein (CP) and movement protein (MP) sequences of a new tobamovirus infecting Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L were determined. The CP gene encodes 163 amino acid (aa) residues and with a theoretical molecular weight of 18.19 kDa. The MP gene encodes 282 amino acids and its theoretical molecular weight is 30.36 kDa. The nucleotide (nt) and aa sequences of the CP were 46.88 % to 51.63 % and 45.34 % to 57.06 % identical to other tobamoviruses, respectively. The nt and aa sequence identities of MP ranged from 38.81 % to 43.90 % and 30.85 % to 37.88 %, respectively. The predicted virion origin of assembly (OAS) was located in the CP gene. Phylogenetic trees generated based on the nt and aa sequences of both CP and MP genes indicate that this new virus clusters with members of subgroup II of tobamoviruses. Although this hibiscus virus shared a high nt and aa sequence identity with Sunn-hemp mosaic virus (SHMV), Western analysis showed that it is serologically unrelated to SHMV. We propose the name Hibiscus virus S (HVS) for this Singapore isolate. This is the first report on partial nt sequence of a tobamovirus that infects hibiscus.

  10. Multi-locus DNA barcoding identifies matK as a suitable marker for species identification in Hibiscus L.

    PubMed

    Poovitha, Sundar; Stalin, Nithaniyal; Balaji, Raju; Parani, Madasamy

    2016-12-01

    The genus Hibiscus L. includes several taxa of medicinal value and species used for the extraction of natural dyes. These applications require the use of authentic plant materials. DNA barcoding is a molecular method for species identification, which helps in reliable authentication by using one or more DNA barcode marker. In this study, we have collected 44 accessions, representing 16 species of Hibiscus, distributed in the southern peninsular India, to evaluate the discriminatory power of the two core barcodes rbcLa and matK together with the suggested additional regions trnH-psbA and ITS2. No intraspecies divergence was observed among the accessions studied. Interspecies divergence was 0%-9.6% with individual markers, which increased to 0%-12.5% and 0.8%-20.3% when using two- and three-marker combinations, respectively. Differentiation of all the species of Hibiscus was possible with the matK DNA barcode marker. Also, in two-marker combinations, only those combinations with matK differentiated all the species. Though all the three-marker combinations showed 100% species differentiation, species resolution was consistently better when the matK marker formed part of the combination. These results clearly showed that matK is more suitable when compared to rbcLa, trnH-psbA, and ITS2 for species identification in Hibiscus.

  11. Genetic variability for phenotype, seed production, oil content, and fatty acid composition among 17 Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed oil and fatty acids in plants have human health implications. Oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds are used in Taiwan as a diuretic, laxative, and tonic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seeds from 17 roselle accessions for oil and fatty acid variation in a greenhouse. S...

  12. Impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaf, bark, and core extracts on germination of five plant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the germination and post-germination development ...

  13. Characterization of developmental and stress mediated expression of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) is an important enzyme for lignin biosynthesis as it catalyzes the first specific committed step in monolignol biosynthesis. We have cloned a full length coding sequence of CCR from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), which contains a 1,020-bp open reading frame (ORF), enco...

  14. Investigation of the bacterial retting community of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) under different conditions using next-generation semiconductor sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of the natural fibers requires the development of cost-efficient processing of fibers with consistent, uniform properties. The microbial communities associated with kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) plant fibers during retting were determined in an effort to identify possible means of accelerating...

  15. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) ortholog from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We cloned the full-length of the gene putatively encoding caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. Kenaf is an herbaceous and rapidly growing dicotyledonous plant with great potential ...

  16. Wilt, crown, and root rot of common rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos) caused by a novel Fusarium sp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new crown and root rot disease of landscape plantings of the malvaceous ornamental common rose mallow (Hibiscus moscheutos) was first detected in Washington State in 2012. The main objectives of this study were to identify the causal agent using multilocus molecular phylogenetics and to complete K...

  17. Components in aqueous Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract inhibit in vitro melanoma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Karina H; Yin, Ariel C; Mupparapu, Archana; Retzbach, Edward P; Goldberg, Gary S; Yang, Catherine F

    2017-01-01

    Skin cancer is extremely common, and melanoma causes about 80% of skin cancer deaths. In fact, melanoma kills over 50 thousand people around the world each year, and these numbers are rising. Clearly, standard treatments are not effectively treating melanoma, and alternative therapies are needed to address this problem. Hibiscus tea has been noted to have medicinal properties, including anticancer effects. Extracts from Hibiscus have been shown to inhibit the growth of a variety of cancer cells. In particular, recent studies found that polyphenols extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa by organic solvents can inhibit melanoma cell growth. However, effects of aqueous extracts from Hibiscus rosa-sinesis flowers, which are commonly used to make traditional medicinal beverages, have not been examined on melanoma cells. Here, we report that aqueous H. rosa-sinesis flower extract contains compounds that inhibit melanoma cell growth in a dose dependent manner at concentrations that did not affect the growth of nontransformed cells. In addition, these extracts contain low molecular weight growth inhibitory compounds below 3 kD in size that combine with larger compounds to more effectively inhibit melanoma cell growth. Future work should identify these compounds, and evaluate their potential to prevent and treat melanoma and other cancers.

  18. MUL1 acts in parallel to the PINK1/parkin pathway in regulating mitofusin and compensates for loss of PINK1/parkin

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jina; Puri, Rajat; Yang, Huan; Lizzio, Michael A; Wu, Chunlai; Sheng, Zu-Hang; Guo, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) genes PINK1 and parkin act in a common pathway that regulates mitochondrial integrity and quality. Identifying new suppressors of the pathway is important for finding new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we show that MUL1 suppresses PINK1 or parkin mutant phenotypes in Drosophila. The suppression is achieved through the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Mitofusin, which itself causes PINK1/parkin mutant-like toxicity when overexpressed. We further show that removing MUL1 in PINK1 or parkin loss-of-function mutant aggravates phenotypes caused by loss of either gene alone, leading to lethality in flies and degeneration in mouse cortical neurons. Together, these observations show that MUL1 acts in parallel to the PINK1/parkin pathway on a shared target mitofusin to maintain mitochondrial integrity. The MUL1 pathway compensates for loss of PINK1/parkin in both Drosophila and mammals and is a promising therapeutic target for PD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01958.001 PMID:24898855

  19. Mitochondrial impairment increases FL-PINK1 levels by calcium-dependent gene expression☆

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Gegg, Matthew E.; Bravo-San Pedro, José M.; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Martín, Yolanda; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Fuentes, José M.; González-Polo, Rosa Ana; Schapira, Anthony H.V.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). This gene encodes a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, which is partly localized to mitochondria, and has been shown to play a role in protecting neuronal cells from oxidative stress and cell death, perhaps related to its role in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. In this study, we report that increased mitochondrial PINK1 levels observed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophelyhydrazone (CCCP) treatment were due to de novo protein synthesis, and not just increased stabilization of full length PINK1 (FL-PINK1). PINK1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 4-fold after 24 h. FL-PINK1 protein levels at this time point were significantly higher than vehicle-treated, or cells treated with CCCP for 3 h, despite mitochondrial content being decreased by 29%. We have also shown that CCCP dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and induced entry of extracellular calcium through L/N-type calcium channels. The calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM impaired the CCCP-induced PINK1 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, CCCP treatment activated the transcription factor c-Fos in a calcium-dependent manner. These data indicate that PINK1 expression is significantly increased upon CCCP-induced mitophagy in a calcium-dependent manner. This increase in expression continues after peak Parkin mitochondrial translocation, suggesting a role for PINK1 in mitophagy that is downstream of ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates. This sensitivity to intracellular calcium levels supports the hypothesis that PINK1 may also play a role in cellular calcium homeostasis and neuroprotection. PMID:24184327

  20. Mitochondrial impairment increases FL-PINK1 levels by calcium-dependent gene expression.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Gegg, Matthew E; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Martín, Yolanda; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Fuentes, José M; González-Polo, Rosa Ana; Schapira, Anthony H V

    2014-02-01

    Mutations of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). This gene encodes a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, which is partly localized to mitochondria, and has been shown to play a role in protecting neuronal cells from oxidative stress and cell death, perhaps related to its role in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. In this study, we report that increased mitochondrial PINK1 levels observed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophelyhydrazone (CCCP) treatment were due to de novo protein synthesis, and not just increased stabilization of full length PINK1 (FL-PINK1). PINK1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 4-fold after 24h. FL-PINK1 protein levels at this time point were significantly higher than vehicle-treated, or cells treated with CCCP for 3h, despite mitochondrial content being decreased by 29%. We have also shown that CCCP dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and induced entry of extracellular calcium through L/N-type calcium channels. The calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM impaired the CCCP-induced PINK1 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, CCCP treatment activated the transcription factor c-Fos in a calcium-dependent manner. These data indicate that PINK1 expression is significantly increased upon CCCP-induced mitophagy in a calcium-dependent manner. This increase in expression continues after peak Parkin mitochondrial translocation, suggesting a role for PINK1 in mitophagy that is downstream of ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates. This sensitivity to intracellular calcium levels supports the hypothesis that PINK1 may also play a role in cellular calcium homeostasis and neuroprotection.

  1. Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) Extracts and Wine: Phytochemical Profile, Physicochemical Properties, and Carbohydrase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ifie, Idolo; Marshall, Lisa J; Ho, Peter; Williamson, Gary

    2016-06-22

    Three varieties of Hibiscus sabdariffa were analyzed for their phytochemical content and inhibitory potential on carbohydrate-digesting enzymes as a basis for selecting a variety for wine production. The dark red variety was chosen as it was highest in phenolic content and an aqueous extract partially inhibited α-glucosidase (maltase), with delphinidin 3-O-sambubioside, cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside, and 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid accounting for 65% of this activity. None of the varieties significantly inhibited α-amylase. Regarding Hibiscus sabdariffa wine, the effect of fermentation temperature (20 and 30 °C) on the physicochemical, phytochemical, and aroma composition was monitored over 40 days. The main change in phytochemical composition observed was the hydrolysis of 3-O-caffeolquinic acid and the concomitant increase of caffeic acid irrespective of fermentation temperature. Wine fermented at 20 °C was slightly more active for α-glucosidase inhibition with more fruity aromas (ethyl octanoate), but there were more flowery notes (2-phenylethanol) at 30 °C.

  2. Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf polyphenolic extract induces human melanoma cell death, apoptosis, and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chun-Tang; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Hsu, Cheng-Chin; Chou, Fen-Pi; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is the least common but most fatal form of skin cancer. Previous studies have indicated that an aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects. In this study, we want to investigate the anticancer activity of Hibiscus leaf polyphenolic (HLP) extract in melanoma cells. First, HLP was exhibited to be rich in epicatechin gallate (ECG) and other polyphenols. Apoptotic and autophagic activities of HLP and ECG were further evaluated by DAPI stain, cell-cycle analysis, and acidic vascular organelle (AVO) stain. Our results revealed that both HLP and ECG induced the caspases cleavages, Bcl-2 family proteins regulation, and Fas/FasL activation in A375 cells. In addition, we also revealed that the cells presented AVO-positive after HLP treatments. HLP could increase the expressions of autophagy-related proteins autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5), Beclin1, and light chain 3-II (LC3-II), and induce autophagic cell death in A375 cells. These data indicated that the anticancer effect of HLP, partly contributed by ECG, in A375 cells. HLP potentially could be developed as an antimelanoma agent.

  3. Polyphenolic extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa reduces body fat by inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and preadipocyte adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kao, Erl-Shyh; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Hung, Chia-Hung; Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Diets high in fat lead to excess lipid accumulation in adipose tissue, which is a crucial factor in the development of obesity, hepatitis, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) in vivo. Hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD) develop symptoms of obesity, which were determined based on body weight changes and changes in plasma and serum triglycerides, free fatty acid concentrations, total cholesterol levels, LDL-C levels, HDL-C levels, and adipocyte tissue weight. HFD-fed hamsters were used to investigate the effects of HSE on symptoms of obesity such as adipogenesis and fatty liver, loss of blood glucose regulation, and serum ion imbalance. Interestingly, HSE treatment effectively reduced the effects of the HFD in hamsters in a dose-dependent manner. Further, after inducing maturation of preadipocytes, Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenolic extract (HPE) was shown to suppress the adipogenesis of adipocytes. However, HPE does not affect the viability of preadipocytes. Therefore, both HSE and HPE are effective and viable treatment strategies for preventing the development and treating the symptoms of obesity.

  4. Determination of suitable microspore stage and callus induction from anthers of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Mahmood; Kayat, Fatimah Binti; Hussin, Zeti Ermiena Surya Mat; Susanto, Dwi; Ariffulah, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6-8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA.

  5. Chemical-sensory properties and consumer preference of hibiscus beverages produced by improved industrial processes.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Maria João P; Costa, Ana Isabel A; Fliedel, Geneviève; Cissé, Mady; Bechoff, Aurélie; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Maria Manuela E

    2017-06-15

    The need to increase sustainability and add value to traditional foods claiming health benefits led to the introduction of key improvements in the production of hibiscus beverages in Senegal. The physicochemical and sensory properties of three resulting products (an under-vacuum concentrate, a dilute-to-taste syrup and a ready-to-drink infusion) were assessed, vis-à-vis those of conventionally manufactured beverages, and their impact on local consumer preference determined (n=146). New beverages had more intense, redder colour and higher monomeric anthocyanin content, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, their colour evaluations by trained panellists were mainly linked to colour density and anthocyanin/polyphenol content, while flavour assessments were associated to titratable acidity and sugar-to-acid ratio. Consumer evaluations, in turn, were driven by the beverages' red colour intensity, aroma strength and balance between sweetness and acidity. This explained why they overwhelmingly preferred the under-vacuum concentrate, regardless of their age, gender or frequency of hibiscus beverage consumption.

  6. Determination of Suitable Microspore Stage and Callus Induction from Anthers of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Binti Kayat, Fatimah; Ermiena Surya Mat Hussin, Zeti; Susanto, Dwi; Ariffulah, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6–8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA. PMID:24757416

  7. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Mamadou; Ngom, Saliou; Kane, Modou O; Wele, Alassane; Diop, Doudou; Sarr, Bocar; Gueye, Lamine; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Diallo, Aminata S

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. Methods Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The crude extract was also enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The various cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol extracts obtained as well as the residual marc were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The different methanolic eluate fractions were then analyzed by Thin Layer (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their vascular effects also evaluated. Results The H. Sabdariffa crude extract induced mainly endothelium-dependent relaxant effects. The endothelium-dependent relaxations result from NOS activation and those who not dependent to endothelium from activation of smooth muscle potassium channels. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract and anthocyans in the butanolic extract. The biological efficiency of the various studied extracts, in term of vasorelaxant capacity, showed that: Butanol extract > Crude extract > Residual marc > Ethyl acetate extract. These results suggest that the strong activity of the butanolic extract is essentially due to the presence of anthocyans found in its fractions 43-67. Conclusion These results demonstrate the vasodilator potential of hibiscus sabdariffa and contribute to his valuation as therapeutic alternative. PMID:19883513

  8. Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted. PMID:25183141

  9. Antidepressant-like effects of methanol extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus flowers in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hibiscus tiliaceus L. (Malvaceae) is used in postpartum disorders. Our purpose was to examine the antidepressant, anxiolytic and sedative actions of the methanol extract of H. tiliaceus flowers using animal models. Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice were treated with saline, standard drugs or methanol extract of H. tiliaceus and then subjected to behavioral tests. The forced swimming and tail suspension tests were used as predictive animal models of antidepressant activity, where the time of immobility was considered. The animals were submitted to the elevated plus-maze and ketamine-induced sleeping time to assess anxiolytic and sedative activities, respectively. Results Methanol extract of H. tiliaceus significantly decreased the duration of immobility in both animal models of antidepressant activity, forced swimming and tail suspension tests. This extract did not potentiate the effect of ketamine-induced hypnosis, as determined by the time to onset and duration of sleeping time. Conclusion Our results indicate an antidepressant-like profile of action for the extract of Hibiscus tiliaceus without sedative side effect. PMID:22494845

  10. In vitro inhibitory activities of the extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (family Malvaceae) on selected cytochrome P450 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Showande Segun; Oyelola, Fakeye Titilayo; Ari, Tolonen; Juho, Hokkanen

    2013-01-01

    Literature is scanty on the interaction potential of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., plant extract with other drugs and the affected targets. This study was conducted to investigate the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms that are inhibited by the extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in vitro. The inhibition towards the major drug metabolizing CYP isoforms by the plant extract were estimated in human liver microsomal incubations, by monitoring the CYP-specific model reactions through previously validated N-in-one assay method. The ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa showed inhibitory activities against nine selected CYP isoforms: CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4. The concentrations of the extract which produced 50% inhibition of the CYP isoforms ranged from 306 µg/ml to 1660 µg/ml, and the degree of inhibition based on the IC50 values for each CYP isoform was in the following order: CYP1A2 > CYP2C8 > CYP2D6 > CYP2B6 > CYP2E1 > CYP2C19 > CYP3A4 > CYP2C9 > CYP2A6. Ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa caused inhibition of CYP isoforms in vitro. These observed inhibitions may not cause clinically significant herb-drug interactions; however, caution may need to be taken in co-administering the water extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa with other drugs until clinical studies are available to further clarify these findings.

  11. Pink-color sign in esophageal squamous neoplasia, and speculation regarding the underlying mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Ryu; Kanzaki, Hiromitsu; Iishi, Hiroyasu; Nagai, Kengo; Matsui, Fumi; Yamashina, Takeshi; Matsuura, Noriko; Ito, Takashi; Fujii, Mototsugu; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya; Tatsuta, Masaharu; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Ishiguro, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the reasons for the occurrence of the pink-color sign of iodine-unstained lesions. METHODS: In chromoendoscopy, the pink-color sign of iodine-unstained lesions is recognized as useful for the diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with superficial esophageal neoplasms treated by endoscopic resection were included in the study. Areas of mucosa with and without the pink-color sign were evaluated histologically. The following histologic features that were possibly associated with the pink-color sign were evaluated. The keratinous layer and basal cell layer were classified as present or absent. Cellular atypia was classified as high grade, moderate grade or low grade, based on nuclear irregularity, mitotic figures, loss of polarity, chromatin pattern and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio. Vascular change was assessed based on dilatation, tortuosity, caliber change and variability in shape. Vessels with these four findings were classified as positive for vascular change. Endoscopic images of the lesions were captured immediately after iodine staining, 2-3 min after iodine staining and after complete fading of iodine staining. Quantitative analysis of color changes after iodine staining was also performed. RESULTS: A total of 61 superficial esophageal neoplasms in 54 patients were included in the study. The lesions were located in the cervical esophagus in one case, the upper thoracic esophagus in 10 cases, the mid-thoracic esophagus in 33 cases, and the lower thoracic esophagus in 17 cases. The median diameter of the lesions was 20 mm (range: 2-74 mm). Of the 61 lesions, 28 were classified as pink-color sign positive and 33 as pink-color sign negative. The histologic diagnosis was high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN) or cancer invading into the lamina propria in 26 of the 28 pink-color sign positive lesions. There was a significant association between pink-color sign positive epithelium and HGIN or invasive cancer (P = 0

  12. Ret rescues mitochondrial morphology and muscle degeneration of Drosophila Pink1 mutants

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Pontus; Müller-Rischart, Anne Kathrin; Motori, Elisa; Schönbauer, Cornelia; Schnorrer, Frank; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Klein, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated Pink1 and Parkin proteins are believed to function in a common pathway controlling mitochondrial clearance and trafficking. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its signaling receptor Ret are neuroprotective in toxin-based animal models of PD. However, the mechanism by which GDNF/Ret protects cells from degenerating remains unclear. We investigated whether the Drosophila homolog of Ret can rescue Pink1 and park mutant phenotypes. We report that a signaling active version of Ret (RetMEN2B) rescues muscle degeneration, disintegration of mitochondria and ATP content of Pink1 mutants. Interestingly, corresponding phenotypes of park mutants were not rescued, suggesting that the phenotypes of Pink1 and park mutants have partially different origins. In human neuroblastoma cells, GDNF treatment rescues morphological defects of PINK1 knockdown, without inducing mitophagy or Parkin recruitment. GDNF also rescues bioenergetic deficits of PINK knockdown cells. Furthermore, overexpression of RetMEN2B significantly improves electron transport chain complex I function in Pink1 mutant Drosophila. These results provide a novel mechanism underlying Ret-mediated cell protection in a situation relevant for human PD. PMID:24473149

  13. Evaluation of remote sensing in control of pink cotton bollworm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. N. (Principal Investigator); Coleman, V. B.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. This investigation is attempting to evaluate the use of a satellite in monitoring the cotton production regulation program of the State of California as an aid in controlling pink bollworm infestation in the southern deserts of California. Color combined images of ERTS-1 multispectral images simulating color infrared are being used in crop identification. The status of each field is mapped from the imagery and is then compared to ground surveys taken at the time of each ERTS-1 overflight. Correlation has been to date 100%. A computer analysis will be performed to compare field status with the crop calendar in order to identify crops. Correlation is expected to be 80 to 90%. Cotton fields, because of their state regulated season which is exactly coincident with no other crop, are expected to be easily identified.

  14. Pink esthetics in periodontics - Gingival depigmentation: A case series.

    PubMed

    Thangavelu, Arthiie; Elavarasu, Sugumari; Jayapalan, Piranitha

    2012-08-01

    Smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection, and courtesy, and reveals self-confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position, and the color of the teeth, but also by the gingival tissues. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of "black gums" are common, particularly in patients having a very high smile line. Thus, perio-esthetic treatment modalities strive to achieve a harmonious inter-relationship of the pink with white, which is imperative of all treatment procedures. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported, such as bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. In the present case series, scraping, electrosurgery, and diode laser have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective, and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction.

  15. Pink esthetics in periodontics – Gingival depigmentation: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Thangavelu, Arthiie; Elavarasu, Sugumari; Jayapalan, Piranitha

    2012-01-01

    Smile expresses a feeling of joy, success, sensuality, affection, and courtesy, and reveals self-confidence and kindness. The harmony of the smile is determined not only by the shape, the position, and the color of the teeth, but also by the gingival tissues. Although melanin pigmentation of the gingiva is completely benign and does not present a medical problem, complaints of “black gums” are common, particularly in patients having a very high smile line. Thus, perio-esthetic treatment modalities strive to achieve a harmonious inter-relationship of the pink with white, which is imperative of all treatment procedures. For depigmentation of gingival, different treatment modalities have been reported, such as bur abrasion, scraping, partial thickness flap, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, and laser. In the present case series, scraping, electrosurgery, and diode laser have been tried for depigmentation, which are simple, effective, and yield good results, along with good patient satisfaction. PMID:23066249

  16. The mouse pink-eyed dilution allele of the P-gene greatly inhibits eumelanin but not pheomelanin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hirobe, Tomohisa; Ito, Shosuke; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa

    2011-02-01

    The mouse pink-eyed dilution (p) locus is known to control eumelanin synthesis, melanosome morphology, and tyrosinase activity in melanocytes. However, it has not been fully determined whether the mutant allele, p affects pheomelanin synthesis. Effects of the p allele on eumelanin and phemelanin synthesis were investigated by chemical analysis of dorsal hairs of 5-week-old mice obtained from the F(2) generations (black, pink-eyed black, recessive yellow, pink-eyed recessive yellow, agouti, and pink-eyed agouti) between C57BL/10JHir (B10)-congenic pink-eyed black mice (B10-p/p) and recessive yellow (B10-Mc1r(e)/Mc1r(e)) or agouti (B10-A/A) mice. The eumelanin content was dramatically (>20-fold) decreased in pink-eyed black and pink-eyed agouti mice, whereas the pheomelanin content did not decrease in pink-eyed black, pink-eyed recessive yellow, or pink-eyed agouti mice compared to the corresponding P/- mice. These results suggest that the pink-eyed dilution allele greatly inhibits eumelanin synthesis, but not pheomelanin synthesis.

  17. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EPMA) of pink teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, N.; Watanabe, G.; Harada, A.; Suzuki, T.

    1988-11-01

    Samples of postmortem pink teeth were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Fracture surfaces of the dentin in pink teeth were noticeably rough and revealed many more smaller dentinal tubules than those of the control white teeth. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis showed that the pink teeth contained iron which seemed to be derived from blood hemoglobin. The present study confirms that under the same circumstance red coloration of teeth may occur more easily in the teeth in which the dentin is less compact and contains more dentinal tubules.

  18. Effect of Absolute From Hibiscus syriacus L. Flower on Wound Healing in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seok Won; Lee, Kang Pa; Kim, Do-Yoon; Hwang, Dae Il; Won, Kyung-Jong; Lee, Dae Won; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2017-01-01

    Background: Proliferation and migration of keratinocytes are essential for the repair of cutaneous wounds. Hibiscus syriacus L. has been used in Asian medicine; however, research on keratinocytes is inadequate. Objective: To establish the dermatological properties of absolute from Hibiscus syriacus L. flower (HSF) and to provide fundamental research for alternative medicine. Materials and Methods: We identified the composition of HSF absolute using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We also examined the effect of HSF absolute in HaCaT cells using the XTT assay, Boyden chamber assay, sprout-out growth assay, and western blotting. We conducted an in-vivo wound healing assay in rat tail-skin. Results: Ten major active compounds were identified from HSF absolute. As determined by the XTT assay, Boyden chamber assay, and sprout-out growth assay results, HSF absolute exhibited similar effects as that of epidermal growth factor on the proliferation and migration patterns of keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), which were significantly increased after HSF absolute treatment. The expression levels of the phosphorylated signaling proteins relevant to proliferation, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk 1/2) and Akt, were also determined by western blot analysis. Conclusion: These results of our in-vitro and ex-vivo studies indicate that HSF absolute induced cell growth and migration of HaCaT cells by phosphorylating both Erk 1/2 and Akt. Moreover, we confirmed the wound-healing effect of HSF on injury of the rat tail-skin. Therefore, our results suggest that HSF absolute is promising for use in cosmetics and alternative medicine. SUMMARY Hisbiscus syriacus L. flower absolute increases HaCaT cell migration and proliferation.Hisbiscus syriacus L. flower absolute regulates phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and Akt in HaCaT cell.Treatment with Hisbiscus syriacus L. flower induced sprout outgrowth.The wound in the tail-skin of rat was reduced by Hisbiscus syriacus

  19. Hibiscus sabdariffa L extract drying with different carrier agent: Drying rate evaluation and color analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djaeni, M.; Utari, F. D.; Kumoro, A. C.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different carrier agents on roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa L.extract drying. Carrier agent was used for reducing stickiness of material and avoiding agglomeration as well as improving stability. The method consisted of two steps involving roselle extraction and drying process. The liquid roselle extract was mixed with carrier agent (maltodextrin-arabic gum) in various composition. The mixture was then dried at different air temperature ranging 40 - 80°C. As a response, moisture content in the extract was observed by gravimetry every 10 minutes during90 minutes. The procedurewas repeated for the drying without carrieragent. The result showed that constant rate of drying with carrier agent was higher up to l.7 times than that of without carrier agent. Based on the color analysis,roselle extract drying with carrier agent also showed reasonable quality.

  20. Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Bindhu, M R; Umadevi, M

    2013-01-15

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Hibiscus cannabinus has been investigated. The influences of different concentration of H. cannabinus leaf extract, different metal ion concentration and different reaction time on the above cases on the synthesis of nanoparticles were evaluated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles were monodispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 9 nm and shows surface plasmon peak at 446 nm. The study also reveals that the ascorbic acid present in H. cannabinus leaf extract has been used as reducing agent. The prepared silver nanoparticle shows good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella flexneri.

  1. Dyeing wool and cotton fibres with acidic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flower.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Lamya; Jacob, Dangly Ann

    2016-05-02

    The focus of this work is to extract a natural dye for colouring camel wool as a substitute for synthetic dyes used in the Sadu House of Kuwait. Their target is to keep the tradition of tent and rug production natural in all its manifestations. Therefore, our task was to find an abundant source that provides a colour preferably red to purple. Hibiscus rosa sinensis (HRS) is an abundantly available plant in Kuwait that was explored for extraction of the red dye to colour camel wool permanently. The powdered petals of red flowers of HRS was extracted with 5% acetic acid which yielded a deep red colour that showed a great potential for woollen fibre dyeing. The use of mordants like alum and some metal salts manifested a wide range of fixed colours which intensified at 85 °C. The colours produced had excellent fastness and was accepted by the Sadu House.

  2. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-10-25

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications.

  3. Variability of cirrus clouds in a convective outflow during the Hibiscus campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierli, F.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Cairo, F.; Marécal, V.; Zampieri, M.; Orlandi, E.; Durry, G.

    2008-08-01

    Light-weight microlidar and water vapour measurements were taken on-board a stratospheric balloon during the HIBISCUS 2004 campaign, held in Bauru, Brazil (49° W, 22° S). Cirrus clouds were observed throughout the flight between 12 and 15 km height with a high mesoscale variability in optical and microphysical properties. It was found that the cirrus clouds were composed of different layers characterized by marked differences in height, thickness and optical properties. Simultaneous water vapour observations show that the different layers are characterized by different values of the saturation with respect to ice. A mesoscale simulation and a trajectory analysis clearly revealed that the clouds had formed in the outflow of a large and persistent convective region and that the observed variability of the optical properties and of the cloud structure is likely linked to the different residence times of the convectively-processed air in the upper troposphere.

  4. Biosynthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis petals extracts.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Debasis; Ashe, Sarbani; Rauta, Pradipta Ranjan; Nayak, Bismita

    2015-10-01

    Green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has lured the world from the chemical and physical approaches owing to its rapid, non-hazardous and economic aspect of production mechanism. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesised using petal extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. The AgNPs displayed characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at around 421 nm having a mean particle size of 76.25±0.17 nm and carried a charge of -41±0.2 mV. The X-ray diffraction patterns displayed typical peaks of face centred cubic crystalline silver. The surface morphology was characterised by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies confirmed the surface modifications of the functional groups for the synthesis of AgNPs. Furthermore, the synthesised AgNPs displayed proficient antimicrobial activity against pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.

  5. Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Hibiscus cannabinus has been investigated. The influences of different concentration of H. cannabinus leaf extract, different metal ion concentration and different reaction time on the above cases on the synthesis of nanoparticles were evaluated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles were monodispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 9 nm and shows surface plasmon peak at 446 nm. The study also reveals that the ascorbic acid present in H. cannabinus leaf extract has been used as reducing agent. The prepared silver nanoparticle shows good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella flexneri.

  6. Flower color changes in three Japanese hibiscus species: further quantitative variation of anthocyanin and flavonols.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Satoshi; Iwashina, Tsukasa; Murakami, Noriaki

    2015-03-01

    One anthocyanin and four flavonols were detected from the petals of Hibiscus hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber. They were identified as cyanidin 3-0- sambubioside, gossypetin 3-O-glucuronide-8-O-glucoside, quercetin 7-O-rutinoside, gossypetin 3-O-glucoside and gossypetin 8-O-glucuronide by UV spectra, LC-MS, acid hydrolysis and HPLC. The flavonoid composition was essentially the same among the petals ofH. hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber, and there was little quantitative variation, except for cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside, the content of which in the petals ofH. tiliaceus and H. glaber was much higher than in that of H. hamabo. Flower colors of H. tiliaceus and H. glaber change from yellow to red, and that of H. hamabo changes from yellow to orange. These changes were caused by contents of anthocyanin and flavonols, which increased after flowering of H. hamabo, H. tiliaceus and H. glaber.

  7. Nonlinear refractive index measurements and self-action effects in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henari, F. Z.; Al-Saie, A.

    2006-12-01

    We report the observation of self-action phenomena, such as self-focusing, self-defocusing, self-phase modulation and beam fanning in Roselle-Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions. This material is found to be a new type of natural nonlinear media, and the nonlinear reflective index coefficient has been determined using a Z-scan technique and by measuring the critical power for the self-trapping effect. Z-scan measurements show that this material has a large negative nonlinear refractive index, n 2 = 1 × 10-4 esu. A comparison between the experimental n 2 values and the calculated thermal value for n 2 suggests that the major contribution to nonlinear response is of thermal origin.

  8. Cytotoxic effect of triterpenoids from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Li-Shian; Wu, Chao-Hsuan; Yang, Te-Chun; Yao, Chen-Wen; Lin, Hang-Ching; Chang, Wen-Liang

    2014-09-01

    In this study, 4 new triterpenoids-3β- acetoxy-olean-11-en,28,13β-olide (1), 3β- acetoxy-11α,12α-epoxy-olean-28,13β-olide (2), 19α-epi-betulin (3), and 20, 28-epoxy-17β,19β-lupan-3β-ol (4)-and 12 known compounds, were isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus L. by using acetone extraction. Their structures were characterized by extensive spectroscopic analysis. To investigate cytotoxicity, A549 human lung cancer cells were exposed to the extract and the compounds identified from it. Significantly reduced cell viability was observed with betulin-3-caffeate (12) (IC50, 4.3 μM). The results of this study indicate that betulin-3-caffeate (12) identified from H. syriacus L. may warrant further investigation for potential as anticancer therapies.

  9. ‘Okra’ Hibiscus esculentus L.: A study of its hepatoprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Alqasoumi, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to validate the claimed uses of ‘Okra’ Hibiscus esculentus in liver diseases. The preventive action of ethanolic extract of okra (EEO) against liver injury was evaluated in rodents using carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity model. EEO, at 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, exerted significant dose-dependent hepatoprotection by decreasing the CCl4-induced elevation of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, GGT, cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde (MDA) non-protein sulfhydryls (NP-SH) and total protein (TP) levels in the liver tissue. A significant reduction was also observed in pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the extract are being comparable to standard silymarin. These findings were supported by histological assessment of the liver biopsy. The ability of okra extract to protect chemically induced liver damage may be attributed to its potent antioxidant property. PMID:23960784

  10. Hibiscus anthocyanins rich extract-induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.-C.; Huang, H.-P.; Hsu, J.-D.; Yang, S.-F.; Wang, C.-J. . E-mail: wcj@csmu.edu.tw

    2005-06-15

    Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in the Sudan and Eastern Taiwan. Anthocyanins exist widely in many vegetables and fruits. Some reports demonstrated that anthocyanins extracted from H. sabdariffa L., Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) (which are a group of natural pigments existing in the dried calyx of H. sabdariffa L.) exhibited antioxidant activity and liver protection. Therefore, in this study, we explored the effect of HAs on human cancer cells. The result showed that HAs could cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in HL-60 cells. Using flow cytometry, we found that HAs treatment (0-4 mg/ml) markedly induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The result also revealed increased phosphorylation in p38 and c-Jun, cytochrome c release, and expression of tBid, Fas, and FasL in the HAs-treated HL-60 cells. We further used SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), and wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PI-3K inhibitor) to evaluate their effect on the HAs-induced HL-60 death. The data showed that only SB203580 had strong potential in inhibiting HL-60 cell apoptosis and related protein expression and phosphorylation. Therefore, we suggested that HAs mediated HL-60 apoptosis via the p38-FasL and Bid pathway. According to these results, HAs could be developed as chemopreventive agents. However, further investigations into the specificity and mechanism(s) of HAs are needed.

  11. Physiological responses and tolerance of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) exposed to chromium.

    PubMed

    Ding, Han; Wang, Guodong; Lou, Lili; Lv, Jinyin

    2016-11-01

    Selection of kenaf species with chromium (Cr) tolerance and exploring the physiological mechanisms involved in Cr tolerance are crucial for application of these species to phyto-remediation. In the present study, a hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the variation in two kenaf cultivars, K39-2 and Zhe50-3 under Cr stress. At the same Cr concentration, the tolerance index (TI) of K39-2 was higher than that of Zhe50-3, indicating that K39-2 may be more tolerant to Cr than Zhe50-3. It was also observed that high concentration of chromium was accumulated both in the shoots and the roots of Hibiscus cannabinus L. The leaves of K39-2 accumulated 4760.28mgkg(-1) of dry weight under 1.50mM Cr stress, and the roots accumulated 11,958.33mgkg(-1). Physiological response shows that the antioxidant enzymes' superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities increased in the leaves and decreased in roots of the Cr-stressed plants nearly compared to the control. Moreover, the variation of antioxidant enzymes activities indicated Zhe50-3 was more vulnerable than K39-2, and the contents of the non-protein thiol pool (GSH, NPT and PCs) were higher in K39-2 than Zhe50-3 with the increased Cr concentration. Based on the observations above, it can be concluded that the well-coordinated physiological changes confer a greater Cr tolerance to K39-2 than Zhe50-3 under Cr exposure, and Hibiscus cannabinus L. has a great accumulation capacity for chromium.

  12. Hibiscus anthocyanins-rich extract inhibited LDL oxidation and oxLDL-mediated macrophages apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yun-Ching; Huang, Kai-Xun; Huang, An-Chung; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2006-07-01

    The oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Anti-oxidative reagents, which can effectively inhibit LDL oxidation, may prevent atherosclerosis via reducing early atherogenesis, and slowing down the progression to advance stages. As shown in previous studies Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a natural plant containing a lot of pigments that was found to possess anti-oxidative of activity. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) by measuring their effects on LDL oxidation (in cell-free system) and anti-apoptotic abilities (in RAW264.7 cells). HAs have been tested in vitro examining their relative electrophoretic mobility (REM), Apo B fragmentation, thiobarbituric acid relative substances (TBARS) and radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay. The anti-oxidative activity of HAs was defined by relative electrophoretic mobility of oxLDL (decrease of 50% at 2 mg/ml), fragmentation of Apo B (inhibition of 61% at 1mg/ml), and TBARS assay (IC(50): 0.46 mg/ml) in the Cu(2+)-mediated oxidize LDL. Furthermore, the addition of >0.1 mg/ml of HAs could scavenge over 95% of free DPPH radicals, HAs showed strong potential in inhibiting LDL oxidation induced by copper. In addition, to determine whether oxLDL-induced apoptosis in macrophages is inhibited by HAs, we studied the viability, morphology and caspase-3 expression of RAW 264.7 cells. MTT assay, Leukostate staining analysis and Western blotting reveals that HAs could inhibit oxLDL-induced apoptosis. According to these findings, we suggest that HAs may be used to inhibit LDL oxidation and oxLDL-mediated macrophage apoptosis, serving as a chemopreventive agent. However, further investigations into the specificity and mechanism(s) of HAs are needed.

  13. Plant growth retardation and conserved miRNAs are correlated to Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruimin; Wan, Zi Yi; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    Virus infection may cause a multiplicity of symptoms in their host including discoloration, distortion and growth retardation. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) infection was studied using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a non-wood fiber-producing crop in this study. Infection by HCRSV reduced the fiber yield and concomitant economic value of kenaf. We investigated kenaf growth retardation and fluctuations of four selected miRNAs after HCRSV infection. Vegetative growth (including plant height, leaf size and root development) was severely retarded. From the transverse and radial sections of the mock and HCRSV-infected kenaf stem, the vascular bundles of HCRSV-infected plants were severely disrupted. In addition, four conserved plant developmental and defence related microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR165, miR167, miR168 and miR171) and their respective target genes phabulosa (PHB), auxin response factor 8 (ARF8), argonaute 1 (AGO1) and scarecrow-like protein 1 (SCL1) displayed variation in expression levels after HCRSV infection. Compared with the mock inoculated kenaf plants, miR171 and miR168 and their targets SCL1 and AGO1 showed greater fluctuations after HCRSV infection. As HCRSV upregulates plant SO transcript in kenaf and upregulated AGO1 in HCRSV-infected plants, the expression level of AGO1 transcript was further investigated under sulfite oxidase (SO) overexpression or silencing condition. Interestingly, the four selected miRNAs were also up- or down-regulated upon overexpression or silencing of SO. Plant growth retardation and fluctuation of four conserved miRNAs are correlated to HCRSV infection.

  14. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces Decrease Hepatitis A Virus and Human Norovirus Surrogate Titers.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Snehal S; Dice, Lezlee; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is known to have antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and antimicrobial properties. However, their effects against foodborne viruses are currently unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa against human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at 37 °C over 24 h. Individual viruses (~5 log PFU/ml) were incubated with 40 or 100 mg/ml of aqueous hibiscus extract (HE; pH 3.6), protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3 or 6 mg/ml, pH 3.6), ferulic acid (FA; 0.5 or 1 mg/ml; pH 4.0), malic acid (10 mM; pH 3.0), or phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Each treatment was replicated thrice and plaque assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 titers were reduced to undetectable levels after 15 min with both 40 and 100 mg/ml HE. MNV-1 was reduced by 1.77 ± 0.10 and 1.88 ± 0.12 log PFU/ml after 6 h with 40 and 100 mg/ml HE, respectively, and to undetectable levels after 24 h by both concentrations. HAV was reduced to undetectable levels by both HE concentrations after 24 h. PCA at 3 mg/ml reduced FCV-F9 titers to undetectable levels after 6 h, MNV-1 by 0.53 ± 0.01 log PFU/ml after 6 h, and caused no significant change in HAV titers. FA reduced FCV-F9 to undetectable levels after 3 h and MNV-1 and HAV after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopy showed no conclusive results. The findings suggest that H. sabdariffa extracts have potential to prevent foodborne viral transmission.

  15. Plant Growth Retardation and Conserved miRNAs Are Correlated to Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruimin; Wan, Zi Yi; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    Virus infection may cause a multiplicity of symptoms in their host including discoloration, distortion and growth retardation. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) infection was studied using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a non-wood fiber-producing crop in this study. Infection by HCRSV reduced the fiber yield and concomitant economic value of kenaf. We investigated kenaf growth retardation and fluctuations of four selected miRNAs after HCRSV infection. Vegetative growth (including plant height, leaf size and root development) was severely retarded. From the transverse and radial sections of the mock and HCRSV-infected kenaf stem, the vascular bundles of HCRSV-infected plants were severely disrupted. In addition, four conserved plant developmental and defence related microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR165, miR167, miR168 and miR171) and their respective target genes phabulosa (PHB), auxin response factor 8 (ARF8), argonaute 1 (AGO1) and scarecrow-like protein 1 (SCL1) displayed variation in expression levels after HCRSV infection. Compared with the mock inoculated kenaf plants, miR171 and miR168 and their targets SCL1 and AGO1 showed greater fluctuations after HCRSV infection. As HCRSV upregulates plant SO transcript in kenaf and upregulated AGO1 in HCRSV-infected plants, the expression level of AGO1 transcript was further investigated under sulfite oxidase (SO) overexpression or silencing condition. Interestingly, the four selected miRNAs were also up- or down-regulated upon overexpression or silencing of SO. Plant growth retardation and fluctuation of four conserved miRNAs are correlated to HCRSV infection. PMID:24386476

  16. Enhancing NAD+ salvage metabolism is neuroprotective in a PINK1 model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Susann; Loh, Samantha H. Y.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) caused by mutations in PINK1 are linked to mitochondrial impairment. Defective mitochondria are also found in Drosophila models of PD with pink1 mutations. The co-enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is essential for both generating energy in mitochondria and nuclear DNA repair through NAD+-consuming poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). We found alterations in NAD+ salvage metabolism in Drosophila pink1 mutants and showed that a diet supplemented with the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide rescued mitochondrial defects and protected neurons from degeneration. Additionally, a mutation of Parp improved mitochondrial function and was neuroprotective in the pink1 mutants. We conclude that enhancing the availability of NAD+ by either the use of a diet supplemented with NAD+ precursors or the inhibition of NAD+-dependent enzymes, such as PARPs, which compete with mitochondria for NAD+, is a viable approach to preventing neurotoxicity associated with mitochondrial defects. PMID:28011627

  17. Women are more likely to wear red or pink at peak fertility.

    PubMed

    Beall, Alec T; Tracy, Jessica L

    2013-09-01

    Although females of many species closely related to humans signal their fertile window in an observable manner, often involving red or pink coloration, no such display has been found for humans. Building on evidence that men are sexually attracted to women wearing or surrounded by red, we tested whether women show a behavioral tendency toward wearing reddish clothing when at peak fertility. Across two samples (N = 124), women at high conception risk were more than 3 times more likely to wear a red or pink shirt than were women at low conception risk, and 77% of women who wore red or pink were found to be at high, rather than low, risk. Conception risk had no effect on the prevalence of any other shirt color. Our results thus suggest that red and pink adornment in women is reliably associated with fertility and that female ovulation, long assumed to be hidden, is associated with a salient visual cue.

  18. Insights into the genetics and molecular mechanisms of pink bollworm resistance to Cry toxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) toxins target key insect pests in cotton and corn cropping systems. The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is currently the target of an area-wide eradication progra...

  19. The genetic properties of the primary endosymbionts of mealybugs differ from those of other endosymbionts of plant sap-sucking insects.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Linda; Thao, MyLo Ly; Hess, Justin M; Johnson, Marshall W; Baumann, Paul

    2002-07-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae), like aphids and psyllids, are plant sap-sucking insects that have an obligate association with prokaryotic endosymbionts that are acquired through vertical, maternal transmission. We sequenced two fragments of the genome of Tremblaya princeps, the endosymbiont of mealybugs, which is a member of the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Each of the fragments (35 and 30 kb) contains a copy of 16S-23S-5S rRNA genes. A total of 37 open reading frames were detected, which corresponded to putative rRNA proteins, chaperones, and enzymes of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis, DNA replication, protein translation, and RNA synthesis. The genome of T. princeps has a number of properties that distinguish it from the genomes of Buchnera aphidicola and Carsonella ruddii, the endosymbionts of aphids and psyllids, respectively. Among these properties are a high G+C content (57.1 mol%), the same G+C content in intergenic spaces and structural genes, and similar G+C contents of the genes encoding highly and poorly conserved proteins. The high G+C content has a substantial effect on protein composition; about one-third of the residues consist of four amino acids with high-G+C-content codons. Sequence analysis of DNA fragments containing the rRNA operon and adjacent regions from endosymbionts of several mealybug species suggested that there was a single duplication of the rRNA operon and the adjacent genes in an ancestor of the present T. princeps. Subsequently, in one mealybug lineage rpS15, one of the duplicated genes, was retained, while in another lineage it decayed. These results extend the diversity of the types of endosymbiotic associations found in plant sap-sucking insects.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of the hyperthermophilic pink filament community in Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Reysenbach, A.L.; Wickham, G.S.; Pace, N.R.

    1994-06-01

    This study uses a molecular phylogenetic approach to characterize the pink filament community at the outflow of Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park. The temperature range of the spring is from 84 to 88 C. The authors show that the pink filaments are most closely related to the hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus and a close relative Hydrogenobacter thermophilus. 38 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Technique to Match Gingival Shade when Using Pink Ceramics for Anterior Fixed Implant Prostheses.

    PubMed

    Papaspyridakos, Panos; Amin, Sarah; El-Rafie, Khaled; Weber, Hans-Peter

    2016-04-01

    Use of pink gingival ceramics can reduce the necessity for extensive surgical procedures attempting to restore missing soft and hard tissues in the maxillary esthetic zone. Selecting the appropriate shade for pink porcelain poses a challenge, especially when the patient presents with a high smile line. This paper describes a simple and effective technique to facilitate shade selection for gingival ceramics to match the patient's existing gingival shade.

  2. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America.

    PubMed

    Malick, Michael J; Cox, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time.

  3. Expression of PINK1 in the brain, eye and ear of mouse during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    d'Amora, Marta; Angelini, Cristiano; Marcoli, Manuela; Cervetto, Chiara; Kitada, Tohru; Vallarino, Mauro

    2011-03-01

    PINK1 is a 581 amino acid protein with a serine/threonine kinase domain and an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting motif. The enzyme is expressed in the brain as well as in several tissues such as heart, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, pancreas and testis. In the present study, we have investigated by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry the presence and distribution of PINK1 in the brain, eye and inner ear of mouse during embryonic development. In the brain we detected two PINK1 molecular isoforms of 55 kDa and 66 kDa. Immunoreactive perikarya first appeared at stage E15 in the diencephalon within the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the periventricular layers of the third ventricle and in the rhombencephalon at level of the pons. Subsequently, new PINK1-positive neurons were found in the midbrain within the floor and the periventricular layers of the ventral wall of the mesencephalic vesicle (stage E17) as well as in the neopallial cortex, the tegmentum of the midbrain and the periventricular region of the caudal part of the rhombencephalon (stage E19). At P0, PINK1-immunoreactive cells appeared in the striatum, the mantle layer and caudal part of the medulla oblongata and the cerebellum. The spatio-temporal expression of PINK1 and its heterogeneous distribution suggest that the enzyme might be involved in neuroregulatory processes during embryogenesis. In the eye, PINK1-immunoreactivity was found in the lens and in the cornea, whereas in the inner ear the enzyme was expressed in the ependymal and subependymal cells of the saccule and in the semicircular canals indicating that PINK1 plays a role in the development of these sensory organs.

  4. Regional-Scale Declines in Productivity of Pink and Chum Salmon Stocks in Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Malick, Michael J.; Cox, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) stocks throughout the southern part of their North American range have experienced declines in productivity over the past two decades. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon stocks have also experienced recent declines in productivity by investigating temporal and spatial trends in productivity of 99 wild North American pink and chum salmon stocks. We used a combination of population dynamics and time series models to quantify individual stock trends as well as common temporal trends in pink and chum salmon productivity across local, regional, and continental spatial scales. Our results indicated widespread declines in productivity of wild chum salmon stocks throughout Washington (WA) and British Columbia (BC) with 81% of stocks showing recent declines in productivity, although the exact form of the trends varied among regions. For pink salmon, the majority of stocks in WA and BC (65%) did not have strong temporal trends in productivity; however, all stocks that did have trends in productivity showed declining productivity since at least brood year 1996. We found weaker evidence of widespread declines in productivity for Alaska pink and chum salmon, with some regions and stocks showing declines in productivity (e.g., Kodiak chum salmon stocks) and others showing increases (e.g., Alaska Peninsula pink salmon stocks). We also found strong positive covariation between stock productivity series at the regional spatial scale for both pink and chum salmon, along with evidence that this regional-scale positive covariation has become stronger since the early 1990s in WA and BC. In general, our results suggest that common processes operating at the regional or multi-regional spatial scales drive productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in western North America and that the effects of these process on productivity may change over time. PMID:26760510

  5. Antioxidant and DNA damage protective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts from Hibiscus and Ocimum: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Biswatrish; Kumar, Dhananjay; Sasmal, Dinakar; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin extracts (AEs) from Ocimum tenuiflorum (leaf), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (petal) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (calyx) were investigated and compared for in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) of the AEs were determined and the major anthocyanins were characterised. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, 2-deoxy-D-ribose degradation assay and lipid peroxidation assay. The protective property of the AEs was also examined against oxidative DNA damage by H2O2 and UV using pUC19 plasmid. All the AEs particularly those from O. tenuiflorum demonstrated efficient antioxidant activity and protected DNA from damage. Strong correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC was observed. Significant correlation between antioxidant capacity and TPC and TAC ascertained that phenolics and anthocyanins were the major contributors of antioxidant activity.

  6. Characterization of PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) mutations associated with Parkinson disease in mammalian cells and Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Song, Saera; Jang, Seoyeon; Park, Jeehye; Bang, Sunhoe; Choi, Sekyu; Kwon, Kyum-Yil; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Kim, Eunjoon; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2013-02-22

    Mutations in PINK1 (PTEN-induced putative kinase 1) are tightly linked to autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). Although more than 50 mutations in PINK1 have been discovered, the role of these mutations in PD pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Here, we characterized 17 representative PINK1 pathogenic mutations in both mammalian cells and Drosophila. These mutations did not affect the typical cleavage patterns and subcellular localization of PINK1 under both normal and damaged mitochondria conditions in mammalian cells. However, PINK1 mutations in the kinase domain failed to translocate Parkin to mitochondria and to induce mitochondrial aggregation. Consistent with the mammalian data, Drosophila PINK1 mutants with mutations in the kinase domain (G426D and L464P) did not genetically interact with Parkin. Furthermore, PINK1-null flies expressing the transgenic G426D mutant displayed defective phenotypes with increasing age, whereas L464P mutant-expressing flies exhibited the phenotypes at an earlier age. Collectively, these results strongly support the hypothesis that the kinase activity of PINK1 is essential for its function and for regulating downstream Parkin functions in mitochondria. We believe that this study provides the basis for understanding the molecular and physiological functions of various PINK1 mutations and provides insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of PINK1-linked PD.

  7. Sustained susceptibility of pink bollworm to Bt cotton in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Morin, Shai; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Yelich, Alex J; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Harpold, Virginia S; Sisterson, Mark S; Ellsworth, Peter C; Dennehy, Timothy J; Antilla, Larry; Liesner, Leighton; Whitlow, Mike; Staten, Robert T; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the benefits of transgenic crops that produce toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for insect control. One of the world's most important cotton pests, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), has been targeted for control by transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac in several countries for more than a decade. In China, the frequency of resistance to Cry1Ac has increased, but control failures have not been reported. In western India, pink bollworm resistance to Cry1Ac has caused widespread control failures of Bt cotton. By contrast, in the state of Arizona in the southwestern United States, monitoring data from bioassays and DNA screening demonstrate sustained susceptibility to Cry1Ac for 16 y. From 1996-2005, the main factors that delayed resistance in Arizona appear to be abundant refuges of non-Bt cotton, recessive inheritance of resistance, fitness costs associated with resistance and incomplete resistance. From 2006-2011, refuge abundance was greatly reduced in Arizona, while mass releases of sterile pink bollworm moths were made to delay resistance as part of a multi-tactic eradication program. Sustained susceptibility of pink bollworm to Bt cotton in Arizona has provided a cornerstone for the pink bollworm eradication program and for integrated pest management in cotton. Reduced insecticide use against pink bollworm and other cotton pests has yielded economic benefits for growers, as well as broad environmental and health benefits. We encourage increased efforts to combine Bt crops with other tactics in integrated pest management programs.

  8. Pink discoloration of canned pears: role of procyanidin chemical depolymerization and procyanidin/cell wall interactions.

    PubMed

    Le Bourvellec, Carine; Gouble, Barbara; Bureau, Sylvie; Loonis, Michèle; Plé, Yves; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2013-07-10

    After canning, pear pieces turn occasionally from whitish-beige to pink. Conditions were set up to obtain this discoloration systematically and investigate its mechanism. Canned pears showed a significantly lower L* coordinate compared with fresh pears, and the L* coordinate of canned pears decreased with decreasing pH. The values of the a* and b* coordinates increased significantly after processing, the increase being greater for the more acidic pH values, with corresponding redder colors. After canning, polyphenol concentrations decreased significantly, mainly due to loss of procyanidins. This supported the hypothesis of conversion of procyanidins to anthocyanin-like compounds. However, no soluble product was detected at 520 nm, the characteristic wavelength of anthocyanins. When purified procyanidins were treated at 95 °C at three different pH values (2.7, 3.3, and 4.0), procyanidin concentrations decreased after treatment, the more so as the pH was lower, and a pinkish color also appeared, attributed to tannin-anthocyanidin pigment. The pink color was bound to cell walls. Extraction of the neoformed pink entities was attempted by successive solvent extractions followed by cell wall degrading enzymes. The pink color persisted in the residues, and canned pears gave significantly higher amounts of residues after solvent and enzyme treatments than fresh pears. Procyanidins were the entities responsible for the appearance of pink discoloration. However, it seems that this pink discoloration also involved the formation of strong, probably covalent, bonds to the cell wall.

  9. PINK1 in the limelight: multiple functions of an eclectic protein in human health and disease.

    PubMed

    Arena, Giuseppe; Valente, Enza Maria

    2017-01-01

    The gene PINK1 [phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1] encodes a serine/threonine kinase which was initially linked to the pathogenesis of a familial form of Parkinson's disease. Research on PINK1 has recently unravelled that its multiple functions extend well beyond neuroprotection, implicating this eclectic protein in a growing number of human pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, cardiopulmonary dysfunctions, and inflammation. Extensive studies have identified PINK1 as a crucial player in the mitochondrial quality control pathway, required to label damaged mitochondria and promote their elimination through an autophagic process (mitophagy). Mounting evidence now indicates that PINK1 activities are not restricted solely to mitophagy, and that different subcellular and even sub-mitochondrial pools of PINK1 are involved in distinct signalling cascades to regulate cell metabolism and survival. In this review, we provide a concise overview on the different functions of PINK1 and their potential role in human diseases. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The acute impact of polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa in metabolic homeostasis: an approach combining metabolomics and gene-expression analyses.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Senan-Campos, Oriol; Massucci, Francesco A; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Guimerà, Roger; Camps, Jordi; Menendez, Javier A; Joven, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    We explored the acute multifunctional effects of polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa in humans to assess possible consequences on the host's health. The expected dynamic response was studied using a combination of transcriptomics and metabolomics to integrate specific functional pathways through network-based methods and to generate hypotheses established by acute metabolic effects and/or modifications in the expression of relevant genes. Data were obtained from healthy male volunteers after 3 hours of ingestion of an aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa extract. The data were compared with data obtained prior to the ingestion, and the overall findings suggest that these particular polyphenols had a simultaneous role in mitochondrial function, energy homeostasis and protection of the cardiovascular system. These findings suggest beneficial actions in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidation, which are interrelated mechanisms. Among other effects, the activation of the heme oxygenase-biliverdin reductase axis, the systemic inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system, the inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme, and several actions mirroring those of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists further support this notion. We also found concordant findings in the serum of the participants, which include a decrease in cortisol levels and a significant increase in the active vasodilator metabolite of bradykinin (des-Arg(9)-bradykinin). Therefore, our data support the view that polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa play a regulatory role in metabolic health and in the maintenance of blood pressure, thus implying a multi-faceted impact in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  11. High antiviral effects of hibiscus tea extract on the H5 subtypes of low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    BAATARTSOGT, Tugsbaatar; BUI, Vuong N.; TRINH, Dai Q.; YAMAGUCHI, Emi; GRONSANG, Dulyatad; THAMPAISARN, Rapeewan; OGAWA, Haruko; IMAI, Kunitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors are widely used as synthetic anti-influenza drugs for the prevention and treatment of influenza. However, drug-resistant influenza A virus variants, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), have been reported. Therefore, the discovery of novel and effective antiviral agents is warranted. We screened the antiviral effects of 11 herbal tea extracts (hibiscus, black tea, tencha, rosehip tea, burdock tea, green tea, jasmine tea, ginger tea, lavender tea, rose tea and oak tea) against the H5N1 HPAIV in vitro. Among the tested extracts, only the hibiscus extract and its fractionated extract (frHibis) highly and rapidly reduced the titers of all H5 HPAIVs and low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) used in the pre-treatment tests of Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were inoculated with a mixture of the virus and the extract. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that anti-H5 monoclonal antibodies could not bind to the deformed H5 virus particles pretreated with frHibis. In post-treatment tests of MDCK cells cultured in the presence of frHibis after infection with H5N1 HPAIV, the frHibis inhibited viral replication and the expression of viral antigens and genes. Among the plants tested, hibiscus showed the most prominent antiviral effects against both H5 HPAIV and LPAIV. PMID:27193820

  12. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calices on Dyslipidemia in Obese Adolescents: A Triple-masked Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Ataei, Ehsan; Kelishadi, Roya; Ghannadi, Alireza; Soltani, Rasool; Badri, Shirinsadat; Shirani, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Objective We aimed to evaluate the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) calices on controlling dyslipidemia in obese adolescents. Methodology In this triple blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial which was registered in the Iranian registry for clinical trials (IRCT201109122306N2), 90 obese adolescents aged 12-18 years with documented dyslipidemia were randomly assigned in two groups of cases who received 2 grams of fine powdered calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa per day for one month and controls who received placebo powder with the same dietary and physical activity recommendations and duration of exposure. Full lipid profile and fasting blood sugar measured before and after the trial. Data were analyzed using multivariate general linear model. Findings Overall, 72 participants (mean age of 14.21±1.6, 35 boys) completed the trial. The two arms of the study (cases and controls) were not statistically different in terms of age, gender, weight, body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile before the trial. Serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and serum triglyceride showed a significant decrease in cases group but high density lipoprotein cholesterol level was not changed significantly. Conclusion It is concluded that Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces powder may have significant positive effects on lipid profile of adolescents which maybe attributed to its polyphenolic and antioxidant content. Further studies are needed on dose-response and formulation optimization. PMID:24082826

  13. High antiviral effects of hibiscus tea extract on the H5 subtypes of low and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Baatartsogt, Tugsbaatar; Bui, Vuong N; Trinh, Dai Q; Yamaguchi, Emi; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Thampaisarn, Rapeewan; Ogawa, Haruko; Imai, Kunitoshi

    2016-10-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors are widely used as synthetic anti-influenza drugs for the prevention and treatment of influenza. However, drug-resistant influenza A virus variants, including H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs), have been reported. Therefore, the discovery of novel and effective antiviral agents is warranted. We screened the antiviral effects of 11 herbal tea extracts (hibiscus, black tea, tencha, rosehip tea, burdock tea, green tea, jasmine tea, ginger tea, lavender tea, rose tea and oak tea) against the H5N1 HPAIV in vitro. Among the tested extracts, only the hibiscus extract and its fractionated extract (frHibis) highly and rapidly reduced the titers of all H5 HPAIVs and low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) used in the pre-treatment tests of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were inoculated with a mixture of the virus and the extract. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that anti-H5 monoclonal antibodies could not bind to the deformed H5 virus particles pretreated with frHibis. In post-treatment tests of MDCK cells cultured in the presence of frHibis after infection with H5N1 HPAIV, the frHibis inhibited viral replication and the expression of viral antigens and genes. Among the plants tested, hibiscus showed the most prominent antiviral effects against both H5 HPAIV and LPAIV.

  14. Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. Petals Modulates Glycogen Metabolism and Glucose Homeostasis Signalling Pathway in Streptozotocin-Induced Experimental Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Sneha S; Mini, S

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is becoming more and more serious and reaches epidemic proportions worldwide. Scientific research is constantly looking for new agents that could be used as dietary functional ingredients in the fight against diabetes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. petals on experimental diabetes at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight and it was compared with standard anti-diabetic drug metformin. The elevated levels of serum glucose (398.56 ± 35.78) and glycated haemoglobin (12.89 ± 1.89) in diabetic rats were significantly decreased (156.89 ± 14.45 and 6.12 ± 0.49, respectively) by Hibiscus rosa sinensis petals (EHRS) administration. Hepatotoxicity marker enzyme levels in serum were normalized. The fraction supplementation restored the glycogen content by regulating the activities of glycogen metabolizing enzymes. It significantly modulated the expressions of marker genes involved in glucose homeostasis signalling pathway. Histopathological analysis of liver and pancreas supported our findings. The overall effect was comparable with metformin. Hence, our study reveals the role of hibiscus petals for alleviation of diabetes complications, thus it can be propagated as a nutraceutical agent.

  15. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp.

    PubMed

    Luz, Roger B; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B; Soliman, Mayra C; Souza, Fernanda G; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D; Spilki, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems.

  16. New biosynthetic pathway for pink pigments from uncultured oceanic viruses.

    PubMed

    Ledermann, Benjamin; Béjà, Oded; Frankenberg-Dinkel, Nicole

    2016-12-01

    The pink open-chain tetrapyrrole pigment phycoerythrobilin (PEB) is employed by marine cyanobacteria, red algae and cryptophytes as a light-harvesting chromophore in phycobiliproteins. Genes encoding biosynthesis proteins for PEB have also been discovered in cyanophages, viruses that infect cyanobacteria, and mimic host pigment biosynthesis with the exception of PebS which combines the enzymatic activities of two host enzymes. In this study, we have identified novel members of the PEB biosynthetic enzyme families, heme oxygenases and ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductases. Encoding genes were found in metagenomic datasets and could be traced back to bacteriophage but not cyanophage origin. While the heme oxygenase exhibited standard activity, a new bilin reductase with highest homology to the teal pigment producing enzyme PcyA revealed PEB biosynthetic activity. Although PcyX possesses PebS-like activity both enzymes share only 9% sequence identity and likely catalyze the reaction via two independent mechanisms. Our data point towards the presence of phycobilin biosynthetic genes in phages that probably infect alphaproteobacteria and, therefore, further support a role of phycobilins outside oxygenic phototrophs.

  17. Mitochondrial morphogenesis, distribution, and Parkinson disease: insights from PINK1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufeng; Lu, Bingwei

    2009-09-01

    The etiology of Parkinson disease (PD) has been assumed to be a complex combination of environmental factors, intrinsic cellular metabolic properties, and susceptible genetic alleles. The primary obstacles to the development of a neuroprotective therapy in PD include uncertainties with regard to the precise cause(s) of neuronal dysfunction and what to target. The discoveries of Mendelian genes associated with inherited forms of PD in the last 10 years have revolutionized the understanding of the cellular pathways leading to neuronal dysfunction. Common themes of the pathogenesis of PD are beginning to emerge with mitochondrial dysfunction at the center stage. In this review, we summarize our knowledge of the pathogenesis of PD, revisit some aspects of mitochondrial biology, and discuss the insights from the study of Pink1, a familial PD-associated gene. We propose that mitochondrial morphogenesis and distribution might be a novel and potential common paradigm for PD and other neurodegenerative disease research and that modulation of such mitochondrial processes may prove to be a valuable therapeutic avenue for PD.

  18. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Roger B.; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B.; Soliman, Mayra C.; Souza, Fernanda G.; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V.; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S.; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D.; Spilki, Fernando R.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  19. Mitochondrial Morphogenesis, Distribution, and Parkinson Disease: Insights From PINK1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yufeng; Lu, Bingwei

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of Parkinson disease (PD) has been assumed to be a complex combination of environmental factors, intrinsic cellular metabolic properties, and susceptible genetic alleles. The primary obstacles to the development of a neuroprotective therapy in PD include uncertainties with regard to the precise cause(s) of neuronal dysfunction and what to target. The discoveries of Mendelian genes associated with inherited forms of PD in the last 10 years have revolutionized the understanding of the cellular pathways leading to neuronal dysfunction. Common themes of the pathogenesis of PD are beginning to emerge with mitochondrial dysfunction at the center stage. In this review, we summarize our knowledge of the pathogenesis of PD, revisit some aspects of mitochondrial biology, and discuss the insights from the study of Pink1, a familial PD-associated gene. We propose that mitochondrial morphogenesis and distribution might be a novel and potential common paradigm for PD and other neurodegenerative disease research and that modulation of such mitochondrial processes may prove to be a valuable therapeutic avenue for PD. PMID:19680148

  20. Red, Purple and Pink: The Colors of Diffusion on Pinterest

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Saeideh; Gilbert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work—e.g. design of engaging image filters. PMID:25658423

  1. Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups: photographing femininity after breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Regehr, Kaitlyn

    2012-01-01

    Many treatments for breast cancer are traumatic, invasive and harshly visible. In addition to physical trauma, breast cancer is often associated with a variety of psychosocial issues surrounding romantic relationships, sexuality and feminine identity. Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups was a pin-up girl calendar wherein all the models were women who were living with, or had survived, breast cancer. The project's purpose was to raise funds and awareness for breast cancer research and to create a space where survivors could explore and express their post-cancer sexuality. This study uses an observational approach, paired with semi-structured interviews, to explore the ways that breast cancer survivors perceive their post-cancer body and the subsequent impact on relationships and feminine identity. By examining contemporary discussions regarding breast cancer, body image and the objectification of women, it is concluded that although this photographic approach may be at odds with some modern breast cancer activism, it does appear to meet the expressed needs of a particular group of women living with the disease.

  2. Fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector combined with similarity analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis methods

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xianrui; Ma, Meiling; Su, Weike

    2013-01-01

    Background: A method for chemical fingerprint analysis of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves was developed based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PAD) combined with similarity analysis (SA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). Materials and Methods: 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples were collected from different regions of China. UPLC-PAD was employed to collect chemical fingerprints of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Results: The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the relative retention times (RRT) and relative peak areas (RPA) of 10 characteristic peaks (one of them was identified as rutin) in precision, repeatability and stability test were less than 3%, and the method of fingerprint analysis was validated to be suitable for the Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves. Conclusions: The chromatographic fingerprints showed abundant diversity of chemical constituents qualitatively in the 10 batches of Hibiscus mutabilis L. leaves samples from different locations by similarity analysis on basis of calculating the correlation coefficients between each two fingerprints. Moreover, the HCA method clustered the samples into four classes, and the HCA dendrogram showed the close or distant relations among the 10 samples, which was consistent to the SA result to some extent. PMID:23930008

  3. Clearance of Damaged Mitochondria Through PINK1 Stabilization by JNK and ERK MAPK Signaling in Chlorpyrifos-Treated Neuroblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Ko, Juyeon; Park, Yun Sun; Park, Jungyun; Hwang, Jungwook; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2017-04-01

    Mitochondrial quality control and clearance of damaged mitochondria through mitophagy are important cellular activities. Studies have shown that PTEN-induced putative protein kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin play central roles in triggering mitophagy; however, little is known regarding the mechanism by which PINK1 modulates mitophagy in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced stress. In this study, chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced ROS caused mitochondrial damage and subsequent engulfing of mitochondria in double-membrane autophagic vesicles, indicating that clearance of damaged mitochondria is due to mitophagy. CPF treatment resulted in PINK1 stabilization on the outer mitochondrial membrane and subsequently increased Parkin recruitment from the cytosol to the abnormal mitochondria. We found that PINK1 physically interacts with Parkin in the mitochondria of CPF-treated cells. Furthermore, a knockdown of PINK1 strongly inhibited the LC3-II protein level by blocking Parkin recruitment. This indicates that CPF-induced mitophagy is due to PINK1 stabilization in mitochondria. We observed that PINK1 stabilization was selectively regulated by ROS-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling activation but not p38 signaling. In the mitochondria of CPF-exposed cells, pretreatment with specific inhibitors of JNK and ERK1/2 significantly decreased PINK1 stabilization and Parkin recruitment and blocked the LC3-II protein level. Specifically, JNK and ERK1/2 inhibition also dramatically blocked the interaction between PINK1 and Parkin. Our results demonstrated that PINK1 regulation plays a critical role in CPF-induced mitophagy. The simple interpretation of these results is that JNK and ERK1/2 signaling regulates PINK1/Parkin-dependent mitophagy in the mitochondria of CPF-treated cells. Overall, this study proposes a novel molecular regulatory mechanism of PINK1 stabilization under CPF exposure.

  4. Migratory routes and at-sea threats to Pink-footed Shearwaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Josh; Felis, Jonathan J.; Hodum, Peter; Colodro, Valentina; Carle, Ryan; López, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    The Pink-footed Shearwater (Ardenna creatopus) is a seabird with a breeding range restricted to three islands in Chile and an estimated world population of approximately 56,000 breeding individuals (Muñoz 2011, Oikonos unpublished data). Due to multiple threats on breeding colonies and at-sea, Pink-footed Shearwaters are listed as Endangered by the government of Chile (Reglamento de Clasificación de Especies, 2011), Threatened by the government of Canada (Environment Canada 2008), and are listed under Appendix 1 of the Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP 2013). A principal conservation concern for the species is mortality from fisheries bycatch during the breeding and non-breeding seasons; thus, identification of areas of overlap between at-sea use by Pink-footed Shearwaters and fisheries is a high priority conservation objective (Hinojosa Sáez and Hodum 1997, Mangel et al. 2013, ACAP 2013). During the non-breeding period, Pink-footed Shearwaters range as far north as Canada, although little was known until recently about migration routes and important wintering areas where fisheries bycatch could be a risk. Additionally, Pink-footed Shearwaters face at-sea threats during the non-breeding season off the west coast of North America. Recently, areas used by wintering Pink-footed Shearwaters have been identified as areas of interest for developing alternative energy offshore in North America (e.g., floating wind generators; Trident Winds 2016). The goal of our study was to track Pink-footed Shearwater post-breeding movements with satellite tags to identify timing and routes of migration, locate important non-breeding foraging habitats, and determine population distribution among different wintering regions.

  5. The three 'P's of mitophagy: PARKIN, PINK1, and post-translational modifications.

    PubMed

    Durcan, Thomas M; Fon, Edward A

    2015-05-15

    Two Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated proteins, the mitochondrial kinase PINK1 and the E3-ubiquitin (Ub) ligase PARKIN, are central to mitochondrial quality control. In this pathway, PINK1 accumulates on defective mitochondria, eliciting the translocation of PARKIN from the cytosol to mediate the clearance of damaged mitochondria via autophagy (mitophagy). Throughout the different stages of mitophagy, post-translational modifications (PTMs) are critical for the regulation of PINK1 and PARKIN activity and function. Indeed, activation and recruitment of PARKIN onto damaged mitochondria involves PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of both PARKIN and Ub. Through a stepwise cascade, PARKIN is converted from an autoinhibited enzyme into an active phospho-Ub-dependent E3 ligase. Upon activation, PARKIN ubiquitinates itself in concert with many different mitochondrial substrates. The Ub conjugates attached to these substrates can in turn be phosphorylated by PINK1, which triggers further cycles of PARKIN recruitment and activation. This feed-forward amplification loop regulates both PARKIN activity and mitophagy. However, the precise steps and sequence of PTMs in this cascade are only now being uncovered. For instance, the Ub conjugates assembled by PARKIN consist predominantly of noncanonical K6-linked Ub chains. Moreover, these modifications are reversible and can be disassembled by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), including Ub-specific protease 8 (USP8), USP15, and USP30. However, PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Ub can impede the activity of these DUBs, adding a new layer of complexity to the regulation of PARKIN-mediated mitophagy by PTMs. It is therefore evident that further insight into how PTMs regulate the PINK1-PARKIN pathway will be critical for our understanding of mitochondrial quality control.

  6. The consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa dried calyx ethanolic extract reduced lipid profile in rats.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma; Orta-Flores, Zaida; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Nolasco-Hipólito, Cirilo; Angulo-Guerrero, Ofelia; Sánchez-Ricaño, Ramón; Infanzón, Rosa M; Trujillo, Patricia R L

    2005-12-01

    The scientific basis for the statement that plants and their active constituents play an important role in the prevention of chronic and degenerative diseases is continously advancing. The object of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanolic extract on the serum lipid profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed during 4 weeks with either a basal diet, containing high cholesterol (1%), cholic acid (0.25%), lard oil (10%), or a supplemental diet with H. sabdariffa extract at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels (SD(5), SD(10), SD(15)). Weight gain and faeces dry weight were both very significantly less (p hibiscus acid racemization, (+)-HCA to (-)-HCA, mediated by intestinal flora enzymes possibly explains the significant triacylglycerol decrease in all experimental groups. VLDL, the precursor of LDL, is composed predominantly of triacylglycerols, suggesting that the significant decrease in LDL is related to observed triacylglycerol synthesis inhibition. Five percent H. sabdariffa extract addition showed the best results in the reduction of serum lipids under study conditions.

  7. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Pink salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Bonar, S.A.; Pauley, G.B.; Thomas, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The pink salmon, often called humpback salmon or humpy, is easily identified by its extremely small scales (150 to 205) on the lateral line. They are the most abundant of the Pacific salmon species and spawn in North American and Asian streams bordering the Pacific and Arctic Oceans. They have a very simple two-year life cycle, which is so invariable that fish running in odd-numbered years are isolated from fish running in even-numbered years so that no gene flow occurs between them. Adults spawn in the fall and the young fry emerge in the spring. The pink salmon is less desirable in commercial and sport catches than most other salmon because of its small size and its soft pale flesh. The Puget Sound region of Washington State is the southern geographic limit of streams supporting major pink salmon runs in the eastern North Pacific. Pink salmon runs are presently only in odd-numbered years in this region. Optimum water temperatures for spawning range from 7.2 to 12.8/degree/C. Productive pink salmon streams have less than 5.0% by volume of fine sediments (less than or equal to0.8 mm). 87 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Ancestry of pink disease (infantile acrodynia) identified as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Shandley, Kerrie; Austin, David W

    2011-01-01

    Pink disease (infantile acrodynia) was especially prevalent in the first half of the 20th century. Primarily attributed to exposure to mercury (Hg) commonly found in teething powders, the condition was developed by approximately 1 in 500 exposed children. The differential risk factor was identified as an idiosyncratic sensitivity to Hg. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have also been postulated to be produced by Hg. Analogous to the pink disease experience, Hg exposure is widespread yet only a fraction of exposed children develop an ASD, suggesting sensitivity to Hg may also be present in children with an ASD. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that individuals with a known hypersensitivity to Hg (pink disease survivors) may be more likely to have descendants with an ASD. Five hundred and twenty-two participants who had previously been diagnosed with pink disease completed a survey on the health outcomes of their descendants. The prevalence rates of ASD and a variety of other clinical conditions diagnosed in childhood (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, Fragile X syndrome, and Down syndrome) were compared to well-established general population prevalence rates. The results showed the prevalence rate of ASD among the grandchildren of pink disease survivors (1 in 22) to be significantly higher than the comparable general population prevalence rate (1 in 160). The results support the hypothesis that Hg sensitivity may be a heritable/genetic risk factor for ASD.

  9. Pink noise: effect on complexity synchronization of brain activity and sleep consolidation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junhong; Liu, Dongdong; Li, Xin; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2012-08-07

    In this study, we hypothesized that steady pink noise is able to change the complexity of brain activities into a characteristic level and it might have significant effect on improving sleep stability. First, we carried out the brain synchronization test in which electroencephalogram (EEG) signals of 6 subjects were recorded. The whole experiment procedure was divided into 5 blocks in the alternative feeding process of 10-min quiet and 10-min noise. After the complexity analysis of fractal dimension, we found that the complexity of the EEG signals decreased with the introduction of the pink noise exposure, showing the brain waves tended to synchronize with the pink noise induction to reach a low level. For the sleep quality experiment, 40 subjects were recruited the group of nocturnal sleep experiment and 10 participants were chosen for nap test. Each subjects slept for two consecutive experimental periods, of which one is pink noise exposed and the other is quiet. For both nocturnal sleep and nap tests, the results in the noise exposure group showed significant enhancement in the percentage of stable sleep time compared to the control group based on the analysis of electrocardiography (ECG) signal with cardiopulmonary coupling approach. This study demonstrates that steady pink noise has significant effect on reducing brain wave complexity and inducing more stable sleep time to improve sleep quality of individuals.

  10. Formation of parkin aggregates and enhanced PINK1 accumulation during the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Um, Ji Won; Park, Hyun Jung; Song, Jihwan; Jeon, Iksoo; Lee, Gwang; Lee, Phil Hyu; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2010-03-19

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by a distinct set of motor symptoms. Loss-of-function mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) or parkin have been linked to early-onset autosomal recessive forms of familial PD. We have recently shown that parkin (an E3 ubiquitin ligase) and PINK1 (a serine/threonine kinase) affect one other's stability, solubility, and tendency to form cytoprotective aggresomes (Um et al., 2009). Here we validated the functional relevance of this mutual interaction under pathologic PD conditions, by investigating the changes of expression and solubility of these factors in response to PD-linked toxins. Consistent with our previous cell culture data, exposure of human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to PD-linked toxins (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion, 6-hydroxydopamine, or MG132) reduced Nonidet P-40-soluble parkin levels and induced PINK1 accumulation. Consistent with our previous findings from parkin knockout mice, rat models of PD (6-hydroxydopamine-, rotenone-, or MG132-induced PD) were also associated with an increase in soluble and insoluble PINK1 levels as well as enhanced formation of parkin aggregates. These findings suggest that both PINK1 and parkin play important roles in regulating the formation of Lewy bodies during the pathogenesis of sporadic and familial PD.

  11. The power of pink: cause-related marketing and the impact on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jennifer A; Strahilevitz, Michal A

    2009-01-01

    The pink ribbon is one of the most widely recognized symbols in the United States. It can symbolize strength, hope, responsibility, empathy, and permission to discuss breast cancer, though not all associations are uniformly positive. Cause-related marketing is an agreement between nonprofit and for-profit organizations to promote a product that provides benefit for the cause through increasing awareness and financial contributions from sales. For-profit organizations benefit through the association of the positive ideology of the pink ribbon. The relationship between the organizations should be mutually beneficial; the percentage of funds donated should be reasonable, and the organizations that benefit should be respected institutions. Many breast cancer organizations have obtained significant benefit from corporate partnerships in cause-related marketing. Certainly, breast cancer awareness is much stronger now than 15 years ago. However, not all products are appropriate for promotion, particularly products that may increase the risk for breast cancer, such as alcohol. No corporation is licensed to have exclusive use of the pink ribbon symbol, leaving it open to potential abuse. Backlash by consumers has raised awareness of the misuse of the pink ribbon and cause-related marketing. As marketing becomes more global, the impact of the pink ribbon in the third world may spur open dialogue and reduce the taboo associated with breast cancer observed in some cultures.

  12. The PINK1-Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeehye; Lee, Gina; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2009-01-16

    The two Parkinson's disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated its physiological function in Drosophila. Because Drosophila PINK1 and parkin mutants show changes in mitochondrial morphology in both indirect flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons, we here investigated whether the PINK1-Parkin pathway genetically interacts with the regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission such as Drp1, which promotes mitochondrial fission, and Opa1 or Marf, which induces mitochondrial fusion. Surprisingly, DrosophilaPINK1 and parkin mutant phenotypes were markedly suppressed by overexpression of Drp1 or downregulation of Opa1 or Marf, indicating that the PINK1-Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial remodeling process in the direction of promoting mitochondrial fission. Therefore, we strongly suggest that mitochondrial fusion and fission process could be a prominent therapeutic target for the treatment of PD.

  13. The PINK1-Parkin pathway promotes both mitophagy and selective respiratory chain turnover in vivo.

    PubMed

    Vincow, Evelyn S; Merrihew, Gennifer; Thomas, Ruth E; Shulman, Nicholas J; Beyer, Richard P; MacCoss, Michael J; Pallanck, Leo J

    2013-04-16

    The accumulation of damaged mitochondria has been proposed as a key factor in aging and the pathogenesis of many common age-related diseases, including Parkinson disease (PD). Recently, in vitro studies of the PD-related proteins Parkin and PINK1 have found that these factors act in a common pathway to promote the selective autophagic degradation of damaged mitochondria (mitophagy). However, whether Parkin and PINK1 promote mitophagy under normal physiological conditions in vivo is unknown. To address this question, we used a proteomic approach in Drosophila to compare the rates of mitochondrial protein turnover in parkin mutants, PINK1 mutants, and control flies. We found that parkin null mutants showed a significant overall slowing of mitochondrial protein turnover, similar to but less severe than the slowing seen in autophagy-deficient Atg7 mutants, consistent with the model that Parkin acts upstream of Atg7 to promote mitophagy. By contrast, the turnover of many mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) subunits showed greater impairment in parkin than Atg7 mutants, and RC turnover was also selectively impaired in PINK1 mutants. Our findings show that the PINK1-Parkin pathway promotes mitophagy in vivo and, unexpectedly, also promotes selective turnover of mitochondrial RC subunits. Failure to degrade damaged RC proteins could account for the RC deficits seen in many PD patients and may play an important role in PD pathogenesis.

  14. Early Expression of Parkinson's Disease-Related Mitochondrial Abnormalities in PINK1 Knockout Rats.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Lance M; Purnell, Phillip R; Boska, Michael D; Fox, Howard S

    2016-01-01

    PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) mutations are responsible for an autosomal recessive, familial form of Parkinson's disease. PINK1 protein is a Ser/Thr kinase localized to the mitochondrial membrane and is involved in many processes including mitochondrial trafficking, mitophagy, and proteasomal function. Using a new PINK1 knockout (PINK1 KO) rat model, we found altered brain metabolomic markers using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, identified changes in mitochondrial pathways with quantitative proteomics using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra (SWATH) mass spectrometry, and demonstrated mitochondrial functional alterations through measurement of oxygen consumption and acidification rates. The observed alterations included reduced creatine, decreased levels of complex I of the electron transport chain, and increased proton leak in the electron transport chain in PINK1 KO rat brains. In conjunction, these results demonstrate metabolomic and mitochondrial alterations occur during the asymptomatic phase of Parkinson's disease in this model. These results indicate both potential early diagnostic markers and therapeutic pathways that can be used in PD.

  15. Florivores prefer white versus pink petal color morphs in wild radish, Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    McCall, Andrew C; Murphy, Stephen J; Venner, Colin; Brown, Monique

    2013-05-01

    Many hypotheses suggest that pollinators act to maintain or change floral color morph frequencies in nature, although pollinator preferences do not always match color morph frequencies in the field. Therefore, non-pollinating agents may also be responsible for color morph frequencies. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether Raphanus sativus plants with white flowers received different amounts of florivory than plants with pink flowers, and whether florivores preferred one floral color over the other. We found that white-flowered plants received significantly more floral damage than pink-flowered plants in eight populations over 4 years in northern California. Both generalists and specialists on Brassicaceae preferred white petals in choice and short-term no choice tests. In performance tests, generalists gained more weight on white versus pink petals whereas specialists gained similar amounts of weight on pink and white morphs. Because our results suggest that florivores prefer and perform better on white versus pink flowers, these insects may have the opportunity to affect the frequency of color morphs in the field.

  16. Function of α-synuclein and PINK1 in Lewy body dementia (Review).

    PubMed

    Minami, Akari; Nakanishi, Atsuko; Matsuda, Satoru; Kitagishi, Yasuko; Ogura, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    α-Synuclein (α-syn) is the major protein component of Lewy bodies, a key pathological characteristic of the degenerating brain. The misfolding and aggregation of α-syn is associated with both the idiopathic and familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia (LBD). However, the function of α-syn is poorly understood, as it shows both neurotoxic and neuroprotective activities. Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homologue-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) also cause recessively inherited PD. Studies support the notion of neuroprotective roles for PINK1, as it protects cells from damage-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. PINK1 plays an essential role in mitochondrial quality control and its homeostasis is maintained through mitochondrial stabilization. The α-syn aggregation is linked to various aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction and PINK1-related mitophagy. Determination of the molecular pathways that lead to α-syn oligomerization and further aggregation may be the basis for the successful design and development of treatments for these neurodegenerative diseases. The present review summarizes the function of PINK1 underlying α-syn aggregation and the mechanisms through which mitochondrial dysfunction plays a role in this process.

  17. Early hypersynchrony in juvenile PINK1(-)/(-) motor cortex is rescued by antidromic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Carron, Romain; Filipchuk, Anton; Nardou, Romain; Singh, Abhinav; Michel, Francois J; Humphries, Mark D; Hammond, Constance

    2014-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), cortical networks show enhanced synchronized activity but whether this precedes motor signs is unknown. We investigated this question in PINK1(-)/(-) mice, a genetic rodent model of the PARK6 variant of familial PD which shows impaired spontaneous locomotion at 16 months. We used two-photon calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamp in slices from juvenile (P14-P21) wild-type or PINK1(-)/(-) mice. We designed a horizontal tilted cortico-subthalamic slice where the only connection between cortex and subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the hyperdirect cortico-subthalamic pathway. We report excessive correlation and synchronization in PINK1(-)/(-) M1 cortical networks 15 months before motor impairment. The percentage of correlated pairs of neurons and their strength of correlation were higher in the PINK1(-)/(-) M1 than in the wild type network and the synchronized network events involved a higher percentage of neurons. Both features were independent of thalamo-cortical pathways, insensitive to chronic levodopa treatment of pups, but totally reversed by antidromic invasion of M1 pyramidal neurons by axonal spikes evoked by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the STN. Our study describes an early excess of synchronization in the PINK1(-)/(-) cortex and suggests a potential role of antidromic activation of cortical interneurons in network desynchronization. Such backward effect on interneurons activity may be of importance for HFS-induced network desynchronization.

  18. Mitofusin-mediated ER stress triggers neurodegeneration in pink1/parkin models of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Celardo, I; Costa, A C; Lehmann, S; Jones, C; Wood, N; Mencacci, N E; Mallucci, G R; Loh, S H Y; Martins, L M

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in PINK1 and PARKIN cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD), thought to be due to mitochondrial toxicity. Here, we show that in Drosophila pink1 and parkin mutants, defective mitochondria also give rise to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signalling, specifically to the activation of the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We show that enhanced ER stress signalling in pink1 and parkin mutants is mediated by mitofusin bridges, which occur between defective mitochondria and the ER. Reducing mitofusin contacts with the ER is neuroprotective, through suppression of PERK signalling, while mitochondrial dysfunction remains unchanged. Further, both genetic inhibition of dPerk-dependent ER stress signalling and pharmacological inhibition using the PERK inhibitor GSK2606414 were neuroprotective in both pink1 and parkin mutants. We conclude that activation of ER stress by defective mitochondria is neurotoxic in pink1 and parkin flies and that the reduction of this signalling is neuroprotective, independently of defective mitochondria. A video abstract for this article is available online in the supplementary information PMID:27336715

  19. Cardiolipin promotes electron transport between ubiquinone and complex I to rescue PINK1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vos, Melissa; Geens, Ann; Böhm, Claudia; Deaulmerie, Liesbeth; Swerts, Jef; Rossi, Matteo; Craessaerts, Katleen; Leites, Elvira P; Seibler, Philip; Rakovic, Aleksandar; Lohnau, Thora; De Strooper, Bart; Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Morais, Vanessa A; Klein, Christine; Verstreken, Patrik

    2017-03-06

    PINK1 is mutated in Parkinson's disease (PD), and mutations cause mitochondrial defects that include inefficient electron transport between complex I and ubiquinone. Neurodegeneration is also connected to changes in lipid homeostasis, but how these are related to PINK1-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is unknown. Based on an unbiased genetic screen, we found that partial genetic and pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN) suppresses toxicity induced by PINK1 deficiency in flies, mouse cells, patient-derived fibroblasts, and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons. Lower FASN activity in PINK1 mutants decreases palmitate levels and increases the levels of cardiolipin (CL), a mitochondrial inner membrane-specific lipid. Direct supplementation of CL to isolated mitochondria not only rescues the PINK1-induced complex I defects but also rescues the inefficient electron transfer between complex I and ubiquinone in specific mutants. Our data indicate that genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of FASN to increase CL levels bypasses the enzymatic defects at complex I in a PD model.

  20. ATM mediates spermidine-induced mitophagy via PINK1 and Parkin regulation in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yongmei; Qiu, Qian; Gu, Xueyan; Tian, Yihong; Zhang, Yingmei

    2016-04-19

    The ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) protein has recently been proposed to play critical roles in the response to mitochondrial dysfunction by initiating mitophagy. Here, we have used ATM-proficient GM00637 cells and ATM-deficient GM05849 cells to investigate the mitophagic effect of spermidine and to elucidate the role of ATM in spermdine-induced mitophagy. Our results indicate that spermidine induces mitophagy by eliciting mitochondrial depolarization, which triggers the formation of mitophagosomes and mitolysosomes, thereby promoting the accumulation of PINK1 and translocation of Parkin to damaged mitochondria, finally leading to the decreased mitochondrial mass in GM00637 cells. However, in GM05849 cells or GM00637 cells pretreated with the ATM kinase inhibitor KU55933, the expression of full-length PINK1 and the translocation of Parkin are blocked, and the colocalization of Parkin with either LC3 or PINK1 is disrupted. These results suggest that ATM drives the initiation of the mitophagic cascade. Our study demonstrates that spermidine induces mitophagy through ATM-dependent activation of the PINK1/Parkin pathway. These findings underscore the importance of a mitophagy regulatory network of ATM and PINK1/Parkin and elucidate a novel mechanism by which ATM influences spermidine-induced mitophagy.

  1. Pink1 protects cortical neurons from thapsigargin-induced oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Hu, Guo-ku

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis mediates the precise and programmed natural death of neurons and is a physiologically important process in neurogenesis during maturation of the central nervous system. However, premature apoptosis and/or an aberration in apoptosis regulation are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Thus, it is important to identify neuronal pathways/factors controlling apoptosis. Pink1 [phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced kinase 1] is a ubiquitously expressed gene and has been reported to have a physiological role in mitochondrial maintenance, suppressing mitochondrial oxidative stress, fission and autophagy. However, how Pink1 is involved in neuronal survival against oxidative stress remains not well understood. In the present paper, we demonstrate that thapsigargin, a specific irreversible inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium-ATPase, could lead to dramatic oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis by ectopic calcium entry. Importantly, the neuronal toxicity of thapsigargin inhibits antioxidant gene Pink1 expression. Although Pink1 knockdown enhances the neuronal apoptosis by thapsigargin, its overexpression restores it. Our findings have established the neuronal protective role of Pink1 against oxidative stress and afford rationale for developing new strategy to the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25608948

  2. Molecular Characterization of Ferulate 5-Hydroxylase Gene from Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Hwan; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Natarajan, Savithiry; Park, Sang-Un

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a F5H gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Kenaf is a fast-growing dicotyledonous plant valued for its biomass. F5H, a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP84), is a key enzyme for syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The full length of the F5H ortholog was cloned and characterized. The full-length F5H ortholog consists of a 1,557-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 518 amino acids (GenBank Accession number JX524278). The deduced amino acid sequence showed that kenaf F5H had the highest similarity (78%) with that of Populus trichocarpa. Transcriptional analysis of F5H ortholog was conducted using quantitative real-time PCR during the developmental stages of various tissues and in response to various abiotic stresses. The highest transcript level of the F5H ortholog was observed in immature flower tissues and in early stage (6 week-old) of stem tissues, with a certain level of expression in all tissues tested. The highest transcript level of F5H ortholog was observed at the late time points after treatments with NaCl (48 h), wounding (24 h), cold (24 h), abscisic acid (24 h), and methyl jasmonate (24 h). PMID:24204204

  3. Functional properties of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed and its application as bakery product.

    PubMed

    Nyam, Kar-Lin; Leao, Sod-Ying; Tan, Chin-Ping; Long, Kamariah

    2014-12-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed is a valuable food resource as it has an excellent source of dietary fibre. Therefore, this study examined the functional properties of roselle seeds. Replacement of cookie flour with roselle seed powder at levels of 0-30 % was investigated for its effect on functional and nutritional properties of cookies. Among the four formulations cookies, the most preferred by panelists was 20 % roselle seed powder cookie (F3), followed by 10 % roselle seed powder cookie (F2) and 30 % roselle seed powder cookie (F4). The least preferred formulation among all was control cookie (F1). Cookie with 20 % roselle seed powder added showed higher content of total dietary fibre (5.6 g/100 g) as compared with control cookie (0.90 g/100 g). Besides that, cookies incorporated with roselle seed powder exhibited improved antioxidant properties. Thus, roselle seed powder can be used as a dietary fibre source and developed as a functional ingredient in food products.

  4. Preliminary X-ray Data Analysis of Crystalline Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A.; Speir, J; Yuan, Y; Johnson, J; Wong, S

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3Synchrotron .2 A resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 . Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV.

  5. Antibacterial efficiency of the Sudanese Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), a famous beverage from Sudanese folk medicine

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Emad Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant native to tropical Africa and intensively cultivated in Sudan. Its calyces are widely consumed with many uses in Sudanese folk medicine. Materials and Methods: The dried calyces of H. sabdariffa were subjected to soak in 80% v/v methanol to get the methanolic extract, which was tested against five Gram-negative and three Gram-positive referenced bacterial strains using disc diffusion method. Selected bioactive phytochemical compounds were also investigated using qualitative methods. Results: The results of the antibacterial test indicate that the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces contained effective antibacterial agent(s), revealed a considerable zone of inhibition against all tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and it was a competitor to gentamicin and greatly higher than penicillin which showed weak or no effect. Conclusion: The results of current investigation support the folk medicine application of this plant against different microbial ailments and suggest it as a promising source for new antibacterial agents. PMID:27104041

  6. [Using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) to reclaim multi-metal contaminated acidic soil].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Xi; Lu, Huan-Liang; Zhan, Shu-Shun; Deng, Teng-hao-bo; Lin, Qing-Qi; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Yang, Xiu-Hong; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2013-03-01

    A five-year field trial was conducted at the surrounding area of Dabao Mountain Mine to explore the feasibility and availability of using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) , a fiber crop with strong heavy metals tolerance and potential economic value, to reclaim the multi-metal contaminated acidic farmland soil. Different amendments were applied prior to the kenaf planting to evaluate their effects on the soil properties and kenaf growth. After the amendments application, the kenaf could grow well on the heavy metals contaminated soil with the Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As concentrations being 1600, 440, 640, 7. 6, and 850 mg . kg-1, respectively. Among the amendments, dolomite and fly ash had better effects than limestone and organic fertilizer. With the application of dolomite and fly ash, the aboveground dry mass production of kenaf reached 14-15 t . hm-2, which was similar to that on normal soils, and the heavy metal concentrations in the bast fiber and stem of kenaf decreased significantly, as compared with the control. The mass of the bast fiber accounted for 32% -38% of the shoot production, and the extractable heavy metal concentrations in the bast fiber could meet the standard of 'technical specifications of ecological textiles' in China, suggesting that the bast fiber had potential economic value. It was suggested that planting kenaf combining with dolomite/fly ash application could be an effective measure to reclaim the multi-metal contaminated acidic farmland soil.

  7. Effect of ferulic acid from Hibiscus mutabilis on filarial parasite Setaria cervi: molecular and biochemical approaches.

    PubMed

    Saini, Prasanta; Gayen, Prajna; Nayak, Ananya; Kumar, Deepak; Mukherjee, Niladri; Pal, Bikas C; Sinha Babu, Santi P

    2012-12-01

    In the reported work the in vitro activity of a methanolic extract of leaves of Hibiscus mutabilis (Malvaceae) against bovine Setaria cervi worms has been investigated. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to isolation of ferulic acid from ethyl acetate fraction. The crude extract and ferulic acid, the active molecule, showed significant microfilaricidal as well as macrofilaricidal activities against the microfilaria (L(1)) and adult of S. cervi by both a worm motility and MTT reduction assay. The findings thus provide a new lead for development of a filaricidal drug from natural products. To examine the possible mechanism of action of ferulic acid, the involvement of apoptosis in adult worms of S. cervi was investigated. We found extreme cellular disturbances in ferulic acid-treated adult worms characterized by chromatin condensation, in situ DNA fragmentation and nucleosomal DNA laddering. In this work we are reporting for the first time that ferulic acid exerts its antifilarial effect through induction of apoptosis and by downregulating and altering the level of some key antioxidants (GSH, GST and SOD) of the filarial nematode S. cervi. Our results have provided experimental evidence supporting that ferulic acid causes an increased proapoptotic gene expression and decreased expression of anti-apoptotic genes simultaneously with an elevated level of ROS and gradual dose dependent decline of parasitic GSH level. We also observed a gradual dose dependent elevation of GST and SOD activity in the ferulic acid treated worms.

  8. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis. PMID:28197528

  9. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum-alginate blend mucoadhesive beads for controlled glibenclamide release.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Priyanka; Ubaidulla, U; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The utility of isolated okra (Hibiscus esculentus) gum (OG) was evaluated as a potential sustained drug release polymer-blends with sodium alginate in the development of controlled glibenclamide release ionically-gelled beads for oral use. OG was isolated from okra fruits and its solubility, pH, viscosity and moisture content were studied. Glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads were prepared using CaCl2 as cross-linking agent through ionic-gelation technique. These ionically gelled beads showed drug entrapment efficiency of 64.19 ± 2.02 to 91.86 ± 3.24%. The bead sizes were within 1.12 ± 0.11 to 1.28 ± 0.15 mm. These glibenclamide-loaded OG-alginate blend beads exhibited sustained in vitro drug release over a prolonged period of 8 h. The in vitro drug release from these OG-alginate beads were followed controlled-release (zero-order) pattern with super case-II transport mechanism. The beads were also characterized by SEM and FTIR. The swelling and degradation of these beads was influenced by the pH of the test medium. These beads also exhibited good mucoadhesivity with goat intestinal mucosa.

  10. Genome analysis of Hibiscus syriacus provides insights of polyploidization and indeterminate flowering in woody plants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Min; Kim, Seungill; Koo, Namjin; Shin, Ah-Young; Yeom, Seon-In; Seo, Eunyoung; Park, Seong-Jin; Kang, Won-Hee; Kim, Myung-Shin; Park, Jieun; Jang, Insu; Kim, Pan-Gyu; Byeon, Iksu; Kim, Min-Seo; Choi, JinHyuk; Ko, Gunhwan; Hwang, JiHye; Yang, Tae-Jin; Choi, Sang-Bong; Lee, Je Min; Lim, Ki-Byung; Lee, Jungho; Choi, Ik-Young; Park, Beom-Seok; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Choi, Doil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hibiscus syriacus (L.) (rose of Sharon) is one of the most widespread garden shrubs in the world. We report a draft of the H. syriacus genome comprised of a 1.75 Gb assembly that covers 92% of the genome with only 1.7% (33 Mb) gap sequences. Predicted gene modeling detected 87,603 genes, mostly supported by deep RNA sequencing data. To define gene family distribution among relatives of H. syriacus, orthologous gene sets containing 164,660 genes in 21,472 clusters were identified by OrthoMCL analysis of five plant species, including H. syriacus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Gossypium raimondii, Theobroma cacao and Amborella trichopoda. We inferred their evolutionary relationships based on divergence times among Malvaceae plant genes and found that gene families involved in flowering regulation and disease resistance were more highly divergent and expanded in H. syriacus than in its close relatives, G. raimondii (DD) and T. cacao. Clustered gene families and gene collinearity analysis revealed that two recent rounds of whole-genome duplication were followed by diploidization of the H. syriacus genome after speciation. Copy number variation and phylogenetic divergence indicates that WGDs and subsequent diploidization led to unequal duplication and deletion of flowering-related genes in H. syriacus and may affect its unique floral morphology. PMID:28011721

  11. Germination biology of Hibiscus tridactylites in Australia and the implications for weed management

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus tridactylites is a problematic broadleaf weed in many crops in Australia; however, very limited information is available on seed germination biology of Australian populations. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination and emergence of H. tridactylites. Germination was stimulated by seed scarification, suggesting the inhibition of germination in this species is mainly due to the hard seed coat. Germination was not affected by light conditions, suggesting that seeds of this species are not photoblastic. Germination was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (74%) and 35/25 °C (69%) than at 25/15 °C (63%). Moderate salinity and water stress did not inhibit germination of H. tridactylites. Seedling emergence of H. tridactylites was highest (57%) for the seeds buried at a 2 cm depth in the soil; 18% of seedlings emerged from seeds buried at 8 cm but no seedlings emerged below this depth. Soil inversion by tillage to bury weed seeds below their maximum depth of emergence could serve an important tool for managing H. tridactylites. PMID:27174752

  12. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits obesity and fat accumulation, and improves liver steatosis in humans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hong-Chou; Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yeh, Da-Ming; Kao, Erl-Shyh; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is associated with a great diversity of diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Our previous report suggested that Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts (HSE) had a metabolic-regulating and liver-protecting potential. In this study, we performed a clinical trial to further confirm the effect of HSE. Subjects with a BMI ≧ 27 and aged 18-65, were randomly divided into control (n = 17) and HSE-treated (n = 19) groups, respectively, for 12 weeks. Our data showed that consumption of HSE reduced body weight, BMI, body fat and the waist-to-hip ratio. Serum free fatty acid (FFA) was lowered by HSE. Anatomic changes revealed that HSE improved the illness of liver steatosis. Ingestion of HSE was well tolerated and there was no adverse effect during the trial. No alteration was found for serum α-amylase and lipase. The clinical effect should mainly be attributed to the polyphenols of HSE, since composition analysis showed that branched chain-amino acids, which is associated with obesity, is not obviously high. In conclusion, consumption of HSE reduced obesity, abdominal fat, serum FFA and improved liver steatosis. HSE could act as an adjuvant for preventing obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver.

  13. Preliminary X-ray data analysis of crystalline hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ao; Speir, Jeffrey A; Yuan, Y Adam; Johnson, John E; Wong, Sek Man

    2009-06-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3.2 A resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 A. Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV.

  14. Anti-inflammatory activities of essential oil isolated from the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-12

    Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn., belonging to the family of Malvaceae, is considered to be a plant with health care applications in China. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of its essential oil and assess its potential therapeutic effect on anti-inflammatory activity. A water steam distillation method was used to extract the essential oil from H. Sabdariffa. The essential oil components were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and a total of 18 volatile constituents were identified, the majority of which were fatty acids and ester compounds. Biological activity showed that the essential oil extracted from H. Sabdariffa exhibited excellent anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The nitric oxide (NO) inhibition rate reached 67.46% when the concentration of the essential oil was 200 μg mL(-1). Further analysis showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil extracted from H. Sabdariffa might be exerted through inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPK (JNK and ERK1/2) signaling pathways to decrease NO and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS) production. Thus, the essential oil extracted from H. Sabdariffa is a good source of a natural product with a beneficial effect against inflammation, and it may be applied as a food supplement and/or functional ingredient.

  15. Phenolic compounds of Hibiscus sabdariffa and influence of organic residues on its antioxidant and antitumoral properties.

    PubMed

    Formagio, A S N; Ramos, D D; Vieira, M C; Ramalho, S R; Silva, M M; Zárate, N A H; Foglio, M A; Carvalho, J E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoids contents and the antioxidant and antitumoral activity of leaf and calyx methanolic extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa (roselle) cultivated with poultry litter and organosuper® under three modes of application. The total phenolic content in the each extract was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and for aluminium chloride flavonoids. The antioxidant parameters were analyzed using a 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.) free radical scavenging assay. An antitumor colorimetric assay using sulforhodamine B. The highest contents of phenolic and flavonoids were observed in leaf extracts (389.98 and 104.52 mg g-1, respectively) and calyx extracts (474.09 and 148.35 mg g-1, respectively) from plants cultivated with organosuper®, although these values did not differ significantly from those observed for the other treatments. The average IC50 of leaves (43.48 μg mL-1) and calyces (37.15 μg mL-1) demonstrated that both have substances that may contribute to free radical scavenging action. The methanol extract from calyces showed significant selective activity against a leukemia line (K-562), with IC50 values of 0.12 mg mL-1 (organosuper®) and 1.16 mg mL-1 (poultry litter), with concentration-dependent, cytotoxic and cytocidal effects.

  16. Green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus rosa sinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Daizy

    2010-03-01

    Biological synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles of various shapes using the leaf extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis is reported. This is a simple, cost-effective, stable for long time and reproducible aqueous room temperature synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of Au and Ag nanoparticles. The size and shape of Au nanoparticles are modulated by varying the ratio of metal salt and extract in the reaction medium. Variation of pH of the reaction medium gives silver nanoparticles of different shapes. The nanoparticles obtained are characterized by UV-vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR spectroscopy. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles in the fcc structure are confirmed by the peaks in the XRD pattern corresponding to (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) planes, bright circular spots in the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and clear lattice fringes in the high-resolution TEM image. From FTIR spectra it is found that the Au nanoparticles are bound to amine groups and the Ag nanoparticles to carboxylate ion groups.

  17. Phytochemistry, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and anti-inflammatory activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Jing; Villani, Thomas S; Guo, Yue; Qi, Yadong; Chin, Kit; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Simon, James E; Wu, Qingli

    2016-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous separation, and determination of natural compounds including phenolic acids and flavonoids in the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa. By analyzing the UV and MS data, and comparison with authenticated standards, 10 polyphenols including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides were identified together with 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. Major constituents in the leaves of 25 different populations from worldwide accessions were quantified and compared with each other. The total phenolic content of each accession was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay, ranging from 18.98 ± 2.7 to 29.9 ± 0.5 mg GAE/g. Their in vitro antioxidant activities were measured by ABTS radical cation decolorization assay, varying from 17.5 to 152.5 ± 18.8 μmol Trolox/g. After the treatment of H. sabdariffa leaf extract, the reduction of LPS-induced NO production dose-dependently in RAW 264.7 cell indicates the extract's potential anti-inflammatory activity.

  18. Toxicity studies of the water extract from the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in rats.

    PubMed

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Itharat, Arunporn; Khonsung, Parirat; Lertprasertsuke, Nirush; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2013-01-01

    Acute and chronic toxicities of the water extract from calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were studied in male and female rats. After 14 days of a single oral administration of test substance 5,000 mg/kg body weight, measurement of the body and organ weights, necropsy and health monitoring were performed. No signs and differences of the weights or behaviour compared to the control rats were observed. The results indicated that the single oral administration of H. sabdariffa extract in the amount of 5,000 mg/kg body weight does not produce acute toxicity. The chronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding both male and female rats daily with the extract at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight for 270 days. The examinations of signs, animal behaviour and health monitoring showed no defects in the test groups compared to the control groups. Both test and control groups (day 270th) and satellite group (day 298th) were analysed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining haematology, blood clinical chemistry, and microanatomy. Results showed no differences from the control groups. Overall, our study demonstrated that an oral administration of H. sabdariffa extract at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 270 days does not cause chronic toxicity in rat.

  19. Hibiscus rosa- sinensis leaf extract as coagulant aid in leachate treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awang, Nik Azimatolakma; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2012-12-01

    Hibiscus rosa- sinensis is a biodegradable material that has remained untested for flocculating properties. The objective of this study is to examine the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation processes for the removal of color, iron (Fe3+), suspended solids, turbidity and ammonia nitrogen(NH3-N), from landfill leachate using 4,000 mg/L alum in conjunction with H. rosa- sinensis leaf extract (HBaqs). Hydroxyl (O-H) and (carboxyl) C=O functional groups along the HBaqs chain help to indulge flocculating efficiency of HBaqs via bridging. The experiments confirm the positive coagulation properties of HBaqs. The Fe3+ removal rate using 4,000 mg/L alum as sole coagulant was approximately 60 %, and increased to 100 % when 4,000 mg/L alum was mixed with 500 mg/L HBaqs. By mixing, 4,000 mg/L alum with 100-500 mg/L HBaqs, 72 % of SS was removed as compared with only 45 % reduction using 4,000 mg/L alum as sole coagulant.

  20. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction and in-vitro antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Hibiscus leaf.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Kasra; Samavati, Vahid; Shahidi, Seyed-Ahmad

    2015-03-01

    The effects of ultrasonic power, extraction time, extraction temperature, and the water-to-raw material ratio on extraction yield of crude polysaccharide from the leaf of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (HRLP) were optimized by statistical analysis using response surface methodology. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize HRLP extraction yield by implementing the Box-Behnken design (BBD). The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and also analyzed by appropriate statistical methods (ANOVA). Analysis of the results showed that the linear and quadratic terms of these four variables had significant effects. The optimal conditions for the highest extraction yield of HRLP were: ultrasonic power, 93.59 W; extraction time, 25.71 min; extraction temperature, 93.18°C; and the water to raw material ratio, 24.3 mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 9.66±0.18%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model 9.526%. The results demonstrated that HRLP had strong scavenging activities in vitro on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals.

  1. Anthocyanins degradation during storage of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract and evolution of its degradation products.

    PubMed

    Sinela, André; Rawat, Nadirah; Mertz, Christian; Achir, Nawel; Fulcrand, Hélène; Dornier, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Degradation parameters of two main anthocyanins from roselle extract (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) stored at different temperatures (4-37°C) over 60days were determined. Anthocyanins and some of their degradation products were monitored and quantified using HPLC-MS and DAD. Degradation of anthocyanins followed first-order kinetics and reaction rate constants (k values), which were obtained by non-linear regression, showed that the degradation rate of delphinidin 3-O-sambubioside was higher than that of cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside with k values of 9.2·10(-7)s(-1) and 8.4·10(-7)s(-1) at 37°C respectively. The temperature dependence of the rate of anthocyanin degradation was modeled by the Arrhenius equation. Degradation of delphinidin 3-O-sambubioside (Ea=90kJmol(-1)) tended to be significantly more sensitive to an increase in temperature than cyanidin 3-O-sambubioside (Ea=80kJmol(-1)). Degradation of these anthocyanins formed scission products (gallic and protocatechuic acids respectively) and was accompanied by an increase in polymeric color index.

  2. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein upregulates sulfur metabolism genes for enhanced pathogen defense.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruimin; Ng, Florence Kai Lin; Liu, Peng; Wong, Sek-Man

    2012-12-01

    In both Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV)-infected and HCRSV coat protein (CP) agroinfiltrated plant leaves, we showed that sulfur metabolism pathway related genes-namely, sulfite oxidase (SO), sulfite reductase, and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase-were upregulated. It led us to examine a plausible relationship between sulfur-enhanced resistance (SED) and HCRSV infection. We broadened an established method to include different concentrations of sulfur (0S, 1S, 2S, and 3S) to correlate them to symptom development of HCRSV-infected plants. We treated plants with glutathione and its inhibitor to verify the SED effect. Disease resistance was induced through elevated glutathione contents during HCRSV infection. The upregulation of SO was related to suppression of symptom development induced by sulfur treatment. In this study, we established that HCRSV-CP interacts with SO which, in turn, triggers SED and leads to enhanced plant resistance. Thus, we have discovered a new function of SO in the SED pathway. This is the first report to demonstrate that the interaction of a viral protein and host protein trigger SED in plants. It will be interesting if such interaction applies generally to other host-pathogen interactions that will lead to enhanced pathogen defense.

  3. Boehmenan, a lignan from Hibiscus ficulneus, showed Wnt signal inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Shono, Takumi; Ishikawa, Naoki; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Ahmed, Firoj; Sadhu, Samir K; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-07-15

    The Wnt signal pathway modulates numerous biological processes, and its aberrant activation is related to various diseases. Therefore, inhibition of the Wnt signal may provide an effective (or efficient) strategy for these diseases. Cell-based luciferase assay targeting the Wnt signal (TOP assay) revealed that Hibiscus ficulneus extract inhibited the Wnt signal. The activity-guided isolation of the MeOH extract of H. ficulneus stems yielded four known (1-4) lignans along with myriceric acid (5). Compounds 1-4 potently inhibited the Wnt signal with TOPflash IC50 values of 1.0, 4.5, 6.3, and 1.9 μM, respectively. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against both Wnt-dependent (HCT116) and Wnt-independent (RKO) cells. Western blot analysis showed that 1 decreased the expression of full, cytosolic and nuclear β-catenin along with c-myc in STF/293 cells. Our results suggested that 1 may have inhibited the Wnt signal by decreasing β-catenin levels.

  4. Molecular characterization of ferulate 5-hydroxylase gene from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonggeun; Choi, Bosung; Park, Young-Hwan; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Natarajan, Savithiry; Park, Sang-Un; Bae, Hanhong

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clone and characterize the expression pattern of a F5H gene encoding ferulate 5-hydroxylase in the phenylpropanoid pathway from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Kenaf is a fast-growing dicotyledonous plant valued for its biomass. F5H, a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP84), is a key enzyme for syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The full length of the F5H ortholog was cloned and characterized. The full-length F5H ortholog consists of a 1,557-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 518 amino acids (GenBank Accession number JX524278). The deduced amino acid sequence showed that kenaf F5H had the highest similarity (78%) with that of Populus trichocarpa. Transcriptional analysis of F5H ortholog was conducted using quantitative real-time PCR during the developmental stages of various tissues and in response to various abiotic stresses. The highest transcript level of the F5H ortholog was observed in immature flower tissues and in early stage (6 week-old) of stem tissues, with a certain level of expression in all tissues tested. The highest transcript level of F5H ortholog was observed at the late time points after treatments with NaCl (48 h), wounding (24 h), cold (24 h), abscisic acid (24 h), and methyl jasmonate (24 h).

  5. Accumulation of kaempferitrin and expression of phenyl-propanoid biosynthetic genes in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shicheng; Li, Xiaohua; Cho, Dong Ha; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Park, Sang Un

    2014-10-23

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is cultivated worldwide for its fiber; however, the medicinal properties of this plant are currently attracting increasing attention. In this study, we investigated the expression levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of kaempferitrin, a compound with many biological functions, in different kenaf organs. We found that phenylalanine ammonia lyase (HcPAL) was more highly expressed in stems than in other organs. Expression levels of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (HcC4H) and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (Hc4CL) were highest in mature leaves, followed by stems and young leaves, and lowest in roots and mature flowers. The expression of chalcone synthase (HcCHS), chalcone isomerase (HcCHI), and flavone 3-hydroxylase (HcF3H) was highest in young flowers, whereas that of flavone synthase (HcFLS) was highest in leaves. An analysis of kaempferitrin accumulation in the different organs of kenaf revealed that the accumulation of this compound was considerably higher (>10-fold) in leaves than in other organs. On the basis of a comparison of kaempferitrin contents with the expression levels of different genes in different organs, we speculate that HcFLS plays an important regulatory role in the kaempferitrin biosynthetic pathway in kenaf.

  6. Phytoextraction of As and Fe using Hibiscus cannabinus L. from soil polluted with landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Meera, M; Agamuthu, P

    2012-02-01

    Terrestrial plants as potential phytoremediators for remediation of surface soil contaminated with toxic metals have gained attention in clean-up technologies. The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) to offer a cost-effective mechanism to remediate Fe and As from landfill leachate-contaminated soil was investigated. Pot experiment employing soil polluted with treatments of Jeram landfill leachate was conducted for 120 days. Plants were harvested after 8th, 12th, and 16th weeks of growth. Accumulation of Fe and As was assessed based on Bioconcentration Factor and Translocation Factor. Results showed sequestration of 0.06-0.58 mg As and 66.82-461.71 mg Fe per g plant dry weight in kenaf root, which implies that kenaf root can be an bioavailable sink for toxic metals. Insignificant amount of Fe and As was observed in the aerial plant parts (< 12% of total bioavailable metals). The ability of kenaf to tolerate these metals and avoid phytotoxicity could be attributed to the stabilization of the metals in the roots and hence reduction of toxic metal mobility (TF < 1). With the application of leachate, kenaf was also found to have higher biomass and subsequently recorded 11% higher bioaccumulation capacity, indicating its suitability for phytoextraction of leachate contaminated sites.

  7. Infusion of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Modulates Oxidative Stress in Patients with Marfan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Soto, María Elena; Zuñiga-Muñoz, Alejandra; Guarner Lans, Verónica; Duran-Hernández, Erendira Janet; Pérez-Torres, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is associated with progressive aortic dilatation, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress that contribute to the early acute dissection of the vessel and can end up in rupture of the aorta and sudden death. Many studies have described that the organic acids from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (HSL) calyces increase cellular antioxidant capacity and decrease oxidative stress. Here we evaluate if the antioxidant properties of HSL infusion improve oxidative stress in MFS patients. Activities of extra cellular super oxide dismutase (ECSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSSG-R), glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO) index, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and ascorbic acid were determined in plasma from MFS patients. Values before and after 3 months of the treatment with 2% HSL infusion were compared in control and MFS subjects. After treatment, there was a significant decrease in ECSOD (p = 0.03), EGPx (p = 0.04), GST (p = 0.03), GSH (p = 0.01), and TAC and ascorbic acid (p = 0.02) but GSSG-R activity (p = 0.04) and LPO (p = 0.02) were increased in MFS patients in comparison to patients receiving the HSL treatment and C subjects. Therefore, the infusion of HSL calyces has antioxidant properties that allow an increase in antioxidant capacity of both the enzymatic and nonenzymatic systems, in the plasma of the MSF patients. PMID:27413258

  8. Germination biology of Hibiscus tridactylites in Australia and the implications for weed management.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2016-05-13

    Hibiscus tridactylites is a problematic broadleaf weed in many crops in Australia; however, very limited information is available on seed germination biology of Australian populations. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination and emergence of H. tridactylites. Germination was stimulated by seed scarification, suggesting the inhibition of germination in this species is mainly due to the hard seed coat. Germination was not affected by light conditions, suggesting that seeds of this species are not photoblastic. Germination was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (74%) and 35/25 °C (69%) than at 25/15 °C (63%). Moderate salinity and water stress did not inhibit germination of H. tridactylites. Seedling emergence of H. tridactylites was highest (57%) for the seeds buried at a 2 cm depth in the soil; 18% of seedlings emerged from seeds buried at 8 cm but no seedlings emerged below this depth. Soil inversion by tillage to bury weed seeds below their maximum depth of emergence could serve an important tool for managing H. tridactylites.

  9. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-03-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt.

  10. A Game-Theoretic Model of Interactions between Hibiscus Latent Singapore Virus and Tobacco Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Niu, Shengniao; Wong, Sek-Man

    2012-01-01

    Mixed virus infections in plants are common in nature and their interactions affecting host plants would depend mainly on plant species, virus strains, the order of infection and initial amount of inoculum. Hence, the prediction of outcome of virus competition in plants is not easy. In this study, we applied evolutionary game theory to model the interactions between Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in Nicotiana benthamiana under co-infection in a plant host. The accumulation of viral RNA was quantified using qPCR at 1, 2 and 8 days post infection (dpi), and two different methods were employed to predict the dominating virus. TMV was predicted to dominate the game in the long run and this prediction was confirmed by both qRT-PCR at 8 dpi and the death of co-infected plants after 15 dpi. In addition, we validated our model by using data reported in the literature. Ten out of fourteen reported co-infection outcomes agreed with our predictions. Explanations were given for the four interactions that did not agree with our model. Hence, it serves as a valuable tool in making long term predictions using short term data obtained in virus co-infections. PMID:22623970

  11. Identification and Characterization of Roseltide, a Knottin-type Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor Derived from Hibiscus sabdariffa

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Shining; Kam, Antony; Xiao, Tianshu; Nguyen, Giang K. T.; Liu, Chuan Fa; Tam, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant knottins are of therapeutic interest due to their high metabolic stability and inhibitory activity against proteinases involved in human diseases. The only knottin-type proteinase inhibitor against porcine pancreatic elastase was first identified from the squash family in 1989. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a knottin-type human neutrophil elastase inhibitor from Hibiscus sabdariffa of the Malvaceae family. Combining proteomic and transcriptomic methods, we identified a panel of novel cysteine-rich peptides, roseltides (rT1-rT8), which range from 27 to 39 residues with six conserved cysteine residues. The 27-residue roseltide rT1 contains a cysteine spacing and amino acid sequence that is different from the squash knottin-type elastase inhibitor. NMR analysis demonstrated that roseltide rT1 adopts a cystine-knot fold. Transcriptome analyses suggested that roseltides are bioprocessed by asparagine endopeptidases from a three-domain precursor. The cystine-knot structure of roseltide rT1 confers its high resistance against degradation by endopeptidases, 0.2 N HCl, and human serum. Roseltide rT1 was shown to inhibit human neutrophil elastase using enzymatic and pull-down assays. Additionally, roseltide rT1 ameliorates neutrophil elastase-stimulated cAMP accumulation in vitro. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that roseltide rT1 is a novel knottin-type neutrophil elastase inhibitor with therapeutic potential for neutrophil elastase associated diseases. PMID:27991569

  12. Genome analysis of Hibiscus syriacus provides insights of polyploidization and indeterminate flowering in woody plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Min; Kim, Seungill; Koo, Namjin; Shin, Ah-Young; Yeom, Seon-In; Seo, Eunyoung; Park, Seong-Jin; Kang, Won-Hee; Kim, Myung-Shin; Park, Jieun; Jang, Insu; Kim, Pan-Gyu; Byeon, Iksu; Kim, Min-Seo; Choi, JinHyuk; Ko, Gunhwan; Hwang, JiHye; Yang, Tae-Jin; Choi, Sang-Bong; Lee, Je Min; Lim, Ki-Byung; Lee, Jungho; Choi, Ik-Young; Park, Beom-Seok; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Choi, Doil; Kim, Ryan W

    2016-12-22

    Hibiscus syriacus (L.) (rose of Sharon) is one of the most widespread garden shrubs in the world. We report a draft of the H. syriacus genome comprised of a 1.75 Gb assembly that covers 92% of the genome with only 1.7% (33 Mb) gap sequences. Predicted gene modeling detected 87,603 genes, mostly supported by deep RNA sequencing data. To define gene family distribution among relatives of H. syriacus, orthologous gene sets containing 164,660 genes in 21,472 clusters were identified by OrthoMCL analysis of five plant species, including H. syriacus, Arabidopsis thaliana, Gossypium raimondii, Theobroma cacao and Amborella trichopoda. We inferred their evolutionary relationships based on divergence times among Malvaceae plant genes and found that gene families involved in flowering regulation and disease resistance were more highly divergent and expanded in H. syriacus than in its close relatives, G. raimondii (DD) and T. cacao Clustered gene families and gene collinearity analysis revealed that two recent rounds of whole-genome duplication were followed by diploidization of the H. syriacus genome after speciation. Copy number variation and phylogenetic divergence indicates that WGDs and subsequent diploidization led to unequal duplication and deletion of flowering-related genes in H. syriacus and may affect its unique floral morphology.

  13. Neuroprotective activity of gossypin from Hibiscus vitifolius against global cerebral ischemia model in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekhar, V. M.; Ganapaty, S.; Ramkishan, A.; Narsu, M. Laxmi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of gossypin (isolated from Hibiscus vitifolius) against global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury-induced oxidative stress in rats. Materials and Methods: Sprague Dawlet rats of wither gender were used in the study. Evaluation of cerbroprotective activity of bioflavonoid gossypin (in 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg oral doses) isolated from H. vitifolius was carried out by using the global cerebral I/R model by bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 30 min, followed by 24 h reperfusion. The antioxidant enzymatic and non-enzymatic levels were estimated along with histopathological studies. Result: Gossypin showed dose-dependent neuroprotective activity by significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001) and increase in the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione and total thiol levels in gossypin treated groups when compared to control group. Cerebral infarction area was markedly reduced in gossypin treated groups when compared to control group. Conclusion: Gossypin showed potent neuroprotective activity against global cerebral I/R injury-induced oxidative stress in rats. PMID:24347764

  14. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate.

    PubMed

    Gheller, Ana Carla Guidini Valentini; Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis.

  15. Hybrid Sex Pheromones of the Hibiscus Flower-bud Borer, Rehimena surusalis.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Ryokuhei; Sumiuchi, Yoko; Uehara, Takuya; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Naka, Hideshi

    2015-11-01

    The sex pheromone of the hibiscus flower borer Rehimena surusalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was analyzed by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Three EAD-active components were found in crude pheromone gland extracts of calling females. GC/MS and GC analyses using synthetic chemicals and derivatization of the extracts identified three components as (10E,12Z)-hexadeca-10,12-dienal (E10,Z12-16:Ald,), (10E,12E)-hexadeca-10,12-dienyl acetate (E10,Z12-16:OAc), and (3Z,6Z,9Z)-tricosa-3,6,9-triene (Z3,Z6,Z9-23:HC). In field tests, male moths were strongly attracted to a ternary blend of E10,Z12-16:Ald, E10,Z12-16:OAc, and Z3,Z6,Z9-23:HC at a ratio of 1:5:14, but single and binary blends showed only weak or no attraction.

  16. Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Affect Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Vinoth Kumar Megraj; Balaraman, R.; Pancza, Dezider; Ravingerová, Táňa

    2011-01-01

    Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. (HI) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS) are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15 min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360 μg/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R). Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure—LVDP, and rate of development of pressure), reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining) served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%–75%) occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF) was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55%) and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions. PMID:20953394

  17. Reference genes selection for transcript normalization in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) under salinity and drought stress.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaoping; Qi, Jianmin; Chen, Meixia; Zhang, Gaoyang; Tao, Aifen; Fang, Pingping; Xu, Jiantang; Onyedinma, Sandra A; Su, Jianguang

    2015-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is an economic and ecological fiber crop but suffers severe losses in fiber yield and quality under the stressful conditions of excess salinity and drought. To explore the mechanisms by which kenaf responds to excess salinity and drought, gene expression was performed at the transcriptomic level using RNA-seq. Thus, it is crucial to have a suitable set of reference genes to normalize target gene expression in kenaf under different conditions using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). In this study, we selected 10 candidate reference genes from the kenaf transcriptome and assessed their expression stabilities by qRT-PCR in 14 NaCl- and PEG-treated samples using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The results indicated that TUBα and 18S rRNA were the optimum reference genes under conditions of excess salinity and drought in kenaf. Moreover, TUBα and 18S rRNA were used singly or in combination as reference genes to validate the expression levels of WRKY28 and WRKY32 in NaCl- and PEG-treated samples by qRT-PCR. The results further proved the reliability of the two selected reference genes. This work will benefit future studies on gene expression and lead to a better understanding of responses to excess salinity and drought in kenaf.

  18. Reference genes selection for transcript normalization in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) under salinity and drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xiaoping; Chen, Meixia; Zhang, Gaoyang; Tao, Aifen; Fang, Pingping; Xu, Jiantang; Onyedinma, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is an economic and ecological fiber crop but suffers severe losses in fiber yield and quality under the stressful conditions of excess salinity and drought. To explore the mechanisms by which kenaf responds to excess salinity and drought, gene expression was performed at the transcriptomic level using RNA-seq. Thus, it is crucial to have a suitable set of reference genes to normalize target gene expression in kenaf under different conditions using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). In this study, we selected 10 candidate reference genes from the kenaf transcriptome and assessed their expression stabilities by qRT-PCR in 14 NaCl- and PEG-treated samples using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The results indicated that TUBα and 18S rRNA were the optimum reference genes under conditions of excess salinity and drought in kenaf. Moreover, TUBα and 18S rRNA were used singly or in combination as reference genes to validate the expression levels of WRKY28 and WRKY32 in NaCl- and PEG-treated samples by qRT-PCR. The results further proved the reliability of the two selected reference genes. This work will benefit future studies on gene expression and lead to a better understanding of responses to excess salinity and drought in kenaf. PMID:26644967

  19. Preliminary X-ray data analysis of crystalline hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ao; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Yuan, Y. Adam; Johnson, John E.; Wong, Sek-Man

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 Å. Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV. PMID:19478438

  20. Occurrence of Root Rot and Vascular Wilt Diseases in Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Naglaa; Shimizu, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) family Malvaceae is an important crop used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics industries. Roselle is cultivated mainly in Upper Egypt (Qena and Aswan governorates) producing 94% of total production. Root rot disease of roselle is one of the most important diseases that attack both seedlings and adult plants causing serious losses in crop productivity and quality. The main objective of the present study is to identify and characterize pathogens associated with root rot and wilt symptoms of roselle in Qena, Upper Egypt and evaluate their pathogenicity under greenhouse and field condition. Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium semitectum were isolated from the natural root rot diseases in roselle. All isolated fungi were morphologically characterized and varied in their pathogenic potentialities. They could attack roselle plants causing damping-off and root rot/wilt diseases in different pathogenicity tests. The highest pathogenicity was caused by F. oxysporum and M. phaseolina followed by F. solani. The least pathogenic fungi were F. equiseti followed by F. semitectum. It obviously noted that Baladi roselle cultivar was more susceptible to infection with all tested fungi than Sobhia 17 under greenhouse and field conditions. This is the first report of fungal pathogens causing root rot and vascular wilt in roselle in Upper Egypt. PMID:24808737

  1. Protective role of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract against streptozotocin induced sperm damage in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Muhd Hanis Md; Budin, Siti Balkis; Osman, Mohamad; Mohamed, Jamaludin

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus contributes to male sexual dysfunction and infertility by modulating oxidative damage. To date, a number of studies have demonstrated antioxidant properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. This study was designed to investigate the effects of H. sabdariffa UKMR-2 variety on sperm functioning of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were allotted into four groups, namely control group (C), H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) group, diabetes group (D) and diabetes plus HSE group (D+HSE). HSE (100 mg/ kg/body weight) was administered orally for 28 consecutive days. After 28-days of supplementation, the rats were sacrificed to obtain epididymal sperm. Administration of HSE significantly lowered the level of fasting blood glucose and increased plasma insulin level in D+HSE group as compared to D group (p<0.05). Sperm quality in the D+HSE group was improved with significantly higher sperm concentrations (p<0.05) and sperm motility (p<0.001) as well as lower percentage of sperm abnormality (p<0.05) as compared to the diabetic group. Plasma follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level was significantly elevated (p<0.05) in D+HSE group than in D group while no significant alteration in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) level were seen between groups. In conclusion, this study suggested that H. sabdariffa UKMR-2 variety has a potential protective role against diabetes-induced sperm damage. PMID:27847454

  2. Identification and Characterization of Roseltide, a Knottin-type Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor Derived from Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    PubMed

    Loo, Shining; Kam, Antony; Xiao, Tianshu; Nguyen, Giang K T; Liu, Chuan Fa; Tam, James P

    2016-12-19

    Plant knottins are of therapeutic interest due to their high metabolic stability and inhibitory activity against proteinases involved in human diseases. The only knottin-type proteinase inhibitor against porcine pancreatic elastase was first identified from the squash family in 1989. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a knottin-type human neutrophil elastase inhibitor from Hibiscus sabdariffa of the Malvaceae family. Combining proteomic and transcriptomic methods, we identified a panel of novel cysteine-rich peptides, roseltides (rT1-rT8), which range from 27 to 39 residues with six conserved cysteine residues. The 27-residue roseltide rT1 contains a cysteine spacing and amino acid sequence that is different from the squash knottin-type elastase inhibitor. NMR analysis demonstrated that roseltide rT1 adopts a cystine-knot fold. Transcriptome analyses suggested that roseltides are bioprocessed by asparagine endopeptidases from a three-domain precursor. The cystine-knot structure of roseltide rT1 confers its high resistance against degradation by endopeptidases, 0.2 N HCl, and human serum. Roseltide rT1 was shown to inhibit human neutrophil elastase using enzymatic and pull-down assays. Additionally, roseltide rT1 ameliorates neutrophil elastase-stimulated cAMP accumulation in vitro. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that roseltide rT1 is a novel knottin-type neutrophil elastase inhibitor with therapeutic potential for neutrophil elastase associated diseases.

  3. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. leaves in experimental colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kandhare, Amit D; Raygude, Kiran S; Ghosh, Pinaki; Ghule, Arvindkumar E; Gosavi, Tejas P; Badole, Sachin L; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2012-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the ameliorative effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (HRS) in acetic acid induced experimental colitis in male wistar rats. Methods The animals were administered with 2 mL acetic acid (4%) via intra rectal. The animals were divided into various treatment groups (n=6). Prednisolone was used as standard drug and HRS was administered at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. The control group of animals received 1 mL of vehicle (distilled water). Ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, macroscopic score, haematological parameters, colonic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 11 days. Results Intrarectal instillation of acetic acid caused enhanced ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, colonic MPO, MDA, NO and TNF-α It caused significant decreased level of SOD and GSH. Pretreatment with HRS for 7 days exhibited significant effect in lowering of oxidative stress, colonic NO, TNF-α and elevation of SOD and GSH at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg in acetic acid induced colitis. Conclusions The present investigation demonstrates HRS is of potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediator like NO and TNF-α. PMID:23569927

  4. Antitumoral Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Multiple Myeloma Cells.

    PubMed

    Malacrida, Alessio; Maggioni, Daniele; Cassetti, Arianna; Nicolini, Gabriella; Cavaletti, Guido; Miloso, Mariarosaria

    2016-10-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite therapeutic improvements, some cancers are still untreatable. Recently there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural substances for cancer prevention and treatment. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) is a plant, belonging to Malvaceae family, widespread in South Asia and Central Africa. HS extract (HSE) used in folk medicine, gained researchers' interest thanks to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemopreventive properties. In the present study, we initially assessed HSE effect on a panel of human tumor cell lines. Then we focused our study on the following that are most sensitive to HSE action cell lines: Multiple Myeloma (MM) cells (RPMI 8226) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) cells (SCC-25). In both RPMI 8226 and SCC-25 cells, HSE impaired cell growth, exerted a reversible cytostatic effect, and reduced cell motility and invasiveness. We evaluated the involvement of MAPKs ERK1/2 and p38 in HSE effects by using specific inhibitors, U0126 and SB203580, respectively. For both SCC-25 and RPMI 8226, HSE cytostatic effect depends on p38 activation, whereas ERK1/2 modulation is crucial for cell motility and invasiveness. Our results suggest that HSE may be a potential therapeutic agent against MM and OSCC.

  5. Infusion of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Modulates Oxidative Stress in Patients with Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Soto, María Elena; Zuñiga-Muñoz, Alejandra; Guarner Lans, Verónica; Duran-Hernández, Erendira Janet; Pérez-Torres, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is associated with progressive aortic dilatation, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress that contribute to the early acute dissection of the vessel and can end up in rupture of the aorta and sudden death. Many studies have described that the organic acids from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (HSL) calyces increase cellular antioxidant capacity and decrease oxidative stress. Here we evaluate if the antioxidant properties of HSL infusion improve oxidative stress in MFS patients. Activities of extra cellular super oxide dismutase (ECSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSSG-R), glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO) index, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and ascorbic acid were determined in plasma from MFS patients. Values before and after 3 months of the treatment with 2% HSL infusion were compared in control and MFS subjects. After treatment, there was a significant decrease in ECSOD (p = 0.03), EGPx (p = 0.04), GST (p = 0.03), GSH (p = 0.01), and TAC and ascorbic acid (p = 0.02) but GSSG-R activity (p = 0.04) and LPO (p = 0.02) were increased in MFS patients in comparison to patients receiving the HSL treatment and C subjects. Therefore, the infusion of HSL calyces has antioxidant properties that allow an increase in antioxidant capacity of both the enzymatic and nonenzymatic systems, in the plasma of the MSF patients.

  6. Germination biology of Hibiscus tridactylites in Australia and the implications for weed management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2016-05-01

    Hibiscus tridactylites is a problematic broadleaf weed in many crops in Australia; however, very limited information is available on seed germination biology of Australian populations. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination and emergence of H. tridactylites. Germination was stimulated by seed scarification, suggesting the inhibition of germination in this species is mainly due to the hard seed coat. Germination was not affected by light conditions, suggesting that seeds of this species are not photoblastic. Germination was higher at alternating day/night temperatures of 30/20 °C (74%) and 35/25 °C (69%) than at 25/15 °C (63%). Moderate salinity and water stress did not inhibit germination of H. tridactylites. Seedling emergence of H. tridactylites was highest (57%) for the seeds buried at a 2 cm depth in the soil; 18% of seedlings emerged from seeds buried at 8 cm but no seedlings emerged below this depth. Soil inversion by tillage to bury weed seeds below their maximum depth of emergence could serve an important tool for managing H. tridactylites.

  7. In vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract against human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ruban, P; Gajalakshmi, K

    2012-01-01

    Objective To access the in vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa- sinensis) flower extract against human pathogens. Methods Antibacterial activity was evaluated by using disc and agar diffusion methods. The protein was run through poly acrylmide gel electrophoresis to view their protein profile. Results The results showed that the cold extraction illustrates a maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtillis (B. subtillis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) viz., (17.00 ± 2.91), (14.50 ± 1.71) mm, followed by hot extraction against, E. coli, Salmonella sp. as (11.66 ± 3.14), (10.60 ± 3.09) mm. In methanol extraction showed a highest zone of inhibition recorded against B. subtillis, E. coli as (18.86 ± 0.18), (18.00 ± 1.63) mm pursued by ethanol extraction showed utmost zone of inhibition recorded against Salmonella sp. at (20.40 ± 1.54) mm. The crude protein from flower showed a maximum inhibitory zone observed against Salmonella sp., E. coli viz., (16.55 ± 1.16), (14.30 ± 2.86) mm. The flower material can be taken as an alternative source of antibacterial agent against the human pathogens. Conclusions The extracts of the H. rosa-sinensis are proved to have potential antibacterial activity, further studies are highly need for the drug development. PMID:23569938

  8. Inheritance, realized heritability and biochemical mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2015-07-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a serious pest in many countries of the world because of its polyphagous nature and has caused huge losses to the cotton crop. The aim of present study was to explore the mode of inheritance and mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in P. solenopsis. After five rounds of selection with acetamiprid, P. solenopsis developed a 315-fold resistance compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The LC50 values of progenies of both reciprocal crosses (F1 and F1') showed no significant difference and degree of dominance values were 0.56 and 0.93 for F1 and F1', respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance and Lande's method revealed that more than one factors were involved in acetamiprid resistance. Realized heritability (h(2)) value was 0.58 for acetamiprid resistance. A synergism study of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) with acetamiprid also showed the significant presence of P-450 mono-oxygenase and esterase in the acetamiprid resistance. Hence, acetamiprid resistance in the P. solenopsis was autosomal, incompletely dominant and polygenic. These results are a source of basic information to design and plan fruitful management programmes to control P. solenopsis.

  9. Use of recombinant tobacco mosaic virus to achieve RNA interference in plants against the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif Muhammad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Kiss, Zsofia; Khan, Azhar Abbas; Mansoor, Shahid; Falk, Bryce W

    2013-01-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is an important plant pest with a very broad plant host range. P. citri is a phloem feeder and loss of plant vigor and stunting are characteristic symptoms induced on a range of host plants, but P. citri also reduces fruit quality and causes fruit drop leading to significant yield reductions. Better strategies for managing this pest are greatly needed. RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging tool for functional genomics studies and is being investigated as a practical tool for highly targeted insect control. Here we investigated whether RNAi effects can be induced in P. citri and whether candidate mRNAs could be identified as possible targets for RNAi-based P. citri control. RNAi effects were induced in P. citri, as demonstrated by specific target reductions of P. citri actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs after injection of the corresponding specific double-stranded RNA inducers. We also used recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to express these RNAi effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found that P. citri showed lower fecundity and pronounced death of crawlers after feeding on recombinant TMV-infected plants. Taken together, our data show that actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs are potential targets for RNAi against P. citri, and that recombinant TMV is an effective tool for evaluating candidate RNAi effectors in plants.

  10. Predicting the potential geographic distribution of cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis in India based on MAXENT ecological niche model.

    PubMed

    Fand, Babasaheb B; Kumar, Mahesh; Kamble, Ankush L

    2014-09-01

    Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley has recently emerged as a serious insect pest of cotton in India. This study demonstrates the use of Maxent algorithm for modeling the potential geographic distribution of P. solenopsis in India with presence-only data. Predictions were made based on the analysis of the relationship between 111 occurrence records for P. solenopsis and the corresponding current and future climate data defined on the study area. The climate data from worldclim database for current (1950-2000) and future (SRES A2 emission scenario for 2050) conditions were used. DIVA-GIS, an open source software for conducting spatial analysis was used for mapping the predictions from Maxent. The algorithm provided reasonable estimates of the species range indicating better discrimination of suitable and unsuitable areas for its occurrence in India under both present and future climatic conditions. The fit for the model as measured by AUC was high, with value of 0.930 for the training data and 0.895 for the test data, indicating the high level of discriminatory power for the Maxent. A Jackknife test for variable importance indicated that mean temperature of coldest quarter with highest gain value was the most important environmental variable determining the potential geographic distribution of P. solenopsis. The approaches used for delineating the ecological niche and prediction of potential geographic distribution are described briefly. Possible applications and limitations of the present modeling approach in future research and as a decision making tool in integrated pest management are discussed.

  11. Effect of "Pink Eye" Label on Parents' Intent to Use Antibiotics and Perceived Contagiousness.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Laura D; Finan, Caitlin; Simancek, Dalton; Finkelstein, Jerome I; Tarini, Beth A

    2016-06-01

    Parents of children who presented for a pediatrics appointment responded to a clinical vignette that described a child with symptoms consistent with acute viral conjunctivitis. In a 2 × 2 randomized survey design, the physician in the vignette either used the term "pink eye" or "eye infection" to describe the symptoms, and either told parents that antibiotics are likely ineffective at treating the symptoms or did not discuss effectiveness. When the symptoms were referred to as "pink eye," parents remained interested in antibiotics, despite being informed about their ineffectiveness. By contrast, when the symptoms were referred to as an "eye infection," information about antibiotic ineffectiveness significantly reduced interest, Mdiff = 1.63, P < .001. Parents who received the "pink eye" label also thought that the symptoms were more contagious and were less likely to believe that their child could go to child care, compared with parents who received the "eye infection" label, Mdiff = 0.37, P = .38.

  12. Radiation-induced pink nickel oligomeric clusters in water. Pulse radiolysis study.

    PubMed

    Hioul, Mohamed Larbi; Lin, Mingzhang; Belloni, Jacqueline; Keghouche, Nassira; Marignier, Jean-Louis

    2014-10-09

    γ-rays and pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of Ni(2+) ions in the presence of polyacrylate (PA(-)) and 2-propanol leads to the formation of metastable species absorbing at 540 nm that are ascribed to "pink" oligomeric clusters of a few nickel atoms only. The molar absorption coefficient is evaluated as ε540 nm = 3300 ± 300 L mol(-1) cm(-1) per Ni(0) atom. The successive steps from the reduction of Ni(2+) into Ni(+) ions to the formation of the pink clusters at 540 nm under conditions of complexation by PA(-) are investigated by pulse radiolysis. The yield of the formation of pink clusters increases markedly with the irradiation dose rate, demonstrating the occurrence of the disproportionation of the [Ni(+), PA(-)] complex after a single electron pulse. The reduction and nucleation mechanisms, including rate constants, in competition with the back oxidation by protons, particularly at low dose rate, are discussed.

  13. Pink Noise in Rowing Ergometer Performance and the Role of Skill Level.

    PubMed

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J; Cox, Ralf F; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W; Van Geert, Paul L

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to examine (1) the temporal structures of variation in rowers' (natural) ergometer strokes in order to make inferences about the underlying motor organization, and (2) the relation between these temporal structures and skill level. Four high-skilled and five lower-skilled rowers completed 550 strokes on a rowing ergometer. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis was used to quantify the temporal structure of the intervals between force peaks. Results showed that the temporal structure differed from random, and revealed prominent patterns of pink noise for each rower. Furthermore, the high-skilled rowers demonstrated more pink noise than the lower-skilled rowers. The presence of pink noise suggests that rowing performance emerges from the coordination among interacting component processes across multiple time scales. The difference in noise pattern between high-skilled and lower-skilled athletes indicates that the complexity of athletes' motor organization is a potential key characteristic of elite performance.

  14. Pink Noise in Rowing Ergometer Performance and the Role of Skill Level.

    PubMed

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Cox, Ralf F A; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W; Van Geert, Paul L C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine (1) the temporal structures of variation in rowers’ (natural) ergometer strokes to make inferences about the underlying motor organization, and (2) the relation between these temporal structures and skill level. Four high-skilled and five lower-skilled rowers completed 550 strokes on a rowing ergometer. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis was used to quantify the temporal structure of the intervals between force peaks. Results showed that the temporal structure differed from random, and revealed prominent patterns of pink noise for each rower. Furthermore, the high-skilled rowers demonstrated more pink noise than the lower-skilled rowers. The presence of pink noise suggeststhat rowing performance emerges from the coordination among interacting component processes across multiple time scales. The difference in noise pattern between high-skilled and lower-skilled athletes indicates that the complexity of athletes’ motor organization is a potential key characteristic of elite performance.

  15. Identification of the sex chromosome pair in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    PubMed

    Phillips, R B; DeKoning, J; Morasch, M R; Park, L K; Devlin, R H

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using a probe to the male-specific GH-Y (growth hormone pseudogene) was used to identify the Y chromosome in the karyotypes of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). The sex chromosome pair is a small acrocentric chromosome pair in chum salmon and the smallest metacentric chromosome pair in pink salmon. Both of these chromosome pairs are morphologically different from the sex chromosome pairs in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). The 5S rRNA genes are on multiple chromosome pairs including the sex chromosome pair in chum salmon, but at the centromeres of two autosomal metacentric pairs in pink salmon. The sex chromosome pairs and the chromosomal locations of the 5S rDNA appear to be different in all five of the North American Pacific salmon species and rainbow trout. The implications of these results for evolution of sex chromosomes in salmonids are discussed.

  16. Mutational analysis of parkin and PINK1 in multiple system atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Janet A.; Houlden, Henry; Melchers, Anna; Islam, Ansha J.; Ding, Jinhui; Li, Abi; Paudel, Reema; Revesz, Tamas; Holton, Janice L.; Wood, Nick; Lees, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew B.; Scholz, Sonja W.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are progressive neurodegenerative disorders with overlapping clinical, biochemical and genetic features. To test the hypothesis that the Parkinson’s disease genes parkin and PINK1 also play a role in the pathogenesis of MSA, we performed a mutational screening study involving 87 pathology-proven MSA cases. In parkin we identified eight sequence variants and four heterozygous deletions, and in PINK1 we identified nine variants of which two silent mutations have not been previously reported (p.Gly189Gly and p.Arg337Arg). The frequencies of the observed variants were not significantly different from previously published control data and none of the possibly pathogenic variants were found in a homozygous state. Our results indicate that genetic variants at the parkin and PINK1 loci do not play a critical role in the pathogenesis of MSA. PMID:20034704

  17. Prevention of cataracts in pink-eyed RCS rats by dark rearing.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, T L; Hess, H H; Zigler, J S; Kuwabara, T; Knapka, J J

    1990-11-01

    Royal College of Surgeons rats have hereditary retinal degeneration and associated posterior subcapsular opacities (PSO) of the lens, detectable by slitlamp at 7-8 postnatal weeks in both pink- and black-eyed rats. The retinal degeneration is intensified by light, especially in pink-eyed rats. A fourth of pink-eyed rats developed mature cataracts by 9-12 months of age, but black-eyed rats whose retinas are protected from light by pigmented irises and pigment epithelium rarely have mature cataracts (3% or less), indicating light may be a factor in cataractogenesis. Prior work had shown that dark rearing reduced the rate of retinal degeneration in pink- but not black-eyed rats, but cataracts were not studied. In the present work, pregnant pink-eyed females were placed in a darkroom 1 week before parturition. Pups were removed over intervals at 20-85 postnatal days for: (a) microscopic study of fresh lenses and of fixed, stained retina and lens, and (b) counts of cells mm-2 of the web-like vitreous cortex after it had been dissected free. The macrophage-like cells are a quantitative index of immune reaction to retinal damage. At 50-53 postnatal days, in pink-eyed cyclic light reared RCS, the mean number of macrophages was 4.6-fold that in congenic controls, but in those that were dark reared it was only 1.4-fold. This was less than the increase in cyclic light reared black-eyed RCS (2.3-fold that in congenic black-eyed controls). Total absence of light reduced retinal degeneration and the number of macrophages, and prevented PSO detectable microscopically.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Diminishing returns from increased percent Bt cotton: the case of pink bollworm.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunxin; Wan, Peng; Zhang, Huannan; Huang, Minsong; Li, Zhaohua; Gould, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Regional suppression of pests by transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported in several cropping systems, but little is known about the functional relationship between the ultimate pest population density and the pervasiveness of Bt crops. Here we address this issue by analyzing 16 years of field data on pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) population density and percentage of Bt cotton in the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We find that as the percent Bt cotton increased over the years, the cross-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the last generation of one year to the first generation of the next year decreased. However, as the percent Bt cotton increased, the within-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the first to last generation of the same year increased, with a slope approximately opposite to that of the cross-year rates. As a result, we did not find a statistically significant decline in the annual growth rate of pink bollworm as the percent Bt cotton increased over time. Consistent with the data, our modeling analyses predict that the regional average density of pink bollworm declines as the percent Bt cotton increases, but the higher the percent Bt cotton, the slower the decline in pest density. Specifically, we find that 95% Bt cotton is predicted to cause only 3% more reduction in larval density than 80% Bt cotton. The results here suggest that density dependence can act against the decline in pest density and diminish the net effects of Bt cotton on suppression of pink bollworm in the study region. The findings call for more studies of the interactions between pest density-dependence and Bt crops.

  19. Pink1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics through interaction with the fission/fusion machinery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufeng; Ouyang, Yingshi; Yang, Lichuan; Beal, M Flint; McQuibban, Angus; Vogel, Hannes; Lu, Bingwei

    2008-05-13

    Mitochondria form dynamic tubular networks that undergo frequent morphological changes through fission and fusion, the imbalance of which can affect cell survival in general and impact synaptic transmission and plasticity in neurons in particular. Some core components of the mitochondrial fission/fusion machinery, including the dynamin-like GTPases Drp1, Mitofusin, Opa1, and the Drp1-interacting protein Fis1, have been identified. How the fission and fusion processes are regulated under normal conditions and the extent to which defects in mitochondrial fission/fusion are involved in various disease conditions are poorly understood. Mitochondrial malfunction tends to cause diseases with brain and skeletal muscle manifestations and has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Whether abnormal mitochondrial fission or fusion plays a role in PD pathogenesis has not been shown. Here, we show that Pink1, a mitochondria-targeted Ser/Thr kinase linked to familial PD, genetically interacts with the mitochondrial fission/fusion machinery and modulates mitochondrial dynamics. Genetic manipulations that promote mitochondrial fission suppress Drosophila Pink1 mutant phenotypes in indirect flight muscle and dopamine neurons, whereas decreased fission has opposite effects. In Drosophila and mammalian cells, overexpression of Pink1 promotes mitochondrial fission, whereas inhibition of Pink1 leads to excessive fusion. Our genetic interaction results suggest that Fis1 may act in-between Pink1 and Drp1 in controlling mitochondrial fission. These results reveal a cell biological role for Pink1 and establish mitochondrial fission/fusion as a paradigm for PD research. Compounds that modulate mitochondrial fission/fusion could have therapeutic value in PD intervention.

  20. Diminishing Returns from Increased Percent Bt Cotton: The Case of Pink Bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huannan; Huang, Minsong; Li, Zhaohua; Gould, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Regional suppression of pests by transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported in several cropping systems, but little is known about the functional relationship between the ultimate pest population density and the pervasiveness of Bt crops. Here we address this issue by analyzing 16 years of field data on pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) population density and percentage of Bt cotton in the Yangtze River Valley of China. In this region, the percentage of cotton hectares planted with Bt cotton increased from 9% in 2000 to 94% in 2009 and 2010. We find that as the percent Bt cotton increased over the years, the cross-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the last generation of one year to the first generation of the next year decreased. However, as the percent Bt cotton increased, the within-year growth rate of pink bollworm from the first to last generation of the same year increased, with a slope approximately opposite to that of the cross-year rates. As a result, we did not find a statistically significant decline in the annual growth rate of pink bollworm as the percent Bt cotton increased over time. Consistent with the data, our modeling analyses predict that the regional average density of pink bollworm declines as the percent Bt cotton increases, but the higher the percent Bt cotton, the slower the decline in pest density. Specifically, we find that 95% Bt cotton is predicted to cause only 3% more reduction in larval density than 80% Bt cotton. The results here suggest that density dependence can act against the decline in pest density and diminish the net effects of Bt cotton on suppression of pink bollworm in the study region. The findings call for more studies of the interactions between pest density-dependence and Bt crops. PMID:23874678

  1. Calcium chloride and tricalcium phosphate effects on the pink color defect in cooked ground and intact turkey breast.

    PubMed

    Sammel, L M; Claus, J R

    2007-12-01

    Calcium chloride (250, 500ppm) was examined for its ability to reduce the pink color defect induced by sodium nitrite (10ppm) and nicotinamide (1.0%) in cooked ground turkey in the presence and absence of sodium tripolyphosphate (0.25, 0.5%) and sodium citrate (0.5, 1.0%). The ability of tricalcium phosphate (0.1-0.5%) to reduce pink cooked color also was evaluated in ground turkey and both calcium chloride and tricalcium phosphate were tested for their effects on pink cooked color in whole breast muscle. The combination of calcium chloride and sodium tripolyphosphate, not calcium chloride alone, was necessary for a reduction in pink cooked color induced by nicotinamide. Subsequently, in the presence of phosphate, both calcium chloride and sodium citrate reduced pink cooked color and were most effective in combination. Tricalcium phosphate also was capable of reducing pink cooked color in ground turkey, however substituting tricalcium phosphate for sodium tripolyphosphate resulted in lower pH and cooking yields. Neither calcium chloride nor tricalcium phosphate was capable of reducing pink cooked color in whole turkey breast. Currently, a combination of sodium tripolyphosphate, calcium chloride, and sodium citrate represents the most suitable means for reducing or preventing the pink color defect in uncured ground turkey.

  2. Swim bladder function and buoyancy control in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Stewart, John; Hughes, Julian M

    2014-04-01

    Physoclist fish are able to regulate their buoyancy by secreting gas into their hydrostatic organ, the swim bladder, as they descend through the water column and by resorbing gas from their swim bladder as they ascend. Physoclists are restricted in their vertical movements due to increases in swim bladder gas volume that occur as a result of a reduction in hydrostatic pressure, causing fish to become positively buoyant and risking swim bladder rupture. Buoyancy control, rates of swim bladder gas exchange and restrictions to vertical movements are little understood in marine teleosts. We used custom-built hyperbaric chambers and laboratory experiments to examine these aspects of physiology for two important fishing target species in southern Australia, pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). The swim bladders of pink snapper and mulloway averaged 4.2 and 4.9 % of their total body volumes, respectively. The density of pink snapper was not significantly different to the density of seawater (1.026 g/ml), whereas mulloway were significantly denser than seawater. Pink snapper secreted gas into their swim bladders at a rate of 0.027 ± 0.005 ml/kg/min (mean ± SE), almost 4 times faster than mulloway (0.007 ± 0.001 ml/kg/min). Rates of swim bladder gas resorption were 11 and 6 times faster than the rates of gas secretion for pink snapper and mulloway, respectively. Pink snapper resorbed swim bladder gas at a rate of 0.309 ± 0.069 ml/kg/min, 7 times faster than mulloway (0.044 ± 0.009 ml/kg/min). Rates of gas exchange were not affected by water pressure or water temperature over the ranges examined in either species. Pink snapper were able to acclimate to changes in hydrostatic pressure reasonably quickly when compared to other marine teleosts, taking approximately 27 h to refill their swim bladders from empty. Mulloway were able to acclimate at a much slower rate, taking approximately 99 h to refill their swim bladders. We estimated that the

  3. A new mealybug in the genus Pseudococcus Westwood (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) from North America, with a key to species of Pseudococcus from the New World.

    PubMed

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Watson, Gillian

    2016-04-19

    A mealybug species that feeds on Agave spp., Pseudococcus variabilis sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), is described from North America. Its entry into the United States was likely via the horticultural trade on its host plants in the genus Agave (Liliales: Agavaceae). Descriptions and illustrations of the adult female and male, diagnosis from congeners in the New World, and a molecular characterization based on COI are provided, as well as a key to adult females of all Pseudococcus species recorded from the New World.

  4. Early-onset Parkinson's disease due to PINK1 p.Q456X mutation - clinical and functional study

    PubMed Central

    Siuda, Joanna; Jasinska-Myga, Barbara; Boczarska-Jedynak, Magdalena; Opala, Grzegorz; Fiesel, Fabienne C.; Moussaud-Lamodière, Elisabeth L.; Scarffe, Leslie A.; Dawson, Valina L.; Ross, Owen A.; Springer, Wolfdieter; Dawson, Ted M.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recessive mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD). The clinical phenotype of families that have this PINK1-associated disease may present with different symptoms, including typical PD. The loss of the PINK1 protein may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, which causes dopaminergic neuron death. Methods The clinical phenotypes of a large Polish family with EOPD and an identified PINK1 homozygous nonsense mutation were assessed. Ubiquitination and degradation of mitochondrial parkin substrates as well as mitochondrial bioenergetics were investigated as direct functional readouts for PINK1's kinase activity in biopsied dermal fibroblasts. Results A four-generation family was genealogically evaluated. Genetic screening identified two affected subjects who were both homozygous carriers of the pathogenic PINK1 p.Q456X substitution. Both patients presented with dystonia and gait disorders at symptom onset. Seven heterozygous mutation carriers remained unaffected. Functional studies revealed that the PINK1 p.Q456X protein is non-functional in activating the downstream ubiquitin ligase parkin and priming the ubiquitination of its substrates, and that the RNA levels of PINK1 were significantly reduced. Conclusions The PINK1 p.Q456X mutation leads to a decrease in mRNA and a loss of protein function. The foot dystonia and gait disorders seen at disease onset in affected members of our family, which were accompanied by parkinsonism had a similar clinical presentation to what has been described in previous reports of PINK1 mutation carriers. PMID:25226871

  5. Hypotriglyceridemic and hypoglycemic effects of vescalagin from Pink wax apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry cv. Pink] in high-fructose diet-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Chang

    2013-01-15

    Vescalagin, an active component from Pink wax apple [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill and Perry cv. Pink] fruit, with glucose uptake enhancing ability in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes, as shown in our previous study, was further evaluated for its hypotriglyceridemic and hypoglycemic effects in high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetic rats. Wistar rats were fed HFD for 16 weeks and orally administered with vescalagin from Pink wax apple daily during the last 4 weeks. The results of biochemical parameters showed that fasting blood glucose, C-peptide, fructosamine, triglyceride and free fatty acid contents decreased by 44.7%, 46.2%, 4.0%, 42.5%, and 10.8%, respectively, in the HFD-induced diabetic rats administered with vescalagin at 30 mg/kg body weight in comparison with those of control HFD-induced diabetic rats. However, high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol content increased by 14.4% in the HFD rats treated with vescalagin. The present study reveals that vescalagin could have therapeutic value against diabetic progression via its anti-hypertriglyceridemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects.

  6. The rat pink-eyed dilution (p) mutation: an identical intragenic deletion in pink-eye dilute-coat strains and several Wistar-derived albino strains.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, Takashi; Gohma, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kunio; Wedekind, Dirk; Hedrich, Hans J; Serikawa, Tadao

    2005-09-01

    We identified the rat pink-eyed dilution (p) and pink eye Mishima (p(m)) mutations. The p(m) mutation, which was isolated from a wild rat caught in Mishima Japan in 1961 and is carried in the NIG-III strain, is a splice donor site mutation in intron 5. The p mutation, which was first described in 1914 and is carried in several p/p rats including the RCS and BDV strains, is an intragenic deletion including exons 17 and 18. In addition to RCS and BDV strains, several albino strains, KHR, KMI and WNA, all descendants of albino stock of the Wistar Institute, are homozygous for the p allele. Analyses revealed that the colored p strains and the Wistar-derived albino p strains had the same marker haplotype spanning approximately 4 Mb around the P locus. This indicates that these p strains share a common ancestor and the p allele did not arise independently via recurrent mutations. The historical relationship among the p strains suggests that the p deletion had been maintained in stock heterogeneous for the C and P loci and then was inherited independently by the ancestor of the Wistar albino stock and the ancestor of the pink-eyed agouti rats in Europe.

  7. Determination of complete nucleotide sequence of Hibiscus latent Singapore virus: evidence for the presence of an internal poly(A) tract.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K G; Min, B E; Ryu, K H; Adkins, S; Wong, S M

    2005-01-01

    We have sequenced the complete genome of a hibiscus-infecting tobamovirus, Hibiscus latent Singapore virus (HLSV). The experimental host range of HLSV is similar to that of another distinct species of hibiscus infecting tobamovirus, Hibiscus latent Fort Pierce virus (HLFPV). The genomic structure of HLSV is similar to other tobamoviruses in general. It consists of a 5' untranslated region (UTR), followed by ORFs encoding for a 128 kDa protein and a 186 kDa readthrough protein, a 30 kDa movement protein (MP), 18 kDa coat protein (CP) and a 3' UTR. The unique feature of HLSV is the presence of a poly(A) tract within its 3' UTR. In our previous work, we have reported MP and CP sequences of HLSV and its phylogenetic analysis. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of HLSV, phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 128/186 kDa ORFs and the presence of a uniquely located poly(A) tract within the 3' UTR.

  8. Apple, carrot, and hibiscus edible films containing the plant antimicrobials carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde inactivate Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens in sealed plastic bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde incorporated into apple, carrot and hibiscus based edible films against Salmonella Newport in contaminated organic leafy greens. The leafy greens tested included romaine and iceberg lettuce, and ...

  9. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: In vitro studies have shown Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an ingredient found in many herbal tea blends and other beverages, has antioxidant properties, and, in animal models, extracts of its calyces have demonstrated hypocholesterolemic and anti-hypertensive properties. Objective: To exa...

  10. Pink bollworm trapping in the Southern Plains of Texas and New Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study identified several cotton fields in southern Midland County, TX on which large numbers of pink bollworm (PBW) moths were caught. No other large concentrations of PBW were found in the region. Winds with the capability of moving moths long distances occurred during the 2010 study. Wind ...

  11. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Nathan F.; Jenkins, Erica S.; Michielsens, Catherine G. J.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2014-01-01

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

  12. Structure of phosphorylated UBL domain and insights into PINK1-orchestrated parkin activation.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Jacob D; Dunkerley, Karen M; Mercier, Pascal; Shaw, Gary S

    2017-01-10

    Mutations in PARK2 and PARK6 genes are responsible for the majority of hereditary Parkinson's disease cases. These genes encode the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin and the protein kinase PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), respectively. Together, parkin and PINK1 regulate the mitophagy pathway, which recycles damaged mitochondria following oxidative stress. Native parkin is inactive and exists in an autoinhibited state mediated by its ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain. PINK1 phosphorylation of serine 65 in parkin's UBL and serine 65 of ubiquitin fully activate ubiquitin ligase activity; however, a structural rationale for these observations is not clear. Here, we report the structure of the phosphorylated UBL domain from parkin. We find that destabilization of the UBL results from rearrangements to hydrophobic core packing that modify its structure. Altered surface electrostatics from the phosphoserine group disrupt its intramolecular association, resulting in poorer autoinhibition in phosphorylated parkin. Further, we show that phosphorylation of both the UBL domain and ubiquitin are required to activate parkin by releasing the UBL domain, forming an extended structure needed to facilitate E2-ubiquitin binding. Together, the results underscore the importance of parkin activation by the PINK1 phosphorylation signal and provide a structural picture of the unraveling of parkin's ubiquitin ligase potential.

  13. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

    2014-10-06

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species.

  14. Lagerstroemia speciosa ‘Big Pink’, an improved pink flowered queen’s crape myrtle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers., commonly called Pride-of-India, queen’s or giant crape myrtle, is a large shrub or small tree widely used as a tropical ornamental, with landscape utility limited to USDA Hardiness Zones 10-11. This paper describes a pink-flowered seedling selec...

  15. Evidence of Olfactory Imprinting at an Early Life Stage in Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    PubMed

    Bett, Nolan N; Hinch, Scott G; Dittman, Andrew H; Yun, Sang-Seon

    2016-11-09

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) navigate towards spawning grounds using olfactory cues they imprinted on as juveniles. The timing at which imprinting occurs has been studied extensively, and there is strong evidence that salmon imprint on their natal water during the parr-smolt transformation (PST). Researchers have noted, however, that the life histories of some species of Pacific salmon could necessitate imprinting prior to the PST. Juvenile pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) spend less time in fresh water than any other species of Pacific salmon, and presumably must imprint on their natal water at a very young age. The time at which imprinting occurs in this species, however, has not been experimentally tested. We exposed juvenile pink salmon as alevins to phenethyl alcohol (PEA) or control water, reared these fish to adulthood, and then tested their behavioural responses to PEA to determine whether the fish successfully imprinted. We found that pink salmon exposed to PEA as alevins were attracted to the chemical as adults, suggesting that imprinting can occur during this stage. Our finding provides some of the first evidence to support the long-standing belief that imprinting can occur in pink salmon prior to the PST.

  16. The Coming Right-Brain Economy: Daniel H. Pink Says the MFA Is the New MBA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    According to a recent "Harvard Business Review" piece by author Daniel H. Pink, MBA graduates are, in many ways, becoming this century's blue-collar workers--people who entered a workforce that was full of promise only to see their jobs move overseas. At the same time, businesses are realizing that the only way to differentiate their goods and…

  17. The pink eye syndrome does not impair tuber fresh cut wound-related responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato tuber pink eye (PE) syndrome is a costly physiological disorder that results in corruption of the native periderm, susceptibility to infection, water vapor loss and associated shrinkage, roughened and cracked tuber surfaces, and various related blemishes and defects. PE results in aberra...

  18. Liquid X-ray scattering with a pink-spectrum undulator.

    PubMed

    Bratos, S; Leicknam, J-Cl; Wulff, M; Khakhulin, D

    2014-01-01

    X-ray scattering from a liquid using the spectrum from the undulator fundamental is examined as a function of the bandwidth of the spectrum. The synchrotron-generated X-ray spectrum from an undulator is 'pink', i.e. quasi-monochromatic but having a saw-tooth-shaped spectrum with a bandwidth from 1 to 15%. It is shown that features in S(q) are slightly shifted and dampened compared with strictly monochromatic data. In return, the gain in intensity is 250-500 which makes pink beams very important for time-resolved experiments. The undulator spectrum is described by a single exponential with a low-energy tail. The tail shifts features in the scattering function towards high angles and generates a small reduction in amplitude. The theoretical conclusions are compared with experiments. The r-resolved Fourier transformed signals are discussed next. Passing from q- to r-space requires a sin-Fourier transform. The Warren convergence factor is introduced in this calculation to suppress oscillatory artifacts from the finite qM in the data. It is shown that the deformation of r-resolved signals from the pink spectrum is small compared with that due to the Warren factor. The q-resolved and the r-resolved pink signals thus behave very differently.

  19. White, brown and pink adipocytes: the extraordinary plasticity of the adipose organ.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Antonio; Smorlesi, Arianna; Frontini, Andrea; Barbatelli, Giorgio; Cinti, Saverio

    2014-05-01

    In mammals, adipocytes are lipid-laden cells making up the parenchyma of the multi-depot adipose organ. White adipocytes store lipids for release as free fatty acids during fasting periods; brown adipocytes burn glucose and lipids to maintain thermal homeostasis. A third type of adipocyte, the pink adipocyte, has recently been characterised in mouse subcutaneous fat depots during pregnancy and lactation. Pink adipocytes are mammary gland alveolar epithelial cells whose role is to produce and secrete milk. Emerging evidence suggests that they derive from the transdifferentiation of subcutaneous white adipocytes. The functional response of the adipose organ to a range of metabolic and environmental challenges highlights its extraordinary plasticity. Cold exposure induces an increase in the 'brown' component of the organ to meet the increased thermal demand; in states of positive energy balance, the 'white' component expands to store excess nutrients; finally, the 'pink' component develops in subcutaneous depots during pregnancy to ensure litter feeding. At the cell level, plasticity is provided not only by stem cell proliferation and differentiation but also, distinctively, by direct transdifferentiation of fully differentiated adipocytes by the stimuli that induce genetic expression reprogramming and through it a change in phenotype and, consequently function. A greater understanding of adipocyte transdifferentiation mechanisms would have the potential to shed light on their biology as well as inspire novel therapeutic strategies against metabolic syndrome (browning) and breast cancer (pinking).

  20. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest) Pink Salmon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    velocity, water depth, can be adversely affected when exposed and densities of fish can influence to some high intertidal salinities. substrate ...Dissolved Oxygen. .. ..... ....... ....... ......... 11 Substrate . .. .. ....... ....... ....... ......... 11 Water Depth...to force water down on the gravel in freshwater close to the sea or in to remove fine sediments (Wickett the intertidal zones. Pink salmon are 1959a

  1. Pink Tea to Proactive: CCET's Transition Years, 1961-1982, as I Remember Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Alvin H.

    2015-01-01

    Alvin Thompson, former president of the California Council on the Education of Teachers (CCET), describes how he became involved with the CCET, and how the cultural environment of the CCET shifted from a "Pink Tea" society to one of political action focused on the real needs of the schools for which teachers are prepared. Thompson…

  2. Sustained susceptibility of Pink Bollworm to Bt cotton in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evolution of resistance by pests can reduce the benefits of transgenic crops that produce toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for insect control. One of the world's most important cotton pests, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), has been targeted for control by transgenic cotton producin...

  3. The ubiquitin kinase PINK1 recruits autophagy receptors to induce mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Michael; Sliter, Danielle A; Kane, Lesley A; Sarraf, Shireen A; Wang, Chunxin; Burman, Jonathon L; Sideris, Dionisia P; Fogel, Adam I; Youle, Richard J

    2015-08-20

    Protein aggregates and damaged organelles are tagged with ubiquitin chains to trigger selective autophagy. To initiate mitophagy, the ubiquitin kinase PINK1 phosphorylates ubiquitin to activate the ubiquitin ligase parkin, which builds ubiquitin chains on mitochondrial outer membrane proteins, where they act to recruit autophagy receptors. Using genome editing to knockout five autophagy receptors in HeLa cells, here we show that two receptors previously linked to xenophagy, NDP52 and optineurin, are the primary receptors for PINK1- and parkin-mediated mitophagy. PINK1 recruits NDP52 and optineurin, but not p62, to mitochondria to activate mitophagy directly, independently of parkin. Once recruited to mitochondria, NDP52 and optineurin recruit the autophagy factors ULK1, DFCP1 and WIPI1 to focal spots proximal to mitochondria, revealing a function for these autophagy receptors upstream of LC3. This supports a new model in which PINK1-generated phospho-ubiquitin serves as the autophagy signal on mitochondria, and parkin then acts to amplify this signal. This work also suggests direct and broader roles for ubiquitin phosphorylation in other autophagy pathways.

  4. Cadherin Gene Expression and Effects of Bt Resistance on Sperm Transfer in Pink Bollworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cadherin proteins bind Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in lepidopteran midguts but their inherent function remains unclear. In pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, three recessive mutations in a cadherin gene (BtR) are tightly linked with resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac. Here we examined patt...

  5. Evidence of Olfactory Imprinting at an Early Life Stage in Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)

    PubMed Central

    Bett, Nolan N.; Hinch, Scott G.; Dittman, Andrew H.; Yun, Sang-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) navigate towards spawning grounds using olfactory cues they imprinted on as juveniles. The timing at which imprinting occurs has been studied extensively, and there is strong evidence that salmon imprint on their natal water during the parr-smolt transformation (PST). Researchers have noted, however, that the life histories of some species of Pacific salmon could necessitate imprinting prior to the PST. Juvenile pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) spend less time in fresh water than any other species of Pacific salmon, and presumably must imprint on their natal water at a very young age. The time at which imprinting occurs in this species, however, has not been experimentally tested. We exposed juvenile pink salmon as alevins to phenethyl alcohol (PEA) or control water, reared these fish to adulthood, and then tested their behavioural responses to PEA to determine whether the fish successfully imprinted. We found that pink salmon exposed to PEA as alevins were attracted to the chemical as adults, suggesting that imprinting can occur during this stage. Our finding provides some of the first evidence to support the long-standing belief that imprinting can occur in pink salmon prior to the PST. PMID:27827382

  6. Structure of phosphorylated UBL domain and insights into PINK1-orchestrated parkin activation

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Jacob D.; Dunkerley, Karen M.; Mercier, Pascal; Shaw, Gary S.

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in PARK2 and PARK6 genes are responsible for the majority of hereditary Parkinson’s disease cases. These genes encode the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin and the protein kinase PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), respectively. Together, parkin and PINK1 regulate the mitophagy pathway, which recycles damaged mitochondria following oxidative stress. Native parkin is inactive and exists in an autoinhibited state mediated by its ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain. PINK1 phosphorylation of serine 65 in parkin’s UBL and serine 65 of ubiquitin fully activate ubiquitin ligase activity; however, a structural rationale for these observations is not clear. Here, we report the structure of the phosphorylated UBL domain from parkin. We find that destabilization of the UBL results from rearrangements to hydrophobic core packing that modify its structure. Altered surface electrostatics from the phosphoserine group disrupt its intramolecular association, resulting in poorer autoinhibition in phosphorylated parkin. Further, we show that phosphorylation of both the UBL domain and ubiquitin are required to activate parkin by releasing the UBL domain, forming an extended structure needed to facilitate E2–ubiquitin binding. Together, the results underscore the importance of parkin activation by the PINK1 phosphorylation signal and provide a structural picture of the unraveling of parkin’s ubiquitin ligase potential. PMID:28007983

  7. Albino and pink-eyed dilution mutants in the Russian dwarf hamster Phodopus campbelli.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R

    1996-01-01

    The coat color mutant genes albino (c) and pink eyed dilution (p) are described in the dwarf hamster species Phodopus campbelli. Both genes are inherited as redessive to normal. Tests for linkage between the two genes gave negative results. The apparent absence of linkage is contrasted with linkage between homologous alleles c and p in other species of rodents.

  8. Relationship Between Pink Eye Symptoms and Cell Damage in the Tuber Periderm and Cortex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pink eye (PE) is a tuber disorder that leads to processing complications and bud-end rot in storage. Despite the significance of PE for the potato processing industry, limited progress has been made in understanding the physiological basis of this disorder. Although the internal autofluorescence tha...

  9. 77 FR 60207 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) propose to list the Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle, Cicindela albissima, as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act); and propose to designate critical habitat for the species. In total, approximately 921 hectares (2,276 acres) are being proposed for designation as critical habitat. The proposed......

  10. Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Excitability Score in Rabbit fed Hibiscus Sabdariffa in Graded Level.

    PubMed

    Adenkola, A Y; Oluremi, O I A

    2014-12-29

    This study was conducted for 10 weeks with the aim of investigating the erythrocyte membrane integrity as measured by erythrocyte osmotic fragility and excitability scores of rabbits fed graded level of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx (HSC). Twenty weaners' rabbit of both sexes were used for the study and were placed on four experimental diets which contain the following percentages of HSC 0 %, 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, as feed additive and were added at 0 g, 62.5 g, 125 g, 187.5 g designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 experimental diets. Excitability scores were measured weekly as described by Voisnet et al. (1997). At the end of the experiment, the rabbits were slaughtered by severing the jugular vein. A Blood sample (2 ml) was collected from each rabbit into sampled bottles, containing the Na EDTA as anticoagulant for hematological analysis. Packed cell volume (PCV) Haemoglobin concentration (Hb), Total red blood cell (RBC) count, Total leukocyte count as well as differential leukocyte was determined using standard method. The percentage haemolysis recorded at 0.3 % to 0.8 % was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in rabbits in T1 compared to the remaining 3 diets. The result of excitability score shows that rabbit on diet 1 and 2 had a lower value which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than rabbits on diets 3 and 4 with a value of 65.5 ± 5.0 and 70.00 ± 5.50 % respectively. In conclusion this study demonstrated for the first time that chronic administration of HSC improves haematological parameters, brain mood and function as well as maintaining erythrocyte membrane integrity.

  11. Functional and antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers incorporated with Hibiscus sabdariffa by-product

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zahra S.; Abozed, Safaa S.

    2014-01-01

    The Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes’ residue (HSR) remained after the extraction of beverage is discarded which contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to explore the suitability of incorporating different amount of HSR (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0%) in crackers to enhance dietary fiber and antioxidant content. Physicochemical properties, antioxidants activity, nutritional quality, sensory profile and microstructure properties of samples containing HSR were examined and compared with control crackers. Cracker protein and fat levels decreased as HSR increased from 0.0% to 5% while ash increased. The total dietary fiber DF increased from 3.36% to 8.17% where the highest DF was reached at 5% HSR. The content of phenols increased from 5.99 to 17.57 mg/g and total flavonoid content increased from 49.36 to 104.63 mg/g of crackers incorporated with 5% HSR. DPPH radical scavenging activity increased two fold by increasing HSR up to 5%. HSR containing crackers exhibited darker L values than none/less HSR containing ones. In sensory ranking tests, acceptable crackers with pleasant flavor were obtained by incorporating up to 3.75% HSR into the cracker’s formula. Crackers prepared with 5% HSR received the poorest sensory rating compared to non/less HSR enriched cracker. Scanning electron microscopy (EM) images of the prepared crackers revealed marked changes caused by incorporating HSR as upon HSR addition the surface was observed to be scratched, cracker and rougher. Overall results suggest that HSR is a potential functional food ingredient high in fiber content and antioxidants activity that may be processed into flour and used in food applications, such as baked goods. PMID:25685546

  12. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) seed oil is a rich source of gamma-tocopherol.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, R; Fernández, J; Pineda, M; Aguilar, M

    2007-04-01

    The antioxidant potential of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) extracts was studied. Different plant organs, including seeds, stems, leaves, and sepals, were analyzed with respect to their water-soluble antioxidant capacity, lipid-soluble antioxidant capacity, and tocopherol content, revealing that roselle seeds are a good source of lipid-soluble antioxidants, particularly gamma-tocopherol. Roselle seed oil was extracted and characterized, and its physicochemical parameters are summarized: acidity, 2.24%; peroxide index, 8.63 meq/kg; extinction coefficients at 232 (k(232)) and 270 nm (k(270)), 3.19 and 1.46, respectively; oxidative stability, 15.53 h; refractive index, 1.477; density, 0.92 kg/L; and viscosity, 15.9 cP. Roselle seed oil belongs to the linoleic/oleic category, its most abundant fatty acids being C18:2 (40.1%), C18:1 (28%), C16:0 (20%), C18:0 (5.3%), and C19:1 (1.7%). Sterols include beta-sitosterol (71.9%), campesterol (13.6%), Delta-5-avenasterol (5.9%), cholesterol (1.35%), and clerosterol (0.6%). Total tocopherols were detected at an average concentration of 2000 mg/kg, including alpha-tocopherol (25%), gamma-tocopherol (74.5%), and delta-tocopherol (0.5%). The global characteristics of roselle seed oil suggest that it could have important industrial applications, adding to the traditional use of roselle sepals in the elaboration of karkade tea.

  13. Influence of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. petal on cadmium toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Asagba, S O; Adaikpoh, M A; Kadiri, H; Obi, F O

    2007-01-01

    The effects of chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) on some selected biochemical parameters, as well as the possible protective role of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L petal were studied in 12-wk-old male Wistar albino rats. Exposure to Cd caused a significant increase in plasma Lalanine aminotransferases (ALT) only but with a corresponding decrease in liver L-alanine and L-aspartate aminotransferases (L-ALT, L-AST) when compared to the Cd-free control. Total superoxide dismutase activity was decreased in the liver, testis, and prostate of Cd-exposed rats, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were increased relative to the Cd-free control. The metal significantly increased prostatic acid phosphatase activity in the prostate, but decreased the body weight gain of the rats and organ/body weight ratio for prostate and testis compared to the Cd-free control. Pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa resulted in significantly less hepatotoxicity than with Cd alone as measured by plasma ALT and liver ALT and AST activities. The extract also protected the rats against Cd-induced liver, prostate, and testis lipoperoxidation as evidenced by significantly reduced MDA values in these organs, as well as reduced prostatic acid phosphatase activity in the prostate, when compared to the Cd-only exposed rats. Also, when compared to the organ/body weight ratios obtained from rats exposed to Cd alone the prostate and testis were protected by the extract as shown by enhanced prostate/body weight and testis/body weight ratios of Cd- and extract-treated rats. These data suggest that H. sabdarrifa L might be protective in Cd toxicity.

  14. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn flower extracts.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Mukhtar, Ammara; Hussain, Zaib; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Ashraf-Janjua, Muhammad Ramazan-Saeed; Mahmood, Nasir; Yar, Muhammad

    2014-05-01

    Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of locally grown Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by estimation of total flavonoids contents, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation capacity. Agar disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial potential of crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis. The yield of the crude extracts (23.21 ± 3.67 and 18.36 ± 2.98% in 80% methanol and ethanol solvents was calculated, respectively. Methanol and ethanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed total phenolics 61.45 ± 3.23 and 59.31 ± 4.31 mg/100g as gallic acid equivalent, total flavonoids 53.28 ± 1.93 and 32.25±1.21 mg/100g as catechine equivalent, DPPH free radical scavenging activity 75.46±4.67 and 64.98 ± 2.11% and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation potential 75.8 ±3.22 and 61.6 ± 2.01% respectively, was measured. Antibacterial study against three human pathogens such as staphlococus sp. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli showed growth inhibitory effect in the range of 12.75 ± 1.17 to 16.75 ± 2.10 mm. These results showed H. rosa-sinensis indigenous to Kallar Kahar and its allied areas bear promising medicinal values and could be used for developing herbal medicines to target oxidative stress and infectious diseases.

  15. Protective effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa against serum/glucose deprivation-induced PC12 cells injury

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Elham; Hosseini, Azar; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Findings natural products with antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties has been one of the interesting challenges in the search for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases including ischemic stroke. Serum/glucose deprivation (SGD) has been used as a model for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage during ischemia in vitro and for the expansion of neuroprotective drugs against ischemia-induced brain injury. Recent studies showed that Hibiscus sabdariffa exert pharmacological actions such as potent antioxidant. Therefore, in this study we investigated the protective effect of extract of H. sabdariffa against SGD-induced PC12 cells injury. Materials and Methods: Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of H. sabdariffa extract (HSE) for 2 hr, and then exposed to SGD condition for 6, 12 and 18 hr. Results: SGD caused a major reduction in cell viability after 6, 12, and 18 hr as compared with control cells (p< 0.001). Pretreatment with HSE (30-500 𝜇g/mL) significantly increased cell viability following SGD insult for 6, 12 and 18 hr. A significant increase in cell apoptosis was seen in cells under SGD condition after 12hr as compared with control cells (p< 0.001). Pretreatment with HSE significantly decreased cell apoptosis subsequent SGD conditionafter12hr at concentration of 60, 125 and 250. Conclusion: These data showed that HSE had a protective property under SGD condition in PC12 cells, suggesting that H. sabdariffa has the potential to be used as a new therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26101756

  16. Investigating the characteristic strength of flocs formed from crude and purified Hibiscus extracts in water treatment.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alfred Ndahi; Bridgeman, John

    2016-10-15

    The growth, breakage and re-growth of flocs formed using crude and purified seed extracts of Okra (OK), Sabdariffa (SB) and Kenaf (KE) as coagulants and coagulant aids was assessed. The results showed floc size increased from 300 μm when aluminium sulphate (AS) was used as a coagulant to between 696 μm and 722 μm with the addition of 50 mg/l of OK, KE and SB crude samples as coagulant aids. Similarly, an increase in floc size was observed when each of the purified proteins was used as coagulant aid at doses of between 0.123 and 0.74 mg/l. The largest floc sizes of 741 μm, 460 μm and 571 μm were obtained with a 0.123 mg/l dose of purified Okra protein (POP), purified Sabdariffa (PSP) and purified Kenaf (PKP) respectively. Further coagulant aid addition from 0.123 to 0.74 mg/l resulted in a decrease in floc size and strength in POP and PSP. However, an increase in floc strength and reduced d50 size was observed in PKP at a dose of 0.74 mg/l. Flocs produced when using purified and crude extract samples as coagulant aids exhibited high recovery factors and strength. However, flocs exhibited greater recovery post-breakage when the extracts were used as a primary coagulant. It was observed that the combination of purified proteins and AS improved floc size, strength and recovery factors. Therefore, the applications of Hibiscus seeds in either crude or purified form increases floc growth, strength, recoverability and can also reduce the cost associated with the import of AS in developing countries.

  17. Antisnake Venom Activity of Hibiscus aethiopicus L. against Echis ocellatus and Naja n. nigricollis

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, S. S.; Al-Jabri, A. A.; Sallam, T. A.; Al-Balushi, M. S.; Mothana, R. A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate whether the Hibiscus aethiopicus L. plant has neutralization activity against venoms of two clinically important snakes. The H. aethiopicus was dried and extracted with water. Different assays were performed to evaluate the plant's acute toxicity and its anti-snake venom activities. The results showed that H. aethiopicus extract alone had no effect on the viability of C2C12 muscle cells, but significantly (P < .05) protected muscle cells against the toxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 55, 150, and 300 μg/mL. The maximum protective effect of the extract was exhibited at 75 μg/mL. The extract significantly (P < .001) inhibited the cytotoxic effects of E. ocellatus venom at 300 μg/mL. All rabbits (n = 10) and guinea pigs (n = 10) were alive after the two weeks of given the lethal dosage 16 g/Kg of the H. aethiopicus extract herbal solution. No abnormal behaviour was observed of both groups of animals. All guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with venoms alone (5 mg/kg) died. However, all guinea pigs (n = 21) treated with venom (5 mg/kg) and the extract (400 to 1000 mg/kg) survived. Guinea pigs (n = 3) treated with Naja n. nigricollis venom alone (2.5 mg/kg) and guinea pigs (n = 21) venom with the extract (400 to 1000 mg/kg) died. The H. aethiopicus completely (100%) blocked the haemorrhagic activity of E. ocellatus in the egg embryo at 3.3 mg/mL of extract. These findings suggest that H. aethiopicus may contain an endogenous inhibitor of venom-induced haemorrhage. PMID:20628507

  18. Preliminary Screening of Antibacterial Activity Using Crude Extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Arullappan, Sangeetha; Zakaria, Zubaidah; Basri, Dayang Fredalina

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus rosa sinensis, a member of the Malvaceae family, is widely cultivated in the tropics as an ornamental plant. It is often planted as a fence or hedge plant, and has several forms of flowers with varying colours. It is also used in traditional medicine to induce abortion, ease menstrual cramps, assist in childbirth and relieve headache, fever and inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of H. rosa sinesis extract using a disc diffusion method. Crude petroleum ether extract, ethyl acetate extract and methanol extract from the leaves, stems and flowers of the plant were prepared using a cold extraction technique. These extracts were tested at concentrations ranging from 4 mg/disc to 0.017 mg/disc against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. The petroleum ether extract from the leaves, stems and flowers and methanol extract from the leaves showed inhibition zones with diameters > 12 mm against MRSA. Overall, the petroleum ether extract from flowers at concentrations of 4 mg/disc and 2 mg/disc displayed the strongest inhibition zones of 18.6 ± 2.85 mm and 18.5 ± 0.29 mm, respectively, as compared to vancomycin (30 μg/ml), which did not differ significantly from the 18.0 ± 0.10 mm size of the vancomycin (30 μg/ml) inhibition zone (p < 0.05). In conclusion, H. rosa sinensis extract is a potential antibacterial agent for treating MRSA infection. PMID:24575183

  19. Functional and antioxidant properties of novel snack crackers incorporated with Hibiscus sabdariffa by-product.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zahra S; Abozed, Safaa S

    2015-01-01

    The Hibiscus sabdariffa calyxes' residue (HSR) remained after the extraction of beverage is discarded which contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to explore the suitability of incorporating different amount of HSR (0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 3.75%, and 5.0%) in crackers to enhance dietary fiber and antioxidant content. Physicochemical properties, antioxidants activity, nutritional quality, sensory profile and microstructure properties of samples containing HSR were examined and compared with control crackers. Cracker protein and fat levels decreased as HSR increased from 0.0% to 5% while ash increased. The total dietary fiber DF increased from 3.36% to 8.17% where the highest DF was reached at 5% HSR. The content of phenols increased from 5.99 to 17.57 mg/g and total flavonoid content increased from 49.36 to 104.63 mg/g of crackers incorporated with 5% HSR. DPPH radical scavenging activity increased two fold by increasing HSR up to 5%. HSR containing crackers exhibited darker L values than none/less HSR containing ones. In sensory ranking tests, acceptable crackers with pleasant flavor were obtained by incorporating up to 3.75% HSR into the cracker's formula. Crackers prepared with 5% HSR received the poorest sensory rating compared to non/less HSR enriched cracker. Scanning electron microscopy (EM) images of the prepared crackers revealed marked changes caused by incorporating HSR as upon HSR addition the surface was observed to be scratched, cracker and rougher. Overall results suggest that HSR is a potential functional food ingredient high in fiber content and antioxidants activity that may be processed into flour and used in food applications, such as baked goods.

  20. Mesoscale modelling of water vapour in the tropical UTLS: two case studies from the HIBISCUS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marécal, V.; Durry, G.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Rivière, E. D.; Pirre, M.

    2006-08-01

    In this study, we evaluate the ability of the BRAMS mesoscale model compared to ECMWF global analysis to simulate the observed vertical variations of water vapour in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The observations are balloon-borne measurements of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature from micro-SDLA (Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer) instrument. Data from two balloon flights performed during the 2004 HIBISCUS field campaign are used to compare with the mesoscale simulations and to ECMWF analysis. The mesoscale model performs significantly better than ECMWF analysis for water vapour in the upper troposphere and similarly or slightly worse for temperature. The improvement provided by the mesoscale model for water vapour comes mainly from (i) the enhanced vertical resolution in the UTLS (250 m for BRAMS and ~1 km for ECMWF model) and (ii) the more detailed microphysical parameterization providing ice supersaturations as in the observations. The ECMWF vertical resolution (~1 km) is too coarse to capture the observed fine scale vertical variations of water vapour in the UTLS. In near saturated or supersaturated layers, the mesoscale model relative humidity with respect to ice saturation is close to observations provided that the temperature profile is realistic. For temperature, ECMWF analysis gives good results partly thanks to data assimilation. The analysis of the mesoscale model results showed that in undersaturated layers, the water vapour profile depends mainly on the dynamics. In saturated/supersaturated layers, microphysical processes play an important role and have to be taken into account on top of the dynamical processes to understand the water vapour profiles. In the lower stratosphere, the ECMWF model and the BRAMS model give very similar water vapour profiles that are significantly dryer than micro-SDLA measurements. This similarity comes from the fact that BRAMS is initialised using ECMWF analysis and that no mesoscale