Science.gov

Sample records for pinus radiata grown

  1. Photosynthetic responses of field-grown Pinus radiata trees to artificial and aphid-induced defoliation.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Alieta; Smith, David; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Smith, Ian; Corkrey, Ross; Elms, Stephen; Beadle, Chris; Mohammed, Caroline

    2011-06-01

    The phloem-feeding aphid Essigella californica represents a potential threat to the productivity of Pinus radiata plantations in south-eastern Australia. Five- and nine-year-old field trials were used to characterize the effects of artificial and natural aphid-induced (E. californica) defoliation, respectively, on shoot photosynthesis and growth. Photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) was significantly greater following a 25% (D25) (13.8 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) and a 50% (D50) (15.9 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) single-event upper-crown artificial defoliation, 3 weeks after defoliation than in undefoliated control trees (12.9 µmol m(-2) s(-1)). This response was consistently observed for up to 11 weeks after the defoliation event; by Week 16, there was no difference in A(max) between control and defoliated trees. In the D50 treatment, this increased A(max) was not sufficient to fully compensate for the foliage loss as evidenced by the reduced diameter increment (by 15%) in defoliated trees 36 weeks after defoliation. In contrast, diameter increment of trees in the D25 treatment was unaffected by defoliation. The A(max) of trees experiencing upper-crown defoliation by natural and repeated E. californica infestations varied, depending on host genotype. Despite clear differences in defoliation levels between resistant and susceptible genotypes (17 vs. 35% of tree crown defoliated, respectively), growth of susceptible genotypes was not significantly different from that of resistant genotypes. The observed increases in A(max) in the lower crown of the canopy following attack suggested that susceptible genotypes were able to partly compensate for the loss of foliage by compensatory photosynthesis. The capacity of P. radiata to regulate photosynthesis in response to natural aphid-induced defoliation provides evidence that the impact of E. californica attack on stem growth will be less than expected, at least for up to 35% defoliation.

  2. Understanding Trichoderma in the root system of Pinus radiata: associations between rhizosphere colonisation and growth promotion for commercially grown seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Pierre; Jones, E Eirian; Hill, Robert A; Stewart, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Two Trichoderma isolates (T. hamatum LU592 and T. atroviride LU132) were tested for their ability to promote the growth and health of commercially grown Pinus radiata seedlings. The colonisation behaviour of the two isolates was investigated to relate rhizosphere competence and root penetration to subsequent effects on plant performance. Trichoderma hamatum LU592 was shown to enhance several plant health and growth parameters. The isolate significantly reduced seedling mortality by up to 29%, and promoted the growth of shoots (e.g. height by up to 16%) and roots (e.g. dry weight by up to 31%). The introduction of LU592 as either seed coat or spray application equally improved seedling health and growth demonstrating the suitability of both application methods for pine nursery situations. However, clear differences in rhizosphere colonisation and root penetration between the two application methods highlighted the need for more research on the impact of inoculum densities. When spray-applied, LU592 was found to be the predominant Trichoderma strain in the plant root system, including bulk potting mix, rhizosphere and endorhizosphere. In contrast, T. atroviride LU132 was shown to colonise the root system poorly, and no biological impact on P. radiata seedlings was detected. This is the first report to demonstrate rhizosphere competence as a useful indicator for determining Trichoderma bio-inoculants for P. radiata. High indigenous Trichoderma populations with similar population dynamics to the introduced strains revealed the limitations of the dilution plating technique, but this constraint was alleviated to some extent by the use of techniques for morphological and molecular identification of the introduced isolates. Copyright © 2011 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Variations in dark respiration and mitochondrial numbers within needles of Pinus radiata grown in ambient or elevated CO2 partial pressure.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Kevin L; Anderson, O Roger; Tissue, David T; Turnbull, Matthew H; Whitehead, David

    2004-03-01

    Within-leaf variations in cell size, mitochondrial numbers and dark respiration rates were compared in the most recently expanded tip, the mid-section and base of needles of Pinus radiata D. Don trees grown for 4 years in open-top chambers at ambient (36 Pa) or elevated (65 Pa) carbon dioxide partial pressure (p(CO2)a). Mitochondrial numbers and respiratory activity varied along the length of the needle, with the highest number of mitochondria per unit cytoplasm and the highest rate of respiration per unit leaf area at the base of the needle. Regardless of the location of the cells (tip, middle or basal sections), needles collected from trees grown in elevated p(CO2)a had nearly twice the number of mitochondria per unit cytoplasm as those grown in ambient p(CO2)a. This stimulation of mitochondrial density by growth at elevated p(CO2)a was greater at the tip of the needle (2.7 times more mitochondria than in needles grown in ambient CO2) than at the base of the needle (1.7 times). The mean size of individual mitochondria was unaffected either by growth at elevated p(CO2)a or by position along the needle. Tree growth at elevated p(CO2)a had a variable effect on respiration per unit leaf area, significantly increasing respiration in the tip of the needles (+25%) and decreasing respiration at the mid-section and base of the needles (-14% and -25%, respectively). Although a simple relationship between respiration per unit leaf area and mitochondrial number per unit cytoplasm was found within each CO2 treatment, the variable effect of growth at elevated p(CO2)a on respiration along the length of the needles indicates that a more complex relationship must determine the association between structure and function in these needles.

  4. Bio-engineering traits of Pinus radiata D.Don

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giadrossich, Filippo; Marden, Michael; Marrosu, Roberto; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Phillips, Chris John; Cohen, Denis; Niedda, Marcello

    2017-04-01

    Pinus radiata is widely cultivated in New Zealand. Due to steep slopes and intense rainfall, the silviculture of Pinus radiata forests is important to control erosion and slope stability. Bio-engineering traits such as root distribution and root tensile strength are fundamental to understand the effectiveness of Pinus radiata. This information is needed to use the state of the art root reinforcement model (the Root Bundle Model) and the physically-based slope stability model SOSlope. Yet, little is known about root distribution and tensile strength for this specie. We measured soil moisture and carried out 30 field tensile tests on roots of Pinus radiata. We also measured root distribution data from 5 plants, digging arc of circles 0.6 radian around the trees in four opposite directions. We fully excavated the root system of two trees. Using the Root Bundle Model, results of our measurements allow estimation of root reinforcement. With the slope stability model SOSlope, information on the intensity and frequency of harvesting and on the development of weak zones that can be supported by a stand of Pinus radiata in relation to slope stability can be calculated. An added value is that the collected data allow us to make inferences between number and sizes of roots, and growth direction.

  5. Canopy position and needle age affect photosynthetic response in field-grown Pinus radiata after five years of exposure to elevated carbon dioxide partial pressure.

    PubMed

    Tissue, D T; Griffin, K L; Turnbull, M H; Whitehead, D

    2001-08-01

    Photosynthesis of tree seedlings is generally enhanced during short-term exposure to elevated atmospheric CO2 partial pressure, but longer-term studies often indicate some degree of photosynthetic adjustment. We present physiological and biochemical evidence to explain observed long-term photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2 partial pressure as influenced by needle age and canopy position. We grew Pinus radiata D. Don. trees in open-top chambers for 5 years in sandy soil at ambient (36 Pa) and elevated (65 Pa) CO2 partial pressures. The trees were well watered and exposed to natural light and ambient temperature. In the fourth year of CO2 exposure (fall 1997), when foliage growth had ceased for the year, photosynthetic down-regulation was observed in 1-year-old needles, but not in current-year needles, suggesting a reduction in carbohydrate sink strength as a result of increasing needle age (Turnbull et al. 1998). In 5-year-old trees (spring 1997), when foliage expansion was occurring, photosynthetic down-regulation was not observed, reflecting significantly large sinks for carbohydrates throughout the tree. Net photosynthesis was stimulated by 79% in trees growing in elevated CO2 partial pressure, but there was no significant effect on photosynthetic capacity or Rubisco activity and concentration. Current-year needles were more responsive to elevated CO2 partial pressure than 1-year-old needles, exhibiting larger relative increases in net photosynthesis to elevated CO2 partial pressure (98 versus 64%). Lower canopy and upper canopy leaves exhibited similar relative responses to growth in elevated CO2 partial pressure. However, needles in the upper canopy exhibited higher net photosynthesis, photosynthetic capacity, and Rubisco activity and concentration than needles in the lower canopy. Given that the ratio of mature to juvenile foliage mass in the canopy will increase as trees mature, we suggest that trees may become less responsive to elevated CO2 partial

  6. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  7. Development of Screening Trials to Rank Pinus radiata Genotypes for Resistance to Defoliation by Monterey Pine Aphid (Essigella californica)

    Treesearch

    Stephen Elms; Peter Ades; Nick Collet

    2012-01-01

    The Monterey pine aphid (Essigella californica) is a recent arrival in Australia, having first been detected in 1998. It quickly spread throughout the national radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation estate, causing seasonal defoliation and compromising tree growth in many areas. Selection of resistant radiata...

  8. Family 34 glycosyltransferase (GT34) genes and proteins in Pinus radiata (radiata pine) and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine).

    PubMed

    Ade, Carsten P; Bemm, Felix; Dickson, James M J; Walter, Christian; Harris, Philip J

    2014-04-01

    Using a functional genomics approach, four candidate genes (PtGT34A, PtGT34B, PtGT34C and PtGT34D) were identified in Pinus taeda. These genes encode CAZy family GT34 glycosyltransferases that are involved in the synthesis of cell-wall xyloglucans and heteromannans. The full-length coding sequences of three orthologs (PrGT34A, B and C) were isolated from a xylem-specific cDNA library from the closely related Pinus radiata. PrGT34B is the ortholog of XXT1 and XXT2, the two main xyloglucan (1→6)-α-xylosyltransferases in Arabidopsis thaliana. PrGT34C is the ortholog of XXT5 in A. thaliana, which is also involved in the xylosylation of xyloglucans. PrGT34A is an ortholog of a galactosyltransferase from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) that is involved in galactomannan synthesis. Truncated coding sequences of the genes were cloned into plasmid vectors and expressed in a Sf9 insect cell-culture system. The heterologous proteins were purified, and in vitro assays showed that, when incubated with UDP-xylose and cellotetraose, cellopentaose or cellohexaose, PrGT34B showed xylosyltransferase activity, and, when incubated with UDP-galactose and the same cello-oligosaccharides, PrGT34B showed some galactosyltransferase activity. The ratio of xylosyltransferase to galactosyltransferase activity was 434:1. Hydrolysis of the galactosyltransferase reaction products using galactosidases showed the linkages formed were α-linkages. Analysis of the products of PrGT34B by MALDI-TOF MS showed that up to three xylosyl residues were transferred from UDP-xylose to cellohexaose. The heterologous proteins PrGT34A and PrGT34C showed no detectable enzymatic activity. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 90sr uptake by 'pinus ponderosa' and 'pinus radiata' seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    In the study, the authors inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi; inoculated and nonincoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove Sr90 from an organic growth medium. Seedlings were grown for 3 months in a growth chamber in glass tubes containing 165 cu cm of sphagnum peat moss and perlite and, except in the controls, the fungal inoculum. After 3 months, 5978 Bq of Sr90 in 1 ml of sterile, distilled, deionized water was added. Seedlings were grown for an additional month and then harvested. P. ponderosa seedlings that were inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi accumulated 3.0-6.0% of the Sr90; bioconcentration ratios ranged from 98-162. Inoculated P. radiata seedlings accumulated 6.0-6.9% of the Sr90; bioconcentration ratios ranged from 88-133. Noninoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings accumulated only 0.6 and 0.7% of the Sr90 and had bioconcentration ratios of 28 and 27, respectively.

  10. Stand variation in Pinus radiata and its relationship with allometric scaling and critical buckling height.

    PubMed

    Waghorn, Matthew J; Watt, Michael S

    2013-04-01

    Allometric relationships and the determination of critical buckling heights have been examined for Pinus radiata in the past. However, how they relate to more mature Pinus radiata exhibiting a wide range of stem diameters, slenderness and modulus of elasticity (E) at operationally used stand densities is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Pinus radiata stand structure variables and allometric scaling and critical buckling height. Utilizing a Pinus radiata Nelder trial with stand density and genetic breed as variables, critical buckling height was calculated whilst reduced major axis regression was used to determine scaling exponents between critical height (Hcrit), actual height (H), ground line diameter (D), slenderness (S), density-specific stiffness (E/ρ) and modulus of elasticity (E). Critical buckling height was highly responsive to decreasing diameter and increasing slenderness. Safety factors in this study were typically considerably lower than previously reported margins in other species. As density-specific stiffness scaled negatively with diameter, the exponent of 0·55 between critical height and diameter did not meet the assumed value of 0·67 under constant density-specific stiffness. E scaled positively with stem slenderness to the power of 0·78. The findings suggest that within species density-specific stiffness variation may influence critical height and the scaling exponent between critical height and diameter, which is considered so important in assumptions regarding allometric relationships.

  11. MODIFYING LIGNIN IN CONIFERS: THE ROLE OF HCT DURING TRACHEARY ELEMENT FORMATION IN PINUS RADIATA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) is involved in the production of methoxylated monolignols that are precursors to guaiacyl and syringyl lignin in angiosperm species. We identified and cloned a putative HCT gene from Pinus radiata, a coniferous gymnosperm, ...

  12. Stand variation in Pinus radiata and its relationship with allometric scaling and critical buckling height

    PubMed Central

    Waghorn, Matthew J.; Watt, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Allometric relationships and the determination of critical buckling heights have been examined for Pinus radiata in the past. However, how they relate to more mature Pinus radiata exhibiting a wide range of stem diameters, slenderness and modulus of elasticity (E) at operationally used stand densities is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Pinus radiata stand structure variables and allometric scaling and critical buckling height. Methods Utilizing a Pinus radiata Nelder trial with stand density and genetic breed as variables, critical buckling height was calculated whilst reduced major axis regression was used to determine scaling exponents between critical height (Hcrit), actual height (H), ground line diameter (D), slenderness (S), density-specific stiffness (E/ρ) and modulus of elasticity (E). Key Results Critical buckling height was highly responsive to decreasing diameter and increasing slenderness. Safety factors in this study were typically considerably lower than previously reported margins in other species. As density-specific stiffness scaled negatively with diameter, the exponent of 0·55 between critical height and diameter did not meet the assumed value of 0·67 under constant density-specific stiffness. E scaled positively with stem slenderness to the power of 0·78. Conclusions The findings suggest that within species density-specific stiffness variation may influence critical height and the scaling exponent between critical height and diameter, which is considered so important in assumptions regarding allometric relationships. PMID:23388878

  13. Polyamine levels during the development of zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata

    Treesearch

    Rakesh Minocha; Dale R. Smith; Cathie Reeves; Kevin D. Steele; Subhash C. Minocha

    1999-01-01

    Changes in the cellular content of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) were compared at different stages of development in zygotic and somatic embryos of Pinus radiata D. Don. During embryo development, both the zygotic and the somatic embryos showed a steady increase in spermidine content, with either a small decrease or no...

  14. Lymantria monacha (nun moth) and L. dispar (gypsy moth) survival and development on improved Pinus radiata

    Treesearch

    T.M. Withers; M.A. Keena

    2001-01-01

    The lymantriid forest defoliators, Lymantria monacha L. (nun moth) and Lymantria dispar L. (gypsy moth) are particularly severe pests in other countries in the world, but the ability of these moths to utilise and complete development on Pinus radiata D. Don had never been established. In laboratory trials, colonies of central European L. monacha and Russian far east (...

  15. Detection of possible Phytophthora pinifolia infection in pinus radiata green sawn timber produced in Chile

    Treesearch

    R. Ahumada; C. Díaz; M. Peredo; C. Barría; P. González; G. Cuevas

    2010-01-01

    A new needle blight disease was observed on Pinus radiata in Chile during 2004. The disease, known in Chile as Daño Foliar del Pino (DFP), stretches southward from the Arauco to Valdivia Provinces, and was present over an area of about 60 000 ha in 2006, with different levels of intensity. The disease is typified by needle infections and...

  16. Resin in bisulfite pulp from Pinus radiata wood and its relationship to pitch troubles

    Treesearch

    P.J. Nelson; Richard W. Hemingway

    1971-01-01

    The resin content of bisulfite pulp from Pinus radiata D. Don was determined at various stages in its manufacture and the changes in the composition of the resin studied. About 50% of the resin present in the wood was removed during cooking, an additional 11% by blowpit washing, and a further 8% by screening. Resin acids and fatty acids were...

  17. Western gall rust -- A threat to Pinus radiata in New Zealand

    Treesearch

    Tod D. Ramsfield; Darren J. Kriticos; Detlev R. Vogler; Brian W. Geils

    2007-01-01

    Western gall rust (Peridermium harknessii J. P. Moore (syn. Endocronartium harknessii (J. P. Moore) Y. Hiratsuka) is potentially a serious threat to exotic Pinus radiata D. Don plantations of New Zealand although the pathogen has not been recorded here. Mechanisms that may have prevented invasion of the pathogen include geographic...

  18. Immunolocalization of IAA and ABA in roots and needles of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) during drought and rewatering.

    PubMed

    De Diego, N; Rodríguez, J L; Dodd, I C; Pérez-Alfocea, F; Moncaleán, P; Lacuesta, M

    2013-05-01

    Anatomical, physiological and phytohormonal changes involved in drought tolerance were examined in different Pinus radiata D. Don breeds subjected to soil drying and rewatering. Breeds with the smallest stomatal chamber size had the lowest transpiration rate and the highest intrinsic water-use efficiency. Xylem cell size was positively correlated with leaf hydraulic conductance and needle indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations, whereas transpiration rate was negatively correlated with needle abscisic acid (ABA) levels. Since these two phytohormones seem important in regulating the P. radiata drought response, they were simultaneously immunolocalized in roots and needles of the most tolerant breed (P. radiata var. radiata × var. cedrosensis) during two sequential drought cycles and after rewatering. During drought, IAA was unequally distributed into the pointed area of the needle cross-section and mainly located in mesophyll and vascular tissue cells of needles, possibly inducing needle epinasty, whereas ABA was principally located in guard cells, presumably to elicit stomata closure. In the roots, at the end of the first drought cycle, while strong IAA accumulation was observed in the cortex, ABA levels decreased probably due to translocation to the leaves. Rewatering modified the distribution of both IAA and ABA in the needles, causing an accumulation principally in vascular tissue, with residual concentrations in mesophyll, likely favouring the acclimatization of the plants for further drought cycles. Contrarily, in the roots IAA and ABA were located in the exodermis, a natural barrier that regulates the phytohormone translocation to other plant tissues and hormone losses to the soil solution after rewatering. These results confirm that immunolocalization is an efficient tool to understand the translocation of IAA and ABA in plants subjected to different water stress situations, and clarify their role in regulating physiological responses such as stomata

  19. A functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) focusing on tree architecture and wood quality

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, M. Paulina; Norero, Aldo; Vera, Jorge R.; Pérez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Functional–structural models are interesting tools to relate environmental and management conditions with forest growth. Their three-dimensional images can reveal important characteristics of wood used for industrial products. Like virtual laboratories, they can be used to evaluate relationships among species, sites and management, and to support silvicultural design and decision processes. Our aim was to develop a functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) given its economic importance in many countries. Methods The plant model uses the L-system language. The structure of the model is based on operational units, which obey particular rules, and execute photosynthesis, respiration and morphogenesis, according to their particular characteristics. Plant allometry is adhered to so that harmonic growth and plant development are achieved. Environmental signals for morphogenesis are used. Dynamic turnover guides the normal evolution of the tree. Monthly steps allow for detailed information of wood characteristics. The model is independent of traditional forest inventory relationships and is conceived as a mechanistic model. For model parameterization, three databases which generated new information relating to P. radiata were analysed and incorporated. Key Results Simulations under different and contrasting environmental and management conditions were run and statistically tested. The model was validated against forest inventory data for the same sites and times and against true crown architectural data. The performance of the model for 6-year-old trees was encouraging. Total height, diameter and lengths of growth units were adequately estimated. Branch diameters were slightly overestimated. Wood density values were not satisfactory, but the cyclical pattern and increase of growth rings were reasonably well modelled. Conclusions The model was able to reproduce the development and growth of the species based on mechanistic

  20. Changes in fats and resins of Pinus radiata associated with heartwood formation

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; W.E. Hillis

    1971-01-01

    In an analysis of Australian grown P. radiata marked changes were found in the relative proportions and compositions of the resin acids, fatty acids, and fatty acid esters associated with heartwood formation. While the proportion of resin acids increased substantially in the heartwood, there was little change in resin acid composition from outer...

  1. Exploring lignification in conifers by silencing hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in Pinus radiata

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Armin; Ralph, John; Akiyama, Takuya; Flint, Heather; Phillips, Lorelle; Torr, Kirk; Nanayakkara, Bernadette; Te Kiri, Lana

    2007-01-01

    The enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) is involved in the production of methoxylated monolignols that are precursors to guaiacyl and syringyl lignin in angiosperm species. We identified and cloned a putative HCT gene from Pinus radiata, a coniferous gymnosperm that does not produce syringyl lignin. This gene was up-regulated during tracheary element (TE) formation in P. radiata cell cultures and showed 72.6% identity to the amino acid sequence of the Nicotiana tabacum HCT isolated earlier. RNAi-mediated silencing of the putative HCT gene had a strong impact on lignin content, monolignol composition, and interunit linkage distribution. AcBr assays revealed an up to 42% reduction in lignin content in TEs. Pyrolysis-GC/MS, thioacidolysis, and NMR detected substantial changes in lignin composition. Most notable was the rise of p-hydroxyphenyl units released by thioacidolysis, which increased from trace amounts in WT controls to up to 31% in transgenics. Two-dimensional 13C-1H correlative NMR confirmed the increase in p-hydroxyphenyl units in the transgenics and revealed structural differences, including an increase in resinols, a reduction in dibenzodioxocins, and the presence of glycerol end groups. The observed modifications in silenced transgenics validate the targeted gene as being associated with lignin biosynthesis in P. radiata and thus likely to encode HCT. This enzyme therefore represents the metabolic entry point leading to the biosynthesis of methoxylated phenylpropanoids in angiosperm species and coniferous gymnosperms such as P. radiata. PMID:17609384

  2. Differential responses of three fungal species to environmental factors and their role in the mycorrhization of Pinus radiata D. Don.

    PubMed

    Duñabeitia, Miren K; Hormilla, Susana; Garcia-Plazaola, Jose I; Txarterina, Kepa; Arteche, Unai; Becerril, Jose M

    2004-02-01

    Three ectomycorrhizal (ECM) isolates of Rhizopogon luteolus, R. roseolus and Scleroderma citrinum were found to differ markedly in their in vitro tolerance to adverse conditions limiting fungal growth, i.e. water availability, pH and heavy metal pollution. S. citrinum was the most sensitive, R. luteolus intermediate and R. roseolus the most tolerant species. Pinus radiata D. Don seedlings were inoculated in the laboratory and in a containerised seedling nursery with spore suspensions of the three ECM species. Colonisation percentage was considerably lower under nursery conditions, probably due to competition by native fungi. The effects of nursery ECM inoculation on seedling growth depended on the fungal species. Only R. roseolus-colonised plants showed a significantly higher shoot growth than non-mycorrhizal plants. All three fungi induced significantly higher root dry weights relative to control plants. Despite the low mycorrhizal colonisation, mycorrhization with all three species improved the physiological status of nursery-grown seedlings, e.g. enhanced root enzyme activity, shoot nutrient and pigment content, net photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency. Of the three fungal species, R. roseolus was the most effective; this species was also the most adaptable and showed the greatest range of tolerance to adverse environmental conditions in pure culture. It is, therefore, proposed as a promising fungal species for ECM inoculation of P. radiata in the nursery.

  3. Location and characterization of lignin in tracheid cell walls of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) compression woods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Lapierre, Catherine; Nouxman, Noor Liyana; Nieuwoudt, Michel K; Smith, Bronwen G; Chavan, Ramesh R; McArdle, Brian H; Harris, Philip J

    2017-09-01

    Tilted stems of softwoods form compression wood (CW) and opposite wood (OW) on their lower and upper sides, respectively. More is known about the most severe form of CW, severe CW (SCW), but mild CWs (MCWs) also occur widely. Two grades of MCWs, MCW1 and MCW2, as well as SCW and OW were identified in the stems of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) that had been slightly tilted. The four wood types were identified by the distribution of lignin in the tracheid walls determined by fluorescence microscopy. A solution of the fluorescent dye acridine orange (AO) (0.02% at pH 6 or 7) was shown to metachromatically stain the tracheid walls and can also be used to determine lignin distribution. The lignified walls fluoresced orange to yellow depending on the lignin concentration. Microscopically well-characterized discs (0.5 mm diameter) of the wood types were used to determine lignin concentrations and lignin monomer compositions using the acetyl bromide method and thioacidolysis, respectively. Lignin concentration and the proportion of p-hydroxyphenyl units (H-units) relative to guaiacyl (G-units) increased with CW severity, with <1% H-units in OW and up to 14% in SCW. Lignin H-units can be used as a marker for CW and CW severity. Similar discs were also examined by Raman and FTIR micro-spectroscopies coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) to determine if these techniques can be used to differentiate the four different wood types. Both techniques were able to do this, particularly Raman micro-spectroscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Geographic isolation of Diplodia scrobiculata and its association with native Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Treena I; Gordon, Thomas R; Wingfield, Michael J; Wingfield, Brenda D

    2004-12-01

    Diplodia pinea (syn. Sphaeropsis sapinea) is a well-known latent pathogen of Pinus spp. with a worldwide distribution. As such, this fungus is native where pines are endemic in the northern hemisphere and it has been introduced into all countries of the Southern Hemisphere where pines are exotic. The newly described D. scrobiculata (formerly known as the B morphotype of D. pinea) is thought to have a much more limited distribution. D. scrobiculata was first reported as an endophyte and weak pathogen of P. banksiana, where it was found to coexist with D. pinea. Diplodia scrobiculata is now known to have a much broader distribution in Northern America and Europe. In this study, seven Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were used to evaluate genetic diversity and gene flow between populations of D. scrobiculata. Results indicate a strong geographic isolation between populations of D. scrobiculata from different regions in North America, with unique alleles fixed in the different populations. The data fits the isolation by distance model indicating limited dispersal. Geographic isolation in combination with isolation by distance suggests prolonged reproductive isolation. Intensive collections of endophytes from native P. radiata in California have yielded only D. scrobiculata and not the significantly more pathogenic D. pinea. SSR analysis of three populations of D. scrobiculata from native P. radiata identified many shared alleles among the populations and moderate to high gene flow between them. The three Californian populations are distant and distinct from populations of D. scrobiculata from elsewhere. Under stress conditions, P. radiata is known to be very susceptible to D. pinea in plantations in the Southern Hemisphere. Native P. radiata is currently experiencing severe stress due to pitch canker caused by Fusarium circinatum. Such stress would provide ideal conditions for an associated outbreak of D. pinea. Thus, it is critical to prevent the movement of D

  5. Family-site interaction in Pinus radiata: implications for progeny testing strategy and regionalised breeding in New Zealand.

    Treesearch

    G.R. Johnson; R.D. Brudon

    1990-01-01

    A progeny test of 170 open-pollinated families from second-generation plus trees of Pinus radiata was established on four sites in New Zealand in 1981. Two test sites were on volcanic purnice soils in the Central North Island region and two were on phosphate-retentive clay soils in the Northland region.Assessments of volume growth, stem straightness, mal-...

  6. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy.

  7. Integrated physiological and hormonal profile of heat-induced thermotolerance in Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Escandón, Mónica; Cañal, María Jesús; Pascual, Jesús; Pinto, Glória; Correia, Barbara; Amaral, Joana; Meijón, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Despite great interest, not only from the economic point of view but also in terms of basic science, research on heat stress tolerance in conifers remains scarce. To fill this gap, a time-course experiment using expected temperature increase was performed aiming to identify physiological and biochemical traits that allow the characterization of heat-induced thermotolerance and recovery in Pinus radiata D. Don plants. Several physiological parameters were assessed during heat exposure and after recovery, and multiple phytohormones-abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinins (CKs), gibberellins, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid (SA) and brassinosteroids-were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry from unique sample. Furthermore, tissue specific stress-signaling was monitored by IAA and ABA immunolocalization. Multivariate statistical analysis of the data enabled clustering of the shorter- and longer-term effects of heat stress exposure. Two sequential physiological responses were identified: an immediate and a delayed response, essentially determined by specific phytohormones, proline, malondialdehyde and total soluble sugar patterns. Results showed that ABA and SA play a crucial role in the first stage of response to heat stress, probably due to the plant's urgent need to regulate stomatal closure and counteract the increase in oxidative membrane damage demonstrated in shorter-term exposures. However, in longer exposures and recovery, proline, total sugars, IAA and CKs seem to be more relevant. This integrated approach pinpointed some basic mechanisms of P. radiata physiological responses underlying thermotolerance processes and after recovery.

  8. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    PubMed

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones.

  9. Application of hydrothermal treatment to affect the fermentability of Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge.

    PubMed

    Andrews, John; Smit, Anne-Marie; Wijeyekoon, Suren; McDonald, Ben; Baroutian, Saeid; Gapes, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    A hybrid technique incorporating a wet oxidation stage and secondary fermentation step was used to process Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge. The effect of hydrothermal oxidation at high temperature and pressure on the hydrolysis of constituents of the waste stream was studied. Biochemical acidogenic potential assays were conducted to assess acid production resulting from anaerobic hydrolysis of the wet oxidised hydrolysate under acidogenic conditions. Significant degradation of the lignin, hemicellulose, suspended solids, carbohydrates and extractives were observed with wet oxidation. In contrast, cellulose showed resistance to degradation under the experimental conditions. Extensive degradation of biologically inhibitory compounds by wet oxidation did not show a beneficial impact on the acidogenic or methanogenic potential compared to untreated samples.

  10. Lactarius deliciosus and Pinus radiata in New Zealand: towards the development of innovative gourmet mushroom orchards.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Laguette, Alexis; Cummings, Nicholas; Butler, Ruth Catherine; Willows, Anna; Hesom-Williams, Nina; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Yun

    2014-10-01

    The cultivation of Lactarius deliciosus (saffron milk cap) in New Zealand began in 2002 when fruiting bodies were produced in an Otago plantation of Pinus radiata seedlings artificially mycorrhized by L. deliciosus. In 2007, 42 P. radiata seedlings mycorrhized by L. deliciosus under controlled conditions were planted in a grass field at Plant and Food Research (Lincoln, Canterbury). The effects of pine bark mulch application and initial degree of mycorrhization of seedlings were examined to determine their influence on tree growth, development of mycorrhizae (i.e. their multiplication on the root system and their degree of branching) and fruiting body production. Mulch application increased tree growth significantly over 4 years. High initial mycorrhization slightly stimulated tree growth over 2 years. The initial degree of mycorrhization was positively, but not strongly, related to the persistence and development of L. deliciosus mycorrhizae and rhizomorphs based on root sample analyses 2 years after planting. However, mulching strongly reduced the proportion of highly branched L. deliciosus mycorrhizae compared with poorly ramified ones. A positive correlation was observed between the fruiting of L. deliciosus and the development of mycorrhizae. Mulching delayed the onset of fruiting body production. In 2010, fruiting bodies were produced only from non-mulched trees with eight of these (38 %) producing a total of 12 fruiting bodies. In 2011, 19 non-mulched trees (90 %) and 9 mulched trees (45 %) produced 143 and 47 fruiting bodies, respectively, totalling 190 fruiting bodies. By 2012, 19 non-mulched trees (90 %) and 13 mulched trees (65 %) produced 333 and 236 fruiting bodies, respectively, totalling 569 fruiting bodies (c. 30 kg). This study presents new information on factors influencing the onset of fruiting and the development of yields in a plantation of P. radiata mycorrhized by L. deliciosus. Projected yields as high as c. 300 kg/ha from the

  11. Chloroplast DNA Diversity among Trees, Populations and Species in the California Closed-Cone Pines (Pinus Radiata, Pinus Muricata and Pinus Attenuata)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Y. P.; Hipkins, V. D.; Strauss, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    The amount, distribution and mutational nature of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms were studied via analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in three closely related species of conifers, the California closed-cone pines-knobcone pine: Pinus attenuata Lemm.; bishop pine: Pinus muricata D. Don; and Monterey pine: Pinus radiata D. Don. Genomic DNA from 384 trees representing 19 populations were digested with 9-20 restriction enzymes and probed with cloned cpDNA fragments from Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] that comprise 82% of the chloroplast genome. Up to 313 restriction sites were surveyed, and 25 of these were observed to be polymorphic among or within species. Differences among species accounted for the majority of genetic (haplotypic) diversity observed [G(st) = 84(+/-13)%]; nucleotide diversity among species was estimated to be 0.3(+/-0.1)%. Knobcone pine and Monterey pine displayed almost no genetic variation within or among populations. Bishop pine also showed little variability within populations, but did display strong population differences [G(st) = 87(+/-8)%] that were a result of three distinct geographic groups. Mean nucleotide diversity within populations was 0.003(+/-0.002)%; intrapopulation polymorphisms were found in only five populations. This pattern of genetic variation contrasts strongly with findings from study of nuclear genes (allozymes) in the group, where most genetic diversity resides within populations rather than among populations or species. Regions of the genome subject to frequent length mutations were identified; estimates of subdivision based on length variant frequencies in one region differed strikingly from those based on site mutations or allozymes. Two trees were identified with a major chloroplast DNA inversion that closely resembled one documented between Pinus and Pseudotsuga. PMID:7905846

  12. Suppression of CCR impacts metabolite profile and cell wall composition in Pinus radiata tracheary elements.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Armin; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Goeminne, Geert; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Steward, Diane; Torr, Kirk; Donaldson, Lloyd; Boerjan, Wout; Ralph, John

    2013-01-01

    Suppression of the lignin-related gene cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) in the Pinus radiata tracheary element (TE) system impacted both the metabolite profile and the cell wall matrix in CCR-RNAi lines. UPLC-MS/MS-based metabolite profiling identified elevated levels of p-coumaroyl hexose, caffeic acid hexoside and ferulic acid hexoside in CCR-RNAi lines, indicating a redirection of metabolite flow within phenylpropanoid metabolism. Dilignols derived from coniferyl alcohol such as G(8-5)G, G(8-O-4)G and isodihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (IDDDC) were substantially depleted, providing evidence for CCR's involvement in coniferyl alcohol biosynthesis. Severe CCR suppression almost halved lignin content in TEs based on a depletion of both H-type and G-type lignin, providing evidence for CCR's involvement in the biosynthesis of both lignin types. 2D-NMR studies revealed minor changes in the H:G-ratio and consequently a largely unchanged interunit linkage distribution in the lignin polymer. However, unusual cell wall components including ferulate and unsaturated fatty acids were identified in TEs by thioacidolysis, pyrolysis-GC/MS and/or 2D-NMR in CCR-RNAi lines, providing new insights into the consequences of CCR suppression in pine. Interestingly, CCR suppression substantially promoted pyrolytic breakdown of cell wall polysaccharides, a phenotype most likely caused by the incorporation of acidic compounds into the cell wall matrix in CCR-RNAi lines.

  13. Transpiration rates and canopy conductance of Pinus radiata growing with different pasture understories in agroforestry systems.

    PubMed

    Miller, Blair J.; Clinton, Peter W.; Buchan, Graeme D.; Robson, A. Bruce

    1998-01-01

    We measured tree transpiration and canopy conductance in Pinus radiata D. Don at two low rainfall sites of differing soil fertility in Canterbury, New Zealand. At the more fertile Lincoln site, we also assessed the effects of two common pasture grasses on tree transpiration and canopy conductance. At the less fertile Eyrewell Forest site, the effect of no understory, and the effects of irrigation in combination with mixtures of grass or legume species were determined. Tree xylem sap flux (F(d)') was measured by the heat pulse method. Total canopy conductance to diffusion of water vapor (G(t)) was calculated by inverting a simplified Penman-Monteith model. The different treatment effects were modeled by the simple decaying exponential relationship G(t) = G(tmax)e((-bD)), where D = air saturation deficit. At the Lincoln site, trees with an understory of cocksfoot had lower F(d)' and G(tmax) than trees with an understory of ryegrass, although the sensitivity of G(t) to increasing D (i.e., the value of b) did not differ between treatments. At the Eyrewell site, irrigation only increased F(d)' in the absence of an understory, whereas the presence of understory vegetation, or lack of irrigation, or both, significantly reduced G(tmax) and increased b. We conclude that the selection of understory species is critical in designing successful agroforestry systems for low rainfall areas.

  14. Visualising impregnated chitosan in Pinus radiata early wood cells using light and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Adya P; Singh, Tripti; Rickard, Catherine L

    2010-04-01

    Chitosan, a deacetylated product of an abundant naturally occurring biopolymer chitin, has been used in a range of applications, particularly in food and health areas, as an antimicrobial agent. In the work reported here Pinus radiata wood was impregnated with chitosan as an environmentally compatible organic biocide (Eikenes et al., 2005a,b) to protect wood against wood deteriorating microorganisms and to thus prolong the service life of wooden products. We developed sample preparation techniques targeted to visualise impregnated chitosan within wood tissues using light microscope and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Sections were viewed with the light microscope without staining with a dye as well as after staining with the dye toluidine blue. Light microscopy was also undertaken on sections that had been stained with 1% aqueous osmium tetroxide (OsO(4)). For SEM observations, the sections were treated with OsO(4) and then examined with the FE-SEM, first in the secondary electron imaging mode (SEI) and then in the backscattered electron imaging (BEI) mode, imaging the same areas of a section in both SEI and BEI modes. The preparation techniques employed and the combined use of light and scanning electron microscopy provided valuable complementary information, revealing that chitosan had penetrated into the cavities (cell lumens, intercellular spaces) of all sizes present within wood tissues and had also impregnated early wood cell walls. The information obtained is discussed in relation to its importance in further development of chitosan formulations and refinement of impregnation technologies to optimise chitosan impregnation into and distribution within wood tissues as well as in assessing chitosan efficacy.

  15. Realized gain and prediction of yield with genetically improved Pinus radiata in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.D.; Hayes, J.D. ); Garcia, O. . Centro de Investigacions Forestais de Lourizan)

    1999-05-01

    Pinus radiata D. Don seedlots of varying genetic quality were compared in block-plot genetic-gain trials at 10 locations representing most of the site types in New Zealand. Permanent sample plots were measured annually for growth from age 6--8 yr from planting to ages 15--17 (midrotation). Seedlots from first-generation open-pollinated seed orchards and a mix of crosses that all involved the top-performing parent were, respectively, on average 4.5 % and 5.3% taller and had 6% and 11% larger mean diameter, 12% and 30% more basal area, and 15% and 34% more stem volume than seedlots originating from mild mass selection in harvested stands (climbing select). The observed growth increases were quantified as changes in the rate of growth from that predicted by pre-existing growth models in order to account for tree size and stocking differences. Seedlots from first-generation seed orchards and crosses of the top clone, respectively, grew 5.1% and 4.5% faster in height, and functions for basal area and stocking changed 13% and 26.4% faster, respectively, than the baseline growth models, which were based on climbing select. This implies that increased basal area growth must be taken into account in order to obtain accurate prediction of gain in stem volume. The incorporation of these observed increases in growth rates into stand growth models as genetic-gain multipliers in order to extrapolate predictions of growth of genetically improved seedlots beyond the sites, silvicultures, and seedlots represented in the genetic gain trials is discussed.

  16. Significant contribution from foliage-derived ABA in regulating gas exchange in Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Patrick J; McAdam, Scott A M; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2017-02-01

    The complex regulatory system controlling stomata involves physical and chemical signals that affect guard cell turgor to bring about changes in stomatal conductance (gs). Abscisic acid (ABA) closes stomata, yet the mechanisms controlling foliar ABA status in tree species remain unclear. The importance of foliage-derived ABA in regulating gas exchange was evaluated under treatments that affected phloem export through girdling and reduced water availability in the tree species, Pinus radiata (D. Don). Branch- and whole-plant girdling increased foliar ABA levels leading to declines in gs, despite no change in plant water status. Changes in gs were largely independent of the more transient increases in foliar non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), suggesting that gradual accumulation of foliar ABA was the primary mechanism for reductions in gs and assimilation. Whole-plant girdling eventually reduced root NSC, hindering root water uptake and decreasing foliar water potential, causing a dramatic increase in ABA level in leaves and concentrations in the xylem sap of shoots (4032 ng ml-1), while root xylem sap concentrations remained low (43 ng ml-1). Contrastingly, the drought treatment caused similar increases in xylem sap ABA in both roots and shoots, suggesting that declines in water potential result in relatively consistent changes in ABA along the hydraulic pathway. ABA levels in plant canopies can be regulated independently of changes in root water status triggered by changes by both phloem export and foliar water status. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Evaluation of the effect of pollution and fungal disease on Pinus radiata pollen allergenicity.

    PubMed

    García-Gallardo, María Victoria; Algorta, Jaime; Longo, Natividad; Espinel, Santiago; Aragones, Ana; Lombardero, Manuel; Bernaola, Gonzalo; Jauregui, Ignacio; Aranzabal, Ascensión; Albizu, María Victoria; Gastaminza, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Pollutants and other stressing factors like mold infection might increase the production of pathogen-related proteins in plants. Since this is invoked as one of the causes for the high prevalence of allergic diseases in developed countries, we aimed to determine the potential effect of environmental pollution, with or without mold infection of the trees, on the allergenic potency of pine pollen (Pinus radiata). Pine pollen samples were recovered from three selected areas: low polluted (A), highly polluted (B) and highly polluted and infected with fungi (Spheropsis sapinea) (C). The allergenic potency of pollen from areas A, B or C were compared in vivo in 35 pine pollen-allergic patients by skin prick test and specific IgE (sIgE) quantification. Pollen was also analyzed in vitro by SDS-PAGE immunoblotting, RAST inhibition and cDNA-AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) to compare differences in proteins and mRNA expression. The allergenic potency measured by prick test, sIgE and RAST inhibition was greater in pollen A, which was exposed to smaller amounts of NO(x), PM(10) and SO(2) but greater amounts of O(3). No differences were found in IgE-binding bands in immunoblotting or densitometry of the bands. In cDNA-AFLP, three homologous transcript-derived fragments were expressed in samples B only, with an expressed sequence tag related with stress-regulated gene expression. A greater allergenic potency, in terms of skin tests and sIgE, is observed in pine pollen coming from unpolluted areas. We consider that this fact might be related to a higher exposure to ozone, resulting in a greater expression of allergenic proteins. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from six developing xylem libraries in Pinus radiata D. Don

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinguo; Wu, Harry X; Dillon, Shannon K; Southerton, Simon G

    2009-01-01

    Background Wood is a major renewable natural resource for the timber, fibre and bioenergy industry. Pinus radiata D. Don is the most important commercial plantation tree species in Australia and several other countries; however, genomic resources for this species are very limited in public databases. Our primary objective was to sequence a large number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from genes involved in wood formation in radiata pine. Results Six developing xylem cDNA libraries were constructed from earlywood and latewood tissues sampled at juvenile (7 yrs), transition (11 yrs) and mature (30 yrs) ages, respectively. These xylem tissues represent six typical development stages in a rotation period of radiata pine. A total of 6,389 high quality ESTs were collected from 5,952 cDNA clones. Assembly of 5,952 ESTs from 5' end sequences generated 3,304 unigenes including 952 contigs and 2,352 singletons. About 97.0% of the 5,952 ESTs and 96.1% of the unigenes have matches in the UniProt and TIGR databases. Of the 3,174 unigenes with matches, 42.9% were not assigned GO (Gene Ontology) terms and their functions are unknown or unclassified. More than half (52.1%) of the 5,952 ESTs have matches in the Pfam database and represent 772 known protein families. About 18.0% of the 5,952 ESTs matched cell wall related genes in the MAIZEWALL database, representing all 18 categories, 91 of all 174 families and possibly 557 genes. Fifteen cell wall-related genes are ranked in the 30 most abundant genes, including CesA, tubulin, AGP, SAMS, actin, laccase, CCoAMT, MetE, phytocyanin, pectate lyase, cellulase, SuSy, expansin, chitinase and UDP-glucose dehydrogenase. Based on the PlantTFDB database 41 of the 64 transcription factor families in the poplar genome were identified as being involved in radiata pine wood formation. Comparative analysis of GO term abundance revealed a distinct transcriptome in juvenile earlywood formation compared to other stages of wood development

  19. Long Term Conservation at -80 degree C of Pinus radiata Embryogenic Cell Lines: Recovery, Maturation and Germination.

    PubMed

    Montalban, I A; Moncalean, P

    Pinus radiata is an economically important conifer, and somatic embryogenesis is being currently used for its propagation. But the embryogenic competence of cultures decreases with culture age. To cope with this, cryopreservation protocols have been developed lately for different Pinus species. Although cryopreservation reduces the costs associated with embryogenic cultures maintenance, the initial investment and the maintenance of cryotanks are expensive when dealing with somatic embryogenesis basic research issues. To study the feasibility of storing embryogenic cell lines at -80 degree C for over a year. The feasibility of the conservation method was assessed in terms of recovery, maturation and germination rates. The recovery rates were up to 77 percnt;, and maturation and germination rates were 86 percnt; and 83 percnt;, respectively. The work described here is a simple and low-cost protocol that enables successful conservation of embryogenic cell lines for over a year.

  20. A soil-site evaluation index of productivity in intensively managed Pinus radiata (D. Don) plantations in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, I D; Boardman, R; Fitzpatrick, R W

    1996-01-01

    A limiting-factor, environmental model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata (D. Don)) has been developed using landform and soil morphological features that influence site productivity. The model focuses on soil and landscape constraints to productivity and predicts the native productivity of land and tree species. It permits the integration of land-use objectives for a catchment through forest management and use of silvicultural practices which increase productivity. The soil site evaluation index (SSEI) is an index of forest productivity found when silviculture extends only to the minimum amount of site disturbance needed to establish a plantation of radiata pine. The impacts of intensive silvicultural practices were deducted from the 'Site Quality' productivity survey rating to calculate the unimproved yield class (uYC). We calculated SSEI by range standardising uYC values from 0 to 1. SSEI was correlated with the environmental factors in a regression tree model using readily available analytical software. The model accurately predicts unimproved forest productivity from observed soil horizon and land surface properties. The environmental constraints in low lying areas relate to waterlogging, soil sodicity and gravel content. In elevated areas, plant available water storage, rock weathering, landform, ironstone gravel and aspect are recognised factors for pine growth.

  1. Biomarker genes highlight intraspecific and interspecific variations in the responses of Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don to Sirex noctilio F. acid gland secretions.

    PubMed

    Bordeaux, John Michael; Lorenz, W Walter; Dean, Jeffrey F D

    2012-10-01

    Sirex noctilio F., a Eurasian horntail woodwasp recently introduced into North America, oviposits in pines and other conifers and in the process spreads a phytopathogenic fungus that serves as a food source for its larvae. During oviposition the woodwasp also deposits mucus produced in its acid (venom) gland that alters pine defense responses and facilitates infection by the fungus. A 26,496-feature loblolly pine cDNA microarray was used to survey gene expression of pine tissue responding to S. noctilio venom. Six genes were selected for further assessment by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), including one that encoded an apparent PR-4 protein and another that encoded a thaumatin-like protein. Expression of both was strongly induced in response to venom, while expression of an apparent actin gene (ACT1) was stable in response to the venom. The pattern of gene response was similar in Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don, but the magnitude of response in P. radiata was significantly stronger for each of the induced genes. The magnitude of the biomarker gene response to venom also varied according to genotype within these two species. The qRT-PCR assay was used to demonstrate that the primary bioactive component in S. noctilio venom is a polypeptide.

  2. Response of photosynthesis in second-generation Pinus radiata trees to long-term exposure to elevated carbon dioxide partial pressure.

    PubMed

    Greenep, H; Turnbull, M H; Whitehead, D

    2003-06-01

    Second-generation Pinus radiata D. Don trees, propagated from cuttings of 4-year-old trees previously grown at ambient (36 Pa) and elevated (65 Pa) CO2 partial pressure (Ca) were grown under the same conditions in open-top chambers for a further year. As cuttings of the original trees, these second-generation trees were physiologically the same age as the first-generation trees with the only difference between the two being size. This allowed us to test the effects of tree size independently of age or duration of exposure. Total non-structural carbohydrate concentration, area-based nitrogen concentration, leaf mass per unit area and chlorophyll concentration measured in three foliage age cohorts were unaffected by either age or Ca. There were no signs of photosynthetic down-regulation in trees grown at elevated Ca. When measured at the growth Ca, photosynthetic rate in young needles during summer, autumn and spring was 34, 43 and 38% higher, respectively, in trees grown at elevated Ca than in trees grown at ambient Ca. In older needles, the corresponding photosythetic rate increases were 26, 47 and 49%. Water-use efficiency, determined by stable carbon isotope analysis, was 49% higher in foliage in the elevated Ca treatment than in foliage in the ambient Ca treatment. This increase was entirely due to photosynthetic enhancement, because stomatal conductance did not differ between treatments. We conclude that down-regulation of photosynthesis at elevated Ca is related to tree size rather than tree age or duration of exposure, and that enhanced photosynthetic rates can be maintained while sink strength is high enough to use the excess photosynthates.elevated CO2, needle age, photosynthetic down-regulation, photosynthetic enhancement, sink strength, water-use efficiency.

  3. Towards male sterility in Pinus radiata--a stilbene synthase approach to genetically engineer nuclear male sterility.

    PubMed

    Höfig, Kai P; Möller, Ralf; Donaldson, Lloyd; Putterill, Joanna; Walter, Christian

    2006-05-01

    A male cone-specific promoter from Pinus radiata D. Don (radiata pine) was used to express a stilbene synthase gene (STS) in anthers of transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants, resulting in complete male sterility in 70% of transformed plants. Three plants were 98%-99.9% male sterile, as evidenced by pollen germination. To identify the stage at which transgenic pollen first developed abnormally, tobacco anthers from six different developmental stages were assayed microscopically. Following the release of pollen grains from tetrads, transgenic pollen displayed an increasingly flake-like structure, which gradually rounded up during the maturation process. We further investigated whether STS expression may have resulted in an impaired flavonol or sporopollenin formation. A specific flavonol aglycone stain was used to demonstrate that significant amounts of these substances were produced only in late stages of normal pollen development, therefore excluding a diminished flavonol aglycone production as a reason for pollen ablation. A detailed analysis of the exine layer by transmission electron microscopy revealed minor structural changes in the exine layer of ablated pollen, and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy indicated that the biochemistry of sporopollenin production was unaffected. The promoter-STS construct may be useful for the ablation of pollen formation in coniferous gymnosperms and male sterility may potentially be viewed as a prerequisite for the commercial use of transgenic conifers.

  4. Evolution and biogeography of Pinus radiata, with a proposed revision of its quaternary history

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1999-01-01

    The genus Pinus evolved about 100 million years ago, spreading from centres in eastern North America and western Europe throughout middle latitudes of the supercontinent Laurasia. Many early subsections of Pinus are recorded from fossil remains ofthis period, but it is not until the early Tertiary, when the genus was fragmented by...

  5. Integrated Physiological, Proteomic, and Metabolomic Analysis of Ultra Violet (UV) Stress Responses and Adaptation Mechanisms in Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Jesús; Cañal, María Jesús; Escandón, Mónica; Meijón, Mónica; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Valledor, Luis

    2017-03-01

    Globally expected changes in environmental conditions, especially the increase of UV irradiation, necessitate extending our knowledge of the mechanisms mediating tree species adaptation to this stress. This is crucial for designing new strategies to maintain future forest productivity. Studies focused on environmentally realistic dosages of UV irradiation in forest species are scarce. Pinus spp. are commercially relevant trees and not much is known about their adaptation to UV. In this work, UV treatment and recovery of Pinus radiata plants with dosages mimicking future scenarios, based on current models of UV radiation, were performed in a time-dependent manner. The combined metabolome and proteome analysis were complemented with measurements of + physiological parameters and gene expression. Sparse PLS analysis revealed complex molecular interaction networks of molecular and physiological data. Early responses prevented phototoxicity by reducing photosystem activity and the electron transfer chain together with the accumulation of photoprotectors and photorespiration. Apart from the reduction in photosynthesis as consequence of the direct UV damage on the photosystems, the primary metabolism was rearranged to deal with the oxidative stress while minimizing ROS production. New protein kinases and proteases related to signaling, coordination, and regulation of UV stress responses were revealed. All these processes demonstrate a complex molecular interaction network extending the current knowledge on UV-stress adaptation in pine. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Wood formation from the base to the crown in Pinus radiata: gradients of tracheid wall thickness, wood density, radial growth rate and gene expression

    Treesearch

    Sheree Cato; Lisa McMillan; Lloyd Donaldson; Thomas Richardson; Craig Echt; Richard Gardner

    2006-01-01

    Wood formation was investigated at five heights along the bole for two unrelated trees of Pinus radiataBoth trees showed clear gradients in wood properties from the base to the crown. Cambial cells at the base of the tree were dividing 3.3-fold slower than those at the crown, while the average thickness of cell walls in wood was highest at the base....

  7. Formation of post-fire water-repellent layers in Monterrey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantations in south-central Chile

    Treesearch

    P. Garcia-Chevesich; R. Pizarro; C. L. Stropki; P. Ramirez de Arellano; P. F. Ffolliott; L. F. DeBano; Dan Neary; D. C. Slack

    2010-01-01

    A wildfire burned about 15,000 ha of Monterrey Pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantations near Yungay, Chile, in January of 2007. Post-fire water repellency (hydrophobicity) was measured using the water-drop-penetration-time (WDPT) method at depths of 0, 5, and 10 mm from the soil surface. These measurements were collected on burned sites of both young (4-years old) and...

  8. Cell differentiation, secondary cell-wall formation and transformation of callus tissue of Pinus radiata D. Don.

    PubMed

    Möller, Ralf; McDonald, Armando G; Walter, Christian; Harris, Philip J

    2003-09-01

    Tracheid and sclereid differentiation was induced in callus cultures of Pinus radiata D. Don by culturing on a basal medium containing activated charcoal but no phytohormones; sclereids differentiated in callus derived from xylem strips, but not in callus derived from hypocotyl segments. The tracheids differentiated in hypocotyl-derived callus had helical, scalariform, reticulated or pitted secondary cell-wall patterns, but those differentiated in xylem-derived callus had a reticulate or pitted pattern. The thickened tracheid and sclereid walls contained lignin as indicated by the red colour reaction given with phloroglucinol-HCl. The presence of lignin in the cell walls of differentiated callus was confirmed using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry by the detection of phenylpropanoid components derived from lignin. Lignin was also detected using solid-state (13)C cross-polarisation/magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantified as thioglycolic acid lignin. Monosaccharide analyses of the cell walls isolated from differentiated and undifferentiated calli showed that the cell walls of the differentiated calli contained higher proportions of glucose and mannose, consistent with the presence of greater proportions of gluco- and/or galactogluco-mannans in the secondary cell walls of the differentiated cells. A protocol for the stable transformation of undifferentiated, xylem-derived cultures was successfully developed. Transgenic cell lines were established following Biolistic particle bombardment with a plasmid containing the coding region of the nptII gene and the coding region of the cad gene from P. radiata. Expression of the nptII gene in transgenic lines was confirmed by an NPTII-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The overexpression of cad in the transgenic lines resulted in a down-regulation of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.195) expression.

  9. Pinus radiata bark extract induces caspase-independent apoptosis-like cell death in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Thamizhiniyan; Choi, Young-Woong; Mun, Sung-Phil; Kim, Young-Kyoon

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated the anticancer activity of Pinus radiata bark extract (PRE) against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. First, we observed that PRE induces potent cytotoxic effects in MCF-7 cells. The cell death had features of cytoplasmic vacuolation, plasma membrane permeabilization, chromatin condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, absence of executioner caspase activation, insensitivity to z-VAD-fmk (caspase inhibitor), increased accumulation of autophagic markers, and lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). Both the inhibition of early stage autophagy flux and lysosomal cathepsins did not improve cell viability. The antioxidant, n-acetylcysteine, and the iron chelator, deferoxamine, failed to restore the lysosomal integrity indicating that PRE-induced LMP is independent of oxidative stress. This was corroborated with the absence of enhanced ROS production in PRE-treated cells. Chelation of both intracellular calcium and zinc promotes PRE-induced LMP. Geranylgeranylacetone, an inducer of Hsp70 expression, also had no significant protective effect on PRE-induced LMP. Moreover, we found that PRE induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial membrane depolarization in MCF-7 cells. The ER stress inhibitor, 4-PBA, did not restore the mitochondrial membrane integrity, whereas cathepsin inhibitors demonstrated significant protective effects. Collectively, our results suggest that PRE induces an autophagic block, LMP, ER stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction in MCF-7 cells. However, further studies are clearly warranted to explore the exact mechanism behind the anticancer activity of PRE in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

  10. Sorption and desorption characteristics of methyl bromide during and after fumigation of pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) logs.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Najar-Rodriguez, Adriana; Adlam, Anthony; Hall, Alistair; Brash, Don

    2017-05-01

    The sorption and desorption characteristics of methyl bromide (MB) were determined during and after fumigation of recently harvested pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) logs. The effects of dose (48 or 120 g m(-3) ), degree of bark cover (0, 50 or 100%) and end-grain sealing (sealed or unsealed) on sorption and desorption were determined over time. Sorption of MB was proportional to the dose applied and dependent on the amount of end-grain sealed. After 16 h, an average of 70.7 ± 2.5% of the initial concentration remained in the treated space when end-grains were sealed, whereas only 47.3 ± 2.5% remained when unsealed. During aeration, MB was released from logs, initially ranging from 2.8 to 8.8 g · h m(-3) , depending on the treatment. The rate of desorption quickly decreased during aeration. The surface area of a log is the most important factor influencing MB sorption and desorption rates, with greater surface area resulting in greater (de)sorption rates. Sorption data can now be combined with insect toxicity data to estimate a minimum effective dose of MB for further evaluation, while desorption data can be combined with fumigant plume modelling to assess worker safety. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Toxicological features of maleilated polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata (D. Don.) as potential functional additives for biomaterials design.

    PubMed

    García, Danny E; Medina, Paulina A; Zúñiga, Valentina I

    2017-03-14

    Polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata (D. Don.) are an abundant natural oligomers highly desirable as renewable chemicals. However, structural modification of polyflavonoids is a viable strategy in order to use such polyphenols as macrobuilding-blocks for biomaterial design. Polyflavonoids were esterified with three five-member cyclic anhydrides (maleic, itaconic, and citraconic) at 20 °C during 24 h in order to diversify physicochemical-, and biological-properties for agricultural, and food-packaging applications. In addition, the influence of the chemical modification, as well as the chemical structure of the grafting on toxicological features was evaluated. Structural features of derivatives were analyzed by spectroscopy (FT-IR and (1)H-NMR), and the degree of substitution was calculated. Toxicological profile was assessed by using three target species in a wide range of concentration (0.01-100 mgL(-)(1)). Effect of polyflavonoids on the growth rate (Selenastrum capricornutum), mortality (Daphnia magna), and germination and radicle length (Lactuca sativa) was determined. Chemical modification affects the toxicological profile on the derivatives in a high extent. Results described remarkable differences in function of the target specie. The bioassays indicate differences of the polyflavonoids toxicological profile associated to the chemical structure of the grafting. Results allowed conclude that polyflavonoids from pine bark show slight toxic properties.

  12. Dataset of UV induced changes in nuclear proteome obtained by GeLC-Orbitrap/MS in Pinus radiata needles.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Sara; Pascual, Jesús; Nagler, Matthias; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Cañal, María Jesús; Valledor, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Although responses to UV stress have been characterised at system and cellular levels, the dynamics of the nuclear proteome triggered in this situation are still unknown, despite its essential role in regulating gene expression and in last term plant physiology. To fill this gap, we characterised the variations in the nuclear proteome after 2 h and 16 h (8 h/day) of UV irradiation by using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics methods combined with novel bioinformatics workflows that were employed in the manuscript entitled "The variations in the nuclear proteome reveal new transcription factors and mechanisms involved in UV stress response in Pinus radiata" (Pascual et al., 2016) [1]. We employed in-gel digestion followed by a 120 min gradient prior to MS analysis. Data was processed following two approaches: a database dependent employing the SEQUEST algorithm and custom databases, and a database independent by mass accuracy precursor alignment (MAPA). 388 proteins were identified by SEQUEST search and 9094 m/z were quantified by MAPA. Significant m/z were de novo sequenced using the Novor algorithm. We present here the complete datasets and the analysis workflow.

  13. Evidence that creation of a Pinus radiata plantation in south-eastern Australia has reduced habitat for frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, Kirsten M.; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2004-03-01

    Loss and fragmentation of habitat resulting from the clearing of forests for agriculture and urban development threaten the persistence of thousands of species worldwide. The clearing of native forest to plant a monoculture of exotic trees may also reduce and fragment the habitat available for indigenous plants and animals. Metacommunity theory suggests that the species richness of a community in a patch of habitat will increase with patch size but decrease with patch isolation. We investigated whether replacement of native Eucalyptus forest with a plantation of Pinus radiata has reduced and fragmented habitat for frogs, leading to a lower species richness of frog communities in the pine plantation and in small and/or isolated remnant patches of native forest. We surveyed frogs at 60 sites at streams and wetlands in the pine plantation, remnant patches of native forest surrounded by pines, and adjacent areas of contiguous native forest near Tumut in New South Wales, Australia. Only two of eight species of frogs were recorded in the pine plantation, and regression modelling indicated that streams and wetlands in the pines supported fewer frog species than those in remnant patches or the intact native forest. In addition, species richness tended to be higher at wide, shallow swamps and marshes near the headwaters of streams, with herbs, grasses, shrubs, reeds, sedges and rushes in the emergent and fringing vegetation. There was little evidence to suggest that larger eucalypt remnants supported more species of frogs, or that remnants isolated by greater expanses of pines supported fewer species, but we had low power to detect these effects with our data set. Our results support the preservation of all remnants of native forest along drainage lines and around swamps, soaks and bogs, regardless of size. Where new pine plantations are established, for example, on cleared agricultural land, care should be taken to maintain the structural and vegetative characteristics of

  14. Associations between Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Bacterial Needle Endophytes in Pinus radiata: Implications for Biotic Selection of Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Rúa, Megan A.; Wilson, Emily C.; Steele, Sarah; Munters, Arielle R.; Hoeksema, Jason D.; Frank, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their associated microbes have long been focused on single microbes, or single microbial guilds, but in reality, plants associate with a diverse array of microbes from a varied set of guilds. As such, multitrophic interactions among plant-associated microbes from multiple guilds represent an area of developing research, and can reveal how complex microbial communities are structured around plants. Interactions between coniferous plants and their associated microbes provide a good model system for such studies, as conifers host a suite of microorganisms including mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and foliar bacterial endophytes. To investigate the potential role ECM fungi play in structuring foliar bacterial endophyte communities, we sampled three isolated, native populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), and used constrained analysis of principal coordinates to relate the community matrices of the ECM fungi and bacterial endophytes. Our results suggest that ECM fungi may be important factors for explaining variation in bacterial endophyte communities but this effect is influenced by population and environmental characteristics, emphasizing the potential importance of other factors — biotic or abiotic — in determining the composition of bacterial communities. We also classified ECM fungi into categories based on known fungal traits associated with substrate exploration and nutrient mobilization strategies since variation in these traits allows the fungi to acquire nutrients across a wide range of abiotic conditions and may influence the outcome of multi-species interactions. Across populations and environmental factors, none of the traits associated with fungal foraging strategy types significantly structured bacterial assemblages, suggesting these ECM fungal traits are not important for understanding endophyte-ECM interactions. Overall, our results suggest that both biotic

  15. The carbon budget of Pinus radiata plantations in south-western Australia under four climate change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Simioni, Guillaume; Ritson, Peter; Kirschbaum, Miko U F; McGrath, John; Dumbrell, Ian; Copeland, Beth

    2009-09-01

    We conducted a comprehensive modelling study to estimate future stem wood production and net ecosystem production (NEP) of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in south-western Australia, a region that is predicted to undergo severe rainfall reduction in future decades. The process-based model CenW was applied to four locations where it had previously been tested. Climate change scenarios under four emission scenarios for the period from 2005 to 2066 were considered, in addition to simulations under the current climate. Results showed that stem wood production and NEP were little affected by moderate climate change. However, under the most pessimistic climate change scenario (Special Report on Emission Scenarios A2), stem wood production and NEP decreased strongly. These results could be explained by the trade-off between the positive effect of rising atmospheric CO(2) on plant water use efficiency and the negative effects of decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures. Because changes in heterotrophic respiration (R(H)) lagged behind changes in plant growth, and because R(H) rates were increased by higher temperatures, NEP was more negatively affected than stem wood production. Stem wood production and NEP also strongly interacted with location, with the site currently having the wettest climate being least affected by climatic change. These results suggest that realistic predictions of forest production and carbon sequestration potential in the context of climate change require (1) the use of modelling tools that describe the important feedbacks between environmental variables, plant physiology and soil organic matter decomposition, (2) consideration of a range of climate change scenarios and (3) simulations that account for a gradual climate change to capture transient effects.

  16. Early induced protein 1 (PrELIP1) and other photosynthetic, stress and epigenetic regulation genes are involved in Pinus radiata D. don UV-B radiation response.

    PubMed

    Valledor, Luis; Cañal, María Jesús; Pascual, Jesús; Rodríguez, Roberto; Meijón, Mónica

    2012-11-01

    The continuous atmospheric and environmental deterioration is likely to increase, among others, the influx of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation. The plants have photoprotective responses, which are complex mechanisms involving different physiological responses, to avoid the damages caused by this radiation that may lead to plant death. We have studied the adaptive responses to UV-B in Pinus radiata, given the importance of this species in conifer forests and reforestation programs. We analyzed the photosynthetic activity, pigments content, and gene expression of candidate genes related to photosynthesis, stress and gene regulation in needles exposed to UV-B during a 96 h time course. The results reveal a clear increase of pigments under UV-B stress while photosynthetic activity decreased. The expression levels of the studied genes drastically changed after UV-B exposure, were stress related genes were upregulated while photosynthesis (RBCA and RBCS) and epigenetic regulation were downregulated (MSI1, CSDP2, SHM4). The novel gene PrELIP1, fully sequenced for this work, was upregulated and expressed mainly in the palisade parenchyma of needles. This gene has conserved domains related to the dissipation of the UV-B radiation that give to this protein a key role during photoprotection response of the needles in Pinus radiata.

  17. The variations in the nuclear proteome reveal new transcription factors and mechanisms involved in UV stress response in Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Jesús; Alegre, Sara; Nagler, Matthias; Escandón, Mónica; Annacondia, María Luz; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Valledor, Luis; Cañal, María Jesús

    2016-06-30

    The importance of UV stress and its side-effects over the loss of plant productivity in forest species demands a deeper understanding of how pine trees respond to UV irradiation. Although the response to UV stress has been characterized at system and cellular levels, the dynamics within the nuclear proteome triggered by UV is still unknown despite that they are essential for gene expression and regulation of plant physiology. To fill this gap this work aims to characterize the variations in the nuclear proteome as a response to UV irradiation by using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based methods combined with novel bioinformatics workflows. The combination of SEQUEST, de novo sequencing, and novel annotation pipelines allowed cover sensing and transduction pathways, endoplasmic reticulum-related mechanisms and the regulation of chromatin dynamism and gene expression by histones, histone-like NF-Ys, and other transcription factors previously unrelated to this stress source, as well as the role of alternative splicing and other mechanisms involved in RNA translation and protein synthesis. The determination of 33 transcription factors, including NF-YB13, Pp005698_3 (NF-YB) and Pr009668_2 (WD-40), which are correlated to stress responsive mechanisms like an increased accumulation of photoprotective pigments and reduced photosynthesis, pointing them as strong candidate biomarkers for breeding programs aimed to improve UV resistance of pine trees. The description of the nuclear proteome of Pinus radiata combining a classic approach based on the use of SEQUEST and the use of a mass accuracy precursor alignment (MAPA) allowed an unprecedented protein coverage. This workflow provided the methodological basis for characterizing the changes in the nuclear proteome triggered by UV irradiation, allowing the depiction of the nuclear events involved in stress response and adaption. The relevance of some of the discovered proteins will suppose a major advance in stress biology

  18. Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Vanhanen, Leo P; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-04-03

    Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine (Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon (Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann's pine (Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%-89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals.

  19. A DEF/GLO-like MADS-box gene from a gymnosperm: Pinus radiata contains an ortholog of angiosperm B class floral homeotic genes.

    PubMed

    Mouradov, A; Hamdorf, B; Teasdale, R D; Kim, J T; Winter, K U; Theissen, G

    1999-09-01

    The specification of floral organ identity during development depends on the function of a limited number of homeotic genes grouped into three classes: A, B, and C. Pairs of paralogous B class genes, such as DEF and GLO in Antirrhinum, and AP3 and PI in Arabidopsis, are required for establishing petal and stamen identity. To gain a better understanding of the evolutionary origin of petals and stamens, we have looked for orthologs of B class genes in conifers. Here we report cDNA cloning of PrDGL (Pinus radiata DEF/GLO-like gene) from radiata pine. We provide phylogenetic evidence that PrDGL is closely related to both DEF- and GLO-like genes of angiosperms, and is thus among the first putative orthologs of floral homeotic B function genes ever reported from a gymnosperm. Expression of PrDGL is restricted to the pollen strobili (male cones) and was not detected in female cones. PrDGL expression was first detected in emergent male cone primordia and persisted through the early stages of pollen cone bud differentiation. Based on the results of our phylogeny reconstructions and expression studies, we suggest that PrDGL could play a role in distinguishing between male (where expression is on) and female reproductive structures (where expression is off) in radiata pine. We speculate that this could be the general function of DEF/GLO-like genes in gymnosperms that may have been recruited for the distinction between stamens and carpels, the male and female reproductive organs of flowering plants, during the evolution of angiosperms out of gymnosperm-like ancestors. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Regional variation of selected polyaromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons over the South Island of New Zealand, as indicated by their content in Pinus radiata needles.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, R; Baumgartner, I

    1987-01-01

    We analysed needles of Pinus radiata along three transects through the South Island of New Zealand for chlorinated hydrocarbons ( alpha- and gamma-HCH, HCB and PCB) and PAH (fluoranthene, 3,4-benzopyrene, benzo(ghi)perylene and indenopyrene). At rural sites we also collected samples of moss (Wijkia extenuata) and lichens (Usnea sp.) in order to compare the pollutant concentrations within these plants. A principal component analysis confirmed findings from moss and snow studies in Europe that the PAH concentrations vary regionally in the same way. The pattern of the principal component loadings of the chlorinated hydrocarbons reflects their heterogeneous immission and their different chemodynamics. The regional pattern indicates an increase of gamma-HCH from remote areas to those used intensively for agriculture and gardening, followed by a decrease towards the inner city of Christchurch. In contrast, PCB and PAH show their highest levels of contamination in the city. The regional distribution of PAH in Christchurch correlates well with traffic density, and particularly with the pattern of smoke from domestic fires. Our study demonstrates that needles of P. radiata can be better monitors of atmospheric pollution in New Zealand than mosses or lichens.

  1. Spatial and temporal dynamics of the colonization of Pinus radiata by Fusarium circinatum, of conidiophora development in the pith and of traumatic resin duct formation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Rodrigues, Noemí; Espinel, Santiago; Sanchez-Zabala, Joseba; Ortíz, Amaia; González-Murua, Carmen; Duñabeitia, Miren K

    2013-06-01

    · Fusarium circinatum causes pitch canker disease in a wide range of pine trees, including Pinus radiata, with devastating economic consequences. · To assess the spatial and temporal dynamics of growth of this pathogen in radiata pine, we examined the process of infection using both real-time PCR to quantify fungal biomass inside the plant host, and confocal microscopy using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain of F. circinatum. · Pathogen growth exhibited three distinct phases: an initial exponential increase in fungal biomass, concomitant with pathogen colonization of the cortex and phloem; a slowdown in fungal growth coincident with sporulating hyphae deep within the host; and stabilization of the fungal biomass when the first wilting symptoms appeared. The number of resin ducts in the xylem was found to increase in response to infection and the fungus grew inside both constitutive and traumatic resin ducts. · These results indicate that conidiation may contribute to the spatial or temporal dissemination of the pathogen. Moreover, the present findings raise the intriguing possibility that the generation of traumatic resin ducts may be of more benefit to the fungus than to the plant.

  2. Evidence of chemical reactions between di- and poly-glycidyl ether resins and tannins isolated from Pinus radiata D. Don bark.

    PubMed

    Soto, Roy; Freer, Juanita; Baeza, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    This work evaluates the feasibility of reacting tannins isolated from Pinus radiata D. Don bark with epoxide resins of the diglycidyl and polyglycidyl ether type. To this end, gel times of aqueous tannin dispersions (40% w/w) with every one of nine selected resins (5% w/w), at previously established pH values (initial equal to 3.3, 4, 7 and 10), have been determined. Products of these reactions were analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy, and the results were compared with those obtained from tannin-p-formaldehyde and (+)-catechin-p-formaldehyde systems, at the same pH values. Their mechanical properties were evaluated, by dynamic mechanical analysis, at two pH values (3.3 and 10). In general, it was concluded that tannin-epoxide resin systems behave similarly to tannin-paraformaldehyde systems, especially at basic pH values.

  3. No impact of transgenic nptII-leafy Pinus radiata (Pinales: Pinaceae) on Pseudocoremia suavis (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) or its endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Burgess, E P J; Barraclough, E I; Kean, A M; Walter, C; Malone, L A

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the biosafety to insects of transgenic Pinus radiata D. Don containing the antibiotic resistance marker gene nptII and the reproductive control gene leafy, bioassays were conducted with an endemic lepidopteran pest of New Zealand plantation pine forests and a hymenopteran endoparasitoid. Larvae of the common forest looper, Pseudocoremia suavis (Butler), were fed from hatching on P. radiata needles from either one of two nptII-leafy transgenic clones, or an isogenic unmodified control line. For both unparasitized P. suavis and those parasitized by Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael), consuming transgenic versus control pine had no impact on larval growth rate or mass at any age, larval duration, survival, pupation or successful emergence as an adult. Total larval duration was 1 d (3%) longer in larvae fed nptII-2 than nptII-1, but this difference was considered trivial and neither differed from the control. In unparasitized P. suavis larvae, pine type consumed did not affect rate of pupation or adult emergence, pupal mass, or pupal duration. Pine type had no effect on the duration or survival of M. pulchricornis larval or pupal stages, mass of cocoons, stage at which they died, adult emergence, or fecundity. Parasitism by M. pulchricornis reduced P. suavis larval growth rate, increased the duration of the third larval stadium, and resulted in the death of all host larvae before pupation. The lack of impact of an exclusive diet of nptII-leafy transgenic pines on the life history of P. suavis and M. pulchricornis suggests that transgenic plantation pines expressing nptII are unlikely to affect insect populations in the field.

  4. Micromorphological changes and mechanism associated with wet ball milling of Pinus radiata substrate and consequences for saccharification at low enzyme loading.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Alankar A; Donaldson, Lloyd A; Newman, Roger H; Suckling, Ian D; Campion, Sylke H; Lloyd, John A; Murton, Karl D

    2016-08-01

    In this work, substrates prepared from thermo-mechanical treatment of Pinus radiata chips were vibratory ball milled for different times. In subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, percent glucan conversion passed through a maximum value at a milling time of around 120min and then declined. Scanning electron microscopy revealed breakage of fibers to porous fragments in which lamellae and fibrils were exposed during ball milling. Over-milling caused compression of the porous fragments to compact globular particles with a granular texture, decreasing accessibility to enzymes. Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy showed partial loss of interior cellulose in crystallites, leveling off once fiber breakage was complete. A mathematical model based on observed micromorphological changes supports ball milling mechanism. At a low enzyme loading of 2FPU/g of substrate and milling time of 120min gave a total monomeric sugar yield of 306g/kg of pulp which is higher than conventional pretreatment method such as steam exploded wood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of liming and organic and inorganic fertilization on soil carbon sequestered in macro-and microaggregates in a 17-year old Pinus radiata silvopastoral system.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N

    2015-03-01

    Agroforestry systems have been recognized as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol because of their ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store carbon mainly in the soil. Soil particle size and land management practices are known to have a considerable influence on carbon storage in soils. This study evaluated changes in soil chemical and physical properties, and quantified and compared the amount of C stored in the bulk soil and in three different soil fractions (250-2000, 53-250 and <53 μm) at each of four soil depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm) in a silvopastoral system located on an acidic forest soil under Pinus radiata D. Don. Areas of this system were subjected ten years ago to one of nine fertilization treatments: three different doses of sewage sludge or no fertilization, all with or without the addition of lime, and mineral fertilizer with no liming. Seventeen years after reforestation and seven years after canopy closure, strong gradients with soil depth were found regarding soil bulk density, pH and carbon storage. Intense soil management (high doses of sewage sludge and liming) generally reduced soil carbon storage, mainly in coarse aggregates, but this could be compensated by the increase in tree and pasture development observed in soils subject to intermediate sewage sludge doses.

  6. Genome‐wide gene expression dynamics of the fungal pathogen Dothistroma septosporum throughout its infection cycle of the gymnosperm host Pinus radiata

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanan; Sim, Andre D.; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Chettri, Pranav; Ozturk, Ibrahim K.; Hunziker, Lukas; Ganley, Rebecca J.; Cox, Murray P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We present genome‐wide gene expression patterns as a time series through the infection cycle of the fungal pine needle blight pathogen, Dothistroma septosporum, as it invades its gymnosperm host, Pinus radiata. We determined the molecular changes at three stages of the disease cycle: epiphytic/biotrophic (early), initial necrosis (mid) and mature sporulating lesion (late). Over 1.7 billion combined plant and fungal reads were sequenced to obtain 3.2 million fungal‐specific reads, which comprised as little as 0.1% of the sample reads early in infection. This enriched dataset shows that the initial biotrophic stage is characterized by the up‐regulation of genes encoding fungal cell wall‐modifying enzymes and signalling proteins. Later necrotrophic stages show the up‐regulation of genes for secondary metabolism, putative effectors, oxidoreductases, transporters and starch degradation. This in‐depth through‐time transcriptomic study provides our first snapshot of the gene expression dynamics that characterize infection by this fungal pathogen in its gymnosperm host. PMID:25919703

  7. Genome-wide gene expression dynamics of the fungal pathogen Dothistroma septosporum throughout its infection cycle of the gymnosperm host Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Rosie E; Guo, Yanan; Sim, Andre D; Kabir, M Shahjahan; Chettri, Pranav; Ozturk, Ibrahim K; Hunziker, Lukas; Ganley, Rebecca J; Cox, Murray P

    2016-02-01

    We present genome-wide gene expression patterns as a time series through the infection cycle of the fungal pine needle blight pathogen, Dothistroma septosporum, as it invades its gymnosperm host, Pinus radiata. We determined the molecular changes at three stages of the disease cycle: epiphytic/biotrophic (early), initial necrosis (mid) and mature sporulating lesion (late). Over 1.7 billion combined plant and fungal reads were sequenced to obtain 3.2 million fungal-specific reads, which comprised as little as 0.1% of the sample reads early in infection. This enriched dataset shows that the initial biotrophic stage is characterized by the up-regulation of genes encoding fungal cell wall-modifying enzymes and signalling proteins. Later necrotrophic stages show the up-regulation of genes for secondary metabolism, putative effectors, oxidoreductases, transporters and starch degradation. This in-depth through-time transcriptomic study provides our first snapshot of the gene expression dynamics that characterize infection by this fungal pathogen in its gymnosperm host.

  8. Improving the quality of protein identification in non-model species. Characterization of Quercus ilex seed and Pinus radiata needle proteomes by using SEQUEST and custom databases.

    PubMed

    Romero-Rodríguez, M Cristina; Pascual, Jesús; Valledor, Luis; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús

    2014-06-13

    Nowadays the most used pipeline for protein identification consists in the comparison of the MS/MS spectra to reference databases. Search algorithms compare obtained spectra to an in silico digestion of a sequence database to find exact matches. In this context, the database has a paramount importance and will determine in a great deal the number of identifications and its quality, being this especially relevant for non-model plant species. Using a single Viridiplantae database (NCBI, UniProt) and TAIR is not the best choice for non-model species since they are underrepresented in databases resulting in poor identification rates. We demonstrate how it is possible to improve the rate and quality of identifications in two orphan species, Quercus ilex and Pinus radiata, by using SEQUEST and a combination of public (Viridiplantae NCBI, UniProt) and a custom-built specific database which contained 593,294 and 455,096 peptide sequences (Quercus and Pinus, respectively). These databases were built after gathering and processing (trimming, contiging, 6-frame translation) publicly available RNA sequences, mostly ESTs and NGS reads. A total of 149 and 1533 proteins were identified from Quercus seeds and Pinus needles, representing a 3.1- or 1.5-fold increase in the number of protein identifications and scores compared to the use of a single database. Since this approach greatly improves the identification rate, and is not significantly more complicated or time consuming than other approaches, we recommend its routine use when working with non-model species. In this work we demonstrate how the construction of a custom database (DB) gathering all available RNA sequences and its use in combination with Viridiplantae public DBs (NCBI, UniProt) significantly improve protein identification when working with non-model species. Protein identification rate and quality is higher to those obtained in routine procedures based on using only one database (commonly Viridiplantae from NCBI

  9. Root distribution of Pinus pinaster, P. radiata, Eucalyptus globulus and E. kochii and associated soil chemistry in agricultural land adjacent to tree lines.

    PubMed

    Sudmeyer, R A; Speijers, J; Nicholas, B D

    2004-12-01

    We quantified the extent and distribution of roots of four commonly planted tree species (Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus radiata D. Don, P. pinaster Aiton and E. kochii Maiden & Blakely subsp. plenissima C.A. Gardner) in agricultural land adjacent to tree lines, and examined the effect of soil type and root pruning on root morphology. Root distribution in soil adjacent to tree lines was mapped by a trench profile method at 13 sites on the south coast of Western Australia. Soil samples were collected to determine water content and fertility. The lateral extent of tree roots ranged from 10 m for E. kochii to 44 m for P. pinaster. This equated to between 1.5 and 2.5 times tree height (H) for E. globulus and Pinus spp. to 4H for E. kochii. Root density declined logarithmically with distance from the trees and was greatest for P. pinaster and least for E. globulus (P < 0.001). The rate of decrease in root density with distance from the trees was greatest for the Pinus spp. and least for E. kochii (P < 0.05). Root density was generally greatest in the top 0.5 m of the soil profile and decreased with increasing depth. This decrease was relatively gradual in the deep sands, but abrupt in clay subsoil. Root dry mass in the sandy top soil beyond 0.5H ranged between 1.0 and 55.5 Mg km(treeline) (-1) for 6-year-old E. kochii and 50-year-old P. pinaster, respectively. Soil water content generally increased with distance from the trees (P < 0.001). There was no evidence of reduced soil fertility in the top 1.4 m of the soil profile adjacent to the trees. Two to four years after trees had been root pruned, both the lateral extent and vertical distribution of roots were similar for pruned and unpruned trees. The density of roots < 2 mm in diameter was greater for root-pruned trees than for unpruned trees (P < 0.05). We conclude that the study species can compete with agricultural crops based on the lateral extent of their roots and the occurrence of greatest root density

  10. Factor analytic and reduced animal models for the investigation of additive genotype-by-environment interaction in outcrossing plant species with application to a Pinus radiata breeding programme.

    PubMed

    Cullis, Brian R; Jefferson, Paul; Thompson, Robin; Smith, Alison B

    2014-10-01

    Modelling additive genotype-by-environment interaction is best achieved with the use of factor analytic models. With numerous environments and for outcrossing plant species, computation is facilitated using reduced animal models. The development of efficient plant breeding strategies requires a knowledge of the magnitude and structure of genotype-by-environment interaction. This information can be obtained from appropriate linear mixed model analyses of phenotypic data from multi-environment trials. The use of factor analytic models for genotype-by-environment effects is known to provide a reliable, parsimonious and holistic approach for obtaining estimates of genetic correlations between all pairs of trials. When breeding for outcrossing species the focus is on estimating additive genetic correlations and effects which is achieved by including pedigree information in the analysis. The use of factor analytic models in this setting may be computationally prohibitive when the number of environments is moderate to large. In this paper, we present an approach that uses an approximate reduced animal model to overcome the computational issues associated with factor analytic models for additive genotype-by-environment effects. The approach is illustrated using a Pinus radiata breeding dataset involving 77 trials, located in environments across New Zealand and south eastern Australia, and with pedigree information on 315,581 trees. Using this approach we demonstrate the existence of substantial additive genotype-by-environment interaction for the trait of stem diameter measured at breast height. This finding has potentially significant implications for both breeding and deployment strategies. Although our approach has been developed for forest tree breeding programmes, it is directly applicable for other outcrossing plant species, including sugarcane, maize and numerous horticultural crops.

  11. Dataset of UV induced changes in nuclear proteome obtained by GeLC-Orbitrap/MS in Pinus radiata needles

    PubMed Central

    Alegre, Sara; Pascual, Jesús; Nagler, Matthias; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Cañal, María Jesús; Valledor, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Although responses to UV stress have been characterised at system and cellular levels, the dynamics of the nuclear proteome triggered in this situation are still unknown, despite its essential role in regulating gene expression and in last term plant physiology. To fill this gap, we characterised the variations in the nuclear proteome after 2 h and 16 h (8 h/day) of UV irradiation by using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics methods combined with novel bioinformatics workflows that were employed in the manuscript entitled “The variations in the nuclear proteome reveal new transcription factors and mechanisms involved in UV stress response in Pinus radiata” (Pascual et al., 2016) [1]. We employed in-gel digestion followed by a 120 min gradient prior to MS analysis. Data was processed following two approaches: a database dependent employing the SEQUEST algorithm and custom databases, and a database independent by mass accuracy precursor alignment (MAPA). 388 proteins were identified by SEQUEST search and 9094 m/z were quantified by MAPA. Significant m/z were de novo sequenced using the Novor algorithm. We present here the complete datasets and the analysis workflow. PMID:27182543

  12. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the tree foliage of Eucalyptus rostrata, Pinus radiata and Populus hybridus in the vicinity of a large aluminium smelter in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. H.; Wannaz, E. D.; Salazar, M. J.; Pignata, M. L.; Fangmeier, A.; Franzaring, J.

    2012-08-01

    A pollution gradient of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina). Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, Populus hybridus and one-year-old needles of Pinus radiata were collected, and concentrations of 12 PAHs including the so-called EPA priority pollutants as well as heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) were analysed. The PAH concentrations indicated a steep pollution gradient in the study area associated with the Al-industry, while the heavy metal content was unrelated to this activity. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in the deposition of PAH in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account the potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health.

  13. Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of Pityophthorus pubescens (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) to (E,E)-α-farnesene, (R)-(+)-limonene and (S)-(-)-verbenone in Pinus radiata (Pinaceae) stands in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    López, Sergio; Quero, Carmen; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Angel; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Some twig beetles in the genus Pityophthorus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) may vector pitch canker disease Fusarium circinatum (Niremberg & O'Donnell) of Pinus spp. (Pinaceae). Because Pityophthorus pubescens (Marsh.) has been found to be associated with F. circinatum in the Basque Country (northern Spain), various experiments were conducted to assess the beetle's behavioural responses to (E, E)-α-farnesene, (R)-(+)-limonene and (S)-(-)-verbenone to develop a potential inhibitor to host attraction. These experiments comprise electroantennographic and double-choice olfactometer tests, as well as field assays in Pinus radiata D. Don stands. Both sexes of P. pubescens showed similar electroantennographic responses to different doses (from 1 ng to 1 µg in decadic steps) of each individual compound, with depolarisations to (S)-(-)-verbenone (100 ng) being similar to those of the aggregation pheromone (+)-trans-pityol. In olfactometer assays, both sexes were significantly attracted to (+)-trans-pityol, but the attraction was reduced when increasing amounts of the chemicals were added to the pheromone. Particularly relevant was the repellent effect induced by (S)-(-)-verbenone at 1 ng dose and higher. In the field, (E, E)-α-farnesene, (R)-(+)-limonene and (S)-(-)-verbenone reduced significantly the number of beetles attracted to (+)-trans-pityol and racemic trans-pityol, with (S)-(-)-verbenone being the most effective. (S)-(-)-Verbenone showed an interesting potential for use in the protection of P. radiata stands. A potentially effective strategy, which could be implemented in further, more in-depth studies, could involve the use of this semiochemical as repellent and (+)-trans-pityol-baited traps as attractant in a 'push-pull' strategy. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Metal accumulation and growth response in Vigna radiata L. inoculated with chromate tolerant rhizobacteria and grown on tannery sludge amended soil.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Rai, U N; Tewari, A; Singh, M

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inoculation of four chromate tolerant rhizobacterial strains previously isolated from rhizosphere of plants from chromium contaminated area in mung plant Vigna radiata grown on tannery sludge amended soil were evaluated. An increase of 138%, 88%, 256% and 54.14% in root length, shoot length, biomass and total chlorophyll, respectively was observed after 60 days of treatments by consortium. Similarly, a significant enhancement in Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd accumulation was observed in consortium inoculated plants as compared to non-inoculated plants. Results showed that rhizobacterial strain helps in ameliorating metal induced phytotoxicity, acquiring higher biomass and metal uptake in the plant may be useful in decontamination of metal from polluted soil.

  15. Bending strength of Chilean radiata pine poles

    Treesearch

    Gina Cerda; Ronald W. Wolfe

    2003-01-01

    Because radiata pine has thrived in south-central Chile since it was introduced there more than a century ago, pine plantation productivity there has grown tremendously. Plantation owners are seeking new markets for this material. One potential market is utility poles. The American National Standards Institute 05.1 standard (ANSI 05.1) provides a means for radiata pine...

  16. Wood properties of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) grown at elevated temperature and carbon dioxide concentration.

    PubMed

    Kilpeläinen, Antti; Peltola, Heli; Ryyppö, Aija; Sauvala, Kari; Laitinen, Kaisa; Kellomäki, Seppo

    2003-09-01

    Impacts of elevated temperature and carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) on wood properties of 15-year-old Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown under conditions of low nitrogen supply were investigated in open-top chambers. The treatments consisted of (i) ambient temperature and ambient [CO2] (AT+AC), (ii) ambient temperature and elevated [CO2] (AT+EC), (iii) elevated temperature and ambient [CO2] (ET+AC) and (iv) elevated temperature and elevated [CO2] (ET+EC). Wood properties analyzed for the years 1992-1994 included ring width, early- and latewood width and their proportions, intra-ring wood density (minimum, maximum and mean, as well as early- and latewood densities), mean fiber length and chemical composition of the wood (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and acetone extractive concentration). Absolute radial growth over the 3-year period was 54% greater in AT+EC trees and 30 and 25% greater in ET+AC and ET+EC trees, respectively, than in AT+AC trees. Neither elevated temperature nor elevated [CO2] had a statistically significant effect on ring width, early- and latewood widths or their proportions. Both latewood density and maximum intra-ring density were increased by elevated [CO2], whereas fiber length was increased by elevated temperature. Hemicellulose concentration decreased and lignin concentration increased significantly in response to elevated temperature. There were no statistically significant interaction effects of elevated temperature and elevated [CO2] on the wood properties, except on earlywood density.

  17. Effects of zinc on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Yury V; Kartashov, Alexander V; Ivanova, Alexandra I; Savochkin, Yury V; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V

    2016-05-01

    The 6-week-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) showed high sensitivity to chronic exposure to zinc in hydroculture, which manifested in a significant inhibition of growth. Changes in the architecture of the root system and the suppression of its growth were shown to be the most striking effects of the toxic effect of zinc. Based on the data relating to the accumulation of zinc predominantly in the root system (by up to 35 times at 300 μM ZnSO4) and to the reduction in its translocation into the aerial organs, we concluded that P. sylvestris is related to a group of plants that exclude zinc. The seedlings developed a manganese deficiency (revealed by a reduction in Mn content in the roots and needles of up to 3.5 times at 300 μM ZnSO4) but not an iron deficiency (revealed by an increase in iron content of up to 23.7% in the roots and up to 42.3% in the needles at average). The absence of signs of oxidative stress under the effect of the zinc was detected as evidenced by the reduction in the content of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals in the seedling organs. The leading role of low molecular weight antioxidants in the prevention of oxidative stress in the seedling organs was suggested. Under the influence of zinc, a significant increase in the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity of ethanol extracts of the seedling organs was found, which was caused by an increase in the total content of (+)-catechin and proanthocyanidins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensitivity of cold acclimation to elevated autumn temperature in field-grown Pinus strobus seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Christine Y.; Unda, Faride; Zubilewich, Alexandra; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Ensminger, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will increase autumn air temperature, while photoperiod decrease will remain unaffected. We assessed the effect of increased autumn air temperature on timing and development of cold acclimation and freezing resistance in Eastern white pine (EWP, Pinus strobus) under field conditions. For this purpose we simulated projected warmer temperatures for southern Ontario in a Temperature Free-Air-Controlled Enhancement (T-FACE) experiment and exposed EWP seedlings to ambient (Control) or elevated temperature (ET, +1.5°C/+3°C during day/night). Photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, photoprotective pigments, leaf non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), and cold hardiness were assessed over two consecutive autumns. Nighttime temperature below 10°C and photoperiod below 12 h initiated downregulation of assimilation in both treatments. When temperature further decreased to 0°C and photoperiod became shorter than 10 h, downregulation of the light reactions and upregulation of photoprotective mechanisms occurred in both treatments. While ET seedlings did not delay the timing of the downregulation of assimilation, stomatal conductance in ET seedlings was decreased by 20–30% between August and early October. In both treatments leaf NSC composition changed considerably during autumn but differences between Control and ET seedlings were not significant. Similarly, development of freezing resistance was induced by exposure to low temperature during autumn, but the timing was not delayed in ET seedlings compared to Control seedlings. Our results indicate that EWP is most sensitive to temperature changes during October and November when downregulation of photosynthesis, enhancement of photoprotection, synthesis of cold-associated NSCs and development of freezing resistance occur. However, we also conclude that the timing of the development of freezing resistance in EWP seedlings is not affected by moderate temperature increases used in our field

  19. Sensitivity of cold acclimation to elevated autumn temperature in field-grown Pinus strobus seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chang, Christine Y; Unda, Faride; Zubilewich, Alexandra; Mansfield, Shawn D; Ensminger, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will increase autumn air temperature, while photoperiod decrease will remain unaffected. We assessed the effect of increased autumn air temperature on timing and development of cold acclimation and freezing resistance in Eastern white pine (EWP, Pinus strobus) under field conditions. For this purpose we simulated projected warmer temperatures for southern Ontario in a Temperature Free-Air-Controlled Enhancement (T-FACE) experiment and exposed EWP seedlings to ambient (Control) or elevated temperature (ET, +1.5°C/+3°C during day/night). Photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, photoprotective pigments, leaf non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), and cold hardiness were assessed over two consecutive autumns. Nighttime temperature below 10°C and photoperiod below 12 h initiated downregulation of assimilation in both treatments. When temperature further decreased to 0°C and photoperiod became shorter than 10 h, downregulation of the light reactions and upregulation of photoprotective mechanisms occurred in both treatments. While ET seedlings did not delay the timing of the downregulation of assimilation, stomatal conductance in ET seedlings was decreased by 20-30% between August and early October. In both treatments leaf NSC composition changed considerably during autumn but differences between Control and ET seedlings were not significant. Similarly, development of freezing resistance was induced by exposure to low temperature during autumn, but the timing was not delayed in ET seedlings compared to Control seedlings. Our results indicate that EWP is most sensitive to temperature changes during October and November when downregulation of photosynthesis, enhancement of photoprotection, synthesis of cold-associated NSCs and development of freezing resistance occur. However, we also conclude that the timing of the development of freezing resistance in EWP seedlings is not affected by moderate temperature increases used in our field

  20. Response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to an application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer grown on Olasiti soils from Minjingu-Manyara, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kisetu, Eliakira; Teveli, Christina Ngomzee Medutieki

    2013-11-15

    A screen-house pot experiment was conducted to assess the response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to the application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer (31% P2O5) on Olasiti soil, Manyara Region-Tanzania. This study was prompted by very low or limited use of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer by smallholder farmers in the country while yields turnout of most crops, green gram inclusive, is not promising. The soil was clay with medium pH (pH 5.5-7.0) and neutral reaction (pH 6.6-7.3). The results showed that the number of pods and seeds increased from 3-6 and 7-9, respectively, at 40 to 160 mg per 4 kg soil of fertilizer applied. Similarly, the tissue N and P increased with treatment levels. The number of pods per plant and seeds per pod showed similar increase, signifying the role of these nutrients in protein synthesis in leguminous plants like green gram. Soil properties could be the spearhead to low responses obtained at low (< 80 mg per 4 kg soil) and high (> 320 mg per 4 kg soil) rates of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer applied. It was concluded that to optimize green gram production in Olasiti soil, Minjingu Mazao fertilizer containing 31% P2O5 should be applied at a rate of 160-320 kg ha(-1) while considering other necessary agronomic practices. However, field studies to confirm the findings of this study and verify the usefulness of this fertilizer brand to green gram in Olasiti soil under field conditions could practically be the viable option before its recommendation to the smallholder farmers.

  1. Alterations of chemical composition, construction cost and payback time in needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) trees grown under pollution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nan; Guan, Lan-Lan; Sun, Fang-Fang; Wen, Da-Zhi

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies show that Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) stands grown at the industrially-polluted site have experienced unprecedented growth decline, but the causal mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, to understand the mechanisms of growth decline of Mason pine strands under pollution stresses, we determined the reactive oxygen species levels and chemical composition of the current-year (C) and one-year-old (C + 1) needles, and calculated the needle construction costs (CCmass) of Masson pine trees grown at an industrially-polluted site and an unpolluted remote site. Pine trees grown at the polluted site had significantly higher levels of hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion in their needles than those grown at the unpolluted site, and the former trees eventually exhibited needle early senescence. The contents of lipids, soluble phenolics and lignins in C and C + 1 needles were significantly higher at the polluted site than at the unpolluted site, but the total amounts of non-construction carbohydrates were lower in non-polluted needles than in polluted needles. Elevated levels of the reactive oxygen species and early senescence in polluted needles together led to significant increases in CCmass and a longer payback time. We infer that the lengthened payback time and needle early senescence under pollution stress may reduce the Masson pine tree growth and consequently accelerate tree decline.

  2. Germacranolides from Anvillea radiata.

    PubMed

    El Hassany, B; El Hanbali, F; Akssira, M; Mellouki, F; Haidour, A; Barrero, A F

    2004-09-01

    The aerial parts of Anvillea radiata yielded a new germacranolide, 8alpha,9alpha-epoxyparthenolide (3), together with two known compounds, 9alpha-hydroxyparthenolide (1) and parthenolid-9-one (2). The structures of the compounds were elucidated from IR, HRMS, 1H and 13C-NMR, COSY, HETCOR, HMBC and HOHAHA spectral data. The major component 1 was tested for its cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity.

  3. Screening Pinus sylvestris grown for the production of Christmas trees for resistance to western gall rust Peridermium harknessii using different sources of aeciospores

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Burnes; Jennifer Juzwik; Robert A. Blanchette

    1999-01-01

    Results showed a moderate to high susceptibility of Pinus sylvestris to western gall rust Peridermium barknessii, from Pinna sylvestris in Michigan and Pinna banksiana in Minnesota. In general, Pinus sylvestris seed sources were more susceptible to aeciospores collected from...

  4. Composition of essential oils isolated from the needles of Pinus uncinata and P. uliginosa grown in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bonikowski, Radosław; Celiński, Konrad; Wojnicka-Półtorak, Aleksandra; Maliński, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    The compositions of mountain pine (Pinus uncinata) and peat-bog pine (P. uliginosa) needle essential oils were investigated. Enantiomeric compositions of selected monoterpene hydrocarbons were also examined. Respectively, fifty-three and seventy-six components of the essential oils were identified using GC-MS and retention indexes. The main group of essential oil components of mountain pine needles were monoterpenes, and bornyl acetate constituted approximately 30% (46.3 g/100 g) of the oil. In peat-bog pine essential oil, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes exhibited a similar content (ca. 40%). Bornyl acetate and α-pinene were the main constituents of both essential oils. In the essential oil of P. uncinata needles, limonene, camphene, myrcene and (E)-β-caryophyllene were also noticeable, while in the essential oil of P. uliginosa needles, Δ-car-3-ene, (E)-β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, δ-cadinene, germacrene D 4-ol and α-cadinol were present in notable quantities. In both essential oils, borneol propionate, isobutyrate, 2-methylbutyrate and isovalerate were detected. Their presence was confirmed by synthesis and analysis of the standards; retention indexes on a non-polar column are published herein.

  5. Actinobacteria possessing antimicrobial and antioxidant activities isolated from the pollen of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) grown on the Baikal shore.

    PubMed

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina V; Rebets, Yuriy V; Tokovenko, Bogdan T; Penzina, Tatyana A; Gornostay, Tatyana G; Adelshin, Renat V; Protasov, Eugenii S; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Timofeyev, Maxim A

    2016-10-01

    Isolated ecosystems existing under specific environmental conditions have been shown to be promising sources of new strains of actinobacteria. The taiga forest of Baikal Siberia has not been well studied, and its actinobacterial population remains uncharacterized. The proximity between the huge water mass of Lake Baikal and high mountain ranges influences the structure and diversity of the plant world in Siberia. Here, we report the isolation of eighteen actinobacterial strains from male cones of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) growing on the shore of the ancient Lake Baikal in Siberia. In addition to more common representative strains of Streptomyces, several species belonging to the genera Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, and Micromonospora were isolated. All isolated strains exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. We identified several strains that inhibited the growth of the pathogen Candida albicans but did not hinder the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several isolates were active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The high proportion of biologically active strains producing antibacterial and specific antifungal compounds may reflect their role in protecting pollen against phytopathogens.

  6. Pest risk assessment of the importation into the United States of unprocessed Pinus logs and chips from Australia

    Treesearch

    John T Kliejunas; Harold H. Burdsall; Gregg A. DeNitto; Andris Eglitis; Dennis A. Haugen; Michael I. Haverty; Jessie A. Micales-Glaeser

    2006-01-01

    The unmitigated pest risk potential for the importation of unprocessed logs and chips of species of Pinus (Pinus radiata, P. elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, P. taeda L., and P. caribaea var. hondurensis, principally) from Australia into the United States was assessed by estimating the likelihood and consequences of introduction of representative insects and pathogens...

  7. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities on seedlings and conspecific trees of Pinus mugo grown on the coastal dunes of the Curonian Spit in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Aučina, Algis; Rudawska, Maria; Leski, Tomasz; Ryliškis, Darius; Pietras, Marcin; Riepšas, Edvardas

    2011-04-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities of mature trees and regenerating seedlings of a non-native tree species Pinus mugo grown in a harsh environment of the coastal region of the Curonian Spit National Park in Lithuania were assessed. We established three study sites (S1, S2, and S3) that were separated from each other by 15 km. The ECM species richness was rather low in particular for mature, 100-year-old trees: 12 ectomycorrhizal taxa were identified by molecular analysis from 11 distinguished morphotypes. All 12 taxa were present on seedlings and on mature trees, with between 8-11 and 9-11 taxa present on seedlings and mature trees, respectively. Cenococcum geophilum dominated all ECM communities, but the relative abundance of C. geophilum mycorrhizas was nearly two times higher on seedlings than on mature trees. Mycorrhizal associations formed by Wilcoxina sp., Lactarius rufus, and Russula paludosa were also abundant. Several fungal taxa were only occasionally detected, including Cortinarius sp., Cortinarius obtusus, Cortinarius croceus, and Meliniomyces sp. Shannon's diversity indices for the ECM assemblages of P. mugo ranged from 0.98 to 1.09 for seedling and from 1.05 to 1.31 for mature trees. According to analysis of similarity, the mycorrhizal communities were similar between the sites (R = 0.085; P = 0.06) and only slightly separated between seedlings and mature trees (R = 0.24; P < 0.0001). An incidental fruiting body survey that was conducted weakly reflected the below-ground assessment of the ECM fungal community and once again showed that ECM and fruiting body studies commonly supply different partial accounts of the true ECM fungal diversity. Our results show that P. mugo has moved into quite distinct habitats and is able to adapt a suite of ECM symbionts that sufficiently support growth and development of this tree and allow for natural seedling regeneration.

  8. Contamination of Pinus radiata Seeds in California by Fusarium circinatum

    Treesearch

    L. David Dwinell

    1999-01-01

    The pitch canker fugus, Fusarium circinatum (= F. subglutinans f sp. pini), causes several serious diseases of pines. The pathogen infects a variety of vegetative and reproductive pine structures at diierent stages of maturity and produces a diversity of symptoms. In addition to producing resinous cankers on the...

  9. Relationship between carbohydrate concentration and root growth potential in coniferous seedlings from three climates during cold hardening and dehardening

    Treesearch

    R.W. Tinus; K.E. Burr; N. Atzmon; J. Riov

    2000-01-01

    Greenhouse-cultured, container-grown seedlings of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.), radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don), and interior Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) were cold acclimated and deacclimated in growth chambers over 24 weeks....

  10. Allozyme differentiation and biosystematics of the Californian closed-cone pines (Pinus subsect. Oocarpae)

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar; Steven H. Strauss; M. Thompson Conkle; Robert D. Westfall

    1988-01-01

    Allozyme differentiation at 32 loci was studied in the three Californian species of Pinus subsect. Oocarpae: P. attenuata, P. muricata, and P. radiata, and in a small sample of a Latin American species of the subsection, P. oocarpa. The Californian species...

  11. The potential of breeding for enhanced inducibility in Pinus pinaster and Pinus radiata

    Treesearch

    Rafael Zas; Alejandro Solla; Xoaquin Moreira; Luis Sampedro

    2012-01-01

    Most resistance mechanisms against pests and pathogens in pine trees involve the production of chemical defenses. These defenses are not cost free and the production of secondary metabolisms is generally inversely related with other plant fitness correlates, such as growth. The existence of these negative genetic correlations imposes an important obstacle for breeding...

  12. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Some physicochemical characteristics of pinus (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) seeds from North Algeria, their lipid profiles and volatile contents.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Nabil; Khettal, Bachra; Aid, Yasmine; Kherfellah, Souraya; Sobhi, Widad; Barragan-Montero, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of seeds of some pinus species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) grown in North Algeria were determined. The results showed that the seeds consist of 19.8-36.7% oil, 14.25-26.62% protein, 7.8-8.6% moisture. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were the predominant elements present in seeds. Pinus seed's oil physicochemical properties show acid values (4.9-68.9), iodine values (93.3-160.4) and saponification values (65.9-117.9). Oil analysis showed that the major unsaturated fatty acids for the four species were linoleic acid (30-59%) and oleic acid (17.4-34.6%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (5-29%). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis of P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster and P. canariensis volatile oils indicated that the major volatile compound was the limonene with relative percentage of 3.1, 7.5 and 10.8, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On the Complementary Relationship Between Nitrogen and Water Use Efficiencies Among Pinus taeda L. Leaves Grown Under Ambient and Enriched CO2 Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmroth, S.; Katul, G. G.; Maier, C.; Ward, E.; Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Oren, R.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding leaf water and nitrogen use strategies is important for predicting vegetation response to climate change. To address this issue from a modeling perspective, two specific hypotheses on the complementary relationship between marginal nitrogen use efficiency (η) and marginal water use efficiency (λ) are formulated based on optimality principles. When a time scale separation exists between variations in stomatal conductance (less than hourly) and in foliar nitrogen (exceeding daily), optimal resource use implies that η and λ1/2 are complementary (hypothesis 1), and that increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration increases both η and λ (hypothesis 2). These two hypotheses are explored at the leaf scale using an extensive gas exchange dataset for Pinus taeda L. collected as part of the Duke Forest Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. At Duke FACE, trees are growing under elevated atmospheric CO2, soil nitrogen fertilization, or their combination. The observed light-saturated net photosynthesis (Asat) and foliar N in P. taeda at various canopy positions span a significant proportion of the entire range of values observed globally across species and functional types. This wide spread in Asat and foliar N for an individual species allows examining linkages between η and λ. When leaf temperature effects on the physiological parameters are accounted for, the gas exchange data are consistent with the two theory-based hypotheses. Thus, the linkages quantified between η and λ can be used to constrain models of the coupled carbon-nitrogen-water cycles in terrestrial ecosystems.

  15. Effects of copper deficiency and copper toxicity on organogenesis and some physiological and biochemical responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Yury V; Kartashov, Alexander V; Ivanova, Alexandra I; Savochkin, Yury V; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V

    2016-09-01

    The morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters of 6-week-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied under deficiency (1.2 nM) and chronic exposure to copper (0.32, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 μM CuSO4) in hydroculture. The deposit of copper in the seed allowed the seedlings to develop under copper deficiency without visible disruption of growth. The high sensitivity of Scots pine to the toxic effects of copper was shown, which manifested as a significant inhibition of growth and development. The loss of dominance of the main root and a strong inhibition of lateral root development pointed to a lack of adaptive reorganization of the root system architecture under copper excess. A preferential accumulation of copper in the root and a minor translocation in aerial organs confirmed that Scots pine belongs to a group of plants that exclude copper. Selective impairment in the absorption of manganese was discovered, under both deficiency and excess of copper in the nutrient solution, which was independent of the degree of development of the root system. Following 10 μM CuSO4 exposure, the absorption of manganese and iron from the nutrient solution was completely suppressed, and the development of seedlings was secured by the stock of these micronutrients in the seed. The absence of signs of oxidative stress in the seedling organs was shown under deficiency and excess of copper, as evidenced by the steady content of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals. Against this background, no changes in total superoxide dismutase activity in the organs of seedlings were revealed, and the increased content of low-molecular-weight antioxidants was observed in the roots under 1 μM and in the needles under 5 μM CuSO4 exposures.

  16. On the complementary relationship between marginal nitrogen and water-use efficiencies among Pinus taeda leaves grown under ambient and CO2-enriched environments

    PubMed Central

    Palmroth, Sari; Katul, Gabriel G.; Maier, Chris A.; Ward, Eric; Manzoni, Stefano; Vico, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Water and nitrogen (N) are two limiting resources for biomass production of terrestrial vegetation. Water losses in transpiration (E) can be decreased by reducing leaf stomatal conductance (gs) at the expense of lowering CO2 uptake (A), resulting in increased water-use efficiency. However, with more N available, higher allocation of N to photosynthetic proteins improves A so that N-use efficiency is reduced when gs declines. Hence, a trade-off is expected between these two resource-use efficiencies. In this study it is hypothesized that when foliar concentration (N) varies on time scales much longer than gs, an explicit complementary relationship between the marginal water- and N-use efficiency emerges. Furthermore, a shift in this relationship is anticipated with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca). Methods Optimization theory is employed to quantify interactions between resource-use efficiencies under elevated ca and soil N amendments. The analyses are based on marginal water- and N-use efficiencies, λ = (∂A/∂gs)/(∂E/∂gs) and η = ∂A/∂N, respectively. The relationship between the two efficiencies and related variation in intercellular CO2 concentration (ci) were examined using A/ci curves and foliar N measured on Pinus taeda needles collected at various canopy locations at the Duke Forest Free Air CO2 Enrichment experiment (North Carolina, USA). Key Results Optimality theory allowed the definition of a novel, explicit relationship between two intrinsic leaf-scale properties where η is complementary to the square-root of λ. The data support the model predictions that elevated ca increased η and λ, and at given ca and needle age-class, the two quantities varied among needles in an approximately complementary manner. Conclusions The derived analytical expressions can be employed in scaling-up carbon, water and N fluxes from leaf to ecosystem, but also to derive transpiration estimates from those of η, and assist in

  17. On the complementary relationship between marginal nitrogen and water-use efficiencies among Pinus taeda leaves grown under ambient and CO2-enriched environments.

    PubMed

    Palmroth, Sari; Katul, Gabriel G; Maier, Chris A; Ward, Eric; Manzoni, Stefano; Vico, Giulia

    2013-03-01

    Water and nitrogen (N) are two limiting resources for biomass production of terrestrial vegetation. Water losses in transpiration (E) can be decreased by reducing leaf stomatal conductance (g(s)) at the expense of lowering CO(2) uptake (A), resulting in increased water-use efficiency. However, with more N available, higher allocation of N to photosynthetic proteins improves A so that N-use efficiency is reduced when g(s) declines. Hence, a trade-off is expected between these two resource-use efficiencies. In this study it is hypothesized that when foliar concentration (N) varies on time scales much longer than g(s), an explicit complementary relationship between the marginal water- and N-use efficiency emerges. Furthermore, a shift in this relationship is anticipated with increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration (c(a)). Optimization theory is employed to quantify interactions between resource-use efficiencies under elevated c(a) and soil N amendments. The analyses are based on marginal water- and N-use efficiencies, λ = (∂A/∂g(s))/(∂E/∂g(s)) and η = ∂A/∂N, respectively. The relationship between the two efficiencies and related variation in intercellular CO(2) concentration (c(i)) were examined using A/c(i) curves and foliar N measured on Pinus taeda needles collected at various canopy locations at the Duke Forest Free Air CO(2) Enrichment experiment (North Carolina, USA). Optimality theory allowed the definition of a novel, explicit relationship between two intrinsic leaf-scale properties where η is complementary to the square-root of λ. The data support the model predictions that elevated c(a) increased η and λ, and at given c(a) and needle age-class, the two quantities varied among needles in an approximately complementary manner. The derived analytical expressions can be employed in scaling-up carbon, water and N fluxes from leaf to ecosystem, but also to derive transpiration estimates from those of η, and assist in predicting how increasing

  18. The extractives of Pinus pinaster wood

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; W. E. Hillis; L. S. Lau

    1973-01-01

    The extractives in Pinus pinaster wood grown in South Australia were examined as part of an assessment of the suitability of this wood for manufacture of absorbent tissues from bisulphite pulps. The average petroleum solubility of the wood was 2.0% but the amount and composition of the petroleum extract varied widely depending upon the age of the...

  19. [Comparison of chemical components of essential oils in needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm from Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Shen, Changmao; Duan, Wengui; Cen, Bo; Tan, Jianhui

    2006-11-01

    Essential oils were extracted by steam distillation from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm grown in Guangxi. Various factors such as pine needle dosage and extraction time which may influence the oil yield were investigated. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: pine needle dosage 700 g, extraction time 5 h. The essential oil yields from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm were 0.45% and 0.19%, respectively. Moreover, the chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty four components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus massoniana Lamb were separated and twenty of them (98.59%) were identified while seventy three components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus elliottottii Engelm were separated and twenty nine of them (94.23%) were identified. Generally, the compositions of the essential oils from needles of the two varieties were similar but the contents of some compounds differed greatly. Especially, the content of alpha-pinene in the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb needles was 2.6 times as that from Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles, but the content of beta-pinene was less than the latter. Mono- and sesquiterpenes were the main composition of the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles.

  20. Hormonal changes throughout maturation and ageing in Pinus pinea.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Ana Elisa; Fernández, Belén; Centeno, María Luz

    2004-04-01

    Phytohormones, which are responsible for certain age-related changes in plants, play a major role throughout maturation and ageing. Previous results dealing with this topic allowed us to describe an ageing and vigour index in Pinus radiata based on a ratio between different forms of cytokinins (Cks). The aim of the present study was to extend the studies on the changes in the hormonal status throughout maturation and ageing to Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.). With this aim in mind, a number of Cks were analysed in addition to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in terminal buds, axillary buds and in the apical portion of needles collected from trees at different stages of development. The results showed an increasing pattern in the levels of various Cks similar to that found in previous studies on P. radiata. Although the maintenance of the same ratio as an ageing and vigour index was not ratified, these results seem to point to Cks as major hormones throughout maturation and related processes in conifers. The distribution of hormones between the two parts of the needle is also discussed.

  1. Pinus L. Pine

    Treesearch

    Stanley L. Krugman; James L. Jenkinson

    1974-01-01

    Growth habit, occurrence, and use. The genus Pinus, one of the largest and most important of the coniferous genera, comprises about 95 species and numerous varieties and hybrids. Pines are widely distributed, mostly in the Northern Hemisphere from sea level (Pinus contorta var. contorta) to timberline (P...

  2. Fumonisin production by Gibberella fujikuroi strains from Pinus species.

    PubMed

    Mirete, S; Patiño, B; Vázquez, C; Jiménez, M; Hinojo, M J; Soldevilla, C; González-Jaén, M T

    2003-12-31

    Fumonisins are important mycotoxins basically produced by strains from the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (with anamorphs in Fusarium genus) which contaminate food and feed products representing a risk to human and animal health. In this work, we report for the first time the fumonisin production of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon strains associated to edible pine nuts of Pinus pinea. P. pinea is an important and widely distributed Pinus species in the Mediterranean area where their pine nuts are consumed raw or slightly processed in diverse food products. In this work, characterization and further identification of those strains were performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) of the intergenic spacer region of the rDNA (IGS) with the aid of the eight mating populations (A-H) described for G. fujikuroi species complex. The method was powerful to detect polymorphism, allowing discrimination between individuals and could be used to study the genetic relationships among them and within the G. fujikuroi species complex. Fusarium strains associated to Pinus radiata were also included in the present study. These strains did not produce fumonisins and showed no close relation with the strains isolated from P. pinea. The approach used in this work was rapid and proved to be efficient to assist identification and to characterize and analyse relatedness of new isolates within the G. fujikuroi species complex.

  3. Metabolites and hormones are involved in the intraspecific variability of drought hardening in radiata pine.

    PubMed

    De Diego, N; Saiz-Fernández, I; Rodríguez, J L; Pérez-Alfocea, P; Sampedro, M C; Barrio, R J; Lacuesta, M; Moncaleán, P

    2015-09-01

    Studies of metabolic and physiological bases of plant tolerance and hardening against drought are essential to improve genetic breeding programs, especially in productive species such as Pinus radiata. The exposure to different drought cycles is a highly effective tool that improves plant conditioning, but limited information is available about the mechanisms that modulate this process. To clarify this issue, six P. radiata breeds with well-known differences in drought tolerance were analyzed after two consecutive drought cycles. Survival rate, concentration of several metabolites such as free soluble amino acids and polyamines, and main plant hormones varied between them after drought hardening, while relative growth ratio and water potential at both predawn and dawn did not. Hardening induced a strong increase in total soluble amino acids in all breeds, accumulating mainly those implicated in the glutamate metabolism (GM), especially L-proline, in the most tolerant breeds. Other amino acids from GM such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and L-arginine (Arg) were also strongly increased. GABA pathway could improve the response against drought, whereas Arg acts as precursor for the synthesis of spermidine. This polyamine showed a positive relationship with the survival capacity, probably due to its role as antioxidant under stress conditions. Finally, drought hardening also induced changes in phytohormone content, showing each breed a different profile. Although all of them accumulated indole-3-acetic acid and jasmonic acid and reduced zeatin content in needles, significant differences were observed regarding abscisic acid, salicylic acid and mainly zeatin riboside. These results confirm that hardening is not only species-dependent but also an intraspecific processes controlled through metabolite changes.

  4. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianming; Kimberley, Mark O; Ross, Craig; Gielen, Gerty; Tremblay, Louis A; Champeau, Olivier; Horswell, Jacqui; Wang, Hailong

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha(-1), equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha(-1) of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0-50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0-20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25-50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the receiving environment

  5. A mild thermomechanical process for the enzymatic conversion of radiata pine into fermentable sugars and lignin.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Ian D; Jack, Michael W; Lloyd, John A; Murton, Karl D; Newman, Roger H; Stuthridge, Trevor R; Torr, Kirk M; Vaidya, Alankar A

    2017-01-01

    Conversion of softwoods into sustainable fuels and chemicals is important for parts of the world where softwoods are the dominant forest species. While they have high theoretical sugar yields, softwoods are amongst the most recalcitrant feedstocks for enzymatic processes, typically requiring both more severe pretreatment conditions and higher enzyme doses than needed for other lignocellulosic feedstocks. Although a number of processes have been proposed for converting softwoods into sugars suitable for fuel and chemical production, there is still a need for a high-yielding, industrially scalable and cost-effective conversion route. We summarise work leading to the development of an efficient process for the enzymatic conversion of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) into wood sugars. The process involves initial pressurised steaming of wood chips under relatively mild conditions (173 °C for 3-72 min) without added acid catalyst. The steamed chips then pass through a compression screw to squeeze out a pressate rich in solubilised hemicelluloses. The pressed chips are disc-refined and wet ball-milled to produce a substrate which is rapidly saccharified using commercially available enzyme cocktails. Adding 0.1% polyethylene glycol during saccharification was found to be particularly effective with these substrates, reducing enzyme usage to acceptable levels, e.g. 5 FPU/g OD substrate. The pressate is separately hydrolysed using acid, providing additional hemicellulose-derived sugars, for an overall sugar yield of 535 kg/ODT chips (76% of theoretical). The total pretreatment energy input is comparable to other processes, with the additional energy for attrition being balanced by a lower thermal energy requirement. This pretreatment strategy produces substrates with low levels of fermentation inhibitors, so the glucose-rich mainline and pressate syrups can be fermented to ethanol without detoxification. The lignin from the process remains comparatively unmodified, as

  6. Biofortification of mungbean (Vigna radiata) as a whole food to enhance human health.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Yang, Ray-Yu; Easdown, Warwick J; Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A; Keatinge, J D H Dyno

    2013-06-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata) is one of the most important pulse crops grown in South, East and Southeast Asia. It provides significant amounts of protein (240 g kg(-1)) and carbohydrate (630 g kg(-1)) and a range of micronutrients in diets. Mungbean protein and carbohydrate are easily digestible and create less flatulence than proteins derived from other legumes. In addition, mungbean is lower in phytic acid (72% of total phosphorus content) than pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.), soybean (Glycine max L.) and cereals; phytic acid is commonly found in cereal and legume crops and has a negative impact on iron and zinc bioavailability in plant-based diets. Owing to its palatable taste and nutritional quality, mungbean has been used as an iron-rich whole food source for baby food. The wide genetic variability of mineral concentrations (e.g. 0.03-0.06 g Fe kg(-1), 0.02-0.04 g Zn kg(-1)) in mungbean indicates possibilities to improve its micronutrient content through biofortification. Therefore biofortification of existing mungbean varieties has great potential for enhancing the nutritional quality of diets in South and Southeast Asia, where protein and micronutrient malnutrition are among the highest in the world. This review paper discusses the importance of mungbean in agricultural production and traditional diets and the potential of enhancing the nutritional quality of mungbean through breeding and other means, including agronomic practices.

  7. Container-Grown Longleaf Pine Seedling Quality

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Hainds; James P. Barnett

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the comparative hardiness of various classes or grades of container-grown longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings. Most container longleaf seedlings are grown in small ribbed containers averaging 5 to 7 cubic inches in volume and 3 to 6 inches in depth. Great variability is often exhibited in typical lots of container-...

  8. SILENCING OF 4-COUMARATE-CoA LIGASE IN PINUS RADIATA, A CONIFEROUS GYMNOSPERM

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The enzyme 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL) is involved in the general phenylpropanoid pathway and provides monolignol precursors such as p-coumaroyl-CoA, ultimately for the biosynthesis of lignin. Recombinant studies designed to assess the role of 4CL in the lignification process have focused on angios...

  9. Bioassay conditions for infection of Pinus radiata seedlings with Phytophthora pinifolia zoospores

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophthora pinifolia is known to cause a devastating disease on Monterey pines in Chile. Although this pathogen is not yet present in the U.S., there is reason for concern. The main source of Monterey pine genetic material is found in California and there is potential for other important tree sp...

  10. Investigation into the lignin decomposition mechanism by analysis of the pyrolysis product of Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Min; Jae, Jungho; Myung, Soyoung; Sung, Bong Hyun; Dong, Jong-In; Park, Young-Kwon

    2016-11-01

    Lignin pyrolysis chemistry was investigated via the analysis of the products obtained from the fast pyrolysis of a pine wood at different temperatures. Methoxy phenols, such as guaiacols and eugenols, were produced mainly at 375 and 475°C, while non-methoxy phenols, such as alkyl phenols and pyrocatechols were dominant at 525 and 575°C. At 575°C, aromatic hydrocarbons were formed together with larger amounts of light hydrocarbon gases. When the temperature was increased from 375 and 475°C, the yield of pyrolytic lignin was increased, whereas its average molecular weight was decreased. At 525°C, smaller molecular pyrolytic lignin with a maximum concentration of phenolic hydroxyl groups was produced due to the increased secondary cracking of the reaction intermediates. On the other hand, at 575°C, larger molecular pyrolytic lignin with smaller amounts of phenolic hydroxyl groups was produced due to the increased condensation activity of the pyrolysis reaction intermediates.

  11. Variation in nitrogen source utilisation by nine Amanita muscaria genotypes from Australian Pinus radiata plantations.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Nicole A; Chambers, Susan M; Cairney, John W G

    2003-08-01

    The abilities of nine genotypes of Amanita muscaria (L.:Fr) Pers. to utilise a range of inorganic and organic nitrogen sources for growth was examined in axenic liquid cultures. Considerable intraspecific variation was observed in biomass yields on all substrates; however biomass yield was highest on glutamine and/or NH4+ for all genotypes. Yields on aspartic acid, glutamic acid and histidine were generally low relative to NH4+, while utilisation of arginine and glycine showed marked variation between genotypes. Eight genotypes produced significantly less biomass on bovine serum albumin than on NH4+, raising questions regarding classification of A. muscaria as a 'protein fungus'.

  12. An Experimental Test of Insect-Mediated Colonisation of Damaged Pinus radiata Trees by Sapstain Fungi

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, James K.; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G.; Didham, Raphael K.

    2013-01-01

    Vector-pathogen dynamics play a central role in understanding tree health and forest dynamics. There is substantial evidence that bark beetles act as spore vectors for many species of fungi that cause ‘sapstain’ discolouration of damaged trees and timber. However, the direct quantitative link between vector-mediated spore dispersal and subsequent sapstain colonisation of wood is not fully understood. Here, we used caged versus uncaged experimental logs to test whether the exclusion of bark beetles quantitatively alters the distribution and intensity of sapstain fungal spread within damaged trees. Using generalised linear mixed models, we tested the effect of bark beetle exclusion on sapstain intensity within and among cut logs at two plantation forest sites. Overall, sapstain was found on all logs regardless of caging treatment, indicating that sapstain colonisation can occur (to some degree) without arthropod vectors, probably via wind, rain-splash and, potentially, latent endophytic development. This was supported by the dominance of Diplodia pinea in fungal isolations taken from trees felled at the site, as this fungal species is known to disperse independently of bark beetles. However, the intensity of sapstain within and among experimental logs was significantly greater in uncaged than in caged logs, where beetle colonisation was significantly greater. This appeared to be driven by a significant within-log association between the intensity of staining and the intensity of beetle, and other arthropod, tunnelling and feeding activities. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the dominant mechanism underlying the role of bark beetles in sapstain development in this study system is not vector-mediated spore dispersal, per se, but rather the facilitation of spore entry and hyphal development through tunnelling and feeding activities. We discuss the implications of these findings for forest management and the effective salvage-harvest of trees damaged by stochastic climate events such as storm and fire damage. PMID:23405198

  13. An experimental test of insect-mediated colonisation of damaged Pinus radiata trees by sapstain fungi.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, James K; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Didham, Raphael K

    2013-01-01

    Vector-pathogen dynamics play a central role in understanding tree health and forest dynamics. There is substantial evidence that bark beetles act as spore vectors for many species of fungi that cause 'sapstain' discolouration of damaged trees and timber. However, the direct quantitative link between vector-mediated spore dispersal and subsequent sapstain colonisation of wood is not fully understood. Here, we used caged versus uncaged experimental logs to test whether the exclusion of bark beetles quantitatively alters the distribution and intensity of sapstain fungal spread within damaged trees. Using generalised linear mixed models, we tested the effect of bark beetle exclusion on sapstain intensity within and among cut logs at two plantation forest sites. Overall, sapstain was found on all logs regardless of caging treatment, indicating that sapstain colonisation can occur (to some degree) without arthropod vectors, probably via wind, rain-splash and, potentially, latent endophytic development. This was supported by the dominance of Diplodia pinea in fungal isolations taken from trees felled at the site, as this fungal species is known to disperse independently of bark beetles. However, the intensity of sapstain within and among experimental logs was significantly greater in uncaged than in caged logs, where beetle colonisation was significantly greater. This appeared to be driven by a significant within-log association between the intensity of staining and the intensity of beetle, and other arthropod, tunnelling and feeding activities. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the dominant mechanism underlying the role of bark beetles in sapstain development in this study system is not vector-mediated spore dispersal, per se, but rather the facilitation of spore entry and hyphal development through tunnelling and feeding activities. We discuss the implications of these findings for forest management and the effective salvage-harvest of trees damaged by stochastic climate events such as storm and fire damage.

  14. Mineral Nutrient Requirements of a Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Cell Suspension Culture 1

    PubMed Central

    Teasdale, Robert D.; Dawson, Pamela A.; Woolhouse, Harold W.

    1986-01-01

    The mineral nutrient requirements of Pinus taeda cells were explored using quantitative cell culture growth measurements. An appraisal was thereby made of the critical features of a novel and successful medium which was developed specifically for this gymnosperm using chemical composition data for developing seeds, and characterized by generally high concentration of all micronutrients, high magnesium, and low calcium. The high magnesium concentration was found not to be detrimental and possibly beneficial whereas the calcium level bordered on a deficiency threshold. Within the microelements high iodide was found to be essential, as was a higher borate level than is present in media developed for angiosperms. High zinc concentrations were also beneficial, with normal levels permitting slower but nevertheless healthy growth. An improved medium was thereby formulated which was stress-free and exhibited broader genotype specificity. This new formulation has proved very successful in maintaining long-term growth of highly uniform and apparently meristematic suspension cultures of Pinus radiata. PMID:16665170

  15. Transcriptional and computational study of expansins differentially expressed in response to inclination in radiata pine.

    PubMed

    Mateluna, Patricio; Valenzuela-Riffo, Felipe; Morales-Quintana, Luis; Herrera, Raúl; Ramos, Patricio

    2017-03-09

    Plants have the ability to reorient their vertical growth when exposed to inclination. This response can be as quick as 2 h in inclined young pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) seedlings, with over accumulation of lignin observed after 9 days s. Several studies have identified expansins involved in cell expansion among other developmental processes in plants. Six putative expansin genes were identified in cDNA libraries isolated from inclined pine stems. A differential transcript abundance was observed by qPCR analysis over a time course of inclination. Five genes changed their transcript accumulation in both stem sides in a spatial and temporal manner compared with non-inclined stem. To compare these expansin genes, and to suggest a possible mechanism of action at molecular level, the structures of the predicted proteins were built by comparative modeling methodology. An open groove on the surface of the proteins composed of conserved zresidues was observed. Using a cellulose polymer as ligand the protein-ligand interaction was evaluated, with the results showing differences in the protein-ligand interaction mode. Differences in the binding energy interaction can be explained by changes in some residues that generate differences in electrostatic surface in the open groove region, supporting the participation of six members of multifamily proteins in this specific process. The data suggests participation of different expansin proteins in the dissembling and remodeling of the complex cell wall matrix during the reorientation response to inclination.

  16. Two new amaryllidaceae alkaloids from the bulbs of Lycoris radiata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Yin, Zhi-Qi; Wang, Ying; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2009-06-01

    Two new Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, named lycoranines A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the bulbs of Lycoris radiata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Compound 2 was a new-type alkaloid, which provided a new insight into the biosynthesis of alkaloids in Amaryllidaceae plants.

  17. Ionizing radiation induced changes in phenotype, photosynthetic pigments and free polyamine levels in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mandar; Chakraborty, Anindita; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen

    2013-05-01

    Effects of gamma rays on the free polyamine (PA) levels were studied in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. Seeds exposed to different doses of gamma rays were checked for damage on phenotype, germination frequency and alteration in photosynthetic pigments. Free polyamine levels were estimated from seeds irradiated in dry and water imbibed conditions. Polyamine levels of seedlings grown from irradiated seeds, and irradiated seedlings from unexposed seeds were also measured. Damage caused by gamma irradiation resulted in decrease in final germination percentage and seedling height. Photosynthetic pigments decreased in a dose dependent manner as marker of stress. Polyamines decreased in irradiated dry seeds and in seedlings grown from irradiated seeds. Radiation stress induced increase in free polyamines was seen in irradiated imbibed seeds and irradiated seedlings. Response of polyamines towards gamma rays is dependent on the stage of the life cycle of the plant.

  18. Transcriptional Slippage and RNA Editing Increase the Diversity of Transcripts in Chloroplasts: Insight from Deep Sequencing of Vigna radiata Genome and Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Ko, Chia-Yun; Kuo, Ching-I; Liu, Mao-Sen; Schafleitner, Roland; Chen, Long-Fang Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We performed deep sequencing of the nuclear and organellar genomes of three mungbean genotypes: Vigna radiata ssp. sublobata TC1966, V. radiata var. radiata NM92 and the recombinant inbred line RIL59 derived from a cross between TC1966 and NM92. Moreover, we performed deep sequencing of the RIL59 transcriptome to investigate transcript variability. The mungbean chloroplast genome has a quadripartite structure including a pair of inverted repeats separated by two single copy regions. A total of 213 simple sequence repeats were identified in the chloroplast genomes of NM92 and RIL59; 78 single nucleotide variants and nine indels were discovered in comparing the chloroplast genomes of TC1966 and NM92. Analysis of the mungbean chloroplast transcriptome revealed mRNAs that were affected by transcriptional slippage and RNA editing. Transcriptional slippage frequency was positively correlated with the length of simple sequence repeats of the mungbean chloroplast genome (R2=0.9911). In total, 41 C-to-U editing sites were found in 23 chloroplast genes and in one intergenic spacer. No editing site that swapped U to C was found. A combination of bioinformatics and experimental methods revealed that the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase-transcribed genes psbF and ndhA are affected by transcriptional slippage in mungbean and in main lineages of land plants, including three dicots (Glycine max, Brassica rapa, and Nicotiana tabacum), two monocots (Oryza sativa and Zea mays), two gymnosperms (Pinus taeda and Ginkgo biloba) and one moss (Physcomitrella patens). Transcript analysis of the rps2 gene showed that transcriptional slippage could affect transcripts at single sequence repeat regions with poly-A runs. It showed that transcriptional slippage together with incomplete RNA editing may cause sequence diversity of transcripts in chloroplasts of land plants.

  19. Bionomics of Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) Associated with Orange Jasmine Hedges in Southeast Central Florida, with Special Reference to Biological Control by Tamarixia radiata.

    PubMed

    Hall, David G; Rohrig, Eric

    2015-06-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an important pest in Florida because it transmits bacteria responsible for citrus huanglongbing disease. In addition to infesting citrus, orange jasmine (Murraya exotica L.) is one of Asian citrus psyllid's preferred host plants and is widely grown as an ornamental hedge. We report on Asian citrus psyllid bionomics over three years at five urban plantings of orange jasmine and on biological control of Asian citrus psyllid by a parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). T. radiata had been released in Florida shortly after Asian citrus psyllid was first found, and the parasitoid was known to be established at each planting. Additionally, three new T. radiata haplotypes were released every 3 wk at three plantings during the first study year (one haplotype per planting, over all releases an average of 17 parasitoids per linear meter of hedge); all three haplotypes were released at a fourth planting beginning midway through the study (over all releases, an average combined total of 202 parasitoids per linear meter of hedge). Asian citrus psyllid populations were present year-round at each planting, often at large levels. Such plantings may pose risk to commercial citrus as Asian citrus psyllid reservoirs. Releases of the new haplotypes did not cause any measurable reduction in Asian citrus psyllid population levels during the study, and ironically percentage parasitism was generally highest at a planting where no releases were made. Higher release rates might have been more effective. The probability is discussed that repetitive pruning of orange jasmine reduced the full potential of T. radiata against Asian citrus psyllid in this study. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Container-grown longleaf pine seedling quality

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Hainds; James P. Barnett

    2006-01-01

    The Longleaf Alliance, in cooperation with the USDA Forest Service, the Georgia Forestry Commission, and the Clemson Extension Service, has installed numerous longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedling quality studies across the Southeastern United States. This paper reviews survival and growth for different classes of container-grown longleaf...

  1. Dimensions of Attention Associated With the Microstructure of Corona Radiata White Matter.

    PubMed

    Stave, Elise A; De Bellis, Michael D; Hooper, Steven R; Woolley, Donald P; Chang, Suk Ki; Chen, Steven D

    2017-04-01

    Mirsky proposed a model of attention that included these dimensions: focus/execute, sustain, stabilize, encode, and shift. The neural correlates of these dimensions were investigated within corona radiata subregions in healthy youth. Diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological assessments were conducted in 79 healthy, right-handed youth aged 4-17 years. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were analyzed using standardized parcellation methods. Partial Pearson correlations between neuropsychological standardized scores, representing these attention dimensions, and diffusion tensor imaging measures of corona radiata subregions were calculated after adjusting for gender and IQ. Significant correlations were found between the focus/execute, sustain, stabilize, and shift dimensions and imaging metrics in hypothesized corona radiata subregions. Results suggest that greater microstructural white matter integrity of the corona radiata is partly associated with attention across 4 attention dimensions. Findings suggest that white matter microstructure of the corona radiata is a neural correlate of several, but not all, attention dimensions.

  2. Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal volatile organic compound emission data from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) were collected using branch enclosure techniques in Central North Carolina, USA. Pinus taeda monoterpene emission rates were at least ten times higher than oxyge...

  3. Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal volatile organic compound emission data from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) were collected using branch enclosure techniques in Central North Carolina, USA. Pinus taeda monoterpene emission rates were at least ten times higher than oxyge...

  4. Four New Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids from Lycoris radiata and Their Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ang, Song; Liu, Xia-Mei; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lei; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2015-12-01

    Four new Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, named lycoranines C-F (1-4), together with seven known ones (5-11) were isolated from the bulbs of Lycoris radiata. Their structures with absolute configurations were elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, circular dichroism spectra, modified Mosher's method, and molecular modeling calculation. Compounds 6, 7, 10, and 11 exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on A549 and LoVo cells with IC50 values ranging from 3.97 ± 0.36 to 17.37 ± 1.57 µM.

  5. Well-differentiated Liposarcoma in a Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    Doane, Cynthia J; Johnson, Paula J; Besselsen, David G

    2017-03-01

    Here we describe the occurrence of a subcutaneous liposarcoma in a geriatric bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata). Clinical presentation was a rapidly growing, ulcerated, subcutaneous mass in the umbilical region of a 28-y-old intact female macaque. The mass was successfully removed through excisional biopsy, and histopathology provided a morphologic diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma. The macaque recovered without complication and displayed no signs of recurrence for at least 18 mo after excision. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of liposarcoma in a bonnet macaque.

  6. Well-differentiated Liposarcoma in a Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    J Doane Paula J Johnson And David G Besselsen, Cynthia

    2017-03-20

    Here we describe the occurrence of a subcutaneous liposarcoma in a geriatric bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata). Clinicalpresentation was a rapidly growing, ulcerated, subcutaneous mass in the umbilical region of a 28-y-old intact female macaque. The mass was successfully removed through excisional biopsy, and histopathology provided a morphologic diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma. The macaque recovered without complication and displayed no signs of recurrence for at least 18 mo after excision. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of liposarcoma in a bonnet macaque.

  7. Ericaceous dwarf shrubs affect ectomycorrhizal fungal community of the invasive Pinus strobus and native Pinus sylvestris in a pot experiment.

    PubMed

    Kohout, Petr; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Bahram, Mohammad; Hadincová, Věroslava; Albrechtová, Jana; Tedersoo, Leho; Vohník, Martin

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between ericaceous understorey shrubs and the diversity and abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcMF) associated with the invasive Pinus strobus and native Pinus sylvestris. Seedlings of both pines were grown in mesocosms and subjected to three treatments simulating different forest microhabitats: (a) grown in isolation and grown with (b) Vaccinium myrtillus or (c) Vaccinium vitis-idaea. Ericaceous plants did not act as a species pool of pine mycobionts and inhibited the ability of the potentially shared species Meliniomyces bicolor to form ectomycorrhizae. Similarly, Ericaceae significantly reduced the formation of Thelephora terrestris ectomycorrhizae in P. sylvestris. EcMF species composition in the mesocosms was strongly affected by both the host species and the presence of an ericaceous neighbour. When grown in isolation, P. strobus root tips were predominantly colonised by Wilcoxina mikolae, whereas those of P. sylvestris were more commonly colonised by Suillus and Rhizopogon spp. Interestingly, these differences were less evident (Suillus + Rhizopogon spp.) or absent (W. mikolae) when the pines were grown with Ericaceae. P. strobus exclusively associated with Rhizopogon salebrosus s.l., suggesting the presence of host specificity at the intrageneric level. Ericaceous plants had a positive effect on colonisation of P. strobus root tips by R. salebrosus s.l. This study demonstrates that the interaction of selective factors such as host species and presence of ericaceous plants may affect the realised niche of the ectomycorrhizal fungi.

  8. Fall nitrogen fertilization and the biology of Pinus taeda seedling development

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; C.C. Black; T.L. Kormanik; P.A. Counce

    1997-01-01

    In mid-September when stems and roots of nursery-grown loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings are actively accumulating dry weight (DW), an extra 10, 20, or 40 kg NH4NO3 ha-1 (10N, 20N, 4ON) was applied. Seedlings receiving no extra N (0N) were the controls. The temporal patterns...

  9. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    “Temulose” is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in southeastern Texas. Because...

  10. Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides (GGMO) from a Molasses Byproduct of Pine (Pinus taeda) Fiberboard Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    "Temulose" is the trade name for a water-soluble molasses produced on a large scale (300 - 400 tonnes per year) as a byproduct of the fiberboard industry. The feedstock for temulose is predominantly a single species of pine (Pinus taeda) grown and harvested in stands in south-eastern Texas. Becaus...

  11. Seasonal ectomycorrhizal fungal biomass development on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; L.M. White; D.H. Marx; W.J. Otrosina

    1995-01-01

    Ergosterol, a membrane sterol found in fungi but not in plants, was used to estimate live mycelia biomass in ectomycorrhizae. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seeds were sown in April 1993 and grown with standard nursery culture ractices. Correlations between total seedling ergosterol and visual assessment of mycorrhizal colonization were high during...

  12. CO2 AND O3 ALTER PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER VAPOR EXCHANGE FOR PINUS PONDEROSA NEEDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Effects of CO2 and O3 were determined for a key component of ecosystem carbon and water cycling: needle gas exchange (photosynthesis, conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency). The measurements were made on Pinus ponderosa seedlings grown in outdoor, sunlit, mesoc...

  13. CO2 AND O3 ALTER PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER VAPOR EXCHANGE FOR PINUS PONDEROSA NEEDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Effects of CO2 and O3 were determined for a key component of ecosystem carbon and water cycling: needle gas exchange (photosynthesis, conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency). The measurements were made on Pinus ponderosa seedlings grown in outdoor, sunlit, mesoc...

  14. Stand-level Allometry in Pinus taeda as Affected by Irrigation and Fertilization

    Treesearch

    J.S. King; T.J. Albaugh; H.L. Allen; L.W. Kress

    1999-01-01

    Changing environmental conditions have the potential to alter allometric relationships between plant parts, possibly leading to ecosystem-level feedbacks. We quantified allometric shifts in field-grown loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in response to altered resource availability based on data from multiple harvests to correct for size-related changes...

  15. Growth of five families of Pinus taeda L. during three years of ozone exposure

    Treesearch

    M.B. Adams; J.M. Kelly; G.E. Taylor; N.T. Edwards

    1990-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings of five half-sib families were grown for 3 yr in the field in open-top chambers. The seedlings were fumigated during the growing seasons (approximately April-October) with ozone at the following target levels: subambient (CF), ambient (AMB), and ambient+ 60 ppb (AMB+). At the end of the three growing seasons...

  16. Exponential fertilization of Pinus monticola seedlings: nutrient uptake efficiency, leaching fractions, and early outplanting performance

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; K. Francis Salifu; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated nutrient uptake efficiency and subsequent leaching fractions for western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) seedlings grown with exponentially increasing or conventional (constant) fertilization in a greenhouse. Conventional fertilization was associated with higher leachate electrical conductivity and greater nutrient losses,...

  17. Growth and physiological responses to varied environments among populations of Pinus ponderosa

    Treesearch

    Jianwei Zhang; Bert M. Cregg

    2005-01-01

    We investigated population responses in physiology, morphology, and growth of mature Pinus ponderosa trees to an environmental gradient across Nebraska, USA. Ten populations from western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming were grown in three 26-year-old provenance tests from the warmest and wettest site in the east (Plattsmouth) to the intermediate site in...

  18. Toxicity of pesticides to Tamarixia radiata, a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixteen pesticides including two fungicides were evaluated for toxicity to adult Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Percentage mortality data were evaluated to generally assess IPM-com...

  19. Transcriptome profiling of radiata pine branches reveals new insights into reaction wood formation with implications in plant gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinguo; Yang, Xiaohui; Wu, Harry X

    2013-11-08

    Formation of compression (CW) and opposite wood (OW) in branches and bent trunks is an adaptive feature of conifer trees in response to various displacement forces, such as gravity, wind, snow and artificial bending. Several previous studies have characterized tracheids, wood and gene transcription in artificially or naturally bent conifer trunks. These studies have provided molecular basis of reaction wood formation in response to bending forces and gravity stimulus. However, little is known about reaction wood formation and gene transcription in conifer branches under gravity stress. In this study SilviScan® technology was used to characterize tracheid and wood traits in radiate pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) branches and genes differentially transcribed in CW and OW were investigated using cDNA microarrays. CW drastically differed from OW in tracheids and wood traits with increased growth, thicker tracheid walls, larger microfibril angle (MFA), higher density and lower stiffness. However, CW and OW tracheids had similar diameters in either radial or tangential direction. Thus, gravity stress largely influenced wood growth, secondary wall deposition, cellulose microfibril orientation and wood properties, but had little impact on primary wall expansion. Microarray gene transcription revealed about 29% of the xylem transcriptomes were significantly altered in CW and OW sampled in both spring and autumn, providing molecular evidence for the drastic variation in tracheid and wood traits. Genes involved in cell division, cellulose biosynthesis, lignin deposition, and microtubules were mostly up-regulated in CW, conferring its greater growth, thicker tracheid walls, higher density, larger MFA and lower stiffness. However, genes with roles in cell expansion and primary wall formation were differentially transcribed in CW and OW, respectively, implicating their similar diameters of tracheid walls and different tracheid lengths. Interestingly, many genes related to hormone

  20. Somatic Embryogenesis in Pinus spp.

    PubMed

    Montalbán, Itziar Aurora; García-Mendiguren, Olatz; Moncaleán, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) has been the most important development for plant tissue culture, not only for mass propagation but also for enabling the implementation of biotechnological tools that can be used to increase the productivity and wood quality of plantation forestry. Development of SE in forest trees started in 1985 and nowadays many studies are focused on the optimization of conifer SE system. However, these advances for many Pinus spp. are not sufficiently refined to be implemented commercially. In this chapter, a summary of the main systems used to achieve SE in Pinus spp. is reported.

  1. Phenology of Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae), With Special Reference to Biological Control by Tamarixia radiata, in the Residential Landscape of Southern California.

    PubMed

    Kistner, Erica J; Amrich, Ruth; Castillo, Martin; Strode, Vincent; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-03-08

    Since its discovery in 2008, the pestiferous Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), has become widely established in residential citrus trees throughout southern California. In 2011, Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a host-specific parasitoid of D. citri, sourced from Punjab Pakistan, was introduced into California as part of a classical biological program aimed at suppressing D. citri populations in urban areas. Despite these release efforts, little is known about the population dynamics of D. citri in urban citrus or the efficacy of T. radiata in controlling psyllid populations in urban-grown citrus. To address this shortcoming, the population phenology of D. citri was monitored biweekly for 2-3 yr on five different host plants (Rutaceae) at 11 residential sites across Riverside and Los Angeles Counties in southern California. Citrus flush growth patterns and parasitoid activity levels were also assessed. Urban D. citri populations were present year round at each site, with highest densities occurring over July through November. Temperature was an important indicator of overall D. citri densities with positive correlations across all life stages. Regularly flushing lime trees consistently supported the highest densities of psyllid eggs and nymphs, while equally vigorous flushing curry leaf plants supported the highest adult densities. While T. radiata activity was detected at all sites, average year-round percent parasitism was low throughout the study, averaging <5% in 2012, 2013, and 2014. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Mechanism of Resistance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] to bruchids, Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    War, Abdul R; Murugesan, Surya; Boddepalli, Venkata N; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Nair, Ramakrishnan M

    2017-01-01

    Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] is an important pulse crop in Asia, and is consumed as dry seeds and as bean sprouts. It is an excellent source of digestible protein. Bruchids [Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)] are the important pests of mungbean and cause damage in the field and in storage. Bruchid infestation reduces the nutritional and market value of the grain and renders seeds unfit for human consumption, agricultural and commercial uses. These pests are controlled mainly by fumigation with highly toxic chemicals such as carbon disulfide, phosphene, and methyl bromide, or by dusting with several other insecticides, which leave residues on the grain, thus, threatening food safety. Some plant-based extracts have been found useful in controlling bruchids, but are not fully successful due to their short-term activity, rapid degradability, and potentially negative effect on seed germination. Although some wild sources of bruchid resistance in mungbean have been reported, which have been used to develop bruchid- resistant lines, undesirable genetic linkages threaten the proper exploitation of genetic diversity from wild germplasm into commercial cultivars. Further, biotype variation in bruchids has rendered some mungbean lines susceptible that otherwise would have been resistant to the pest. Host plant resistance is a cost-effective and a safe alternative to control bruchids in mungbean and is associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular traits. These traits affect insect growth and development, thereby, reduce the yield losses by the pests. Understanding the defense mechanisms against insect pests could be utilized in exploiting these traits in crop breeding. This review discusses different traits in mungbean involved in defense against bruchids and their utility in pest management. We also highlight the breeding constraints for developing bruchid-resistant mungbean and how can these constraints be

  3. Mechanism of Resistance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] to bruchids, Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul R.; Murugesan, Surya; Boddepalli, Venkata N.; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Nair, Ramakrishnan M.

    2017-01-01

    Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] is an important pulse crop in Asia, and is consumed as dry seeds and as bean sprouts. It is an excellent source of digestible protein. Bruchids [Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)] are the important pests of mungbean and cause damage in the field and in storage. Bruchid infestation reduces the nutritional and market value of the grain and renders seeds unfit for human consumption, agricultural and commercial uses. These pests are controlled mainly by fumigation with highly toxic chemicals such as carbon disulfide, phosphene, and methyl bromide, or by dusting with several other insecticides, which leave residues on the grain, thus, threatening food safety. Some plant-based extracts have been found useful in controlling bruchids, but are not fully successful due to their short-term activity, rapid degradability, and potentially negative effect on seed germination. Although some wild sources of bruchid resistance in mungbean have been reported, which have been used to develop bruchid- resistant lines, undesirable genetic linkages threaten the proper exploitation of genetic diversity from wild germplasm into commercial cultivars. Further, biotype variation in bruchids has rendered some mungbean lines susceptible that otherwise would have been resistant to the pest. Host plant resistance is a cost-effective and a safe alternative to control bruchids in mungbean and is associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular traits. These traits affect insect growth and development, thereby, reduce the yield losses by the pests. Understanding the defense mechanisms against insect pests could be utilized in exploiting these traits in crop breeding. This review discusses different traits in mungbean involved in defense against bruchids and their utility in pest management. We also highlight the breeding constraints for developing bruchid-resistant mungbean and how can these constraints be

  4. Pinus glabra Walt. Spruce Pine

    Treesearch

    Susan V. Kossuth; J.L. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Spruce pine (Pinus glabra), also called cedar pine, Walter pine, or bottom white pine, is a medium-sized tree that grows in limited numbers in swamps, river valleys, on hummocks, and along river banks of the southern Coastal Plain. Its wood is brittle, close-grained, nondurable, and is of limited commercial importance.

  5. PpRT1: the first complete gypsy-like retrotransposon isolated in Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Rocheta, Margarida; Cordeiro, Jorge; Oliveira, M; Miguel, Célia

    2007-02-01

    We have isolated and characterized a complete retrotransposon sequence, named PpRT1, from the genome of Pinus pinaster. PpRT1 is 5,966 bp long and is closely related to IFG7 gypsy retrotransposon from Pinus radiata. The long terminal repeats (LTRs) have 333 bp each and show a 5.4% sequence divergence between them. In addition to the characteristic polypurine tract (PPT) and the primer binding site (PBS), PpRT1 carries internal regions with homology to retroviral genes gag and pol. The pol region contains sequence motifs related to the enzymes protease, reverse transcriptase, RNAseH and integrase in the same typical order known for Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons. PpRT1 was extended from an EST database sequence indicating that its transcription is occurring in pine tissues. Southern blot analyses indicate however, that PpRT1 is present in a unique or a low number of copies in the P. pinaster genome. The differences in nucleotide sequence found between PpRT1 and IFG7 may explain the strikingly different copy number in the two pine species genome. Based on the homologies observed when comparing LTR region among different gypsy elements we propose that the highly conserved LTR regions may be useful to amplify other retrotransposon sequences of the same or close retrotransposon family.

  6. Accelerated Stem Growth Rates and Improved Fiber Properties of Loblolly Pine: Functional Analysis Of CyclinD from Pinus taeda

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John Cairney, School of Biology and Institute of Paper Science and Technology @ Georgia Tech, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Gary Peter, University of Florida; Dr. Ulrika Egertsdotter, Dept. of Forestry, Virgina Tech; Dr. Armin Wagner, New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd.

    2005-11-30

    divisions in the cambial meristem as expected. We isolated a promoter from a cambial specific gene and commenced development of transformation protocols for loblolly pine. Since our results show that cyclin D expression correlates with increased growth we continued with experiments to demonstrate the effect of cyclin overexpression upon tree growth. Vectors which constitutively express the cyclin D cDNA were constructed and transformed into a transgenic pine system through the collaboration with Forest Research, New Zealand. The transformation system for Pinus radiata is well established and we hoped to gain phenotypic information in a closely related pine, rather than await development of a robust loblolly pine transformation method. Transformation experiments were conducted by a biolistic method developed at Forest Research, NZ. A total of 78 transgenic embryogenic lines were generated and bulked up with a good representation of transgenic lines per construct. Transformed calli were originally identified by resistance to the antibiotic Geneticin contained in the medium. The transgenic nature of the selected lines was subsequently confirmed using histochemical GUS staining. To date, 10 out of 13 selected transgenic lines have produced embryos and we are currently harvesting the first transgenic plantlets. At present time 22 of those plantlets have been moved to GMO facilities. We will soon develop a strategy for assessing potential phenotypic differences between the transclones and non-transformed controls. Transgenic plants are being grown to a stage (approx. 1 year) when meaningful phenotypic evaluation can be conducted. The recent availability of 10,000 element loblolly pine cDNA microarray will permit the evaluation of cyclinD overexpression upon gene expression in transgenic Pinus.

  7. Effect of Certain Nematodes on the Growth of Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Riffle, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma seedlings were inoculated separately with each of seven nematode species, and grown for 9 months at 20 C soil temperature. Hoplolaimus galeatus, Rotylenchus pumilis, Tylenchus exiguus, and Xiphinema americanum parasitized P. edulis seedlings, but did not significantly reduce seedling growth. Pinus edulis was not a host for Tylenchorhynchus cylindricus, Aphelenchoides cibolensis, or Criconemoides humilis. Xiphinema americanum and R. pumilis parasitized J. monosperma seedlings, and reduced their root weights and root collar diameters. Juniperus monosperma was not a host for A. cibolensis and T. exiguus, and parasitism of this tree species by T. cylindricus and C. humilis remains uncertain. PMID:19319253

  8. Longleaf pine grown in Virginia: a provenance test

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Johnsen; Jerre L. Creighton; Chris A. Maier

    2015-01-01

    In 2006 the Virginia Department of Forestry established a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) provenance test on three sites near Richmond, VA, near the most northern native range of longleaf pine. Seedlings were grown in containers at the Virginia Department of Forestry New Kent Forestry Center during the 2005 growing season.

  9. Pest Control For Container-Grown Longleaf Pine

    Treesearch

    Scott Enebak; Bill Carey

    2002-01-01

    Several insect, weed, and disease pests are discussed that have been observed affecting container-grown longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings. The available tools to minimize the effects of these pests are limited to a few select insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. Extreme care should be taken to ensure that the chemical chosen is...

  10. Bioassay development using early life stages of the marine macroalga, Ecklonia radiata

    SciTech Connect

    Bidwell, J.R.; Wheeler, K.D.; Roper, J.; Burridge, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    A lack of standard toxicity test methods for species native to Australia has stimulated research to overcome this deficiency. In the present work, germination inhibition was utilized as an endpoint in 48h bioassays with the marine macroalga Ecklonia radiata. E radiata is often a dominant member of temperate subtidal communities in Australia and other parts of the southern hemisphere. The alga fills an ecological niche similar to that of Macrocystis pyrifera, the giant kelp which occurs in the northern hemisphere. In an adaptation of test methods used for M. pyrifera, release of E. radiata zoospores was induced in the laboratory. Settled spores were then exposed to toxicants for 48 h and germination success was determined by scoring the spores for the development of a germination tube. At 20 C, EC{sub 50} values ranging between 53.4 and 77.4 mg/L were generated in tests with hexavalent chromium (potassium chromate). The EC{sub 50} for copper (cupric chloride) was 0.53 mg/L. Sensitivity of E. radiata to metals such as copper may have significance toward assessing the environmental impacts of some antifoulant coatings used on seagoing vessels. In future studies, growth of zoospore germination tubes and comparative sensitivity of different E. radiata populations will be examined.

  11. Neuroprotective compounds from the bulbs of Lycoris radiata.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Yu, Heng-Yi; Wang, Zhuo-Yi; Pi, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Peng; Ruan, Han-Li

    2013-07-01

    Three new alkaloids (1-3) and one new phenolic glycoside (4), together with twenty five known alkaloids (5-29), were isolated from the bulbs of Lycoris radiata collected from Huaihua county of Hunan province, China. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of comprehensive NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. The isolated alkaloids were evaluated for their neuroprotective activities against CoCl2, H2O2 and Aβ(25-35)-induced SH-SY5Y cell injuries. Compounds 1-3 showed significant neuroprotective effects against H2O2 or CoCl2-induced SH-SY5Y cell death, while compound 3 exhibited significant neuroprotective effects against Aβ(25-35)-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury. The known alkaloids 5-29 also exhibited similar bioactivities of different degrees. These findings highlight the fact that the over 100 Amaryllidaceae alkaloids may have a big potential to neuroprotective activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A new Amaryllidaceae alkaloid from the bulbs of Lycoris radiata.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Dian; Zhang, Yu; He, Hong-Ping; Li, Shi-Fei; Tang, Gui-Hua; Chen, Duo-Zhi; Cao, Ming-Ming; DI, Ying-Tong; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2013-07-01

    To study the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids of the bulbs of Lycoris radiata. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques, and the chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. In addition, the antiviral activities of alkaloids 1-10 were evaluated using flu virus A. One new homolycorine-type alkaloid 2α-methoxy-6-O-ethyloduline (1), together with nine known alkaloids 2α-methoxy-6-O-methyloduline (2), trispherine (3), 8-O-demethylhomolycorine (4), homolycorine (5), 9-O-demethylhomolycorine (6), oduline (7), lycorenine (8), 6α-O-methyllycorenine (9) and O-ethyllycorenine (10) were obtained. Alkaloid 1 is a new compound, and 1-3 were major alkaloids in this plant. Alkaloids 1-3 showed weak antiviral activities against flu virus A with IC50 values of 2.06, 0.69, and 2.71 μg·mL-1 and CC50 values of 14.37, 4.79, and 80.12 μg·mL-1, respectively. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention of Cold Damage to Container-Grown Longleaf Pine Roots

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Tinus; Mary Anne Sword; James P. Barnett

    2002-01-01

    When longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings are container-grown in open fields, their roots may be exposed to damaging, cold temperatures. Major losses in some nurseries have occurred. Between November 1996 and February 1997, we measured the cold hardiness of container-grown longleaf pine roots by measuring electrolyte leakage (a) of...

  14. Cell phone radiations affect early growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through biochemical alterations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of wireless technologies, particularly of cell phones, has increased the health risks among living organisms including plants. We investigated the impact of cell phone electromagentic field (EMF) radiations (power density, 8.55 microW cm(-2)) on germination, early growth, proteins and carbohydrate contents, and activities of some enzymes in Vigna radiata. Cell phone EMF radiations significantly reduced the seedling length and dry weight of V radiata after exposure for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h. Furthermore, the contents of proteins and carbohydrates were reduced in EMF-exposed plants. However, the activities of proteases, alpha-amylases, beta-amylases, polyphenol oxidases, and peroxidases were enhanced in EMF-exposed radicles indicating their role in providing protection against EMF-induced stress. The study concludes that cell phone EMFs impair early growth of V radiata seedlings by inducing biochemical changes.

  15. Impact of solar activity on growth of pine trees (Pinus cembra: 1610 - 1970; Pinus pinaster: 1910 -1989)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surový, P.; Dorotovič, I.; Karlovský, V.; Rodrigues, J. C.; Rybanský, M.; Fleischer, P.

    2010-12-01

    In this work we have focused on the analysis of the data on the annual growth of cembra pine (Pinus cembra) grown in the Kôprová dolina Valley in the High Tatra Mountains. The database covers the period of 1406 - 1970, however, the sunspot data (minima and maxima) at the NGDC web site are only available since 1610. Moreover, reliable sunspot data are only available since 1749. The results of this analysis agree with the observation made in our previous work, i.e. there is a negative impact of high SA on the pine tree growth. However, it should be noted that statistical significance of the results is low. We also applied wavelet analysis to the data on the tree growth evolution, with the results indicating growth variations' period of about 20 years (duration of approximately two solar cycles or one magnetic cycle, respectively). A negative impact of the SA was also observed in growth of a 90 year-old maritime pine tree (Pinus pinaster) grown in northern Portugal. The width of the annual rings was smaller in the years of maximum SA; furthermore, it was found that it is the latewood growth that it is affected while the earlywood growth is not, and consequently the latewood additions also show a significative negative correlation with SA.

  16. The formation of zona radiata in Pseudosciaena crocea revealed by light and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Xin; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2012-02-01

    The egg envelope is an essential structure occurring during oogenesis. It plays an important role during the process of fertilization in the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea. Elucidation of egg envelope formation helps us to understand fertilization mechanisms in teleosts. In the present work, we studied the formation of egg envelope in P. crocea by light microscopy, as well as by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Four layers exist outside the oocyte plasmalemma, i.e., theca cell layer, basal membrane, granulosa cell layer and zona radiata. According to our observation, zona radiata is a multilaminar structure just like the same structure reported in teleosts, but the origin of this structure is a little different. Before it is formed, a peripheral space filled with different density of vesicles is the place where zona radiata is formed. Zona radiata (Z1) is secreted only by oocyte itself, it belongs to the primary envelope; zona radiata 2 (Z2) and zona radiata 3 (Z3) belong to the secondary envelope, because the two layers are formed after granulosa cells appear, and microvilli participate this process. It is very interesting that Z2 and Z3 are situated between Z1 and the granulosa cell first, but they translocate to the other side of Z1. This microanatomy difference may due to the participation of microvilli. The new finding about egg envelope formation in P. crocea will help us to do further investigation on fertilization mechanisms and will make artificial breeding possible which may contribute to the resource recovery of this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 24-epibrassinolide modulates growth, nodulation, antioxidant system, and osmolyte in tolerant and sensitive varieties of Vigna radiata under different levels of nickel: a shotgun approach.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, M; Fariduddin, Q; Ahmad, A

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the response of 24-epibrassinolide to improve the biological yield of Ni-tolerant and Ni-sensitive varieties of Vigna radiata and also to test the propositions that 24-epibrassinolide induced up-regulation of antioxidant system protects the efficiency of V. radiata, grown under Ni-stress. Surface sterilized seeds of var. T-44 (Ni-tolerant) and PDM-139 (Ni-sensitive) were soaked in DDW (control), 10(-10), 10(-8), or 10(-6) M of 24-epibrassinolide for 8 h (shotgun approach). These treated seeds were then inoculated with specific Rhizobium grown in sandy loam soil supplemented with different levels of Ni 0, 50, 100, or 150 mg Ni kg(-1) of soil and were allowed to grow for 45-days. At this stage of growth, plants were sampled to assess the various growths and nodule related traits as well as selected biochemical characteristics. The remaining plants were allowed to grow to maturity to study the yield characteristics. The results indicated that plant-fresh and dry mass, number of nodules, their fresh and dry mass, leghemoglobin content, nitrogen and carbohydrate content in the nodules, leaf chlorophyll content, activities of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase decreased proportionately with the increasing concentrations of soil nickel. However, the application of 24-epibrassinolide as shotgun approach (pre-sowing seed soaking) to the nickel-stressed or non-stressed plants improved growth, nodulation and enhanced the activity of various antioxidant enzymes (viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) and also the content of proline. The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline (osmolyte) triggered by 24-epibrassinolide could have conferred tolerance to the Ni-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, nodulation and yield attributes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO-2 AND N FERTILIZATION ON FINE ROOT DYNAMICS AND FUNGAL GROWTH IN SEEDLING PINUS PONDEROSA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated CO-2 and N fertilization on fine root growth of Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. C. Laws., grown in native soil in open-top field-exposure chambers at Placerville, CA, were monitored for a 2-year period using minirhizotrons. The experimental design was a...

  19. Modeling the longitudinal variation in wood specific gravity of planted loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) in the United States

    Treesearch

    F. Antony; L. R. Schimleck; R. F. Daniels; Alexander Clark; D. B. Hall

    2010-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is a major plantation species grown in the southern United States, producing wood having a multitude of uses including pulp and lumber production. Specific gravity (SG) is an important property used to measure the quality of wood produced, and it varies regionally and within the tree with height and radius. SG at different height levels...

  20. Vascular cambial sucrose metabolism and growth in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in relation to transplanting stress

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; C.C. Black

    1993-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SS) was the dominant enzyme of sucrose metabolism in both stem and root vascular cambial zone tissues of nursery-grown loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings.Acid invertase (AI) and neutral invertase (NI) activties were generally less than 10% of the SS activity in both tissues.In both cambial tissues, seasonal patterns of SS activity in stem and...

  1. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO-2 AND N FERTILIZATION ON FINE ROOT DYNAMICS AND FUNGAL GROWTH IN SEEDLING PINUS PONDEROSA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated CO-2 and N fertilization on fine root growth of Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. C. Laws., grown in native soil in open-top field-exposure chambers at Placerville, CA, were monitored for a 2-year period using minirhizotrons. The experimental design was a...

  2. Assessment of microbial communities in mung bean (Vigna radiata) rhizosphere upon exposure to phytotoxic levels of Copper.

    PubMed

    Sharaff, Murali; Archana, G

    2015-11-01

    Pollution of agricultural soils by Cu is of concern as it could bring about alterations in microbial communities, ultimately eliminating certain plant beneficial bacteria thus disturbing soil fertility and plant growth. To understand the response of rhizobacterial communities upon Cu perturbation, mung bean (Vigna radiata) plants were grown in agricultural soil amended with CuSO4 (0-1000 mg kg(-1) ) under laboratory conditions. Culture-independent and -dependent Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (CI-DGGE and CD-DGGE) fingerprinting techniques were employed to monitor rhizobacterial community shifts upon Cu amendment. In group specific PCR-DGGE, a negative impact was seen on α-Proteobacteria followed by β-Proteobacteria resulting in a concomitant decrease in diversity indices with increased Cu concentration. No significant changes were observed in Firmicutes and Actinomycetes populations. In CD-DGGE rhizobacterial community shift was observed above 500 mg kg(-1) (CuSO4 ), however certain bands were predominantly present in all treatments. Plants showed toxic effects by reduction in growth and elevated Cu accumulation, with root system being affected prominently. From this study it is evident that above 250 mg kg(-1) , rhizobacterial communities are adversely affected. α-Proteobacteria was found to be a sensitive bio-indicator for Cu toxicity and is of particular significance since this group includes majority of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

  3. Extensive haplotype variation in Tamarixia radiata populations from the Americas: multiple groups

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field collected populations of Tamarixia radiata (n=48) were analyzed by a phylogeographic analysis inferred from the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) (518-bp). Three populations were from North America, one each from the U. S. states of Florida and Texas and one from t...

  4. Effects of Nano Silver Oxide and Silver Ions on Growth of Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Divya; Kumar, Arun

    2015-09-01

    Transformation of silver oxide nanoparticles (nano-Ag2O) to silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) and silver ions in environment is possible which might pose toxicity to plants and other species. The objective of this study was to study effects of nano-Ag2O and silver ions on growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata) seedlings. V. radiata seeds were exposed to nano-Ag2O and silver ions (concentration range: 4.3 × 10(-7), 4.3 × 10(-6), 4.3 × 10(-5), 4.3 × 10(-4), and 4.3 × 10(-3) mol/L) for 6 days. Root length, shoot length and dry weight of seedlings were found to decrease due to exposure of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. These findings indicate silver ions to be more toxic to V. radiata seeds than nano-Ag2O. Silver content in seedlings was found to increase with increasing concentrations of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. Overall, findings of the present study add to the existing knowledge of phytotoxicity of silver-based nanoparticles of different chemical compositions to V. radiata seeds and need to be considered during use of nanoparticles-contaminated water for irrigation purposes.

  5. Fossil records of subsection Pinus (genus Pinus, Pinaceae) from the Cenozoic in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamada, Mariko; Tsukagoshi, Minoru

    2014-03-01

    Extant pines of subsection Pinus (section Pinus, genus Pinus, Pinaceae) are predominantly distributed in Eastern Asia. However, the extent of diversification in the section has yet to be fully clarified. We reviewed fossil records of subsection Pinus from Japan and collected permineralized materials, in which anatomical details are preserved for better understanding of the diversification. Our results suggest that this subsection appeared in Japan no earlier than the Middle Eocene, with extant species (i.e., Pinus densiflora and Pinus thunbergii) appearing around the beginning of the Pleistocene. Pinus fujiii (Early Miocene to Early Pleistocene) is inferred to have a close affinity to P. thunbergii based on the medial arrangement of its leaf resin canals. Additionally, P. fujiii has a similar cone morphology to those of extant species living in China, bridging the morphological gap between P. thunbergii and Chinese relatives of P. thunbergii as inferred by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Our results also suggest that taxonomic revisions of Pinus miocenica and Pinus oligolepis are required among the Japanese fossil species reported to date.

  6. Effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on germination, metabolism and early growth of green gram, Vigna radiata L.

    PubMed

    Masakorala, Kanaji; Yao, Jun; Chandankere, Radhika; Yuan, Haiyan; Liu, Haijun; Yu, Chan; Cai, Minmin

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on the leguminous plant, Vigna radiata L. Seed germination, metabolism and early growth performance of V. radiata L. were studied as parameters by applying a combined approach. The employed combined method which included microcalorimetry and analysis of the root cross section revealed dose dependent effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil on V. radiata L. for most parameters. Although significant reductions in measured parameters were observed even at low total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) levels such as 1 % and 1.5 %, calculated inhibitions, IC50 values and metabolic heat emission-time curves inferred that substantial negative effects can be expected on V. radiata L. in soils with comparatively high contamination levels, such as 2.5 % TPH and higher.

  7. Antimicrobial activities of several parts of Pinus brutia, Juniperus oxycedrus, Abies cilicia, Cedrus libani and Pinus nigra.

    PubMed

    Diğrak, M; Ilçim, A; Hakki Alma, M

    1999-11-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial activities of several parts of various trees grown in the Kahramanmaraş region of Turkey were investigated by the disc diffusion method. Chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves, resins, barks, cones and fruits of Pinus brutia Ten., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Abies cilicia Ant. & Kotschy Carr., Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Pinus nigra Arn. were prepared and tested against Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Bacillus cereus FMC 19, Escherichia coli DM, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 3, Enterobacter aerogenes CCM 2531, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1, Listeria monocytogenes Scoot A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 5007, Candida albicans CCM 314, Candida tropicalis MDC 86 and Penicillium italicum K. The results showed that antifungal effects were not observed for the whole extracts, E. coli was not inhibited by any of the plant extracts except by the chloroform and acetone extracts of the leaves of A. cilicia, which showed inhibition zones of 16-18 mm, respectively. All the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the development of the other bacteria studied. When the results of this study were compared with an ampicillin standard, it was found that the microorganisms studied were generally susceptible, intermediate or resistant to the extracts of species when compared with the ampicillin standard. On the other hand, the acetone and methanol extracts of Juniperus fruits were found to be quite resistant. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Vigna mungo, V. radiata and V. unguiculata plants sampled in different agronomical-ecological-climatic regions of India are nodulated by Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense.

    PubMed

    Appunu, Chinnaswamy; N'Zoue, Angèle; Moulin, Lionel; Depret, Géraldine; Laguerre, Gisèle

    2009-10-01

    Vigna mungo, Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata are important legume crops cultivated in India, but little is known about the genetic resources in native rhizobia that nodulate these species. To identify these bacteria, a core collection of 76 slow-growing isolates was built from root nodules of V. mungo, V. radiata and V. unguiculata plants grown at different sites within three agro-ecological-climatic regions of India. The genetic diversity of the bacterial collection was assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) region, and the symbiotic genes nifH and nodC. One rDNA IGS type grouped 91% of isolates, but more diversity was found at the symbiotic loci (17 symbiotic genotypes). Overall, no host plant specificity was shown, the three host plant species sharing common bradyrhizobial genotypes that represented 62% of the collection. Similarly, the predominant genotypes were found at most sampling sites and in all agro-ecological-climatic regions. Phylogenies inferred from IGS sequencing and multi-locus sequence analysis of the dnaK, glnII and recA genes indicated that all isolates but one were clustered with the Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense species. The nifH phylogeny also grouped the different nif haplotypes within a cluster including B. yuanmingense, except for one infrequent nif haplotype which formed a new lineage within the Bradyrhizobium genus. These results may reflect a long history of co-evolution between B. yuanmingense and Vigna spp. in India, while intra-species polymorphism detected in the symbiotic loci may be linked with the long history of diversification of B. yuanmingense coinciding with that of its host legumes.

  9. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  10. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  11. Height growth determinants in pines: A case study of Pinus contorta and Pinus monticola

    Treesearch

    Isabelle Chuine; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Sally N. Aitken

    2006-01-01

    In this study we aimed to compare and explain the height growth performance of two contrasting pine species: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud) and western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don.). We compiled measurements of total height growth at different ages and shoot elongation phenology realized in several...

  12. Using among-year variation to assess maternal effects in Pinus aristata and Pinus flexilis

    Treesearch

    Erin M. Borgman; Anna W. Schoettle; Amy L. Angert

    2014-01-01

    Maternal effects, the effect of the maternal environment during development on offspring growth, can complicate the interpretation of common garden studies. Growing one or more generations in a common environment can help minimize maternal effects, but is often not practical with long-lived species. In Pinus aristata Engelm. and Pinus flexilis James, we assessed...

  13. Infection of Macaca Radiata with Viruses of the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    immunoperoxiddase (see Materials and methods) ABC. hematoxylin, ’ 100. Macaca radiata and tick-borne encephalitis viruses 405 II ~~ ; Fig. 6. Ileum, KFD...luminai surface stain positive for KFD viral antigens. lmniunoperoxidase (see Materials and methods). Hematoxylin, ý 50. Viral antigen -positive...stain viral antigen -positive neurons (arrows). Immunoperoxicdase (see Materials and methods). ABC, hematoxyhin, x 50. United Kingdom, Scandinavia and

  14. Mimosine mitigates oxidative stress in selenium deficient seedlings of Vigna radiata--Part I: Restoration of mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, K; Kulothungan, S Rajendra

    2007-07-01

    Mimosine, a non-protein plant amino acid found in Mimosa pudica and certain species of Leucaena, was beneficial for the growth of seedlings of Vigna radiata germinated under selenium-deficient stressed condition (-Se stressed) despite the recognized toxicity of the allelochemical. Exposure of mimosine at 0.1 mM (Mim-0.1) promoted the growth of the seedlings and significantly enhanced mitochondrial functional efficiency. Growth-related parameters including root and shoot lengths and dry weight were increased by 44-58% in the Mim-0.1 group compared to that of the -Se-stressed group. Oxygen uptake by mitochondria of Mim-0.1 group, studied with different substrates, revealed enhanced State 3 respiratory rates with regulated State 4 rates, resulting in high respiratory control ratio (RCR) of 3.4 to 3.9 indicative of a high degree of oxidative coupling. Specific activities of mitochondrial electron transport enzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form) (NADH)-cytochrome (cyt) c oxidoreductase, succinate dehydrogenase, and cyt c oxidase in the Mim-0.1 group were enhanced by 53% to threefold over those of the Se-stressed group. Marked decreases in the extent of mitochondrial lipid peroxidation ensued upon mimosine exposure, indicative of its antioxidant function. Mitochondrial 45Ca2+ uptake was notably augmented twofold in the Mim-0.1 group, compared to the Se-stressed group. Detailed kinetic analyses of Ca2+ uptake revealed positive cooperative interactions in both -Se-stressed group and Mim-0.1 groups with Hill coefficient (nH) values of 1.7 and 2, respectively. The present study establishes the beneficial effects of mimosine exposure at 0.1 mM on the growth and mitochondrial function of the seedlings grown under selenium-deficient stressed condition and a significant physiological role can be ascribed to mimosine.

  15. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  16. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  17. Antiproliferative activities of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from Lycoris radiata targeting DNA topoisomerase I

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gui-Lin; Tian, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Jian-Lin; Li, Na; Guo, Ming-Quan

    2016-01-01

    Crude Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (AAs) extracted from Lycoris radiata are reported to exhibit significant anti-cancer activity. However, the specific alkaloids responsible for the pharmacodynamic activity and their targets still remain elusive. In this context, we strived to combine affinity ultrafiltration with topoisomerase I (Top I) as a target enzyme aiming to fish out specific bioactive AAs from Lycoris radiata. 11 AAs from Lycoris radiata were thus screened out, among which hippeastrine (peak 5) with the highest Enrichment factor (EF) against Top I exhibited good dose-dependent inhibition with IC50 at 7.25 ± 0.20 μg/mL comparable to camptothecin (positive control) at 6.72 ± 0.23 μg/mL. The molecular docking simulation further indicated the inhibitory mechanism between Top I and hippeastrine. The in vitro antiproliferation assays finally revealed that hippeastrine strongly inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 and Hep G2 cells in an intuitive dose-dependent manner with the IC50 values at 3.98 ± 0.29 μg/mL and 11.85 ± 0.20 μg/mL, respectively, and also induced significant cellular morphological changes, which further validated our screening method and the potent antineoplastic effects. Collectively, these results suggested that hippeastrine could be a very promising anticancer candidate for the therapy of cancer in the near future. PMID:27922057

  18. Antiproliferative activities of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from Lycoris radiata targeting DNA topoisomerase I.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gui-Lin; Tian, Yong-Qiang; Wu, Jian-Lin; Li, Na; Guo, Ming-Quan

    2016-12-06

    Crude Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (AAs) extracted from Lycoris radiata are reported to exhibit significant anti-cancer activity. However, the specific alkaloids responsible for the pharmacodynamic activity and their targets still remain elusive. In this context, we strived to combine affinity ultrafiltration with topoisomerase I (Top I) as a target enzyme aiming to fish out specific bioactive AAs from Lycoris radiata. 11 AAs from Lycoris radiata were thus screened out, among which hippeastrine (peak 5) with the highest Enrichment factor (EF) against Top I exhibited good dose-dependent inhibition with IC50 at 7.25 ± 0.20 μg/mL comparable to camptothecin (positive control) at 6.72 ± 0.23 μg/mL. The molecular docking simulation further indicated the inhibitory mechanism between Top I and hippeastrine. The in vitro antiproliferation assays finally revealed that hippeastrine strongly inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 and Hep G2 cells in an intuitive dose-dependent manner with the IC50 values at 3.98 ± 0.29 μg/mL and 11.85 ± 0.20 μg/mL, respectively, and also induced significant cellular morphological changes, which further validated our screening method and the potent antineoplastic effects. Collectively, these results suggested that hippeastrine could be a very promising anticancer candidate for the therapy of cancer in the near future.

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ECKLONIA RADIATA (LAMINARIALES) TO A LATITUDINAL GRADIENT IN OCEAN TEMPERATURE(1).

    PubMed

    Staehr, Peter A; Wernberg, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    We tested the ability of sporophytes of a small kelp, Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh, to adjust their photosynthesis, respiration, and cellular processes to increasingly warm ocean climates along a latitudinal gradient in ocean temperature (∼4°C). Tissue concentrations of pigment and nutrients decreased with increasing ocean temperature. Concurrently, a number of gradual changes in the metabolic balance of E. radiata took place along the latitudinal gradient. Warm-acclimatized kelps had 50% lower photosynthetic rates and 90% lower respiration rates at the optimum temperature than did cool-acclimatized kelps. A reduction in temperature sensitivity was also observed as a reduction in Q10 -values from cool- to warm-acclimatized kelps for gross photosynthesis (Q10 : 3.35 to 1.45) and respiration (Q10 : 3.82 to 1.65). Respiration rates were more sensitive to increasing experimental temperatures (10% higher Q10 -values) than photosynthesis and had a higher optimum temperature, irrespective of sampling location. To maintain a positive carbon balance, E. radiata increased the critical light demand (Ec ) exponentially with increasing experimental temperature. The temperature dependency of Ec was, however, weakened with increasing ocean temperature, such that the critical light demand was relaxed in kelp acclimated to higher ocean temperatures. Nevertheless, calculations of critical depth limits suggested that direct effects of future temperature increases are unlikely to be as strong as effects of reduced water clarity, another globally increasing problem in coastal areas. © 2009 Phycological Society of America.

  20. Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris Essential Oils Chemotypes and Monoterpene Hydrocarbon Enantiomers, before and after Inoculation with the Pinewood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana M; Mendes, Marta D; Lima, Ana S; Barbosa, Pedro M; Ascensão, Lia; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G; Mota, Manuel M; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, a serious threat to global forest populations of conifers, especially Pinus spp. A time-course study of the essential oils (EOs) of 2-year-old Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris following inoculation with the PWN was performed. The constitutive and nematode inoculation induced EOs components were analyzed at both the wounding or inoculation areas and at the whole plant level. The enantiomeric ratio of optically active main EOs components was also evaluated. External symptoms of infection were observed only in P. pinaster and P. sylvestris 21 and 15 days after inoculation, respectively. The EO composition analysis of uninoculated and unwounded plants revealed the occurrence of chemotypes for P. pinaster, P. halepensis and P. sylvestris, whereas P. pinea showed a homogenous EO composition. When whole plants were evaluated for EO and monoterpene hydrocarbon enantiomeric chemical composition, no relevant qualitative and quantitative differences were found. Instead, EO analysis of inoculated and uninoculated wounded areas revealed an increase of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic compounds, especially in P. pinea and P. halepensis, comparatively to healthy whole plants EOs. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. Phlorotannins versus other factors affecting epiphyte abundance on the kelp Ecklonia radiata.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J G; Steinberg, P D

    1997-02-01

    We examined factors affecting the abundance and distribution of epiphytes (fouling) on the sublittoral kelp Ecklonia radiata. We first assessed the importance of phlorotannins as chemical defences against epiphytes by (a) correlating epiphyte loads on different parts of the thallus with the phlorotannin content of those tissues, and (b) experimentally testing the effects of variation in phlorotannin concentration against the settlement and growth of gametes of Ulva lactuca, a common epiphyte in the system. Tissue phlorotannin content was, at best, only weakly related to epiphyte loads, with r (2) values typically <0.10. Inhibition of Ulva gametes only occurred at concentrations >10 mg l(-1), which is 5 orders of magnitude greater than levels of phlorotannins in the water column around beds of E. radiata, and 1-3 orders of magnitude greater than estimated levels in the boundary layer at the surface of the plant. We concluded that phlorotannins have a negligible impact on patterns of epiphytism on E. radiata, and proceeded to investigate other factors influencing the distribution and abundance of epiphytes. In our samples the relative age of different parts of the thallus was strongly correlated with epiphyte abundance, with epiphyte densities greatest on the oldest tissue and least on the youngest. Distal parts of the thalli also had greater epiphyte loads than basal parts. Field experiments in which kelp tissue was suspended at two heights in an E. radiata forest for varying lengths of time confirmed the importance of the length of time that the tissue was in the water, and its height in the water column, to the development of an epiphyte community. Comparison of epiphyte loads on tissue from primary (smooth) and secondary (rough) laminae in these experiments indicated that surface rugosity also affected fouling. Macroherbivores were rare on E. radiata, and abundances of mesofauna and epiphytes were positively related, suggesting that grazers were not

  2. Effects of site preparation treatments on early growth and survival of planted longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings in North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Susan Cohen

    2006-01-01

    We tested the effects of eight site preparation treatments on early growth and survival of container-grown longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings. Treatments included an untreated check, six combinations of two initial vegetation control treatments (chopping or herbicide) with three planting site conditions (flat [no additional treatment],...

  3. Effects of long-term ozone exposure and drought on the photosynthetic capacity of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) New Phytol

    Treesearch

    Jan L. Beyers; George H. Riechers; Patrick J. Temple

    1992-01-01

    Seedlings of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) were grown for three years under three atmospheric ozone concentrations- clean air (CF), ambient ozone (NF), and 1-5 times ambient ozone (NF150) - at a moderatelypolluted site in the Sierra Nevada, under either well-watered or drought-stressed conditions. When the trees were 5 years old,...

  4. Survival of adult Tamarixia radiata subjected to different short-term storage methods prior to field releases for biological control of Asian citrus psyllid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tamarixia radiata is an insect parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid. The psyllid is an important pest of citrus because it vectors pathogens responsible for a serious disease of citrus known as huanglongbing (also known as citrus greening or yellow shoot disease). T. radiata is regarded as one of ...

  5. Determining the Correct Planting Depth For Container-Grown Longleaf Pine Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Hainds

    2004-01-01

    The Longleaf Alliance installed four planting-depth studies from 1998 to 2002 to determine the optimal depth for container-grown longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings. Results indicate that deep planting significantly reduced seedling survival and growth. Results also indicate that longleaf is very tolerant of shallow planting whereby the...

  6. Benomyl Stimulates Ectomycorrhizal Development by Pisolithus Tinctorius on Shortleaf Pine Grown in Containers

    Treesearch

    William H. Pawuk; James P. Barnett

    1981-01-01

    Container-grown shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) seedlings inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius and drenched with benomyl formed more mycorrhizal roots than undrenched seedlings. Seedlings were drenched (2.5, 5, and 10 mg ai in 15 ml of water per individual) prior to sowing and at either 2-, 4-, or 8-week intervals....

  7. Influence of copper on root growth and morphology of Pinus pinea L. and Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Arduini, I; Godbold, D L; Onnis, A

    1995-06-01

    We assessed the effects of Cu on root growth and morphology of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) seedlings grown in culture solutions supplied with 0.012 (control), 0.1, 1 or 5 micro M CuSO(4). The presence of 5 micro M Cu in the nutrient solution completely inhibited root growth of both species within 3 days. In both species, taproot elongation was reduced in the presence of 1 micro M Cu, although partial growth recovery occurred after 7 days of treatment. The presence of 0.1 micro M Cu in the culture solution slightly enhanced root elongation in P. pinaster, but did not significantly influence root elongation in P. pinea. In both species, root weight per unit length increased in response to Cu exposure, and in P. pinaster, root diameter was significantly increased. The Cu treatments also affected lateral root number and length. In the presence of 1 micro M Cu, both species formed only short lateral primordia. The 1 micro M Cu treatment increased the lateral root index (number of roots per cm of root length) of P. pinaster, but decreased that of P. pinea, compared with control values. Neither the 0.1 nor 1 micro M Cu treatment had a significant effect on the mitotic index of either species. We conclude that cell elongation is more sensitive to Cu than cell division. Cell membrane damage, as indicated by Trypan blue staining, occurred after 10 days of exposure to 1 micro M Cu.

  8. Ecosystem carbon stocks in Pinus palustris forests

    Treesearch

    Lisa Samuelson; Tom Stokes; John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Pete Anderson; Jason Jackson; Lorenzo Ferrari; Tim A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper

    2014-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) restoration in the southeastern United States offers opportunities for carbon (C) sequestration. Ecosystem C stocks are not well understood in longleaf pine forests, which are typically of low density and maintained by prescribed fire. The objectives of this research were to develop allometric equations for...

  9. Crossability and relationships of Pinus muricata (Pinaceae)

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar; William B. Critchfield

    1988-01-01

    Crossing relationships were studies within and among the variable populations of Pinus muricata to test hypotheses about crossing barriers among certain populations. Crossability was assessed at the level of viable seed production following planned crosses. Populations north of Sea Ranch, Sonoma Co., California, crossed freely with parapatric but...

  10. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida)

    Treesearch

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) grows over a wide geographical range - from central Maine to New York and extreme southeastern Ontario, south to Virginia and southern Ohio, and in the mountains to eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and western South Carolina. Because it grows mostly on the poorer soils, its distribution is spotty.

  11. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) assisted migration trial

    Treesearch

    Sierra C. McLane; Sally N. Aitken

    2011-01-01

    Assisted migration - the translocation of a species into a climatically-suitable location outside of its current range - has been proposed as a means of saving vulnerable species from extinction as temperatures rise due to climate change. We explore this controversial technique using the keystone wildlife symbiote and ecosystem engineer, whitebark pine (Pinus...

  12. Genetic transformation of Pinus palustris (longleaf pine)

    Treesearch

    Alex M. Diner

    1999-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is an important softwood species in the Southeast United States. In presettlement times, this species occupied extensive, pure stands throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains from southeastern Virginia to eastern Texas, as well as south...

  13. Effect of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis in non-nutrient limited Pinus taeda plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.D.; Tissue, D.T.; Strain, B.R. )

    1994-06-01

    We examined the effect of elevated CO2 on photosynthetic capacity in non-nutrient limited Pinus taeda plants. Plants were grown in open-top chambers maintained at either ambient or ambient +30 Pa CO2. Leaf nitrogen levels indicated that no plants were N limited. Photosynthesis at the growth CO2 was significantly higher in plants grown at elevated CO2. However, elevated CO2 did not significantly affect rubisco activity and activation state, chlorophyll content, electron transport capacity or phosphate regeneration capacity. All parameters were significantly greater during the growing season than during the winter. Additionally, photosynthesis declined approximately 75% in elevated CO2-grown plants from May to January, but only 50% in ambient CO2-grown plants. These results indicate that elevated CO2 will not effect photosynthetic capacity grown plants. These results indicate that elevated CO2 will not affect photosynthetic capacity grown plants. These results indicate that elevated CO2 will not affect photosynthetic capacity in non-nutrient limited P. taeda, but will increase seasonal fluctuations in photosynthesis.

  14. Elevated [CO2] does not ameliorate the negative effects of elevated temperature on drought-induced mortality in Eucalyptus radiata seedlings.

    PubMed

    Duan, Honglang; Duursma, Remko A; Huang, Guomin; Smith, Renee A; Choat, Brendan; O'Grady, Anthony P; Tissue, David T

    2014-07-01

    It has been reported that elevated temperature accelerates the time-to-mortality in plants exposed to prolonged drought, while elevated [CO(2)] acts as a mitigating factor because it can reduce stomatal conductance and thereby reduce water loss. We examined the interactive effects of elevated [CO(2)] and temperature on the inter-dependent carbon and hydraulic characteristics associated with drought-induced mortality in Eucalyptus radiata seedlings grown in two [CO(2)] (400 and 640 μL L(-1)) and two temperature (ambient and ambient +4 °C) treatments. Seedlings were exposed to two controlled drying and rewatering cycles, and then water was withheld until plants died. The extent of xylem cavitation was assessed as loss of stem hydraulic conductivity. Elevated temperature triggered more rapid mortality than ambient temperature through hydraulic failure, and was associated with larger water use, increased drought sensitivities of gas exchange traits and earlier occurrence of xylem cavitation. Elevated [CO(2)] had a negligible effect on seedling response to drought, and did not ameliorate the negative effects of elevated temperature on drought. Our findings suggest that elevated temperature and consequent higher vapour pressure deficit, but not elevated [CO(2)], may be the primary contributors to drought-induced seedling mortality under future climates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Role of ethylene diurea (EDU) in assessing impact of ozone on Vigna radiata L. plants in a suburban area of Allahabad (India).

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S B; Singh, Anoop; Rathore, Dheeraj

    2005-10-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of ethylene diurea (N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl]-N'-phenylurea; EDU) in assessing the impact of O3 on mung bean plants (Vigna radiata L. var. Malviya Jyoti) grown in suburban area of Allahabad city situated in a dry tropical region of India. EDU is a synthetic chemical having anti-ozonant property. Mean monthly O3 concentration varied between 64 and 69 microg m(-3) during the experimental period. In comparison to EDU-treated plants, non-EDU-treated plants showed significant reductions in plant growth and yield under ambient conditions. Significant favourable effects of EDU-application were observed with respect to photosynthetic pigments, soluble protein, ascorbic acid and phenol contents. EDU-treated plants maintained higher levels of pigments, protein and ascorbic acid in foliage as compared to non-EDU-treated ones. The study clearly demonstrated that EDU alleviates the unfavourable effects of O3 on mung bean plants, and therefore can be used as a tool to assess the growth and yield losses in areas having higher O3 concentrations.

  16. Influence of acid-soluble proteins from bivalve Siliqua radiata ligaments on calcium carbonate crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zeng-Qiong; Zhang, Gang-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    In vitro biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of shell proteins is a heavily researched topic in biomineralization. However, little is known regarding the function of bivalve ligament proteins in the growth of CaCO3 crystals. In this study, using fibrous protein K58 from Siliqua radiata ligaments or coverslips as substrates, we report the results of our study of CaCO3 precipitation in the presence or absence of acid-soluble proteins (ASP) from inner ligament layers. ASP can disturb the controlling function of K58 or a coverslip on the crystalline phase, resulting in the formation of aragonite, calcite, and vaterite. In addition, we identified the following four primary components from ASP by mass spectroscopy: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ABC transporter, keratin type II cytoskeletal 1 (KRT 1), and phosphate ABC transporter, phosphate-binding protein (PstS). Further analysis revealed that the first three proteins and especially ALP, which is important in bone mineralisation, could affect the polymorphism and morphology of CaCO3 crystals by trapping calcium ions in their domains. Our results indicate that ALP may play an important role in the formation of aragonite in S. radiata ligaments. This paper may facilitate our understanding of the biomineralization process.

  17. Comparative mapping in Pinus: sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.).Tree Genet Genomes 7:457-468

    Treesearch

    Kathleen D. Jermstad; Andrew J. Eckert; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Annette Delfino-Mix; Dean A Davis; Deems C. Burton; David B. Neale

    2011-01-01

    The majority of genomic research in conifers has been conducted in the Pinus subgenus Pinus mostly due to the high economic importance of the species within this taxon. Genetic maps have been constructed for several of these pines and comparative mapping analyses have consistently revealed notable synteny. In contrast,...

  18. Discovering and Verifying DNA Polymorphism in a Mung Bean [V. radiata (L). R. Wilczek] Collection by Ecotilling and Sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ecotilling was used to identify various SNPs and small insertion/deletions (INDELS) in a collection of mung bean Vigna radiata, which was previously shown limited diversity. Ten primer sets were used to examine intervarietal and intravarietal DNA polymorphisms among various mung bean accessions and...

  19. INDUCTION OF ZONA RADIATA PROTEINS AND VITELLOGENINS IN ESTRADIOL AND NONYLPHENOL EXPOSED MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knoebl, Iris, Michael J. Hemmer and Nancy D. Denslow. 2004. Induction of Zona Radiata Proteins and Vitellogenins in Estradiol and Nonylphenol Exposed Male Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Mar. Environ. Res. 58(2-5):547-551. (ERL,GB X1059).

    Several genes normall...

  20. Leaf area index, biomass carbon and growth rate of radiata pine genetic types and relationships with LiDAR

    Treesearch

    Peter N. Beets; Stephen Reutebuch; Mark O. Kimberley; Graeme R. Oliver; Stephen H. Pearce; Robert J. McGaughey

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between discrete-return light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and radiata pine leaf area index (LAI), stem volume, above ground carbon, and carbon sequestration were developed using 10 plots with directly measured biomass and leaf area data, and 36 plots with modelled carbon data. The plots included a range of genetic types established on north- and...

  1. INDUCTION OF ZONA RADIATA PROTEINS AND VITELLOGENINS IN ESTRADIOL AND NONYLPHENOL EXPOSED MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knoebl, Iris, Michael J. Hemmer and Nancy D. Denslow. 2004. Induction of Zona Radiata Proteins and Vitellogenins in Estradiol and Nonylphenol Exposed Male Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Mar. Environ. Res. 58(2-5):547-551. (ERL,GB X1059).

    Several genes normall...

  2. Chemical composition of Pinus sibirica (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Rogachev, Artem D; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F

    2015-01-01

    Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica), also known as Siberian cedar pine and Siberian cedar, is an important plant that has been long used as a source of natural compounds and materials (wood, needles, soft resin, turpentine, colophony). Its chemical composition has been studied well enough; however, to our surprise, no articles that compile the phytochemical data have been published so far. Presumably, this is due to the fact that most of the studies were published in journals difficult to access and not indexed by search systems. This review, for the first time, presents a systematic compilation of available data of secondary metabolites occurring in the needles, shoots, bark, wood, seeds, and oleoresin of Pinus sibirica. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Alternative respiratory path capacity in plant mitochondria: effect of growth temperature, the electrochemical gradient, and assay pH. [Zea mays L. , Vigna radiata L. , Symplocarpus foetidus L. , Sauromatum guttatum Schott

    SciTech Connect

    Elthon, T.E.; Stewart, C.R.; McCoy, C.A.; Bonner, W.D. Jr.

    1986-02-01

    Influence of growth temperature on the capacity of the mitochondrial alternative pathway of electron transport was investigated using etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. These seedlings were grown to comparable size in either a warm (30/sup 0/C) or a cold (13/sup 0/C) temperature regime, and then their respiration rates were measured as O/sub 2/ uptake at 25/sup 0/C. The capacity of the alternative pathway (KCN-insensitive O/sub 2/ uptake) was found essentially to double in shoots of cold-grown seedlings. When mitochondria were isolated from the shoots a greater potential for flow through the alternative path was observed in mitochondria from the cold-grown seedlings with all substrates used (an average increase of 84%). Using exogenous NADH as the substrate, the effect of the electrochemical gradient on measurable capacities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways was investigated in mitochondria from both etiolated seedlings and thermogenic spadices. In corn shoot and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl mitochondria increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the electrochemical gradient was found not to influence the potential for flow through the alternative path. However, in mitochondria from skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus L.) and voodoo lily (Sauromatum gutatum Schott) spadices increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the gradient occurred at the expense of flow through the alternative pathway. This experiment also revealed that the potential for respiratory control is largely dependent upon the assay pH.

  4. Susceptibility of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and Its Parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Entomopathogenic Fungi under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Cortés, K H; Guzmán-Franco, A W; González-Hernández, H; Ortega-Arenas, L D; Villanueva-Jiménez, J A; Robles-Bermúdez, A

    2017-07-18

    Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) is a global pest of citrus that transmits the bacteria associated with the disease, Huanglongbing. Entomopathogenic fungi and the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) are important biological control agents of this pest and likely to interact in D. citri populations. As a basis for interaction studies, we determined the susceptibility of nymphs and adults of D. citri and adults of the parasitoid T. radiata to six fungal isolates from the species Beauveria bassiana s.l. (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (isolates B1 and B3), Metarhizium anisopliae s.s. (Metsch.) (Ma129 and Ma65) and Isaria fumosorosea Wize (I2 and Pae). We conducted experiments evaluating infection levels in all three insect groups following inoculation with a series of conidial concentrations (1 × 10(4)-1 × 10(8) conidia mL(-1)). Results showed that D. citri nymphs and T. radiata were more susceptible to fungal isolates than D. citri adults. Overall, B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates caused the greatest infection compared with I. fumosorosea isolates in all three groups of insects. Isolates B1 (B. bassiana) and Ma129 (M. anisopliae) infected a greater proportion of adults and nymphs of D. citri, respectively. Both isolates of B. bassiana caused greater infection in T. radiata compared with isolates of the other fungal species. We propose that isolates B1 and Ma129 are the strongest candidates for control of D. citri. Our results represent the first report of entomopathogenic fungi infecting T. radiata, and the basis for future studies to design a biological control programme that uses both agents more efficiently against D. citri populations.

  5. Comparison of traditional field retting and Phlebia radiata Cel 26 retting of hemp fibres for fibre-reinforced composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Ale, Marcel T; Kołaczkowski, Bartłomiej; Fernando, Dinesh; Daniel, Geoffrey; Meyer, Anne S; Thygesen, Anders

    2017-12-01

    Classical field retting and controlled fungal retting of hemp using Phlebia radiata Cel 26 (a mutant with low cellulose degrading ability) were compared with pure pectinase treatment with regard to mechanical properties of the produced fibre/epoxy composites. For field retting a classification of the microbial evolution (by gene sequencing) and enzyme profiles were conducted. By phylogenetic frequency mapping, different types of fungi, many belonging to the Ascomycota phylum were found on the fibres during the first 2 weeks of field retting, and thereafter, different types of bacteria, notably Proteobacteria, also proliferated on the field retted fibres. Extracts from field retted fibres exhibited high glucanase activities, while extracts from P. radiata Cel 26 retted fibres showed high polygalacturonase and laccase activities. As a result, fungal retting gave a significantly higher glucan content in the fibres than field retting (77 vs. 67%) and caused a higher removal of pectin as indicated by lower galacturonan content of fibres (1.6%) after fibres were retted for 20 days with P. radiata Cel 26 compared to a galacturonan content of 3.6% for field retted fibres. Effective fibre stiffness increased slightly after retting with P. radiata Cel 26 from 65 to 67 GPa, while it decreased after field retting to 52 GPa. Effective fibre strength could not be determined similarly due to variations in fibre fracture strain and fibre-matrix adhesion. A maximum composite strength with 50 vol% fibres of 307 MPa was obtained using P. radiata Cel 26 compared to 248 MPa with field retting.

  6. Correlative light and scanning electron microscopy of the same sections gives new insights into the effects of pectin lyase on bordered pit membranes in Pinus radiata wood.

    PubMed

    West, Mark; Vaidya, Alankar; Singh, Adya P

    2012-08-01

    Bordered pits are structures in the cell walls of softwood tracheids which permit the movement of water between adjacent cells. These structures contain a central pit membrane composed of an outer porous ring (margo) and an inner dense and pectin-rich disc (torus). The membrane is overarched on each side by pit borders. Pits may be aspirated, a condition where the torus seals against the pit border, effectively blocking the pathway between cells. In living trees this maintains overall continuity of water conduction in xylem by sealing off tracheids containing air. Drying of timber results in further pit aspiration, which reduces wood permeability to liquid treatment agents such as antifungal chemicals. One possible way to increase permeability is by treating wood with pectin lyase to modify or remove the torus. The effectiveness of this treatment was initially evaluated using light microscopy (LM) of toluidine blue stained wood. Pectic material is coloured pink-magenta with this stain, and loss of this colour after treatment has been interpreted as indicating destruction of the torus. However, correlative light (LM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopic observations of identical areas of toluidine blue stained sections revealed that many unstained pits had intact but modified tori when viewed with SEM. These observations indicate that LM alone is not sufficient to evaluate the effects of pectin lyase on pit membranes in wood. Combining LM and SEM gives more complete information.

  7. SITE SITE DISTURBANCE EFFECTS ON A CLAY SOIL UNDER PINUS RADIATA - ROOT BIOMASS, MYCORRHIZAL COLONISATION, 15AMMONIUM UPTAKE, AND FOLIAR NUTRIENT LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Timber harvesting can result in adverse physical, chemical and biological alterations to soil. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of site disturbance to determine the extent and duration of possible harvesting impacts on soil chemical and biological propertie...

  8. Genetic variation in resistance to pine pitch canker and western gall rust in Monterey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don): Results from a three-country collaborative field trial

    Treesearch

    A.C. Matheson; W.R. Mark; G. Stovold; C. Balocchi; N. Smith; C. Brassey

    2012-01-01

    In 1998, Australia, Chile, and New Zealand agreed to work together in a program designed to test their elite breeding lines and to test for the genetics of resistance to pitch canker (causative organism Fusarium circinatum). Pitch canker was first discovered in the United States in 1946 and in California in 1986. The first discoveries in California...

  9. SITE SITE DISTURBANCE EFFECTS ON A CLAY SOIL UNDER PINUS RADIATA - ROOT BIOMASS, MYCORRHIZAL COLONISATION, 15AMMONIUM UPTAKE, AND FOLIAR NUTRIENT LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Timber harvesting can result in adverse physical, chemical and biological alterations to soil. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of site disturbance to determine the extent and duration of possible harvesting impacts on soil chemical and biological propertie...

  10. Conserved Epigenetic Mechanisms Could Play a Key Role in Regulation of Photosynthesis and Development-Related Genes during Needle Development of Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Valledor, Luis; Pascual, Jesús; Meijón, Mónica; Escandón, Mónica; Cañal, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Needle maturation is a complex process that involves cell growth, differentiation and tissue remodelling towards the acquisition of full physiological competence. Leaf induction mechanisms are well known; however, those underlying the acquisition of physiological competence are still poorly understood, especially in conifers. We studied the specific epigenetic regulation of genes defining organ function (PrRBCS and PrRBCA) and competence and stress response (PrCSDP2 and PrSHMT4) during three stages of needle development and one de-differentiated control. Gene-specific changes in DNA methylation and histone were analysed by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The expression of PrRBCA and PrRBCS increased during needle maturation and was associated with the progressive loss of H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and the increase in AcH4. The maturation-related silencing of PrSHMT4 was correlated with increased H3K9me3 levels, and the repression of PrCSDP2, to the interplay between AcH4, H3K27me3, H3K9me3 and specific DNA methylation. The employ of HAT and HDAC inhibitors led to a further determination of the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of our target genes. The integration of these results with high-throughput analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa suggests that the specific epigenetic mechanisms that regulate photosynthetic genes are conserved between the analysed species.

  11. Effects of container cavity size and copper coating on field performance of container-grown longleaf pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; James D. Haywood; Mary A. Sword-Sayer; Kristina F. Connor; D. Andrew Scott

    2010-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings were grown for 27 weeks in 3 container cavity sizes [small (S), medium (M), and large (L)], and half the containers were coated with copper (Cu). In November 2004, we planted 144 seedlings from each of 6 container treatments in each of 4 replications in central LA. All plots were burned in February 2006...

  12. Cavity size and copper root pruning affect production and establishment of container-grown longleaf pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    Marry Anne Sword Sayer; James D. Haywood; Shi-Jean Susana. Sung

    2009-01-01

    With six container types, we tested the effects of cavity size (i.e., 60, 93, and 170 ml) and copper root pruning on the root system development of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings grown in a greenhouse. We then evaluated root egress during a root growth potential test and assessed seedling morphology and root system development 1 year after planting in...

  13. Oviposition behavior and survival of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an ectoparasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, on hosts exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antagonistic interactions between the nymphal parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and the ARSEF 3581 isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) could disrupt biological control of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina ...

  14. Incidence of invasive Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its introduced parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of Huanglongbing or citrus greening, a devastating disease of citrus. A eulophid parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterson, was imported ...

  15. Diurnal patterns of photosynthetic response to elevated CO{sub 2} and nitrogen supply in Pinus taeda seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.D.; Griffin, K.L.; Thomas, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    We examined the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and nitrogen supply on diurnal patterns of photosynthesis in 22-week old Pinus taeda seedlings. Seedlings were grown at either 35 Pa or 70 Pa CO{sub 2} and with an adequate or limiting supply of nitrogen. Photosynthetic capacity (assimilation versus internal CO{sub 2} curves) was measured at 1030, 1200, 1330, 1500 and 1630 h. Elevated CO{sub 2} significantly increased photosynthesis, but significantly reduced rubisco activity and RuBP regeneration capacity. Limiting nitrogen supply significantly reduced photosynthesis, rubisco activity and RuBP regeneration capacity. Photosynthetic capacity declined significantly between 1030 and 1630. There were no interactions between CO{sub 2} supply, nitrogen supply and time of measurement. These results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2} reduces photosynthetic capacity in Pinus taeda, but does not affect diurnal patterns of photosynthesis.

  16. Influence of extremely low-frequency electric fields on the growth of Vigna radiata seedlings.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Evelina

    2011-10-01

    The biological effects of extremely low-frequency electric fields (ELF) on living organisms have been explored in many studies, but the results are controversial and only a few studies investigated the influence of the intensity of the applied field on seedling growth. Here we assess the effects of a 50 Hz sinusoidal electric field on the early growth of Vigna radiata seedlings while varying the field intensity. Experiments performed in a dark, constant-climate chamber on several thousands of seedlings show that the field produces an inhibitory effect at a low field intensity and an enhancing one at a higher intensity. The maximum negative effect occurs at about 450 V/m, which is an intensity much lower than the exposure limits currently in force in the safety regulations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Hematological and pathological features of massive hepatic necrosis in two radiated tortoises (Astrochelys radiata)

    PubMed Central

    KIDO, Nobuhide; ITAGAKI, Iori; KIRYU, Daisuke; OMIYA, Tomoko; ONO, Kaori

    2016-01-01

    Two radiated tortoises (Astrochelys radiata) exhibited anorexia and hypokinesia. In both cases, hematological and serum biochemical examinations revealed high alkaline phosphatase levels, moderately high aspartate aminotransferase levels and white blood cell counts approximately within the normal range. Despite being treated, the tortoises died 9 and 43 days after the first clinical examination. Gross pathological examinations revealed that the livers of both animals were extremely swollen and contained pale yellow necrotic tissue. Histopathological assessment revealed that the livers contained a massive area of hepatic necrosis surrounded by migration of macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. In one of the cases, severe fibrosis was observed. The present study provides reference information for similar cases in the future. PMID:27746414

  18. Purification and characterization of high salt-soluble vicilin from mung bean (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Biswas, B B

    1990-01-01

    We report a method for the purification of vicilin from mung bean (Vigna radiata) mainly on the basis of solubility of mung bean vicilin even in high salt. Mung bean vicilin remains in solution even after 90% relative saturation of ammonium sulphate. The resulting supernatant after dialysis was subjected to gel filtration (Sephadex G-150) to remove other contaminant polypeptides, and finally the protein was purified by DEAE cellulose chromatography. This purified fraction exhibited 3 bands on SDS-PAGE compared with vicilin from other legumes which exhibite more than 3 bands generally. The results raise the possibility that the presence of the two small polypeptides in vicilin preparations is the breakdown product of the major larger one of mol.wt. 52 K and that vicilin may be a tetramer of four subunits of Mr 52000. That the high salt-soluble protein containing 52 K subunit is vicilin has been determined by several criteria.

  19. Hematological and serum biochemical indices in healthy bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata)

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Peter J.; Sequeira, Marlon K.; Corcoran, Christopher A.; Blevins, Maria W.; Gee, Melaney; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Bennett, Allyson J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood reference values for bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) are limited. The goal of this study was to determine reference ranges for hematological and serum biochemical indices in healthy, socially housed bonnet macaques for males and females over a range of ages. Methods Blood hematological and serum biochemical values were obtained from 50 healthy bonnet macaques of both sexes and aged 10-234 months. Results Age and sex differences were present in a number of measures. Globulins, total protein, and creatinine (CREAT) values were highest among older subjects, while alkaline phophatase, albumin, and phosphorus values were higher in juveniles. Sex differences were present in concentrations of red blood cells and CREAT, with higher values in males. Conclusion The blood parameter data reported here as age-specific reference values for laboratory-housed, healthy bonnet macaques may be used to inform clinical care and laboratory primate research. PMID:21366603

  20. Needle Terpenes as Chemotaxonomic Markers in Pinus: Subsections Pinus and Pinaster.

    PubMed

    Mitić, Zorica S; Jovanović, Snežana Č; Zlatković, Bojan K; Nikolić, Biljana M; Stojanović, Gordana S; Marin, Petar D

    2017-05-01

    Chemical compositions of needle essential oils of 27 taxa from the section Pinus, including 20 and 7 taxa of the subsections Pinus and Pinaster, respectively, were compared in order to determine chemotaxonomic significance of terpenes at infrageneric level. According to analysis of variance, six out of 31 studied terpene characters were characterized by a high level of significance, indicating statistically significant difference between the examined subsections. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis has shown separation of eight groups, where representatives of subsect. Pinaster were distributed within the first seven groups on the dendrogram together with P. nigra subsp. laricio and P. merkusii from the subsect. Pinus. On the other hand, the eighth group included the majority of the members of subsect. Pinus. Our findings, based on terpene characters, complement those obtained from morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters studied over the past two decades. In addition, results presented in this article confirmed that terpenes are good markers at infrageneric level. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. Preliminary overview of the first extensive rust resistance screening tests of Pinus flexilis and Pinus aristata

    Treesearch

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Kelly S. Burns

    2011-01-01

    Limber pine ( Pinus flexilis James) and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (P. aristata Engelm.; hereafter referred to as bristlecone pine) are the dominant pines that occupy high elevation habitats of the southern Rockies. Bristlecone pine is primarily a subalpine and tree-line species while limber pine in the southern Rocky Mountains grows from 1600 m in the short grass...

  2. Rust resistance in seedling families of Pinus albicaulis and Pinus strobiformis and implications for restoration

    Treesearch

    R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; R. Danchok; J. Hamlin; J. Hill; D. Conklin

    2011-01-01

    Infection and mortality levels from Cronartium ribicola, the fungus causing white pine blister rust, are very high in parts of the geographic range of Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) and P. strobiformis (Southwestern white pine). Genetic resistance to this non-native fungus will be one of the key factors in maintaining or restoring populations of these species in...

  3. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata.

    PubMed

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria "Candidatus Liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases.

  4. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria “Candidatus Liberibacter spp.” and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases. PMID:26132327

  5. Biogenic synthesis and spatial distribution of silver nanoparticles in the legume mungbean plant (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rima; Singh, Jay Shankar; Singh, Devendra Pratap

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study the in vivo synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the legume Vigna radiata. The level of plant metabolites such as total phenolics, lipid, terpenoids, alkaloids and amino acid increased by 65%, 133%, 19%, 67% and 35%, respectively, in AgNO3 (100 mg L(-1)) treated plants compared to control. Whereas protein and sugar contents in the treated plants were reduced by 38% and 27%, respectively. FTIR analysis of AgNO3 (20-100 mg L(-1)) treated plants exhibited changes in the IR regions between 3297 and 3363 cm(-1), 1635-1619 cm(-1), 1249-1266 cm(-1) and that corresponded to alterations in OH groups of carbohydrates, OH and NH groups of amide I and II regions of protein, when compared with the control. Transmission electron micrographs showed the spatial distribution of AgNPs in the chloroplast, cytoplasmic spaces, vacuolar and nucleolar plant regions. Metal quantification in different tissues of plants exposed to 20-100 mg L(-1) AgNO3 showed about a 22 fold accumulation of Ag in roots as compared to shoots. The phytotoxic parameters such as percent seed germination and shoot elongation remained almost unaltered at low AgNO3 doses (20-50 mg L(-1)). However, at higher levels of exposure (100 mg L(-1)), the percent seed germination as well as root and shoot elongation exhibited concentration dependent decline. In conclusion, synthesis of AgNPs in V. radiata particularly at lower doses of AgNO3, could be used as a sustainable and environmentally safe technology for large scale production of metal nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Conversion of Milled Pine Wood by Manganese Peroxidase from Phlebia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Hofrichter, Martin; Lundell, Taina; Hatakka, Annele

    2001-01-01

    Purified manganese peroxidase (MnP) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phlebia radiata was found to convert in vitro milled pine wood (MPW) suspended in an aqueous reaction solution containing Tween 20, Mn2+, Mn-chelating organic acid (malonate), and a hydrogen peroxide-generating system (glucose-glucose oxidase). The enzymatic attack resulted in the polymerization of lower-molecular-mass, soluble wood components and in the partial depolymerization of the insoluble bulk of pine wood, as demonstrated by high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The surfactant Tween 80 containing unsaturated fatty acid redsidues promoted the disintegration of bulk MPW. HPSEC showed that the depolymerization yielded preferentially lignocellulose fragments with a predominant molecular mass of ca. 0.5 kDa. MnP from P. radiata (MnP3) turned out to be a stable enzyme remaining active for 2 days even at 37°C with vigorous stirring, and 65 and 35% of the activity applied was retained in Tween 20 and Tween 80 reaction mixtures, respectively. In the course of reactions, major part of the Mn-chelator malonate was decomposed (85 to 87%), resulting in an increase of pH from 4.4 to >6.5. An aromatic nonphenolic lignin structure (β-O-4 dimer), which is normally not attacked by MnP, was oxidizible in the presence of pine wood meal. This finding indicates that certain wood components may promote the degradative activities of MnP in a way similar to that promoted by Tween 80, unsaturated fatty acids, or thiols. PMID:11571160

  7. Pinus contorta X banksiana hybrids tested in northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    G. E. Rehfeldt; J. E. Lotan

    1970-01-01

    Between 1950 and 1955 hybrid progenies of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) X jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) were tested to determine whether adaptation and performance in Montana and Idaho justified improvement of lodgepole pine by hybridization. Average heights, diameters, and survival rates of hybrids, of jack pines native to the Lake States, and of...

  8. Partial cambial mortality in high-elevation Pinus aristata (Pinaceae)

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Schauer; Anna W. Schoettle; Richard L. Boyce

    2001-01-01

    Partial cambial mortality is a growth form that is characteristic of Pinus aristata trees. To better elucidate their cambial death pattern, tree size and aspect of cambial death data were gathered from three Pinus aristata forests in central Colorado, USA. Stripping frequency tended to be higher for larger diameter classes. Partial cambial mortality exhibits...

  9. Germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata Mast. provenances

    Treesearch

    Yulan Xu; Nianhui Cai; Bin He; Ruili Zhang; Wei Zhao; Jianfeng Mao; Anan Duan; Yue Li; Keith Woeste

    2016-01-01

    We studied seed germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata to explore the range of variability within the species and to inform afforestation practices. Phenotypes were evaluated at a forest tree nursery under conditions that support Pinus yunnanensis, one of the presumed parental species of P. densata...

  10. 13C discriminations of Pinus sylvestris vs. Pinus ponderosa at a dry site in Brandenburg (eastern Germany): 100-year growth comparison.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ralf; Insinna, Patrick A; Götz, Bernhard; Junge, Sebastian; Boettger, Tatjana

    2007-06-01

    The carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C, per thousand) and discrimination (Delta, per thousand) of old grown North American Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex P. et C. Laws. and European Pinus sylvestris L. were determined using trees grown under almost identical growing conditions in a mixed stand in Bralitz, Northeast Germany. Single-tree delta(13)C analyses of tree-ring cellulose of both species were carried out at a yearly resolution for the period 1901-2001 and the results compared with growth (basal area increment). Annual mean delta(13)C values for P. ponderosa ranged from-21.6 per thousand to-25.2 per thousand and for P. sylvestris from-21.4 per thousand to-24.4 per thousand. Accordingly, (13)C discrimination (Delta) showed higher values for P. ponderosa throughout the investigation period. Five characteristic periods of Delta were identified for both the tree species, reflecting positive and negative influences of environmental factors. Good growing conditions such as after-thinning events had a positive effect on Delta, reflecting higher values, while poor conditions like aridity and air pollution had a negative influence, reflecting lower values. The dynamics of Delta were likewise reflected in the growth (basal area increment, BAI). Higher (13)C discrimination values of P. ponderosa led to higher BAIs of P. ponderosa in comparison with P. sylvestris. Correlation function analyses confirmed that P. sylvestris was more dependent on precipitation than P. ponderosa, which showed a closer relationship with temperature. The results confirm that under predominantly dry growing conditions, P. ponderosa showed better growth performance than P. sylvestris, indicating better common intrinsic water-use efficiency and, therefore, higher rates of net photosynthesis at a given transpiration. In view of the prospect of climate change, the results are very significant for assessing both trees' physiological properties and, hence, their potential for coping with future growing

  11. Using silvicultural practices to regulate competition, resource availability, and growing conditions for Pinus palustris seedlings underplanted in Pinus taeda forests

    Treesearch

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Huifeng Hu

    2016-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, many forest managers are interested in restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) to upland sites that currently support loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We quantified the effects of four canopy treatments (uncut Control; MedBA, harvest to 9 m2·ha−1...

  12. Regeneration of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) three decades after stand-replacing fires

    Treesearch

    Jonathan D. Coop; Anna W. Schoettle

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are important highelevation pines of the southern Rockies that are forecast to decline due to the recent spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) into this region. Proactive management strategies to promote the evolution of rust resistance and maintain ecosystem function...

  13. Limb-kinetic apraxia due to injury of corticofugal tracts from secondary motor area in patients with corona radiata infarct.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Ho; Seo, Jeong Pyo

    2016-12-01

    Limb-kinetic apraxia (LKA) is defined as an execution disorder of movements, resulting from injury of the corticofugal tract (CFT) from the secondary motor area. Diagnosis of LKA is difficult because it is made by clinical observation of movements. In this study, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we attempted to investigate injury of the CFT from the secondary motor area in patients with corona radiata infarct. Twenty patients with corona radiata infarct were recruited. A probabilistic tractography method was used in fiber tracking for reconstruction of the corticospinal tract (CST) and CFT. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, and tract volume of the CSTs and CFTs from the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA) were measured. In the affected hemisphere, FA values of the CST from the precentral hand knob and the CFT from the dPMC were significantly decreased compared with those of the unaffected hemisphere (p < 0.05). The tract volumes of the CST from the precentral hand knob and the CFTs from the dPMC and SMA in the affected hemisphere were also significantly decreased compared with those of the unaffected hemisphere (p < 0.05). We demonstrated concurrent injury of the CFTs from the secondary motor area along with injury of the CST in patients with corona radiata infarct, using DTT. Our results suggest that LKA ascribed to injury of the CFTs from the secondary motor area could be accompanied by injury of the CST ascribed to the corona radiata infarct.

  14. VrDREB2A, a DREB-binding transcription factor from Vigna radiata, increased drought and high-salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglin; Liu, Liping; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2016-03-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is commonly grown in Asia as an important nutritional dry grain legume, as it can survive better in arid conditions than other crops. Abiotic stresses, such as drought and high-salt contents, negatively impact its growth and production. The dehydration-responsive element-binding protein 2 (DREB2) transcription factors play a significant role in the response to these stress stimuli via transcriptional regulation of downstream genes containing the cis-element dehydration-responsive element (DRE). However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the drought tolerance of this species remain elusive, with very few reported candidate genes. No DREB2 ortholog has been reported for mung bean, and the function of mung bean DREB2 is not clear. In this study, a novel VrDREB2A gene with conserved AP2 domains and transactivation ability was isolated from mung bean. A modified VrDREB2A protein lacking the putative negative regulatory domain encoded by nucleotides 394-543 was shown to be localized in the nucleus. Expression of the VrDREB2A gene was induced by drought, high salt concentrations and abscisic acid treatment. Furthermore, comparing with the wild type Arabidopsis, the overexpression of VrDREB2A activated the expression of downstream genes in transgenic Arabidopsis, resulting in enhanced tolerance to drought and high-salt stresses and no growth retardation. The results from this study indicate that VrDREB2A functions as an important transcriptional activator and may help increase the abiotic stress tolerance of the mung bean plant.

  15. Differences in Monterey pine pest populations in urban and natural forests

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Joe R. McBride

    1992-01-01

    Monterey pines (Pinus radiata D. Don) planted along streets (i.e. street trees) within Carmel, California and its immediate vicinity, and naturally grown Monterey pine within adjacent native stands, were sampled with regard to intensity of visual stress characteristics, western dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium campylopodum f. typicum...

  16. Annual updating of plantation inventory estimates using hybrid models

    Treesearch

    Peter Snowdon

    2000-01-01

    Data for Pinus radiata D. Don grown in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) are used to show that annual indices of growth potential can be successfully incorporated into Schumacher projection models of stand basal area growth. Significant reductions in the error mean squares of the models can be obtained by including an annual growth index derived...

  17. Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2014-01-01

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster contains numerous phenolic compounds such as catechins, taxifolin, and phenolic acids. These compounds have received considerable attentions because of their anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic and high antioxidant activities. Although P. pinaster bark has been intensely investigated in the past; there is comparably less information available in the literature in regard to P. eldarica bark. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of P. eldarica commonly found in Iran. A reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and taxifolin in P. pinaster and P. eldarica was developed. A mixture of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova pack C18 at 280 nm. The two studied Pinus species contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Among four marker compounds, the main substances identified in P. pinaster and P. eldarica were taxifolin and catechin, respectively. Furthermore, the composition of the bark oil of P. eldarica obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Thirty-three compounds accounting for 95.1 % of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenoid fractions, especially α-pinene (24.6%), caryophyllene oxide (14.0%), δ-3-carene (10.7%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (7.9%), and myrtenal (3.1%). PMID:25657795

  18. The synergistic effect on production of lignin-modifying enzymes through submerged co-cultivation of Phlebia radiata, Dichomitus squalens and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora using agricultural residues.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ya-Chen; Wang, Wei; Hu, Zhong-Ce; Fu, Ming-Liang; Chen, Qi-He

    2012-06-01

    The lignin-modifying enzymes (LMEs) play an important role in decomposition of agricultural residues, which contain a certain amount of lignin. In this study, the production of LMEs by three co-cultivated combinations of Phlebia radiata, Dichomitus squalens and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and the respective monocultures was comparatively investigated. Laccase and manganese peroxidases (MnP) were significantly promoted in the co-culture of P. radiata and D. squalens, and corncob was verified to be beneficial for laccase and MnP production. Moreover, laccase production by co-culture of P. radiata and D. squalens with high ratio of glucose to nitrogen was higher than low ratio under carbon- and nitrogen-meager conditions. New laccase isoenzymes measured by Native-PAGE were stimulated by co-cultured P. radiata with D. squalens or C. subvermispora, respectively, growing in the defined medium containing corncob, but the expression of laccase was greatly restrained by the co-culturing of D. squalens with C. subvermispora. This study showed that the synergistic and depressing effects of co-cultivation of P. radiata, D. squalens and C. subvermispora on LMEs were species specific.

  19. Photochemical modulation of biosafe manganese nanoparticles on Vigna radiata: a detailed molecular, biochemical, and biophysical study.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Saheli; Patra, Prasun; Das, Sumistha; Chandra, Sourov; Mitra, Shouvik; Dey, Kushal Kumar; Akbar, Shirin; Palit, Pratip; Goswami, Arunava

    2013-11-19

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for plants which intervenes mainly in photosynthesis. In this study we establish that manganese nanoparticles (MnNP) work as a better micronutrient than commercially available manganese salt, MnSO4 (MS) at recommended doses on leguminous plant mung bean (Vigna radiata) under laboratory condition. At higher doses it does not impart toxicity to the plant unlike MS. MnNP-treated chloroplasts show greater photophosphorylation, oxygen evolution with respect to control and MS-treated chloroplasts as determined by biophysical and biochemical techniques. Water splitting by an oxygen evolving complex is enhanced by MnNP in isolated chloroplast as confirmed by polarographic and spectroscopic techniques. Enhanced activity of the CP43 protein of a photosystem II (PS II) Mn4Ca complex influenced better phosphorylation in the electron transport chain in the case of MnNP-treated chloroplast, which is evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and corresponding Western blot analysis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report to augment photosynthesis using MnNP and its detailed correlation with different molecular, biochemical and biophysical parameters of photosynthetic pathways. At effective dosage, MnNP is found to be biosafe both in plant and animal model systems. Therefore MnNP would be a novel potential nanomodulator of photochemistry in the agricultural sector.

  20. Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from the bulbs of Lycoris radiata with cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Ming; Huang, Xiao-Yun; Cui, Mao-Rong; Zhang, Xiao-De; Chen, Zhao; Yang, Ben-Shou; Zhao, Xiao-Kun

    2015-03-01

    Four new Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, (+)-1-hydroxy-ungeremine (1), (+)-6β-acetyl-8-hydroxy-9-methoxy-crinamine (2), (+)-2-hydroxy-8-demethyl-homolycorine-α-N-oxide (3), (+)-N-methoxylcarbonyl-2-demethyl-isocorydione (4), together with two known compounds, (+)-6β-acetyl-crinamine (5) and 8-demethyl-homolycorine-α-N-oxide (6) were isolated from the ethanol extract of the bulbs of Lycoris radiata. Structural elucidation of all the compounds were performed by spectral methods such as 1D and 2D ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) NMR spectroscopy, in addition to high resolution mass spectrometry. All the isolated alkaloids were in vitro evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against eight tumor cell lines (BEN-MEN-1, CCF-STTG1, CHG-5, SHG-44, U251, BGC-823, HepG2 and SK-OV-3) and anti-inflammatory activities against Cox-1 and Cox-2. As a result, alkaloids 1 and 4 exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against all tested tumor cell lines except against BEN-MEN-1. Additionally, alkaloids 1 and 4 possessed selective inhibition of Cox-2 comparable with the standard drug NS-398 (>90%).

  1. Cytotoxic and antimalarial amaryllidaceae alkaloids from the bulbs of Lycoris radiata.

    PubMed

    Hao, Bin; Shen, Shu-Fang; Zhao, Qing-Jie

    2013-02-25

    Phytochemical investigation of the 80% ethanol extract of the bulbs of Lycoris radiata resulted in the isolation of five new Amaryllidaceae alkaloids: (+)-5,6-dehydrolycorine (1), (+)-3α,6β-diacetyl-bulbispermine (2), (+)-3α-hydroxy-6β-acetyl- bulbispermine (3), (+)-8,9-methylenedioxylhomolycorine-N-oxide (5), and 5,6-dihydro-5- methyl-2-hydroxyphenanthridine (7), together with two known compounds, (+)-3α-methoxy- 6β-acetylbulbispermine (4) and (+)-homolycorine- N-oxide (6). Structural elucidation of all the compounds were performed by spectral methods such as 1D and 2D (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) NMR spectroscopy, in addition to high resolution mass spectrometry. Alkaloid 1 showed potent cytotoxicity against astrocytoma and glioma cell lines (CCF-STTG1, CHG-5, SHG-44, and U251), as well as HL-60, SMMC-7721, and W480 cell lines with IC(50) values of 9.4-11.6 μM. Additonally, compound 1 exhibited antimalarial activity with IC(50) values of 2.3 μM for D-6 strain and 1.9 μM for W-2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum.

  2. Connectivity of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata within and among estuaries and open coast.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Melinda A

    2013-01-01

    With marine protected areas being established worldwide there is a pressing need to understand how the physical setting in which these areas are placed influences patterns of dispersal and connectivity of important marine organisms. This is particularly critical for dynamic and complex nearshore marine environments where patterns of genetic structure of organisms are often chaotic and uncoupled from broad scale physical processes. This study determines the influence of habitat heterogeneity (presence of estuaries) on patterns of genetic structure and connectivity of the common kelp, Ecklonia radiata. There was no genetic differentiation of kelp between estuaries and the open coast and the presence of estuaries did not increase genetic differentiation among open coast populations. Similarly, there were no differences in level of inbreeding or genetic diversity between estuarine and open coast populations. The presence of large estuaries along rocky coastlines does not appear to influence genetic structure of this kelp and factors other than physical heterogeneity of habitat are likely more important determinants of regional connectivity. Marine reserves are currently lacking in this bioregion and may be designated in the future. Knowledge of the factors that influence important habitat forming organisms such as kelp contribute to informed and effective marine protected area design and conservation initiatives to maintain resilience of important marine habitats.

  3. The identification of starch phosphorylase in the developing mungbean (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Ko, Yuan-Tih; Chang, Jin-Yi; Lee, Ya-Ting; Wu, Yi-Hui

    2005-07-13

    Starch phosphorylase (SP) in immature mungbean (Vigna radiata L. cv KPS1) seed soluble extract was detected by in situ activity staining and identified by MALDI-TOF mass analysis. After in situ SP assay on native-PAGE, a major starch-enzyme complex was located on the gel zymogram in a dose-dependent manner. This complex depicted two major SP-activity related proteins, 105 kDa and 55 kDa, by SDS-PAGE. The mass and predicted sequence of the tryptic fragments of the isolated 105 kDa protein, analyzed by MALDI-TOF spectroscopy and bioinformatic analysis, confirmed it to be mungbean SP as a result of high similarity to the L-SP of known plant. Polyclonal antibodies raised from the 55 kDa recognized both the 105 kDa and the 55 kDa proteins on the Western blot and neutralized partial SP activity, indicating that the two proteins were immunologically related. The 55 kDa protein possess high similarity to the N-terminal half of the 105 kDa SP was further confirmed. The SP activity and the activity stained protein density in mungbean soluble extract decreased as the seed size increased during early seed growth. These data indicate that mungbean 105 kDa SP and SP activity-related 55 kDa were identified in the developing mungbean.

  4. Detection of proteins related to starch synthase activity in the developing mungbean (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Ko, Yuan-Tih; Pan, Chun-Hsu; Lee, Ya-Ting; Chang, Jin-Yi

    2005-06-15

    Proteins associated with starch synthase (SS) activities were identified in immature mungbeans (Vigna radiata L. cv KPS1). Seed soluble extract was separated by native-PAGE and subjected to in situ activity staining. The gel zymogram located starch-enzyme complex bands. The soluble extract was also partitioned by preparative-IEF and screened for SS activity using radioactive assay. IEF fractions eluted within pH 4-6 revealed enriched SS activity of 145-fold. Parallel comparison of the protein profiles among the activity stained enzyme complex and the active isoelectric focused fractions on SDS-PAGE depicted three SS-activity-related proteins with molecular size of 32, 53, and 85 kDa. The 85 kDa protein, however, was identified to be methionine synthase by MALDI-TOF analysis and should be a protein physically associated with the active SS. Polyclonal antibodies raised from eluted native enzyme complex neutralized up to 90% activity and antigenically recognize the other 53 and 32 kDa proteins on Western blot. Antibodies raised from the two individual denatured proteins were able to neutralize SS activities near 60% separately, indicating that the 53 kDa and 32 proteins associated with SS activity are potentially involved in starch biosynthesis during mungbean seed development.

  5. Case report of systemic coccidiosis in a radiated tortoise (Geochelone radiata).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Volker; Dyachenko, Viktor; Aupperle, Heike; Pees, Michael; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Daugschies, Arwid

    2008-02-01

    More than 30 species of coccidian parasites have been described in Chelonidae (tortoises and turtles). Eimeria spp. are apparently the most common coccidia in chelonians. Findings of Caryospora cheloniae, Isospora sp., and Mantonella sp. have also been published, but reports about systemic coccidiosis are rare. We describe a case of a coccidiosis diagnosed cytologically in a radiated tortoise (Geochelone radiata) which was captive-bred in Germany. Infection was systemic and involved the lymphoid system. Intracytoplasmatic stages of parasite development were identified cytologically, histologically, and ultrastructurally. The systemic coccidiosis was associated with variable degrees of inflammation in the different organs and contributed substantially to the cause of death in this tortoise. Fragments of coccidian 18S- and 28S-rRNA from the tortoise liver were sequenced; the 18S-rRNA sequence had the highest identity to intranuclear coccidia described previously in a travancore tortoise (Intestudo forstenii) and a leopard tortoise (Geochelone pardalis). The analysis of maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree showed relation to species of the order Sarcocystidae. The biology of these coccidia and the route of infection in this case remained unclear.

  6. Crystal structure of Vigna radiata cytokinin-specific binding protein in complex with zeatin.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Oliwia; Bujacz, Grzegorz D; Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Jelen, Filip; Otlewski, Jacek; Sikorski, Michal M; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2006-10-01

    The cytosolic fraction of Vigna radiata contains a 17-kD protein that binds plant hormones from the cytokinin group, such as zeatin. Using recombinant protein and isothermal titration calorimetry as well as fluorescence measurements coupled with ligand displacement, we have reexamined the K(d) values and show them to range from approximately 10(-6) M (for 4PU30) to 10(-4) M (for zeatin) for 1:1 stoichiometry complexes. In addition, we have crystallized this cytokinin-specific binding protein (Vr CSBP) in complex with zeatin and refined the structure to 1.2 A resolution. Structurally, Vr CSBP is similar to plant pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) proteins, despite low sequence identity (<20%). This unusual fold conservation reinforces the notion that classic PR-10 proteins have evolved to bind small-molecule ligands. The fold consists of an antiparallel beta-sheet wrapped around a C-terminal alpha-helix, with two short alpha-helices closing a cavity formed within the protein core. In each of the four independent CSBP molecules, there is a zeatin ligand located deep in the cavity with conserved conformation and protein-ligand interactions. In three cases, an additional zeatin molecule is found in variable orientation but with excellent definition in electron density, which plugs the entrance to the binding pocket, sealing the inner molecule from contact with bulk solvent.

  7. Antioxidant and Myocardial Preservation Activities of Natural Phytochemicals from Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seeds.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Chang, Jiawei; Xu, Yan; Cheng, Dan; Liu, Hongxin; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2016-06-08

    Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seeds (MBS) contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This study was aimed to isolate key bioactive components from MBS with antioxidant and myocardial preservation activities. A new flavonoid C-glycoside, isovitexin-6″-O-α-l-glucoside, and 14 known compounds were obtained. Their structures were identified by extensive 1D and 2D NMR and FT-ICR-MS spectroscopic analyses. The antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated. Compounds 1-5 and 7-10 displayed 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(•+)) scavenging activity, but only 5 and 7 exhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) scavenging activity. The myocardial preservation effect of 2, 3, and MBS were investigated by measuring the serum levels of LDH, CK, and AST as well as the tissue level of MDA and SOD. The results demonstrated that 2, 3, and MBS had a significant protective effect against ISO-induced myocardial ischemia. MBS can be regarded as a potential new source of antioxidants and myocardial preservation agents.

  8. Isolation and Partial Characterization of a Subtilisin Inhibitor from the Mung Bean (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Kapur, R; Tan-Wilson, A L; Wilson, K A

    1989-09-01

    The subtilisin inhibitor (MBSI-A) from the mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) seed has been purified to homogeneity. MBSI-A consists of a single polypeptide chain of 119 residues, with a high content of glutamic acid/glutamine, aspartic acid/asparagine, valine, threonine, and proline (19, 12, 10, 9, and 8 residue percent, respectively). MBSI-A is a potent inhibitor of subtilisin Carlsberg, but is inactive toward bovine trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin and the plant cysteinyl proteinase papain. The MBSI is located exclusively in the cytosol of the seed cotyledon cell, unlike the mung bean trypsin inhibitor (MBTI), which is located primarily in the protein bodies. Both MBSI and MBTI accumulate in the seed during the most active period of reserve protein accumulation, 12 to 18 days after flowering. During germination MBSI, like MBTI, is broken down beginning 2 to 3 days after seed imbibition. The disappearance of MBSI-A is accompanied by the transient appearance of a new inhibitor species, MBSI-D. The amino acid composition of MBSI-D suggests that it may be produced by the loss of approximately 20 amino acid residues from MBSI-A.

  9. Metabolomic analysis of the polyphenols in germinating mung beans (Vigna radiata) seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dongyan; Dong, Yinmao; Guo, Na; Li, Li; Ren, Hankun

    2014-06-01

    The mung bean (Vigna radiata) is a key food crop in much of Asia and contains plentiful biological activities to prevent human disease. Mung bean sprouts have more plentiful metabolites and activities after germination. The metabolite profile of polyphenols in the germination process was described using the methods of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and partial least squares discriminant analysis. Sprouts from different periods were clearly discriminated from each other. Eight flavonoids - vitexin, isovitexin, rutin, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, isoquercitrin, genistein, daidzein and isorhamnetin - and two phenolic acids - shikimic acid and caffeic acid - were thought to be chemical markers of the sprouts. The method of high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was established to quantitatively analyze the eight chemical markers of flavonoids, and provides good linearity, repeatability, intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy and recovery. The main metabolic and transformation pathways of the polyphenols in the germination process were discussed. The proposed method is sensitive, rapid and robust. Understanding the complete profile of polyphenol metabolites in the germination process may be useful for better utilizing mung beans sprouts as the raw materials of functional food, health products and cosmetics. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Vitellogenin and zona radiata proteins as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus).

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Begoña; Mori, Gabriele; Concejero, Miguel A; Merino, Rubén; Casini, Silvia; Fossi, María Cristina

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test a specific method for the detection of Vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona Radiata Proteins (Zrp) in plasma from peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) as specific biomarkers for the evaluation of the effects of endocrine disruptors. The method was assayed with different peregrine falcon individuals (including mature and immature birds of both sexes) from a Spanish population being studied in terms of their contamination with organochlorine compounds with endocrine disrupting properties. This study shows that mouse anti bird Vtg monoclonal antibody ND3C3 (Biosense) seems to be the most specific antibody in binding plasmatic lipoproteins in peregrine falcon when compared to other anti Vtg antibodies. Rabbit anti salmon Zrp polyclonal antibodies O146 (Biosense) show cross-reactivity with Zrp in the samples studied. These preliminary results confirm the applicability of both of these diagnostic tools assayed (induction of Vtg and Zrp) in detecting exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) in this species. The increase of Vtg and Zrp detected in male specimens suggest a potential hazard to EDCs in the peregrine falcon which represents a species still affected by organochlorine compounds, and in particular those with estrogenic activity.

  11. Partial alleviation of oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in Vigna radiata by polyamine treatment.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mandar; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen

    2017-08-01

    Environmental changes generate free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in abiotic stress in plants. This causes alterations in germination, morphology, growth and development ultimately leading to yield loss. Gamma irradiation was used to experimentally induce oxidative damage in an important pulse crop Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek or mung bean. Our research was aimed towards augmentation of oxidative stress tolerance through treatment with a group of aliphatic amines known as polyamines. We used sub-lethal doses of gamma irradiation to generate oxidative damage which was evaluated using Nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining, total antioxidant activity, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, proline content and lipid peroxidation. Changes in internal free polyamines and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of key rate-limiting S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) enzyme in polyamine biosynthetic pathway was studied using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We observed increased oxidative damage with higher irradiation dose which was partially alleviated by putrescine treatment. Internal levels of putrescine and spermidine increased with 1 mM (50 and 100 Gy) and 2 mM putrescine treatment. Expression of SAMDC also increased with putrescine treatment. This study shows that treatment with putrescine can partially alleviate oxidative damage caused by gamma rays.

  12. Connectivity of the Habitat-Forming Kelp, Ecklonia radiata within and among Estuaries and Open Coast

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    With marine protected areas being established worldwide there is a pressing need to understand how the physical setting in which these areas are placed influences patterns of dispersal and connectivity of important marine organisms. This is particularly critical for dynamic and complex nearshore marine environments where patterns of genetic structure of organisms are often chaotic and uncoupled from broad scale physical processes. This study determines the influence of habitat heterogeneity (presence of estuaries) on patterns of genetic structure and connectivity of the common kelp, Ecklonia radiata. There was no genetic differentiation of kelp between estuaries and the open coast and the presence of estuaries did not increase genetic differentiation among open coast populations. Similarly, there were no differences in level of inbreeding or genetic diversity between estuarine and open coast populations. The presence of large estuaries along rocky coastlines does not appear to influence genetic structure of this kelp and factors other than physical heterogeneity of habitat are likely more important determinants of regional connectivity. Marine reserves are currently lacking in this bioregion and may be designated in the future. Knowledge of the factors that influence important habitat forming organisms such as kelp contribute to informed and effective marine protected area design and conservation initiatives to maintain resilience of important marine habitats. PMID:23717648

  13. WholeTree Substrate and Fertilizer Rate in Production of Greenhouse Grown Petunia (Petunia*hybrida Vilm) and marigold (Tagetes patula L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A substrate component (WholeTree) made from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) was evaluated along with starter fertilizer rate in the production of greenhouse-grown petunia (Petunia 'hybrida Vilm. ‘Dreams Purple’) and marigold (Tagetes patula L. ‘Hero Spry’). Loblolly pine from a 12 year old plantation...

  14. Seasonal trends of light-saturated net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of loblolly pine trees grown in contrasting environments of nutrition, water and carbon dioxide

    Treesearch

    Ramesh Murthy; Stanley J. Zarnoch; P.M. Dougherty

    1997-01-01

    Repeated measures analysis was used to evaluate the effect of long-term CO2 enhancement on seasonal trends of light-saturated rates of net photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance to water vapour (gsat) of 9-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.; trees grown in a 2x2...

  15. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M.; Naugolnykh, Serge V.; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene. PMID:26548658

  16. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  17. Transcriptome characterisation of Pinus tabuliformis and evolution of genes in the Pinus phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis) is an indigenous conifer species in northern China but is relatively underdeveloped as a genomic resource; thus, limiting gene discovery and breeding. Large-scale transcriptome data were obtained using a next-generation sequencing platform to compensate for the lack of P. tabuliformis genomic information. Results The increasing amount of transcriptome data on Pinus provides an excellent resource for multi-gene phylogenetic analysis and studies on how conserved genes and functions are maintained in the face of species divergence. The first P. tabuliformis transcriptome from a normalised cDNA library of multiple tissues and individuals was sequenced in a full 454 GS-FLX run, producing 911,302 sequencing reads. The high quality overlapping expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were assembled into 46,584 putative transcripts, and more than 700 SSRs and 92,000 SNPs/InDels were characterised. Comparative analysis of the transcriptome of six conifer species yielded 191 orthologues, from which we inferred a phylogenetic tree, evolutionary patterns and calculated rates of gene diversion. We also identified 938 fast evolving sequences that may be useful for identifying genes that perhaps evolved in response to positive selection and might be responsible for speciation in the Pinus lineage. Conclusions A large collection of high-quality ESTs was obtained, de novo assembled and characterised, which represents a dramatic expansion of the current transcript catalogues of P. tabuliformis and which will gradually be applied in breeding programs of P. tabuliformis. Furthermore, these data will facilitate future studies of the comparative genomics of P. tabuliformis and other related species. PMID:23597112

  18. Effects of Pinus pinaster and Pinus koraiensis seed oil supplementation on lipoprotein metabolism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Asset, G; Staels, B; Wolff, R L; Baugé, E; Madj, Z; Fruchart, J C; Dallongeville, J

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of vegetal oils obtained from Pinus pinaster and P. koraiensis seeds on plasma lipoprotein levels and apolipoprotein (apo) gene expression in rats. These oils contain two particular fatty acids of the delta5-unsaturated polymethylene-interrupted fatty acid (delta5-UPIFA) family: all-cis-5,9,12-1 8:3 (pinolenic) and/or all-cis-5,11,14-20:3 (sciadonic) acids. Rats were fed for 28 d a diet containing 5% (w/w) oil supplement. Two control diets were prepared to match the fatty acid composition of P. pinaster or P. koraiensis oils with the exception of delta5-UPIFA, which were replaced by oleic acid. Pinus pinaster seed oil decreased serum triglycerides by 30% (P < 0.02), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglycerides by 40% (P < 0.01), and VLDL-cholesterol by 33% (P < 0.03). Pinus koraiensis seed oil decreased serum triglycerides by 16% [not statistically significant (ns)] and VLDL-triglycerides by 21% (ns). Gel permeation chromatography and nondenaturating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a tendency of high density lipoprotein to shift toward larger particles in pine seed oil-supplemented rats. Finally, P. pinaster seed oil treatment was associated with a small decrease of liver apoC-III (P < 0.02) but not in apoE, apoA-I, or apoA-II mRNA levels. The levels of circulating apo were not affected by pine seed oil supplementation. In conclusion, P. pinaster seed oil has a triglyceride-lowering effect in rats, an effect that is due to a reduction in circulating VLDL.

  19. Chlorophyll Synthesis in Dark-Grown Pine Primary Needles1

    PubMed Central

    Schoefs, Benoît; Franck, Fabrice

    1998-01-01

    The pigment content of dark-grown primary needles of Pinus jeffreyi L. and Pinus sylvestris L. was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The state of protochlorophyllide a and of chlorophylls during dark growth were analyzed by in situ 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy. Both measurements unambiguously demonstrated that pine primary needles are able to synthesize chlorophyll in the dark. Norflurazon strongly inhibited both carotenoid and chlorophyll synthesis. Needles of plants treated with this inhibitor had low chlorophyll content, contained only traces of xanthophylls, and accumulated carotenoid precursors. The first form of chlorophyll detected in young pine needles grown in darkness had an emission maximum at 678 nm. Chlorophyll-protein complexes with in situ spectroscopic properties similar to those of fully green needles (685, 695, and 735 nm) later accumulated in untreated plants, whereas in norflurazon-treated plants the photosystem I emission at 735 nm was completely lacking. To better characterize the light-dependent chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway in pine needles, the 77 K fluorescence properties of in situ protochlorophyllide a spectral forms were studied. Photoactive and nonphotoactive protochlorophyllide a forms with emission properties similar to those reported for dark-grown angiosperms were found, but excitation spectra were substantially red shifted. Because of their lower chlorophyll content, norflurazon-treated plants were used to study the protochlorophyllide a photoreduction process triggered by one light flash. The first stable chlorophyllide photoproduct was a chlorophyllide a form emitting at 688 nm as in angiosperms. Further chlorophyllide a shifts usually observed in angiosperms were not detected. The rapid regeneration of photoactive protochlorophyllide a from nonphotoactive protochlorophyllide after one flash was demonstrated. PMID:9847090

  20. Two differentially regulated phosphate transporters from the symbiotic fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum and phosphorus acquisition by ectomycorrhizal Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Tatry, Marie-Violaine; El Kassis, Elie; Lambilliotte, Raphaël; Corratgé, Claire; van Aarle, Ingrid; Amenc, Laurie K; Alary, Rémi; Zimmermann, Sabine; Sentenac, Hervé; Plassard, Claude

    2009-03-01

    Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis markedly improves plant phosphate uptake, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this benefit are still poorly understood. We identified two ESTs in a cDNA library prepared from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum with significant similarities to phosphate transporters from the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme and from non-mycorrhizal fungi. The full-length cDNAs corresponding to these two ESTs complemented a yeast phosphate transport mutant (Deltapho84). Measurements of (33)P-phosphate influx into yeast expressing either cDNA demonstrated that the encoded proteins, named HcPT1 and HcPT2, were able to mediate Pi:H(+) symport with different affinities for Pi (K(m) values of 55 and 4 mum, respectively). Real-time RT-PCR showed that Pi starvation increased the levels of HcPT1 transcripts in H. cylindrosporum hyphae grown in pure culture. Transcript levels of HcPT2 were less dependent on Pi availability. The two transporters were expressed in H. cylindrosporum associated with its natural host plant, Pinus pinaster, grown under low or high P conditions. The presence of ectomycorrhizae increased net Pi uptake rates into intact Pinus pinaster roots at low or high soil P levels. The expression patterns of HcPT1 and HcPT2 indicate that the two fungal phosphate transporters may be involved in uptake of phosphate from the soil solution under the two soil P availability conditions used.

  1. Incidence of invasive Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its introduced parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Jawwad A; Rogers, Michael E; Hall, David G; Stansly, Philip A

    2009-02-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of the devastating citrus disease "huanglongbing" or citrus greening. In the United States, D. citri was first discovered in Florida, in 1998. Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was imported from Asia and released in Florida in 1999-2001 to improve biological control of D. citri before citrus greening was detected in Florida in 2005. Florida citrus groves were surveyed during 2006-2007 for D. citri and T. radiata. Results showed that D. citri was established in all 28 citrus groves surveyed across 16 counties. Adult populations averaged 3.52, 1.27, and 1.66 individuals per "tap" sample at locations in the central, southwest, and eastern coastal regions, respectively. A tap sample consisted of 22- by 28-cm white paper sheet (on a clipboard) held under branches selected at random that were tapped three times. Averages of 67, 44, and 45% citrus shoots infested with psyllid eggs or nymphs were obtained in the central, southwest, and eastern coastal regions, respectively. T. radiata was recovered from fourth- and fifth-instar psyllid nymphs at 26 of the 28 locations. However, apparent parasitism rates were variable and averaged < 20% during spring and summer over all locations. Incidence of parasitism increased during fall at some locations, averaging 39% in September and 56% in November in the central and southwest regions, respectively. Further efforts are warranted to enhance the biological control of D. citri and thereby reduce psyllid populations and spread of citrus greening disease.

  2. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine. PMID:24438453

  3. Contents and digestibility of carbohydrates of mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) as affected by domestic processing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Kataria, A; Chauhan, B M

    1988-01-01

    Effects of common processing and cooking methods on sugar and starch contents and starch digestibility (in vitro) of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) were investigated. Soaking reduced the level of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and starch and improved starch digestibility, significantly. Cooking (both ordinary and pressure cooking) increased the concentrations of the sugars and digestibility of starch of soaked as well a unsoaked seeds. Starch contents, however, were decreased. Germination decreased starch thereby raising the level of the soluble sugars. Starch digestibility was increased appreciably.

  4. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Tang, Dongyan; Dong, Yinmao; Ren, Hankun; Li, Li; He, Congfen

    2014-01-17

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine.

  5. Gravitational stress on germinating Pinus pinea seeds.

    PubMed

    Ranaldi, Francesco; Giachetti, Eugenio; Guerin, Elizabeth; Bacci, Stefano; Paoletti, Elena; Boddi, Vieri; Vanni, Paolo

    2003-06-01

    In the germination of lipid-rich seeds, the glyoxylate cycle plays a control role in that, bypassing the two decarboxylative steps of the Krebs cycle; it allows the net synthesis of carbohydrates from lipids. The activity of isocitrate lyase, the key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle, is an indicator of the state of seed germination: stage of germination, growth of embryo, activation and progress of protein synthesis, depletion of lipidic supplies. In order to investigate the effects of gravity on seed germination, we carried out a study on the time pattern of germination of Pinus pinea seeds that were subjected to a hypergravitational stress (1000 g for 64 h at 4 degrees C), either in a dry or in a wet environment, before to be placed in germination plates. During the whole time of germination, we monitored the state of embryo growth and the most representative enzymes of the main metabolic pathways. In treated wet seeds, we observed an average germination of only 20% with a slowdown of the enzyme activities assayed and a noticeable degradation of lipidic reserves with respect to the controls. These differences in germination are not found for dry seeds.

  6. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 microW cm(-2); 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at > or =2 h), and radicle and plumule growths (> or =1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  7. Influence of distillery effluent on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kannan, A; Upreti, Raj K

    2008-05-01

    Distillery effluent or spent wash discharged as waste water contains various toxic chemicals that can contaminate water and soil and may affect the common crops if used for agricultural irrigation. Toxic nature of distillery effluent is due to the presence of high amounts of organic and inorganic chemical loads and its high-acidic pH. Experimental effects of untreated (Raw) distillery effluent, discharged from a distillery unit (based on fermentation of alcohol from sugarcane molasses), and the post-treatment effluent from the outlet of conventional anaerobic treatment plant (Treated effluent) of the distillery unit were studied in mung bean (Vigna radiata, L.R. Wilczek). Mung bean is a commonly used legume crop in India and its neighboring countries. Mung bean seeds were presoaked for 6h and 30 h, respectively, in different concentrations (5-20%, v/v) of each effluent and germination, growth characters, and seedling membrane enzymes and constituents were investigated. Results revealed that the leaching of carbohydrates and proteins (solute efflux) were much higher in case of untreated effluent and were also dependent to the presoaking time. Other germination characters including percentage of germination, speed of germination index, vigor index and length of root and embryonic axis revealed significant concentration-dependent decline in untreated effluent. Evaluation of seedlings membrane transport enzymes and structural constituents (hexose, sialic acid and phospholipids) following 6 h presoaking of seeds revealed concentration-dependent decline, which were much less in treated effluent as compared to the untreated effluent. Treated effluent up to 10% (v/v) concentration reflected low-observed adverse effect levels.

  8. Effect of mercury on seedling growth, nodulation and ultrastructural deformation of Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Naba Kumar; Das, Chittaranjan; Datta, Jayanta Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metals are major environmental pollutant when they present in high concentration in soil and have toxic effects on growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of legumes and development of plants. Mercury stress triggers disturbances in cellular structure, and metabolismn is poorly understood. The response of seedling growth and nodulation of Vigna radiata (L) Wilczek to different concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 ppm) of mercury (Hg) salt solutions were studied. Morphological parameters like root and shoot length, dry weight, nodule number, total leaf area and biochemical constituents (chlorophyll, malondialdehyde and leghaemoglobin) of bean plants were recorded at an interval of 30 days. The successive growth deformaties in seedlings and nodules were recorded at lower concentration (0.1 ppm), but marginal (0.5 ppm) and higher (1.0 ppm) level of Hg salt solution showed significant suppression. The maximum level of Hg concentration (1.5 ppm) shows high level of tolerance index without any nodule. The control treatment shows maximum level of leghaemoglobin (0.219 mM) and all other morpho-physiological and bio-chemical properties of roots and shoots excepting tolerance index (0.00) and chlorophyll 'a' (7.52 mg g(-1) FW). Mercury accumulation pattern follows the sequences: leaf > nodule > root ≈ shoot at lower level of Hg (0.1 and 0.5 ppm). However, higher level of Hg (1.0 and 1.5 ppm) showed shoot > root > leaf > nodule. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of root also highlights the deleterious effect of Hg salt at higher concentration.

  9. Effects of biochar on enhanced nutrient use efficiency of green bean, Vigna radiata L.

    PubMed

    Prapagdee, Songkrit; Tawinteung, Nukoon

    2017-04-01

    Biochar is the carbonized material produced from biomass and is used in several environmental applications. The biochar characteristics depend on the carbonization conditions and feedstock. The suitability of a given biochar for soil improvement depends on the biochar characteristics, soil properties, and target plants. Biochar has been applied at 1-20% (w/w) in the soil, but currently there is a lack of information on what type and concentration of biochar are most suitable for a specific plant and soil quality. Too much biochar will reduce plant growth because of the high alkalinity of biochar, which will cause long-term soil alkalinity. In contrast, too little biochar might be insufficient to enhance plant productivity. In this study, a suitable concentration of cassava stem (an abundant agricultural waste in Thailand) biochar produced at 350 °C was evaluated for green bean (Vigna radiata L.) growth from germination to seed production in pots over 8 weeks. The soil fertility was increased with increasing biochar concentration. At 5% (w/w) biochar, the soil fertility and plant growth were significantly enhanced, while 10% (w/w) biochar significantly enhanced bean growth and bean pod production. The increased biochar concentration in the soil significantly increased the soil total nitrogen and extractable potassium (K) levels but did not affect the amount of available phosphorous. Biochar at 10% (w/w) significantly induced the accumulation of K in the stems, leaves, nut shells, and roots but not in nut seeds. Moreover, biochar not only increased the K concentration in soil but also increased the plant nutrient use efficiency of K, which is important for plant growth. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  10. Superoxide and its metabolism during germination and axis growth of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seeds

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Khangembam Lenin; Chaudhuri, Abira; Kar, Rup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Involvement of reactive oxygen species in regulation of plant growth and development is recently being demonstrated with various results depending on the experimental system and plant species. Role of superoxide and its metabolism in germination and axis growth was investigated in case of Vigna radiata seeds, a non-endospermous leguminous species having epigeal germination, by studying the effect of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, distribution of O2•ˉ and H2O2 and ROS enzyme profile in axes. Germination percentage and axis growth were determined under treatment with ROS inhibitors and scavengers. Localization of O2•ˉ and H2O2 was done using nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethyl benzidine dihydrochloride hydrate (TMB), respectively. Apoplastic level of O2•ˉ was monitored by spectrophotometric analysis of bathing medium of axes. Profiles of NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied by in-gel assay. Germination was retarded by treatments affecting ROS level except H2O2 scavengers, while axis growth was retarded by all. Superoxide synthesis inhibitor and scavenger prevented H2O2 accumulation in axes in later phase as revealed from TMB staining. Activity of Cu/Zn SOD1 was initially high and declined thereafter. Superoxide being produced in apoplast possibly by NADPH oxidase activity is further metabolized to •OH via H2O2. Germination process depends possibly on •OH production in the axes. Post-germinative axis growth requires O2•ˉ while the differentiating zone of axis (radicle) requires H2O2 for cell wall stiffening. PMID:25763616

  11. Localization of orofacial representation in the corona radiata, internal capsule and cerebral peduncle in Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Morecraft, R J; Binneboese, A; Stilwell-Morecraft, K S; Ge, J

    2017-11-01

    Subcortical white matter injury is often accompanied by orofacial motor dysfunction, but little is known about the structural substrates accounting for these common neurological deficits. We studied the trajectory of the corticobulbar projection from the orofacial region of the primary (M1), ventrolateral (LPMCv), supplementary (M2), rostral cingulate (M3) and caudal cingulate (M4) motor regions through the corona radiata (CR), internal capsule (IC) and crus cerebri of the cerebral peduncle (ccCP). In the CR each pathway was segregated. Medial motor area fibers (M2/M3/M4) arched over the caudate and lateral motor area fibers (M1/LPMCv) curved over the putamen. At superior IC levels, the pathways were widespread, involving the anterior limb, genu and posterior limb with the M3 projection located anteriorly, followed posteriorly by projections from M2, LPMCv, M4 and M1, respectively. Inferiorly, all pathways maintained this orientation but shifted posteriorly, with adjacent fiber bundles overlapping minimally. In the ccCP, M3 fibers were located medially and M1 fibers centromedially, with M2, LPMCv, and M4 pathways overlapping in between. Finally, at inferior ccCP levels, all pathways overlapped. Following CR and superior IC lesions, the dispersed pathway distribution may correlate with acute orofacial dysfunction with spared pathways contributing to orofacial motor recovery. In contrast, the gradually commixed nature of pathway representation inferiorly may enhance fiber vulnerability and correlate with severe, prolonged deficits following lower subcortical and midbrain injury. Additionally, in humans these findings may assist in interpreting orofacial movements evoked during deep brain stimulation, and neuroimaging tractography efforts to localize descending orofacial motor pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Characterization of microsatellites and gene contents from genome shotgun sequences of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mungbean is an important economical crop in Asia. However, genomic research has lagged behind other crop species due to the lack of polymorphic DNA markers found in this crop. The objective of this work is to develop and characterize microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from genome shotgun sequencing of mungbean. Result We have generated and characterized a total of 470,024 genome shotgun sequences covering 100.5 Mb of the mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) genome using 454 sequencing technology. We identified 1,493 SSR motifs that could be used as potential molecular markers. Among 192 tested primer pairs in 17 mungbean accessions, 60 loci revealed polymorphism with polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranging from 0.0555 to 0.6907 with an average of 0.2594. Majority of microsatellite markers were transferable in Vigna species, whereas transferability rates were only 22.90% and 24.43% in Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max, respectively. We also used 16 SSR loci to evaluate phylogenetic relationship of 35 genotypes of the Asian Vigna group. The genome survey sequences were further analyzed to search for gene content. The evidence suggested 1,542 gene fragments have been sequence tagged, that fell within intersected existing gene models and shared sequence homology with other proteins in the database. Furthermore, potential microRNAs that could regulate developmental stages and environmental responses were discovered from this dataset. Conclusion In this report, we provided evidence of generating remarkable levels of diverse microsatellite markers and gene content from high throughput genome shotgun sequencing of the mungbean genomic DNA. The markers could be used in germplasm analysis, accessing genetic diversity and linkage mapping of mungbean. PMID:19930676

  13. Superoxide and its metabolism during germination and axis growth of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seeds.

    PubMed

    Singh, Khangembam Lenin; Chaudhuri, Abira; Kar, Rup Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Involvement of reactive oxygen species in regulation of plant growth and development is recently being demonstrated with various results depending on the experimental system and plant species. Role of superoxide and its metabolism in germination and axis growth was investigated in case of Vigna radiata seeds, a non-endospermous leguminous species having epigeal germination, by studying the effect of different reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitors, distribution of O2(•)- and H2O2 and ROS enzyme profile in axes. Germination percentage and axis growth were determined under treatment with ROS inhibitors and scavengers. Localization of O2(•)- and H2O2 was done using nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl benzidine dihydrochloride hydrate (TMB), respectively. Apoplastic level of O2(•)- was monitored by spectrophotometric analysis of bathing medium of axes. Profiles of NADPH oxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were studied by in-gel assay. Germination was retarded by treatments affecting ROS level except H2O2 scavengers, while axis growth was retarded by all. Superoxide synthesis inhibitor and scavenger prevented H2O2 accumulation in axes in later phase as revealed from TMB staining. Activity of Cu/Zn SOD1 was initially high and declined thereafter. Superoxide being produced in apoplast possibly by NADPH oxidase activity is further metabolized to (•)OH via H2O2. Germination process depends possibly on (•)OH production in the axes. Post-germinative axis growth requires O2(•)- while the differentiating zone of axis (radicle) requires H2O2 for cell wall stiffening.

  14. Regeneration in a mixed stand of native Pinus canariensis and introduced Pinus pinea species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo, José Ramón; Naranjo-Cigala, Agustín; Pascual, Marcos Salas

    2005-09-01

    The main objective of our study is to determine whether regeneration of Pinus pinea (an exotic species) is spreading within a Pinus canariensis (native species) stand. The study area is located in the Natural Park of Tamadaba, 1400 m asl., in the NW of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands). Stems and regeneration of P. canariensis and P. pinea were mapped in five randomly selected plots where both species were planted together around 45 years ago. Densities and basal areas of both species were also recorded. P. canariensis demonstrated a greater ability to disperse than P. pinea. The two species showed different spatial patterns, with P. pinea tending toward a more aggregate spatial distribution of individuals than P. canariensis. Bivariate spatial relationships showed no difference from a random spatial distribution, indicating the lack of any pattern of aggregation or rejection between the species. These results indicated that P. pinea has not spread because it is less able to disperse (strongly barochorus) than P. canariensis (barochorus and anemochorus). Given that the future ability of P. pinea to disperse cannot be predicted, eradication of this species, together with additional plantings of P. canariensis in open areas, is proposed to restore the P. canariensis stand.

  15. Morphological and physiological damage by surfactant-polluted seaspray on Pinus pinea and Pinus halepensis.

    PubMed

    Nicolotti, Giovanni; Rettori, Andrea; Paoletti, Elena; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2005-06-01

    This paper reports morphological and physiological damage caused by polluted seaspray to coastal pine forests in Liguria (Northern Italy) and suggests the most reliable parameters for surfactant-pollution biomonitoring. Concentrations of surfactants in surface seawater, seaspray, and that deposited on Pinus halepensis and Pinus pinea needles were determined in samples from five sites. Decline of the pines in the Western part of Liguria was greater than in the East, and was associated with higher surfactant levels deposited on the crowns. Chloride content of needles was higher in damaged pines, even if it did not reach toxic levels. Stomata micromorphologies did not differ between species in the crown parts facing the sea, while differences were significant in the back crown parts that were not directly exposed to polluted sea breezes. Water content and noon water potential indicated interference in water relations of damaged trees. In conclusion, none of the investigated parameters was by itself a comprehensive index of surfactant damage. A simultaneous survey of several parameters is suggested to investigate the impact of surfactants on coastal vegetation. The most useful parameters were: directionality of crown damage, surfactant depositions on the needles, chloride accumulation in the needles, structural injury to epistomatal chambers, needle water content and potential.

  16. Postfire regeneration in Pinus pinea L. and Pinus pinaster aiton in Andalucia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Gallegos Pérula, Virginia; Navarro Cerrillo, Rafael M; Fernández Rebolloo, Pilar; Valle Murillo, Gemadel

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine postfire regeneration of tree, shrub, and dwarf shrub species, in relation to levels of damage in four planted pine forests (Pinus pinea, Pinus pinaster) in Andalusia. A prefire vegetation map was used for detailing species composition, vertical structure, and density and another for detailing the extent and intensity of fire damage. Between 3 and 7 years after the fires, an inventory was made of the vegetation in each area, using the step-point method. The information thus obtained was used to determine the amount of cover in the dwarf/shrub and tree layers, the frequency of species in each of the layers, floristic richness, and diversity (Shannon index). The botanical composition of the dwarf and shrub layer was analyzed using TWINSPAN. Variables were poorly correlated with level of fire damage, which suggests that the forests in this study followed the autosuccession model. Because of the artificial origin or seminatural condition, regeneration of the dominant tree species is poor, and it seems unlikely that forests will recover to their prefire state. Therefore action is recommended to restore these ecosystems.

  17. Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Piccardo, Maria Teresa; Pala, Mauro; Bonaccurso, Bruna; Stella, Anna; Redaelli, Anna; Paola, Gaudenzio; Valerio, Federico

    2005-01-01

    Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in pine needles of different ages (from 6 to 30 months) collected from two species, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of Genoa (Italy). In all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene) were higher than those for other less volatile PAHs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[a]pyrene). Concentrations of total PAHs found in P. nigra in the rural sites were, on the average, 2.3 times higher than those in P. pinaster growing nearby. In both pine species, concentrations of volatile PAHs increased according to needle age. Annual trends of other PAHs were more variable, with a general decrease in older needles. P. pinaster needles are shown to be more reliable passive samplers, since they are more resistant to plant diseases, and considerable variation in PAH concentration was observed in P. nigra needles with moulds and fungi.

  18. Differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, on Pinus palustris and Pinus taeda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedenberg, N.A.; Whited, B.M.; Slone, D.H.; Martinson, S.J.; Ayres, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of host use by herbivore pests can have serious consequences for natural and managed ecosystems but are often poorly understood. Here, we provide the first quantification of large differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and longleaf pine, Pinus palustris P. Mill., and evaluate putative mechanisms for the disparity. Spatially extensive survey data from recent epidemics indicate that, per square kilometre, stands of loblolly versus longleaf pine in four forests (380-1273 km2) sustained 3-18 times more local infestations and 3-116 times more tree mortality. Differences were not attributable to size or age structure of pine stands. Using pheromone-baited traps, we found no differences in the abundance of dispersing D. frontalis or its predator Thanasimus dubius Fabricius between loblolly and longleaf stands. Trapping triggered numerous attacks on trees, but the pine species did not differ in the probability of attack initiation or in the surface area of bark attacked by growing aggregations. We found no evidence for postaggregation mechanisms of discrimination or differential success on the two hosts, suggesting that early colonizers discriminate between host species before a pheromone plume is present. ?? 2007 NRC.

  19. Nontarget effects of chemical pesticides and biological pesticide on rhizospheric microbial community structure and function in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Kumari, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-08-01

    Intensive agriculture has resulted in an indiscriminate use of pesticides, which demands in-depth analysis of their impact on indigenous rhizospheric microbial community structure and function. Hence, the objective of the present work was to study the impact of two chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and one biological pesticide (azadirachtin) at two dosages on the microbial community structure using cultivation-dependent approach and on rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycle in Vigna radiata rhizosphere through cultivation-independent technique of real-time PCR. Cultivation-dependent study highlighted the adverse effects of both chemical pesticide and biopesticide on rhizospheric bacterial and fungal communities at different plant growth stages. Also, an adverse effect on number of genes and transcripts of nifH (nitrogen fixation); amoA (nitrification); and narG, nirK, and nirS (denitrification) was observed. The results from the present study highlighted two points, firstly that nontarget effects of pesticides are significantly detrimental to soil microflora, and despite being of biological origin, azadirachtin exerted negative impact on rhizospheric microbial community of V. radiata behaving similar to chemical pesticides. Hence, such nontarget effects of chemical pesticide and biopesticide in plants' rhizosphere, which bring out the larger picture in terms of their ecotoxicological effect, demand a proper risk assessment before application of pesticides as agricultural amendments.

  20. [Production suitability regionalization study of Pinus massoniana].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhao, Man-Xi; Wang, Hui; Yang, Guang; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Lu, You-Yuan; Ye, Liang; Ke, Xiao; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2016-09-01

    The distribution, yield and sample information data of Pinus massoniana was obtained by document literature and sample investigation. Based on sample data from 12 provinces including 414 sample plots and environment factors in China,the distribution regionalization of P. massoniana was predicted by using Maxent and spatial analysis function of ArcGIS. The results showed that the northernmost distribution of P. massoniana was 33.5 degrees north latitude, and it mainly distributed in the southeast in China. Based on plant age, plant height, yield per plant and other growth index from 414 sample plots, combined vegetation form and other data, the growth regionalization of P. massoniana was carried out by using SPSS and related functions of ArcGIS. The results showed that Fujian, Guizhou and Guangxi had a lager distribution area of P. massoniana, meanwhile, it had a relatively higher yield of fresh pine needles. The relational model between environmental factors and shikimic acid,and procyanidin, and the total lignans was constructed by using SPSS regression analysis method. Then the spatial calculation function of ArcGIS was used tocarry out the quality regionalization of P. massoniana based on the relational model. The results showed that east of Sichuan, Guizhou, Chongqing had a good pine needles quality. Based on the distribution, growth and quality regionalization, the production suitability regionalization of P. massoniana was carried out. The results showed that the optimal planting base region mainly distributed in east of Sichuan, middle and east of Guizhou, and east of Guangxi. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Seasonal variation in gene expression for loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) from different geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Suk-Hwan; Loopstra, Carol A

    2005-08-01

    In developing xylem, gene expression levels vary in different genotypes, at different stages of development, throughout a growing season, and in response to stresses. Commercially important characteristics such as wood-specific gravity are known to differ with seed source. For example, when grown on a common site, the specific gravity of Arkansas loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees is greater than that of Louisiana loblolly pine, and Texas loblolly pines have a greater specific gravity than loblolly pines from the Atlantic coast. A microarray analysis was performed to examine variation in gene expression among trees from different geographical sources when grown on a common site, and seasonal variation in gene expression in each seed source. We used microarrays containing 2171 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with putative functions of interest, selected from several loblolly pine xylem partial cDNA libraries and a shoot tip library. Genes with significant variation in expression for each factor were identified. Many genes preferentially expressed in latewood compared with earlywood were for proteins involved in cell wall biosynthesis. Variation in gene expression among trees from the two seed sources in each growing season suggests that there may be more differences between South Arkansas trees and South Louisiana trees in latewood than in earlywood. Variation in gene expression among trees from different regions may reflect adaptation to different environments.

  2. Reference karyotype and cytomolecular map for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Treesearch

    M. Nurul Islam-faridi; C. Dana Nelson; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    2007-01-01

    A reference karyotype is presented for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L., subgenus Pinus , section Pinus, subsection Australes), based on fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), using 18s-28s rDNA, 5s rDNA, and Arabidopsis-type telomere repeat sequence (A-type TRS). Well...

  3. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E.; Revill, Andrew T.; Hurd, Catriona L.; Johnson, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world’s oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata. PMID:27229624

  4. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata.

    PubMed

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E; Revill, Andrew T; Hurd, Catriona L; Johnson, Craig R

    2016-05-27

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world's oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata.

  5. Analysis of disconnected diallel mating designs II: results from a third generation progeny test of the New Zealand radiata pine improvement programme.

    Treesearch

    J.N. King; M.J. Carson; G.R. Johnson

    1998-01-01

    Genetic parameters from a second generation (F2) disconnected diallel progeny test of the New Zealand radiata pine improvement programme are presented. Heritability estimates of growth and yield traits of 0.2 are similar to progeny test results of the previous generation (F1) generation tests. A trend of declining dominance...

  6. Biological control of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) in Florida by the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata in urban plantings of orange jasmine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Asian citrus psyllid is an important invasive citrus pest in the United States because it vectors a bacterium responsible for a devastating disease of citrus known as huanglongbing. A parasitoid of the psyllid, Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), was imported from Southeast Asia and re...

  7. Survival of adult Tamarixia radiata subjected to different short-term storage methods prior to field releases for biological control of Asian citrus psyllid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tamarixia radiata is regarded as one of the Asian citrus psyllid’s most important natural enemies and is thus currently being mass-reared and released by a number of laboratories in North America. It may not always be possible to immediately release newly-emerged adults, in which case it would be a...

  8. Reducing airborne ectomycorrhizal fungi and growing non-mycorrhizal loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings in a greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Stottlemyer, Aaron D; Wang, G Geoff; Wells, Christina E; Stottlemyer, David W; Waldrop, Thomas A

    2008-07-01

    Atmospheric spores of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are a potential source of contamination when mycorrhizal studies are performed in the greenhouse, and techniques for minimizing such contamination have rarely been tested. We grew loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) from seed in a greenhouse and inside a high-efficiency particulate air-filtered chamber (HFC) constructed within the same greenhouse. Seedlings were germinated in seven different sand- or soil-based and artificially based growth media. Seedlings grown in the HFC had fewer mycorrhizal short roots than those grown in the open greenhouse atmosphere. Furthermore, the proportion of seedlings from the HFC that were completely non-mycorrhizal was higher than that of seedlings from the greenhouse atmosphere. Seedlings grown in sterilized, artificially based growth media (>50% peat moss, vermiculite, and/or perlite by volume) had fewer mycorrhizal short roots than those grown in sand- or soil-based media. The HFC described here can minimize undesirable ECM colonization of host seedlings in greenhouse bioassays. In addition, the number of non-mycorrhizal seedlings can be maximized when the HFC is used in combination with artificially based growth media.

  9. [Lactate as competitive inhibitor of Pinus pinea isocitrate lyase].

    PubMed

    Ranaldi, F; Iacoviello, C; Vanni, P

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effect of L-lactate on both the cleavage and the condensation reactions of Pinus pinea isocitrate lyase. This compound is a competitive of Pinus pinea isocitrate lyase towards both isocitrate and glyoxylate, whereas is a mixed type inhibitor towards succinate. Assuming that L-lactate acts as a glyoxylate analogue, our finding agrees with an uni-bi ordered mechanism of isocitrate lyase, with glyoxylate first substrate to enter the active site in the condensation reaction. Results are discussed and compared with those known in the literature about other structurally related metabolites.

  10. [Storage proteins from seeds of Pinus pinea L].

    PubMed

    Nasri, Nizar; Triki, Saïda

    2007-05-01

    The Mediterranean stone pine Pinus pinea L. (gymnosperm, Pinaceae) is much appreciated for its seed production, widely used in food preparation in the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds contain 25% proteins on a dry-weight basis. Pinus pinea accumulate globulins as major storage proteins in seeds (75% of total storage proteins), composed of several subunits of 10 to 150 kDa, revealed by SDS-PAGE. The albumin fraction (15%) represents three subunits of 14, 24 and 46 kDa. Glutelins, the least soluble fraction, represents a small proportion (10%). Their constitutive units have frequent PM of 43 kDa. Prolamins also represent a very small percentage (1 to 2%).

  11. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside: A Morphological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Danusevičius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas; Petrokas, Raimundas; Christensen, Knud Ib

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija. PMID:22619615

  12. Spontaneous hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian seaside: a morphological survey.

    PubMed

    Danusevičius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas; Petrokas, Raimundas; Christensen, Knud Ib

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija.

  13. Graphic Grown Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  14. Graphic Grown Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  15. Hydraulic architecture and tracheid allometry in mature Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii trees.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Benecke, C A; Martin, T A; Peter, G F

    2010-03-01

    Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine, LL) and Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii (slash pine, SL) frequently co-occur in lower coastal plain flatwoods of the USA, with LL typically inhabiting slightly higher and better-drained microsites than SL. The hydraulic architecture and tracheid dimensions of roots, trunk and branches of mature LL and SL trees were compared to understand their role in species microsite occupation. Root xylem had higher sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) and was less resistant to cavitation compared with branches and trunk sapwood. Root k(s) of LL was significantly higher than SL, whereas branch and trunk k(s) did not differ between species. No differences in vulnerability to cavitation were observed in any of the organs between species. Across all organs, there was a significant but weak trade-off between water conduction efficiency and safety. Tracheid hydraulic diameter (D(h)) was strongly correlated with k(s) across all organs, explaining >73% of the variation in k(s). In contrast, tracheid length (L(t)) explained only 2.4% of the variability. Nevertheless, for trunk xylem, k(s) was 39.5% higher at 20 m compared with 1.8 m; this increase in k(s) was uncorrelated with D(h) and cell-wall thickness but was strongly correlated with the difference in L(t). Tracheid allometry markedly changed between sapwood of roots, trunks and branches, possibly reflecting different mechanical constraints. Even though vulnerability to cavitation was not different for sapwood of roots, branches or the trunks of LL and SL, higher sapwood to leaf area ratio and higher maximum sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity in roots of LL are functional traits that may provide LL with a competitive advantage on drier soil microsites.

  16. Annual Cambial Rhythm in Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris as Indicator for Climate Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Prislan, Peter; Gričar, Jožica; de Luis, Martin; Novak, Klemen; Martinez Del Castillo, Edurne; Schmitt, Uwe; Koch, Gerald; Štrus, Jasna; Mrak, Polona; Žnidarič, Magda T; Čufar, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    To understand better the adaptation strategies of intra-annual radial growth in Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris to local environmental conditions, we examined the seasonal rhythm of cambial activity and cell differentiation at tissue and cellular levels. Two contrasting sites differing in temperature and amount of precipitation were selected for each species, one typical for their growth and the other represented border climatic conditions, where the two species coexisted. Mature P. halepensis trees from Mediterranean (Spain) and sub-Mediterranean (Slovenia) sites, and P. sylvestris from sub-Mediterranean (Slovenia) and temperate (Slovenia) sites were selected. Repeated sampling was performed throughout the year and samples were prepared for examination with light and transmission electron microscopes. We hypothesized that cambial rhythm in trees growing at the sub-Mediterranean site where the two species co-exist will be similar as at typical sites for their growth. Cambium in P. halepensis at the Mediterranean site was active throughout the year and was never truly dormant, whereas at the sub-Mediterranean site it appeared to be dormant during the winter months. In contrast, cambium in P. sylvestris was clearly dormant at both sub-Mediterranean and temperate sites, although the dormant period seemed to be significantly longer at the temperate site. Thus, the hypothesis was only partly confirmed. Different cambial and cell differentiation rhythms of the two species at the site where both species co-exist and typical sites for their growth indicate their high but different adaptation strategies in terms of adjustment of radial growth to environmental heterogeneity, crucial for long-term tree performance and survival.

  17. Annual Cambial Rhythm in Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris as Indicator for Climate Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Prislan, Peter; Gričar, Jožica; de Luis, Martin; Novak, Klemen; Martinez del Castillo, Edurne; Schmitt, Uwe; Koch, Gerald; Štrus, Jasna; Mrak, Polona; Žnidarič, Magda T.; Čufar, Katarina.

    2016-01-01

    To understand better the adaptation strategies of intra-annual radial growth in Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris to local environmental conditions, we examined the seasonal rhythm of cambial activity and cell differentiation at tissue and cellular levels. Two contrasting sites differing in temperature and amount of precipitation were selected for each species, one typical for their growth and the other represented border climatic conditions, where the two species coexisted. Mature P. halepensis trees from Mediterranean (Spain) and sub-Mediterranean (Slovenia) sites, and P. sylvestris from sub-Mediterranean (Slovenia) and temperate (Slovenia) sites were selected. Repeated sampling was performed throughout the year and samples were prepared for examination with light and transmission electron microscopes. We hypothesized that cambial rhythm in trees growing at the sub-Mediterranean site where the two species co-exist will be similar as at typical sites for their growth. Cambium in P. halepensis at the Mediterranean site was active throughout the year and was never truly dormant, whereas at the sub-Mediterranean site it appeared to be dormant during the winter months. In contrast, cambium in P. sylvestris was clearly dormant at both sub-Mediterranean and temperate sites, although the dormant period seemed to be significantly longer at the temperate site. Thus, the hypothesis was only partly confirmed. Different cambial and cell differentiation rhythms of the two species at the site where both species co-exist and typical sites for their growth indicate their high but different adaptation strategies in terms of adjustment of radial growth to environmental heterogeneity, crucial for long-term tree performance and survival. PMID:28082994

  18. The effects of humic substances on Pinus callus are reversed by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Muscolo, Adele; Panuccio, Maria Rosaria; Sidari, Maria; Nardi, Serenella

    2005-03-01

    The reversal of humic matter-induced inhibition of callus growth and metabolism by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was studied in Pinus laricio. Two forest humic fractions (relative molecular mass (Mr) > 3500), derived from soil under Fagus sylvatica (Fs) and Abies alba (Aa) plantation, were used. Pinus laricio callus was grown for a subculture period (4 weeks) on Basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium plus forest humic matters (Fs or Aa), at a concentration of 1 mg C/l, and then was transferred, for an additional four weeks, to a MS medium culture without humic matter, but with different hormones: indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, 2 mg/l) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 0.5 mg/l) and/or 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, 0.25 mg/l). Growth of calluse, glucose, fructose, and sucrose contents, and activities of soluble and bound invertases, glucokinase, phosphoglucose isomerase, aldolase, and pyruvate kinase were monitored. The results show a negative effect of humic fractions on callus growth, due to decreased utilization of glucose and fructose, and decreased activities of glycolytic enzymes. The effects are reversible. Substitution of humic fractions with 2,4-D+BAP or 2,4-D is followed by an increase of glycolytic enzyme activities and, consequently, by the utilization of glucose and fructose that induces a restart of growth. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of humic fractions persist when they are substituted with BAP alone, indicating that only the auxin 2,4-D is capable of reversing the negative effects. A possible competitive action on the auxin-binding site between 2,4-D and the chemical structures in the forest humic fractions is suggested.

  19. Nutrient use and uptake in Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Albaugh, Timothy J; Allen, H Lee; Fox, Thomas R

    2008-07-01

    We quantified nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) content, use (nutrient amount for one growth year), retranslocation (nutrients recycled before foliage senescence), uptake (use minus retranslocation), volume production per unit of uptake and fertilizer-uptake efficiency (percent applied taken up) in a 2 x 2 (nutrient and water) factorial experiment replicated four times in an 8-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand growing on a nutrient-poor sandy soil in Scotland County, North Carolina, USA. Over 14 years, we applied 1140, 168, 393, 168 and 146 kg ha(-1) of elemental N, P, K, Ca and Mg fertilizer, respectively, and an average of 710 mm year(-1) of irrigation. All plots received complete vegetation control. Fertilization about doubled tissue N, P, K and Mg contents at age 21, whereas irrigation resulted in smaller increases in nutrient contents. Maximum annual uptake was 101, 9.3, 44, 37 and 13 kg ha(-1) year(-1) and volume production per unit of nutrient uptake was 0.35, 3.5, 0.66, 1.1 and 3.1 m(3) kg(-1), for N, P, K, Ca and Mg, respectively. Irrigated plots had greater volume production per unit of N, P, K and Mg uptake than control plots, likely because irrigation allowed photosynthesis to continue during dry periods. Fertilized plus irrigated plots had less volume production per unit of these elements than the fertilized plots either because nutrient uptake exceeded the requirement for optimum growth or because available water (rainfall plus irrigation) was insufficient for the leaf area achieved with fertilization. At age 19, fertilizer-uptake efficiencies for N, P, K, Ca and Mg were 53, 24, 62, 57 and 39%, respectively, and increased with irrigation to 68, 36, 78, 116 and 55%, respectively. The scale of fertilizer uptake was likely a result of low native site nutrient availability, study longevity, measurement of all tissue components on site, a comprehensive assessment of coarse roots, and the 3-m rooting

  20. [Nutrient transfer and growth of Pinus greggii Engelm. inoculated with edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms in two substrates].

    PubMed

    Rentería-Chávez, María C; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús; Cetina-Alcalá, Víctor M; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz

    An ectomycorrhiza is a mutualistic symbiosis of paramount importance in forestry and tree production. One of the selection criteria of ectomycorrhizal fungi that has currently gained importance is their edibility due to the economic, ecological and cultural relevance of edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms as a non-timber forest product. The effect of the inoculation with three edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms: Laccaria laccata, Laccaria bicolor y Hebeloma leucosarx, which are widely sold in Mexico, on the growth and nutrient contents of Pinus greggii grown in an experimental substrate and a commercial substrate enriched with a slow-release fertilizer, was evaluated. Two years after sowing, differences in terms of shoot and root biomass and macro and micronutrient contents between inoculated and non-inoculated plants, were recorded independently of the fungal species and the substrate. Despite the fact that plants grown in the commercial substrate had higher growth and nutrient contents, their ectomycorrhizal colonization percentages were smaller than those of the plants grown in the experimental substrate. The differences in the nutrient transfer to the inoculated plant shoots among the evaluated fungal species were recorded. Ca mobilization by L. laccata, Na by L. bicolor and Mn by H. leucosarx were observed in the plants growing in the experimental substrate. It has been demonstrated that the selection of substrates constitutes an important factor in the production of ectomycorrhizal plants and that the three evaluated species of edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms have an enormous potential in the controlled mycorrhization of P. greggii. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)convicilin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) by a combination of anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration chromatography. The protein is less abundant than vicilin in low-salt extracts of matur...

  2. Understory plant biomass dynamics of prescribed burned Pinus palustris stands

    Treesearch

    C.A. Gonzalez-Benecke; L.J. Samuelson; T.A. Stokes; W.P. Cropper Jr; T.A. Martin; K.H. Johnsen

    2015-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests are characterized by unusually high understory plant species diversity, but models describing understory ground cover biomass, and hence fuel load dynamics, are scarce for this fire-dependent ecosystem. Only coarse scale estimates, being restricted on accuracy and geographical extrapolation,...

  3. Missing and dark rings associated with drought in Pinus halepensis

    Treesearch

    Klemen Novak; Martin De Luis; Jozica Gricar; Peter Prislan; Maks Merela; Kevin T. Smith; Katarina. Cufar

    2016-01-01

    The responses of the vascular cambium and tracheid differentiation to extreme drought in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) were investigated. The research focused on the drought year of 2005, in the primary study area at Maigmo (MAI) in southeastern Spain, with comparisons in Jarafuel (JAL) and Guardamar (GUA). The climate in this region is...

  4. Experiments in rooting bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) cuttings

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1987-01-01

    Presented here are results of rooting studies using hedges established from juvenile seedlings of "blue" and "green" foliaged bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) from Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California. Rootability, averaged over all clones and all setting dates, was 88%. The average time for 50% of the...

  5. A holistic approach to genetic conservation of Pinus strobiformis

    Treesearch

    K.M. Waring; R. Sniezko; B.A. Goodrich; C. Wehenkel; J.J. Jacobs

    2017-01-01

    Pinus strobiformis (southwestern white pine) is threatened by both a rapidly changing climate and the tree disease white pine blister rust, caused by an introduced fungal pathogen, Cronartium ribicola. We began a proactive program in ~2009 to sustain P. strobiformis that includes genetic conservation, research, and management strategies. Research...

  6. Pinus ponderosa: geographic races and subspecies based on morphological variation

    Treesearch

    Robert Z. Callaham

    2013-01-01

    Morphological variation of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.), growing north of Mexico, is described. A map shows distributions of five putative races that are analyzed and discussed. Characteristics of branches, shoots, and needles were measured for 10 or fewer trees growing on 147 plots located at 1,500-ft elevational intervals...

  7. Effects of Arceuthobium americanum on twig growth of Pinus contorts.

    Treesearch

    Nancy Broshot; Lynn Larsen; Robert. Tinnin

    1986-01-01

    Patterns of branch growth in Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, (lodgepole pine) on the east side of the Cascade Range in Oregon were significantly altered by Arceuthobium americanum (lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe). There were decreases in the number, length, and mass of needles, as well as in the length and mass of twigs. These...

  8. Genic diversity, genetic structure, and biogeography of Pinus sabiniana Dougl.

    Treesearch

    F. Thomas Ledig

    1999-01-01

    Pinus sabiniana Dougl. (grey pine) forms savanna forests in the foothills surrounding California’s Great Central Valley. However, its fossil record, which dates from the late Miocene through the Pliocene and Pleistocene, is found exclusively in southern California, south of the species’ present range. A total of twenty-nine isozyme loci, representing eighteen enzyme...

  9. Aboveground tree biomass for Pinus ponderosa in northeastern California

    Treesearch

    Martin W. Ritchie; Jianwei Zhang; Todd A. Hamilton

    2013-01-01

    Forest managers need accurate biomass equations to plan thinning for fuel reduction or energy production. Estimates of carbon sequestration also rely upon such equations. The current allometric equations for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) commonly employed for California forests were developed elsewhere, and are often applied without consideration potential for...

  10. Intraspecific variation in himalayan white pine, Pinus griffithii

    Treesearch

    John B. Genys

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-one seed sources of Himalayan white pine (Pinus griffithii McClel.) (11 from native stands and 10 from planted trees) were studied in Maryland's State Forest Tree Nursery and in 11 plantations in Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Illinois and North Carolina. In the nursery, intraspecific variations were observed in leaf lengths, time of bud-set, tendency for...

  11. Early performance of Pinus contorta x banksiana hybrids

    Treesearch

    James E. Lotan

    1967-01-01

    Four Pinus contorta X banksiana hybrids developed in California were planted on two sites in Montana and one site in Idaho to determine whether they were suited to climate and soils of these three test locations and whether they were superior to Montana lodgepole pine. Height, diameter, crown width, number of branches per whorl, vigor, and survival were measured 5 and...

  12. The effects of fepeated prescribed burning on Pinus ponderosa growth

    Treesearch

    David L. Peterson; Stephen S. Sackett; Lindsay J. Robinson; Sally M. Haase

    1994-01-01

    The effect of repeated prescribed burning on long term growth of Pinus ponderosa in northern Arizona was examined. Fire treatments for hazard reduction were initiated in 1976,and growthwas evaluated in 1988 for fire rotations of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years. Dendroecological analysis shows that there were only small changes in treegrowth (compared tocontrols) in the...

  13. Characteristics, histories, and future succession of northern Pinus pugens stands

    Treesearch

    Patrick Brose

    2017-01-01

    Pinus pungens (Table Mountain pine) stands are rare conifer-dominated communities that occur on xeric ridges and upper slopes throughout the central and southern Appalachian Mountains. At the northern end of this range, this uncommon forest community is essentially unstudied. Therefore, in 2006 I initiated a dendroecology study of three ...

  14. Influence of soil porosity on water use in Pinus taeda

    Treesearch

    G. Hacke; J.S. Sperry; B.E. Ewers; D.S. Ellsworth; K.V.R. Schäfer; R. Oren

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the hydraulic constraints imposed on water uptake from soils of different porosities in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) by comparing genetically related and even-aged plantations growing in loam versus sand soil. Water use was evaluated relative to the maximum transpiration rate (Ecrit) allowed by the soil-leaf...

  15. Impact of the eocene on the evolution of Pinus L.

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1993-01-01

    Pinus evolved in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the middle Mesozoic. By the late Cretaceous pines had spread east and west throughout Laurasia, attaining high diversity in eastern Asia, the eastern United States, and western Europe, but having little representation at high northern latitudes. Changing climates in the early Tertiary...

  16. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Dhirender; Kumar, Ajay; Kaushik, Pawan; Rana, A. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae) is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models. PMID:22761611

  17. Relative size and stand age determine Pinus banksiana mortality

    Treesearch

    Han Y. H. Chen; Songling Fu; Robert A. Monserud; Ian C. Gillies

    2008-01-01

    Tree mortality is a poorly understood process in the boreal forest. Whereas large disturbances reset succession by killing all or most trees, background tree mortality was hypothesized to be affected by competition, ageing, and stand composition. We tested these hypotheses on jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) mortality using data from long-term...

  18. Hybridization and classification of the white pines (Pinus section strobus)

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1986-01-01

    Many North American and Eurasian white pines retain their ability to hybridize even after long isolation, and about half of all white pine hybrids from controlled pollinations are inter-hemisphere crosses. Within the morphologically homogeneous and otherwise highly crossable core group of white pines, an exception in crossing behavior is Pinus lambertiana...

  19. Bishop pine (Pinus muricata) of inland Marin County, CA

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1986-01-01

    The locations and characteristics of five, small, previously undescribed stands of bishop pine (Pinus muricata) in central Marin Co., California, are reported. Three stands lie on dry sites in the Kent Lake Drainage north of Mt. Tamalpais: San Geronimo Ridge, a spur ridge above Little Carson Cr., and Oat Hill. These stands are anomalous in occurring...

  20. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in Cascadia: A climate change prognosis

    Treesearch

    Sierra C. McLane

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) predict that whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) will lose much of its current climatic range in Cascadia (the Pacific Northwest in the United States plus British Columbia, Canada) by the 2080s as the climate warms. However, the same models indicate that the species will simultaneously gain a large, climatically-favorable habitat...

  1. Impacts of prescribed fire on Pinus rigida Mill

    Treesearch

    Nicholas J. Carlo; Heidi J. Renninger; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2016-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the impacts of prescribed fire on three upland forest stands in the Northeastern Atlantic Plain, NJ, USA, was conducted. Effects of prescribed fire on water use and gas exchange of overstory pines were estimated via sap-flux rates and photosynthetic measurements on Pinus rigida Mill. Each study site had two sap-flux plots...

  2. Pinus ponderosa : A checkered past obscured four species

    Treesearch

    Ann Willyard; David S. Gernandt; Kevin Potter; Valerie Hipkins; Paula E. Marquardt; Mary Frances Mahalovich; Stephen K. Langer; Frank W. Telewski; Blake Cooper; Connor Douglas; Kristen Finch; Hassani H. Karemera; Julia Lefler; Payton Lea; Austin Wofford

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Molecular genetic evidence can help delineate taxa in species complexes that lack diagnostic morphological characters. Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae; subsection Ponderosae ) is recognized as a problematic taxon: plastid phylogenies of exemplars were paraphyletic, and mitochondrial phylogeography suggested at...

  3. Rainfall interception and partitioning by pinus monophylla and juniperus osteosperma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated canopy interception of simulated rainfall by singleleaf piñon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) in central Nevada. Research has shown that although piñon and juniper occurred historically throughout the western United States, the infilling of woodlan...

  4. Biochemical responses of Cr-tolerant and Cr-sensitive mung bean cultivars grown on varying levels of chromium.

    PubMed

    Samantary, S

    2002-06-01

    Biochemical investigations were carried out in Cr-tolerant and Cr-sensitive cultivars of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) with different concentrations of hexavalent chromium (as K2Cr2O7) in hydroponics culture. Seeds were germinated and grown in the presence or absence of chromium under controlled environmental conditions. Protein, pigment and enzyme analysis were conducted in both Cr-tolerant and Cr-sensitive cultivars of mung bean after 72 h of treatments. Chlorophyll and protein contents were reduced in Cr-sensitive cultivars more than those of the tolerant ones. The enzyme activity varied among the Cr-tolerant and Cr-sensitive ones. Activities of catalase, peroxidase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase were greater in Cr-sensitive than tolerant cultivars.

  5. Effect of mung bean and sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata) powder on chicken breast meat tenderness, microbial and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K; Ali, Jamshed

    2014-07-01

    Effect of mung bean and sprouted mung bean (Vigna radiata) was investigated on meat tenderness, microbial and sensory characteristics. Results showed that treatment of aqueous extract obtained from sprouted mung powder and mung powder have beneficial effect (P < 0.05) on tenderness of chicken breast meat. These extracts also showed (P < 0.05) antibacterial activity for meat bacteria; values of TPC and PPC (log cfu/gm) at 24 h of marination were also lower than initial values in SMP and MP groups thus SMP and MP may contain some antibacterial substances which have beneficial effect on meat bacterial count. There was better (P < 0.05) cooking and sensory scores observed for marinated meat samples than control groups.

  6. Growth and carbon accumulation in root systems of Pinus taeda and Pinus ponderosa seedlings as affected by varying CO(2), temperature and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    King, J S; Thomas, R B; Strain, B R

    1996-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration enhances accumulation of carbon in fine roots, thereby altering soil carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling. To evaluate possible changes to belowground pools of carbon and nitrogen in response to elevated CO(2), an early and a late successional species of pine (Pinus taeda L. and Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, respectively) were grown from seed for 160 days in a 35 or 70 Pa CO(2) partial pressure at low or high temperature (30-year weekly mean and 30-year weekly mean + 5 degrees C) and a soil solution nitrogen concentration of 1 or 5 mM NH(4)NO(3) at the Duke University Phytotron. Seedlings were harvested at monthly intervals and growth parameters of the primary root, secondary root and tap root fractions evaluated. Total root biomass of P. ponderosa showed a positive CO(2) response (105% increase) (P = 0.0001) as a result of significant increases in all root fractions in the elevated CO(2) treatment, but all other main effects and interactions were insignificant. In P. taeda, there were significant interactions between CO(2) and temperature (P = 0.04) and CO(2) and nitrogen (P = 0.04) for total root biomass. An allometric analysis indicated that modulation of the secondary root fraction was the main response of the trees to altered environmental conditions. In P. ponderosa, there was an increase in the secondary root fraction relative to the primary and tap root fractions under conditions of low temperature. In P. taeda, there was a shift in carbon accumulation to the secondary roots relative to the primary roots under low temperature and low nitrogen. Neither species exhibited shifts in carbon accumulation in response to elevated CO(2). We conclude that both species have the potential to increase belowground biomass substantially in response to rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration, and this response is sensitive to temperature and nitrogen in P. taeda. Both species displayed small shifts

  7. Expanding the repertoire of microsatellite markers for polymorphism studies in Indian accessions of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek).

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Divya; Verma, Priyanka; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2014-09-01

    Limited availability of validated, polymorphic microsatellite markers in mung bean (Vigna radiata), an important food legume of India, has been a major hurdle towards its improvement and higher yield. The present study was undertaken in order to develop a new set of microsatellite markers and utilize them for the analysis of genetic diversity within mung bean accessions from India. A GA/CT enriched library was constructed from V. radiata which resulted in 1,250 putative recombinant clones of which 850 were sequenced. SSR motifs were identified and their flanking sequences were utilized to design 328 SSR primer pairs. Of these, 48 SSR markers were employed for assessing genetic diversity among 76 mung bean accessions from various geographical locations in India. Two hundred and thirty four alleles with an average of 4.85 alleles per locus were detected at 48 loci. The polymorphic information content (PIC) per locus varied from 0.1 to 0.88 (average: 0.49 per locus). The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.40 to 0.95 and 0.40 to 0.81 respectively. Based on Jaccard's similarity matrix, a dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) analysis which revealed that one accession from Bundi, Rajasthan was clustered out separately while remaining accessions were grouped into two major clusters. The markers generated in this study will help in expanding the repertoire of the available SSR markers thereby facilitating analysis of genetic diversity, molecular mapping and ultimately broadening the scope for genetic improvement of this legume.

  8. Relationship between diffusion tensor fractional anisotropy and motor outcome in patients with hemiparesis after corona radiata infarct.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tetsuo; Marumoto, Kohei; Miyake, Hiroji; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between fractional anisotropy (FA) values of magnetic resonance-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and motor outcome (1 month after onset) in 15 patients with hemiparesis after ischemic stroke of corona radiata lesions. DTI data were obtained on days 14-18. FA values within the cerebral peduncle were analyzed using a computer-automated method. Motor outcome of hemiparesis was evaluated according to Brunnstrom stage (BRS; 6-point scale: severe to normal) for separate shoulder/elbow/forearm, wrist/hand, and lower extremity functions. The ratio of FA values in the affected hemisphere to those in the unaffected hemisphere (rFA) was assessed in relation to the BRS data (Spearman rank correlation test, P<.05). rFA values ranged from .715 to 1.002 (median=.924). BRS ranged from 1 to 6 (median=4) for shoulder/elbow/forearm, from 1 to 6 (median=5) for wrist/hand, and from 2 to 6 (median=4) for the lower extremities. Analysis revealed statistically significant relationships between rFA and upper extremity functions (correlation coefficient=.679 for shoulder/elbow/forearm and .706 for wrist/hand). Although slightly less evident, the relationship between rFA and lower extremity function was also statistically significant (correlation coefficient=.641). FA values within the cerebral peduncle are moderately associated with the outcome of both upper and lower extremity functions, suggesting that DTI may be applicable for outcome prediction in stroke patients with corona radiata infarct. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Nano Structured Slow Release Fertilizer on the Soil Fertility, Yield and Nutritional Profile of Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Mala, Rajendran; Selvaraj, Ruby Celsia Arul; Sundaram, Vidhya Barathi; Rajan, Raja Blessina Siva Shanmuga; Gurusamy, Uma Maheswari

    2017-01-01

    The excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides has distorted soil composition, fertility and integrity with non-desirable environmental and ecological consequences. A strategy was designed to prepare a nano structured slow release fertilizer system that delivers nutrients and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria simultaneously. Slow release nano phosphate and potash fertilizer was prepared by blending the nano emulsion of fertilizer with neem cake and PGPR. Slow release nano phosphate and potash fertilizer was prepared by blending the nano emulsion of fertilizer with neem cake and PGPR. Few patents relevant to the topic have been reviewed and cited. The influence of nano structured slow release fertilizer on the biochemical characteristics, soil and yield attributes of Vigna radiata was studied in the field by randomized block design. The treatments used to evaluate the effect of nano SRF were a control (without any fertilizer), neem cake, chemical fertilizer, PGPR and nano SRF. Germination, specific activity of enzymes, carbohydrates, protein, photosynthetic pigments, root nodule number and microbial population were assessed by standard methods. The size of the nano urea slow release fertilizer ranged from 52.41 nm to 69.86 nm, and the size of the phosphate and potash fertilizer ranged from 81.85 nm to 87 nm. The weights of 1000 grains were 31.8 g, 33.28 g, 33.39 g, 36.65 g and 44.90 g in the control, neem cake, chemical fertilizer, PGPR and nano SRF, respectively. The protein concentrations were 162 mg g-1 in the control, 231 mg g-1 in the neem cake, 192 mg g-1 in the chemical fertilizer, 285 mg g-1 in the PGPR and 336 mg g-1 in the nano SRF. Nano slow release fertilizer treatment has stimulated germination and biochemical characteristics in Vigna radiata that are positively reflected in the yield attributes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Halopriming of seeds imparts tolerance to NaCl and PEG induced stress in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek varieties.

    PubMed

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2014-07-01

    The investigation was carried out to study the effect of halopriming on NaCl and polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG-6000) induced stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek varieties, with varied abiotic stress tolerance potential. Halopriming is a seed priming technique in which the seeds were soaked in various salt solutions (in this study NaCl was used). The results of the study indicated that the application of stresses (both NaCl and PEG) induced retardation of growth attributes (measured in terms of shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight) and decrease in physiological attributes like total chlorophyll content, metabolites, photosynthetic and mitochondrial activity of the seedlings in all three V. radiata (L.) varieties. However, halopriming of the seeds could reduce the extent of decrease in these biological attributes. NaCl and PEG stress also caused increase in MDA content (a product of membrane lipid peroxidation) in all the varieties studied and this increase was significantly minimized under halopriming. From the present investigation it was evident that among the green gram varieties studied, Pusa Vishal, a NaCl tolerant variety showed enhanced tolerance to NaCl and PEG induced stress, when the seeds were subjected to halopriming followed by Pusa Ratna (stress sensitive variety). Pusa 9531 (drought tolerant variety) also showed positive halopriming effects but it was less significant when compared to other two varieties. It could be concluded that halopriming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all varieties and it was significantly higher in the Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa 9531 and Pusa Ratna.

  11. Terpene chemodiversity of relict conifers Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and Pinus peuce, endemic to Balkan.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D; Bojović, Srdjan

    2011-12-01

    Terpenes are often used as ecological and chemotaxonomic markers of plant species, as well as for estimation of geographic variability. Essential oils of relic and Balkan endemic/subendemic conifers, Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and P. peuce, in central part of Balkan Peninsula (Serbia and Montenegro), on the level of terpene classes and common terpene compounds were investigated. In finding terpene combinations, which could show the best diversity between species and their natural populations, several statistical methods were applied. Apart from the content of different terpene classes (P. omorika has the most abundant O-containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes; P. heldreichii and P. peuce have the largest abundance of sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons, resp.), the species are clearly separated according to terpene profile with 22 common compounds. But, divergences in their populations were established only in combination of several compounds (specific for each species), and they were found to be the results of geomorphologic, climatic, and genetic factors. We found similarities between investigated species and some taxa from literature with respect to terpene composition, possibly due to hybridization and phylogenetic relations. Obtained results are also important regarding to chemotaxonomy, biogeography, phylogeny, and evolution of these taxa.

  12. Effects of nitrogen supply and elevated carbon dioxide on construction cost in leaves of Pinus taeda (L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Kevin L; Thomas, Richard B; Strain, Boyd R

    1993-10-01

    Seedlings of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were grown under varying conditions of soil nitrogen and atmospheric carbon dioxide availability to investigate the interactive effects of these resources on the energetic requirements for leaf growth. Increasing the ambient CO2 partial pressure from 35 to 65 Pa increased seedling growth only when soil nitrogen was high. Biomass increased by 55% and photosynthesis increased by 13% after 100 days of CO2 enrichment. Leaves from seedlings grown in high soil nitrogen were 7.0% more expensive on a g glucose g(-1) dry mass basis to produce than those grown in low nitrogen, while elevated CO2 decreased leaf cost by 3.5%. Nitrogen and CO2 availability had an interactive effect on leaf construction cost expressed on an area basis, reflecting source-sink interactions. When both resources were abundant, leaf construction cost on an area basis was relatively high (81.8±3.0 g glucose m(-2)) compared to leaves from high nitrogen, low CO2 seedlings (56.3±3.0 g glucose m(-2)) and low nitrogen, low CO2 seedlings (67.1±2.7 g glucose m(-2)). Leaf construction cost appears to respond to alterations in the utilization of photoassimilates mediated by resource availability.

  13. Influence of solar UV radiation on the nitrogen metabolism in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Krywult, Marek; Smykla, Jerzy; Kinnunen, Heli; Martz, Françoise; Sutinen, Marja-Liisa; Lakkala, Kaisa; Turunen, Minna

    2008-12-01

    Needles of 20-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings were studied in an ultraviolet (UV) exclusion field experiment (from 2000 to 2002) in northern Finland (67 degrees N). The chambers held filters that excluded both UV-B and UV-A, excluded UV-B only, transmitted all UV (control), or lacked filters (ambient). UV-B/UV-A exclusion decreased nitrate reductase (NR) activity of 1-year-old needles of Scots pines compared to the controls. The proportion of free amino acids varied in the range 1.08-1.94% of total proteins, and was significantly higher in needles of saplings grown under UV-B/UV-A exclusion compared to the controls or UV-B exclusion. NR activity correlated with air temperature, indicating a "chamber effect". The study showed that both UV irradiance and increasing temperature are significant modulators of nitrogen (N) metabolism in Scots pine needles.

  14. Seasonal variations in red pine (Pinus resinosa) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) foliar physio-chemistry and their potential influence on stand-scale wildland fire behavior

    Treesearch

    Matt Jolly; John Hintz; Rodman L. Linn; Rachael C. Kropp; Elliot T. Conrad; Russell A. Parsons; Judith Winterkamp

    2016-01-01

    The 'Spring Dip' in conifer live foliar moisture content (LFMC) has been well documented but the actual drivers of these variations have not been fully investigated. Here we span this knowledge gap by measuring LFMC, foliar chemistry, foliar density and foliar flammability on new and old foliage for an entire year from both Pinus resinosa (red pine) and Pinus...

  15. A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and extent of linkage disequilibrium in two genotype-phenotype discovery populations of Pinua taeda

    Treesearch

    Jared W. Westbrook; Vikram E. Chhatre; Le-Shin Wu; Srikar Chamala; Leandro Gomide Neves; Patricio Munoz; Pedro J. Martinez-Garcia; David B. Neale; Matias Kirst; Keithanne Mockaitis; C. Dana Nelson; Gary F. Peter; John M. Davis; Craig S. Echt

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via...

  16. Influence of seedbed, light environment, and elevated night temperature on growth and carbon allocation in pitch pine (Pinus rigida) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Day; Jessica L. Schedlbauer; William H. Livingston; Michael S. Greenwood; Alan S. White; John C. Brissette

    2005-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) are two autecologically similar species that occupy generally disjunct ranges in eastern North America. Jack pine is boreal in distribution, while pitch pine occurs at temperate latitudes. The two species co-occur in a small number of stands along a 'tension...

  17. Characterization of the volatile fraction emitted by Pinus spp. by one- and two-dimensional chromatographic techniques with mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Mateus, E; Barata, R C; Zrostlíková, Jitka; Gomes da Silva, M D R; Paiva, M R

    2010-03-12

    The chemical composition of the needles of P. pinea, P. pinaster, P. halepensis, P. nigra, P. brutia, P. patula, P. radiata, P. taeda, P. elliotti, P. kesiya, P. sylvestris and P. eldarica was investigated. Headspace solid-phase microextraction and steam distillation extraction were used to collect the volatile fractions. Samples were analyzed using one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D-GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) associated with a quadrupole and a time-of-flight mass detectors. Results showed that the analytical capabilities of 1D-GC are partially limited by the separation power of the columns. The higher sensibility and the absence of peak skewing of the time-of-flight mass analyzer, with the use of automated peak finding and deconvolution algorithms, allowed for the detection of trace components with qualitative full spectra and the extraction of true mass spectra from coeluting compounds, promoting their reliable identification and thus significantly improving results obtained by 1D-GC/MS, when using a quadrupole mass analyzer. The use of GC x GC resulted in enhanced separation efficiency and increased signal to noise ratio (sensitivity) of the analytes, maximizing mass spectra quality and improving compound detection and identification. This work shows the use of 1D-GC/ToFMS for the analysis of pine needles volatiles, achieving the detection of 177 compounds, that is more than twice the number previously identified by standard 1D-GC/MS. The analysis by GC x GC for the same sample allowed the detection of 212 compounds. The enantioselective GC x GC analysis performed for all the Pinus spp. under study achieved the detection of 422 different compounds. Cross-over phenomena according to operational conditions are highlighted and discussed.

  18. Time-of-Flight Adjustment Procedure for Acoustic Measurements in Structural Timber

    Treesearch

    Danbiel F. Llana; Guillermo Iñiguez-Gonzalez; Francisco Arriaga; Xiping Wang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of timber length on time-of-flight acoustic longitudinal measurements was investigated on the structural timber of four Spanish species: radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), laricio pine (Pinus nigra Arn.), and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Time-of-flight longitudinal measurements were conducted on 120 specimens of...

  19. Needle morphological evidence of the homoploid hybrid origin of Pinus densata based on analysis of artificial hybrids and the putative parents, Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Fangqian; Mao, Jian-Feng; Meng, Jingxiang; Dai, Jianfeng; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Hao; Xing, Zhen; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analyses indicate that Pinus densata is a natural homoploid hybrid originating from Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Needle morphological and anatomical features show relative species stability and can be used to identify coniferous species. Comparative analyses of these needle characteristics and phenotypic differences between the artificial hybrids, P. densata, and parental species can be used to determine the genetic and phenotypic evolutionary consequences of natural hybridization. Twelve artificial hybrid families, the two parental species, and P. densata were seeded in a high-altitude habitat in Linzhi, Tibet. The needles of artificial hybrids and the three pine species were collected, and 24 needle morphological and anatomical traits were analyzed. Based on these results, variations in 10 needle traits among artificial hybrid families and 22 traits among species and artificial hybrids were predicted and found to be under moderate genetic control. Nineteen needle traits in artificial hybrids were similar to those in P. densata and between the two parental species, P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis. The ratio of plants with three needle clusters in artificial hybrids was 22.92%, which was very similar to P. densata. The eight needle traits (needle length, the mean number of stomata in sections 2 mm in length of the convex and flat sides of the needle, mean stomatal density, mesophyll/vascular bundle area ratio, mesophyll/resin canal area ratio, mesophyll/(resin canals and vascular bundles) area ratio, vascular bundle/resin canal area ratio) relative to physiological adaptability were similar to the artificial hybrids and P. densata. The similar needle features between the artificial hybrids and P. densata could be used to verify the homoploid hybrid origin of P. densata and helps to better understand of the hybridization roles in adaptation and speciation in plants. PMID:24963383

  20. Needle morphological evidence of the homoploid hybrid origin of Pinus densata based on analysis of artificial hybrids and the putative parents, Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fangqian; Mao, Jian-Feng; Meng, Jingxiang; Dai, Jianfeng; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Hao; Xing, Zhen; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Yue

    2014-05-01

    Genetic analyses indicate that Pinus densata is a natural homoploid hybrid originating from Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Needle morphological and anatomical features show relative species stability and can be used to identify coniferous species. Comparative analyses of these needle characteristics and phenotypic differences between the artificial hybrids, P. densata, and parental species can be used to determine the genetic and phenotypic evolutionary consequences of natural hybridization. Twelve artificial hybrid families, the two parental species, and P. densata were seeded in a high-altitude habitat in Linzhi, Tibet. The needles of artificial hybrids and the three pine species were collected, and 24 needle morphological and anatomical traits were analyzed. Based on these results, variations in 10 needle traits among artificial hybrid families and 22 traits among species and artificial hybrids were predicted and found to be under moderate genetic control. Nineteen needle traits in artificial hybrids were similar to those in P. densata and between the two parental species, P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis. The ratio of plants with three needle clusters in artificial hybrids was 22.92%, which was very similar to P. densata. The eight needle traits (needle length, the mean number of stomata in sections 2 mm in length of the convex and flat sides of the needle, mean stomatal density, mesophyll/vascular bundle area ratio, mesophyll/resin canal area ratio, mesophyll/(resin canals and vascular bundles) area ratio, vascular bundle/resin canal area ratio) relative to physiological adaptability were similar to the artificial hybrids and P. densata. The similar needle features between the artificial hybrids and P. densata could be used to verify the homoploid hybrid origin of P. densata and helps to better understand of the hybridization roles in adaptation and speciation in plants.

  1. Genetic transformation and gene expression in white pine (pinus strobus)

    SciTech Connect

    Minocha, R.

    1987-10-01

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop protocols for transformation of white pine (Pinus strobus) embryonic tissue; and (2) to analyze the regulation of foreign gene expression in Pinus strobus. A number of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains containing chimeric genes for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII for kanamycin resistance) and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) under the control of either a constitutive promoter (NOS-nopaline synthase) or light-inducible promoters (RuBisCO small subunit and chlorophyll a/b binding protein) were used. A variety of tissues from white pine seedlings and mature trees was used. The techniques for transformation were modified from those used for tobacco transformation. The results show that white pine tissue from young seedlings is high suitable for transformation by A. tumefaciens. Whereas the normal tissues are very sensitive to kanamycin, transformed callus was quite resistant to this antibiotic.

  2. Two new triterpenoids from the roots of Pinus densiflora.

    PubMed

    Otaka, Junnosuke; Komatsu, Masabumi; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Futamura, Yushi; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Chemical investigation of the roots of Pinus densiflora led to the isolation of two new triterpenoids, (24S)-3β-methoxy-24,25-epoxy-lanost-9(11)-ene (1) and 29-acetoxy-3α-methoxyserrat-14-en-21α-ol (2), together with three known serratene-type triterpenoids (3-5) and four known diterpenoids (6-9). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses.

  3. Pinus lambertiana Dougl. Sugar Pine; Pinaceae Pine family

    Treesearch

    Bohun B. Kinloch Jr.; William H. Scheuner

    1990-01-01

    Called "the most princely of the genus" by its discoverer, David Douglas, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is the tallest and largest of all pines, commonly reaching heights of 53 to 61 m (175 to 200 ft) and d.b.h. of 91 to 152 cm (36 to 60 in). Old trees occasionally exceed 500 years and, among associated species, are second only to giant...

  4. Uptake of trifluoroacetate by Pinus ponderosa via atmospheric pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benesch, J. A.; Gustin, M. S.

    Trifluoroacetate (TFA, CF 3COO -), a break down product of hydro(chloro)-fluorocarbons (HFC/HCFCs), has been suggested to contribute to forest decline syndrome. To investigate the possible effects, Pinus ponderosa was exposed to TFA applied as mist (150 and 10,000 ng l -1) to foliar surfaces. Needles accumulated TFA as a function of concentration and time. However, no adverse physiological responses, as plant morphology, photosynthetic and conductance rates, were observed at the TFA concentrations used in this study.

  5. Sexual stability in the nearly dioecious Pinus johannis (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Whipple, Amy V; Gehring, Catherine A; Domínguez, C A

    2013-03-01

    Even though dioecy is a dominant sexual system among gymnosperms, little is known about its evolutionary history. Pinus johannis may represent a model system because unisexual and monoecious individuals compose its populations. The presence of unisexual individuals in other Pinus species is a consequence of sexual lability. Here we determined whether P. johannis represents the first example of a dioecious or nearly dioecious reproductive system in conifers by evaluating its sexual stability. • To assess the stability of sexual expression, we quantified the proportion of male vs. female reproductive structures produced by trees over multiple years and tested for the presence of sexual dimorphism. Sexual lability hypotheses were also examined by looking at the relationship between environmental factors and sexual expression and by comparing the reproductive behavior of P. johannis with its closest labile relative, P. edulis. • Pinus johannis is nearly dioecious: ~99% of individuals are unisexual or express a low proportion of the opposite gender with few changes in sexual expression through time. We found sexual dimorphism consistent with sexual stability. Sexual expression did not vary with tree size/age, abiotic environment, or herbivore removal, providing evidence against sexual lability. Individuals of P. johannis tended to produce only male or female strobili, whereas those of P. edulis were mainly monoecious with a gradient in the female to male strobili ratio. • This study represents the first report of a nearly stable dioecious Pinus species. The variety of sexual morphs coexisting in the same population makes P. johannis a model for studying the evolution of dioecy in gymnosperms.

  6. Phytoremediation of cadmium and zinc by Populus deltoids and Pinus tada

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.; Houpis, J.; Johnson, K.; Schulz, K.; Smith, M.; Paul, G.

    1998-12-31

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants to uptake contaminants and thereby lower soil contamination, is an emerging alternative to the costly and often impractical conventional methods of soil remediation. There has been limited research in using trees for metal extraction, despite their high potential for remediating contaminated soils. The authors investigated the cadmium phytoextraction capability of Pinus taeda. Cadmium uptake was investigated using a randomized design with four replicates of each treatment. Seeds were germinated, grown for 60 days and treated with cadmium at 4 mg/L [supplied as cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate (Cd-(NO{sub 3})2x4H{sub 2}O)] or with potassium nitrate (KNO{sub 3}) as a control. Seedlings were harvested at either seven or seventeen days. Metal analysis of plant tissues was conducted by atomic absorption spectroscopy following acid digestion. A phytoextraction coefficient was determined and data were analyzed using analysis of variance. P. taeda seedlings treated with cadmium contained significantly higher Cd tissue levels than control seedlings. Cd tissue levels did not differ significantly between seedlings harvested seven days and seedlings harvested seventeen days after treatment. Cd levels also differed significantly between all plant organs (leaves, stems and roots).

  7. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Novak, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6–34.9%; twigs: 11.0–24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1–27.7; twigs: 29.0–49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0–16.1; twigs: 6.9–20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils. PMID:27579344

  8. Intraspecific variation in the use of water sources by the circum-Mediterranean conifer Pinus halepensis.

    PubMed

    Voltas, Jordi; Lucabaugh, Devon; Chambel, Maria Regina; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

    2015-12-01

    The relevance of interspecific variation in the use of plant water sources has been recognized in drought-prone environments. By contrast, the characterization of intraspecific differences in water uptake patterns remains elusive, although preferential access to particular soil layers may be an important adaptive response for species along aridity gradients. Stable water isotopes were analysed in soil and xylem samples of 56 populations of the drought-avoidant conifer Pinus halepensis grown in a common garden test. We found that most populations reverted to deep soil layers as the main plant water source during seasonal summer droughts. More specifically, we detected a clear geographical differentiation among populations in water uptake patterns even under relatively mild drought conditions (early autumn), with populations originating from more arid regions taking up more water from deep soil layers. However, the preferential access to deep soil water was largely independent of aboveground growth. Our findings highlight the high plasticity and adaptive relevance of the differential access to soil water pools among Aleppo pine populations. The observed ecotypic patterns point to the adaptive relevance of resource investment in deep roots as a strategy towards securing a source of water in dry environments for P. halepensis.

  9. Essential Oil Composition of Pinus peuce Griseb. Needles and Twigs from Two National Parks of Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Selimi, Hyrmete; Veselaj, Zeqir; Breznica, Pranvera; Quave, Cassandra Leah; Novak, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and qualitative and quantitative variability of essential oils obtained from seven naturally grown populations of the Pinus peuce Grisebach, Pinaceae in Kosovo. Plant materials were collected from three populations in the Sharri National Park and from four other populations in the Bjeshkët e Nemuna National Park, in Kosovo. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). The results showed that the yield of essential oils (v/w dry weight) varied depending on the origin of population and the plant organs and ranged from 0.7 to 3.3%. In total, 51 compounds were identified. The main compounds were α-pinene (needles: 21.6-34.9%; twigs: 11.0-24%), β-phellandrene (needles: 4.1-27.7; twigs: 29.0-49.8%), and β-pinene (needles: 10.0-16.1; twigs: 6.9-20.7%). HCA (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and PCA (Principal Component Analyses) were used to assess geographical variations in essential oil composition. Statistical analysis showed that the analyzed populations are grouped in three main clusters which seem to reflect microclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the essential oils.

  10. Biomass expansion factor and root-to-shoot ratio for Pinus in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Biomass Expansion Factor (BEF) and the Root-to-Shoot Ratio (R) are variables used to quantify carbon stock in forests. They are often considered as constant or species/area specific values in most studies. This study aimed at showing tree size and age dependence upon BEF and R and proposed equations to improve forest biomass and carbon stock. Data from 70 sample Pinus spp. grown in southern Brazil trees in different diameter classes and ages were used to demonstrate the correlation between BEF and R, and forest inventory data, such as DBH, tree height and age. Total dry biomass, carbon stock and CO2 equivalent were simulated using the IPCC default values of BEF and R, corresponding average calculated from data used in this study, as well as the values estimated by regression equations. The mean values of BEF and R calculated in this study were 1.47 and 0.17, respectively. The relationship between BEF and R and the tree measurement variables were inversely related with negative exponential behavior. Simulations indicated that use of fixed values of BEF and R, either IPCC default or current average data, may lead to unreliable estimates of carbon stock inventories and CDM projects. It was concluded that accounting for the variations in BEF and R and using regression equations to relate them to DBH, tree height and age, is fundamental in obtaining reliable estimates of forest tree biomass, carbon sink and CO2 equivalent. PMID:21943243

  11. In vitro mycorrhization and acclimatization of Amanita caesareoides and its relatives on Pinus densiflora.

    PubMed

    Endo, Naoki; Gisusi, Seiki; Fukuda, Masaki; Yamada, Akiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Amanita caesareoides is a sister species of Amanita caesarea, also known as Caesar's mushroom and one of the most desirable edible mycorrhizal mushrooms. However, cultivation of Caesar's mushrooms has not yet been successful due to the difficulties involved in establishing pure cultures. In this study, we established pure cultures of four Asian Caesar's mushroom species, i.e., A. caesareoides, Amanita javanica, Amanita esculenta, and Amanita similis, which were identified by sequence analysis of their rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Five selected isolates in A. caesareoides, A. javanica, and A. esculenta were tested for ectomycorrhizal syntheses with axenic Pinus densiflora seedlings in vitro. Ectomycorrhizal tips of each fungal isolate tested were observed on pine lateral roots within 5 months of inoculation. Seventeen pine seedlings that formed ectomycorrhizas in vitro with these three Amanita species were acclimatized under non-sterile conditions. Seven months following acclimatization, ectomycorrhizal colonization by A. caesareoides was observed on newly grown root tips, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the fungal rDNA ITS region. Two other Amanita species also survived during ectomycorrhizal acclimatization. These results suggest that the cultivation of A. caesareoides and its relatives can be attempted through mycorrhizal synthesis using P. densiflora as a host. This is the first report of in vitro mycorrhization of Asian Caesar's mushrooms and their acclimatization under non-sterile conditions.

  12. Acclimation of respiratory temperature responses in northern and southern populations of Pinus banksiana.

    PubMed

    Tjoelker, M G; Oleksyn, J; Lorenc-Plucinska, G; Reich, P B

    2009-01-01

    Temperature acclimation of respiration may contribute to climatic adaptation and thus differ among populations from contrasting climates. Short-term temperature responses of foliar dark respiration were measured in 33-yr-old trees of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in eight populations of wide-ranging origin (44-55 degrees N) grown in a common garden at 46.7 degrees N. It was tested whether seasonal adjustments in respiration and population differences in this regard resulted from changes in base respiration rate at 5 degrees C (R(5)) or Q(10) (temperature sensitivity) and covaried with nitrogen and soluble sugars. In all populations, acclimation was manifest primarily through shifts in R(5) rather than altered Q(10). R(5) was higher in cooler periods in late autumn and winter and lower in spring and summer, inversely tracking variation in ambient air temperature. Overall, R(5) covaried with sugars and not with nitrogen. Although acclimation was comparable among all populations, the observed seasonal ranges in R(5) and Q(10) were greater in populations originating from warmer than from colder sites. Population differences in respiratory traits appeared associated with autumnal cold hardening. Common patterns of respiratory temperature acclimation among biogeographically diverse populations provide a basis for predicting respiratory carbon fluxes in a wide-ranging species.

  13. Growth response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings and mature tree branches to acid rain and ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.D.; Houpis, J.L.J.; Helms, J.A.

    1994-10-01

    Forests of the central and southern Sierra Nevada in California have been subjected to chronic damage by ozone and other atmospheric pollutants for the past several decades. Until recently, pollutant exposure of northern Sierra Nevada forests has been mild but increasing population and changes in land use throughout the Sacramento Valley and Sierra Nevada foothills may lead to increased pollutant damage in these forests. Although, better documented in other regions of the United States, little is known regarding the potential for acidic precipitation damage to Sierra Nevada forests. Only recently have studies directed towards understanding the potential interactive effects of ozone and acidic precipitation been undertaken. A key issue in resolving potential regional impacts of pollutants on forests is the extent to which research results can be scaled across genotypes and life-stages. Most of the pollution research to date has been performed using seedlings with varying degrees of genetic control. It is important to determine if the results obtained in such studies can be extrapolated to mature trees and to different genetic sources. In this paper, we present results from a one-year study examining the interactive effects of foliar exposure to acidic rain and ozone on the growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), a conifer known to be sensitive to ozone. The response to pollutants is characterized for both seedlings and mature tree branches of three genotypes grown in a common environment.

  14. Zygotic and somatic embryo morphogenesis in Pinus pinaster: comparative histological and histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Tereso, Susana; Zoglauer, Kurt; Milhinhos, Ana; Miguel, Célia; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2007-05-01

    We compared morphogenesis and accumulation of storage proteins and starch in Pinus pinaster Ait. zygotic embryos with those in somatic embryos grown with different carbohydrate sources. The maturation medium for somatic embryos included 80 microM abscisic acid (ABA), 9 g l(-1) gellam gum and either glucose, sucrose or maltose at 44, 88, 175 or 263 mM in the presence or absence of 6% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 MW. Maturation medium containing 44 or 88 mM of a carbohydrate source produced only one or no cotyledonary somatic embryos per 0.6 g fresh mass of culture. The addition of PEG to the basal maturation medium resulted in a low yield of cotyledonary somatic embryos that generally showed incomplete development and anatomical abnormalities such as large intercellular spaces and large vacuoles. High concentrations of maltose also induced large intercellular spaces in the somatic embryonic cells, and 263 mM sucrose produced fewer and less developed cotyledonary somatic embryos compared with 175 mM sucrose, indicating that the effect of carbohydrate source is partially osmotic. Zygotic embryos had a lower dry mass than somatic embryos at the same stage of development. Starch granules followed a similar accumulation pattern in zygotic and somatic embryos. A low starch content was found in cotyledonary zygotic embryos and in somatic embryos developed in the presence of 175 mM maltose or 263 mM glucose. In zygotic embryos and in PEG-treated somatic embryos, protein bodies appeared later and were smaller and fewer than in well-developed somatic embryos grown without PEG. We propose that storage protein concentration might be a marker of embryo quality.

  15. Light-independent and light-dependent protochlorophyllide-reducing activities and two distinct NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase polypeptides in mountain pine (Pinus mugo).

    PubMed

    Forreiter, C; Apel, K

    1993-01-01

    Lower plants and gymnosperms synthesize chlorophyll and develop photosynthetically competent chloroplasts even when grown in the dark. In cell-free extracts of pine (Pinus mugo, Turra, ssp. mugo) seedlings, light-independent and light-dependent protochlorophyllide-reducing activities are present. Two distinct NADPH-protochlorophyllide-oxidoreductase (POR) polypeptides can be detected immunologically with an antiserum raised against the POR of barley. The subcellular localization and amounts of the two POR polypeptides are differentially affected by light: one of them is predominantly present in prolamellar bodies of etiochloroplasts and its abundance rapidly declines once the pine seedlings are exposed to light; the other is found in thylakoid membranes and its amount does not change during illumination of dark-grown seedlings. Two types of cDNA sequences are identified that encode two distinct POR polypeptides in pine. The relevance of these POR polypeptides for the two chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways active in gymnosperms is discussed.

  16. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  17. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  18. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Jared W.; Chhatre, Vikram E.; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Neale, David B.; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C. Dana; Peter, Gary F.; Echt, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r2, between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r2 did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii. PMID:26068575

  19. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Jared W; Chhatre, Vikram E; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Neale, David B; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C Dana; Peter, Gary F; Davis, John M; Echt, Craig S

    2015-06-11

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r(2), between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r(2) did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii. Copyright © 2015 Westbrook et al.

  20. Dimethoate modifies enhanced UV-B effects on growth, photosynthesis and oxidative stress in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seedlings: implication of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Samiksha; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2014-11-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate implication of salicylic acid (SA) in regulation of dimethoate (30 and 150 ppm designated as D1 and D2, respectively) and enhanced UV-B radiation (ambient + supplemental; ambient + 4.0 kJ m(-2) and ambient + 8.0 kJ m(-2), designated as UV-B1 and UV-B2, respectively) induced responses in mung bean seedlings. Seeds of Vigna radiata L. cv. Narendra 1 were surface sterilized, washed thoroughly and soaked for 24 h in sterilized distilled water. Soaked seeds were sown in acid washed sterilized sand filled in plastic trays, and incubated in dark at 26 ± 2 °C for 2 days. The seedlings were grown in growth chamber at 26 ± 2 °C with 12 h photoperiod (350 µmol photons m(-2 )s(-1), PAR) and watered regularly. Six day old seedlings of equal size were gently transferred in 0.2 strength Rorison nutrient medium (pH 6.8) for acclimatization. Thereafter, dimethoate (30 and 150 ppm designated as D1 and D2, respectively) and enhanced UV-B radiation treatments were given. On the 12th day, seedlings of each set were harvested and various parameters related to growth, pigments, photosynthesis, oxidative stress and antioxidant system were analyzed. The D2 dose of dimethoate and UV-B1 and UV-B2 alone and together significantly (P < 0.05) declined growth, photosynthetic pigments and photosynthesis (Fv/Fm and qP except NPQ) which were accompanied by significant decrease in SA level. Similarly, D2 and UV-B also enhanced (P < 0.05) accumulation of reactive oxygen species and concomitantly damaging effects on lipids, proteins and membrane stability were observed. In contrast, in SA-pretreated seedlings damaging impacts of D2, UV-B1 and UV-B2 alone and together were significantly (P < 0.05) alleviated. Besides this, interestingly D1 dose of dimethoate alone had stimulatory effect on growth and it also ameliorated damaging effects of both the doses of UV-B. The activity of superoxide dismutase was

  1. Waterlogging-induced increase in sugar mobilization, fermentation, and related gene expression in the roots of mung bean (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Sairam, Raj K; Dharmar, Kumutha; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Meena, Ramesh C

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the role of root carbohydrate levels and metabolism in the waterlogging tolerance of contrasting mung bean genotypes. An experiment was conducted with two cultivated mung bean (Vigna radiata) genotypes viz., T44 (tolerant) and Pusa Baisakhi (PB) (susceptible), and a wild Vigna species Vigna luteola under pot-culture to study the physiological and molecular mechanism of waterlogging tolerance. Waterlogging resulted in decrease in relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI) in root and leaf tissues, and chlorophyll (Chl) content in leaves, while the Chl a/b ratio increased. Waterlogging-induced decline in RWC, MSI, Chl and increase in Chl a/b ratio was greater in PB than V. luteola and T44. Waterlogging caused decline in total and non-reducing sugars in all the genotypes and reducing sugars in PB, while the content of reducing sugar increased in V. luteola and T44. The pattern of variation in reducing sugar content in the 3 genotypes was parallel to sucrose synthase (SS) activity. V. luteola and T44 also showed fewer declines in total and non-reducing sugars and greater increase in reducing sugar and SS activity than PB. Activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) increased up to 8d of waterlogging in V. luteola and T44, while in PB a marginal increase was observed only up to 4d of treatment. Gene expression studies done by RT-PCR in 24h waterlogged plants showed enhanced expression of ADH and SS in the roots of V. luteola and T44, while in PB there was no change in expression level in control or treated plants. PCR band products were cloned and sequenced, and partial cDNAs of 531, 626, and 667; 702, 736, and 744bp of SS and ADH, respectively were obtained. The partial cDNA sequences of cloned SS genes showed 93-100 homologies among different genotypes and with D10266, while in case of ADH the similarity was in the range of 97-100% amongst each other and with Z23170. The results suggest that the availability of

  2. Recognition of partially concealed leopards by wild bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). The role of the spotted coat.

    PubMed

    Coss, Richard G; Ramakrishnan, Uma; Schank, Jeffrey

    2005-02-28

    Wild bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) have been shown to recognize models of leopards (Panthera pardus), based on their configuration and spotted yellow coat. This study examined whether bonnet macaques could recognize the spotted and dark melanic morph when partially concealed by vegetation. Seven troops were studied at two sites in southern India, the Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary and the Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve. The forequarters and hindquarters of the two leopard morphs were presented from behind thick vegetation to individuals at feeding stations 25 m away. Flight reaction times and frequency of flight were obtained from video for only those individuals who oriented towards the models prior to hearing alarm calls. Bonnet macaques exhibited faster reaction times and greater frequency of flight after looking at the spotted morph's forequarter than after looking at either its spotted hindquarter or the dark morph's forequarter. The hindquarter of the dark morph was ignored completely. Artificial neural network modeling examined the perceptual aspects of leopard face recognition and the role of spots as camouflage. When spots were integrated into the pattern recognition process via network training, these spots contributed to leopard face recognition. When networks were not trained with spots, spots did not act as camouflage by disrupting facial features.

  3. Growth promotory potential of the cold adapted diazotroph Pseudomonas migulae S10724 against native green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek).

    PubMed

    Suyal, Deep Chandra; Shukla, Anjana; Goel, Reeta

    2014-12-01

    It is being confirmed previously the atmospheric nitrogen fixing ability of the cold adapted Pseudomonas migulae S10724 strain at the fluctuating temperatures. Therefore, net house bioinoculation experiment was performed to determine the effectiveness of inoculation of strain S10724 on the growth enhancement of native green gram (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The strain significantly (p < 0.05) stimulated the growth of roots (45.3 %) and shoots (45.6 %) of green gram plants. Furthermore, other growth related parameters viz. fresh and dry weight was also found to be increased significantly. Treated plants typically showed more obvious modifications in their biochemical status also. The total chlorophyll and nitrate reductase activity was increased in S10724 inoculated plant as compared to the control one. Moreover, in vitro seed germination assay revealed that the germination was increased in S10724 strain treated seeds by 22 % at 25 °C while 25 % at 12 °C unlikely to respective controls. The results suggest that P.migulae S10724 strain is a potential plant growth promoting bacterium for legume under fluctuating temperature ranges and therefore, could be used effectively as a low cost bioinoculant in Himalayan agricultural belt successfully.

  4. Alpha-amylase from mung beans (Vigna radiata)--correlation of biochemical properties and tertiary structure by homology modelling.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Pallavi; Lo Leggio, Leila; Mansfeld, Johanna; Ulbrich-Hofmann, Renate; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2007-06-01

    Alpha-amylase from germinated mung beans (Vigna radiata) has been purified 600-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity and a final specific activity of 437 U/mg. SDS-PAGE of the final preparation revealed a single protein band of 46 kDa. The optimum pH was 5.6. The energy of activation was determined to be 7.03 kcal/mol in the temperature range 15-55 degrees C. Km for starch was 1.6 mg/mL in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.5. Thermal inactivation studies at 70 degrees C showed first-order kinetics with rate constant (k) equal to 0.005 min(-1). Mung bean alpha-amylase showed high specificity for its primary substrate starch. Addition of EDTA (10 mM) caused irreversible loss of activity. Mung bean alpha-amylase is inhibited in a non-competitive manner by heavy metal ions, for example, mercury with a Ki of 110 microM. Homology modelling studies with mung bean alpha-amylase using barley alpha-amylases Amy 1 and Amy 2 as templates showed a very similar structure as expected from the high sequence identity. The model showed that alpha-amylase from mung beans has no sugar-binding site, instead it has a methionine. Furthermore, instead of two tryptophans, it has Val(277) and Lys(278), which are the conserved residues, important for proper folding and conformational stability.

  5. Characterization of the Proteinase that Initiates the Degradation of the Trypsin Inhibitor in Germinating Mung Beans (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Wilson, K A; Tan-Wilson, A L

    1987-05-01

    The proteinase (proteinase F) responsible for the initial proteolysis of the mung bean (Vigna radiata) trypsin inhibitor (MBTI) during germination has been purified 1400-fold from dry beans. The enzyme acts as an endopeptidase, cleaving the native inhibitor, MBTI-F, to produce the first modified inhibitor form, MBTI-E. The cleavage of the Asp76-Lys77 peptide bond of MBTI-F occurs at a pH optimum of 4.5, with the tetrapeptide Lys-Asp-Asp-Asp being released. Proteinase F exhibited no activity against the modified inhibitor forms MBTI-E and MBTI-C. Vicilin, the major storage protein of the mung bean, does not serve as a substrate for proteinase F between pH 4 and 7. Proteinase F is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, chymostatin, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, and p-chlorophenylsulfonate, but not by iodoacetate and CuCl(2). It is not activated by dithiothreitol, and is stable for extended periods of time (10 months, 4 degrees C, pH 4.0) in the absence of reducing agents. An apparent molecular weight of 65,000 was found for proteinase F by gel filtration. Subcellular fractionation in glycerol suggests that greater than 85% of the proteinase F activity is found in the protein bodies of the ungerminated mung bean. The same studies indicate that at least 56% of the MBTI of the seed is also localized in the protein bodies.

  6. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-06-30

    With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture.

  7. Biodegradation of chestnut shell and lignin-modifying enzymes production by the white-rot fungi Dichomitus squalens, Phlebia radiata.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ya-Chen; Dai, Yi-Ning; Xu, Teng-Yang; Cai, Jin; Chen, Qi-He

    2014-05-01

    As a discarded lignocellulosic biomass, chestnut shell is of great potential economic value, thus a sustainable strategy is needed and valuable for utilization of this resource. Herein, the feasibility of biological processes of chestnut shell with Dichomitus squalens, Phlebia radiata and their co-cultivation for lignin-modifying enzymes (LMEs) production and biodegradation of this lignocellulosic biomass was investigated under submerged cultivation. The treatment with D. squalens alone at 12 days gained the highest laccase activity (9.42 ± 0.73 U mg(-1)). Combined with the data of laccase and manganese peroxidase, oxalate and H2O2 were found to participate in chestnut shell degradation, accompanied by a rapid consumption of reducing sugar. Furthermore, specific surface area of chestnut shell was increased by 77.6-114.1 % with the selected fungi, and total pore volume was improved by 90.2 % with D. squalens. Meanwhile, the surface morphology was observably modified by this fungus. Overall, D. squalens was considered as a suitable fungus for degradation of chestnut shell and laccase production. The presence of LMEs, H2O2 and oxalate provided more understanding for decomposition of chestnut shell by the white-rot fungi.

  8. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam . E-mail: subbi100@yahoo.co.uk; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-09-15

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm.

  9. Strong seed-specific protein expression from the Vigna radiata storage protein 8SGα promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo-Xian; Zheng, Shu-Xiao; Yang, Yue-Ning; Xu, Chao; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong; Chye, Mee-Len; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-03-20

    Vigna radiata (mung bean) is an important crop plant and is a major protein source in developing countries. Mung bean 8S globulins constitute nearly 90% of total seed storage protein and consist of three subunits designated as 8SGα, 8SGα' and 8SGβ. The 5'-flanking sequences of 8SGα' has been reported to confer high expression in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. In this study, a 472-bp 5'-flanking sequence of 8SGα was identified by genome walking. Computational analysis subsequently revealed the presence of numerous putative seed-specific cis-elements within. The 8SGα promoter was then fused to the gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) to create a reporter construct for Arabidopsis thaliana transformation. The spatial and temporal expression of 8SGα∷GUS, as investigated using GUS histochemical assays, showed GUS expression exclusively in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Quantitative GUS assays revealed that the 8SGα promoter showed 2- to 4-fold higher activity than the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. This study has identified a seed-specific promoter of high promoter strength, which is potentially useful for directing foreign protein expression in seed bioreactors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of gap-scale disturbance on developmental and successional pathways in Quercus-Pinus stands

    Treesearch

    T.A. Weber; J.L. Hart; C. Schweitzer; D.C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Quercus-Pinus forests of the eastern USA cover millions of hectares and span a variety of ecoregions. Understanding the influence of natural disturbance on developmental and successional pathways is important for managers that wish to sustain Pinus spp. in these mixtures. Quantifying developmental and successional patterns in this...

  11. Modeling Tree Mortality Following Wildfire in Pinus ponderosa Forests in the Central Sierra Nevada of California

    Treesearch

    Susan G. Conard; Jon C. Regelbrugge

    1993-01-01

    Abstract. We modeled tree mortality occurring two years following wildfire in Pinus ponderosa forests using data from 1275 trees in 25 stands burned during the 1987 Stanislaus Complex fires. We used logistic regression analysis to develop models relating the probability of wildfire-induced mortality with tree size and fire severity for Pinus ponderosa, Calocedrus...

  12. Analysis of three microscopic characters for separating the wood of Pinus contorta and P. ponderosa

    Treesearch

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Regis B. Miller; Terra J. Theim

    2003-01-01

    Three microscopic characters were evaluated for the identification of Pinus contorta and Pinus ponderosa. The tangential diameter of the resin canals, including the epithelium, was compared to the tangential diameter of the entire resin canal complex. The latter measurement was shown to give diagnostic results for these species. Data from the examination of ray...

  13. Resistance to white pine blister rust in Pinus flexilis and P

    Treesearch

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Jerry Hill; Kelly S. Burns

    2010-01-01

    The non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, that causes white pine blister rust (WPBR), is impacting or threatening limber pine, Pinus flexilis, and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata. In the Southern Rockies, where the rust invasion is still expanding, we have the opportunity to be proactive and prepare the landscape for invasion. Genetic...

  14. Thigmomorphogenesis: anatomical, morphological and mechanical analysis of genetically different sibs of Pinus taeda in response to mechanical perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-three open pollinated families (half-sibs) and four controlled pollinated families (full-sibs) of Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) were grown in a greenhouse and analyzed for changes induced by mechanical perturbation (MP). These changes included inhibition of stem and needle elongation, bracing of branch nodes, and increased radial growth in the direction of the MP. Inhibition of stem elongation was the least variable feature measured. Leaf extension and stem diameter were highly variable between half-sibs. MP induced increased drag in greenhouse grown P. taeda in wind-tunnel tests. In P. taeda, MP induced decreased flexibility and increased elasticity and plasticity of the stem. The increased radial growth of the stems overrode the increase in elasticity, resulting in an overall decrease in flexibility. MP trees had a higher rupture point than non-MP controls. Increased radial growth is a result of more rapid cell divisions of the vascular cambium, resulting in increased numbers of tracheids. The decreased leader growth is partly due to a decreased tracheid length in response to MP.

  15. Thigmomorphogenesis: the role of ethylene in the response of Pinus taeda and Abies fraseri to mechanical perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Ethylene production was monitored for 48 h in two half-sibs of Pinus taeda L. grown in the greenhouse and given mechanical perturbation (MP) by flexing; and for 22 h in Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. grown in the field and exposed to wind-mediated MP. Both species produced a peak of ethylene 18 h after MP. Seedlings of P. taeda exposed to MP for the duration of the growing season (preconditioned) produced less ethylene compared to non-MP controls, with a peak production at 8 h. One half-sib which responded to MP by an increase in radial growth produced 16 times more ethylene than another half-sib which had no significant change in radial growth. Preconditioned A. fraseri produced no significant quantities of ethylene after MP. The production of wound ethylene appears to be different from MP-induced ethylene. When an ethylene-generating solution was applied to P. taeda seedlings, it mimicked many of the morphological and mechanical characteristics of MP seedlings. The putative role of ethylene in the thigmomorphogenetic response is addressed.

  16. Environmental and developmental effects on the biosynthesis of UV-B screening pigments in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles.

    PubMed

    Kaffarnik, Florian; Seidlitz, Harald K; Obermaier, Josef; Sandermann, Heinrich; Heller, Werner

    2006-08-01

    The major UV-B screening pigments of the epidermal layer of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles are flavonol 3-o-glycosides (F3Gs) esterified with hydroxycinnamic acids at positions 3" and 6". Acylation is the last step in biosynthesis and is catalysed by position-specific hydroxycinnamoyl transferases (3" and 6"HCT). The UV-B dependence of these enzyme activities was studied in primary needles of Scots pine seedlings grown under different UV-B conditions in environmentally controlled sun simulators. 6"HCT activity was induced upon UV-B irradiation while 3"HCT activity was not induced but showed high constitutive values. To investigate the biosynthesis of diacylated F3Gs during needle development under natural conditions, the HCT activities and metabolite contents were analysed in needles of field-grown mature pine trees. Accumulation of diacylated compounds as well as of 6"HCT activity occurred transiently in the first year of needle development only. In contrast, 3"HCT activity exhibited broad maxima in two consecutive years during needle growth. The data suggest that acylated F3Gs are first formed as soluble compounds which are then translocated into the cell wall to be bound by their hydroxycinnamoyl residues.

  17. Tissue chemistry and carbon allocation in seedlings of Pinus palustris subjected to elevated atmospheric CO(2) and water stress.

    PubMed

    Runion, G. B.; Entry, J. A.; Prior, S. A.; Mitchell, R. J.; Rogers, H. H.

    1999-04-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings were grown in 45-l pots and exposed to ambient or elevated (365 or 730 &mgr;mol CO(2) mol(-1)) CO(2) concentration in open-top chambers for 20 months. Two water-stress treatments (target values of -0.5 or -1.5 MPa xylem pressure potential) were imposed 19 weeks after initiation of the study. At harvest, tissues (needles, stems, taproots, coarse roots, and fine roots) were analyzed for carbon (C), nitrogen (N), nonpolar extractives (fats, waxes, and oils), nonstructural carbohydrates (sugars and starch), structural components (cellulose and lignin), and tannins. The greatest dry weights and lowest N concentrations occurred in tissues of plants grown at elevated CO(2) or with adequate water. Although allocation of C fractions among tissues was generally unaffected by treatments, concentrations of the analyzed compounds were influenced by treatments in needles and taproots, but not in stems and lateral roots. Needles and taproots of plants exposed to elevated CO(2) had increased concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates. Among plant tissues, elevated CO(2) caused reductions in structural C concentrations and foliar concentrations of fats, waxes and oils.

  18. Thigmomorphogenesis: the role of ethylene in the response of Pinus taeda and Abies fraseri to mechanical perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Ethylene production was monitored for 48 h in two half-sibs of Pinus taeda L. grown in the greenhouse and given mechanical perturbation (MP) by flexing; and for 22 h in Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. grown in the field and exposed to wind-mediated MP. Both species produced a peak of ethylene 18 h after MP. Seedlings of P. taeda exposed to MP for the duration of the growing season (preconditioned) produced less ethylene compared to non-MP controls, with a peak production at 8 h. One half-sib which responded to MP by an increase in radial growth produced 16 times more ethylene than another half-sib which had no significant change in radial growth. Preconditioned A. fraseri produced no significant quantities of ethylene after MP. The production of wound ethylene appears to be different from MP-induced ethylene. When an ethylene-generating solution was applied to P. taeda seedlings, it mimicked many of the morphological and mechanical characteristics of MP seedlings. The putative role of ethylene in the thigmomorphogenetic response is addressed.

  19. Thigmomorphogenesis: anatomical, morphological and mechanical analysis of genetically different sibs of Pinus taeda in response to mechanical perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-three open pollinated families (half-sibs) and four controlled pollinated families (full-sibs) of Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) were grown in a greenhouse and analyzed for changes induced by mechanical perturbation (MP). These changes included inhibition of stem and needle elongation, bracing of branch nodes, and increased radial growth in the direction of the MP. Inhibition of stem elongation was the least variable feature measured. Leaf extension and stem diameter were highly variable between half-sibs. MP induced increased drag in greenhouse grown P. taeda in wind-tunnel tests. In P. taeda, MP induced decreased flexibility and increased elasticity and plasticity of the stem. The increased radial growth of the stems overrode the increase in elasticity, resulting in an overall decrease in flexibility. MP trees had a higher rupture point than non-MP controls. Increased radial growth is a result of more rapid cell divisions of the vascular cambium, resulting in increased numbers of tracheids. The decreased leader growth is partly due to a decreased tracheid length in response to MP.

  20. Genetic diversity and gene exchange in Pinus oocarpa, a Mesoamerican pine with resistance to the pitch canker fungus (Fusarium circinatum)

    Treesearch

    W.S. Dvorak; K.M. Potter

    2009-01-01

    Eleven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to determine the genetic structure and levels of diversity in 51 natural populations of Pinus oocarpa across its geographic range of 3000 km in Mesoamerica. The study also included 17 populations of Pinus patula and Pinus tecunumanii chosen for their resistance or susceptibility to the pitch canker fungus based...

  1. Genetic diversity and gene exchange in Pinus oocarpa, a Mesoamerican Pine with resistance to the pitch canker fungus (Fusarium circinatum)

    Treesearch

    William S. Dvorak; Kevin M. Potter; Valerie D. Hipkins; Gary R. Hodge

    2009-01-01

    Eleven highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to determine the genetic structure and levels of diversity in 51 natural populations of Pinus oocarpa across its geographic range of 3000 km in Mesoamerica. The study also included 17 populations of Pinus patula and Pinus tecunumanii chosen for...

  2. Pinus pinaster Knot: A Source of Polyphenols against Plasmopara viticola.

    PubMed

    Gabaston, Julien; Richard, Tristan; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Palos Pinto, Antonio; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Corio-Costet, Marie-France; Mérillon, Jean-Michel

    2017-09-29

    Pine knot extract from Pinus pinaster byproducts was characterized by UHPLC-DAD-MS and NMR. Fourteen polyphenols divided into four classes were identified as follows: lignans (nortrachelogenin, pinoresinol, matairesinol, isolariciresinol, secoisolariciresinol), flavonoids (pinocembrin, pinobanksin, dihydrokaempferol, taxifolin), stilbenes (pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, pterostilbene), and phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid). The antifungal potential of pine knot extract, as well as the main compounds, was tested in vitro against Plasmopara viticola. The ethanolic extract showed a strong antimildew activity. In addition, pinosylvins and pinocembrin demonstrated significant inhibition of zoospore mobility and mildew development. These findings strongly suggest that pine knot is a potential biomass that could be used as a natural antifungal product.

  3. Composition and Structure of Pinus koraiensis Mixed Forest Respond to Spatial Climatic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingli; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Guangsheng; Xiao, Chunwang

    2014-01-01

    Background Although some studies have indicated that climate changes can affect Pinus koraiensis mixed forest, the responses of composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forests to climatic changes are unknown and the key climatic factors controlling the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest are uncertain. Methodology/principal findings Field survey was conducted in the natural Pinus koraiensis mixed forests along a latitudinal gradient and an elevational gradient in Northeast China. In order to build the mathematical models for simulating the relationships of compositional and structural attributes of the Pinus koraiensis mixed forest with climatic and non-climatic factors, stepwise linear regression analyses were performed, incorporating 14 dependent variables and the linear and quadratic components of 9 factors. All the selected new models were computed under the +2°C and +10% precipitation and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenarios. The Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month were observed to be key climatic factors controlling the stand densities and total basal areas of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Increased summer temperatures and precipitations strongly enhanced the stand densities and total basal areas of broadleaf trees but had little effect on Pinus koraiensis under the +2°C and +10% precipitation scenario and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenario. Conclusions/significance These results show that the Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month are key climatic factors which shape the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Although the Pinus koraiensis would persist, the current forests dominated by Pinus koraiensis in the region would all shift and become broadleaf-dominated forests due to the dramatic increase of broadleaf trees under the future global warming and increased

  4. Composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest respond to spatial climatic changes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingli; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Guangsheng; Xiao, Chunwang

    2014-01-01

    Although some studies have indicated that climate changes can affect Pinus koraiensis mixed forest, the responses of composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forests to climatic changes are unknown and the key climatic factors controlling the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest are uncertain. Field survey was conducted in the natural Pinus koraiensis mixed forests along a latitudinal gradient and an elevational gradient in Northeast China. In order to build the mathematical models for simulating the relationships of compositional and structural attributes of the Pinus koraiensis mixed forest with climatic and non-climatic factors, stepwise linear regression analyses were performed, incorporating 14 dependent variables and the linear and quadratic components of 9 factors. All the selected new models were computed under the +2°C and +10% precipitation and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenarios. The Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month were observed to be key climatic factors controlling the stand densities and total basal areas of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Increased summer temperatures and precipitations strongly enhanced the stand densities and total basal areas of broadleaf trees but had little effect on Pinus koraiensis under the +2°C and +10% precipitation scenario and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenario. These results show that the Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month are key climatic factors which shape the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Although the Pinus koraiensis would persist, the current forests dominated by Pinus koraiensis in the region would all shift and become broadleaf-dominated forests due to the dramatic increase of broadleaf trees under the future global warming and increased precipitation.

  5. Effects of experimentally modified soil temperatures and nutrient availability on growth and mycorrhization of Pinus cembra at the alpine treeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Andreas; Peintner, Ursula; Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Soil temperature affects litter decomposition, nutrient uptake, root growth and respiration and it is suggested that soil temperature has direct impact on tree growth at the alpine treeline. We have evaluated the impact of experimentally modified soil temperatures and nutrient availability on growth and mycorrhization of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Eastern Alps (c. 2150 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria). Soil temperature in the rooting zone of naturally grown c. 25 year old trees (n=6 trees per treatment) was altered by shading and heat-trapping using non-transparent and glasshouse foils mounted c. 20 cm above soil surface. Additional trees were selected for a nitrogen fertilisation treatment and as controls. During the study period, mean soil temperatures at 10 cm depth were reduced by c. 3°C at the cooled vs. warmed plots. Soil moisture was not influenced due to soil water transport along the slope. Results revealed that changed soil temperatures did not significantly affect tree growth, gas exchange, needle nutrient content and specific leaf area. We also found no significant difference in degree of mycorrhization or number of mycorrhized root tips between treatments. On the other hand, nitrogen fertilization and a reduction of interspecific root competition led to significantly raised radial stem growth. Results indicate that tree growth at the selected study area was not limited by soil temperature, while interspecific competition for nutrients among trees and low stature vegetation (dwarf shrubs, grasses) had significant impact. Therefore, we suggest that root competition with alpine grassland and dwarf-shrub communities will hamper temperature driven advance of alpine treeline in the course of climate warming. Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF Project No. P22836-B16, 'Growth response of Pinus cembra to experimentally modified soil temperatures at the treeline').

  6. The oldest know Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm. )

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstein, F.C. ); Yamaguchi, D.K. )

    1992-08-01

    We have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata) more than 1600 yr old, including four that are more than 2 1 00 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the southern Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 B.C. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr, The ages of these trees show that Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, under arid environmental conditions, achieve much older ages than have been previously reported. The ages also show that previously inferred trends in bristlecone pine ages, where maximum ages in the eastern range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines are much less than maximum ages in the western range of Great Basin bristlecone pines (Pinus longaea), are less strong than previously supposed. Ancient Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, such as those found in this study, have the potential to expand our knowledge of late Holocene climatic conditions in western North America.

  7. Root architecture and wind-firmness of mature Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Danjon, Frédéric; Fourcaud, Thierry; Bert, Didier

    2005-11-01

    This study aims to link three-dimensional coarse root architecture to tree stability in mature timber trees with an average of 1-m rooting depth. Undamaged and uprooted trees were sampled in a stand damaged by a storm. Root architecture was measured by three-dimensional (3-D) digitizing. The distribution of root volume by root type and in wind-oriented sectors was analysed. Mature Pinus pinaster root systems were organized in a rigid 'cage' composed of a taproot, the zone of rapid taper of horizontal surface roots and numerous sinkers and deep roots, imprisoning a large mass of soil and guyed by long horizontal surface roots. Key compartments for stability exhibited strong selective leeward or windward reinforcement. Uprooted trees showed a lower cage volume, a larger proportion of oblique and intermediate depth horizontal roots and less wind-oriented root reinforcement. Pinus pinaster stability on moderately deep soils is optimized through a typical rooting pattern and a considerable structural adaptation to the prevailing wind and soil profile.

  8. The complete plastid genome of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-Hu; Zhu, Juan; Yang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Jie; He, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Bunge's pine Pinus bungeana Zucc. ex Endl. chloroplast genome (cp DNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 117 861 bp in length, containing a pair of 475 bp inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), which were separated by large and small single copy regions (LSC and SSC) of 65 373 and 51 538 bp, respectively. The cpDNA contained 111 genes, including 71 protein-coding genes (71 PCG species), 4 ribosomal RNA genes (4 rRNA species) and 36 tRNA genes (32 tRNA species). In these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 1 (ycf3) contained a couple of introns. The overall AT content of Bunge's pine cpDNA is 61.2%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 61.9%, 60.2% and 62.5%, respectively. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on the maximum parsimony analysis suggested that all the sampled Pinus species clustered a monophyletic clade and have a high bootstrap support, and the cpDNA of P. bungeana is closely related to that of congeneric P. gerardiana.

  9. [Community characteristics of Pinus armandi forest on Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dexiang; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Dengwu; Lei, Ruide; Lan, Guoyu

    2004-03-01

    The community characteristics of Pinus armandi forest distributed on the mid-west zone of Qinling Mountains' south slope were investigated. The results showed that there were 166 seed plants belonging to 51 families, 111 generas. Among them, 65 genera, 66.7% of the total, belonged to temperate biome. There was a closely relationship between Pinus armandi forest and the temperate biome. As regards to the physiognomy of the community, phanerophyte made up 75.9% of the total, dominating the community. In the community, 96 species with middle-sized leaves made up 57.8%, and there were 139 single leaf species, accounted for 83.7% of the total. There was a complicated vertical structure in the community, which could be divided into three layers:arbor layer, shrub layer and herb layer. In addition, there were also a lot of inter-stratum plants in the community. It is also found that the lack of seedlings, saplings and small trees was due to both the self-thinning caused by intra-specific competition and the alien-thinning by inter-specific competition for the light resource in the stand. The population of P. armandi was characterized with the patch size about 100 m2. The dynamics of the community showed that the community was stable and in a process of development.

  10. SEASONAL CHANGES IN ROOT AND SOIL RESPIRATION OF OZONE-EXPOSED PONDEROSA PINE (PINUS PONDEROSA) GROWN IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to(ozone 0-3)has been shown to decrease the allocation of carbon to tree roots. Decreased allocation of carbon to roots might disrupt root metabolism and rhizosphere organisms. The effects of soil type and shoot 0, exposure on below-ground respiration and soil microbial ...

  11. SEASONAL CHANGES IN ROOT AND SOIL RESPIRATION OF OZONE-EXPOSED PONDEROSA PINE (PINUS PONDEROSA) GROWN IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to(ozone 0-3)has been shown to decrease the allocation of carbon to tree roots. Decreased allocation of carbon to roots might disrupt root metabolism and rhizosphere organisms. The effects of soil type and shoot 0, exposure on below-ground respiration and soil microbial ...

  12. Mitochondrial Genome of Phlebia radiata Is the Second Largest (156 kbp) among Fungi and Features Signs of Genome Flexibility and Recent Recombination Events

    PubMed Central

    Salavirta, Heikki; Oksanen, Ilona; Kuuskeri, Jaana; Mäkelä, Miia; Laine, Pia; Paulin, Lars; Lundell, Taina

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are eukaryotic organelles supporting individual life-style via generation of proton motive force and cellular energy, and indispensable metabolic pathways. As part of genome sequencing of the white rot Basidiomycota species Phlebia radiata, we first assembled its mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). So far, the 156 348 bp mtDNA is the second largest described for fungi, and of considerable size among eukaryotes. The P. radiata mtDNA assembled as single circular dsDNA molecule containing genes for the large and small ribosomal RNAs, 28 transfer RNAs, and over 100 open reading frames encoding the 14 fungal conserved protein subunits of the mitochondrial complexes I, III, IV, and V. Two genes (atp6 and tRNA-IleGAU) were duplicated within 6.1 kbp inverted region, which is a unique feature of the genome. The large mtDNA size, however, is explained by the dominance of intronic and intergenic regions (sum 80% of mtDNA sequence). The intergenic DNA stretches harness short (≤200 nt) repetitive, dispersed and overlapping sequence elements in abundance. Long self-splicing introns of types I and II interrupt eleven of the conserved genes (cox1,2,3; cob; nad1,2,4,4L,5; rnl; rns). The introns embrace a total of 57 homing endonucleases with LAGLIDADGD and GYI-YIG core motifs, which makes P. radiata mtDNA to one of the largest known reservoirs of intron-homing endonucleases. The inverted duplication, intergenic stretches, and intronic features are indications of dynamics and genetic flexibility of the mtDNA, not fully recognized to this extent in fungal mitochondrial genomes previously, thus giving new insights for the evolution of organelle genomes in eukaryotes. PMID:24824642

  13. Salinity and High Temperature Tolerance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] from a Physiological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    HanumanthaRao, Bindumadhava; Nair, Ramakrishnan M.; Nayyar, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic constraints seriously affect the productivity of agriculture worldwide. The broadly recognized benefits of legumes in cropping systems—biological nitrogen fixation, improving soil fertility and broadening cereal-based agro-ecologies, are desirable now more than ever. Legume production is affected by hostile environments, especially soil salinity and high temperatures (HTs). Among legumes, mungbean has acceptable intrinsic tolerance mechanisms, but many agro-physiological characteristics of the Vigna species remain to be explored. Mungbean has a distinct advantage of being short-duration and can grow in wide range of soils and environments (as mono or relay legume). This review focuses on salinity and HT stresses on mungbean grown as a fallow crop (mungbean-rice-wheat to replace fallow-rice-wheat) and/or a relay crop in cereal cropping systems. Salinity tolerance comprises multifaceted responses at the molecular, physiological and plant canopy levels. In HTs, adaptation of physiological and biochemical processes gradually may lead to improvement of heat tolerance in plants. At the field level, managing or manipulating cultural practices can mitigate adverse effects of salinity and HT. Greater understanding of physiological and biochemical mechanisms regulating these two stresses will contribute to an evolving profile of the genes, proteins, and metabolites responsible for mungbean survival. We focus on abiotic stresses in legumes in general and mungbean in particular, and highlight gaps that need to be bridged through future mungbean research. Recent findings largely from physiological and biochemical fronts are examined, along with a few agronomic and farm-based management strategies to mitigate stress under field conditions. PMID:27446183

  14. Salinity and High Temperature Tolerance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] from a Physiological Perspective.

    PubMed

    HanumanthaRao, Bindumadhava; Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Nayyar, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic constraints seriously affect the productivity of agriculture worldwide. The broadly recognized benefits of legumes in cropping systems-biological nitrogen fixation, improving soil fertility and broadening cereal-based agro-ecologies, are desirable now more than ever. Legume production is affected by hostile environments, especially soil salinity and high temperatures (HTs). Among legumes, mungbean has acceptable intrinsic tolerance mechanisms, but many agro-physiological characteristics of the Vigna species remain to be explored. Mungbean has a distinct advantage of being short-duration and can grow in wide range of soils and environments (as mono or relay legume). This review focuses on salinity and HT stresses on mungbean grown as a fallow crop (mungbean-rice-wheat to replace fallow-rice-wheat) and/or a relay crop in cereal cropping systems. Salinity tolerance comprises multifaceted responses at the molecular, physiological and plant canopy levels. In HTs, adaptation of physiological and biochemical processes gradually may lead to improvement of heat tolerance in plants. At the field level, managing or manipulating cultural practices can mitigate adverse effects of salinity and HT. Greater understanding of physiological and biochemical mechanisms regulating these two stresses will contribute to an evolving profile of the genes, proteins, and metabolites responsible for mungbean survival. We focus on abiotic stresses in legumes in general and mungbean in particular, and highlight gaps that need to be bridged through future mungbean research. Recent findings largely from physiological and biochemical fronts are examined, along with a few agronomic and farm-based management strategies to mitigate stress under field conditions.

  15. Elevated CO2 increases root exudation from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) seedlings as an N-mediated response.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Richard P; Bernhardt, Emily S; Schlesinger, William H

    2009-12-01

    The degree to which forest ecosystems provide a long-term sink for increasing atmospheric CO(2) depends upon the capacity of trees to increase the availability of growth-limiting resources. It has been widely speculated that trees exposed to CO(2) enrichment may increase the release of root exudates to soil as a mechanism to stimulate microbes to enhance nutrient availability. As a first test to examine how the atmospheric CO(2) and nitrogen availability affect the rates of root exudation, we performed two experiments in which the exudates were collected from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings that were grown in controlled growth chambers under low and high CO(2) and at low and high rates of N supply. Despite the differences in experimental design between the two studies, plants grown at high CO(2) were larger, and thus whole plant exudation rates were higher under elevated CO(2) (P = 0.019), but the magnitude of this response depended on the N level in both studies. Seedlings increased mass-specific exudation rates in response to elevated CO(2) in both experiments, but only at low N supply. Moreover, N supply had a greater impact on the exudation rates than did CO(2), with mass-specific exudation rates significantly greater (98% and 69% in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively) in the seedlings grown at low N supply relative to high N supply. These results provide preliminary evidence that loblolly pines alter exudation rates in response to both CO(2) concentration and N supply, and support the hypothesis that increased C allocation to root exudates may be a mechanism by which trees could delay progressive N limitation in forested ecosystems.

  16. Differences in hydraulic architecture between mesic and xeric Pinus pinaster populations at the seedling stage.

    PubMed

    Corcuera, Leyre; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Notivol, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    We studied the intraspecific variability of maritime pine in a set of morphological and physiological traits: soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE, estimated by carbon isotope composition, δ(13)C), root morphology, xylem anatomy, growth and carbon allocation patterns. The data were collected from Pinus pinaster Aiton seedlings (25 half-sib families from five populations) grown in a greenhouse and subjected to water and water-stress treatments. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in water availability at the geographic location of the populations, and to study the potential trade-offs among traits. The drought-stressed seedlings demonstrated a decrease in hydraulic conductance and root surface area and increased WUE and root tip number. The relationships among the growth, morphological, anatomical and physiological traits changed with the scale of study: within the species, among/within populations. The populations showed a highly significant relationship between the percentage reduction in whole-plant hydraulic conductance and WUE. The differences among the populations in root morphology, whole-plant conductance, carbon allocation, plant growth and WUE were significant and consistent with dryness of the site of seed origin. The xeric populations exhibited lower growth and a conservative water use, as opposed to the fast-growing, less water-use-efficient populations from mesic habitats. The xeric and mesic populations, Tamrabta and San Cipriano, respectively, showed the most contrasting traits and were clustered in opposite directions along the main axis in the canonical discriminant analysis under both the control and drought treatments. The results suggest the possibility of selecting the Arenas population, which presents a combination of traits that confer increased growth and drought resistance.

  17. Pinus pinaster seedlings and their fungal symbionts show high plasticity in phosphorus acquisition in acidic soils.

    PubMed

    Ali, M A; Louche, J; Legname, E; Duchemin, M; Plassard, C

    2009-12-01

    Young seedlings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Soland in Aït.) were grown in rhizoboxes using intact spodosol soil samples from the southwest of France, in Landes of Gascogne, presenting a large variation of phosphorus (P) availability. Soils were collected from a 93-year-old unfertilized stand and a 13-year-old P. pinaster stand with regular annual fertilization of either only P or P and nitrogen (N). After 6 months of culture in controlled conditions, different morphotypes of ectomycorrhiza (ECM) were used for the measurements of acid phosphatase activity and molecular identification of fungal species using amplification of the ITS region. Total biomass, N and P contents were measured in roots and shoots of plants. Bicarbonate- and NaOH-available inorganic P (Pi), organic P (Po) and ergosterol concentrations were measured in bulk and rhizosphere soil. The results showed that bulk soil from the 93-year-old forest stand presented the highest Po levels, but relatively higher bicarbonate-extractable Pi levels compared to 13-year-old unfertilized stand. Fertilizers significantly increased the concentrations of inorganic P fractions in bulk soil. Ergosterol contents in rhizosphere soil were increased by fertilizer application. The dominant fungal species was Rhizopogon luteolus forming 66.6% of analysed ECM tips. Acid phosphatase activity was highly variable and varied inversely with bicarbonate-extractable Pi levels in the rhizosphere soil. Total P or total N in plants was linearly correlated with total plant biomass, but the slope was steep only between total P and biomass in fertilized soil samples. In spite of high phosphatase activity in ECM tips, P availability remained a limiting nutrient in soil samples from unfertilized stands. Nevertheless young P. pinaster seedlings showed a high plasticity for biomass production at low P availability in soils.

  18. Transcriptome-wide analysis supports environmental adaptations of two Pinus pinaster populations from contrasting habitats.

    PubMed

    Cañas, Rafael A; Feito, Isabel; Fuente-Maqueda, José Francisco; Ávila, Concepción; Majada, Juan; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2015-11-06

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) grows in a range of different climates in the southwestern Mediterranean region and the existence of a variety of latitudinal ecotypes or provenances is well established. In this study, we have conducted a deep analysis of the transcriptome in needles from two P. pinaster provenances, Leiria (Portugal) and Tamrabta (Morocco), which were grown in northern Spain under the same conditions. An oligonucleotide microarray (PINARRAY3) and RNA-Seq were used for whole-transcriptome analyses, and we found that 90.95% of the data were concordant between the two platforms. Furthermore, the two methods identified very similar percentages of differentially expressed genes with values of 5.5% for PINARRAY3 and 5.7% for RNA-Seq. In total, 6,023 transcripts were shared and 88 differentially expressed genes overlapped in the two platforms. Among the differentially expressed genes, all transport related genes except aquaporins were expressed at higher levels in Tamrabta than in Leiria. In contrast, genes involved in secondary metabolism were expressed at higher levels in Tamrabta, and photosynthesis-related genes were expressed more highly in Leiria. The genes involved in light sensing in plants were well represented in the differentially expressed groups of genes. In addition, increased levels of hormones such as abscisic acid, gibberellins, jasmonic and salicylic acid were observed in Leiria. Both transcriptome platforms have proven to be useful resources, showing complementary and reliable results. The results presented here highlight the different abilities of the two maritime pine populations to sense environmental conditions and reveal one type of regulation that can be ascribed to different genetic and epigenetic backgrounds.

  19. Genetic variation of piperidine alkaloids in Pinus ponderosa: a common garden study

    PubMed Central

    Gerson, Elizabeth A.; Kelsey, Rick G.; St Clair, J. Bradley

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous measurements of conifer alkaloids have revealed significant variation attributable to many sources, environmental and genetic. The present study takes a complementary and intensive, common garden approach to examine genetic variation in Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa alkaloid production. Additionally, this study investigates the potential trade-off between seedling growth and alkaloid production, and associations between topographic/climatic variables and alkaloid production. Methods Piperidine alkaloids were quantified in foliage of 501 nursery seedlings grown from seed sources in west-central Washington, Oregon and California, roughly covering the western half of the native range of ponderosa pine. A nested mixed model was used to test differences among broad-scale regions and among families within regions. Alkaloid concentrations were regressed on seedling growth measurements to test metabolite allocation theory. Likewise, climate characteristics at the seed sources were also considered as explanatory variables. Key Results Quantitative variation from seedling to seedling was high, and regional variation exceeded variation among families. Regions along the western margin of the species range exhibited the highest alkaloid concentrations, while those further east had relatively low alkaloid levels. Qualitative variation in alkaloid profiles was low. All measures of seedling growth related negatively to alkaloid concentrations on a natural log scale; however, coefficients of determination were low. At best, annual height increment explained 19·4 % of the variation in ln(total alkaloids). Among the climate variables, temperature range showed a negative, linear association that explained 41·8 % of the variation. Conclusions Given the wide geographic scope of the seed sources and the uniformity of resources in the seedlings' environment, observed differences in alkaloid concentrations are evidence for genetic regulation of alkaloid

  20. The Temporal Transcriptomic Response of Pinus massoniana Seedlings to Phosphorus Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fuhua; Cui, Bowen; Zhang, Ting; Qiao, Guang; Ding, Guijie; Wen, Xiaopeng

    2014-01-01

    Background Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Several genes involved in phosphorus deficiency stress have been identified in various plant species. However, a whole genome understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in plant adaptations to low P remains elusive, and there is particularly little information on the genetic basis of these acclimations in coniferous trees. Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) is grown mainly in the tropical and subtropical regions in China, many of which are severely lacking in inorganic phosphate (Pi). In previous work, we described an elite P. massoniana genotype demonstrating a high tolerance to Pi-deficiency. Methodology/Principal Findings To further investigate the mechanism of tolerance to low P, RNA-seq was performed to give an idea of extent of expression from the two mixed libraries, and microarray whose probes were designed based on the unigenes obtained from RNA-seq was used to elucidate the global gene expression profiles for the long-term phosphorus starvation. A total of 70,896 unigenes with lengths ranging from 201 to 20,490 bp were assembled from 112,108,862 high quality reads derived from RNA-Seq libraries. We identified 1,396 and 943 transcripts that were differentially regulated (P<0.05) under P1 (0.01 mM P) and P2 (0.06 mM P) Pi-deficiency conditions, respectively. Numerous transcripts were consistently differentially regulated under Pi deficiency stress, many of which were also up- or down-regulated in other species under the corresponding conditions, and are therefore ideal candidates for monitoring the P status of plants. The results also demonstrated the impact of different Pi starvation levels on global gene expression in Masson pine. Conclusions/Significance To our knowledge, this work provides the first insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in acclimation to long-term Pi starvation and different Pi availability levels in coniferous trees. PMID:25165828

  1. Genetic and environmental control of seasonal carbohydrate dynamics in trees of diverse Pinus sylvestris populations.

    PubMed

    Oleksyn, J.; Zytkowiak, R.; Karolewski, P.; Reich, P. B.; Tjoelker, M. G.

    2000-06-01

    We explored environmental and genetic factors affecting seasonal dynamics of starch and soluble nonstructural carbohydrates in needle and twig cohorts and roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees of six populations originating between 49 degrees and 60 degrees N, and grown under common garden conditions in western Poland. Trees of each population were sampled once or twice per month over a 3-year period from age 15 to 17 years. Based on similarity in starch concentration patterns in needles, two distinct groups of populations were identified; one comprised northern populations from Sweden and Russia (59-60 degrees N), and another comprised central European populations from Latvia, Poland, Germany and France (49-56 degrees N). Needle starch concentrations of northern populations started to decline in late spring and reached minimum values earlier than those of central populations. For all populations, starch accumulation in spring started when minimum air temperature permanently exceeded 0 degrees C. Starch accumulation peaked before bud break and was highest in 1-year-old needles, averaging 9-13% of dry mass. Soluble carbohydrate concentrations were lowest in spring and summer and highest in autumn and winter. There were no differences among populations in seasonal pattern of soluble carbohydrate concentrations. Averaged across all populations, needle soluble carbohydrate concentrations increased from about 4% of needle dry mass in developing current-year needles, to about 9% in 1- and 2-year-old needles. Root carbohydrate concentration exhibited a bimodal pattern with peaks in spring and autumn. Northern populations had higher concentrations of fine-root starch in spring and autumn than central populations. Late-summer carbohydrate accumulation in roots started only after depletion of starch in needles and woody shoots. We conclude that Scots pine carbohydrate dynamics depend partially on inherited properties that are probably related to phenology of root

  2. Nutrient conservation increases with latitude of origin in European Pinus sylvestris populations.

    PubMed

    Oleksyn, J; Reich, P B; Zytkowiak, R; Karolewski, P; Tjoelker, M G

    2003-07-01

    Nutrient availability varies across climatic gradients, yet intraspecific adaptation across such gradients in plant traits related to internal cycling and nutrient resorption remains poorly understood. We examined nutrient resorption among six Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations of wide-ranging origin grown under common-garden conditions in Poland. These results were compared with mass-based needle N and P for 195 Scots pine stands throughout the species' European range. At the common site, green needle N (r(2)=0.81, P=0.01) and P (r(2)=0.58, P=0.08) concentration increased with increasing latitude of population origin. Resorption efficiency (the proportion of the leaf nutrient pool resorbed during senescence) of N and P of Scots pine populations increased with the latitude of seed origin (r(2) > or = 0.67, P < or = 0.05). The greater resorption efficiency of more northerly populations led to lower concentrations of N and P in senescent leaves (higher resorption proficiency) than populations originating from low latitudes. The direction of change in these traits indicates potential adaptation of populations from northern, colder habitats to more efficient internal nutrient cycling. For native Scots pine stands, results showed greater nutrient conservation in situ in cold-adapted northern populations, via extended needle longevity (from 2 to 3 years at 50 degrees N to 7 years at 70 degrees N), and greater resorption efficiency and proficiency, with their greater resorption efficiency and proficiency having genotypic roots demonstrated in the common-garden experiment. However, for native Scots pine stands, green needle N decreased with increasing latitude (r(2)=0.83, P=0.0002), and P was stable other than decreasing above 62 degrees N. Hence, the genotypic tendency towards maintenance of higher nutrient concentrations in green foliage and effective nutrient resorption, demonstrated by northern populations in the common garden, did not entirely compensate for

  3. [Effects of soil acidity on Pinus resinosa seedlings photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Qing-cheng; Liu, Ya-li; Tian, Yu-ming; Sun, Jing; Xu, Jing

    2009-12-01

    Red pine (Pinus resinosa) is one of the most important tree species for timber plantation in North America, and preliminary success has been achieved in its introduction to the mountainous area of Northeast China since 2004. In order to expand its growth area in other parts of Northeast China, a pot experiment was conducted to study the adaptability of this tree species to varying soil acidity. P. resinosa seedlings were grown in soils with different acidity (pH = 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, and 8.0) to test the responses of their photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters to soil pH levels, and the appropriate soil acidity was evaluated. Dramatic responses in chlorophyll a and b contents, Pn and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fm, Fv, Fv/Fm, and phi(PS II)) were detected under different soil acidity (P < 0.05), with the highest chlorophyll content and Pn under soil pH 5.5, and significantly lower chlorophyll content and Pn under soil pH 7.5 and 8.0. The chlorophyll content and Pn were 41% and 50%, and 61% and 88% higher under soil pH 5.5 than under soil pH 7.5 and 8.0. The seedlings had a significant photosynthetic inhibition under soil pH 7.5 and 8.0, but the highest Fv/Fm and phi (PS II) under soil pH 5.5. Comparing with those under soil pH 7.5 and 8.0, the Fv/Fm and phi (PS II) under soil pH 5.5 were 8% and 12%, and 22% and 35% higher, respectively. It was suggested that soil pH 5.5 was most appropriate for P. resinosa growth.

  4. [Response of broadleaved Pinus koraiensis forests in Xiaoxinganling Mt. to global climate change--a dynamic modeling].

    PubMed

    Deng, H; Wu, Z; Zhou, D

    2000-02-01

    In this paper, the Forest Gap Model and four General Circulation Models (GCMs) were employed to investigate the dynamic response of broadleaved Pinus koraiensis forests in Xiaoxinganling Mountains of China to global climate change. Under CO2 doubling which was simulated by the scenarios of Oregon State University and Goddard Institute for Space Studies, the biomass of broadleaved Pinus koraiensis forest increased and the current Picea-Abies-broadleaved Pinus koraiensis forest would gradually develop to Betula costata-Tilia amurensis-Ulmus laciniata-broadleaved Pinus koraiensis forest. Under the scenarios of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory at Princeton University and United Kingdom Meteorological Office, Pinus koraiensis and other coniferous species would be replaced by broadleaved species such as Quercus mongolica, Tilia amurensis and Ulmus laciniata, and the broadleaved Pinus koraiensis forest would change to broadleaved forest, due to the great range increasing temperature by the scenarios. The future warming rate would determine the succession of broadleaved Pinus koraiensis forest.

  5. Physiological and biochemical mechanisms of spermine-induced cadmium stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Rahman, Motiar; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Rahman, Anisur; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-11-01

    The role of exogenous spermine (0.25 mM Spm, a type of polyamine (PA) in reducing Cd uptake and alleviating Cd toxicity (containing 1 and 1.5 mM CdCl2 in the growing media) effects was studied in the mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2) plant. Exogenously applied Spm reduced Cd content, accumulation, and translocation in different plant parts. Increasing phytochelatin content, exogenous Spm reduced Cd accumulation and translocation. Spm application reduced the Cd-induced oxidative damage which was reflected from the reduction of H2O2 content, O2(•-) generation rate, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, and lipid peroxidation level and also reflected from the reduction of spots of H2O2 and O2(•-) from mung bean leaves (compared to control treatment). Spm pretreatment increased non-enzymatic antioxidant contents (ascorbate, AsA, and glutathione, GSH) and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR) which reduced oxidative stress. The cytotoxicity of methylglyoxal (MG) is also reduced by exogenous Spm because it enhanced glyoxalase system enzymes and components. Through osmoregulation, Spm maintained a better water status of Cd-affected mung bean seedlings. Spm prevented the chl damage and increased its content. Exogenous Spm also modulated the endogenous free PAs level which might have the roles in improving physiological processes including antioxidant capacity, osmoregulation, and Cd and MG detoxification capacity. The overall Spm-induced tolerance of mung bean seedlings to Cd toxicity was reflected through improved growth of mung bean seedlings.

  6. Formation and action of lignin-modifying enzymes in cultures of Phlebia radiata supplemented with veratric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lundell, T.; Hatakka, A. ); Leonowicz, A.; Rogalski, J. )

    1990-09-01

    Transformation of veratric (3,4-dimethoxybenzoic) acid by the white rot fungus Phlebia radiata was studied to elucidate the role of ligninolytic, reductive, and demeth(ox)ylating enzymes. Under both air and a 100% O{sub 2} atmosphere, with nitrogen limitation and glucose as a carbon source, reducing activity resulted in the accumulation of veratryl alcohol in the medium. When the fungus was cultivated under air, veratric acid caused a rapid increase in laccase (benzenediol:oxygen oxidoreductase; EC 1.10.3.2) production, which indicated that veratic acid was first demethylated, thus providing phenolic compounds for laccase. After a rapid decline in laccase activity, elevated lignin peroxidase (ligninase) activity and manganese-dependent peroxidase production were detected simultaneously with extracellular release of methanol. This indicated apparent demethoxylation. When the fungus was cultivated under a continuous 100% O{sub 2} flow and in the presence of veratric acid, laccase production was markedly repressed, whereas production of lignin peroxidase and degradation of veratryl compounds were clearly enhanced. In all cultures, the increases in lignin peroxidase titers were directly related to veratryl alcohol accumulation. Evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from 3-O{sup 14}CH{sub 3}-and 4-O{sup 14}CH{sub 3}-labeled veratric acids showed that the position of the methoxyl substituent in the aromatic ring only slightly affected demeth(ox)ylation activity. In both cases, more than 60% of the total {sup 14}C was converted to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} under air in 4 weeks, and oxygen flux increased the degradation rate of the {sup 14}C-labeled veratric acids just as it did with unlabeled cultures.

  7. Combined efficacy of Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek and Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson on serum lipids in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Benil, P B; Lekshmi, R; Viswanathan, N; Jollykutty, E; Rajakrishnan, R; Thomas, J; Alfarhan, A H

    2017-09-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is a major killer disease throughout the world. Dyslipidemia is a major contributor to the risk of CAD. Several dietary articles traditionally used in India and other South Asian countries reduced dyslipidemia. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the combined effect of Mung bean (Vigna radiata) and Elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) on serum lipids and atherogenic indices in albino rats and to compare it with a standard drug Cholestyramine. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (150-200 g) were randomized to 5 groups of 6 animals each. The grouping were done based on the following criteria: Group I: Normal Control Group, Group II: (Standard Group): Cholestyramine resin 5 mg/kg bw, Group III: (Half Dose Group): Drug powder at 540 mg/kg bw, Group IV: (Effective Dose Group): Drug powder at 1080 mg/kg bw, and Group V: (Double Dose Group): Drug powder at 2160 mg/kg bw. Lipid profile was estimated at the beginning and after 30 days of treatment. The Effective and Double doses of the drug reduced Total cholesterol along with levels of Triglycerides, Low density lipoprotein and Very low density lipoprotein levels significantly (p < 0.01) along with a significant (p < 0.01) increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL) in rats. There was also significant (p < 0.01) improvement in atherogenic indices like Castelli Risk Index I, Non HDL C/HDL, Castelli risk Index II, TG/HDL, Atherogenic coefficient and Atherogenic Index of Plasma. The combination of powdered sprouted mung bean and yam powder have excellent lipid lowering potential.

  8. Purified and refolded recombinant bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) zona pellucida glycoprotein-B expressed in Escherichia coli binds to spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Govind, C K; Gahlay, G K; Choudhury, S; Gupta, S K

    2001-04-01

    Bonnet monkey (Macaca radiata) zona pellucida glycoprotein-B (bmZPB), excluding the N:-terminal signal sequence and the C:-terminus transmembrane-like domain, has been expressed in Escherichia coli as polyhistidine fusion protein. A requirement of 4 M urea to maintain the purified protein in soluble state rendered it unsuitable for biological studies. Purification of refolded r-bmZPB without urea and devoid of lower molecular weight fragments was achieved by following an alternate methodology that involved purification of inclusion bodies to homogeneity and solubilization in the presence of a low concentration of chaotropic agent (2 M urea) and high pH (pH 12). The solubilized protein was refolded in the presence of oxidized and reduced glutathione. The circular dichroism spectra revealed the presence of both alpha helical and beta sheet components in the secondary structure of the refolded r-bmZPB. The binding of the refolded r-bmZPB to the spermatozoa was evaluated by an indirect immunofluorescence assay and also by direct binding of the biotinylated r-bmZPB. The binding was restricted to the principal segment of the acrosomal cap of capacitated bonnet monkey spermatozoa. In the acrosome-reacted spermatozoa a shift in the binding pattern of r-bmZPB was observed and it bound to the equatorial segment, postacrosomal domain, and midpiece region. Binding of biotinylated r-bmZPB was inhibited by cold r-bmZPB as well as by monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies generated against r-bmZPB. These results suggest that nonglycosylated bmZPB binds to capacitated as well as acrosome-reacted spermatozoa in a nonhuman primate and may have a functional role during fertilization.

  9. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Mediterranean Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea resin essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ulukanli, Zeynep; Karabörklü, Salih; Bozok, Fuat; Ates, Burhan; Erdogan, Selim; Cenet, Menderes; Karaaslan, Merve Göksin

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils of the resins of Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea were evaluated for their biological potential. Essential oils were characterized using GC-MS and GC/FID. in vitro antimicrobial, phytotoxic, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities were carried out using the direct contact and the fumigant assays, respectively. The chemical profile of the essential oils of the resins of P. pinea and P. brutia included mainly α-pinene (21.39% and 25.40%), β-pinene (9.68% and 9.69%), and caryophyllene (9.12% and 4.81%). The essential oils of P. pinea and P. brutia exerted notable antimicrobial activities on Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, insecticidal activities on Ephestia kuehniella eggs, phytotoxic activities on Lactuca sativa, Lepidium sativum, and Portulaca oleracea, as well as antioxidant potential. Indications of the biological activities of the essential oils suggest their use in the formulation of ecofriendly and biocompatible pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Levels and sources of PAHs in selected sites from Portugal: biomonitoring with Pinus pinea and Pinus pinaster needles.

    PubMed

    Ratola, Nuno; Amigo, José Manuel; Alves, Arminda

    2010-04-01

    Pine needle samples from two pine species (Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L.) were collected at 29 sites scattered throughout Portugal, in order to biomonitor the levels and trends of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The values obtained for the sum of all PAHs ranged from 76 to 1944 ng/g [dry weight (dw)]. Despite the apparent matrix similarities between both pine species, P. pinaster needles revealed higher mean entrapment levels than P. pinea (748 and 399 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively). The urban and industrial sites have the highest average of PAH incidence [for P. pinea, 465 and 433 ng/g (dw) per site, respectively, and for P. pinaster, 1147 and 915 ng/g (dw)], followed by the rural sites [233 ng/g and 711 ng/g (dw) per site, for P. pinea and P. pinaster, respectively]. The remote sites, both from P. pinaster needles, show the least contamination, with 77 ng/g (dw) per site. A predominance of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs was observed in most samples, with phenanthrene having 30.1% of the total. Naphthalene prevailed in remote sites. Rainfall had no influence on the PAHs levels, but there was a relationship between higher wind speeds and lower concentrations. PAH molecular ratios revealed the influence of both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources.

  11. Molecular response to water stress in two contrasting Mediterranean pines (Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea).

    PubMed

    Perdiguero, Pedro; Barbero, María Del Carmen; Cervera, María Teresa; Collada, Carmen; Soto, Alvaro

    2013-06-01

    Adaptation to water stress has determined the evolution and diversification of vascular plants. Water stress is forecasted to increase drastically in the next decades in certain regions, such as in the Mediterranean basin. Consequently, a proper knowledge of the response and adaptations to drought stress is essential for the correct management of plant genetic resources. However, most of the advances in the understanding of the molecular response to water stress have been attained in angiosperms, and are not always applicable to gymnosperms. In this work we analyse the transcriptional response of two emblematic Mediterranean pines, Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea, which show noticeable differences in their performance under water stress. Using microarray analysis, up to 113 genes have been detected as significantly induced by drought in both species. Reliability of expression patterns has been confirmed by RT-PCR. While induced genes with similar profiles in both species can be considered as general candidate genes for the study of drought response in conifers, genes with diverging expression patterns can underpin the differences displayed by these species under water stress. Most promising candidate genes for drought stress response include genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, such as glycosyltransferases or galactosidases, sugar transporters, dehydrins and transcription factors. Additionally, differences in the molecular response to drought and polyethylene-glycol-induced water stress are also discussed.

  12. [Vertical distribution of fuels in Pinus yunnanensis forest and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, San; Niu, Shu-Kui; Li, De; Wang, Jing-Hua; Chen, Feng; Sun, Wu

    2013-02-01

    In order to understand the effects of fuel loadings spatial distribution on forest fire kinds and behaviors, the canopy fuels and floor fuels of Pinus yunnanensis forests with different canopy density, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, and stand age and at different altitude, slope grade, position, and aspect in Southwest China were taken as test objects, with the fuel loadings and their spatial distribution characteristics at different vertical layers compared and the fire behaviors in different stands analyzed. The relationships between the fuel loadings and the environmental factors were also analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). In different stands, there existed significant differences in the vertical distribution of fuels. Pinus yunnanensis-Qak-Syzygium aromaticum, Pinus yunnanensis-oak, and Pinus yunnanensis forests were likely to occur floor fire but not crown fire, while Pinus yunnanensis-Platycladus orientalis, Pinus yunnanensis-Keteleeria fortune, and Keteleeria fortune-Pinus yunnanensis were not only inclined to occur floor fire, but also, the floor fire could be easily transformed into crown fire. The crown fuels were mainly affected by the stand age, altitude, DBH, and tree height, while the floor fuels were mainly by the canopy density, slope grade, altitude, and stand age.

  13. Protein Crystals Grown in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A collage of protein and virus crystals, many of which were grown on the U.S. Space Shuttle or Russian Space Station, Mir. The crystals include the proteins canavalin; mouse monoclonal antibody; a sweet protein, thaumatin; and a fungal protease. Viruses are represented here by crystals of turnip yellow mosaic virus and satellite tobacco mosaic virus. The crystals are photographed under polarized light (thus causing the colors) and range in size from a few hundred microns in edge length up to more than a millimeter. All the crystals are grown from aqueous solutions and are useful for X-ray diffraction analysis. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

  14. High tocopherol and triacylglycerol contents in Pinus pinea L. seeds.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Nizar; Tlili, Nizar; Ben Ammar, Kamel; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Fady, Bruno; Triki, Saida

    2009-01-01

    Oleaginous seeds are among the functional foods most recognized for their tocopherols and triacylglycerols because of their role in lipid metabolism. In this paper, the tocopherol and triacylglycerol contents in seeds of several Pinus pinea L. populations around the Mediterranean Basin were investigated. Lipids were extracted from fully ripen seeds with petroleum ether. The tocopherol (alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and delta-tocopherol) contents were, respectively, 15.34+/-3.75 ppm, 1,681.75+/-404.03 ppm and 41.87+/-9.79 ppm. Lipids (mainly triacylglycerols) in P. pinea seeds averaged 48% on a dry weight basis. Triacylglycerols with an equivalent carbon number of 44 (32.27%) and of 46 (30.91%) were dominant. The major triacylglycerol was LLO (24.06%). Tocopherols and triacylglycerols were present at remarkably high levels, thus making P. pinea oil a valuable source of antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids with varying levels across the geographical range of P. pinea.

  15. Needles of Pinus halepensis as biomonitors of bioaerosol emissions.

    PubMed

    Galès, Amandine; Latrille, Eric; Wéry, Nathalie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Godon, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped.

  16. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pinus eldarica Bark Extract

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, Siavash; Zolfaghari, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The objectives of this study were production of silver nanoparticles using Pinus eldarica bark extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of extract, substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. TEM images showed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (approximately in the range of 10–40 nm) were predominantly spherical in shape. The preparation of nano-structured silver particles using P. eldarica bark extract provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods. PMID:24083233

  17. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) convicilin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tengchuan; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yu-Wei; Albillos, Silvia M; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen; Tankersley, Boyce; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2014-07-01

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis). SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that Korean pine convicilin was post-translationally processed. The N-terminal peptide sequences of its components were determined. These peptides could be mapped to a protein translated from an embryo abundant transcript isolated in this study. Similar to vicilin, native convicilin appeared to be homotrimeric. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses revealed that this protein is less resistant to thermal treatment than Korean pine vicilin. Its transition temperature was 75.57 °C compared with 84.13 °C for vicilin. The urea induced folding-unfolding equilibrium of pine convicilin monitored by intrinsic fluorescence could be interpreted in terms of a two-state model, with a Cm of 4.41 ± 0.15 M.

  18. Needles of Pinus halepensis as Biomonitors of Bioaerosol Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Galès, Amandine; Latrille, Eric; Wéry, Nathalie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Godon, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped. PMID:25379901

  19. Variation among matsutake ectomycorrhizae in four clones of Pinus sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Vaario, Lu-Min; Lu, Jinrong; Koistinen, Arto; Tervahauta, Arja; Aronen, Tuija

    2015-04-01

    Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that forms commercially important mushrooms in coniferous forests. In this study, we explored the ability of T. matsutake to form mycorrhizae with Pinus sylvestris by inoculating emblings produced through somatic embryogenesis (SE) in an aseptic culture system. Two months after inoculation, clones with less phenolic compounds in the tissue culture phase formed mycorrhizae with T. matsutake, while clones containing more phenols did not. Effects of inoculation on embling growth varied among clones; two of the four tested showed a significant increase in biomass and two had a significant increase in root density. In addition, results suggest that clones forming well-developed mycorrhizae absorbed more Al, Fe, Na, P, and Zn after 8 weeks of inoculation. This study illustrates the value of SE materials in experimental work concerning T. matsutake as well as the role played by phenolic compounds in host plant response to infection by mycorrhizal fungi.

  20. Effect of copper, nutrient nitrogen, and wood-supplement on the production of lignin-modifying enzymes by the white-rot fungus Phlebia radiata.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Lundell, Taina; Hatakka, Annele; Hildén, Kristiina

    2013-01-01

    Production of the oxidoreductive lignin-modifying enzymes - lignin and manganese peroxidases (MnPs), and laccase - of the white-rot basidiomycete Phlebia radiata was investigated in semi-solid cultures supplemented with milled grey alder or Norway spruce and charcoal. Concentrations of nutrient nitrogen and Cu-supplement varied also in the cultures. According to extracellular activities, production of both lignin peroxidase (LiP) and MnP was significantly promoted with wood as carbon source, with milled alder (MA) and low nitrogen (LN) resulting with the maximal LiP activities (550 nkat l(-1)) and noticeable levels of MnP (3 μkat l(-1)). Activities of LiP and MnP were also elevated on high nitrogen (HN) complex medium when supplemented with spruce and charcoal. Maximal laccase activities (22 and 29 μkat l(-1)) were obtained in extra high nitrogen (eHN) containing defined and complex media supplemented with 1.5 mM Cu(2+). However, the nitrogen source, either peptone or ammonium nitrate and asparagine, caused no stimulation on laccase production without Cu-supplement. This is also the first report to demonstrate a new, on high Cu(2+) amended medium produced extracellular laccase of P. radiata with pI value of 4.9, thereby complementing our previous findings on gene expression, and cloning of a second laccase of this fungus. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gill tissue reactions in walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and common carp Cyprinus carpio to glochidia of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Mitchell, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The glochidia of many freshwater mussels, which are obligate parasites on the gills, fins, and other body parts of specific fishes, attach to a suitable host, become encapsulated, and develop to the free-living juvenile stage. Using light and electron microscopy we compared gill tissue reactions in a suitable host (walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and unsuitable host (common carp Cyprinus carpio) infected with Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea. Encapsulation of glochidia on walleye gills was completed by 6 h post-infection at 20 to 22°C. Capsular formation and compaction were accompanied by a general increase in epithelioid cells. Fibrotic material appeared in capsules at about 48 h and virtually filled capsular cells from about Day 5 to Day 11 post-infection. Liberation of juvenile mussels was accompanied by thinning of the capsule from about Day 11 to Day l7. Although glochidia attached to the gills of common carp, few became encapsulated. By 48 h post-infection, preliminary capsular growth was evident and necrotic cells and cellular debris appeared at the edges of the growth. However, all glochidia were sloughed from carp gills by 60 h. Host specificity of L. radiata siliquoidea apparently depended on a combination of the attachment response of glochidia, differences in the encapsulation process, and tissue reactions in the fish.

  2. Germinating seeds of the mung bean, Vigna radiata (Fabaceae), as a model for the preliminary evaluation of cytotoxic effects of drugs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay L; Singhal, Abhishek

    2009-04-01

    Cytotoxic properties of plant extracts and drugs being developed for cancer treatment are usually evaluated by a variety of in vivo and in vitro tests carried out in animal or plant based models. In the present study we have evaluated the possibility of using the germinating mung beans (Vigna radiata), for rapid and inexpensive screening of drugs exhibiting cytotoxic properties. Mung beans were allowed to germinate either in tap water or in different drug solutions, and parameters like percent germination, increase in radicle length, change in seedling weight and mitotic index of apical root meristems were determined at two time intervals coinciding with the time at which the radicle length in control group was 1.0 to 1.5 cm (time 0, T0) and 48 h later (T48). Methanol extract of Calotropis procera latex as well as drugs like podophyllotoxin, cyclophosphamide, cyproheptadine and aspirin produced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on seed germination, seed weight gain, radicle growth and mitotic index in the radicle meristems. The inhibitory effect of some of the drugs tested was associated with reduction in water imbibition. Some of the drugs at higher concentrations allowed seed germination to take place but produced radicle decay and seedling weight loss. Our study shows that germinating V radiata beans could be used as a convenient model for the preliminary screening of drugs exhibiting cytotoxic properties.

  3. Bioaccumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Zn) by the marine bivalves M. galloprovincialis, P. radiata, V. verrucosa and C. chione in Mediterranean coastal microenvironments: association with metal bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, Aikaterini; Karavoltsos, Sotirios; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn in both the whole soft tissue and separate organs (gills, mantle, muscle and digestive gland) of wild bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pinctada radiata, Venus verrucosa and Callista chione) from three different coastal microenvironments of Greece were monitored from 2003 to 2004. In parallel, by employing appropriate analytical protocols for metal partitioning, the labile fraction of the metals was determined in the dissolved phase, suspended particulate matter and sediments. Differences in the metal levels were detected both among the study areas as well as among the bivalves examined. Significant bioaccumulation was demonstrated regarding Zn in M. galloprovincialis specimens from the highly industrialized Gulf of Elefsis and Cd in P. radiata and V. verrucosa from the Maliakos Gulf, which is influenced by extended agricultural activity occurring at the neighbouring area and a river outflow. Data of the metal levels in the various environmental phases were correlated with their concentrations in bivalves' tissues. The clear relationships obtained in many cases among the labile metal concentrations and the bioaccumulated concentrations in bivalves point out that the labile fraction of a metal is the most bioavailable. The lack of positive correlation for C. chione confirms the occurrence of effective mechanisms of internal regulation of metal concentrations.

  4. The Combined Intervention with Germinated Vigna radiata and Aerobic Interval Training Protocol Is an Effective Strategy for the Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Other Alterations Related to the Metabolic Syndrome in Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Martínez, Rosario; López-Jurado, María; Aranda, Pilar; Cantarero, Samuel; Galisteo, Milagros; Porres, Jesus M.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of related metabolic alterations that increase the risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several lifestyle interventions based on dietary treatment with functional ingredients and physical activity are being studied as alternative or reinforcement treatments to the pharmacological ones actually in use. In the present experiment, the combined treatment with mung bean (Vigna radiata), a widely used legume with promising nutritional and health benefits that was included in the experimental diet as raw or 4 day-germinated seed flour, and aerobic interval training protocol (65–85% VO2 max) has been tested in lean and obese Zucker rats following a 2 × 2 × 2 (2 phenotypes, 2 dietary interventions, 2 lifestyles) factorial ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) statistical analysis. Germination of V. radiata over a period of four days originated a significant protein hydrolysis leading to the appearance of low molecular weight peptides. The combination of 4 day-germinated V. radiata and aerobic interval training was more efficient compared to raw V. radiata at improving the aerobic capacity and physical performance, hepatic histology and functionality, and plasma lipid parameters as well as reverting the insulin resistance characteristic of the obese Zucker rat model. In conclusion, the joint intervention with legume sprouts and aerobic interval training protocol is an efficient treatment to improve the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as hepatic histology and functionality related to the development of NAFLD and the MetS. PMID:28753963

  5. The Combined Intervention with Germinated Vigna radiata and Aerobic Interval Training Protocol Is an Effective Strategy for the Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Other Alterations Related to the Metabolic Syndrome in Zucker Rats.

    PubMed

    Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Martínez, Rosario; Nebot, Elena; López-Jurado, María; Aranda, Pilar; Arrebola, Francisco; Cantarero, Samuel; Galisteo, Milagros; Porres, Jesus M

    2017-07-19

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of related metabolic alterations that increase the risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several lifestyle interventions based on dietary treatment with functional ingredients and physical activity are being studied as alternative or reinforcement treatments to the pharmacological ones actually in use. In the present experiment, the combined treatment with mung bean (Vigna radiata), a widely used legume with promising nutritional and health benefits that was included in the experimental diet as raw or 4 day-germinated seed flour, and aerobic interval training protocol (65-85% VO₂ max) has been tested in lean and obese Zucker rats following a 2 × 2 × 2 (2 phenotypes, 2 dietary interventions, 2 lifestyles) factorial ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) statistical analysis. Germination of V. radiata over a period of four days originated a significant protein hydrolysis leading to the appearance of low molecular weight peptides. The combination of 4 day-germinated V. radiata and aerobic interval training was more efficient compared to raw V. radiata at improving the aerobic capacity and physical performance, hepatic histology and functionality, and plasma lipid parameters as well as reverting the insulin resistance characteristic of the obese Zucker rat model. In conclusion, the joint intervention with legume sprouts and aerobic interval training protocol is an efficient treatment to improve the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as hepatic histology and functionality related to the development of NAFLD and the MetS.

  6. Comparison of laboratory colonies and field populations of Tamarixia radiata, an ecto-parasitoid of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, using internal transcribed spacer and cytochrome oxidase subunit l DNA sequences

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic diversity of Tamarixia radiata laboratory colonies derived from collections in China, northern Vietnam, Pakistan, and a mixed colony from Taiwan and southern Vietnam was evaluated using the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS-1), internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) and the...

  7. Electrophoretic Analysis of Diversity and Phylogeny of Pinus brutia and Closely Related Taxa

    Treesearch

    M. T. Conkle; G. Schiller; C. Grunwald

    1988-01-01

    Rangewide samples from mature natural stands of Pinus brutia Ten. subsp. brutia, subsp. stankewiczii (Sukaczew) Nahal, subsp. pithyusa (Stevenson) Nahal, and subsp. eldarica (Medw.) Nahal from throughout the eastern Mediterranean display a continuum of allozyme variation for...

  8. Greek Pinus essential oils: larvicidal activity and repellency against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koutsaviti, Katerina; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2015-02-01

    The needle volatiles metabolites of seven Pinus spp.: Pinus nigra (3 samples), Pinus stankewiczii, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Pinus canariensis, Pinus pinaster and Pinus strobus from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. P. nigra and P. canariensis essential oils were dominated by α-pinene (24.9-28.9 % and 15 %, respectively) and germacrene D (20.3-31.9 % and 55.8 %, respectively), whereas P. brutia and P. strobus by α-pinene (20.6 % and 31.4 %, respectively) and β-pinene (31.7 % and 33.6 %, respectively). P. halepensis and P. pinaster oils were characterized by β-caryophyllene (28.5 % and 22.5 %, respectively). Finally, β-pinene (31.4 %), germacrene D (23.3 %) and α-pinene (17.5 %) were the most abundant compounds in the needle oil of P. stankewiczii. Additionally the larvicidal and repellent properties of their essential oils were evaluated against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. The results of bioassays revealed that repellent abilities of the tested essential oils were more potent than their larvicidal activities. The essential oils of P. brutia, P. halepensis and P. stankewiczii presented considerable larvicidal activity (LC50 values 67.04 mgL(-1) and 70.21 mgL(-1), respectively), while the others were weak to inactive against larvae. The essential oils of P. halepensis, P. brutia, and P. stankewiczii presented a high repellent activity, even at the dose of 0.2 μL cm(-2), while in the dose of 0.4 μL cm(-2), almost all the tested EOs displayed protection against the mosquito.

  9. Potential biological efficacy of Pinus plant species against oxidative, inflammatory and microbial disorders.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aditi; Goyal, Rohit; Sharma, Lalit

    2016-01-28

    Traditionally, Pine has been used to treat oxidative and inflammatory disorders. The study was aimed to investigate biological potential of phytoconstituents of Pinus plant species: Pinus roxburghii, Pinus wallichiana and Pinus gerardiana using in-vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial methods. The hydro-alcoholic extraction of dried plant: stem bark was done and the antioxidant activity was evaluated using free radical scavenging methods for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, (DPPH), nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals, reducing power assays, and total antioxidant capacity. Anti-inflammatory activity was carried out using albumin denaturation and HRBC membrane stabilization assays. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities were also conducted using agar well diffusion method. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of hydro-alcoholic stem bark extracts of three plant species revealed the presence of various biochemical compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, triterpenoids and saponins. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of plant extracts showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, beta-carotene and lycopene. Plant extracts of three pinus species showed significant antioxidant activity against DPPH, nitric oxide and H2O2 radicals. In in-vitro anti-inflammatory investigation, Pinus roxburghii exhibited highest protection against albumin denaturation 86.54 ± 1.85 whereas Pinus gerardiana showed 82.03 ± 2.67. Moreover, plant extracts were found to prevent the growth of microorganisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans showing promising antibacterial and antifungal activities againstCandida albicans. The findings of the present study derived the rational for the therapeutic usage of Pinus which is a highly timber yielding plant from Himalayan region, against oxidative, inflammatory and microbial diseases.

  10. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, Ian A.; St John, Mark G.; Yeates, Gregor W.; Morse, Chris W.; Bonner, Karen I.; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. PMID:25228312

  11. Aeromonas salmonicida grown in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Garduño, R A; Thornton, J C; Kay, W W

    1993-01-01

    The virulent fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida was rapidly killed in vivo when restricted inside a diffusion chamber implanted intraperitoneally in rainbow trout. After a period of regrowth, the survivors had acquired resistance to host-mediated bacteriolysis, phagocytosis, and oxidative killing, properties which were subsequently lost by growth in vitro. Resistance to bacteriolysis and phagocytosis was associated with a newly acquired capsular layer revealed by acidic polysaccharide staining and electron microscopy. This capsular layer shielded the underlying, regular surface array (S-layer) from immunogold labeling with a primary antibody to the S-layer protein. Resistance to oxidative killing was mediated by a mechanism not associated with the presence of the capsular layer. An attenuated vaccine strain of A. salmonicida grown in vivo failed to express the capsular layer. Consequently, the in vivo-grown cells of this attenuated strain remained as sensitive to bacteriolysis, and as avidly adherent to macrophages, as the in vitro-grown cells. The importance of these new virulence determinants and their relation to the known virulence factors of A. salmonicida are discussed. Images PMID:8359906

  12. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Sanwal, Chandra Shekher; Bhardwaj, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine) plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm), medium (up to 10 cm), and deep (up to 15 cm) tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ. PMID:27563482

  13. Secretion of laccase and manganese peroxidase by Pleurotus strains cultivate in solid-state using Pinus spp. sawdust

    PubMed Central

    Camassola, Marli; da Rosa, Letícia O.; Calloni, Raquel; Gaio, Tamara A.; Dillon, Aldo J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Pleurotus species secrete phenol oxidase enzymes: laccase (Lcc) and manganese peroxidase (MnP). New genotypes of these species show potential to be used in processes aiming at the degradation of phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dyes. Hence, a screening of some strains of Pleurotus towards Lcc and MnP production was performed in this work. Ten strains were grown through solid-state fermentation on a medium based on Pinus spp. sawdust, wheat bran and calcium carbonate. High Lcc and MnP activities were found with these strains. Highest Lcc activity, 741 ± 245 U gdm−1 of solid state-cultivation medium, was detected on strain IB11 after 32 days, while the highest MnP activity occurred with strains IB05, IB09, and IB11 (5,333 ± 357; 4,701 ± 652; 5,999 ± 1,078 U gdm−1, respectively). The results obtained here highlight the importance of further experiments with lignocellulolytic enzymes present in different strains of Pleurotus species. Such results also indicate the possibility of selecting more valuable strains for future biotechnological applications, in soil bioremediation and biological biomass pre-treatment in biofuels production, for instance, as well as obtaining value-added products from mushrooms, like phenol oxidase enzymes. PMID:24159307

  14. Identification and quantitative analysis of stage-specific carbohydrates in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) zygotic embryo and female gametophyte tissues.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Gerald S; Buchanan, Mike

    2008-07-01

    Stage-specific analyses of starch and 18 sugars, including pentoses, hexoses, disaccharides, trisaccharides, oligosaccharides and sugar alcohols, were made throughout seed development for zygotic embryo and female gametophyte (FG) tissues of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Tissue was most often analyzed in triplicate from two open-pollinated families grown in different locations and sampled in different years. Carbohydrates were analyzed by enzymatic assay, high performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For all carbohydrates quantified, peak concentrations were higher in embryo tissue than in FG tissue. Significant changes in starch and sugar concentrations occurred over time, with both seed collections showing similar trends in temporal changes. Although concentrations were not always similar, embryo and FG tissues generally showed similar patterns of change in starch and sugar concentrations over time. Total starch concentration was highest during early seed development and decreased as development progressed. The major sugars contributing to osmotic potential during early seed development were D-pinitol, sucrose, fructose and glucose. During mid-seed development, D-pinitol, sucrose, fructose, glucose, melibiose and raffinose provided major contributions to the osmotic environment. During late seed development, sucrose, raffinose, melibiose, stachyose and fructose were the major contributors to osmotic potential. These data suggest stage-specific media composition for each step in the somatic embryogenesis protocol.

  15. Seedling tree responses to nutrient stress under atmospheric CO/sub 2/ enrichment. [Quercus alba; Liriodendron tulipifera; Pinus virginiana

    SciTech Connect

    Luxmoore, R.J.; Norby, R.J.; O'Neill, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    Three species of seedling trees were grown in pots containing low-nutrient soil for periods of up to 40 weeks under a range of atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations. In all cases, total dry weight increased with CO/sub 2/ enrichment, with a greater relative increase in root weight than shoot weight. In an experiment with Pinus virginiana in open-top field chambers, phosphorus and potassium uptake did not increase with an increase in CO/sub 2/ from 365 to 690 ..mu..L/L, even though dry matter gain increased by 37% during the exposure period. In experiments with Quercus alba and Liriodendron tulipifera under controlled environment conditions there were obvious symptoms of nitrogen deficiency and total nitrogen uptake did not increase with CO/sub 2/ enrichment. However, dry weight gain was more than 90% higher at 690 ..mu..L/L CO/sub 2/. The three experiments with CO/sub 2/ enrichment treatments demonstrate that increases in plant dry weight can occur without increased uptake of some nutrients from the low-nutrient soil. A mechanism for these responses may involve increased mobilization of nutrients in association with increased sucrose transport under elevated CO/sub 2/ conditions.

  16. Effect of water stress on chlorophyll and carotenoid contents on seedlings from three seed sources of Pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Benes, S.E.; Houpis, J.L.J. )

    1989-04-01

    The effect of water stress on pigmentation was studied on seedlings from three seed sources of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) selected from similar latitudes but along a gradient of decreasing water availability from the California coast to the western and eastern sides of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. All plants were grown in a common garden for 18 months. Water was withheld from the two-year old potted seedlings and weekly needle samples were taken for the 10 week drought period and for a two week recovery period. Pigments were passively extracted in dimethylformamide and quantified spectrophotometrically. The seedlings from the more mesic seed zone exhibited water stress earlier (Week 8) and to a greater extent (-1.53 Mpa predawn water potential) than seedlings from the other two seed zones. However, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations did not correspond to increasing level of water stress. There were differences in pigmentation among the seedlings from the three seed zones, with those seedlings from the west side of the Sierra Nevada having less chlorophyll a and b, and carotenoids than those from the other two regions. Analysis of the chlorophyll a and b, and carotenoids than those from the other two regions. Analysis of the chlorophyll a/b ratio indicated that although there were differences in pigmentation, the relative abundance of chlorophyll a to be was consistent among seedlings from all three seed zones.

  17. Fertilization with urea, ammonium and nitrate produce different effects on growth, hydraulic traits and drought tolerance in Pinus taeda seedlings.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Laura I; Moretti, Ana P; Graciano, Corina

    2015-10-01

    Urea fertilization decreases Pinus taeda L. growth in clay soils of subtropical areas. The negative effect of urea is related to changes in some hydraulic traits, similar to those observed in plants growing under drought. The aims of this work were (i) to determine whether different sources of nitrogen applied as fertilizers produce similar changes in growth and hydraulic traits to those observed by urea fertilization and (ii) to analyze the impact of those changes in plant drought tolerance. Plants fertilized with urea, nitrate [Formula: see text] or ammonium [Formula: see text] were grown well watered or with reduced water supply. Urea and [Formula: see text] fertilization reduced plant growth and increased root hydraulic conductance scaled by root dry weight (DW). [Formula: see text] fertilization did not reduce plant growth and increased shoot hydraulic conductance and stem hydraulic conductivity. We conclude that [Formula: see text] is the ion involved in the changes linked to the negative effect of urea fertilization on P. taeda growth. [Formula: see text] fertilization does not change drought susceptibility and it produces changes in shoot hydraulic traits, therefore plants avoid the depressive effect of fertilization. Urea and [Formula: see text] fertilizers induce changes in DW and root hydraulic conductance and consequently plants are less affected by drought.

  18. Geographic variation of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.)

    Treesearch

    Jung Oh Hyun

    1977-01-01

    Ten traits were measured on 10-year-old jack pine grown at Cloquet, Minnesota, from seed collected from 90 provenances. The traits were examined by using analysis of variance and computing correlations for all combinations of 9 traits plus latitude , longitude, and elevation of the seed sources and cluster analyses using the D2 values from the...

  19. Genetic diversity and the mating system of a rare Mexican Piñon, Pinus pinceana, and a comparison with Pinus maximartinezii (Pinaceae)

    Treesearch

    F. Thomas Ledig; Miguel A. Capó-Arteaga; Paul D. Hodgskiss; Hassan Sbay; Celestino Flores-López; M. Thompson Conkle; Basilio Bermejo-Velázquez

    2001-01-01

    Weeping piñon (Pinus pinceana) has a restricted and fragmented range, trees are widely scattered within populations, and reproduction is limited. Nevertheless, genetic diversity was high; based on 27 isozyme loci in 18 enzyme systems, unbiased expected heterozygosity averaged 0.174. Differentiation also was high (FST = 0.152),...

  20. Multisite inhibition of Pinus pinea isocitrate lyase by phosphate.

    PubMed

    Ranaldi, F; Vanni, P; Giachetti, E

    2000-11-01

    Our results show that the phosphate ion is a nonlinear competitive inhibitor of Pinus pinea isocitrate lyase. In addition, this compound induces a sigmoidal response of the enzyme, which usually exhibits standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics. This peculiar behavior of P. pinea isocitrate lyase could be explained by a dimer (two-site) model, in which phosphate binds cooperatively, but the affinity of the vacant site for substrate (the magnesium-isocitrate complex) remains the same. As a result, the interaction of phosphate with free enzyme produces an inhibitor-enzyme-inhibitor species that is of significant importance in determining reaction rate; a possible regulatory role of the glyoxylate cycle by inorganic phosphate is suggested. The mode of phosphate inhibition is consistent with both the mechanism for magnesium ion activation of P. pinea isocitrate lyase and its site heterogeneity. Our results explain the cooperative effects observed by some authors in kinetic studies of isocitrate lyase carried out in phosphate buffers and also account for the higher K(m) values determined by using such assay systems. Phosphate buffer should be avoided in performing isocitrate lyase kinetics.

  1. [Relationship between selection of Pinus massoniana families and Folium Pini].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Man-xi; Yan, Cui-qi; Wang, Wei; Ye, Jian-ming; Zhong, Yong-kun; Ke, Zun-hong; Hao, Xiao-feng; Ke, Xiao; Ye, Liang; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-05-01

    Based on variation of Pinus massoniana families, heritablility and correlation analysis, the contents of shikimic acid and procyanidine (heritability 0.90, 0.70), dry weight of single branch (heritability 0.60) and and leaf length (heritability 0.46) were screened out as quality, yield and harvest cost traits of Folium Pini, respectively. For the different medicinal application of Folium Pini, varied methods were chosen to estimate weight and construct index equation. Weight adjustment based.on equal emphasis were used as economic weight determining method to select the best families, and the index (accuracy 0. 936 4 and heritability 0. 881 6) obtained was a little better than that obtained by equal emphasis, and much better than that by restricted index. The superior families selected with adjustment weight and equal emphasis were No. 46, 43 and 28. Partial regression were used as economic weight determining method to select the best families,and the index obtained had the highest accuracy (0.941 5) , index heritability (0. 889 9) and the genetic gain of shikimic acid content. The superior families selected with this method were No. 46, 27 and 47. No. 46 was the best families with maximal economic benefit. Our study indicated that suitable method for estimate weight and construct index equation can be applied for better accuracy of superior families selection of P. massoniana.

  2. An allelopathic substance in red pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Fushimi, Yoshiko; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-03-01

    Aqueous methanol extracts of red pine (Pinus densiflora) needles inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), timothy (Pheleum pratense), Digitaria sanguinalis and Echinochloa crus-galli. Increasing the extract concentration increased inhibition, suggesting that the pine needles may have growth inhibitory substances and possess allelopathic potential. The aqueous methanol extract of the pine needles was purified, and a main inhibitory substance was isolated and determined by spectral data as 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid. This substance inhibited root and shoot growth of cress and Echinochloa crus-galli seedlings at concentrations greater than 0.1 mM. The endogenous concentration of the substance was 0.13 mmol/kg pine needle. These results suggest that 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of the pine needles and may play an important role in the allelopathy of red pine.

  3. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention.

  4. Flow cytometric and morphological analyses of Pinus pinaster somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Marum, Liliana; Loureiro, João; Rodriguez, Eleazar; Santos, Conceição; Oliveira, M Margarida; Miguel, Célia

    2009-09-25

    An approach combining morphological profiling and flow cytometric analysis was used to assess genetic stability during the several steps of somatic embryogenesis in Pinus pinaster. Embryogenic cell lines of P. pinaster were established from immature zygotic embryos excised from seeds obtained from open-pollinated trees. During the maturation stage, phenotype of somatic embryos was characterized as being either normal or abnormal. Based upon the prevalent morphological traits, different types of abnormal embryos underwent further classification and quantification. Nuclear DNA content of maritime pine using the zygotic embryos was estimated to be 57.04 pg/2C, using propidium iodide flow cytometry. According to the same methodology, no significant differences (P< or =0.01) in DNA ploidy were detected among the most frequently observed abnormal phenotypes, embryogenic cell lines, zygotic and normal somatic embryos, and somatic embryogenesis-derived plantlets. Although the differences in DNA ploidy level do not exclude the occurrence of a low level of aneuploidy, the results obtained point to the absence of major changes in ploidy level during the somatic embryogenesis process of this economically important species. Therefore, our primary goal of true-to-typeness was assured at this level.

  5. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract.

    PubMed

    Iravani, S; Zolfaghari, B

    2011-01-01

    In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol(®) (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical-scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health-promoting effects of PBE.

  6. Ethnobotany and phytopharmacology of Pinus roxburghii Sargent: a plant review.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Pawan; Kaushik, Dhirender; Khokra, Sukhbir Lal

    2013-11-01

    Traditional medicine is a blend of information gathered over generations from various communities and cultures. Pinus roxburghii Sargent (Pinaceae) commonly known as "chir pine" is widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. The all parts of the plant are believed to possess medicinal qualities in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine. In these traditional systems of medicine, the plant is used to heal many diseases, including afflictions of the eyes, ears, throat, blood, and skin. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds such as α-pinene, abietic acid, quercetin and xanthone. Resin acids and flavanoid form a major portion of these bioactive compounds. This review presents examples of traditional medicinal uses for P. roxburghii, and subsequently explores the current understanding of the chemical, pharmacological, and biochemical properties of the extracts and the main active constituents found in each tissue of the plant. Clinical trial information is also included where available. Careful evaluation of these data may be helpful for scientists and researchers to discover and evaluate the specific chemical entities responsible for the traditional medicinal uses of P. roxburghii.

  7. Variation among individuals in cone production in Pinus palustris (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Haymes, Kelly L; Fox, Gordon A

    2012-04-01

    Reproductive output varies considerably among individuals within plant populations, and this is especially so in cone production of conifers. While this variation can have substantial effects on populations, little is known about its magnitude or causes. We studied variation in cone production for 2 years within a population of Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine; Pinaceae). Using hurdle models, we evaluated the importance of burn treatments, tree size (dbh), canopy status (open, dominant, subordinate), and number of conspecific neighbors within 4 m (N(4)). Cone production of individuals-even after accounting for other variables-was strongly correlated between years. Trees in plots burned every 1, 2, or 5 years produced more cones than those burned every 7 years, or unburned. Larger trees tend to produce more cones, but the large effects of the other factors studied caused substantial scatter in the dbh-cone number relationship. Among trees in the open, dbh had little explanatory power. Subordinate trees with three neighbors produced no cones. Tree size alone was a weak predictor of cone production. Interactions with neighbors play an important role in generating reproductive heterogeneity, and must be accounted for when relating cone production to size. The strong between-year correlation, together with the large variance in cone production among trees without neighbors, suggests that still more of the variance may be explainable, but requires factors outside of our study.

  8. Nitrogen metabolism in Lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Heerden, P. S.; Towers, G. H.; Lewis, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The primary metabolic fate of phyenylalanine, following its deamination in plants, is conscription of its carbon skeleton for lignin, suberin, flavonoid, and related metabolite formation. Since this accounts for approximately 30-40% of all organic carbon, an effective means of recycling the liberated ammonium ion must be operative. In order to establish how this occurs, the uptake and metabolism of various 15N-labeled precursors (15N-Phe, 15NH4Cl, 15N-Gln, and 15N-Glu) in lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures was investigated, using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography, 15N NMR, and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analyses. It was found that the ammonium ion released during active phenylpropanoid metabolism was not made available for general amino acid/protein synthesis. Rather it was rapidly recycled back to regenerate phenylalanine, thereby providing an effective means of maintaining active phenylpropanoid metabolism with no additional nitrogen requirement. These results strongly suggest that, in lignifying cells, ammonium ion reassimilation is tightly compartmentalized.

  9. [Soil microbial functional diversity of different altitude Pinus koraiensis forests].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-xue; Wang, Ning; Wang, Nan-nan; Sun, Xue; Feng, Fu-juan

    2015-12-01

    In order to comprehensively understand the soil microbial carbon utilization characteristics of Pinus koraiensis forests, we took the topsoil (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm) along the 700-1100 m altitude in Changbai Mountains and analyzed the vertical distributed characteristics and variation of microbial functional diversity along the elevation gradient by Biolog microplate method. The results showed that there were significant differences in functional diversity of microbial communities at different elevations. AWCD increased with the extension of incubation time and AWCD at the same soil depth gradually decreased along with increasing altitude; Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh diversity index also showed the same trend with AWCD and three different diversity indices were significantly different along the elevation gradient; Species diversity and functional diversity showed the same variation. The utilization intensities of six categories carbon sources had differences while amino acids were constantly the most dominant carbon source. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that soil microbial carbon utilization at different altitudes had obvious spatial differentiation, as reflected in the use of carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids. In addition, the cluster of the microbial diversity indexes and AWCD values of different altitudes showed that the composition of vegetation had a significant impact on soil microbial composition and functional activity.

  10. Association genetics of the loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, Pinaceae) metabolome.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Andrew J; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Cumbie, W Patrick; Goldfarb, Barry; Huber, Dudley A; Tolstikov, Vladimir; Fiehn, Oliver; Neale, David B

    2012-03-01

    The metabolome of a plant comprises all small molecule metabolites, which are produced during cellular processes. The genetic basis for metabolites in nonmodel plants is unknown, despite frequently observed correlations between metabolite concentrations and stress responses. A quantitative genetic analysis of metabolites in a nonmodel plant species is thus warranted. Here, we use standard association genetic methods to correlate 3563 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to concentrations of 292 metabolites measured in a single loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) association population. A total of 28 single locus associations were detected, representing 24 and 20 unique SNPs and metabolites, respectively. Multilocus Bayesian mixed linear models identified 2998 additional associations for a total of 1617 unique SNPs associated to 255 metabolites. These SNPs explained sizeable fractions of metabolite heritabilities when considered jointly (56.6% on average) and had lower minor allele frequencies and magnitudes of population structure as compared with random SNPs. Modest sets of SNPs (n = 1-23) explained sizeable portions of genetic effects for many metabolites, thus highlighting the importance of multi-SNP models to association mapping, and exhibited patterns of polymorphism consistent with being linked to targets of natural selection. The implications for association mapping in forest trees are discussed.

  11. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05 for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  12. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-24

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N(NH4+(-N)), P < 0.05; for nitrate N(NO3-(-N)), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for NO3-(-N), P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  13. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0–10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0–10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05; for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10–20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0–10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment. PMID:26400019

  14. [Cold hardiness of Pinus ponderosa, P. banksian and P. tabulaeformis].

    PubMed

    Gong, Yuehua; Zhou, Yongxue; Fan, Junfeng; Liu, Yingzhou; Pang, Kejia

    2006-08-01

    By the method of artificial freezing, this paper made a comparative study on the cold hardiness of Pinus ponderosa, P. banksiana and P. tabulaeformis, with their inherent mechanisms approached. The results showed that the cold hardiness of these three species was in the sequence of P. banksiana > P. tabulaeformis > P. ponderosa. P. banksiana had high bound water/free water ratio (7.0) and ABA content (164.3 microg x g(-1) FW) but low K+ (2450 microg x g(-1) DW) and soluble sugar (12.0%) , P. tabulaeformis had higher contents of ABA (95.8 microg x g(-1) FW), K+ (4538 microg x g(-1) DW) and soluble sugar (18.68%) but low bound water/free water ratio (2.58), while P. ponderosa had high soluble sugar content (18.05%) but low bound water/free water ratio (2.18) and K+ (2275 microg x g(-1) DW) and ABA (63.3 microg x g(-1) FW) contents. These differences might be the reasons resulting in the different cold hardiness of these three species. Low chlorophyll content and high carotenoid/chlorophyll ratio might also contribute to the cold hardiness of P. banksiana. Therefore, though the test species are all of cold hardiness, their inherent mechanisms may be different.

  15. Response of Pinus ponderosa Seedlings to Stylet-Bearing Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Viglierchio, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Of 12 stylet-bearing nematodes used for inoculations, Pratylenchus penetrans, P. brachyurus, P. vulnus, Ditylenchus destructor, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla reproduced on Pinus ponderosa, while Xiphinema index, Aphelenchus avenae, Paratylenehus neoamblycephalus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and Macroposthonia xenoplax did not. P. vulnus, P. brachyurus, P. penetrans, A. avenae, D. destructor, T. semipenetrans, and P. neoamblycephalus significantly suppressed both the shoot and root wet weights of ponderosa pine seedlings obtained from stands in five different locations. X. index significantly suppressed root wet weights, M. xenoplax siguificantly suppressed shoot wet weight, and M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla suppressed neither at the inoculation levels used. Injurious nematodes tended to suppress root growth more than shoot growth. Seedlings from two locations produced greater shoot growth wet weight than did seedlings from the other three locations. The more injurious nematodes tended to cause an increase in the water content of shoots. Frequency analyses of seedling population shoot-root ratios indicated that ponderosa pine seedlings could be selected for better shoot-root ratios as well as for resistance to several pathogenic nematodes. PMID:19300659

  16. Nitrogen metabolism in Lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Heerden, P. S.; Towers, G. H.; Lewis, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The primary metabolic fate of phyenylalanine, following its deamination in plants, is conscription of its carbon skeleton for lignin, suberin, flavonoid, and related metabolite formation. Since this accounts for approximately 30-40% of all organic carbon, an effective means of recycling the liberated ammonium ion must be operative. In order to establish how this occurs, the uptake and metabolism of various 15N-labeled precursors (15N-Phe, 15NH4Cl, 15N-Gln, and 15N-Glu) in lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures was investigated, using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography, 15N NMR, and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analyses. It was found that the ammonium ion released during active phenylpropanoid metabolism was not made available for general amino acid/protein synthesis. Rather it was rapidly recycled back to regenerate phenylalanine, thereby providing an effective means of maintaining active phenylpropanoid metabolism with no additional nitrogen requirement. These results strongly suggest that, in lignifying cells, ammonium ion reassimilation is tightly compartmentalized.

  17. Antioxidative properties of the essential oil from Pinus mugo.

    PubMed

    Grassmann, Johanna; Hippeli, Susanne; Vollmann, Renate; Elstner, Erich F

    2003-12-17

    The essential oil from Pinus mugo (PMEO) was tested on its antioxidative capacity. For this purpose, several biochemical test systems were chosen (e.g., the Fenton System, the xanthine oxidase assay, or the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)). The results show that there is moderate or weak antioxidative activity when tested in aqueous environments, like in the Fenton system, xanthine oxidase induced superoxide radical formation, or in the HOCl driven fragmentation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In contrast, when tested in more lipophilic environments (e.g., the ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood) the PMEO exhibits good antioxidative activity. PMEO does also show good antioxidative capacity in another lipophilic test system (i.e., the copper induced oxidation of LDL). Some components of PMEO (i.e., Delta(3)-carene, camphene, alpha-pinene, (+)-limonene and terpinolene) were also tested. As the PMEO, they showed weak or no antioxidant activity in aqueous environments, but some of them were effective antioxidants regarding ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood or copper-induced LDL-oxidation. Terpinolene, a minor component of PMEO, exhibited remarkable protection against LDL-oxidation.

  18. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    PubMed

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation.

  19. Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108

    PubMed Central

    Haseeb, Akhtar; Sharma, Anita; Shukla, Prabhat Kuma

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita–wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens. PMID:16052706

  20. Automated recording of individual performance and hand preference during joystick-task acquisition in group-living bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    Andrews, M W; Rosenblum, L A

    1994-12-01

    A microchip that provided a unique identification number was injected into each forearm of all 8 members of a bonnet macaque (Macaca radiata) social group. The group was then given computer-controlled joystick tasks of increasing difficulty. The identification number of the arm used on each trial was input into the computer and used to determine individual performance and hand preference in more than 23,000 trials. Three subjects reversed hand preference as task difficulty was increased over time. All subjects exhibited nearly exclusive use of a single hand on the most difficult task; 6 used the right hand, and 2 used the left. Daily patterns of joystick activity for the group members differed somewhat from that of our individually housed monkeys.

  1. Plant hormone-assisted early family selection in Pinus densiflora via a retrospective approach.

    PubMed

    Park, Eung-Jun; Lee, Wi-Young; Kurepin, Leonid V; Zhang, Ruichuan; Janzen, Loeke; Pharis, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    In an even-aged pine forest trees can vary considerably in stem size. We examined the basis for this anomaly using a retrospective approach. Twelve open-pollinated families of Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. were deliberately chosen for their variation in stem volumes at age 32 years. Seedlings obtained from these families were grown to age 6 months under optimal nursery conditions. Endogenous levels of growth hormones (auxin [IAA] and gibberellins [GAs]) and expression of the GA biosynthesis gene, PdGA20ox1, all assessed at age 3 months, were significantly correlated, across family, with seedling stem and/or shoot dry biomass at age 6 months. Retrospective comparisons of seedling growth, seedling stem tissue GA(20) and seedling stem expression levels of PdGA20ox1 were then made, across family, with tree stem growth at age 32 years. Age 6 months length and shoot dry biomass at age 6 months showed positive and significant Pearson's correlations with age 32 years tree stem diameters and a tree stem volume index, as did seedling stem tissue GA(20). Even seedling stem PdGA20ox1 expression levels were positively and near significantly (P = 0.088) correlated with age 32 years tree stem diameters. Auxin and GAs control nursery growth of seedlings at the family level, and this control also extends, for GAs at least, to field growth of older trees. We propose that family differences in PdGA20ox1 gene expression, and thus endogenous GA levels, may explain much of the natural variation seen for tree stem size in even-aged pine forests. If our hypothesis is correct, then the heritable components of variation in tree stem growth capacity should be predictable by hormonal and gene expression profiling. Such profiling, combined with the measurement of seedling phenotypic growth characters, could have the potential to accelerate the early selection of those conifer families that possess traits for inherently rapid stem wood growth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford

  2. Expression of functional traits during seedling establishment in two populations of Pinus ponderosa from contrasting climates.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Kelly L; Meinzer, Frederick C; McCulloh, Katherine A; Woodruff, David R; Marias, Danielle E

    2015-05-01

    First-year tree seedlings represent a particularly vulnerable life stage and successful seedling establishment is crucial for forest regeneration. We investigated the extent to which Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson populations from different climate zones exhibit differential expression of functional traits that may facilitate their establishment. Seeds from two populations from sites with contrasting precipitation and temperature regimes east (PIPO dry) and west (PIPO mesic) of the Oregon Cascade mountains were sown in a common garden experiment and grown under two water availability treatments (control and drought). Aboveground biomass accumulation, vegetative phenology, xylem anatomy, plant hydraulic architecture, foliar stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C), gas exchange and leaf water relations characteristics were measured. No treatment or population-related differences in leaf water potential were detected. At the end of the first growing season, aboveground biomass was 74 and 44% greater in PIPO mesic in the control and drought treatments, respectively. By early October, 73% of PIPO dry seedlings had formed dormant buds compared with only 15% of PIPO mesic seedlings. Stem theoretical specific conductivity, calculated from tracheid dimensions and packing density, declined from June through September and was nearly twice as high in PIPO mesic during most of the growing season, consistent with measured values of specific conductivity. Intrinsic water-use efficiency based on δ(13)C values was higher in PIPO dry seedlings for both treatments across all sampling dates. There was a negative relationship between values of δ(13)C and leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity across populations and treatments, consistent with greater stomatal constraints on gas exchange with declining seedling hydraulic capacity. Integrated growing season assimilation and stomatal conductance estimated from foliar δ(13)C values and photosynthetic CO2-response curves were 6 and 28

  3. Genetic variability and heritability of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Čepl, Jaroslav; Holá, Dana; Stejskal, Jan; Korecký, Jiří; Kočová, Marie; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Tomášková, Ivana; Palovská, Markéta; Rothová, Olga; Whetten, Ross W; Kaňák, Jan; Albrechtová, Jana; Lstibůrek, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Current knowledge of the genetic mechanisms underlying the inheritance of photosynthetic activity in forest trees is generally limited, yet it is essential both for various practical forestry purposes and for better understanding of broader evolutionary mechanisms. In this study, we investigated genetic variation underlying selected chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) parameters in structured populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown on two sites under non-stress conditions. These parameters were derived from the OJIP part of the ChlF kinetics curve and characterize individual parts of primary photosynthetic processes associated, for example, with the exciton trapping by light-harvesting antennae, energy utilization in photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers (RCs) and its transfer further down the photosynthetic electron-transport chain. An additive relationship matrix was estimated based on pedigree reconstruction, utilizing a set of highly polymorphic single sequence repeat markers. Variance decomposition was conducted using the animal genetic evaluation mixed-linear model. The majority of ChlF parameters in the analyzed pine populations showed significant additive genetic variation. Statistically significant heritability estimates were obtained for most ChlF indices, with the exception of DI0/RC, φD0 and φP0 (Fv/Fm) parameters. Estimated heritabilities varied around the value of 0.15 with the maximal value of 0.23 in the ET0/RC parameter, which indicates electron-transport flux from QA to QB per PSII RC. No significant correlation was found between these indices and selected growth traits. Moreover, no genotype × environment interaction (G × E) was detected, i.e., no differences in genotypes' performance between sites. The absence of significant G × E in our study is interesting, given the relatively low heritability found for the majority of parameters analyzed. Therefore, we infer that polygenic variability of these indices is

  4. Effect of long-term drought on carbon allocation and nitrogen uptake of Pinus sylvestris seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Aaltonen, Heidi; Lindén, Aki; Köster, Kajar; Biasi, Christina; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2015-04-01

    Weather extremes such as drought events are expected to increase in the future as a result of climate change. The drought affects the allocation of carbon assimilated by plants e.g. by modifying the root to shoot ratio, amount of fine roots and the amount of mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. We studied the effect of long term drought on the allocation of carbon in a common garden experiment with 4-year-old Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Half of the seedlings were exposed to long-term drought by setting the soil water content close to wilting point for over two growing seasons whereas the other half was grown in soil close to field capacity. We conducted a pulse labelling with 13CO2 in the end of the study by injecting a known amount of 13C enriched CO2 to the seedlings and measuring the CO2 uptake and distribution of 13C to the biomass of the seedlings and to the root and rhizosphere respiration. In addition, we studied the effect of drought on the decomposition of needle litter and uptake of nitrogen by 15N labelled needles buried in the soil in litter bags. The litterbags were collected and harvested in the end of the experiment and the changes in microbial community in the litterbags were studied from the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition. We also determined the 15N isotope concentrations from the needles of the seedlings to study the effect of drought on the nitrogen uptake of the seedlings. Our results indicate that the drought had a significant effect both on the biomass allocation of the seedlings and on the microbial species composition. The amount of carbon allocated belowground was much higher in the seedlings exposed to drought compared to the control seedlings. The seedlings seemed to adapt their carbon allocation to long-term drought to sustain adequate needle biomass and water uptake. The seedlings also adapted their osmotic potential and photosynthesis capacity to sustain the long-term drought as was indicated by the measurements of osmotic potential

  5. Genetic diversity within and among populations of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Treesearch

    Shiqin Xu; C.G. Tauer; C. Dana Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Shortleaf pine (n=93) and loblolly pine (n=112) trees representing 22 seed sources or 16 physiographic populations were sampled from Southwide Southern Pine Seed Source Study plantings located in Oklahoma, Arkansas and Mississippi. The sampled trees were grown from shortleaf pine and loblolly pine seeds formed in 1951 and 1952, prior to the start of intensive forest...

  6. Apparent diffusion coefficient on magnetic resonance imaging in pons and in corona radiata and relation with the neurophysiologic measurement and the outcome in very preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Kaukola, Tuula; Perhomaa, Marja; Vainionpaa, Leena; Tolonen, Uolevi; Jauhiainen, Jukka; Paakko, Eija; Hallman, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    New imaging techniques allow a detailed visualization of the brain and the findings possibly correlate with neurophysiologic measurements and neurosensory and motor outcomes. Postnatal clinical factors known to associate with neurologic disabilities may contribute to brain abnormalities not visible to the naked eye. We evaluated whether quantitative measurement of organized water diffusion on MR imaging, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), relates to neurophysiologic function and to clinical risk factors and motor outcome in preterm infants. Diffusion-weighted imaging was successfully performed at term age on 30 infants born <32 weeks of gestation, birth weight <1,000 g. Infants with major destructive brain lesions were excluded from the final analysis (n = 2). ADC was calculated within regions of interest placed in pons and in white matter regions known to contain motor fibers. Brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) were registered at term age. Gross motor outcome was assessed using Griffiths Scales at 2 years of corrected age. A positive correlation was found between ADC in the pons and the latency of wave III in BAEP (r = 0.619, p = 0.024). Need for inotrope support during the postnatal period and bronchopulmonary dysplasia associated with high ADC values in the pons and in the corona radiata. Infants with poor gross motor outcome had higher ADC in the corona radiata than infants with better outcome (mean = 1.343 vs. 1.197, p = 0.004). This is the first study to report a relationship between ADC and BAEP measurements in the pons. The study may add to the current knowledge about the relation between postnatal clinical factors and diffusion-weighted imaging when evaluating the high-risk infants. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Infectivity analysis of two variable DNA B components of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna in Vigna mungo and Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Balaji, V; Vanitharani, R; Karthikeyan, A S; Anbalagan, S; Veluthambi, K

    2004-09-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV-Vig), a Begomovirus that causes yellow mosaic disease, was cloned from field-infected blackgram (Vigna mungo). One DNA A clone (KA30) and five different DNA B clones (KA21, KA22, KA27, KA28 and KA34) were obtained. The sequence identity in the 150-nt common region (CR) between DNA A and DNA B was highest (95%) for KA22 DNA B and lowest (85.6%) for KA27 DNA B. The Rep-binding domain had three complete 11-nt (5'-TGTATCGGTGT-3') iterons in KA22 DNA B (and KA21, KA28 and KA34), while the first iteron in KA27 DNA B (5'-ATCGGTGT-3') had a 3-nt deletion. KA27 DNA B, which exhibited 93.9% CR sequence identity to the mungbean-infecting MYMV, also shared the 3-nt deletion in the first iteron besides having an 18-nt insertion between the third iteron and the conserved nonanucleotide. MYMV was found to be closely related to KA27 DNA B in amino acid sequence identity of BV1 (94.1%) and BC1 (97.6%) proteins and in the organization of nuclear localization signal (NLS), nuclear export signal (NES) and phosphorylation sites. Agroinoculation of blackgram (V. mungo) and mungbean (V. radiata) with partial dimers of KA27 and KA22 DNA Bs along with DNA A caused distinctly different symptoms. KA22 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in blackgram. In contrast, KA27 DNA B caused more intense yellow mosaic symptoms with high viral DNA titre in mungbean. Thus, DNA B of MYMVVig is an important determinant of host-range between V. mungo and V. radiata.

  8. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index was calculated using principal component analysis. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities were significantly lower in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations compared with Pinus plantation, but they were significantly higher in the third and fourth generations than in the first and second generations and significantly lower than in Pinus plantation. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower in Eucalyptus plantations (1.8-2.5 g kg-1 and 26-66 mg kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (14.3 g kg-1 and 92 mg kg-1), but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations (0.9-1.1 g kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (0.4 g kg-1). As an integrated indicator, soil quality index was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92) and lowest in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations (0.24 and 0.13). Soil quality index in the third and fourth generations (0.36 and 0.38) was between that in Pinus plantation and in first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understorey coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during

  9. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-01-01

    Background: So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Objective: Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. Results: This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). Conclusion: The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment. PMID:26664017

  10. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fire for Pinus and Abies across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.

  11. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Patricia M.; Lozhkin, Anatoly V.; Solomatkina, Tatiana B.; Brown, Thomas A.

    2010-03-01

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least ˜ 19,000 14C yr BP in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after ˜ 19,000 14C yr BP. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until ˜ 8100 14C yr BP, despite the local presence ˜ 9800 14C yr BP of Larixdahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia ˜ 11,000-9000 14C yr BP) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last ˜ 21,000 14C yr BP.

  12. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  13. Pinus ponderosa: A checkered past obscured four species.

    PubMed

    Willyard, Ann; Gernandt, David S; Potter, Kevin; Hipkins, Valerie; Marquardt, Paula; Mahalovich, Mary Frances; Langer, Stephen K; Telewski, Frank W; Cooper, Blake; Douglas, Connor; Finch, Kristen; Karemera, Hassani H; Lefler, Julia; Lea, Payton; Wofford, Austin

    2017-01-01

    Molecular genetic evidence can help delineate taxa in species complexes that lack diagnostic morphological characters. Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae; subsection Ponderosae) is recognized as a problematic taxon: plastid phylogenies of exemplars were paraphyletic, and mitochondrial phylogeography suggested at least four subdivisions of P. ponderosa. These patterns have not been examined in the context of other Ponderosae species. We hypothesized that putative intraspecific subdivisions might each represent a separate taxon. We genotyped six highly variable plastid simple sequence repeats in 1903 individuals from 88 populations of P. ponderosa and related Ponderosae (P. arizonica, P. engelmannii, and P. jeffreyi). We used multilocus haplotype networks and discriminant analysis of principal components to test clustering of individuals into genetically and geographically meaningful taxonomic units. There are at least four distinct plastid clusters within P. ponderosa that roughly correspond to the geographic distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes. Some geographic regions have intermixed plastid lineages, and some mitochondrial and plastid boundaries do not coincide. Based on relative distances to other species of Ponderosae, these clusters diagnose four distinct taxa. Newly revealed geographic boundaries of four distinct taxa (P. benthamiana, P. brachyptera, P. scopulorum, and a narrowed concept of P. ponderosa) do not correspond completely with taxonomies. Further research is needed to understand their morphological and nuclear genetic makeup, but we suggest that resurrecting originally published species names would more appropriately reflect the taxonomy of this checkered classification than their current treatment as varieties of P. ponderosa. © 2017 Willyard et al. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons public domain license (CC0 1.0).

  14. Phylogeography of Pinus subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Jardón-Barbolla, Lev; Delgado-Valerio, Patricia; Geada-López, Gretel; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Piñero, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Four species of Pinus subsection Australes occur in the Caribbean Basin: P. caribaea, P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis. This study analyses the phylogeography of these species to assess possible colonization events from Central America to the islands and subsequent population expansions during glacial periods driven by both drier climate and larger emerged land areas. Methods Allele size data were obtained for plastid microsatellites for 314 individuals from 24 populations, covering the distribution range of subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin. Key Results In total, 113 plastid haplotypes were identified. The highest genetic diversity was found in populations of P. caribaea. Overall, Caribbean Basin populations fit the isolation by distance model. Significant phylogeographical structure was found (RST = 0·671 > permuted RST = 0·101; P < 0·0001). The haplotype network and a Bayesian analysis of population structure (BAPS) indicated different Central American origins for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea plastids, with Central America populations in northern and south-eastern groups. Sudden expansion times for BAPS clusters were close to three glacial maxima. Conclusions Central America contains ancestral plastid haplotypes. Population expansion has played a major role in the distribution of genetic diversity in P. caribaea var. hondurensis. Two colonization events gave rise to the P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea lineages. Plastid variation in the eastern species (P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis) evolved independently from that in P. caribaea var. caribaea. Incomplete lineage sorting between P. cubensis and P. maestrensis is apparent. Inferred expansion times for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and for the eastern lineages correspond to glacial maxima, whereas those for P. caribaea var. hondurensis correspond to the beginning of the temperature decrease that

  15. Highly effective fog-water collection with Pinus canariensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, A.

    2010-07-01

    Fog-collecting nets require constant manpower in terms of maintainance. Also, those nets are made of artificial material, and they do not really fit into the natural environment. They are, by far, not as effective as plants that are specialised for catching humidity from the air. The probably most effective plant to serve this purpose is Pinus canariensis, a tree native to the Canary Islands. It is well-known for its capability of collecting air moisture, and has already been used for many centuries for this purpose. This tree would allow a much more effective and environmentally friendly way of supplying arid regions with drinking water than this could be done with fog-catching nets. Moreover, it would also help to establish or re-establish vegetation in a natural way. Agriculture would profit from it, too, because vegetables could be produced, watered with the help of P. canariensis. In those places, where the net-projects are currently running, it is the right time now to plant P. canariensis seedlings underneath the nets, which they will soon replace. The surface of the trees is much larger than the surface of the nets, thus enabling much more water to condensate. Within a few years, a population of P. canariensis will be established that collects many times more water than the nets. With regard to ecological aspects, the introduction of P. canariensis into the environments concerned do not cause a problem, since in those desert areas, there are no native trees that could be superseded, and the P. canariensis trees are easy to control. They are a natural alternative to the unnatural plastic nets, and can even help to enhance any local flora.

  16. Stem compression reversibly reduces phloem transport in Pinus sylvestris trees.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Nils; Tarvainen, Lasse; Lim, Hyungwoo; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram; Marshall, John; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-10-01

    Manipulating tree belowground carbon (C) transport enables investigation of the ecological and physiological roles of tree roots and their associated mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a range of other soil organisms and processes. Girdling remains the most reliable method for manipulating this flux and it has been used in numerous studies. However, girdling is destructive and irreversible. Belowground C transport is mediated by phloem tissue, pressurized through the high osmotic potential resulting from its high content of soluble sugars. We speculated that phloem transport may be reversibly blocked through the application of an external pressure on tree stems. Thus, we here introduce a technique based on compression of the phloem, which interrupts belowground flow of assimilates, but allows trees to recover when the external pressure is removed. Metal clamps were wrapped around the stems and tightened to achieve a pressure theoretically sufficient to collapse the phloem tissue, thereby aiming to block transport. The compression's performance was tested in two field experiments: a (13)C canopy labelling study conducted on small Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees [2-3 m tall, 3-7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)] and a larger study involving mature pines (∼15 m tall, 15-25 cm DBH) where stem respiration, phloem and root carbohydrate contents, and soil CO2 efflux were measured. The compression's effectiveness was demonstrated by the successful blockage of (13)C transport. Stem compression doubled stem respiration above treatment, reduced soil CO2 efflux by 34% and reduced phloem sucrose content by 50% compared with control trees. Stem respiration and soil CO2 efflux returned to normal within 3 weeks after pressure release, and (13)C labelling revealed recovery of phloem function the following year. Thus, we show that belowground phloem C transport can be reduced by compression, and we also demonstrate that trees recover after treatment, resuming C

  17. Molecular characterization of a glutathione transferase from Pinus tabulaeformis (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qing-Yin; Lu, Hai; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2005-05-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) play important roles in stress tolerance and detoxification metabolism in plants. To date, studies on GSTs in higher plants have focused largely on agricultural plants. In contrast, there is virtually no information on the molecular characteristics of GSTs in gymnosperms. The present study reports for the first time the cloning, expression and characteristics of a GST gene (PtGSTU1) from a pine, Pinus tabulaeformis, which is widely distributed from northern to central China covering cold temperate and drought regions. The PtGSTU1 gene encodes a protein of 228 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 26.37 kDa. Reverse transcription PCR revealed that PtGSTU1 was expressed in different tissues, both above and below ground, of P. tabulaeformis. The over-expressed recombinant PtGSTU1 showed high activity towards the substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl). Kinetic analysis with respect to CDNB as substrate revealed a Km of 0.47 mM and Vmax of 169.1 micromol/min per mg of protein. The recombinant PtGSTU1 retained more than 60% of its maximum enzymatic activity from 15 degrees C to 45 degrees C with a broad optimum Tm range of 25 degrees C - 35 degrees C. The enzyme had a maximum activity at approximately pH 8.5 - 9.0. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Ser13 in the N-terminal domain is a critical catalytic residue, responsible for stabilisation of the thiolate anion of enzyme-bound glutathione. Based on comparative analyses of its amino acid sequence, phylogeny and predicted three-dimensional structure, the PtGSTU1 should be classified as a tau class GST.

  18. Newly developed primers for complete YCF1 amplification in Pinus (Pinaceae) chloroplasts with possible family-wide utility

    Treesearch

    Matthew Parks; Aaron Liston; Rich. Cronn

    2011-01-01

    Primers were designed to amplify the highly variable locus ycf1 from all 11 subsections of Pinus to facilitate plastome assemblies based on short sequence reads as well as future phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. Primer design was based on alignment of 33 Pinus and four Pinaceae plastomes with...

  19. Pest risk assessment of the importation into the United States of unprocessed Pinus and Abies logs from Mexico

    Treesearch

    B. M. Tkacz; H. H. Burdsall; G. A. DeNitto; A. Eglitis; J. B. Hanson; J. T. Kliejunas; W. E. Wallner; J. G. O`Brien; E. L. Smith

    1998-01-01

    The unmitigated pest risk potential for the importation of Pinus and Abies logs from all states of Mexico into the United States was assessed by estimating the probability and consequences of establishment of representative insects and pathogens of concern. Twenty-two individual pest risk assessments were prepared for Pinus logs, twelve dealing with insects and ten...

  20. Harvesting microalgae grown on wastewater.

    PubMed

    Udom, Innocent; Zaribaf, Behnaz H; Halfhide, Trina; Gillie, Benjamin; Dalrymple, Omatoyo; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina J

    2013-07-01

    The costs and life cycle impacts of microalgae harvesting for biofuel production were investigated. Algae were grown in semi-continuous culture in pilot-scale photobioreactors under natural light with anaerobic digester centrate as the feed source. Algae suspensions were collected and the optimal coagulant dosages for metal salts (alum, ferric chloride), cationic polymer (Zetag 8819), anionic polymer (E-38) and natural coagulants (Moringa Oleifera and Opuntia ficus-indica cactus) were determined using jar tests. The relative dewaterability of the algae cake was estimated by centrifugation. Alum, ferric chloride and cationic polymer could all achieve >91% algae recovery at optimal dosages. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis results revealed that cationic polymer had the lowest cost but the highest environmental impacts, while ferric chloride had the highest cost and lowest environmental impacts. Based on the LCA results, belt presses are the recommended algae dewatering technology prior to oil extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Study on extraction of shikimic acid from pine needles of Pinus elliottii by decompressing inner ebullition].

    PubMed

    Xie, Ji-Yun; Chen, Xiao-Peng; Chen, Fang

    2010-09-01

    We studied the extracting process of shikimic acid from pine needles of Pinus elliottii Engelm, using pine needles of Pinus elliottii Engelm as raw materials, a high concentration of alcohol as the desorption and a low concentration of alcohol as the hot-extraction, and the decompressing inner ebullition method. Through the single factor test and orthogonal test, the best processing of the decompressing inner ebullition was as follows: when the concentration of alcohol was 70 percent with 18 minutes' desorption, the temperature of hot-extraction was 65 degrees C with 4 minutes' hot-extraction, solid-liquid ratio was 1:1.6 with 260 mL of hot-extraction, with a concentration of 30%. The extracting effect was the best when extracted twice. The extracting proportion of shikimic acid from dry pine needles of Pinus elliottii was 1.51%.

  2. Chemical constituents from the leaves of Pinus dalatensis Ferré.

    PubMed

    Sa, Nguyen Hoang; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Anh, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Quan, Tran Duc; Thien, Dao Duc; Phong, Dinh Thi; Sung, Tran Van; Thuy, Trinh Thi

    2017-07-10

    A phytochemical study of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Pinus dalatensis Ferré leaves led to the isolation of 11 compounds, including one caryolane sesquiterpenoid (1), five labdane diterpenoids (2, 3, 4, 5, 6), one serratane triterpenoid (7), one diacylated flavonoid glucoside (8), one stilbenoid (9) and two sterols (10, 11). The structural characterisation of the isolated compounds was elucidated by spectroscopic data and comparison with the literature report on the chemical constituents from Pinus dalatensis Ferré. Futhermore, three compounds 1, 4 and 6 were obtained for the first time from the genus Pinus. Besides, compounds (2, 3, 5, 8, 9) were also subjected to cytotoxicity effect on SK-LU-1, MCF-7 and Hep-G2 cell lines, but only compound 9 expressed activities with IC50 values of 141.22, 127.81 and 166.84 μM, respectively.

  3. Development and characterization of SSR markers from Pinus massoniana and their transferability to P. elliottii, P. caribaea and P. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Y H; Yang, Z Q; Wang, J; Luo, Q F; Li, H G

    2014-03-12

    Pinus massoniana (Masson's pine) is a widespread tree species in central and southern China and northern Vietnam; it is valued for rosin and paper production. Despite the significant economic value of Masson's pine, little work has been done on its molecular genetics. We developed 318 SSR primers from genome sequences of P. massoniana, and we identified 10 polymorphic markers. The number of alleles in the population of P. massoniana that we examined ranged from two to four, and the Shannon diversity index ranged from 0.150 to 1.133. Cross-species transferability of the 318 SSRs was also analyzed in the slash pine (Pinus elliottii), the Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea) and the Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis); 15, 10, and 10 primer pairs generated polymorphic amplification, respectively. These sets of polymorphic SSR markers will be useful for population genetics studies of P. massoniana, for genetic identification of interspecific hybridization, and for phylogeographic studies of Pinus spp.

  4. The characteristics of soil and water loss in Pinus Massoniana forest in Quaternary red soil area of south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuejun; Huang, Yanhe; Jie, Yang

    2017-08-01

    The soil and water loss in Pinus massoniana forests is an urgent environmental problem in the red soil region of southern China.Using the method of field monitoring, by analogy and statistical analysis, The characteristics of soil and water loss of Pinus massoniana forests in Quaternary red soil region under 30 rainfall were analyzed,the results show that the relationship models of rainfall,runoff and sediment of pure Pinus massoniana plot were slightly different from the naked control plot,were all the univariate quadratic linear regression models.the contribution of runoff and sediment in different rain types were different, and the water and soil loss in Pinus massoniana forest was most prominent under moderate rain.The merging effect of sparse Pinus massoniana forest on raindrop, aggravated the degree of soil and water loss to some extent.

  5. [Acceleration of Embryonic Development of Pinus sibirica Trees with a One-Year Reproductive Cycle].

    PubMed

    Tret'yakova, I N; Lukina, N V

    2016-01-01

    The study of the formation of embryonic structures in Pinus sibirica forms with a one-year reproductive cycle showed that the acceleration of the embryonic process manifested itself as a reduction of the coenocytic stage of the female gametophyte development (1.5 months instead of 1 year). The egg was not fertilized because of the asynchronous maturation of male and female gametophytes. Seeds without embryos were formed. We assumed that the acceleration of the reproductive process in Pinus sibirica was caused by a mutation in the female generative organs.

  6. Fossil calibration of molecular divergence infers a moderate mutation rate and recent radiations for pinus.

    PubMed

    Willyard, Ann; Ann, Willyard; Syring, John; Gernandt, David S; Liston, Aaron; Cronn, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Silent mutation rate estimates for Pinus vary 50-fold, ranging from angiosperm-like to among the slowest reported for plants. These differences either reflect extraordinary genomic processes or inconsistent fossil calibration, and they have important consequences for population and biogeographical inferences. Here we estimate mutation rates from 4 Pinus species that represent the major lineages using 11 nuclear and 4 chloroplast loci. Calibration was tested at the divergence of Pinus subgenera with the oldest leaf fossil from subg. Strobus (Eocene; 45 MYA) or a recently published subg. Strobus wood fossil (Cretaceous; 85 MYA). These calibrations place the origin of Pinus 190-102 MYA and give absolute silent rate estimates of 0.70-1.31x10(-9) and 0.22-0.42x10(-9).site-1.year-1 for the nuclear and chloroplast genomes, respectively. These rates are approximately 4- to 20-fold slower than angiosperms, but unlike many previous estimates, they are more consistent with the high per-generation deleterious mutation rates observed in pines. Chronograms from nuclear and chloroplast genomes show that the divergence of subgenera accounts for about half of the time since Pinus diverged from Picea, with subsequent radiations occurring more recently. By extending the sampling to encompass the phylogenetic diversity of Pinus, we predict that most extant subsections diverged during the Miocene. Moreover, subsect. Australes, Ponderosae, and Contortae, containing over 50 extant species, radiated within a 5 Myr time span starting as recently as 18 MYA. An Eocene divergence of pine subgenera (using leaf fossils) does not conflict with fossil-based estimates of the Pinus-Picea split, but a Cretaceous divergence using wood fossils accommodates Oligocene fossils that may represent modern subsections. Because homoplasy and polarity of character states have not been tested for fossil pine assignments, the choice of fossil and calibration node represents a significant source of uncertainty

  7. A functional promoter shift of a chloroplast gene: a transcriptional fusion between a novel psbA gene copy and the trnK (UUU) gene in Pinus contorta.

    PubMed

    Lidholm, J; Gustafsson, P

    1992-11-01

    A comparative transcription analysis of the chloroplast trnK-psbA-trnH region of the two pine species Pinus contorta and Pinus sylvestris is reported. The chloroplast genome of P. contorta has previously been shown to contain a duplicated psbA gene copy integrated closely upstream of the split trnK gene. This rearrangement has resulted in the gene order psbAI-trnK-psbAII-trnH, where psbAII is the ancestral psbA gene copy. In P. sylvestris, a species which lacks the psbA duplication, transcription of the trnK gene originates from a position 291 bp upstream of the trnK 5' exon, adjacent to a canonical promoter structure. In P. contorta, the corresponding promoter structure has been separated from the trnK gene by the insertion of psbAI, and has, in addition, been partially deleted. Analysis of the transcriptional organization of the trnK-psbA-trnH region of the two pine species revealed that the trnK gene in P. contorta is transcriptionally fused to the inserted psbAI gene copy. As a result, trnK is under the control of the psbA promoter in this species and has therefore acquired psbA-like expression characteristics. In P. sylvestris, accumulation of trnK transcripts is not significantly higher in light-grown than in dark-grown seedlings. In contrast, the level of trnK transcripts in P. contorta is approximately 12-fold higher in the light than in the dark. When light-grown seedlings of the two pine species were compared, an approximately 20-fold higher level of trnK RNAs was found in P. contorta. In both pine species, evidence was obtained for trnK-psbA and psbA-trnH co-transcription.

  8. Chemical characterisation of PM10 emissions from combustion in a closed stove of common woods grown in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, C.; Alves, C.; Pio, C.; Rzaca, M.; Schmidl, C.; Puxbaum, H.

    2009-04-01

    A series of source tests were conducted to determine the wood elemental composition, combustion gases and the chemical constitution of PM10 emissions from the closed stove combustion of four species of woods grown in Portugal: Eucalyptus globulos, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber and Acacia longifolia. The burning tests were made in a closed stove with a dilution source sampler. To ascertain the combustion phase and conditions, continuous emission monitors measured O2, CO2, CO, NO, hydrocarbons, temperature and pressure, during each burning cycle. Woodsmoke samples have been collected and analysed to estimate the contribution of plant debris and biomass smoke to atmospheric aerosols. At this stage of work, cellulose, anhydrosugars and humic-like substances (HULIS) have been measured. Cellulose was determined photometrically after its conversion to D-Glucose. The determination of levoglucosan and other anhydrosugars, including mannosan and galactosan, was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. HULIS determination was made with a total organic carbon analyser and an infrared non dispersive detector, after the isolation of substances. Cellulose was present in PM10 at mass fractions (w/w) of 0.13%, 0.13%, 0.05% and 0.08% for Eucalyptus globulos, Pinus pinaster, Quercus suber and Acacia longifolia, respectively. Levoglucosan was the major anhydrosugar present in the samples, representing mass fractions of 14.71%, 3.80%, 6.78% and 1.91%, concerning the above mentioned wood species, respectively. The levoglucosan-to-mannosan ratio, usually used to evaluate the proportion of hardwood or softwood smoke in PM10, gave average values of 34.9 (Eucalyptus globulos), 3.40 (Pinus pinaster), 24.8 (Quercus suber) and 10.4 (Acacia longifolia). HULIS were present at mass fractions of 2.35%, 2.99%, 1.52% and 1.72% for the four wood species listed in the same order as before.

  9. Changes in whole-tree water relations during ontogeny of Pinus flexilis and Pinus ponderosa in a high-elevation meadow.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dylan G; Kolb, Thomas E; DeWald, Laura E

    2002-07-01

    We measured sap flux in Pinus ponderosa Laws. and Pinus flexilis James trees in a high-elevation meadow in northern Arizona that has been invaded by conifers over the last 150 years. Sap flux and environmental data were collected from July 1 to September 1, 2000, and used to estimate leaf specific transpiration rate (El), canopy conductance (Gc) and whole-plant hydraulic conductance (Kh). Leaf area to sapwood area ratio (LA/SA) increased with increasing tree size in P. flexilis, but decreased with increasing tree size in P. ponderosa. Both Gc and Kh decreased with increasing tree size in P. flexilis, and showed no clear trends with tree size in P. ponderosa. For both species, Gc was lower in the summer dry season than in the summer rainy season, but El did not change between wet and dry summer seasons. Midday water potential (Psi(mid)) did not change across seasons for either species, whereas predawn water potential (Psi(pre)) tracked variation in soil water content across seasons. Pinus flexilis showed greater stomatal response to vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and maintained higher Psi(mid) than P. ponderosa. Both species showed greater sensitivity to VPD at high photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; > 2500 micromol m-2 s-1) than at low PAR (< 2500 micromol m-2 s-1). We conclude that the direction of change in Gc and Kh with increasing tree size differed between co-occurring Pinus species, and was influenced by changes in LA/SA. Whole-tree water use and El were similar between wet and dry summer seasons, possibly because of tight stomatal control over water loss.

  10. Intraspecific variation buffers projected climate change impacts on Pinus contorta

    PubMed Central

    Oney, Brian; Reineking, Björn; O'Neill, Gregory; Kreyling, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Species distribution modeling (SDM) is an important tool to assess the impact of global environmental change. Many species exhibit ecologically relevant intraspecific variation, and few studies have analyzed its relevance for SDM. Here, we compared three SDM techniques for the highly variable species Pinus contorta. First, applying a conventional SDM approach, we used MaxEnt to model the subject as a single species (species model), based on presence–absence observations. Second, we used MaxEnt to model each of the three most prevalent subspecies independently and combined their projected distributions (subspecies model). Finally, we used a universal growth transfer function (UTF), an approach to incorporate intraspecific variation utilizing provenance trial tree growth data. Different model approaches performed similarly when predicting current distributions. MaxEnt model discrimination was greater (AUC – species model: 0.94, subspecies model: 0.95, UTF: 0.89), but the UTF was better calibrated (slope and bias – species model: 1.31 and −0.58, subspecies model: 1.44 and −0.43, UTF: 1.01 and 0.04, respectively). Contrastingly, for future climatic conditions, projections of lodgepole pine habitat suitability diverged. In particular, when the species' intraspecific variability was acknowledged, the species was projected to better tolerate climatic change as related to suitable habitat without migration (subspecies model: 26% habitat loss or UTF: 24% habitat loss vs. species model: 60% habitat loss), and given unlimited migration may increase amount of suitable habitat (subspecies model: 8% habitat gain or UTF: 12% habitat gain vs. species model: 51% habitat loss) in the climatic period 2070–2100 (SRES A2 scenario, HADCM3). We conclude that models derived from within-species data produce different and better projections, and coincide with ecological theory. Furthermore, we conclude that intraspecific variation may buffer against adverse effects of climate

  11. Antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties of water and n-butanol soluble extracts from Saharian Anvillea radiata in high-fat-diet fed mice.

    PubMed

    Kandouli, Chouaib; Cassien, Mathieu; Mercier, Anne; Delehedde, Caroline; Ricquebourg, Emilie; Stocker, Pierre; Mekaouche, Mourad; Leulmi, Zineb; Mechakra, Aicha; Thétiot-Laurent, Sophie; Culcasi, Marcel; Pietri, Sylvia

    2017-07-31

    According to Saharian traditional medicine, Anvillea radiata Coss. & Dur. (Asteraceae) has been valued for treating a variety of ailments such as gastro-intestinal, liver and pulmonary diseases, and has gained awareness for its beneficial effect on postprandial hyperglycemia. However, to best of our knowledge, no detailed study of the antidiabetic curative effects of this plant has been conducted yet. To determine the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of dietary supplementation with Anvillea radiata extracts on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice in relation with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pancreatic beta-cells and skeletal muscle protection, and digestive enzyme inhibiting properties. Six extracts (water soluble and organic) from aerial parts of the plant were analyzed phytochemically (total phenolic and flavonoid content) and screened for in vitro superoxide (by chemiluminescence) and hydroxyl radical (by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping) scavenging, antioxidant (DPPH, TRAP and ORAC assays), xanthine oxidase, metal chelating, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory property, and protective effects on copper-induced lipoprotein oxidation. Then selected hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts were assessed for toxicity in normal human lung fibroblasts and A549 cancer cells using FMCA and MTT assays. Two water-soluble extracts having the best overall properties were assessed for their (i) protective effect at 1-15µg/mL on metabolic activity of rat insulinoma-derived INS-1 cells exposed to hyperglycemic medium, and (ii) acute hypoglycemic effect on 16-weeks HFD-induced diabetic mice. Then diabetic mice were administered HFD supplemented by extracts (up to 150mg/kg/day) for 12 additional weeks using standard diet as control and the antidiabetic drug, metformin (150mg/kg), as positive control. Then the antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of extracts were determined. Of the highly efficient

  12. Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available. We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 years) from a stand in southwest France. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots. CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots. The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately.

  13. Pinus flexilis and Picea engelmannii share a simple and consistent needle endophyte microbiota with a potential role in nitrogen fixation

    PubMed Central

    Carrell, Alyssa A.; Frank, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    Conifers predominantly occur on soils or in climates that are suboptimal for plant growth. This is generally attributed to symbioses with mycorrhizal fungi and to conifer adaptations, but recent experiments suggest that aboveground endophytic bacteria in conifers fix nitrogen (N) and affect host shoot tissue growth. Because most bacteria cannot be grown in the laboratory very little is known about conifer–endophyte associations in the wild. Pinus flexilis (limber pine) and Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce) growing in a subalpine, nutrient-limited environment are potential candidates for hosting endophytes with roles in N2 fixation and abiotic stress tolerance. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to ask whether these conifers host a core of bacterial species that are consistently associated with conifer individuals and therefore potential mutualists. We found that while overall the endophyte communities clustered according to host species, both conifers were consistently dominated by the same phylotype, which made up 19–53% and 14–39% of the sequences in P. flexilis and P. engelmannii, respectively. This phylotype is related to Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and other N2 fixing acetic acid bacterial endophytes. The pattern observed for the P. flexilis and P. engelmannii needle microbiota—a small number of major species that are consistently associated with the host across individuals and species—is unprecedented for an endophyte community, and suggests a specialized beneficial endophyte function. One possibility is endophytic N fixation, which could help explain how conifers can grow in severely nitrogen-limited soil, and why some forest ecosystems accumulate more N than can be accounted for by known nitrogen input pathways. PMID:25071746

  14. Carryover effects of acid rain and ozone on the physiology of multiple flushes of loblolly pine seedlings. [Pinus taeda L

    SciTech Connect

    Sasek, T.W.; Richardson, C.J.; Fendick, E.A.; Bevington, S.R. ); Kress, L.W. )

    1991-09-01

    The effects of acid rain and ozone exposure on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings in the Piedmont of North Carolina were assessed over two exposure seasons (1987-1988). Direct effects and carryover effects of long-term exposure on the photosynthetic potential and photopigment concentrations of different needle age-classes were studied. Three half-sib families were grown in open-top field chambers and exposed two acid rain treatments and five ozone exposures delivered in proportion to ambient concentrations in a complete factorial design. Ozone significantly affected photosynthesis but there were no statistically significant effects of acid rain nor any ozone {times} acid rain interactions. In 1987, photosynthesis of the 1987 first-flush progressively diverged among the ozone treatments except between charcoal-filtered and nonfiltered air (NF). At the end of the first season, photosynthesis was reduced 24% at 1.5{times} compared to CF and more than 80% at 2.25{times} and 3.0{times}. Chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations were similarly reduced at elevated ozone exposures. In 1988, photosynthesis of the 1987 first-flush in the elevated ozone treatments remained lower. Early in the second season, the 1988 first-flush had a 25% to 50% lower photosynthetic potential at 2.25{times} and 3.0{times} compared to CF. This carryover effect on the photosynthetic potential before significant cumulative exposure was progressively smaller in the later 1988 flushes. In the late season flushes in the highest ozone treatments, photosynthesis was significantly higher than in the lower ozone treatments.

  15. Influence of atmospheric CO2 enrichment, soil N, and water stress on needle surface wax formation in Pinus palustris (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Prior, S; Pritchard, S; Runion, G; Rogers, H; Mitchell, R

    1997-08-01

    Interactive effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 with resource limitations on production of surface wax in plants have not been studied. Pinus palustris seedlings were grown for 1 yr at two levels of soil N (40 or 400 kg N_ha-1_yr-1) and water stress (-0.5 or -1.5 MPa xylem pressure potential) in open-top field chambers under two levels of CO2 (365 or 720 mumol/mol). Needle surface wax content was determined at 8 mo (fall) and 12 mo (spring) and epicuticular wax morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at 12 mo. Wax content expressed on both a leaf area and dry mass basis was increased due to main effects of low N and water stress. No main effects of CO2 were observed; however, a CO2 x N interaction at 12 mo indicated that under low soil N the elevated CO2 treatment had less wax (surface area or dry mass basis) compared to its ambient counterpart. Morphologically, low N needle surfaces appeared rougher compared to those of high N needles due to more extensive wax ridges. Although the main effect of water treatment on wax density was not reflected by changes in wax morphology, the CO2 x N interaction was paralleled by alterations in wax appearance. Decreases in density and less prominent epicuticular wax ridges resulting from growth under elevated CO2 and limiting N suggest that dynamics of plant/atmosphere and plant/pathogen interactions may be altered.

  16. Seasonal and intraspecific variability of chlorophyll fluorescence, pigmentation and growth of Pinus ponderosa subjected to elevated CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Anschel, D.; Pushnik, J.C.; Demaree, R.S.; Anderson, P.D.

    1994-12-01

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2}2 is expected to double in the next century, and these increases will have substantial impact on forest ecosystems. However, the database on the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on forests is limited, and the extent of intraspecific variability remains unknown. We are investigating the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on the intraspecific variability of quantum yield (as measured through chlorophyll fluorescence Fv/Fm ratio) and pigmentation, and how these are correlated to variability in growth. Four-year-old Pinus ponderosa seedlings were obtained from nine different sources across California. These seedlings were grown in standard outdoor exposure chambers for sixteen months at either ambient levels of CO{sub 2}, ambient+175ppm CO{sub 2}, or ambient+350ppm CO{sub 2}. The seedlings were periodically measured for growth, pigmentation, and chlorophyll fluorescence. The results showed a variable growth response of the nine sources during all measurement periods. Increasing CO{sub 2} resulted in a decrease in Fv/Fm among sources ranging from {minus}2.1% to {minus}23.2% in February, and 3.1% to {minus}12.5% in June. The source that had the best growth throughout the study, also had a minimal reduction in quantum yield (Fv/Fm) in the presence of elevated CO{sub 2}. For the seedlings of fastest growing sources, the correspondence between total growth and chlorophyll fluorescence was strongest during the February measurement period. Our results also showed a significant reduction in pigmentation due to increased CO{sub 2}. There are at least three explanations for the different responses during each measurement periods. First, the trees could be adapting favorably to increasing CO{sub 2}. Secondly, 1993 needles could be under less physiological stress than the current year needles. Third, there is a seasonal effect dependent upon temperature or light which is influencing the Fv/Fm ratio and pigmentation.

  17. Multi-Season Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Analysis of Pinus taeda Needle Tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine) is one of the worlds most important timber crop and accounts for a significant portion of the southeastern U.S. landcover. Biogenic voltile organic compound (BVOC) content was extracted from the tissue material of P. taeda needles and analyzed over a m...

  18. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pinus aristata Engelm., Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow core geographic and elevational distribution, occurs in disjunct populations and is threatened by multiple stresses, including rapid climate change, white pine blister rust, and bark beetles. Knowledge of genetic diversity and pop...

  19. Pinus ponderosa: a taxonomic review with five subspecies in the United States

    Treesearch

    Robert Z. Callaham

    2013-01-01

    Various forms of Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson are found from British Columbia southward and eastward through 16 states and, perhaps, into Mexico. The status of many names previously associated with this species, but excluded here, has been clarified. Accumulated evidence based on variation in morphology and xylem monoterpenes,...

  20. Mitochondrial DNA capture and divergence in Pinus provide new insights into the evolution of the genus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baosheng; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of the mitochondrial (mt) genome is far from being fully understood. Systematic investigations into the modes of inheritance, rates and patterns of recombination, nucleotide substitution, and structural changes in the mt genome are still lacking in many groups of plants. In this study, we sequenced >11kbp mtDNA segments from multiple accessions of 36 pine species to characterize the evolutionary patterns of mtDNA in the genus Pinus. We found extremely low substitution rates and complex repetitive sequences scattered across different genome regions, as well as chimeric structures that were probably generated by multiple intergenomic recombinations. The mtDNA-based phylogeny of the genus differed from that based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA in the placement of several groups of species. Such discordances suggest a series of mtDNA capture events during past range shifts of the pine species and that both vertical and horizontal inheritance are implicated in the evolution of mtDNA in Pinus. MtDNA dating revealed that most extant lineages of the genus originated during Oligocene-Miocene radiation and subgenus Strobus diversified earlier than subgenus Pinus. Our findings illustrate a reticular evolutionary pathway for the mt genome through capture and recombination in the genus Pinus, and provide new insights into the evolution of the genus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.