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Sample records for pinus sylvestris roots

  1. Response of Pinus sylvestris roots to sheet-erosion exposure: an anatomical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiales, J. M.; Bodoque, J. M.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Diez-Herrero, A.

    2008-03-01

    Anatomical changes of exposed tree roots are valuable tools to date erosion events, but the responses of diverse species under different types of erosion need still to be studied in detail. In this paper we analyze the histological changes that occur in roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) subjected to continuous denudation. A descriptive and quantitative study was conducted in the Senda Schmidt, a popular trail located on the northern slope of the Sierra de Guadarrama (Central Iberian System, Spain). Measurement of significant parameters allowed the moment of exposure of the roots to be identified. These parameters were: a) width of the growth ring; b) number of cells per ring; c) percentage of latewood and d) diameter of cellular light in earlywood. A one-way analysis ANOVA was also carried out in order to establish statistically significant differences between homogeneous groups of measurements in pre-exposed and exposed roots. Based on these analyses, Scots pine roots show a remarkable anatomical response to sheet-erosion exposure. Increased growth in the ring is accompanied by a slight reduction of the cell lumina of the earlywood tracheids. At the end of the ring, several rows of thick-walled tracheids define latewood tissue and visible annual borders very clearly. Furthermore, resin ducts often appear in tangential rows, increasing resin density in the tissue. All of these indicators made it possible to determine with precision the first year of exposure and to estimate precisely sheet erosion rates.

  2. Cloning of Pinus sylvestris SCARECROW gene and its expression pattern in the pine root system, mycorrhiza and NPA-treated short roots.

    PubMed

    Laajanen, Kaisa; Vuorinen, Irmeli; Salo, Vanamo; Juuti, Jarmo; Raudaskoski, Marjatta

    2007-01-01

    The SCARECROW (SCR) gene is central to root radial patterning. Its expression has not been investigated in conifers with morphologically different root types. Additional interest in SCR functions in the Pinus sylvestris root system comes from the effect of ectomycorrhiza formation on the short root apical structure. Here, the P. sylvestris SCR gene (PsySCR) was cloned and its expression investigated by northern blot and in situ hybridization of primary, lateral and short roots and mycorrhiza. Short root dichotomization was induced by auxin transport inhibitor (N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)). PsySCR has conserved GRAS family protein motifs at the C-terminus and a variable N-terminus. PsySCR expression occurred in young root tissue and mycorrhiza. In root sections the PsySCR signal runs through the tip in initials for stele and root cap column and becomes upwards-restricted to endodermis in all root types. The PsySCR expression pattern suggests for the first time a regulatory role for SCR in maintaining the endodermal characteristics and radial patterning of roots with open meristem organization. The specific PsySCR localization is also an excellent marker for investigation of the dichotomization process in short roots.

  3. Ectomycorrhizal identity determines respiration and concentrations of nitrogen and non-structural carbohydrates in root tips: a test using Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur saplings.

    PubMed

    Trocha, Lidia K; Mucha, Joanna; Eissenstat, David M; Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2010-05-01

    Fine roots play a significant role in plant and ecosystem respiration (RS); therefore, understanding factors controlling that process is important both to advancing understanding and potentially in modelling carbon (C) budgets. However, very little is known about the extent to which ectomycorrhizal (ECM) identity may influence RS or the underlying chemistry that may determine those rates. In order to test these relationships, we examined RS, measured as O(2) consumption, of first-order ECM root tips of Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus robur L. saplings in relation to their ECM fungal symbionts and associated nitrogen (N), C and non-structural carbohydrate concentrations. Roots of P. sylvestris were colonized by Rhizopogon roseolus, Tuber sp. 1 and an unknown species of Pezizales. Fungal species colonizing Q. robur roots were Hebeloma sp., Tuber sp. 2 and one unidentified ECM fungus described as Tuber-like based on ECM morphology. ECM RS rates for different host species were significantly different and more than 97% of the variation in RS within a host species was explained by ECM root tip N concentrations. This may indicate that some of the variability in fine root RS-N relationships observed between and within different host species or their functional groups may be related to intraspecific host species differences in root tip N concentration among ECM fungal associates. PMID:20304781

  4. The role of defoliation and root rot pathogen infection in driving the mode of drought-related physiological decline in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Aguadé, D; Poyatos, R; Gómez, M; Oliva, J; Martínez-Vilalta, J

    2015-03-01

    Drought-related tree die-off episodes have been observed in all vegetated continents. Despite much research effort, however, the multiple interactions between carbon starvation, hydraulic failure and biotic agents in driving tree mortality under field conditions are still not well understood. We analysed the seasonal variability of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in four organs (leaves, branches, trunk and roots), the vulnerability to embolism in roots and branches, native embolism (percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC)) in branches and the presence of root rot pathogens in defoliated and non-defoliated individuals in a declining Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) population in the NE Iberian Peninsula in 2012, which included a particularly dry and warm summer. No differences were observed between defoliated and non-defoliated pines in hydraulic parameters, except for a higher vulnerability to embolism at pressures below -2 MPa in roots of defoliated pines. No differences were found between defoliation classes in branch PLC. Total NSC (TNSC, soluble sugars plus starch) values decreased during drought, particularly in leaves. Defoliation reduced TNSC levels across tree organs, especially just before (June) and during (August) drought. Root rot infection by the fungal pathogen Onnia P. Karst spp. was detected but it did not appear to be associated to tree defoliation. However, Onnia infection was associated with reduced leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity and sapwood depth, and thus contributed to hydraulic impairment, especially in defoliated pines. Infection was also associated with virtually depleted root starch reserves during and after drought in defoliated pines. Moreover, defoliated and infected trees tended to show lower basal area increment. Overall, our results show the intertwined nature of physiological mechanisms leading to drought-induced mortality and the inherent difficulty of isolating their contribution under field conditions. PMID

  5. The effect of tree architecture on conduit diameter and frequency from small distal roots to branch tips in Betula pendula, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Lintunen, Anna; Kalliokoski, Tuomo

    2010-11-01

    We studied the effect of tree architecture on xylem anatomy in three Betula pendula Roth., three Picea abies (L.) H. Karst. and three Pinus sylvestris (L.) trees (mean age 35 years). First, the analysis of conduit anatomy in different tree parts showed that conduits tapered and their frequency increased from roots (≥ 2 mm) to stem, from stem to branches and further to leaf petioles in B. pendula. Conduit anatomy in lateral and main roots, as well as lateral and main branches, significantly differed from each other in all the studied species. The increase in conduit diameter and decrease in frequency from the pith to the bark were clear aboveground, but variable patterns were observed belowground. In the leaf petioles of B. pendula, conduit diameter increased and conduit frequency decreased with increasing individual leaf area. Second, the results concerning the scaling of conduit diameter were compared with the predictions of the general vascular scaling model (WBE model) and Murray's law. The scaling parameter values at the tree level corresponded with the predictions of the WBE model in all the studied trees except for one tree of both conifer species. However, the scaling parameter values changed from one tree compartment to another rather than remaining uniform inside a tree, as assumed by the WBE model. The assumptions of the WBE model of a constant conductivity ratio, constant tapering and an unchanged total number of conduits were not fulfilled. When the conductivity ratio and relative tapering were plotted together, the results aboveground corresponded quite well with Murray's law: the conductivity ratio increased when relative tapering decreased. Our results support the theory that trees adjust both their macro- and microstructure to maximize their water transport efficiency, but also to prevent embolism and ensure mechanical safety.

  6. [Spatial Distribution Features of the Root Biomass of Some Tree Species (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Betula sp.)].

    PubMed

    Shanin, V N; Rocheva, L K; Shashkov, M P; Ivanova, N V; Moskalenko, S V; Burnasheva, E R

    2015-01-01

    The effect of intra- and interspecific competition on the spatial distribution of the biomass and mortmass of woody plant roots in mixed tree stands has been studied. It has been found that the mass of roots in the samples from tree pairs of different species is higher than in the samples from monospecific pairs. Species-specific differences in the vertical distribution of roots and the effect of intra- and interspecific competition on the spatial structure of biomass have been shown. It has been noted that the proportion of dead roots increases almost linearly with depth.

  7. The ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Lactarius deliciosus and Pinus sylvestris in forest soil samples: symbiotic efficiency and development on roots of a rDNA internal transcribed spacer-selected isolate of L. deliciosus.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Laguette, Alexis; Conventi, Serge; Ruiz, Guy; Plassard, Claude; Mousain, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    The effect on plant growth of pre-inoculation of Pinus sylvestris with the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) edible basidiomycete Lactarius deliciosus (isolate D45) under controlled conditions, and the development on roots of this basidiomycete, were investigated in gamma-irradiated and unsterilized containers containing different forest soil cores or a perlite-vermiculite mixture. Five months after planting, L. deliciosus mycorrhizal plants exhibited greater growth than the non-mycorrhizal ones in all soil types, i.e. up to a 325% increase in shoot height in the sterilized soils. The experiment demonstrated the dependency of P. sylvestris seedlings upon ECM symbiosis for their survival in gamma-irradiated, microbiologically disturbed soil samples. Furthermore, in two soils, the growth of L. deliciosus-inoculated seedlings was greater in the sterilized soil samples than in the non-sterilized ones, i.e. 46% and 132% increase in shoot height under sterilized soil conditions. In containers randomly sampled from each soil type, the degree of root colonization by the inoculated isolate, calculated as the number of mycorrhizal root tips divided by the total number of root tips x100, ranged from 80% to 35%. Within the short term, the inoculated isolate developed rapidly on roots, dominated, and hampered ectomycorrhiza formation by various unidentified (but not Lactarius) resident ECM fungi in unsterilized soil types. Results indicate that the ECM species L. deliciosus is worth investigating to ascertain if other isolates benefit pine growth like the isolate D45, and are therefore also attractive candidates for forestry applications in the Mediterranean area. PMID:12634915

  8. [Major features of decline of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation on sandy land].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangyun; Jiang, Fengqi; Li, Xiaodan; Xue, Yang; Qiu, Sufen

    2004-12-01

    In view of the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Zhanggutai sand land of Liaoning Province, this paper studied the major characteristics of the decline. The appearance of the declining man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was grey green, its needle leaf was very thin, the blooming and fruiting rate was low, the average quantity of cones per tree was only 10.4-16.5, with only 6.96 g to 7.39 g per thousand seeds, and there were many empty and astringent seeds. The seasonal dynamics of nutrients in 2-year-old pine needle leaf was similar, i.e., the N and P contents decreased, while K content increased, showing that the nutrient cycle was imbalance. The chlorophyll content in 2-year-old needle leaf of declined forest was high, while that in 1-year-old healthy forest was also high but with a wide increasing range. The infected harm of shoot blight was the clearest mark to the decline of man-made sand-fixation forest of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica. After the forest declined, the height and the DBH of the pine trees decreased evidently, and the structure of DBH distribution moved "left". The quantity of weak pine trees increased by 15.9%-27.2%, the roots decreased by 22.9%-28.9%, and the absorbing roots (diameter < 0.5 cm) decreased most seriously. PMID:15825430

  9. Stem compression reversibly reduces phloem transport in Pinus sylvestris trees.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Nils; Tarvainen, Lasse; Lim, Hyungwoo; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram; Marshall, John; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-10-01

    Manipulating tree belowground carbon (C) transport enables investigation of the ecological and physiological roles of tree roots and their associated mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a range of other soil organisms and processes. Girdling remains the most reliable method for manipulating this flux and it has been used in numerous studies. However, girdling is destructive and irreversible. Belowground C transport is mediated by phloem tissue, pressurized through the high osmotic potential resulting from its high content of soluble sugars. We speculated that phloem transport may be reversibly blocked through the application of an external pressure on tree stems. Thus, we here introduce a technique based on compression of the phloem, which interrupts belowground flow of assimilates, but allows trees to recover when the external pressure is removed. Metal clamps were wrapped around the stems and tightened to achieve a pressure theoretically sufficient to collapse the phloem tissue, thereby aiming to block transport. The compression's performance was tested in two field experiments: a (13)C canopy labelling study conducted on small Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees [2-3 m tall, 3-7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)] and a larger study involving mature pines (∼15 m tall, 15-25 cm DBH) where stem respiration, phloem and root carbohydrate contents, and soil CO2 efflux were measured. The compression's effectiveness was demonstrated by the successful blockage of (13)C transport. Stem compression doubled stem respiration above treatment, reduced soil CO2 efflux by 34% and reduced phloem sucrose content by 50% compared with control trees. Stem respiration and soil CO2 efflux returned to normal within 3 weeks after pressure release, and (13)C labelling revealed recovery of phloem function the following year. Thus, we show that belowground phloem C transport can be reduced by compression, and we also demonstrate that trees recover after treatment, resuming C

  10. Stem compression reversibly reduces phloem transport in Pinus sylvestris trees.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Nils; Tarvainen, Lasse; Lim, Hyungwoo; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram; Marshall, John; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-10-01

    Manipulating tree belowground carbon (C) transport enables investigation of the ecological and physiological roles of tree roots and their associated mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a range of other soil organisms and processes. Girdling remains the most reliable method for manipulating this flux and it has been used in numerous studies. However, girdling is destructive and irreversible. Belowground C transport is mediated by phloem tissue, pressurized through the high osmotic potential resulting from its high content of soluble sugars. We speculated that phloem transport may be reversibly blocked through the application of an external pressure on tree stems. Thus, we here introduce a technique based on compression of the phloem, which interrupts belowground flow of assimilates, but allows trees to recover when the external pressure is removed. Metal clamps were wrapped around the stems and tightened to achieve a pressure theoretically sufficient to collapse the phloem tissue, thereby aiming to block transport. The compression's performance was tested in two field experiments: a (13)C canopy labelling study conducted on small Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees [2-3 m tall, 3-7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)] and a larger study involving mature pines (∼15 m tall, 15-25 cm DBH) where stem respiration, phloem and root carbohydrate contents, and soil CO2 efflux were measured. The compression's effectiveness was demonstrated by the successful blockage of (13)C transport. Stem compression doubled stem respiration above treatment, reduced soil CO2 efflux by 34% and reduced phloem sucrose content by 50% compared with control trees. Stem respiration and soil CO2 efflux returned to normal within 3 weeks after pressure release, and (13)C labelling revealed recovery of phloem function the following year. Thus, we show that belowground phloem C transport can be reduced by compression, and we also demonstrate that trees recover after treatment, resuming C

  11. Comparative pathobiology of Heterobasidion annosum during challenge on Pinus sylvestris and Arabidopsis roots: an analysis of defensin gene expression in two pathosystems.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Emad; Xiao, Chaowen; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2014-03-01

    Heterobasidion annosum is widely known as a major root and butt rot pathogen of conifer trees, but little information is available on its interaction with the roots of herbaceous angiosperm plants. We investigated the infection biology of H. annosum during challenge with the angiosperm model Arabidopsis and monitored the host response after exposure to different hormone elicitors, chemicals (chitin, glucan and chitosan) and fungal species that represent diverse basidiomycete life strategies [e.g., pathogen (H. annosum), saprotroph (Stereum sanguinolentum) and mutualist (Lactarius rufus)]. The results revealed that the tree pathogen (H. annosum) and the saprotroph (S. sanguinolentum) could infect the Col-8 (Columbia) ecotype of Arabidopsis in laboratory inoculation experiments. Germinated H. annosum spores had appressorium-like penetration structures attached to the surface of the Arabidopsis roots. Subsequent invasive fungal growth led to the disintegration of the vascular region of the root tissues. Progression of root rot symptoms in Arabidopsis was similar to the infection development that was previously documented in Scots pine seedlings. Scots pine PsDef1 and Arabidopsis DEFLs (AT5G44973.1) and PDF1.2 were induced at the initial stage of the infection. However, differences in the expression patterns of the defensin gene homologs from the two plant groups were observed under various conditions, suggesting functional differences in their regulation. The potential use of the H. annosum-Arabidopsis pathosystem as a model for studying forest tree diseases is discussed. PMID:24366684

  12. Comparative pathobiology of Heterobasidion annosum during challenge on Pinus sylvestris and Arabidopsis roots: an analysis of defensin gene expression in two pathosystems.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Emad; Xiao, Chaowen; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2014-03-01

    Heterobasidion annosum is widely known as a major root and butt rot pathogen of conifer trees, but little information is available on its interaction with the roots of herbaceous angiosperm plants. We investigated the infection biology of H. annosum during challenge with the angiosperm model Arabidopsis and monitored the host response after exposure to different hormone elicitors, chemicals (chitin, glucan and chitosan) and fungal species that represent diverse basidiomycete life strategies [e.g., pathogen (H. annosum), saprotroph (Stereum sanguinolentum) and mutualist (Lactarius rufus)]. The results revealed that the tree pathogen (H. annosum) and the saprotroph (S. sanguinolentum) could infect the Col-8 (Columbia) ecotype of Arabidopsis in laboratory inoculation experiments. Germinated H. annosum spores had appressorium-like penetration structures attached to the surface of the Arabidopsis roots. Subsequent invasive fungal growth led to the disintegration of the vascular region of the root tissues. Progression of root rot symptoms in Arabidopsis was similar to the infection development that was previously documented in Scots pine seedlings. Scots pine PsDef1 and Arabidopsis DEFLs (AT5G44973.1) and PDF1.2 were induced at the initial stage of the infection. However, differences in the expression patterns of the defensin gene homologs from the two plant groups were observed under various conditions, suggesting functional differences in their regulation. The potential use of the H. annosum-Arabidopsis pathosystem as a model for studying forest tree diseases is discussed.

  13. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-01-01

    Background: So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Objective: Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. Results: This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). Conclusion: The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment. PMID:26664017

  14. Ozone exposure-response relationships for biomass and root/shoot ratio of beech (Fagus sylvatica), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    PubMed

    Landolt, W; Bühlmann, U; Bleuler, P; Bucher, J B

    2000-09-01

    Current-year seedlings of beech, ash, Norway spruce and Scots pine were exposed during one growing season to different, but moderate, ozone (O(3)) scenarios representative for Switzerland (50, 85, 100% ambient, 50% ambient+30 nl l(-1)) in open-top chambers (OTCs) and to ambient O(3) concentrations in the field. Biomass significantly decreased with increasing O(3) dose in all species except for spruce. Losses of 25.5% (ash), 17.4% (beech), 9.9% (Scots pine) were found per 10 microl l(-1) h accumulated O(3) exposure over a threshold concentration of 40 nl l(-1) during daylight hours (AOT40). Ratios of root/shoot biomass (RSR) also significantly decreased with increasing AOT40 levels in beech and ash, but not in Norway spruce and Scots pine. The data show that the deciduous species beech and ash were more susceptible to O(3) with respect to RSR and biomass than the coniferous species Norway spruce and Scots pine.

  15. Effects of zinc on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Yury V; Kartashov, Alexander V; Ivanova, Alexandra I; Savochkin, Yury V; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V

    2016-05-01

    The 6-week-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) showed high sensitivity to chronic exposure to zinc in hydroculture, which manifested in a significant inhibition of growth. Changes in the architecture of the root system and the suppression of its growth were shown to be the most striking effects of the toxic effect of zinc. Based on the data relating to the accumulation of zinc predominantly in the root system (by up to 35 times at 300 μM ZnSO4) and to the reduction in its translocation into the aerial organs, we concluded that P. sylvestris is related to a group of plants that exclude zinc. The seedlings developed a manganese deficiency (revealed by a reduction in Mn content in the roots and needles of up to 3.5 times at 300 μM ZnSO4) but not an iron deficiency (revealed by an increase in iron content of up to 23.7% in the roots and up to 42.3% in the needles at average). The absence of signs of oxidative stress under the effect of the zinc was detected as evidenced by the reduction in the content of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals in the seedling organs. The leading role of low molecular weight antioxidants in the prevention of oxidative stress in the seedling organs was suggested. Under the influence of zinc, a significant increase in the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity of ethanol extracts of the seedling organs was found, which was caused by an increase in the total content of (+)-catechin and proanthocyanidins. PMID:26897114

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Phytopathogenic Fungus Fusarium fujikuroi CF-295141, Isolated from Pinus sylvestris

    PubMed Central

    Bertoni-Mann, Michele; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; González-Menéndez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a new strain of Fusarium fujikuroi, isolated from Pinus sylvestris, which was also found to produce the mycotoxin beauvericin. The Illumina-based sequence analysis revealed an approximate genome size of 44.2 Mbp, containing 164 secondary metabolite biosynthetic clusters. PMID:27795279

  17. Physiological responses of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings to the interaction between Suillus luteus and Trichoderma virens.

    PubMed

    Yin, D; Deng, X; Chet, Ilan; Song, R

    2014-09-01

    The effects of the interaction between Suillus luteus (L.) Roussel and Trichoderma virens (J.H. Mill., Giddens & A.A. Foster) Arx on Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv. were studied using plant physiology, mycorrhizal science, forest pathology, and biochemistry. Seedling growth and physiological parameters were determined, including the colonization rate of mycorrhizal fungi, biomass, root activity, photosynthetic pigment content, soluble protein content, antioxidant enzyme activities, rhizosphere soil enzyme activities, and protective enzyme activities. In addition, an optimal resistance system involving T. virens, mycorrhizal fungus (S. luteus), and P. sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings was constructed. Synergies between S. luteus and T. virens were observed, and most of the parameters of P. sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings inoculated with S. luteus 30 days + T. virens were higher than other treatments. After three months, when compared the control, the S. luteus 30 days + T. virens treatment gave increases in height (42.3 %); collar diameter (66.7 %); fresh weight (54 %); dry weight (50 %); soluble protein content (69.86 %); root activity (150 %); chlorophyll a (77.6 %); chlorophyll b (70.5 %); carotenoids (144 %); CAT activity (876.9 %); POD activity (268.3 %); SOD activity (66.18 %); β-1,3-glucanase activity (125.8 %); chitinase activity (40 %); rhizosphere soil catalase activity (97.8 %); and phosphatase activity (266.7 %). These results indicate that there may be a stimulating factor between S. luteus and T. virens when they are inoculated together (S. luteus 30 days + T. virens).

  18. No evidence for depletion of carbohydrate pools in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, A.; Pirkebner, D.; Florian, C.; Oberhuber, W.

    2012-01-01

    The physiological mechanisms leading to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) decline in the dry inner Alpine valleys are still unknown. Testing the carbon starvation hypothesis, we analysed the seasonal course of mobile carbohydrate pools (NSC) of Scots pine growing at a xeric and a dry-mesic site within an inner Alpine dry valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) during the year 2009, which was characterized by exceptional soil dryness. Although, soil moisture content dropped to c. 10% at both sites during the growing season, NSC concentrations were rising in all tissues (branch, stem, root) till end of July, except in needles where maxima were reached around bud break. NSC concentrations were not significantly different in the analysed tissues at the xeric and the dry-mesic site. At the dry-mesic site NSC concentrations in the above ground tree biomass were significantly higher during the period of radial growth. An accumulation of NSC in roots at the end of July indicates a change in carbon allocation after an early cessation in above ground growth, possibly due to elevated below ground carbon demand. In conclusion our results revealed that extensive soil dryness during the growing season did not lead to carbon depletion. However, even though C-reserves were not exhausted, a sequestration of carbohydrate pools during drought periods might lead to deficits in carbon supply that weaken tree vigour and drive tree mortality. PMID:21974742

  19. Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Fayemiwo, Kehinde Adenike; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Okoro, Ovie Princewill; Awojide, Shola Hezekiah; Awoniyi, Ilias Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oils of locally sourced Pinus sylvestris (P. sylvestris) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus). Method The chemical composition of the essential oils of both plants was determined using GC-MS while the larvicidal bioassay was carried out using different concentrations of the oils against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus in accordance with the standard protocol. Results The results as determined by GC-MS showed that oil of S. aromaticum has eugenol (80.5%) as its principal constituent while P. sylvestris has 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha., .alpha.4-trimethyl (27.1%) as its dominant constituent. Both oils achieved over 85% larval mortality within 24 h. The larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible to the oils [LC50 (S. aromaticum)=92.56 mg/L, LC50(P. sylvestris)=100.39 mg/L] than C. quinquefasciatus [LC50(S. aromaticum)=124.42 mg/L; LC50(P. sylvestris)=128.00 mg/L]. S. aromaticum oil was more toxic to the mosquito larvae than oil of P. sylvestris but the difference in lethal concentrations was insignificant (P>0.05). Conclusion The results justify the larvicidal potentials of both essential oils and the need to incorporate them in vector management and control. PMID:24144127

  20. Effects of environmental conditions on onset of xylem growth in Pinus sylvestris under drought.

    PubMed

    Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas; Kofler, Werner; Oberhuber, Walter

    2011-05-01

    We determined the influence of environmental factors (air and soil temperature, precipitation, photoperiod) on onset of xylem growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within a dry inner Alpine valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) by repeatedly sampling micro-cores throughout 2007-10 at two sites (xeric and dry-mesic) at the start of the growing season. Temperature sums were calculated in degree-days (DD) ≥5 °C from 1 January and 20 March, i.e., spring equinox, to account for photoperiodic control of release from winter dormancy. Threshold temperatures at which xylogenesis had a 0.5 probability of being active were calculated by logistic regression. Onset of xylem growth, which was not significantly different between the xeric and dry-mesic sites, ranged from mid-April in 2007 to early May in 2008. Among most study years, statistically significant differences (P<0.05) in onset of xylem growth were detected. Mean air temperature sums calculated from 1 January until onset of xylem growth were 230 ± 44 DD (mean ± standard deviation) at the xeric site and 205 ± 36 DD at the dry-mesic site. Temperature sums calculated from spring equinox until onset of xylem growth showed somewhat less variability during the 4-year study period, amounting to 144 ± 10 and 137 ± 12 DD at the xeric and dry-mesic sites, respectively. At both sites, xylem growth was active when daily minimum, mean and maximum air temperatures were 5.3, 10.1 and 16.2 °C, respectively. Soil temperature thresholds and DD until onset of xylem growth differed significantly between sites, indicating minor importance of root-zone temperature for onset of xylem growth. Although spring precipitation is known to limit radial growth in P. sylvestris exposed to a dry inner Alpine climate, the results of this study revealed that (i) a daily minimum air temperature threshold for onset of xylem growth in the range 5-6 °C exists and (ii) air temperature sum rather than precipitation or soil temperature triggers

  1. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    PubMed

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance. PMID:23705379

  2. Impact of drought on the temporal dynamics of wood formation in Pinus sylvestris

    PubMed Central

    GRUBER, ANDREAS; STROBL, STEFAN; VEIT, BARBARA; OBERHUBER, WALTER

    2011-01-01

    Summary We determined the temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell differentiation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within a dry inner Alpine valley (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria), where radial growth is strongly limited by drought in spring. Repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree ring of mature trees was carried out during 2 contrasting years at two study plots that differ in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). In 2007, when air temperature at the beginning of the growing season in April exceeded the long-term mean by 6.4 °C, cambial cell division started in early April at both study plots. A delayed onset of cambial activity of c. 2 wk was found in 2008, when average climate conditions prevailed in spring, indicating that resumption of cambial cell division after winter dormancy is temperature-controlled. Cambial cell division consistently ended about the end of June/early July in both study years. Radial enlargement of tracheids started almost 3 wk earlier in 2007 compared with 2008 at both study plots. At the xeric site, the maximum rate of tracheid production in 2007 and 2008 was reached in early and mid-May, respectively, and c. 2 wk later, at the dry-mesic site. Since in both study years, more favorable growing conditions (i.e., an increase in soil water content) were recorded during summer, we suggest a strong sink competition for carbohydrates to mycorrhizal root and shoot growth. Wood formation stopped c. 4 wk earlier at the xeric compared with the dry-mesic site in both years, indicating a strong influence of drought stress on cell differentiation. This is supported by radial widths of earlywood cells, which were found to be significantly narrower at the xeric than at the dry-mesic site (P < 0.05). Repeated cellular analyses during the two growing seasons revealed that, although spatial variability in the dynamics and duration of cell differentiation processes in Pinus sylvestris exposed to drought is strongly

  3. Effects of trichloroacetic acid on the nitrogen metabolism of Pinus sylvestris--a 13C/15N tracer study.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Christoph; Jung, Klaus; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2002-01-01

    Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) can be found in various environmental compartments like air, rain and plants all over the world. It is assumed that TCA is an atmospheric degradation product of volatile chloroorganic hydrocarbons. The herbicide effect of TCA in higher concentrations is well known, but not much is known about the phytotoxic effects in environmentally relevant concentrations. It can be shown in this study by using the 13C/15N stable isotope tracer technique that [13C]TCA is taken up by roots of two-year-old seedlings of Pinus sylvestris L. and transported into the needles. At the same time the effect of the substance on nitrogen metabolism can be analyzed by measuring the incorporation of 15NO3- into different nitrogen fractions of the plant. The more [13C]TCA incorporation, the higher the synthesis of 15N labelled amino acids and proteins is. These effects on the nitrogen metabolism are probably based on the activation of stress- and detoxification metabolism. It has to be assumed that there is an influence on N metabolism of Pinus sylvestris caused by the deposition of environmentally relevant TCA concentrations.

  4. The role of genetic and chemical variation of Pinus sylvestris seedlings in influencing slug herbivory.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Iason, Glenn R; Thoss, Vera

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated the genetic and chemical basis of resistance of Pinus sylvestris seedlings to herbivory by a generalist mollusc, Arion ater. Using feeding trials with captive animals, we examined selective herbivory by A. ater of young P. sylvestris seedlings of different genotypes and correlated preferences with seedling monoterpene levels. We also investigated the feeding responses of A. ater to artificial diets laced with two monoterpenes, Delta(3)-carene and alpha-pinene. Logistic regression indicated that two factors were the best predictors of whether seedlings in the trial would be consumed. Individual slug variation (replicates) was the most significant factor in the model; however, alpha-pinene concentration (also representing beta-pinene, Delta(3)-carene and total monoterpenes due to multicollinearity) of needles was also a significant factor. While A. ater did not select seedlings on the basis of family, seedlings not eaten were significantly higher in levels of alpha-pinene compared to seedlings that were consumed. We also demonstrated significant genetic variation in alpha-pinene concentration of seedlings between different families of P. sylvestris. Nitrogen and three morphological seedling characteristics (stem length, needle length and stem diameter) also showed significant genetic variation between P. sylvestris families. Artificial diets laced with high (5 mg g(-1) dry matter) quantities of either Delta(3)-carene or alpha-pinene, were eaten significantly less than control diets with no added monoterpenes, supporting the results of the seedling feeding trial. This study demonstrates that A. ater selectively feed on P. sylvestris seedlings and that this selection is based, in part, on the monoterpene concentration of seedlings. These results, coupled with significant genetic variation in alpha-pinene concentration of seedlings and evidence that slug herbivory is detrimental to P. sylvestris fitness, are discussed as possible evidence for A

  5. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbohydrates and stem growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) exposed to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Kofler, Werner; Schuster, Roman; Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Tree growth requires a continuous supply of carbon as structural material and as a source for metabolic energy. To detect whether intra-annual stem growth is related to changes in carbon allocation, we monitored seasonal dynamics of shoot and radial growth and concentrations of mobile carbohydrates (NSC) in above- and belowground organs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study area is situated within an inner Alpine dry environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria), which is characterized by recurring drought periods at the start of the growing season in spring and limited water holding capacity of nutrient deficient, shallow stony soils. Shoot elongation was monitored on lateral branches in the canopy and stem radius changes were continuously followed by electronic band dendrometers. Daily radial stem growth and tree water deficit (ΔW) were extracted from dendrometer records. ΔW is regarded a reliable measure of drought stress in trees and develops when transpirational water loss from leaves exceeds water uptake by the root system. Daily radial stem growth and ΔW were related to environmental variables and determination of NSC was performed using specific enzymatic assays. Results revealed quite early culmination of aboveground growth rates in late April (shoot growth) and late May (radial growth), and increasing accumulation of NSC in coarse roots in June. NSC content in roots peaked at the end of July and thereafter decreased again, indicating a shift in carbon allocation after an early cessation of aboveground stem growth. ΔW was found to peak in late summer, when high temperatures prevailed. That maximum growth rates of aboveground organs peaked quite before precipitation increased during summer is related to the finding that ΔW and radial stem growth were more strongly controlled by the atmospheric environment, than by soil water content. We conclude that as a response to the seasonal development of ΔW a shift in carbon allocation from aboveground

  6. [Pathways and rates of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea species recolonization into Scandinavia in Holocene].

    PubMed

    Sannikov, S N; Sannikova, N S

    2015-01-01

    The results are presented of comparative analysis of pathways, rates, and timing of recolonization into Scandinavia, in Holocene, of Pinus sylvestris populations and those of Picea abies and P. obovata. The dispersion rate, starting from 12 thou years before present (BP), is calculated using palynological data from scientific literature on radiometric dating. It is found out that P sylvestris spread into Central Scandinavia from the Alps via the Danish Isthmus about 8.2 thou years BP with the speed of 500-1250 km per 1 thou years. A hypothesis is put forward suggesting that such a fast speed is due to pine seeds hydrochory, which is much faster than anemochory according to our researches. From the northern part of the East European Plain, P. sylvestris spread into Fennoscandia with lower speed (520 km per 1 thou years). Populations of Picea species dispersed from the same regions with speed (131-164 km per 1 thou years) 3-10 times lower than that of P. sylvestris. Therefore, invasion of Picea abies from the Alps into Scandinavia via the Danish Isthmus did not have time to happen before the formation of the Kattegat Strait. By circumferential pathway, through Karelia, both species of Picea reached the northern parts of Scandinavia only 3.5 thou years BP, its central parts - 2 thou years BP, and its southern parts - 1.5 thou years BP, i.e., later than P. sylvestris by 4, 6.2, and 8.5 thou years respectively. Probably, this may be explained by the fact that in pines the time to seeding is twofold shorter, while their sprouts were more tolerant to climatic extremums in periglacial habitats in middle Holocene.

  7. [Pathways and rates of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea species recolonization into Scandinavia in Holocene].

    PubMed

    Sannikov, S N; Sannikova, N S

    2015-01-01

    The results are presented of comparative analysis of pathways, rates, and timing of recolonization into Scandinavia, in Holocene, of Pinus sylvestris populations and those of Picea abies and P. obovata. The dispersion rate, starting from 12 thou years before present (BP), is calculated using palynological data from scientific literature on radiometric dating. It is found out that P sylvestris spread into Central Scandinavia from the Alps via the Danish Isthmus about 8.2 thou years BP with the speed of 500-1250 km per 1 thou years. A hypothesis is put forward suggesting that such a fast speed is due to pine seeds hydrochory, which is much faster than anemochory according to our researches. From the northern part of the East European Plain, P. sylvestris spread into Fennoscandia with lower speed (520 km per 1 thou years). Populations of Picea species dispersed from the same regions with speed (131-164 km per 1 thou years) 3-10 times lower than that of P. sylvestris. Therefore, invasion of Picea abies from the Alps into Scandinavia via the Danish Isthmus did not have time to happen before the formation of the Kattegat Strait. By circumferential pathway, through Karelia, both species of Picea reached the northern parts of Scandinavia only 3.5 thou years BP, its central parts - 2 thou years BP, and its southern parts - 1.5 thou years BP, i.e., later than P. sylvestris by 4, 6.2, and 8.5 thou years respectively. Probably, this may be explained by the fact that in pines the time to seeding is twofold shorter, while their sprouts were more tolerant to climatic extremums in periglacial habitats in middle Holocene. PMID:26852572

  8. Effect of long-term drought on carbon allocation and nitrogen uptake of Pinus sylvestris seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Aaltonen, Heidi; Lindén, Aki; Köster, Kajar; Biasi, Christina; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2015-04-01

    Weather extremes such as drought events are expected to increase in the future as a result of climate change. The drought affects the allocation of carbon assimilated by plants e.g. by modifying the root to shoot ratio, amount of fine roots and the amount of mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. We studied the effect of long term drought on the allocation of carbon in a common garden experiment with 4-year-old Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Half of the seedlings were exposed to long-term drought by setting the soil water content close to wilting point for over two growing seasons whereas the other half was grown in soil close to field capacity. We conducted a pulse labelling with 13CO2 in the end of the study by injecting a known amount of 13C enriched CO2 to the seedlings and measuring the CO2 uptake and distribution of 13C to the biomass of the seedlings and to the root and rhizosphere respiration. In addition, we studied the effect of drought on the decomposition of needle litter and uptake of nitrogen by 15N labelled needles buried in the soil in litter bags. The litterbags were collected and harvested in the end of the experiment and the changes in microbial community in the litterbags were studied from the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition. We also determined the 15N isotope concentrations from the needles of the seedlings to study the effect of drought on the nitrogen uptake of the seedlings. Our results indicate that the drought had a significant effect both on the biomass allocation of the seedlings and on the microbial species composition. The amount of carbon allocated belowground was much higher in the seedlings exposed to drought compared to the control seedlings. The seedlings seemed to adapt their carbon allocation to long-term drought to sustain adequate needle biomass and water uptake. The seedlings also adapted their osmotic potential and photosynthesis capacity to sustain the long-term drought as was indicated by the measurements of osmotic potential

  9. Interactive effects of juvenile defoliation, light conditions, and interspecific competition on growth and ectomycorrhizal colonization of Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    PubMed

    Trocha, Lidia K; Weiser, Ewa; Robakowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings of forest tree species are exposed to a number of abiotic (organ loss or damage, light shortage) and biotic (interspecific competition) stress factors, which may lead to an inhibition of growth and reproduction and, eventually, to plant death. Growth of the host and its mycorrhizal symbiont is often closely linked, and hence, host damage may negatively affect the symbiont. We designed a pot experiment to study the response of light-demanding Pinus sylvestris and shade-tolerant Fagus sylvatica seedlings to a set of abiotic and biotic stresses and subsequent effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root tip colonization, seedling biomass, and leaf nitrogen content. The light regime had a more pronounced effect on ECM colonization than did juvenile damage. The interspecific competition resulted in higher ECM root tip abundance for Pinus, but this effect was insignificant in Fagus. Low light and interspecific competition resulted in lower seedling biomass compared to high light, and the effect of the latter was partially masked by high light. Leaf nitrogen responded differently in Fagus and Pinus when they grew in interspecific competition. Our results indicated that for both light-demanding (Pinus) and shade-tolerant (Fagus) species, the light environment was a major factor affecting seedling growth and ECM root tip abundance. The light conditions favorable for the growth of seedlings may to some extent compensate for the harmful effects of juvenile organ loss or damage and interspecific competition.

  10. The effects of heat treatment on some technological properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Süleyman; Akgül, Mehmet; Dündar, Turker

    2008-04-01

    Heat treatment is often applied to wood species to improve their dimensional stability. This study examined the effect of heat treatment on certain mechanical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens obtained from Bolu, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment under atmospheric pressure at varying temperatures (120, 150 and 180 degrees C) for varying durations (2, 6 and 10h). The test results of heat-treated Scots pine and control samples showed that technological properties including compression strength, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength and tension strength perpendicular to grain suffered with heat treatment, and increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens.

  11. [CYTOGENETIC RESPONSE OF SCOTS PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.) TO CADMIUM AND NICKEL].

    PubMed

    Belousov, M V; Mashkina, O S

    2015-01-01

    We studied cytogenetic polymorphism of the seeds of Pinus sylvestris L. in response to heavy metals exposure in laboratory settings over 2 years' time. We compared results obtained from the seedlings of different years: 2012 and 2013. With an increase in Ni2+ and Cd2+ concentration we observed a decrease in mitotic activity with concurrent rise in the percentage of cells in the prophase. This fact demonstrates the heavy metals act similar to both fixatives and substances that block cleavage spindle formation. In terms of pathological mitosis and the frequency of micronuclei cells, Cd2+ shows higher mutagenity compared to Ni2+. In addition, in the experimental samples, we have distinguished abnormalities such as fragmentations and agglutinations of chromosomes and especially C mitosis occurrence, which are not observed in the control. PMID:26495713

  12. The effects of heat treatment on some technological properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Süleyman; Akgül, Mehmet; Dündar, Turker

    2008-04-01

    Heat treatment is often applied to wood species to improve their dimensional stability. This study examined the effect of heat treatment on certain mechanical properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), which has industrially high usage potential and large plantations in Turkey. Wood specimens obtained from Bolu, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment under atmospheric pressure at varying temperatures (120, 150 and 180 degrees C) for varying durations (2, 6 and 10h). The test results of heat-treated Scots pine and control samples showed that technological properties including compression strength, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength and tension strength perpendicular to grain suffered with heat treatment, and increase in temperature and duration further diminished technological strength values of the wood specimens. PMID:17482811

  13. Transpiration and canopy conductance in an inner alpine Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Gerhard; Leo, Marco; Oberhuber, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Canopy transpiration (Ec) of a 150-year old Pinus sylvestris L. stand in an inner alpine dry valley, Tyrol, Austria was estimated throughout two growing seasons 2011 and 2012 by means of xylem sap flow measurements. Although there were prolonged periods of limited soil water availability Ec did not show a clear trend with respect to soil water availability and averaged 0.4 ± 0.19 mm day-1 under conditions of non-limiting soil water availability and 0.37 ± 0.17 mm day-1 when soil water availability was limited. This is because canopy conductance declined significantly with increasing evaporative demand and thus significantly reduced tree water loss. The growing season total of Ec was 74 mm and 88 mm in 2011 and 2012, respectively, which is significantly below the values estimated for other P. sylvestris forest ecosystems in Central Europe, and thus reflecting a strong adaptation to soil drought during periods of high evaporative. PMID:27468179

  14. Temporal dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates and xylem growth in Pinus sylvestris exposed to drought

    PubMed Central

    Oberhuber, Walter; Swidrak, Irene; Pirkebner, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Wood formation requires a continuous supply of carbohydrates for structural growth and metabolism. In the montane belt of the central Austrian Alps we monitored the temporal dynamics of xylem growth and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in stem sapwood of Pinus sylvestris L. during the growing season 2009, which was characterized by exceptional soil dryness within the study area. Soil water content dropped below 10 % at the time of maximum xylem growth end of May. Histological analyses have been used to describe cambial activity and xylem growth. Determination of NSC was performed using specific enzymatic assays revealing that total NSC ranged from 0.8 to 1.7 % dry matter throughout the year. Significant variations (P < 0.05) of the size of the NSC pool were observed during the growing season. Starch showed persistent abundance throughout the year reaching a maximum shortly before onset of late wood formation in mid-July. Seasonal dynamics of NSC and xylem growth suggest that (i) high sink activity occurred at start of the growing season in spring and during late wood formation in summer and (ii) there was no particular shortage in NSC, which caused P. sylvestris to draw upon stem reserves more heavily during drought in 2009. PMID:22003262

  15. Impact of experimentally elevated ozone on seed germination and growth of Russian pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea spp.) provenances.

    PubMed

    Prozherina, Nadezda; Nakvasina, Elena; Oksanen, Elina

    2009-12-01

    The impact of elevated ozone concentrations on early ontogenetic stages of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies, Picea obovata, P. abies x P. obovata) seedlings originating from different provenances in Russia were studied in the open-field ozone fumigation system located in Kuopio, Finland, over a span of 2 y. The AOT40 value (accumulated ozone dose over the threshold 40 ppb during daylight hours) was 11 ppm hr per growing season, which was 1.4 times higher than the ambient air concentration. The plants were measured for germination rate; shoot increment; needle length; and dry mass of needles, shoots, and roots. Significant differences between pine and spruce provenance response to ozone were found in all parameters. Ozone stress immediately reduced the germination rate of Northern pine provenances, whereas biomass reductions became evident during the second year of the exposure in all pine provenances. Spruce species were more tolerant to elevated ozone concentrations. Our results indicate that seedling development is vulnerable to increasing ozone concentrations and that attention must be paid to the provenance selection.

  16. [Radiation risk assessment for plant reference species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) from the area of radium production waste storage].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T I; Geras'kin, S A; Belykh, E S; Maĭstrenko, T A; Vakhrusheva, O M

    2012-01-01

    The risk of an enhanced level of radionuclides of the uranium and thorium decay series in the environment for reference plant species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) was assessed. 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Po, 232Th and 228Th concentration factors for plants were found to be lower than one. The aboveground parts of Vicia cracca sampled from the area of the radium production waste storage mainly accumulated 22Ra, Pinus sylvestris branches--210Pb, 226Ra and 210Po. LOEDR calculated for the chromosome aberration frequency in both plant studies was 17-71 microGy/h. LOERD values for the reproductive capacity decrease in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 17-71 microGy/h and 116-258 microGy/h, correspondingly. EDR10 for the chromosome aberration frequency in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 148 and 347 microGy/h, that is, correspondingly, 255 and 708 times higher that background values. EDR10 for the plant reproductive capacity was 11-34 microGy/h, which 19-69 times increases the background values.

  17. [Radiation risk assessment for plant reference species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) from the area of radium production waste storage].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T I; Geras'kin, S A; Belykh, E S; Maĭstrenko, T A; Vakhrusheva, O M

    2012-01-01

    The risk of an enhanced level of radionuclides of the uranium and thorium decay series in the environment for reference plant species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) was assessed. 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Po, 232Th and 228Th concentration factors for plants were found to be lower than one. The aboveground parts of Vicia cracca sampled from the area of the radium production waste storage mainly accumulated 22Ra, Pinus sylvestris branches--210Pb, 226Ra and 210Po. LOEDR calculated for the chromosome aberration frequency in both plant studies was 17-71 microGy/h. LOERD values for the reproductive capacity decrease in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 17-71 microGy/h and 116-258 microGy/h, correspondingly. EDR10 for the chromosome aberration frequency in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 148 and 347 microGy/h, that is, correspondingly, 255 and 708 times higher that background values. EDR10 for the plant reproductive capacity was 11-34 microGy/h, which 19-69 times increases the background values. PMID:22690582

  18. Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. ) tree-limit surveillance during recent decades, central Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Kullman, L. )

    1993-02-01

    The altitudinal tree-limit of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has been surveyed at the population level since the early- and mid-1970s in the Swedish Scandes. Elevational tree-limit advance was recorded for the majority of sites, despite statistically stable, although highly fluctuating climate with clusters of exceptionally cold winters and many relatively cool summers. The new tree-limit derived from pines established in the late 1950s. Tree-limit rise was concurrent with net population decline for the period 1972 to 1991, mainly as a result of failing regeneration. The main factor of individual vitality depression and mortality was deduced to be winter desiccation. The progressive tree-limit has a tendency for slow upslope advance during periods of climatic stability, even if punctuated by shorter events of unfavorable climate. Pine tree-limit dynamics is suggested to be a complex of climate/age/disturbance interactions. The tree-limit may decline altitudinally mainly in response to secular climate cooling, which makes it best suited for surveying sustained climatic trends and analogous paleoclimatic reconstruction. 51 refs., 12 figs., 1 tabs.

  19. Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Bolsunovsky, A; Dementyev, D

    2014-12-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011-2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg(-1)(131)I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg(-1)(134)Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg(-1)(137)Cs. An important finding was the detection of (134)Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2-2.6), suggesting the presence of "older", pre-Fukushima accident (137)Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two-three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident (137)Cs.

  20. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-03-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world’s coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories.

  1. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world's coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories.

  2. Necrotic bark of common pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a bioindicator of environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Chrzan, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pH and the concentration of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc in aqueous extracts of necrotic bark Pinus sylvestris L. and in adjacent soil, located in two types of forest habitat in different parts in the Niepołomice Forest in southern Poland. The Niepołomice Forest is located about 35 km east of an urban-industrial agglomeration Kraków. Despite the lack of significant differences in pine bark reaction studied, there was a clear difference in contamination of both bark and soil with heavy metals. There was a correlation between the distribution of pollutants in the forest, and the direction of the prevailing winds. More heavy metals were accumulated in the pine bark and soil from the west than the east. The high content of lead, zinc, cadmium and copper in the soils most likely results from the inflow of gas and dust pollutants from the urban-industrial agglomeration of Kraków. PMID:25106515

  3. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world’s coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories. PMID:26997421

  4. Climatic influences on intra-annual stem radial increment of Pinus sylvestris (L.) exposed to drought

    PubMed Central

    OBERHUBER, Walter; GRUBER, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Within a dry inner Alpine valley in the Eastern Central Alps (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) the influence of climate variables (precipitation, air humidity, temperature) and soil water content on intra-annual dynamics of tree-ring development was determined in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two sites differing in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). Radial stem development was continuously followed during 2007 and 2008 by band dendrometers and repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree rings of mature trees. Daily and seasonal fluctuations of the stem radius, which reached almost half of total annual increment, primarily reflected changes in tree water status and masked radial stem growth especially during drought periods in spring. However, temporal dynamics of intra-annual radial growth determined by both methods were found to be quite similar, when onset of radial growth in dendrometer traces was defined by the occurrence of first enlarging xylem cells. Radial increments during the growing period, which lasted from early April through early August showed statistically significant relationships with precipitation (Kendall τ = 0.234, p < 0.01, and τ = 0.184, p < 0.05, at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively) and relative air humidity (Pearson r = 0.290, p < 0.05, and r = 0.306, p < 0.05 at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively). Soil water content and air temperature had no influence on radial stem increment. Culmination of radial stem growth was detected at both study plots around mid-May, prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions, i.e. an increase in precipitation during summer. We suggest that the early decrease in radial growth rate is due to a high belowground demand for carbohydrates to ensure adequate resource acquisition on the drought prone substrate. PMID:22003269

  5. Ectomycorrhiza succession patterns in Pinus sylvestris forests after stand-replacing fire in the Central Alps.

    PubMed

    Kipfer, Tabea; Moser, Barbara; Egli, Simon; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-09-01

    Fires shape fundamental properties of many forest ecosystems and climate change will increase their relevance in regions where fires occur infrequently today. In ecosystems that are not adapted to fire, post-fire tree recruitment is often sparse, a fact that might be attributed to a transient lack of mycorrhizae. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi play an important role for recruitment by enhancing nutrient and water uptake of their hosts. The questions arise whether and for how long the EcM community is transformed by fire. We investigated the resistance and resilience of EcM fungal communities on a chronosequence of 12 Pinus sylvestris stands in Valais (Switzerland) and Val d'Aosta (Italy) affected by fire between 1990 and 2006. Soil samples from burnt and non-burnt forests were analyzed with respect to EcM fungi by means of a bioassay. The number of EcM species was significantly lower in samples from recently (2-5 years) burnt sites than non-burnt forest, and increased with time since fire reaching levels of adjacent forests after 15-18 years. Community composition changed after fire but did not converge to that of non-burnt sites over the 18 year period. Only Rhizopogon roseolus and Cenococcum geophilum were abundant in both burnt sites and adjacent forest. Our data indicate fire resistance of some EcM fungal species as well as rapid resilience in terms of species number, but not in species composition. As long as the function of different EcM species for seedling establishment is unknown, the consequences of long-term shifts in EcM community composition for tree recruitment remain unclear. PMID:21468664

  6. Short Delay in Timing of Emergence Determines Establishment Success in Pinus sylvestris across Microhabitats

    PubMed Central

    CASTRO, JORGE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The date of emergence may have far-reaching implications for seedling performance. Seedlings emerging early in the growing season often have a greater rate of survival or grow better if early emergence provides advantages with respect to an environmental cue. As a result, the benefits of early emergence may be lost if the environmental stress creating the differences among cohorts disappears. The experimental manipulation under field conditions of the factors that constitute the main sources of stress for seedling establishment is thus a straightforward method to evaluate the impact of date of emergence on seedling establishment under realistic conditions. • Methods Two field experiments were performed to analyse the effect of emergence date on survival and first-year growth of Scots pine seedlings in natural mountain forests in south-east Spain. Two main environmental factors that determine seedling success in these mountains were considered: (1) microhabitat type (monitoring the effect of date of emergence in the three most common microhabitats where seedlings recruit); (2) summer drought (monitored by an irrigation treatment with control and watered sampling points). • Key Results Overall, early emergence resulted in a higher probability of survival and better growth in the two experiments and across microhabitats. However, the reduction in summer drought did not diminish the differences observed among cohorts: all cohorts increased their survival and growth, but early cohorts still had a clear advantage. • Conclusions Date of emergence determines establishment success of Pinus sylvestris seedlings, even if cohorts are separated by only a few days, irrespective of the intensity of summer drought. The experimental design, covering a gradient of light intensity and soil moisture that simulates conditions of the regeneration niche of Scots pine across its geographical range, allows the results to be extrapolated to other areas of the

  7. Ectomycorrhiza succession patterns in Pinus sylvestris forests after stand-replacing fire in the Central Alps.

    PubMed

    Kipfer, Tabea; Moser, Barbara; Egli, Simon; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-09-01

    Fires shape fundamental properties of many forest ecosystems and climate change will increase their relevance in regions where fires occur infrequently today. In ecosystems that are not adapted to fire, post-fire tree recruitment is often sparse, a fact that might be attributed to a transient lack of mycorrhizae. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi play an important role for recruitment by enhancing nutrient and water uptake of their hosts. The questions arise whether and for how long the EcM community is transformed by fire. We investigated the resistance and resilience of EcM fungal communities on a chronosequence of 12 Pinus sylvestris stands in Valais (Switzerland) and Val d'Aosta (Italy) affected by fire between 1990 and 2006. Soil samples from burnt and non-burnt forests were analyzed with respect to EcM fungi by means of a bioassay. The number of EcM species was significantly lower in samples from recently (2-5 years) burnt sites than non-burnt forest, and increased with time since fire reaching levels of adjacent forests after 15-18 years. Community composition changed after fire but did not converge to that of non-burnt sites over the 18 year period. Only Rhizopogon roseolus and Cenococcum geophilum were abundant in both burnt sites and adjacent forest. Our data indicate fire resistance of some EcM fungal species as well as rapid resilience in terms of species number, but not in species composition. As long as the function of different EcM species for seedling establishment is unknown, the consequences of long-term shifts in EcM community composition for tree recruitment remain unclear.

  8. Climatic influences on intra-annual stem radial increment of Pinus sylvestris (L.) exposed to drought.

    PubMed

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2010-06-25

    Within a dry inner Alpine valley in the Eastern Central Alps (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) the influence of climate variables (precipitation, air humidity, temperature) and soil water content on intra-annual dynamics of tree-ring development was determined in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two sites differing in soil water availability (xeric and dry-mesic site). Radial stem development was continuously followed during 2007 and 2008 by band dendrometers and repeated micro-sampling of the developing tree rings of mature trees. Daily and seasonal fluctuations of the stem radius, which reached almost half of total annual increment, primarily reflected changes in tree water status and masked radial stem growth especially during drought periods in spring. However, temporal dynamics of intra-annual radial growth determined by both methods were found to be quite similar, when onset of radial growth in dendrometer traces was defined by the occurrence of first enlarging xylem cells. Radial increments during the growing period, which lasted from early April through early August showed statistically significant relationships with precipitation (Kendall τ = 0.234, p < 0.01, and τ = 0.184, p < 0.05, at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively) and relative air humidity (Pearson r = 0.290, p < 0.05, and r = 0.306, p < 0.05 at the xeric and dry-mesic site, respectively). Soil water content and air temperature had no influence on radial stem increment. Culmination of radial stem growth was detected at both study plots around mid-May, prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions, i.e. an increase in precipitation during summer. We suggest that the early decrease in radial growth rate is due to a high belowground demand for carbohydrates to ensure adequate resource acquisition on the drought prone substrate. PMID:22003269

  9. Increased selfing and correlated paternity in a small population of a predominantly outcrossing conifer, Pinus sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Robledo-Arnuncio, J J; Alía, R; Gil, L

    2004-09-01

    Outcrossing rate, the rates of ovule and seed abortion, and levels of correlated paternity were estimated in a small population of Pinus sylvestris, a predominantly outcrossing conifer, and were compared with estimates from two widely dispersed woodlands of the same species, showing a range of densities. On average, seed trees of the small population showed an eight-fold higher selfing rate (25 vs. 3%) and a 100-fold greater incidence of correlated paternity (19.6 vs. 0.2%) than did trees from the large populations. No evidence was found of pollen limitation within the remnant stand, as suggested by ovule abortion rates. Investigation of the mating patterns in the small population, based on the unambiguous genealogy of 778 open-pollinated seeds, showed a large departure from random mating. Only 8% of the possible mating pairs within the stand were observed. Correlated paternity rate within a maternal sibship was negatively associated (rs = -0.398, P < 0.050) with the distance to the nearest neighbour, and shared paternity among maternal sibships was negatively correlated (rs = -0.704, P < 0.001) with the distance between seed trees. Numerical simulations, based on the estimated individual pollen dispersal kernel, suggest that restricted dispersal might have been the key factor affecting mating patterns in the small population and, together with low population density, may account for the observed mating system variation between the small and the large populations. The results of this study show that a severe size reduction may substantially affect the mating system of a wind-pollinated, typically outcrossed plant species.

  10. Genetic variability and heritability of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Čepl, Jaroslav; Holá, Dana; Stejskal, Jan; Korecký, Jiří; Kočová, Marie; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Tomášková, Ivana; Palovská, Markéta; Rothová, Olga; Whetten, Ross W; Kaňák, Jan; Albrechtová, Jana; Lstibůrek, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Current knowledge of the genetic mechanisms underlying the inheritance of photosynthetic activity in forest trees is generally limited, yet it is essential both for various practical forestry purposes and for better understanding of broader evolutionary mechanisms. In this study, we investigated genetic variation underlying selected chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) parameters in structured populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown on two sites under non-stress conditions. These parameters were derived from the OJIP part of the ChlF kinetics curve and characterize individual parts of primary photosynthetic processes associated, for example, with the exciton trapping by light-harvesting antennae, energy utilization in photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers (RCs) and its transfer further down the photosynthetic electron-transport chain. An additive relationship matrix was estimated based on pedigree reconstruction, utilizing a set of highly polymorphic single sequence repeat markers. Variance decomposition was conducted using the animal genetic evaluation mixed-linear model. The majority of ChlF parameters in the analyzed pine populations showed significant additive genetic variation. Statistically significant heritability estimates were obtained for most ChlF indices, with the exception of DI0/RC, φD0 and φP0 (Fv/Fm) parameters. Estimated heritabilities varied around the value of 0.15 with the maximal value of 0.23 in the ET0/RC parameter, which indicates electron-transport flux from QA to QB per PSII RC. No significant correlation was found between these indices and selected growth traits. Moreover, no genotype × environment interaction (G × E) was detected, i.e., no differences in genotypes' performance between sites. The absence of significant G × E in our study is interesting, given the relatively low heritability found for the majority of parameters analyzed. Therefore, we infer that polygenic variability of these indices is

  11. Genetic variability and heritability of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Čepl, Jaroslav; Holá, Dana; Stejskal, Jan; Korecký, Jiří; Kočová, Marie; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Tomášková, Ivana; Palovská, Markéta; Rothová, Olga; Whetten, Ross W; Kaňák, Jan; Albrechtová, Jana; Lstibůrek, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Current knowledge of the genetic mechanisms underlying the inheritance of photosynthetic activity in forest trees is generally limited, yet it is essential both for various practical forestry purposes and for better understanding of broader evolutionary mechanisms. In this study, we investigated genetic variation underlying selected chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) parameters in structured populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown on two sites under non-stress conditions. These parameters were derived from the OJIP part of the ChlF kinetics curve and characterize individual parts of primary photosynthetic processes associated, for example, with the exciton trapping by light-harvesting antennae, energy utilization in photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers (RCs) and its transfer further down the photosynthetic electron-transport chain. An additive relationship matrix was estimated based on pedigree reconstruction, utilizing a set of highly polymorphic single sequence repeat markers. Variance decomposition was conducted using the animal genetic evaluation mixed-linear model. The majority of ChlF parameters in the analyzed pine populations showed significant additive genetic variation. Statistically significant heritability estimates were obtained for most ChlF indices, with the exception of DI0/RC, φD0 and φP0 (Fv/Fm) parameters. Estimated heritabilities varied around the value of 0.15 with the maximal value of 0.23 in the ET0/RC parameter, which indicates electron-transport flux from QA to QB per PSII RC. No significant correlation was found between these indices and selected growth traits. Moreover, no genotype × environment interaction (G × E) was detected, i.e., no differences in genotypes' performance between sites. The absence of significant G × E in our study is interesting, given the relatively low heritability found for the majority of parameters analyzed. Therefore, we infer that polygenic variability of these indices is

  12. Fungal endophytic communities on twigs of fast and slow growing Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Ros, Antonio V; Müller, Michael M; San Martín, Roberto; Diez, Julio J

    2015-10-01

    Most plant species harbour a diverse community of endophytic, but their role is still unknown in most cases, including ecologically and economically important tree species. This study describes the culturable fungal endophytic community of Pinus sylvestris L. twigs in northern Spain and its relationship with diametric growth of the host. In all, 360 twig samples were collected from 30 Scots pines in fifteen stands. Isolates were obtained from all twig samples and 43 fungal taxa were identified by morphogrouping and subsequent ITS rDNA sequencing. All isolates were Ascomycetes, being Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes the most abundant classes. Half of the species were host generalists while the others were conifer or pine specialists. We found three new endophytic species for the Pinaceae: Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Phaeomoniella effusa and Plectania milleri, and additional six new species for P. sylvestris: Daldinia fissa, Hypocrea viridescens, Nigrospora oryzae, Ophiostoma nigrocarpum, Penicillium melinii and Penicillium polonicum. The endophytic community of fast and slow growing trees showed differences in species composition, abundance and evenness, but not in diversity. Phoma herbarum was associated to fast growing trees and Hypocrea lixii to those growing slow. Our results support the hypothesis that some endophytic species may affect growth of P. sylvestris.

  13. Manipulation of VOC emissions with methyl jasmonate and carrageenan in the evergreen conifer Pinus sylvestris and evergreen broadleaf Quercus ilex.

    PubMed

    Semiz, G; Blande, J D; Heijari, J; Işik, K; Niinemets, U; Holopainen, J K

    2012-03-01

    Plant defence can be induced by exposing plants to the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) or its volatile ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Carrageenans (Carr) - sulphated D-galactans extracted from red algae - can also induce plant defences. In this study, the effects of exogenous MeJA and Carr application (concentration 300 and 12.7 μmol, respectively) on volatile emissions from two widespread evergreen woody species, Pinus sylvestris (nine Turkish and one Finnish provenance) and Quercus ilex (Italian provenance) were investigated. We collected headspace samples from seedlings and analysed the quality and quantity of volatile compounds emitted by treated and control plants. In total, 19 monoterpenes, 10 sesquiterpenes, 10 green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and two aromatic compounds were emitted by P. sylvestris from all the provenances studied. Foliar MeJA application clearly affected the volatile profiles of trees from all the provenances. Effects of Carr were genotype specific. In Q. ilex, emissions of sesquiterpenes, GLVs and the homoterpene (E)-DMNT were all induced by MeJA application. However, emissions of most constitutively emitted monoterpenes were significantly reduced. Carr application also led to a significant reduction in monoterpene emissions, but without corresponding increases in other emissions. Our results indicate that exogenously applied MeJA and Carr can both significantly modify the volatile profiles of P. sylvestris and Q. ilex, but also that there are important provenance- and species-specific differences in the overall degree of elicitation and compositions of elicited compounds. PMID:21973325

  14. Cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra and Pinus sylvestris at their climatic limits in the Eastern Alps in 2007

    PubMed Central

    Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Summary It has been frequently stressed that at distributional boundaries, like at the Alpine timberline and within dry inner Alpine environments, tree growth will be affected first by changing climate conditions. Climate in 2007 was characterized by the occurrence of exceptionally mild temperatures in spring (3.4 and 2.7 °C above long-term mean (LTM) at timberline and the valley sites, respectively) with an almost continuous drought period recorded in April and slightly warmer than average temperatures throughout summer (1.3 °C above LTM at both sites). We compared temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra at the Alpine timberline (1950 m a.s.l.) and Pinus sylvestris at a xeric inner Alpine site (750 m a.s.l.) by repeated cellular analyses of micro-cores (n = 5 trees/site). While onset of wood formation in P. sylvestris and P. cembra differed by about two weeks (12 and 27 April, respectively), maximum daily growth rates peaked on 6 May at the valley site and on 23 June at timberline. At both sites maximum tracheid production was reached prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions during summer, i.e. an increase in precipitation and temperature. Xylem formation ended on 31 August and 28 October at the xeric site and at timberline, respectively. This study demonstrates the plasticity of tree-ring formation along an altitudinal transect in response to water availability and temperature. Whether early achievement of maximum growth rates is an adaptation to cope with extreme environmental conditions prevailing at limits of tree growth needs to be analysed more closely by taking belowground carbon allocation into account. PMID:24273354

  15. Effects of copper deficiency and copper toxicity on organogenesis and some physiological and biochemical responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Yury V; Kartashov, Alexander V; Ivanova, Alexandra I; Savochkin, Yury V; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V

    2016-09-01

    The morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters of 6-week-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied under deficiency (1.2 nM) and chronic exposure to copper (0.32, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 μM CuSO4) in hydroculture. The deposit of copper in the seed allowed the seedlings to develop under copper deficiency without visible disruption of growth. The high sensitivity of Scots pine to the toxic effects of copper was shown, which manifested as a significant inhibition of growth and development. The loss of dominance of the main root and a strong inhibition of lateral root development pointed to a lack of adaptive reorganization of the root system architecture under copper excess. A preferential accumulation of copper in the root and a minor translocation in aerial organs confirmed that Scots pine belongs to a group of plants that exclude copper. Selective impairment in the absorption of manganese was discovered, under both deficiency and excess of copper in the nutrient solution, which was independent of the degree of development of the root system. Following 10 μM CuSO4 exposure, the absorption of manganese and iron from the nutrient solution was completely suppressed, and the development of seedlings was secured by the stock of these micronutrients in the seed. The absence of signs of oxidative stress in the seedling organs was shown under deficiency and excess of copper, as evidenced by the steady content of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals. Against this background, no changes in total superoxide dismutase activity in the organs of seedlings were revealed, and the increased content of low-molecular-weight antioxidants was observed in the roots under 1 μM and in the needles under 5 μM CuSO4 exposures. PMID:27225009

  16. Living on the Edge: Contrasted Wood-Formation Dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Martinez del Castillo, Edurne; Longares, Luis A.; Gričar, Jožica; Prislan, Peter; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Čufar, Katarina; de Luis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e., in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48–75 days. In contrast, the growing season for P. sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for P. sylvestris. PMID:27047534

  17. Damage to stomata and inhibition of photosynthesis by toxic pollutants in Pinus sylvestris needles as affected by the exposure time

    SciTech Connect

    Kaipiainen, L.K.; Sofronova, G.I.; Hari, P.

    1995-11-01

    The impact of persistent exposure of Pinus sylvestris L. trees of various ages to industrial emissions on stomata and photosynthesis of needles was studied in relation to the exposure time. The electron microscopic examination of the needles revealed an erosion of the epicuticular wax and damage to stomata, which increased with needle age until stomata were completely occluded by polymetallic dust. Pollutant particles wee found to contain S, Cl, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Al, Ni, Fe, Cu, Co, Ti, and Zn. Photosynthetic rates were inhibited by 20-60%, depending on the needle age and tree condition. It is concluded that a nonuniformity in the toxicant distribution over the forest canopy and the age-dependent changes in the state of the cuticular wax layer are the most likely causes of variability in the extent to which individual trees were damaged by the toxicants.

  18. Effect of simulated acid rain on quantity of epiphytic microfungi on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles.

    PubMed

    Ranta, H M

    1990-01-01

    The effects of simulated acid rain on the phyllosphere microflora of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied experimentally in northern Finland during the summer of 1988. Trees were irrigated with artificial acid rain of pH4 and pH3 (H(2)SO(4) and HNO(3), weight ratio of S:N=2.86:1). Untreated trees and trees irrigated with spring water (pH6) were used as controls. Two sampling heights (0.5m and 2m) were used. The needles were colonized exclusively by epiphytic fungi, mainly Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) Arnaud. The lower branches had significantly more epiphytic fungi than the upper branches. Compared to the control trees, the numbers of epiphytic fungi were significantly decreased on the needles of trees irrigated with acid rain. Acid rain affected the number of epiphytic fungi equally at both sampling heights. The species composition of the epiphytic fungi was not affected by the acid treatments.

  19. Free radical generation in Pinus sylvestris and Larix decidua seeds primed with polyethylene glycol or potassium salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Naglreiter, Christina; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Goodman, Bernard A; Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, Harald R

    2005-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of Pinus sylvestris and Larix decidua seeds show that priming with PEG+200 mg kg(-1) gibberelic acid (GA(3)) results in appreciably higher free radical contents than in unprimed control samples. Only relatively minor changes in the free radical levels were observed in seeds primed with K(+) salts. However, both priming treatments have been reported previously to result in faster germination rates compared to controls without changing the germination percentage. In measurements on individual seeds of L. decidua, there were no significant differences between the mean free radical levels in viable and non-viable seeds within each treatment group. Thus, the elevation in free radical levels in the PEG+GA(3) treatments appear to be a direct consequence of the priming treatment and do not correspond to the initiation of germination.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative determination of extractives in heartwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ekeberg, Dag; Flaete, Per-Otto; Eikenes, Morten; Fongen, Monica; Naess-Andresen, Carl Fredrik

    2006-03-24

    A method for quantitative determination of extractives from heartwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection (FID) was developed. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.03 mg/g wood and the linear range (r = 0.9994) was up to 10 mg/g with accuracy within +/- 10% and precision of 18% relative standard deviation. The identification of the extractives was performed using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The yields of extraction by Soxhlet were tested for solid wood, small particles and fine powder. Small particles were chosen for further analysis. This treatment gave good yields of the most important extractives: pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether, resin acids and free fatty acids. The method is used to demonstrate the variation of these extractives across stems and differences in north-south direction. PMID:16472534

  1. Molecular identification and relative abundance of cryptic Lophodermium species in natural populations of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L.

    PubMed

    Reignoux, Sabrina N A; Green, Sarah; Ennos, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    The multi-locus phylogenetic species recognition approach and population genetic analysis of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to delineate Lophodermium taxa inhabiting needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in native pinewoods within Scotland. These analyses revealed three major lineages corresponding to the morphological species Lophodermium seditiosum and Lophodermium conigenum, fruiting on broken branches, and Lophodermium pinastri, fruiting on naturally fallen needles. Within L. pinastri three well supported sister clades were found representing cryptic taxa designated L. pinastri I, L. pinastri II, and L. pinastri III. Significant differences in mean growth rate in culture were found among the cryptic taxa. Taxon-specific primers based on ITS sequences were designed and used to classify over 500 Lophodermium isolates, derived from fallen needles of P. sylvestris in three Scottish and one French pinewood site, into the three L. pinastri cryptic taxa. Highly significant differences in the relative abundance of the three taxa were found among the Scottish pinewood sites, and between the French and all of the Scottish sites.

  2. Static and dynamic bending has minor effects on xylem hydraulics of conifer branches (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris).

    PubMed

    Mayr, Stefan; Bertel, Clara; Dämon, Birgit; Beikircher, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    The xylem hydraulic efficiency and safety is usually measured on mechanically unstressed samples, although trees may be exposed to combined hydraulic and mechanical stress in the field. We analysed changes in hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism during static bending of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris branches as well as the effect of dynamic bending on the vulnerability. We hypothesized this mechanical stress to substantially impair xylem hydraulics. Intense static bending caused an only small decrease in hydraulic conductance (-19.5 ± 2.4% in P. abies) but no shift in vulnerability thresholds. Dynamic bending caused a 0.4 and 0.8 MPa decrease of the water potential at 50 and 88% loss of conductivity in P. sylvestris, but did not affect vulnerability thresholds in P. abies. With respect to applied extreme bending radii, effects on plant hydraulics were surprisingly small and are thus probably of minor eco-physiological importance. More importantly, results indicate that available xylem hydraulic analyses (of conifers) sufficiently reflect plant hydraulics under field conditions. PMID:24697679

  3. Static and dynamic bending has minor effects on xylem hydraulics of conifer branches (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris)

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Stefan; Bertel, Clara; Dämon, Birgit; Beikircher, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The xylem hydraulic efficiency and safety is usually measured on mechanically unstressed samples, although trees may be exposed to combined hydraulic and mechanical stress in the field. We analysed changes in hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism during static bending of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris branches as well as the effect of dynamic bending on the vulnerability. We hypothesized this mechanical stress to substantially impair xylem hydraulics. Intense static bending caused an only small decrease in hydraulic conductance (−19.5 ± 2.4% in P. abies) but no shift in vulnerability thresholds. Dynamic bending caused a 0.4 and 0.8 MPa decrease of the water potential at 50 and 88% loss of conductivity in P. sylvestris, but did not affect vulnerability thresholds in P. abies. With respect to applied extreme bending radii, effects on plant hydraulics were surprisingly small and are thus probably of minor eco-physiological importance. More importantly, results indicate that available xylem hydraulic analyses (of conifers) sufficiently reflect plant hydraulics under field conditions. PMID:24697679

  4. 13C-isotopic fingerprint of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. wood related to the quality of standing tree mass in forests from NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Irene; González-Prieto, Serafin J; Cabaneiro, Ana

    2005-01-01

    Pine forest plantations of Pinus pinaster Ait. and P. sylvestris L. located in Galicia, NW Spain, were selected to study the 13C/12C-isotopic fingerprint in wood core samples in order to find possible relationships between the delta(13)C at natural abundance levels and the quality of the standing tree mass. For each pine species, 24 forests growing on acidic soils were studied: half developed over granite and half over schists. Two dominant trees from each plot, corresponding to all possible combinations of forest stands with high or low site index and with adults or young trees, were drilled at the basal part of trunks using a Pressler drill to obtain tree ring samples. The C-isotopic compositions of the litter and the soil organic matter from different soil depths were also determined and statistically significant correlations between these values and the 13C content of the wood were observed. Despite internal variations due to the influence of site index, tree age and parent material, the isotopic fingerprint of P. pinaster wood (mean value delta13C=-26.2+/-0.8 per thousand) significantly differed (P<0.001) from that of P. sylvestris (mean value delta13C=-24.6+/-0.7 per thousand). Relationships between the quality of the stand and the C-isotopic composition of the wood were observed, high quality stands having trees more 13C-depleted than low quality ones. A high correlation between wood delta13C and site index values for P. pinaster stands (r=-0.667, P<0.001) was found, this correlation being even clearer when only P. pinaster growing over schists (r=-0.833, P<0.001) are considered. Again, the correlation between the site index and the wood delta13C of young P. pinaster trees is higher when plots over granite or schists are separately considered. A similar fact occurs for adult P. sylvestris trees from schists stands, high quality specimens being 13C-depleted compared with low quality ones. On the other hand, 13C natural abundance of wood from P. sylvestris

  5. Reduced gravitropic sensitivity in roots of a starch-deficient mutant of Nicotiana sylvestris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Sack, F. D.

    1989-01-01

    Gravitropism was studied in seedlings of Nicotiana sylvestris Speg. et Comes wild-type (WT) and mutant NS 458 which has a defective plastid phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1.). Starch was greatly reduced in NS 458 compared to the WT, but small amounts of starch were detected in rootcap columella cells in NS 458 by light and electron microscopy. The roots of WT are more sensitive to gravity than mutant NS 458 roots since: (1) in mutant roots, curvature was reduced and delayed in the time course of curvature; (2) curvature of mutant roots was 24-56% that of WT roots over the range of induction periods tested; (3) in intermittent-stimulation experiments, curvature of mutant roots was 37% or less than that of WT roots in all treatments tested. The perception time, determined by intermittent-stimulation experiments, was < or = 5 s for WT roots and 30-60 s for mutant roots. The growth rates for WT and NS 458 roots were essentially equal. These results and our previous results with WT and starchless mutant Arabidopsis roots (Kiss et al. 1989, Planta 177, 198-206) support the conclusions that a full complement of starch is necessary for full gravitropic sensitivity and that amyloplasts function in gravity perception. Since a presumed relatively small increase in plastid buoyant mass (N. sylvestris mutant versus Arabidopsis mutant) significantly improves the orientation of the N. sylvestris mutant roots, we suggest that plastids are the likeliest candidates to be triggering gravity perception in roots of both mutants.

  6. Gene-pool variation in caledonian and European Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) revealed by chloroplast simple-sequence repeats.

    PubMed

    Provan, J; Soranzo, N; Wilson, N J; McNicol, J W; Forrest, G I; Cottrell, J; Powell, W

    1998-09-22

    We have used polymorphic chloroplast simple-sequence repeats to analyse levels of genetic variation within and between seven native Scottish and eight mainland European populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Diversity levels for the Scottish populations based on haplotype frequency were far in excess of those previously obtained using monoterpenes and isozymes and confirmed lower levels of genetic variation within the derelict population at Glen Falloch. The diversity levels were higher than those reported in similar studies in other Pinus species. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that small (3.24-8.81%) but significant (p < or = 0.001) portions of the variation existed between the populations and that there was no significant difference between the Scottish and the mainland European populations. Evidence of population substructure was found in the Rannoch population, which exhibited two subgroups. Finally, one of the loci studied exhibited an allele distribution uncharacteristic of the stepwise mutation model of evolution of simple-sequence repeats, and sequencing of the PCR products revealed that this was due to a duplication rather than slippage in the repeat region. An examination of the distribution of this mutation suggests that it may have occurred fairly recently in the Wester Ross region or that it may be evidence of a refugial population.

  7. [Development of New Mitochondrial DNA Markers in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) for Population Genetic and Phylogeographic Studies].

    PubMed

    Semerikov, V L; Putintseva, Yu A; Oreshkova, N V; Semerikova, S A; Krutovsky, K V

    2015-12-01

    Fragments of genomic DNA of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) homologous to the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contigs of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were resequenced in a sample of the Scots pine trees of European, Siberian, Mongolian and Caucasian origin in order to develop mtDNA markers. Flanking non-coding regions of some mitochondrial genes were also investigated and resequenced. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a single minisatellite locus were identified. Caucasian samples differed from the rest by three SNPs. Two SNPs have been linked to an early described marker in.the first intron of the nad7 gene, and all together revealed three haplotypes in European populations. No variable SNPs were found in the Siberian and Mongolian populations. The minisatellite locus contained 41 alleles across European, Siberian and Mongolian populations, but, this locus demonstrated a weak population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.058), probably due to its high mutation rate. PMID:27055298

  8. [Responses of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica radial growth to climate warming in Great Xing' an Mountins: a case study in Mangui].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing-Liang; He, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Cui, Ming-Xing; Li, Na

    2011-12-01

    Based on the theory and methodology of dendrochronology, the tree ring width chronology of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Mangui of Great Xing' an Mountains was developed, and the relationships between the standardized tree ring width chronology and local climate factors (temperature and precipitation) as well as the effects of climate factors on the P. sylvestris var. mongolica radial growth were analyzed. In this region, the mean monthly temperature in April-August of current year was the main factor limiting the radial growth, and the increasing mean monthly temperature from April to August had negative effects to the radial growth. The simulation of the variations of the radial growth by the mean monthly temperature change in April-August showed that the radial growth of P. sylvestris var. mongolica would present a declining trend accompanied with the warmer and drier regional climate condition.

  9. [Responses of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica radial growth to climate warming in Great Xing' an Mountins: a case study in Mangui].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing-Liang; He, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Cui, Ming-Xing; Li, Na

    2011-12-01

    Based on the theory and methodology of dendrochronology, the tree ring width chronology of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Mangui of Great Xing' an Mountains was developed, and the relationships between the standardized tree ring width chronology and local climate factors (temperature and precipitation) as well as the effects of climate factors on the P. sylvestris var. mongolica radial growth were analyzed. In this region, the mean monthly temperature in April-August of current year was the main factor limiting the radial growth, and the increasing mean monthly temperature from April to August had negative effects to the radial growth. The simulation of the variations of the radial growth by the mean monthly temperature change in April-August showed that the radial growth of P. sylvestris var. mongolica would present a declining trend accompanied with the warmer and drier regional climate condition. PMID:22384574

  10. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  11. Actinobacteria possessing antimicrobial and antioxidant activities isolated from the pollen of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) grown on the Baikal shore.

    PubMed

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina V; Rebets, Yuriy V; Tokovenko, Bogdan T; Penzina, Tatyana A; Gornostay, Tatyana G; Adelshin, Renat V; Protasov, Eugenii S; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Timofeyev, Maxim A

    2016-10-01

    Isolated ecosystems existing under specific environmental conditions have been shown to be promising sources of new strains of actinobacteria. The taiga forest of Baikal Siberia has not been well studied, and its actinobacterial population remains uncharacterized. The proximity between the huge water mass of Lake Baikal and high mountain ranges influences the structure and diversity of the plant world in Siberia. Here, we report the isolation of eighteen actinobacterial strains from male cones of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) growing on the shore of the ancient Lake Baikal in Siberia. In addition to more common representative strains of Streptomyces, several species belonging to the genera Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, and Micromonospora were isolated. All isolated strains exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. We identified several strains that inhibited the growth of the pathogen Candida albicans but did not hinder the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several isolates were active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The high proportion of biologically active strains producing antibacterial and specific antifungal compounds may reflect their role in protecting pollen against phytopathogens. PMID:27392610

  12. Changes in the concentrations of phenolics and photosynthates in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings exposed to nickel and copper.

    PubMed

    Roitto, M; Rautio, P; Julkunen-Tiitto, R; Kukkola, E; Huttunen, S

    2005-10-01

    Studies were done on the effects of elevated soil concentrations of copper (Cu) and (Ni) on foliar carbohydrates and phenolics in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Four year-old seedlings were planted in pots filled with metal-treated mineral forest soil in early June. The experimental design included all combinations of four levels of Cu (0, 25, 40 and 50 mg kg(-1) soil dw) and Ni (0, 5, 15 and 25 mg kg(-1) soil dw). Current year needles were sampled for soluble sugar, starch and phenolics at the end of September. Ni increased sucrose concentration in the needles, indicating disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Trees exposed to Ni had higher concentrations of condensed tannins compared with controls. In contrast, concentrations of several other phenolic compounds decreased when seedlings were exposed to high levels of Cu or to a combination of Ni and Cu. The results suggest that concentrations of phenolics in Scots pine needles vary in their responses to Ni and Cu in the forest soil.

  13. Tree rings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a source of information about past climate in northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Rajmund; Zielski, Andrzej; Pospieszyńska, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a very common tree in Polish forests, and therefore was widely used as timber. A relatively large amount of available wood allowed a long-term chronology to be built up and used as a source of information about past climate. The analysis of reconstructed indexed values of mean temperature in 51-year moving intervals allowed the recognition of the coldest periods in the years 1207-1346, 1383-1425, 1455-1482, 1533-1574, 1627-1646, and 1694-1785. The analysis of extreme wide and narrow rings forms a complementary method of examining climatic data within tree rings. The tree ring widths, early wood and late wood widths of 16 samples were assessed during the period 1581-1676. The most apparent effect is noted in the dry summer of 1616. According to previous research and our findings, temperature from February to March seems to be one of the most stable climatic factors which influenced pine growth in Poland. Correlation coefficients in the calibration and validation procedure gave promising results for temperature reconstruction from the pine chronology.

  14. Ozone uptake and effects on transpiration, net photosynthesis, and dark respiration in Scots pine. [Pinus sylvestris L

    SciTech Connect

    Skaerby, L.; Troeng, E.; Bostroem, C.

    1987-09-01

    Ozone uptake, transpiration, net photosynthesis, and dark respiration were studied in the field by using an open gas exchange system in a 20-year-old stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). A current shoot was treated with ozone concentrations ranging from 120 to 400 ..mu..g x m/sup -3/ during one month. During daytime there was a linear relationship between ozone concentration and ozone uptake, and the deposition rate varied between 0.05 and 0.13 cm x s/sup -1/. Ozone at the highest concentrations seemed to decrease transpiration somewhat during daytime. At night, ozone was taken up only at the highest concentration. Both transpiration and stomatal conductance increased at night when ozone concentration was 250..mu..g x m/sup -3/ and higher. There was no significant influence on the net photosynthetic performance during exposure to ozone. Dark respiration, however, increased throughout the experimental period, and the accumulated respiration was about 60% higher for the ozone-exposed shoot at the end of the experiment.

  15. Microfibril angle in wood of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) after irradiation from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Tulik, Mirela; Rusin, Aleksandra

    2005-03-01

    The secondary cell wall structure of tracheids of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), especially the angle of microfibrils in the S(2) layer, was examined in wood deposited prior to and after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Microscopic analysis was carried out on wood samples collected in October 1997 from breast height of three pine trees 16, 30 and 42 years old. The polluted site was located in a distance of 5 km south from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant where radioactive contamination in 1997 was 3.7 x 10(5) kBq m(-2). Anatomical analysis showed that the structure of the secondary cell wall in tracheids formed after the Chernobyl accident was changed. Changes occurred both in S(2) and S(3) layers. The angle of microfibrils in S(2) layer in wood deposited after the Chernobyl accident was different in comparison to this measured in wood formed prior to the disaster. The intensity of the changes, i.e. alteration of the microfibrils angle in S(2) layer and unusual pattern of the S(3) layer, depended on the age of the tree and was most intensive in a young tree.

  16. Tree rings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a source of information about past climate in northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Rajmund; Zielski, Andrzej; Pospieszyńska, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a very common tree in Polish forests, and therefore was widely used as timber. A relatively large amount of available wood allowed a long-term chronology to be built up and used as a source of information about past climate. The analysis of reconstructed indexed values of mean temperature in 51-year moving intervals allowed the recognition of the coldest periods in the years 1207-1346, 1383-1425, 1455-1482, 1533-1574, 1627-1646, and 1694-1785. The analysis of extreme wide and narrow rings forms a complementary method of examining climatic data within tree rings. The tree ring widths, early wood and late wood widths of 16 samples were assessed during the period 1581-1676. The most apparent effect is noted in the dry summer of 1616. According to previous research and our findings, temperature from February to March seems to be one of the most stable climatic factors which influenced pine growth in Poland. Correlation coefficients in the calibration and validation procedure gave promising results for temperature reconstruction from the pine chronology. PMID:21174127

  17. Tree rings of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) as a source of information about past climate in northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Rajmund; Zielski, Andrzej; Pospieszyńska, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) is a very common tree in Polish forests, and therefore was widely used as timber. A relatively large amount of available wood allowed a long-term chronology to be built up and used as a source of information about past climate. The analysis of reconstructed indexed values of mean temperature in 51-year moving intervals allowed the recognition of the coldest periods in the years 1207-1346, 1383-1425, 1455-1482, 1533-1574, 1627-1646, and 1694-1785. The analysis of extreme wide and narrow rings forms a complementary method of examining climatic data within tree rings. The tree ring widths, early wood and late wood widths of 16 samples were assessed during the period 1581-1676. The most apparent effect is noted in the dry summer of 1616. According to previous research and our findings, temperature from February to March seems to be one of the most stable climatic factors which influenced pine growth in Poland. Correlation coefficients in the calibration and validation procedure gave promising results for temperature reconstruction from the pine chronology.

  18. Impact of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantings on long term (137)Cs and (90)Sr recycling from a waste burial site in the Chernobyl Red Forest.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Yves; Colle, Claude; Yoschenko, Vasyl; Levchuk, Svjatoslav; Van Hees, May; Hurtevent, Pierre; Kashparov, Valery

    2009-12-01

    Plantings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on a waste burial site in the Chernobyl Red Forest was shown to greatly influence the long term redistribution of radioactivity contained in sub-surfaces trenches. After 15 years of growth, aboveground biomass of the average tree growing on waste trench no.22 had accumulated 1.7 times more (137)Cs than that of trees growing off the trench, and 5.4 times more (90)Sr. At the scale of the trench and according to an average tree density of 3300 trees/ha for the study zone, tree contamination would correspond to 0.024% of the (137)Cs and 2.52% of the (90)Sr contained in the buried waste material. A quantitative description of the radionuclide cycling showed a potential for trees to annually extract up to 0.82% of the (90)Sr pool in the trench and 0.0038% of the (137)Cs. A preferential (90)Sr uptake from the deep soil is envisioned while pine roots would take up (137)Cs mostly from less contaminated shallow soil layers. The current upward flux of (90)Sr through vegetation appeared at least equal to downward loss in waste material leaching as reported by Dewiere et al. (2004, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 74, 139-150). Using a prospective calculation model, we estimated that maximum (90)Sr cycling can be expected to occur at 40 years post-planting, resulting in 12% of the current (90)Sr content in the trench transferred to surface soils through biomass turnover and 7% stored in tree biomass. These results are preliminary, although based on accurate methodology. A more integrated ecosystem study leading to the coupling between biological and geochemical models of radionuclide cycling within the Red Forest seems opportune. Such a study would help in the adequate management of that new forest and the waste trenches upon which they reside. PMID:19525043

  19. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the biosorption of textile dye (Reactive Red 195) onto Pinus sylvestris L.

    PubMed

    Aksakal, Ozkan; Ucun, Handan

    2010-09-15

    This study investigated the biosorption of Reactive Red 195 (RR 195), an azo dye, from aqueous solution by using cone biomass of Pinus sylvestris Linneo. To this end, pH, initial dye concentration, biomass dosage and contact time were studied in a batch biosorption system. Maximum pH for efficient RR 195 biosorption was found to be 1.0 and the initial RR 195 concentration increased with decreasing percentage removal. Biosorption capacity increased from 6.69 mg/g at 20 degrees C to 7.38 mg/g at 50 degrees C for 200mg/L dye concentration. Kinetics of the interactions was tested by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics, the Elovich equation and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental data studied in comparison to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Moreover, the Elovich equation also showed a good fit to the experimental data. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium data. The activation energy of biosorption (Ea) was found to be 8.904 kJ/mol by using the Arrhenius equation. Using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, the study also evaluated the thermodynamic constants of biosorption (DeltaG(o), DeltaH(o) and DeltaS). The results indicate that cone biomass can be used as an effective and low-cost biosorbent to remove reactive dyes from aqueous solution.

  20. A functional and structural Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) model integrating architecture, biomass and effects of precipitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Letort, Véronique; Lu, Qi; Bai, Xuefeng; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2012-01-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within shelterbelt ecosystems in these arid and semiarid regions. We present here a single-tree functional and structural model, derived from the GreenLab model, which is adapted for young Mongolian Scots pines by incorporation of plant biomass production, allocation, allometric rules and soil water dynamics. The model is calibrated and validated based on experimental measurements taken on Mongolian Scots pines in 2007 and 2006 under local meteorological conditions. Measurements include plant biomass, topology and geometry, as well as soil attributes and standard meteorological data. After calibration, the model allows reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) canopy architecture and biomass dynamics for trees from one- to six-year-old at the same site using meteorological data for the six years from 2001 to 2006. Sensitivity analysis indicates that rainfall variation has more influence on biomass increment than on architecture, and the internode and needle compartments and the aboveground biomass respond linearly to increases in precipitation. Sensitivity analysis also shows that the balance between internode and needle growth varies only slightly within the range of precipitations considered here. The model is expected to be used to investigate the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in other regions with different soils and climates. PMID:22927982

  1. A Functional and Structural Mongolian Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) Model Integrating Architecture, Biomass and Effects of Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Letort, Véronique; Lu, Qi; Bai, Xuefeng; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2012-01-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within shelterbelt ecosystems in these arid and semiarid regions. We present here a single-tree functional and structural model, derived from the GreenLab model, which is adapted for young Mongolian Scots pines by incorporation of plant biomass production, allocation, allometric rules and soil water dynamics. The model is calibrated and validated based on experimental measurements taken on Mongolian Scots pines in 2007 and 2006 under local meteorological conditions. Measurements include plant biomass, topology and geometry, as well as soil attributes and standard meteorological data. After calibration, the model allows reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) canopy architecture and biomass dynamics for trees from one- to six-year-old at the same site using meteorological data for the six years from 2001 to 2006. Sensitivity analysis indicates that rainfall variation has more influence on biomass increment than on architecture, and the internode and needle compartments and the aboveground biomass respond linearly to increases in precipitation. Sensitivity analysis also shows that the balance between internode and needle growth varies only slightly within the range of precipitations considered here. The model is expected to be used to investigate the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in other regions with different soils and climates. PMID:22927982

  2. [Genetic Variation, Population Structure and Differentiation in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from the Northeast of the Russian Plain as Inferred from the Molecular Genetic Analysis Data].

    PubMed

    Vidyakin, A I; Boronnikiva, S V; Nechayeva, Yu S; Nechayeva, Ya S; Prysimivskaya, Ya V; Boboshina, I V

    2015-12-01

    The DNA polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris from Severodvinsk, Upper Vetluga, and Vetluga-Vyatka populations, which were isolated earlier based on specific features of the geographic variation of allometric cone indices, was examined by the ISSR method. It was demonstrated that the Severodvinsk population of P. sylvestris differed from the chorologically adjacent Upper Vetluga population with respect to all of the examined genetic indices, and the Upper Vetluga population differed from the Vetluga-Vyatka population. It was suggested that the main the reason for the lack of statistically significant differences between Upper Vetluga and Vetluga-Vyatka samples of P. silvestris with respect to genetic variation indices (P95, H(E), n(a), n(e)) may be their formation based on the gene pools of two glacial refugia. It was demonstrated that the proportion of the interpopulation component of total genetic diversity (G(ST)), as calculated based on the ISSR marker polymorphism, reached a value of 0.488, which was an order of magnitude higher than the previous estimates obtained based on data from allozyme analysis. It was concluded that P. sylvestris cone allometric indices reflected the specificity of spatial population subdivision, like the genetic diversity and population genetic structure indices calculated based on ISSR-marker polymorphism. Population isolation and mapping based on two-step phenogenetic studies is suggested. PMID:27055300

  3. Thinning affects nutrient resorption and nutrient-use efficiency in two Pinus sylvestris stands in the Pyrenees.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan A; Imbert, J Bosco; Castillo, Federico J

    2009-04-01

    Needle chemical composition was measured, and nutrient resorption, nutrient-use efficiency (NUE), and other indexes were estimated for 24 months in two contrasting natural Pinus sylvestris L. forests in the western Pyrenees in Spain. For each location (Aspurz, 650 m elevation, 7% slope; Garde, 1335 m elevation, 40% slope), there were three reference plots (P0), three plots with 20% of the basal area removed (P20), and three with 30% of the basal area removed (P30). Needle P, Ca, and Mg concentrations were higher in Garde, but N concentration was higher for Aspurz, without differences for K. Nutrient-resorption efficiency of P was higher in Aspurz, of Mg higher in Garde, and there were no differences between sites in N and K. Nutrient-resorption proficiency was significantly higher in the site with lower soil nutrient availability, i.e., for P, Ca, and Mg in Aspurz, but N in Garde (no differences in K); this may be an indicator of nutrient conservation strategy. Annual nutrient productivity (A) was higher for all nutrients in Aspurz, whereas the mean residence time (MRT) was higher in Garde in all nutrients but P. NUE was significantly higher in Garde for all nutrients but P, which was more efficiently used in Aspurz. In both sites, N, P, and K concentrations were higher in the 2002 cohort, Ca in the 2000 cohort, and maximum Mg was found in the 2001 cohort. Thinning caused a reduction of Mg concentration in the 2001 cohort in Aspurz, an increase of Ca resorption proficiency in Aspurz and Mg resorption at both sites, and reduction of P, K, and Mg nutrient response efficiency (NRE) in Garde. Thinning may have caused an increase of the C:Mg ratio through facilitating the development of more biosynthesis apparatus in a more illuminated canopy, but it seemed not to affect resorption in a significant way. Changes in NRE in Garde after thinning show that forest management can affect how trees use nutrients. Our results indicate that the strategy to optimize NUE is

  4. Raman Spectroscopic Online Investigation of Respiratory Quotients in Pinus Sylvestris and Picea Abies during Drought and Shading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, S.; Fischer, S.; Hartmann, H.; Trumbore, S.; Popp, J.; Frosch, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drought and heat waves have been linked to forest mortality event across the globe. The underlying physiological processes are still not elucidated but both tree carbon and water relations have been identified as the driving forces. While studies on tree hydraulics are straightforward, studies on the tree carbon balance are not. For example, the use of different carbon compounds for maintenance respiration during drought cannot be assessed with measurements of carbon pools but requires real-time analyses of respiration stoichiometry. However, so far there were no technical solutions for such applications. Here we introduce cavity-enhanced Raman spectrometry (CERS) for simultaneous real-time monitoring of O2 and CO2 and rapid and continuous quantification of dark respiration rates and the respiratory quotient (RQ), i.e. the ratio of CO2 produced over O2 consumed during respiration. This ratio indicates the proportions of different substrates (carbohydrates [COH], lipids, proteins) used during respiration and allows fundamental insights into tree physiology. CERS combines high temporal resolution with a high dynamic concentration range for all important gases, ranging from few ppm to 100 vol. % with a single measurement every few seconds. The respiration analysis of tree branches was performed in a closed chamber for two species of different drought tolerance, Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies. We applied not only drought but also a shading treatment because both cause reductions in carbon assimilation rates but have different effects on tree hydraulics. Declines in RQ during shading in both species indicate a switch from pure COH metabolism to a mixture of COH, lipids and proteins. During drought such declines occurred only in the drought-tolerant pine but not in spruce and the underlying more dynamic carbon use strategy in pine may provide a physiological basis for its drought tolerance, more detailed investigation still pending. Our study highlights the suitability

  5. Influence of tree provenance on biogenic VOC emissions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Magsarjav, Narantsetseg; Ghimire, Rajendra; Markkanen, Juha-Matti; Heijari, Juha; Vuorinen, Martti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2012-12-01

    Resin-storing plant species such as conifer trees can release substantial amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere under stress circumstances that cause resin flow. Wounding can be induced by animals, pathogens, wind or direct mechanical damage e.g. during harvesting. In atmospheric modelling of biogenic VOCs, actively growing vegetation has been mostly considered as the source of emissions. Root systems and stumps of resin-storing conifer trees could constitute a significant store of resin after tree cutting. Therefore, we assessed the VOC emission rates from the cut surface of Scots pine stumps and estimated the average emission rates for an area with a density of 2000 stumps per ha. The experiment was conducted with trees of one Estonian and three Finnish Scots pine provenances covering a 1200 km gradient at a common garden established in central Finland in 1991. VOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes and less than 0.1% of the total emission was sesquiterpenes. α-Pinene (7-92% of the total emissions) and 3-carene (0-76% of the total emissions) were the dominant monoterpenes. Proportions of α-pinene and camphene were significantly lower and proportions of 3-carene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene higher in the southernmost Saaremaa provenance compared to the other provenances. Total terpene emission rates (standardised to +20 °C) from stumps varied from 27 to 1582 mg h-1 m-2 when measured within 2-3 h after tree cutting. Emission rates decreased rapidly to between 2 and 79 mg h-1 m-2 at 50 days after cutting. The estimated daily terpene emission rates on a hectare basis from freshly cut stumps at a cut tree density of 2000 per ha varied depending on provenance. Estimated emission ranges were 100-710 g ha-1 d-1 and 137-970 g ha-1 d-1 in 40 and in 60 year-old forest stands, respectively. Our result suggests that emission directly from stump surfaces could be a significant source of monoterpene emissions for a few weeks after

  6. Did the ambient ozone affect stem increment of Scots Pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) on territories under regional pollution load? Step III of Lithuanian studies.

    PubMed

    Augustaitis, Algirdas; Augustaitiene, Ingrida; Cinga, Gintautas; Mazeika, Juozapas; Deltuvas, Romualdas; Juknys, Romualdas; Vitas, Adomas

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to explore if changes in stem increment of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) could be related to changes in ambient ozone concentration when the impact of tree dendrometric parameters (age, diameter) and crown defoliation are accounted for. More than 200 dominant and codominant trees from 12 pine stands, for which crown defoliation had been assessed since 1994, were chosen for increment boring and basal area increment computing. Stands are located in Lithuanian national parks, where since 1994-95 Integrated Monitoring Stations have been operating. Findings of the study provide statistical evidence that peak concentrations of ambient ozone (O3) can have a negative impact on pine tree stem growth under field conditions where O3 exposure is below phytotoxic levels.

  7. [Population structure and understory species diversity of different aged Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantations in Nenjiang Sandy Land of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Nan; Zhao, Yu-Sen; Zheng, Lei; Xin, Ying

    2012-09-01

    Taking the Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica sand-fixing plantations at different development stages (24-, 29-, 39-, and 43 years old) in Nenjiang Sandy Land as test objects, this paper studied their population structure, understory species composition, and species diversity. No regenerated seedlings were found in all the four P. sylvestris var. mongolica plantations. The mean individual height and DBH of the populations differed significantly with development stage. With the increasing age of the plantations, the proportion of small-sized individuals decreased obviously, while that of large-sized individuals increased, population tended to mature, and the diameter structure except 43 years old plantation was in normal distribution. A total of 33 understory plant species were recorded, belonging to 28 genera and 15 families. Setaria viridis was the dominant species, but its dominance decreased gradually with increasing age of the plantations. With the increase of plantation age, the proportion of annual plants decreased, while that of perennial plants increased. The Simpson index and Pielou index had no significant differences among the different aged plantations, but the richness index, Shannon index, and Alatalo index of 39 years old plantation were significantly higher than those of 24 years old stands, suggesting that the species diversity of the community improved with time.

  8. [Population structure and understory species diversity of different aged Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantations in Nenjiang Sandy Land of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Nan; Zhao, Yu-Sen; Zheng, Lei; Xin, Ying

    2012-09-01

    Taking the Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica sand-fixing plantations at different development stages (24-, 29-, 39-, and 43 years old) in Nenjiang Sandy Land as test objects, this paper studied their population structure, understory species composition, and species diversity. No regenerated seedlings were found in all the four P. sylvestris var. mongolica plantations. The mean individual height and DBH of the populations differed significantly with development stage. With the increasing age of the plantations, the proportion of small-sized individuals decreased obviously, while that of large-sized individuals increased, population tended to mature, and the diameter structure except 43 years old plantation was in normal distribution. A total of 33 understory plant species were recorded, belonging to 28 genera and 15 families. Setaria viridis was the dominant species, but its dominance decreased gradually with increasing age of the plantations. With the increase of plantation age, the proportion of annual plants decreased, while that of perennial plants increased. The Simpson index and Pielou index had no significant differences among the different aged plantations, but the richness index, Shannon index, and Alatalo index of 39 years old plantation were significantly higher than those of 24 years old stands, suggesting that the species diversity of the community improved with time. PMID:23285985

  9. Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available. We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 years) from a stand in southwest France. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots. CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots. The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately.

  10. Distribution of lignin and its coniferyl alcohol and coniferyl aldehyde groups in Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris as observed by Raman imaging.

    PubMed

    Hänninen, Tuomas; Kontturi, Eero; Vuorinen, Tapani

    2011-10-01

    Wood cell wall consists of several structural components, such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, whose concentrations vary throughout the cell wall. It is a composite where semicrystalline cellulose fibrils, acting as reinforcement, are bound together by amorphous hemicelluloses and lignin matrix. Understanding the distribution of these components and their functions within the cell wall can provide useful information on the biosynthesis of trees. Raman imaging enables us to study chemistry of cell wall without altering the structure by staining the sample or fractionating it. Raman imaging has been used to analyze distributions of lignin and cellulose, as well as the functional groups of lignin in wood. In our study, we observed the distribution of cellulose and lignin, as well as the amount of coniferyl alcohol and aldehyde groups compared to the total amount of lignin in pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies) wood samples. No significant differences could be seen in lignin and cellulose distribution between these samples, while clear distinction was observed in the distribution of coniferyl alcohols and coniferyl aldehyde in them. These results could provide valuable insight on how two similar wood species control biosynthesis of lignin differently during the differentiation of cell wall.

  11. Has Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) co-evolved with Dothistroma septosporum in Scotland? Evidence for spatial heterogeneity in the susceptibility of native provenances.

    PubMed

    Perry, Annika; Brown, Anna V; Cavers, Stephen; Cottrell, Joan E; Ennos, Richard A

    2016-09-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in pathogen pressure leads to genetic variation in, and evolution of, disease-related traits among host populations. In contrast, hosts are expected to be highly susceptible to exotic pathogens as there has been no evolution of defence responses. Host response to pathogens can therefore be an indicator of a novel or endemic pathosystem. Currently, the most significant threat to native British Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests is Dothistroma needle blight (DNB) caused by the foliar pathogen Dothistroma septosporum which is presumed to be exotic. A progeny-provenance trial of 6-year-old Scots pine, comprising eight native provenances each with four families in six blocks, was translocated in April 2013 to a clear-fell site in Galloway adjacent to a DNB-infected forest. Susceptibility to D. septosporum, measured as DNB severity (estimated percentage nongreen current-year needles), was assessed visually over 2 years (2013-2014 and 2014-2015; two assessments per year). There were highly significant differences in susceptibility among provenances but not among families for each annual assessment. Provenance mean susceptibility to D. septosporum was negatively and significantly associated with water-related variables at site of origin, potentially due to the evolution of low susceptibility in the host in response to high historical pathogen pressure. PMID:27606006

  12. [Effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition on the soil chemical and biological properties of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    Lin, Gui-Gang; Zhao, Qiong; Zhao, Lei; Li, Hui-Chao; Zeng, De-Hui

    2012-05-01

    A full factorial experiment was conducted to study the effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition (8 g x m(-2)) on the soil NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N concentrations, potential net nitrogen mineralization rate (PNM) and nitrification rate (PNN), microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), MBC/MBN, urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities, and Olsen-P concentration in a Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land during a growth season. Understory removal decreased the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, PNM, MBC, and MBN/MBN significantly, increased the soil Olsen-P concentration, but had little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNN, and urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities. Nitrogen addition increased the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNM and PNN significantly, but had little effects on the other test properties. The interaction between understory removal and nitrogen addition had significant effects on the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, but little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration. However, the soil NO(3-)-N concentration in the plots of understory removal with nitrogen addition was increased by 27%, compared with the plots of nitrogen addition alone, which might lead to the leaching of NO3-. It was suggested that understory vegetation could play an important role in affecting the soil chemical and biological properties in Mongolian pine plantations, and hence, the importance of understory vegetation should not be neglected when the forest management and restoration were implemented. PMID:22919826

  13. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) wood . Part I: Lipophilic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuopponen, M.; Willför, S.; Jääskeläinen, A.-S.; Sundberg, A.; Vuorinen, T.

    2004-11-01

    The wood resin in Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) stemwood and branch wood were studied using UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. UVRR spectra of the sapwood and heartwood hexane extracts, solid wood samples and model compounds (six resin acids, three fatty acids, a fatty acid ester, sitosterol and sitosterol acetate) were collected using excitation wavelengths of 229, 244 and 257 nm. In addition, visible Raman spectra of the fatty and resin acids were recorded. Resin compositions of heartwood and sapwood hexane extracts were determined using gas chromatography. Raman signals of both conjugated and isolated double bonds of all the model compounds were resonance enhanced by UV excitation. The oleophilic structures showed strong bands in the region of 1660-1630 cm -1. Distinct structures were enhanced depending on the excitation wavelength. The UVRR spectra of the hexane extracts showed characteristic bands for resin and fatty acids. It was possible to identify certain resin acids from the spectra. UV Raman spectra collected from the solid wood samples containing wood resin showed a band at ˜1650 cm -1 due to unsaturated resin components. The Raman signals from extractives in the resin rich branch wood sample gave even more strongly enhanced signals than the aromatic lignin.

  14. A UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopic study on the extractable compounds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) wood. Part I: lipophilic compounds.

    PubMed

    Nuopponen, M; Willför, S; Jääskeläinen, A-S; Sundberg, A; Vuorinen, T

    2004-11-01

    The wood resin in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stemwood and branch wood were studied using UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. UVRR spectra of the sapwood and heartwood hexane extracts, solid wood samples and model compounds (six resin acids, three fatty acids, a fatty acid ester, sitosterol and sitosterol acetate) were collected using excitation wavelengths of 229, 244 and 257 nm. In addition, visible Raman spectra of the fatty and resin acids were recorded. Resin compositions of heartwood and sapwood hexane extracts were determined using gas chromatography. Raman signals of both conjugated and isolated double bonds of all the model compounds were resonance enhanced by UV excitation. The oleophilic structures showed strong bands in the region of 1660-1630 cm(-1). Distinct structures were enhanced depending on the excitation wavelength. The UVRR spectra of the hexane extracts showed characteristic bands for resin and fatty acids. It was possible to identify certain resin acids from the spectra. UV Raman spectra collected from the solid wood samples containing wood resin showed a band at approximately 1650 cm(-1) due to unsaturated resin components. The Raman signals from extractives in the resin rich branch wood sample gave even more strongly enhanced signals than the aromatic lignin.

  15. Mongolian pines (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) in the Hulun Buir steppe, China, respond to climate in adjustment to the local water supply.

    PubMed

    Bao, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The growth response of Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) to climate was studied at three sites in the Hulun Buir steppe on the eastern Mongolian Plateau, China. Correlation analysis revealed two patterns of response: (1) trees on two sites in the upstream section of the Yimin River are strongly limited by temperature and precipitation during the growing season from April to September, and (2) trees in the convergence area of the downstream section of the Yimin River and of the midstream section of the Hailar River are sensitive to precipitation during winter (December-January) and early spring (April) as well as to the early growing season temperature (April and June). These responses can be attributed to the positions where groundwater, recharged by the runoff from summer to autumn (July-September), could supply sufficient water needed for tree growth. Therefore, the patterns of growth-climate responses and of climate variation trends in this steppe region should be considered for the management and afforestation of Mongolian pines. PMID:24292925

  16. Mongolian pines ( Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) in the Hulun Buir steppe, China, respond to climate in adjustment to the local water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The growth response of Mongolian pine ( Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) to climate was studied at three sites in the Hulun Buir steppe on the eastern Mongolian Plateau, China. Correlation analysis revealed two patterns of response: (1) trees on two sites in the upstream section of the Yimin River are strongly limited by temperature and precipitation during the growing season from April to September, and (2) trees in the convergence area of the downstream section of the Yimin River and of the midstream section of the Hailar River are sensitive to precipitation during winter (December-January) and early spring (April) as well as to the early growing season temperature (April and June). These responses can be attributed to the positions where groundwater, recharged by the runoff from summer to autumn (July-September), could supply sufficient water needed for tree growth. Therefore, the patterns of growth-climate responses and of climate variation trends in this steppe region should be considered for the management and afforestation of Mongolian pines.

  17. Rates and quantities of carbon flux to ectomycorrhizal mycelium following 14C pulse labeling of Pinus sylvestris seedlings: effects of litter patches and interaction with a wood-decomposer fungus.

    PubMed

    Leake, J R; Donnelly, D P; Saunders, E M; Boddy, L; Read, D J

    2001-02-01

    We used a novel digital autoradiographic technique that enabled, for the first time, simultaneous visualization and quantification of spatial and temporal changes in carbon allocation patterns in ectomycorrhizal mycelia. Mycorrhizal plants of Pinus sylvestris L. were grown in microcosms containing non-sterile peat. The time course and spatial distribution of carbon allocation by P. sylvestris to mycelia of its mycorrhizal partners, Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fr. and Suillus bovinus (L.): Kuntze, were quantified following 14C pulse labeling of the plants. Litter patches were used to investigate the effects of nutrient resource quality on carbon allocation. The wood-decomposer fungus Phanerochaete velutina (D.C.: Pers.) Parmasto was introduced to evaluate competitive and territorial interactions between its mycelial cords and the mycelial system of S. bovinus. Growth of ectomycorrhizal mycelium was stimulated in the litter patches. Nearly 60% of the C transferred from host plant to external mycorrhizal mycelium (> 2 mm from root surfaces) was allocated to mycelium in the patches, which comprised only 12% of the soil area available for mycelial colonization. Mycelia in the litter patch most recently colonized by mycorrhizal mycelium received the largest investment of carbon, amounting to 27 to 50% of the total 14C in external mycorrhizal mycelium. The amount of C transfer to external mycelium of S. bovinus following pulse labeling was reduced from a maximum of 167 nmol in systems with no saprotroph to a maximum of 61 nmol in systems interacting with P. velutina. The 14C content of S. bovinus mycelium reached a maximum 24-36 h after labeling in control microcosms, but allocation did not reach a peak until 56 h after labeling, when S. bovinus interacted with mycelium of P. velutina. The mycelium of S. bovinus contained 9% of the total 14C in the plants (including mycorrhizae) at the end of the experiment, but this was reduced to 4% in the presence of P. velutina. The

  18. Rates and quantities of carbon flux to ectomycorrhizal mycelium following 14C pulse labeling of Pinus sylvestris seedlings: effects of litter patches and interaction with a wood-decomposer fungus.

    PubMed

    Leake, J R; Donnelly, D P; Saunders, E M; Boddy, L; Read, D J

    2001-02-01

    We used a novel digital autoradiographic technique that enabled, for the first time, simultaneous visualization and quantification of spatial and temporal changes in carbon allocation patterns in ectomycorrhizal mycelia. Mycorrhizal plants of Pinus sylvestris L. were grown in microcosms containing non-sterile peat. The time course and spatial distribution of carbon allocation by P. sylvestris to mycelia of its mycorrhizal partners, Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fr. and Suillus bovinus (L.): Kuntze, were quantified following 14C pulse labeling of the plants. Litter patches were used to investigate the effects of nutrient resource quality on carbon allocation. The wood-decomposer fungus Phanerochaete velutina (D.C.: Pers.) Parmasto was introduced to evaluate competitive and territorial interactions between its mycelial cords and the mycelial system of S. bovinus. Growth of ectomycorrhizal mycelium was stimulated in the litter patches. Nearly 60% of the C transferred from host plant to external mycorrhizal mycelium (> 2 mm from root surfaces) was allocated to mycelium in the patches, which comprised only 12% of the soil area available for mycelial colonization. Mycelia in the litter patch most recently colonized by mycorrhizal mycelium received the largest investment of carbon, amounting to 27 to 50% of the total 14C in external mycorrhizal mycelium. The amount of C transfer to external mycelium of S. bovinus following pulse labeling was reduced from a maximum of 167 nmol in systems with no saprotroph to a maximum of 61 nmol in systems interacting with P. velutina. The 14C content of S. bovinus mycelium reached a maximum 24-36 h after labeling in control microcosms, but allocation did not reach a peak until 56 h after labeling, when S. bovinus interacted with mycelium of P. velutina. The mycelium of S. bovinus contained 9% of the total 14C in the plants (including mycorrhizae) at the end of the experiment, but this was reduced to 4% in the presence of P. velutina. The

  19. Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster

    PubMed Central

    Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S.; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available. We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 years) from a stand in southwest France. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots. CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots. The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately. PMID

  20. Online investigation of respiratory quotients in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies during drought and shading by means of cavity-enhanced Raman multi-gas spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Stefan; Fischer, Sarah; Hartmann, Henrik; Keiner, Robert; Trumbore, Susan; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-07-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration are major components of the plant carbon balance. During stress, like drought, carbohydrate supply from photosynthesis is reduced and the Krebs cycle respiration must be fueled with other stored carbon compounds. However, the dynamics of storage use are still unknown. The respiratory quotient (RQ, CO2 released per O2 consumed during respiration) is an excellent indicator of the nature of the respiration substrate. In plant science, however, online RQ measurements have been challenging or even impossible so far due to very small gas exchange fluxes during respiration. Here we apply cavity-enhanced multi-gas Raman spectrometry (CERS) for online in situ RQ measurements in drought-tolerant pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) and drought-intolerant spruce (Picea abies [L. H. Karst]). Two different treatments, drought and shading, were applied to reduce photosynthesis and force dependency on stored substrates. Changes in respiration rates and RQ values were continuously monitored over periods of several days with low levels of variance. The results show that both species switched from COH-dominated respiration (RQ = 1.0) to a mixture of substrates during shading (RQ = 0.77-0.81), while during drought only pine did so (RQ = 0.75). The gas phase measurements were complemented by concentration measurements of non-structural carbohydrates and lipids. These first results suggest a physiological explanation for greater drought tolerance in pine. CERS was proven as powerful technique for non-consumptive and precise real-time monitoring of respiration rates and respirational quotients for the investigation of plant metabolism under drought stress conditions that are predicted to increase with future climate change.

  1. Characterization and expression of a Pinus radiata putative ortholog to the Arabidopsis SHORT-ROOT gene.

    PubMed

    Solé, Alicia; Sánchez, Conchi; Vielba, Jesús M; Valladares, Silvia; Abarca, Dolores; Díaz-Sala, Carmen

    2008-11-01

    We characterized a Pinus radiata D. Don putative ortholog to the Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. SHORT--ROOT gene (AtSHR) and analyzed its expression in different organs during vegetative development and in response to exogenous auxin during adventitious rooting. The predicted protein sequence contained domains characteristic of the GRAS protein family and showed a strong similarity to the SHORT--ROOT (SHR) proteins. Quantitative reverse transcriptase--polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization showed that the gene is predominantly expressed in roots, root primordia and in the cambial region of hypocotyl cuttings. Increased mRNA levels were observed, independently of the presence or absence of exogenous auxin, in the cambial region and rooting competent cells of hypocotyl cuttings within the first 24 h of adventitious rooting, before the activation of cell divisions and the organization of the adventitious root meristem. The expression pattern in organs and during adventitious rooting was similar to that of a Pinus radiata SCARECROW-LIKE (PrSCL1) gene, except that PrSCL1 is induced in response to exogenous auxin. Results suggest that the Pinus radiata SHORT-ROOT (PrSHR) gene has a role in root meristem formation and maintenance and in the cambial region of hypocotyl cuttings.

  2. Toxic effects of cadmium and zinc on ectomycorrhizal colonization of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from soil inoculum

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley-Whitaker, J.; Cairney, J.W.G.; Meharg, A.A.

    2000-03-01

    Scots pine seedlings colonized by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi from natural soil inoculum were exposed to a range of Cd or Zn concentrations to investigate the effects of metals on ECM fungi-Scots pine associations in a realistic soil environment. Experiments focused on the relationship between the sensitivity of ECM fungi and their host plants, the influence of metals on ECM community dynamics on Scots pine roots, and the effects of metal exposure on ECM colonization from soil-borne propagules. Ectomycorrhizal colonization was inhibited by Cd and Zn, with a decrease in the proportion of ECM-colonized root tips. Shoot and root biomass, total root length, and total root-tip density, however, were unaffected by Cd or Zn. A decrease in the diversity of ECM morphotypes also occurred, which could have a negative effect on tree vigor. Overall, colonization by ECM fungi was more sensitive than seedling growth to Cd and Zn, and this could have serious implications for successful tree establishment on metal-contaminated soils.

  3. Processes, dynamics and modelling of radiocaesium cycling in a chronosequence of Chernobyl-contaminated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations.

    PubMed

    Goor, François; Thiry, Yves

    2004-06-01

    In a large forested area affected by the Chernobyl radioactive fallout, especially in CIS, the lasting recycling of radiocaesium (137Cs) by the trees is a source of long-term contamination of woody products. The quantitative description of the 137Cs dynamics in contaminated forest is a prerequisite to predictive modelling and further management of such territories. Three even-aged mono-specific Scots pine stands (17, 37 and 57 years old) were selected in a contaminated woodland in southeastern Belarus to constitute an adequate chronosequence. We determined the potassium and radiocaesium annual fluxes involved in the biological cycling in each stand using a well-documented calculation methodology. Qualitatively, 137Cs was shown to be rapidly recycled in trees through the same pathways as K and to redistribute similarly between the tree components. Compared to K, a higher fraction of 137Cs, corresponding to about the half of the annual uptake, is immobilised in perennial organs. With tree development, trunk wood and bark become prevailing sinks for 137Cs since they represent an increasing pool of biomass. In the pine chronosequence, the current root absorption, respectively, mobilizes 0.53, 0.32 and 0.31% year(-1) of the total 137Cs pool in soil. Variations in the 137Cs uptake do not reflect differences in the 137Cs balance between stands. In the two older stands, 51 and 71% of the current tree contamination are related to earlier accumulation subsequent to the initial fallout interception and recycling. The soil is the dominant source of long-term tree contamination. A simple modelling based on the measured 137Cs fluxes indicates that, for young stands, radioactive decay-corrected contamination would stabilize after reaching a maximum of 25 years after the 137Cs deposition. Stemwood presents a maximum of 15 years after the deposition and decrease afterwards mainly through radioactive decay. In the older stands, the decontamination is constant without local maximum

  4. Bioindication of the anthropogenic effects on micropopulations of Pinus sylvestris, L. in the vicinity of a plant for the storage and processing of radioactive waste and in the Chernobyl NPP zone.

    PubMed

    Geraskin, S A; Zimina, L M; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S; Zimin, V L; Vasiliyev, D V; Oudalova, A A; Blinova, L D; Alexakhin, R M

    2003-01-01

    Results of a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of cytogenetic anomalies are presented for reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) samples taken from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris, L.) micropopulations growing at sites with differing levels of radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, and at the location of a facility for the processing and storage of radioactive wastes (the 'Radon' LWPE, near the town of Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad Region). The data obtained indicate the presence of genotoxic contaminants in the environment of the tree micropopulations. Chemical toxins make the main contribution to the environmental contamination in the Sosnovy Bor area as compared with the influence of ionising radiation in the Chernobyl 30 km zone. The higher radioresistance of seeds of Scotch pine growing on the area of the 'Radon' LWPE and in the centre of Sosnovy Bor town was revealed with acute gamma-radiation.

  5. In Vitro Culture Conditions and OeARF and OeH3 Expressions Modulate Adventitious Root Formation from Oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5 mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency. PMID:24587768

  6. In vitro culture conditions and OeARF and OeH3 expressions modulate adventitious root formation from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) cuttings.

    PubMed

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5 mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency. PMID:24587768

  7. Correlation between infection by ophiostomatoid fungi and the presence of subterranean termites in Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Observations of subterranean termites feeding in pine sapwood containing ophiostomatoid fungi prompted a study to investigate the effect of infection by Leptographium fungi on the probability of encountering subterranean termites in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots. Root samples were collected f...

  8. δ²H, δ¹³C and δ¹⁸O from whole wood, α-cellulose and lignin methoxyl groups in Pinus sylvestris: a multi-parameter approach.

    PubMed

    Mischel, Maria; Esper, Jan; Keppler, Frank; Greule, Markus; Werner, Willy

    2015-01-01

    Novel tree ring parameters - δ(13)C and δ(2)H from methoxyl groups - have been developed to reconstruct palaeoclimate. Tests with δ(13)C and δ(18)O derived from whole wood and cellulose samples, however, indicated differences in the isotopic composition and climate signal, depending on the extracted wood component. We assess this signal dependency by analysing (i) δ(13)C and δ(18)O from whole wood and cellulose and (ii) δ(13)C and δ(2)H from methoxyl groups, using Pinus sylvestris L. growing near Altenkirchen (Germany). Results indicate significant correlations among the time series derived from whole wood, cellulose, and lignin methoxyl groups. Compared with the whole wood samples, δ(13)C from methoxyl groups showed a different and overall lower response to climate parameters. On the other hand, δ(2)H from methoxyl groups showed high correlations with temperature and was also correlated with ring width, indicating its potential as a temperature proxy. Isotope time series with the highest correlation with climatic parameter were: (i) whole wood and cellulose δ(13)C with growing season precipitation and summer temperature; (ii) methoxyl groups with spring precipitation; (iii) whole wood and cellulose δ(18)O correlates with annual evapotranspiration and water balance; and (iv) methoxyl group δ(2)H with spring temperatures. These findings reveal that multiple climate elements can be reconstructed from different wood components and that whole wood proxies perform comparably to cellulose time series.

  9. Actual evapotranspiration estimation in a Mediterranean mountain region by means of Landsat-5 TM and TERRA/AQUA MODIS imagery and Sap Flow measurements in Pinus sylvestris forest stands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristóbal, J.; Poyatos, R.; Ninyerola, M.; Pons, X.; Llorens, P.

    2009-04-01

    Evapotranspiration monitoring has important implications on global and regional climate modelling, as well as in the knowledge of the hydrological cycle and in the assessment of environmental stress that affects forest and agricultural ecosystems. An increase of evapotranspiration while precipitation remains constant, or is reduced, could decrease water availability for natural and agricultural systems and human needs. Consequently, water balance methods, as the evapotranspiration modelling, have been widely used to estimate crop and forest water needs, as well as the global change effects. Nowadays, radiometric measurements provided by Remote Sensing and GIS analysis are the technologies used to compute evapotranspiration at regional scales in a feasible way. Currently, the 38% of Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula) is covered by forests, and one of the most important forest species is Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) which represents the 18.4% of the area occupied by forests. The aim of this work is to model actual evapotranspiration in Pinus sylvestris forest stands, in a Mediterranean mountain region, using remote sensing data, and compare it with stand-scale sap flow measurements measured in the Vallcebre research area (42° 12' N, 1° 49' E), in the Eastern Pyrenees. To perform this study a set of 30 cloud-free TERRA-MODIS images and 10 Landsat-5 TM images of path 198 and rows 31 and 32 from June 2003 to January 2005 have been selected to perform evapotranspiration modelling in Pinus sylvestris forest stands. TERRA/AQUA MODIS images have been downloaded by means of the EOS Gateway. We have selected two different types of products which contain the remote sensing data we have used to model daily evapotranspiration, daily LST product and daily calibrated reflectances product. Landsat-5 TM images have been corrected by means of conventional techniques based on first order polynomials taking into account the effect of land surface relief using a Digital

  10. δ²H, δ¹³C and δ¹⁸O from whole wood, α-cellulose and lignin methoxyl groups in Pinus sylvestris: a multi-parameter approach.

    PubMed

    Mischel, Maria; Esper, Jan; Keppler, Frank; Greule, Markus; Werner, Willy

    2015-01-01

    Novel tree ring parameters - δ(13)C and δ(2)H from methoxyl groups - have been developed to reconstruct palaeoclimate. Tests with δ(13)C and δ(18)O derived from whole wood and cellulose samples, however, indicated differences in the isotopic composition and climate signal, depending on the extracted wood component. We assess this signal dependency by analysing (i) δ(13)C and δ(18)O from whole wood and cellulose and (ii) δ(13)C and δ(2)H from methoxyl groups, using Pinus sylvestris L. growing near Altenkirchen (Germany). Results indicate significant correlations among the time series derived from whole wood, cellulose, and lignin methoxyl groups. Compared with the whole wood samples, δ(13)C from methoxyl groups showed a different and overall lower response to climate parameters. On the other hand, δ(2)H from methoxyl groups showed high correlations with temperature and was also correlated with ring width, indicating its potential as a temperature proxy. Isotope time series with the highest correlation with climatic parameter were: (i) whole wood and cellulose δ(13)C with growing season precipitation and summer temperature; (ii) methoxyl groups with spring precipitation; (iii) whole wood and cellulose δ(18)O correlates with annual evapotranspiration and water balance; and (iv) methoxyl group δ(2)H with spring temperatures. These findings reveal that multiple climate elements can be reconstructed from different wood components and that whole wood proxies perform comparably to cellulose time series. PMID:26156050

  11. Effects of warming treatment and precipitation manipulation on fine root length of Pinus densiflora seedlings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S. H.; Yoon, S. J.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.; Li, G.; Park, M.; An, J.; Son, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Fine roots are important for water and nutrient uptake and storage of carbon and nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. In order to examine effects of climate change on fine root of Pinus densiflora seedlings, an open-field experiment with the warming treatment and precipitation manipulation had been conducted at a nursery in Seoul, South Korea. Two-year-old P. seedlings were planted in April, 2013. The air temperature of the warmed plots (W) was set to increase by 3°C compared to the temperature control plots (C) using infrared lamps. The precipitation manipulation consisted of the precipitation decreased using transparent panel (-30%; P-), the precipitation increased using pump and drip-irrigation (+30%; P+), and the precipitation control (0%; P0). The fine root length of the seedlings near the soil surface (0-15 cm depth) was estimated from January, 2014 to January, 2015 trimonthly using minirhizotrons. The mean fine root length (mm mm-2) were 115.0 (WP0), 163.7 (WP-), 90.5 (WP+), 114.4 (CP0), 130.2 (CP-), and 100.6 (CP+) during the study period, respectively. The mean fine root length was significantly affected by the precipitation manipulation (P<0.0001); however, it was not influenced by the warming treatment (P>0.1). There was no interaction between warming and precipitation effects in fine root length. The fine root length in P- plot was higher than those in P0 plot and P+ plot, regardless of the warming treatment, which indicated that water stress caused by P- might stimulate the fine root growth. Meanwhile, the no consistent patterns of fine root length by warming treatment was found under P+ plot and P0 plot, but a positive effect of warming on fine root length was observed under P+ plot only. Estimations of fine root production and mortality are required to determine the interaction between warming and precipitation effects on fine root dynamics more exactly. This study was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment (2014001310008).

  12. Elevational trends in hydraulic efficiency and safety of Pinus cembra roots.

    PubMed

    Losso, Adriano; Nardini, Andrea; Nolf, Markus; Mayr, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In alpine regions, elevational gradients in environmental parameters are reflected by structural and functional changes in plant traits. Elevational changes in plant water relations have also been demonstrated, but comparable information on root hydraulics is generally lacking. We analyzed the hydraulic efficiency (specific hydraulic conductivity k s, entire root system conductance K R) and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism (water potential at 50 % loss of conductivity Ψ 50) of the roots of Pinus cembra trees growing along an elevational transect of 600 m. Hydraulic parameters of the roots were compared with those of the stem and related to anatomical traits {mean conduit diameter (d), wall reinforcement [(t/b)(2)]}. We hypothesized that temperature-related restrictions in root function would cause a progressive limitation of hydraulic efficiency and safety with increasing elevation. We found that both root k s and K R decreased from low (1600 m a.s.l.: k s 5.6 ± 0.7 kg m(-1) s(-1) MPa(-1), K R 0.049 ± 0.005 kg m(-2) s (-1) MPa(-1)) to high elevation (2100 m a.s.l.: k s 4.2 ± 0.6 kg m(-1) s(-1) MPa(-1), K R 0.035 ± 0.006 kg m(-2) s(-1) MPa(-1)), with small trees showing higher K R than large trees. k s was higher in roots than in stems (0.5 ± 0.05 kg m(-1)s(-1)MPa(-1)). Ψ 50 values were similar across elevations and overall less negative in roots (Ψ 50 -3.6 ± 0.1 MPa) than in stems (Ψ 50 -3.9 ± 0.1 MPa). In roots, large-diameter tracheids were lacking at high elevation and (t/b)(2) increased, while d did not change. The elevational decrease in root hydraulic efficiency reflects a limitation in timberline tree hydraulics. In contrast, hydraulic safety was similar across elevations, indicating that avoidance of hydraulic failure is important for timberline trees. As hydraulic patterns can only partly be explained by the anatomical parameters studied, limitations and/or adaptations at the pit level are likely.

  13. Identification of genes differentially expressed in ectomycorrhizal roots during the Pinus pinaster-Laccaria bicolor interaction.

    PubMed

    Flores-Monterroso, Aranzazu; Canales, Javier; de la Torre, Fernando; Ávila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2013-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal associations are of major ecological importance in temperate and boreal forests. The development of a functional ectomycorrhiza requires many genetic and biochemical changes. In this study, suppressive subtraction hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes in the roots of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) inoculated with Laccaria bicolor, a mycorrhizal fungus. A total number of 200 unigenes were identified as being differentially regulated in maritime pine roots during the development of mycorrhiza. These unigenes were classified into 10 categories according to the function of their homologues in the GenBank database. Approximately, 40 % of the differentially expressed transcripts were genes that coded for unknown proteins in the databases or that had no homology to known genes. A group of these differentially expressed genes was selected to validate the results using quantitative real-time PCR. The transcript levels of the representative genes were compared between the non-inoculated and inoculated plants at 1, 5, 15 and 30 days after inoculation. The observed expression patterns indicate (1) changes in the composition of the wall cell, (2) tight regulation of defence genes during the development of mycorrhiza and (3) changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Ammonium excess or deficiency dramatically affected the stability of ectomycorrhiza and altered gene expression in maritime pine roots.

  14. Polar transport and accumulation of indole-3-acetic acid during root regeneration by Pinus lambertiana embryos.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M S; Goldsmith, M H

    1970-12-01

    The relation of indoleacetic acid (IAA) transport to accumulation of auxin at the base of cuttings and to polar root formation was investigated with small cuttings from germinating embryos of Pinus lambertiana.The transport of endogenous auxin participates in regeneration of roots. This is shown by the facts that (1) more than 40% of the cuttings rooted without addition of exogenous indoleacetic acid; (2) the first regeneration always occurred at the basal tip of a slanting cut; and (3) 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), a specific inhibitor of auxin transport, totally inhibited rooting. Addition of IAA to the medium increased the number of roots formed per rooting hypocotyl.Sections of hypocotyls excised from dormant embryos and tested immediately after 2 h hydration were capable of polar transport of IAA. This polarity increased during the first 3 days of culture because of a marked increase in basipetal transport. Culturing the cuttings in 1 μM IAA for 3-5 days doubled both the basipetal transport of 1-(14)C-IAA by hypocotyl segments and the accumulation of radioactivity at the base of cuttings.The extent of the accumulation at the base of cuttings was similar at early (2 days, first mitoses) and late stages (5 days, organized meristem) of regeneration and was not affected by removal of the regenerating region immediately prior to uptake and transport of (14)C-IAA. The accumulation was inhibited by TIBA. In terms of increase in wet and dry weight and mitotic activity, the cotyledons rather than the regenerating root meristems were the most actively growing region of the cuttings. The upper part of the hypocotyl elongated more than the region of the slanting cut where regeneration was occurring.These results provide no support for the idea that the regenerating root controls the direction of polar transport by acting as a sink. The results are consistent with the view that polar auxin transport delivers auxin to the base of the cutting and raises the local

  15. [Root architecture and phosphorus efficiency of different provenance Pinus massoniana under low phosphorous stress].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Zhi-Chun; Feng, Zhong-Ping

    2012-09-01

    Taking four representative provenances of Pinus massoniana from Chun' an of Zhejiang, Wuping of Fujian, Cenxi of Guangxi, and Xinyi of Guangdong in East and South China as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to study their variations in root architecture and phosphorus (P) efficiency under heterogeneous and homogeneous low P stress. Large variations were detected in the major growth traits and the indices of P efficiency among the P. massoniana provenances under both heterogeneous and homogeneous low P stress. Under heterogeneous low P stress, the provenances from Xinyi of Guangdong and Wuping of Fujian exhibited higher P efficiency and greater dry matter accumulation, and their root architecture presented large adaptive changes, with the values of root parameters in P-rich soil surface layer being significantly higher than those of the P inefficient provenances from Chun'an of Zhejiang and Cenxi of Guangxi, which should be responsible for the higher P absorption efficiency and high P efficiency of the provenances from Xinyi and Wuping under heterogeneous low P condition. The root architecture parameters in P-rich soil surface layer and the plant dry matter accumulation of different provenance P. massoniana under heterogeneous low P stress had a correlation coefficient >0.95. Under homogeneous low P stress, the provenances with higher P efficiency had a significantly higher P uptake efficiency than the provenances with lower P efficiency, but the root parametres of the provenances with higher P efficiency had no significant correlation with the P efficiency of the provenances. There existed differences in the adaptive mechanism for the heterogeneous and homogeneous low P stress among the the P. massoniana provenances, and thus, different strategies should be adopted in the selection of P-efficient provenances for different forest stands.

  16. Actual evapotranspiration estimation in a Mediterranean mountain region by means of Landsat-5 TM and TERRA/AQUA MODIS imagery and Sap Flow measurements in Pinus sylvestris forest stands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristóbal, J.; Poyatos, R.; Ninyerola, M.; Pons, X.; Llorens, P.

    2009-04-01

    Evapotranspiration monitoring has important implications on global and regional climate modelling, as well as in the knowledge of the hydrological cycle and in the assessment of environmental stress that affects forest and agricultural ecosystems. An increase of evapotranspiration while precipitation remains constant, or is reduced, could decrease water availability for natural and agricultural systems and human needs. Consequently, water balance methods, as the evapotranspiration modelling, have been widely used to estimate crop and forest water needs, as well as the global change effects. Nowadays, radiometric measurements provided by Remote Sensing and GIS analysis are the technologies used to compute evapotranspiration at regional scales in a feasible way. Currently, the 38% of Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula) is covered by forests, and one of the most important forest species is Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) which represents the 18.4% of the area occupied by forests. The aim of this work is to model actual evapotranspiration in Pinus sylvestris forest stands, in a Mediterranean mountain region, using remote sensing data, and compare it with stand-scale sap flow measurements measured in the Vallcebre research area (42° 12' N, 1° 49' E), in the Eastern Pyrenees. To perform this study a set of 30 cloud-free TERRA-MODIS images and 10 Landsat-5 TM images of path 198 and rows 31 and 32 from June 2003 to January 2005 have been selected to perform evapotranspiration modelling in Pinus sylvestris forest stands. TERRA/AQUA MODIS images have been downloaded by means of the EOS Gateway. We have selected two different types of products which contain the remote sensing data we have used to model daily evapotranspiration, daily LST product and daily calibrated reflectances product. Landsat-5 TM images have been corrected by means of conventional techniques based on first order polynomials taking into account the effect of land surface relief using a Digital

  17. Biomass expansion factor and root-to-shoot ratio for Pinus in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanquetta, Carlos R; Corte, Ana Pd; da Silva, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The Biomass Expansion Factor (BEF) and the Root-to-Shoot Ratio (R) are variables used to quantify carbon stock in forests. They are often considered as constant or species/area specific values in most studies. This study aimed at showing tree size and age dependence upon BEF and R and proposed equations to improve forest biomass and carbon stock. Data from 70 sample Pinus spp. grown in southern Brazil trees in different diameter classes and ages were used to demonstrate the correlation between BEF and R, and forest inventory data, such as DBH, tree height and age. Total dry biomass, carbon stock and CO2 equivalent were simulated using the IPCC default values of BEF and R, corresponding average calculated from data used in this study, as well as the values estimated by regression equations. The mean values of BEF and R calculated in this study were 1.47 and 0.17, respectively. The relationship between BEF and R and the tree measurement variables were inversely related with negative exponential behavior. Simulations indicated that use of fixed values of BEF and R, either IPCC default or current average data, may lead to unreliable estimates of carbon stock inventories and CDM projects. It was concluded that accounting for the variations in BEF and R and using regression equations to relate them to DBH, tree height and age, is fundamental in obtaining reliable estimates of forest tree biomass, carbon sink and CO2 equivalent. PMID:21943243

  18. Comparing the intra-annual wood formation of three European species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Pinus sylvestris) as related to leaf phenology and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics.

    PubMed

    Michelot, Alice; Simard, Sonia; Rathgeber, Cyrille; Dufrêne, Eric; Damesin, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Monitoring cambial phenology and intra-annual growth dynamics is a useful approach for characterizing the tree growth response to climate change. However, there have been few reports concerning intra-annual wood formation in lowland temperate forests with high time resolution, especially for the comparison between deciduous and coniferous species. The main objective of this study was to determine how the timing, duration and rate of radial growth change between species as related to leaf phenology and the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) under the same climatic conditions. We studied two deciduous species, Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., and an evergreen conifer, Pinus sylvestris L. During the 2009 growing season, we weekly monitored (i) the stem radial increment using dendrometers, (ii) the xylem growth using microcoring and (iii) the leaf phenology from direct observations of the tree crowns. The NSC content was also measured in the eight last rings of the stem cores in April, June and August 2009. The leaf phenology, NSC storage and intra-annual growth were clearly different between species, highlighting their contrasting carbon allocation. Beech growth began just after budburst, with a maximal growth rate when the leaves were mature and variations in the NSC content were low. Thus, beech radial growth seemed highly dependent on leaf photosynthesis. For oak, earlywood quickly developed before budburst, which probably led to the starch decrease quantified in the stem from April to June. For pine, growth began before the needles unfolding and the lack of NSC decrease during the growing season suggested that the substrates for radial growth were new assimilates of the needles from the previous year. Only for oak, the pattern determined from the intra-annual growth measured using microcoring differed from the pattern determined from dendrometer data. For all species, the ring width was significantly influenced by growth duration

  19. Comparing the intra-annual wood formation of three European species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Pinus sylvestris) as related to leaf phenology and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics.

    PubMed

    Michelot, Alice; Simard, Sonia; Rathgeber, Cyrille; Dufrêne, Eric; Damesin, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Monitoring cambial phenology and intra-annual growth dynamics is a useful approach for characterizing the tree growth response to climate change. However, there have been few reports concerning intra-annual wood formation in lowland temperate forests with high time resolution, especially for the comparison between deciduous and coniferous species. The main objective of this study was to determine how the timing, duration and rate of radial growth change between species as related to leaf phenology and the dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) under the same climatic conditions. We studied two deciduous species, Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., and an evergreen conifer, Pinus sylvestris L. During the 2009 growing season, we weekly monitored (i) the stem radial increment using dendrometers, (ii) the xylem growth using microcoring and (iii) the leaf phenology from direct observations of the tree crowns. The NSC content was also measured in the eight last rings of the stem cores in April, June and August 2009. The leaf phenology, NSC storage and intra-annual growth were clearly different between species, highlighting their contrasting carbon allocation. Beech growth began just after budburst, with a maximal growth rate when the leaves were mature and variations in the NSC content were low. Thus, beech radial growth seemed highly dependent on leaf photosynthesis. For oak, earlywood quickly developed before budburst, which probably led to the starch decrease quantified in the stem from April to June. For pine, growth began before the needles unfolding and the lack of NSC decrease during the growing season suggested that the substrates for radial growth were new assimilates of the needles from the previous year. Only for oak, the pattern determined from the intra-annual growth measured using microcoring differed from the pattern determined from dendrometer data. For all species, the ring width was significantly influenced by growth duration

  20. The evaluation of different forest structural indices to predict the stand aboveground biomass of even-aged Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Kunduz, Northern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ercanli, İlker; Kahriman, Aydın

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effect of stand structural diversity, including the Shannon, improved Shannon, Simpson, McIntosh, Margelef, and Berger-Parker indices, on stand aboveground biomass (AGB) and developed statistical prediction models for the stand AGB values, including stand structural diversity indices and some stand attributes. The AGB prediction model, including only stand attributes, accounted for 85 % of the total variance in AGB (R (2)) with an Akaike's information criterion (AIC) of 807.2407, Bayesian information criterion (BIC) of 809.5397, Schwarz Bayesian criterion (SBC) of 818.0426, and root mean square error (RMSE) of 38.529 Mg. After inclusion of the stand structural diversity into the model structure, considerable improvement was observed in statistical accuracy, including 97.5 % of the total variance in AGB, with an AIC of 614.1819, BIC of 617.1242, SBC of 633.0853, and RMSE of 15.8153 Mg. The predictive fitting results indicate that some indices describing the stand structural diversity can be employed as significant independent variables to predict the AGB production of the Scotch pine stand. Further, including the stand diversity indices in the AGB prediction model with the stand attributes provided important predictive contributions in estimating the total variance in AGB.

  1. Association of Pinus banksiana Lamb. and Populus tremuloides Michx. seedling fine roots with Sistotrema brinkmannii (Bres.) J. Erikss. (Basidiomycotina).

    PubMed

    Potvin, Lynette R; Richter, Dana L; Jurgensen, Martin F; Dumroese, R Kasten

    2012-11-01

    Sistotrema brinkmannii (Bres.) J. Erikss. (Basidiomycotina, Hydanaceae), commonly regarded as a wood decay fungus, was consistently isolated from bareroot nursery Pinus banksiana Lamb. seedlings. S. brinkmannii was found in ectomycorrhizae formed by Thelephora terrestris Ehrh., Laccaria laccata (Scop.) Cooke, and Suillus luteus (L.) Roussel. In pure culture combinations with sterile P. banksiana and Populus tremuloides Michx. seedlings, S. brinkmannii colonized root cortical cells while not killing seedlings. Colonization by S. brinkmannii appeared to be intracellular but typical endo- or ectomycorrhizae were not formed. The fungus did not decay roots, although it was shown to produce cellulase in enzyme tests. Results suggest a unique association between S. brinkmannii and seedling roots that is neither mycorrhizal nor detrimental; its exact function remains to be elucidated.

  2. Ecological studies of the bio-inoculant Trichoderma hamatum LU592 in the root system of Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Pierre; Jones, Elisabeth Eirian; Hill, Robert A; Stewart, Alison

    2012-06-01

    The plant health- and growth-promoting biological inoculant (bio-inoculant) Trichoderma hamatum LU592 was transformed with the constitutively expressed green fluorescent protein (gfp) and hygromycin B resistance (hph) genes to specifically monitor the isolate in the root system of Pinus radiata within a strong indigenous Trichoderma population. A modified dilution plating technique was developed to allow the determination of the mycelia proportion of total propagule levels. LU592 was shown to colonize the rhizosphere most effectively when 10(5)  spores per pot were applied compared with inoculum concentrations of 10(3) and 10(7)  spores per pot. LU592 extended its zone of activity beyond the rhizosphere to at least 1 cm away from the root surface. A positive relationship was shown between P. radiata root maturation and the spatial and temporal proliferation of LU592 in the root system. A steep increase in mycelia levels and proportion of penetrated root segments was observed after 12 weeks. This study reinforces the value of genetic markers for use in ecological studies of filamentous fungi. However, despite isolate-specific recovery of the introduced isolate, it was shown that total propagule counts do not always correlate with the amount of viable mycelium present in the root system. Therefore, it is proposed that the differentiation of mycelia from spores and root penetration is used as more accurate measures of fungal activity.

  3. Soil respiration patterns in root gaps 27 years after small scale experimental disturbance in Pinus contorta forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S.; Berryman, E.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Ewers, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    While much attention has been focused on large scale forest disturbances such as fire, harvesting, drought and insect attacks, small scale forest disturbances that create gaps in forest canopies and below ground root and mycorrhizal networks may accumulate to impact regional scale carbon budgets. In a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest near Fox Park, WY, clusters of 15 and 30 trees were removed in 1988 to assess the effect of tree gap disturbance on fine root density and nitrogen transformation. Twenty seven years later the gaps remain with limited regeneration present only in the center of the 30 tree plots, beyond the influence of roots from adjacent intact trees. Soil respiration was measured in the summer of 2015 to assess the influence of these disturbances on carbon cycling in Pinus contorta forests. Positions at the centers of experimental disturbances were found to have the lowest respiration rates (mean 2.45 μmol C/m2/s, standard error 0.17 C/m2/s), control plots in the undisturbed forest were highest (mean 4.15 μmol C/m2/s, standard error 0.63 C/m2/s), and positions near the margin of the disturbance were intermediate (mean 3.7 μmol C/m2/s, standard error 0.34 C/m2/s). Fine root densities, soil nitrogen, and microclimate changes were also measured and played an important role in respiration rates of disturbed plots. This demonstrates that a long-term effect on carbon cycling occurs when gaps are created in the canopy and root network of lodgepole forests.

  4. Soil respiration and root biomass responses to burning in calabrian pine (Pinus brutia) stands in Edirne, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tufekcioglu, Aydin; Kucuk, Mehmet; Bilmis, Tuncay; Altun, Lokman; Yilmaz, Murat

    2010-01-01

    In this study soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed fire were investigated in 25-30 year-old calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) stands in Edirne, Turkey. The stands were established by planting and were subjected to prescribed burning in July 2005. Soil respiration rates were determined every two months using the soda-lime method over a two-year period. Fine (> or = 2 mm diameter) and small root (> 2-5 mm diameter) biomass were sampled approximately bimonthly using the sequential coring method. Soil respiration rates in burned sites were significantly higher than in control sites during the summer season but there was no significant difference in the other seasons. Soil respiration rates were correlated significantly with soil moisture and soil temperature. Fine and small root biomass were significantly lower in burned sites than in control sites. Mean fine root biomass values were 3204 kg ha(-1) for burned and 3772 kg ha(-1) for control sites. Annual soil CO2 releases totaled 515 g Cm(-2) for burned and 418 g C m(-2) for control sites. Our results indicate that, depending on site conditions, fire could be used successfully as a tool in the management of calabrian pine stands in the study area.

  5. Understanding Trichoderma in the root system of Pinus radiata: associations between rhizosphere colonisation and growth promotion for commercially grown seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Pierre; Jones, E Eirian; Hill, Robert A; Stewart, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Two Trichoderma isolates (T. hamatum LU592 and T. atroviride LU132) were tested for their ability to promote the growth and health of commercially grown Pinus radiata seedlings. The colonisation behaviour of the two isolates was investigated to relate rhizosphere competence and root penetration to subsequent effects on plant performance. Trichoderma hamatum LU592 was shown to enhance several plant health and growth parameters. The isolate significantly reduced seedling mortality by up to 29%, and promoted the growth of shoots (e.g. height by up to 16%) and roots (e.g. dry weight by up to 31%). The introduction of LU592 as either seed coat or spray application equally improved seedling health and growth demonstrating the suitability of both application methods for pine nursery situations. However, clear differences in rhizosphere colonisation and root penetration between the two application methods highlighted the need for more research on the impact of inoculum densities. When spray-applied, LU592 was found to be the predominant Trichoderma strain in the plant root system, including bulk potting mix, rhizosphere and endorhizosphere. In contrast, T. atroviride LU132 was shown to colonise the root system poorly, and no biological impact on P. radiata seedlings was detected. This is the first report to demonstrate rhizosphere competence as a useful indicator for determining Trichoderma bio-inoculants for P. radiata. High indigenous Trichoderma populations with similar population dynamics to the introduced strains revealed the limitations of the dilution plating technique, but this constraint was alleviated to some extent by the use of techniques for morphological and molecular identification of the introduced isolates.

  6. Understanding Trichoderma in the root system of Pinus radiata: associations between rhizosphere colonisation and growth promotion for commercially grown seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Pierre; Jones, E Eirian; Hill, Robert A; Stewart, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Two Trichoderma isolates (T. hamatum LU592 and T. atroviride LU132) were tested for their ability to promote the growth and health of commercially grown Pinus radiata seedlings. The colonisation behaviour of the two isolates was investigated to relate rhizosphere competence and root penetration to subsequent effects on plant performance. Trichoderma hamatum LU592 was shown to enhance several plant health and growth parameters. The isolate significantly reduced seedling mortality by up to 29%, and promoted the growth of shoots (e.g. height by up to 16%) and roots (e.g. dry weight by up to 31%). The introduction of LU592 as either seed coat or spray application equally improved seedling health and growth demonstrating the suitability of both application methods for pine nursery situations. However, clear differences in rhizosphere colonisation and root penetration between the two application methods highlighted the need for more research on the impact of inoculum densities. When spray-applied, LU592 was found to be the predominant Trichoderma strain in the plant root system, including bulk potting mix, rhizosphere and endorhizosphere. In contrast, T. atroviride LU132 was shown to colonise the root system poorly, and no biological impact on P. radiata seedlings was detected. This is the first report to demonstrate rhizosphere competence as a useful indicator for determining Trichoderma bio-inoculants for P. radiata. High indigenous Trichoderma populations with similar population dynamics to the introduced strains revealed the limitations of the dilution plating technique, but this constraint was alleviated to some extent by the use of techniques for morphological and molecular identification of the introduced isolates. PMID:21802056

  7. Diterpenoids from Casearia sylvestris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two highly oxygenated clerodane diterpenes casearins U (1) and V (2) and two ent-kaurane diterpene glucosides sylvestrisides A (3) and B (4) were isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris, together with 13 known compounds. Their structures were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectro...

  8. Reference genomes and transcriptomes of Nicotiana sylvestris and Nicotiana tomentosiformis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nicotiana sylvestris and Nicotiana tomentosiformis are members of the Solanaceae family that includes tomato, potato, eggplant and pepper. These two Nicotiana species originate from South America and exhibit different alkaloid and diterpenoid production. N. sylvestris is cultivated largely as an ornamental plant and it has been used as a diploid model system for studies of terpenoid production, plastid engineering, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis are considered to be modern descendants of the maternal and paternal donors that formed Nicotiana tabacum about 200,000 years ago through interspecific hybridization. Here we report the first genome-wide analysis of these two Nicotiana species. Results Draft genomes of N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis were assembled to 82.9% and 71.6% of their expected size respectively, with N50 sizes of about 80 kb. The repeat content was 72-75%, with a higher proportion of retrotransposons and copia-like long terminal repeats in N. tomentosiformis. The transcriptome assemblies showed that 44,000-53,000 transcripts were expressed in the roots, leaves or flowers. The key genes involved in terpenoid metabolism, alkaloid metabolism and heavy metal transport showed differential expression in the leaves, roots and flowers of N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis. Conclusions The reference genomes of N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis represent a significant contribution to the SOL100 initiative because, as members of the Nicotiana genus of Solanaceae, they strengthen the value of the already existing resources by providing additional comparative information, thereby helping to improve our understanding of plant metabolism and evolution. PMID:23773524

  9. [Effects of litterfall and root input on soil physical and chemical properties in Pinus massoniana plantations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China].

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-Gai; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Cheng, Rui-Mei; Zeng, Li-Xiong; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Tan, Ben-Wang

    2012-12-01

    An investigation was made on the soil physical and chemical properties in different-aged Pinus massoniana plantations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area under effects of litterfall and roots. The annual litter production in mature stand was 19.4% and 65.7% higher than that in nearly mature and middle-aged stands, respectively. The litter standing amount was in the sequence of mature stand > middle-aged stand > nearly mature stand, while the litter turnover coefficient was in the order of nearly mature stand (0.51) > mature stand (0.40) > middle-aged stand (0.36). The total root biomass, live root biomass, and dead root biomass were the highest in middle-aged stand, and the lowest in nearly mature stand. In middle-aged stand, soil total porosity was the highest, and soil bulk density was the lowest. Soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents were in the order of mature stand > middle-aged stand > nearly mature stand, soil nitrate nitrogen occupied a larger proportion of soil mineral N in nearly mature stand, while ammonium nitrogen accounted more in middle-aged and mature stands. In nearly mature stand, litter production was moderate but turnover coefficient was the highest, and soil nutrient contents were the lowest. In middle-aged stand, root biomass and soil total porosity were the highest, and soil bulk density were the lowest. In mature stand, root biomass was lower while soil nutrient contents were the highest. The increase of root biomass could improve soil physical properties. PMID:23479870

  10. SEASONAL CHANGES IN ROOT AND SOIL RESPIRATION OF OZONE-EXPOSED PONDEROSA PINE (PINUS PONDEROSA) GROWN IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to(ozone 0-3)has been shown to decrease the allocation of carbon to tree roots. Decreased allocation of carbon to roots might disrupt root metabolism and rhizosphere organisms. The effects of soil type and shoot 0, exposure on below-ground respiration and soil microbial ...

  11. MicroRNAs, polyamines, and the activities antioxidant enzymes are associated with in vitro rooting in white pine (Pinus strobus L.).

    PubMed

    Fei, Yunjun; Xiao, Bo; Yang, Man; Ding, Qiong; Tang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mechanism of in vitro rooting in conifer is not fully understood. After establishment of a regeneration procedure in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) using mature embryos as explants to induce shoot formation on medium containing 3 μM IAA, 6 μM BA and 6 μM TDZ and induce root formation on medium containing 0.001-0.05 μM IAA, 0.001-0.05 μM IBA, 0.001-0.05 μM TDZ, we have investigated the changes of polyamine content and the activities of antioxidant enzymes during in vitro rooting in P. strobus. Our results demonstrated that putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) did not increase in P. strobus during the first week of rooting on medium supplemented with 0.01 μM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), whereas the levels of Put, Spd, and Spm increased during the 1st-3rd week of culture on medium with IAA, and then decreased on medium with IAA. No such a change in Put, Spd, and Spm was observed on medium without IAA. Measurement of antioxidant enzyme activity demonstrated that the activities of polyphenol oxidase, catalase, and peroxidase slightly increased in the first week of culture and reached to the highest peak in the 3rd-5th week of culture. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that miR160 was increased on the 7th day, miR162, miR397, and miR408 was increased from the 21th to 35th day, miR857 was increased on the 35th day, and miR827 was increased on the 49th day. These results demonstrated that enhanced polyamine biosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activity, and microRNAs are correlated with the root induction and formation in P. strobus. PMID:27069836

  12. Inheritance of autumn frost hardiness in Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Norell, L; Eriksson, G; Ekberg, I; Dormling, I

    1986-07-01

    Inheritance of frost hardiness was analysed making use of a 12×12 incomplete factorial mating design. Owing to space limitations only 59 families could be tested in four experiments. To link the four experiments, some families were common to two or more experiments. The seedlings were grown in climate chambers under conditions inducing autumn hardening. The plants were exposed to a freezing temperature of -10 °C for three hours at night lengths of 11-13 h. A statistical model was developed for analyses of variance of our data. The genetic variation and the variation due to the cultivation regimes during autumn hardening were of the same magnitude. The additive effects were the most important ones for induction of frost damage. No interaction following long-distance crossing was noted. Mixed model equations were used for ranking of the parents. The results obtained support a polygenic inheritance of frost hardiness. The large within-population variation offers good opportunities for hardiness breeding. PMID:24248015

  13. Effect of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Root Pruning on Alley Cropped Herbage Production and Tree Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The competitive irradiance constraint of trees on the understory can be reduced by imposing standard silvicultural practices like pruning and thinning. Use of tillage to disrupt tree roots is an intensive practice which may improve herbage productivity at the crop-tree interface by reducing competi...

  14. The nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer as a target sequence to study intraspecific diversity of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum directly on pinus root systems.

    PubMed

    Guidot, A; Lumini, E; Debaud, J C; Marmeisse, R

    1999-03-01

    Polymorphism of the nuclear ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer (IGS) of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum was studied to evaluate whether this sequence could be used in field studies to estimate the diversity of strains forming mycorrhizas on individual Pinus pinaster root systems. This sequence was amplified by PCR from 125 haploid homokaryotic strains collected in 14 P. pinaster stands along the Atlantic coast of France by using conserved oligonucleotide primers. Restriction enzyme digestion of the amplified 3.4-kbp-long IGS allowed us to characterize 24 alleles whose frequencies differed. Nine of these alleles were found only once, whereas about 60% of the strains contained four of the alleles. Local populations could be almost as diverse as the entire population along a 150-km stretch of coastline that was examined; for example, 13 alleles were found in a single forest stand. The IGS from one strain was partially sequenced, and the sequence data were used to design oligonucleotides which allowed separate PCR amplification of three different segments of the IGS. Most polymorphisms observed among the full-length IGS regions resulted from polymorphisms in an internal ca. 1,500-bp-long sequence characterized by length variations that may have resulted from variable numbers of a T2AG3 motif. This internal polymorphic sequence could not be amplified from the genomes of nine other Hebeloma species. Analysis of this internal sequence amplified from the haploid progenies of 10 fruiting bodies collected in a 70-m2 area resulted in identification of six allelic forms and seven distinct diplotypes out of the 21 possible different combinations. Moreover, optimization of the PCR conditions resulted in amplification of this sequence from more than 80% of the DNA samples extracted from individual H. cylindrosporum infected P. pinaster mycorrhizal root tips, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this sequence for studying the below-ground diversity of

  15. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of native and non-native Pinus and Quercus species in a common garden of 35-year-old trees.

    PubMed

    Trocha, Lidia K; Kałucka, Izabela; Stasińska, Małgorzata; Nowak, Witold; Dabert, Mirosława; Leski, Tomasz; Rudawska, Maria; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2012-02-01

    Non-native tree species have been widely planted or have become naturalized in most forested landscapes. It is not clear if native trees species collectively differ in ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity and communities from that of non-native tree species. Alternatively, EMF species community similarity may be more determined by host plant phylogeny than by whether the plant is native or non-native. We examined these unknowns by comparing two genera, native and non-native Quercus robur and Quercus rubra and native and non-native Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra in a 35-year-old common garden in Poland. Using molecular and morphological approaches, we identified EMF species from ectomycorrhizal root tips and sporocarps collected in the monoculture tree plots. A total of 69 EMF species were found, with 38 species collected only as sporocarps, 18 only as ectomycorrhizas, and 13 both as ectomycorrhizas and sporocarps. The EMF species observed were all native and commonly associated with a Holarctic range in distribution. We found that native Q. robur had ca. 120% higher total EMF species richness than the non-native Q. rubra, while native P. sylvestris had ca. 25% lower total EMF species richness than non-native P. nigra. Thus, across genera, there was no evidence that native species have higher EMF species diversity than exotic species. In addition, we found a higher similarity in EMF communities between the two Pinus species than between the two Quercus species. These results support the naturalization of non-native trees by means of mutualistic associations with cosmopolitan and novel fungi. PMID:21573837

  16. Root penetration through sealing layers at mine deposit sites.

    PubMed

    Stoltz, Eva; Greger, Maria

    2006-12-01

    To prevent acid mine drainage arising from oxygen and water penetration of sulphide-rich mine tailings, the tailings are covered with layers of dry sealing material. Plant roots have a great ability to penetrate dense materials, and if the roots are able to penetrate the sealing layer of a tailings deposit, its oxygen-shielding properties could be reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether plant roots are able to penetrate sealing layers covering mine tailings deposits. Root penetration into layers of various sealing materials, such as clayey moraine (clay, 8-10%; silt, 22-37%; sand, 37-55%; gravel, 15-18%), moraine (unspecified), 6-mm bentonite (kaolin clay) fabric, lime and clay, Cefyll (mixture of pulverized coal fly ash, cement and water) and a mixture containing biosludge (30-35%) and bioashes (65-70%), was investigated. In the field, roots were studied by digging trenches alongside vegetation growing in 3- and 10-year-old mine sites. In the greenhouse root growth of Betula pendula, Pinus sylvestris, Poa pratensis and Salix viminalis were studied in compartments where the plants had been growing for 22 months. The results from the field experiment indicated that roots are able to penetrate both deep down in the cover layer (1.7 m) and also into the sealing layers of various materials, and even to penetrate hard Cefyll. The addition of nutrients in the top cover reduced deep root growth and thereby also penetration through the sealing layer. Low hydraulic conductivity of the sealing layer or a thick cover layer had less effect on root penetration. In the greenhouse experiment roots did not penetrate the thin bentonite fabric, due to low pH (2.1-2.7) that was created from the underlying weathered mine tailings. The clayey moraine was penetrated by all species used in the greenhouse experiment; Pinus sylvestris had the greatest ability to penetrate. To prevent root penetration of the other sealing layer, a suitable condition for the plants

  17. Fine Root Longevity Still Under Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keel, S. G.; Blackburn, M.; Campbell, C.; Högberg, M. N.; Richter, A.; Wild, B.; Högberg, P.

    2008-12-01

    Assuming that fine roots (< 2 mm in diameter) turn over once per year, they represent a third of the global annual net primary productivity. These turnover estimates are based on rhizotron studies, where root longevity is determined by monitoring the appearance/disappearance of roots on a screen, which is inserted into the soil. Much slower fine root turnover rates were found using carbon (C) isotope methods (either 14C dating or continuous 13C-labelling), resulting in root longevities of several years. Stable C isotope tracer experiments, are argued to overestimate fine root longevities, mainly because the smallest roots with the highest turn over, are easily missed during sampling. The goal of the present study was therefore to carry out a C-labelling experiment, and specifically focus on the finest roots, namely root tips. In addition we sampled whole fine roots (<1 mm and 1-3 mm in diameter), as in other studies. We pulse labelled 14-year-old Pinus sylvestris (Pine) trees in the field for only three hours with highly 13C-enriched CO2 (24 atom percent). The mean residence time (MRT) of recently assimilated C in root tips was determined, as a measure for root longevity. Already two days after labelling, recent C had been translocated from the crowns to fine roots indicating rapid belowground C allocation. 13C signals in root tips were stronger than in whole roots, which shows that they are the most active part of the root system. MRT of C calculated using first order exponential decay functions of C in bulk roots were around 20 days in both <1mm and 1-3mm roots and 29 days in root tips. A rapid decline in 13C signals was observed which could be explained by a rapid decrease in the signal of the sucrose pool, which had a MRT of 5 days. However, part of the labelled C had been allocated to a pool with a slower turnover rate (most likely structural compounds such as cellulose) as indicated by persisting 13C signals measured 120 days after labelling. MRT of C in

  18. Scots pine fine roots adjust along a 2000-km latitudinal climatic gradient.

    PubMed

    Zadworny, Marcin; McCormack, M Luke; Mucha, Joanna; Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    Patterns of plant biomass allocation and functional adjustments along climatic gradients are poorly understood, particularly belowground. Generally, low temperatures suppress nutrient release and uptake, and forests under such conditions have a greater proportion of their biomass in roots. However, it is not clear whether 'more roots' means better capacity to acquire soil resources. Herein we quantified patterns of fine-root anatomy and their biomass distribution across Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) populations both along a 2000-km latitudinal gradient and within a common garden experiment with a similar range of populations. We found that with decreasing mean temperature, a greater percentage of Scots pine root biomass was allocated to roots with higher potential absorptive capacity. Similar results were seen in the common experimental site, where cold-adapted populations produced roots with greater absorptive capacity than populations originating from warmer climates. These results demonstrate that plants growing in or originated from colder climates have more acquisitive roots, a trait that is likely adaptive in the face of the low resource availability typical of cold soils. PMID:27301778

  19. Root proliferation of Norway spruce and Scots pine in response to local magnesium supply in soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junling; George, Eckhard

    2009-02-01

    Nutrient sources in soils are often heterogeneously distributed. Although many studies have examined the root responses to local N and P enrichments in the soil, less research was conducted on root responses to Mg patches. New roots of pre-grown Mg-insufficient and Mg-sufficient plants of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were allowed to grow into four other pots of equal size, which were placed under the tree-bearing pot. Soils in the lower pots were either unfertilised, or supplied with Mg, or NPK or a mixture of NPKMg sources. Plants were harvested after 9 months of growth. Compared to the corresponding controls (Mg versus unfertilised and NPKMg versus NPK), Mg additions did not have a significant effect on either root dry matter, total root length (TRL) or specific root length (SRL), irrespective of tree species and plant Mg nutritional status. In contrast, NPK and NPKMg additions significantly increased the root dry matter and TRL in the nutrient-rich soil patch, and decreased SRL in Norway spruce. However, the observed root morphological changes did not occur in Scots pine. Root Mg concentrations were increased in Mg-rich soil patches, but those accumulations varied with tree species. Mg accumulation in a marked patch was measured only in newly grown roots of Mg-sufficient Norway spruce, whereas a more homogenous distribution of Mg concentration was observed for all newly grown roots in Mg-insufficient trees in the four soil treatments. In Scots pine, Mg accumulations occurred in both Mg-insufficient and Mg-sufficient plants. These results suggest that Mg patches in the soil may not lead to a local increase in root growth, but to Mg uptake and root Mg accumulation. Tree roots react differently to Mg patches in comparison to their response to N or P patches in the soil. PMID:19203945

  20. Mycelial production, spread and root colonisation by the ectomycorrhizal fungi Hebeloma crustuliniforme and Paxillus involutus under elevated atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Petra M A; Taylor, Andy F S; Finlay, Roger D

    2005-01-01

    Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on the production and spread of ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelium from colonised Scots pine roots were investigated. Pinus sylvestris (L.) Karst. seedlings inoculated with either Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Bull:Fr.) Quel. or Paxillus involutus (Fr.) Fr. were grown at either ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) levels of CO2. Mycelial production was measured after 6 weeks in pots, and mycelial spread from inoculated seedlings was studied after 4 months growth in perlite in shallow boxes containing uncolonised bait seedlings. Plant and fungal biomass were analysed, as well as carbon and nitrogen content of seedling shoots. Mycelial biomass production by H. crustuliniforme was significantly greater under elevated CO2 (up to a 3-fold increase was observed). Significantly lower concentrations and total amounts of N were found in plants exposed to elevated CO2. PMID:14750001

  1. Effects of simulated soil temperature on stem diameter increment of Pinus cembra at the alpine timberline: a new approach based on root zone roofing

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, A.; Wieser, G.; Oberhuber, W.

    2011-01-01

    For assessing the impact of soil temperature on tree growth in remote areas such as the alpine timberline we introduce a new method for soil temperature manipulations. This new approach is based on roofing of the rooting zone and allows either soil cooling or soil warming without significantly influencing soil water availability and the above ground microclimate. PMID:21423859

  2. Metatranscriptomic analysis of ectomycorrhizal roots reveals genes associated with Piloderma-Pinus symbiosis: improved methodologies for assessing gene expression in situ.

    PubMed

    Liao, H-L; Chen, Y; Bruns, T D; Peay, K G; Taylor, J W; Branco, S; Talbot, J M; Vilgalys, R

    2014-12-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi form symbiotic associations with plant roots that regulate nutrient exchange between forest plants and soil. Environmental metagenomics approaches that employ next-generation sequencing show great promise for studying EM symbioses; however, metatranscriptomic studies have been constrained by the inherent difficulties associated with isolation and sequencing of RNA from mycorrhizae. Here we apply an optimized method for combined DNA/RNA extraction using field-collected EM fungal-pine root clusters, together with protocols for taxonomic identification of expressed ribosomal RNA, and inference of EM function based on plant and fungal metatranscriptomics. We used transcribed portions of ribosomal RNA genes to identify several transcriptionally dominant fungal taxa associated with loblolly pine including Amphinema, Russula and Piloderma spp. One taxon, Piloderma croceum, has a publically available genome that allowed us to identify patterns of gene content and transcript abundance. Over 1500 abundantly expressed Piloderma genes were detected from mycorrhizal roots, including genes for protein metabolism, cell signalling, electron transport, terpene synthesis and other extracellular activities. In contrast, Piloderma gene encoding an ammonia transporter showed highest transcript abundance in soil samples. Our methodology highlights the potential of metatranscriptomics to identify genes associated with symbiosis and ecosystem function using field-collected samples. PMID:25186788

  3. Seasonal variation in nitrogen net uptake and root plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity of Scots pine seedlings as affected by nutrient availability.

    PubMed

    Iivonen, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2002-01-01

    We examined changes in nitrogen (N) net uptake and activity and amount of plasma membrane H+-ATPase (PM-ATPase) in roots of hydroponically cultured Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings throughout a simulated second growing season. Seedlings were grown with low (0.25 mM N) or high (2.5 mM N) nutrient availability to determine whether root PM-ATPase is dependent on an external nutrient supply. Climatic conditions in the growth chamber simulated the mean growing season from May to mid-October in southern Finland. Root PM-ATPase activity varied considerably during the growing season and was higher in current-year roots than in previous-year roots. Total PM-ATPase activity of current-year roots was highest at the end of the growing season, whereas PM-ATPase activity per unit fresh mass of current-year roots and specific absorption rate of N were highest in mid-July and decreased at the end of the growing season. This indicates that the decrease in PM-ATPase activity per unit fresh mass of the roots at the end of the growing season was compensated by the increased size of the root system. Seasonal variation in PM-ATPase activity had no clear dependence on root zone temperature. The response of PM-ATPase to root zone temperature was dependent on the developmental stage of the seedling. High nutrient availability resulted in increased root PM-ATPase activity and an extended period of root growth in autumn. PMID:11772550

  4. Comparative studies on phenotypic plasticity of two herbs, Changium smyrnioides and Anthriscus sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jie; Guan, Bao-hua; Ge, Ying; Chan, Yuk-sing Gilbert

    2004-06-01

    The endangered medicinal herb, Changium smyrnioides can only be found in deciduous forest gaps within the middle to northern subtropical broad-leaved evergreen forest zone of China. The considerable plasticity of its shoot and root structure helps it to capture light more effectively in winter and early spring, and to adapt to the soil moisture conditions in its narrow habitat. Another medicinal plant, Anthriscus sylvestris, is of similar economic importance but commonly dis-tributed widely. In contrast to C. smyrnioides, it has low structural plasticity. It is also specialized to adapt to the moist and sunny environment, where habitat, such as the banks of creeks and rivers, is abundant.

  5. Ectomycorrhizal fungi and exogenous auxins influence root and mycorrhiza formation of Scots pine hypocotyl cuttings in vitro.

    PubMed

    Niemi, K; Vuorinen, T; Ernstsen, A; Häggman, H

    2002-12-01

    We studied the ability of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker and Couch and Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fr. (Strain H), to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and to affect the formation and growth of roots on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) hypocotyl cuttings in vitro. Effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and the auxin transport inhibitor, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), on rooting and the cutting-fungus interaction were also studied. Both fungi produced IAA in the absence of exogenous tryptophan, but the mycelium and culture filtrate of Pisolithus tinctorius contained higher concentrations of free and conjugated IAA than the mycelium and culture filtrate of Paxillus involutus. Inoculation with either fungus or short-term application of culture filtrate of either fungus to the base of hypocotyl cuttings enhanced root formation. Inoculation with either fungus was even more effective in enhancing root formation than treatment of the hypocotyl bases with IBA. Fungal IAA production was not directly correlated with root formation, because rooting was enhanced more by Paxillus involutus than by Pisolithus tinctorius. This suggests that, in addition to IAA, other fungal components play an important role in root formation. Treatment with 5 microM TIBA increased the rooting percentage of non-inoculated cuttings, as well as of cuttings inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius, perhaps as a result of accumulation of IAA at the cutting base. However, the marked reduction in growth of Pisolithus tinctorius in the presence of TIBA suggests that the effects of TIBA on rooting are complicated and not solely related to IAA metabolism. The high IAA-producer, Pisolithus tinctorius, formed mycorrhizas, and the IBA treatment increased mycorrhizal frequency in this species, whereas TIBA decreased it. Paxillus involutus did not form mycorrhizas, indicating that a low concentration of IAA together with other fungal components were sufficient to stimulate

  6. Fungal Infection Increases the Rate of Somatic Mutation in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; Ganea, Laura-Stefana; Razzak, Abdur M; García Gil, M R

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations are transmitted during mitosis in developing somatic tissue. Somatic cells bearing the mutations can develop into reproductive (germ) cells and the somatic mutations are then passed on to the next generation of plants. Somatic mutations are a source of variation essential to evolve new defense strategies and adapt to the environment. Stem rust disease in Scots pine has a negative effect on wood quality, and thus adversely affects the economy. It is caused by the 2 most destructive fungal species in Scandinavia: Peridermium pini and Cronartium flaccidum. We studied nuclear genome stability in Scots pine under biotic stress (fungus-infected, 22 trees) compared to a control population (plantation, 20 trees). Stability was assessed as accumulation of new somatic mutations in 10 microsatellite loci selected for genotyping. Microsatellites are widely used as molecular markers in population genetics studies of plants, and are particularly used for detection of somatic mutations as their rate of mutation is of a much higher magnitude when compared with other DNA markers. We report double the rate of somatic mutation per locus in the fungus-infected trees (4.8×10(-3) mutations per locus), as compared to the controls (2.0×10(-3) mutations per locus) when individual samples were analyzed at 10 different microsatellite markers. Pearson's chi-squared test indicated a significant effect of the fungal infection which increased the number of mutations in the fungus-infected trees (χ(2) = 12.9883, df = 1, P = 0.0003134).

  7. Fungal Infection Increases the Rate of Somatic Mutation in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; Ganea, Laura-Stefana; Razzak, Abdur M; García Gil, M R

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations are transmitted during mitosis in developing somatic tissue. Somatic cells bearing the mutations can develop into reproductive (germ) cells and the somatic mutations are then passed on to the next generation of plants. Somatic mutations are a source of variation essential to evolve new defense strategies and adapt to the environment. Stem rust disease in Scots pine has a negative effect on wood quality, and thus adversely affects the economy. It is caused by the 2 most destructive fungal species in Scandinavia: Peridermium pini and Cronartium flaccidum. We studied nuclear genome stability in Scots pine under biotic stress (fungus-infected, 22 trees) compared to a control population (plantation, 20 trees). Stability was assessed as accumulation of new somatic mutations in 10 microsatellite loci selected for genotyping. Microsatellites are widely used as molecular markers in population genetics studies of plants, and are particularly used for detection of somatic mutations as their rate of mutation is of a much higher magnitude when compared with other DNA markers. We report double the rate of somatic mutation per locus in the fungus-infected trees (4.8×10(-3) mutations per locus), as compared to the controls (2.0×10(-3) mutations per locus) when individual samples were analyzed at 10 different microsatellite markers. Pearson's chi-squared test indicated a significant effect of the fungal infection which increased the number of mutations in the fungus-infected trees (χ(2) = 12.9883, df = 1, P = 0.0003134). PMID:25890976

  8. Pinus sylvestris switches respiration substrates under shading but not during drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Henrik; Fischer, Sarah; Hanf, Stefan; Frosch, Torsten; Poppp, Jürgen; Trumbore, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Reduced carbon assimilation during prolonged drought forces trees to rely on stored carbon to maintain vital processes like respiration. It has been shown, however, that the use of carbohydrates, a major carbon storage pool and main respiratory substrate in plants, strongly declines with deceasing plant hydration. Yet, no empirical evidence has been produced to what degree other carbon storage compounds like lipids and proteins may fuel respiration during drought. We exposed young scots pine trees to carbon limitation using either drought or shading and assessed respiratory substrate use by monitoring the respiratory quotient, δ13C of respired CO2and concentrations of the major storage compounds, i.e. carbohydrates (COH), lipids and amino acids. Generally, respiration was dominated by the most abundant substrate. Only shaded trees shifted from carbohydrate-dominated to lipid-dominated respiration and showed progressive carbohydrate depletion. In drought trees respiration was strongly reduced and fueled with carbohydrates from also strongly reduced carbon assimilation. Initial COH content was maintained during drought probably due to reduced COH mobilization and use and the maintained COH content may have prevented lipid catabolism via sugar signaling. Our results suggest that respiratory substrates other than carbohydrates are used under carbohydrate limitation but not during drought. Thus, respiratory substrate change cannot provide an efficient means to counterbalance carbon limitation under natural drought.

  9. Pinus sylvestris switches respiration substrates under shading but not during drought.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sarah; Hanf, Stefan; Frosch, Torsten; Gleixner, Gerd; Popp, Jürgen; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2015-08-01

    Reduced carbon (C) assimilation during prolonged drought forces trees to rely on stored C to maintain vital processes like respiration. It has been shown, however, that the use of carbohydrates, a major C storage pool and apparently the main respiratory substrate in plants, strongly declines with decreasing plant hydration. Yet no empirical evidence has been produced to what degree other C storage compounds like lipids and proteins may fuel respiration during drought. We exposed young scots pine trees to C limitation using either drought or shading and assessed respiratory substrate use by monitoring the respiratory quotient, δ(13) C of respired CO2 and concentrations of the major storage compounds, that is, carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids. Only shaded trees shifted from carbohydrate-dominated to lipid-dominated respiration and showed progressive carbohydrate depletion. In drought trees, the fraction of carbohydrates used in respiration did not decline but respiration rates were strongly reduced. The lower consumption and potentially allocation from other organs may have caused initial carbohydrate content to remain constant during the experiment. Our results suggest that respiratory substrates other than carbohydrates are used under carbohydrate limitation but not during drought. Thus, respiratory substrate shift cannot provide an efficient means to counterbalance C limitation under natural drought.

  10. Root penetration of sealing layers made of fly ash and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Neuschütz, Clara; Stoltz, Eva; Greger, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Fly ash and sewage sludge are suggested materials for constructing sealing layers covering mine tailings impoundments. Little is known, however, of their effect on vegetation or resistance to root penetration. We investigate: (i) the ability of different plant species to grow in sealing layers comprising fly ash and sewage sludge, (ii) the impact on plant growth of freshly hardened fly ash compared to aged and leached ash, and (iii) the plant stress response to fly ashes of different properties. A 6-mo greenhouse study using birch (Betula pendula Roth.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), and willow (Salix viminalis L.) demonstrated that no roots could grow into a compacted layer consisting only of ash, while a 6:4, ash-sludge mixture admitted roots into the upper part and a 1:9, ash-sludge mixture was totally penetrated (to 15 cm in depth) by roots of willow and Scots pine. Freshly hardened ash prevented root growth more effectively than aged ash did, as was observed in tests using reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.). Furthermore, extracts of highly alkaline ash were more toxic to pea in a 48-h toxicity test than less alkaline ash was. However, stress responses to diluted ash extracts of lower pH, measured as enzyme capacities in dwarf bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), were more related to the metal and ion contents. Root penetration of sealing layers is most effectively prevented if little sewage sludge is added, and if ash of high alkalinity is chosen. PMID:16825445

  11. Neolignans from the Leaves of Casearia sylvestris Swartz

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six new neolignans, casearialignans A-F (1-6) and one known lignan syringaresinol-ß-D-glucoside were isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris. Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2 D NMR and high resolution ESI-MS spectroscopic analyses. The relative and absolute configura...

  12. Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal volatile organic compound emission data from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) were collected using branch enclosure techniques in Central North Carolina, USA. Pinus taeda monoterpene emission rates were at least ten times higher than oxyge...

  13. Bioactivity of Malva Sylvestris L., a Medicinal Plant from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Molavi, Ghader; Ghasemi, Ghader

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae), an annual plant, has been already commonly used as a medicinal plant in Iran. In the present work, we evaluate some bioactivities of the plant extracts. Materials and Methods The aired-dried plant flowers and leaves were extracted by soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol. The antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and phytotoxic of the plant extracts were evaluated using disk diffusion method, MTT, and Lettuce assays, respectively. Results Both flowers and leaves of M. sylvestris methanol extracts exhibited strong antibacterial effects against Erwinia carotovora, a plant pathogen, with MIC value of 128 and 256 µg/ml, respectively. The flowers extract also showed high antibacterial effects against some human pathogen bacteria strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Entrococcus faecalis, with MIC value of 192, 200 and 256 µg/ml, respectively. The plant methanol extracts had relatively high cytotoxic activity against MacCoy cell line. Conclusion We concluded that Malva sylvestris can be candidated as an antiseptic, a chemopreventive or a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:23493458

  14. Some physicochemical characteristics of pinus (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) seeds from North Algeria, their lipid profiles and volatile contents.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Nabil; Khettal, Bachra; Aid, Yasmine; Kherfellah, Souraya; Sobhi, Widad; Barragan-Montero, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of seeds of some pinus species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) grown in North Algeria were determined. The results showed that the seeds consist of 19.8-36.7% oil, 14.25-26.62% protein, 7.8-8.6% moisture. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were the predominant elements present in seeds. Pinus seed's oil physicochemical properties show acid values (4.9-68.9), iodine values (93.3-160.4) and saponification values (65.9-117.9). Oil analysis showed that the major unsaturated fatty acids for the four species were linoleic acid (30-59%) and oleic acid (17.4-34.6%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (5-29%). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis of P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster and P. canariensis volatile oils indicated that the major volatile compound was the limonene with relative percentage of 3.1, 7.5 and 10.8, respectively.

  15. Some physicochemical characteristics of pinus (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) seeds from North Algeria, their lipid profiles and volatile contents.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Nabil; Khettal, Bachra; Aid, Yasmine; Kherfellah, Souraya; Sobhi, Widad; Barragan-Montero, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of seeds of some pinus species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) grown in North Algeria were determined. The results showed that the seeds consist of 19.8-36.7% oil, 14.25-26.62% protein, 7.8-8.6% moisture. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were the predominant elements present in seeds. Pinus seed's oil physicochemical properties show acid values (4.9-68.9), iodine values (93.3-160.4) and saponification values (65.9-117.9). Oil analysis showed that the major unsaturated fatty acids for the four species were linoleic acid (30-59%) and oleic acid (17.4-34.6%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (5-29%). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis of P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster and P. canariensis volatile oils indicated that the major volatile compound was the limonene with relative percentage of 3.1, 7.5 and 10.8, respectively. PMID:26041181

  16. Effect of organic amendment and plant roots on the solubility and mobilization of lead in soils at a shooting range.

    PubMed

    Levonmäki, M; Hartikainen, H; Kairesalo, T

    2006-01-01

    Lead (Pb) dissolving gradually from spent pellets constitutes a serious environmental risk in and near shooting ranges, and remediation measures are necessary to prevent its movement to deeper soil layers and ground water. In this study, the effectiveness of organic amendment and plant roots in stabilizing Pb was assessed in a microcosm experiment. Planted (Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L.) and unplanted microcosms consisting of coarse-textured mineral soil covered with Pb-contaminated humic topsoil were coated with uncontaminated peat layers of 1 to 3 cm and incubated for 77 d. In a percolation test, the microcosms were washed with ultra pure water to simulate heavy rain so as to rinse water-soluble lead (Pbw) from the topsoil layer. Although Pbw remained below detection limits in the mineral soils in all test units, acid-soluble lead (Pba) increased. Peat amendment diminished Pba in the mineral soil layer, this effect being more pronounced in planted soils, indicating that Pb was taken up by the plants. The percolation test showed that the effect of Scots pine seedlings on Pb movement was minor when peat was added. A long-term dissolution test revealed that considerably more Pb was released from old pellets into soil extracts than from new ones, whereas only traces of Pb, if any, were dissolved in sterilized pure water.

  17. A New ent-Labdane Diterpene Glycoside form the Leaves of Casearia sylvestris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sylvestin (1), a new ent-labdane glycoside, was isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris. The structure was determined on the basis of 1D and 2 D NMR and HR-ESI-MS analyses. The diterpenoid of ent-labdane type was isolated for the first time from C. sylvestris....

  18. ECTOMYCORRHIZAL DIVERSITY IN A LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L.) GENETICS PLANTATION: INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) Has co-evolved a high dependency on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations most likely because its natural range includes soils of varying moisture that are P- and/or N-deficient. Because of its wide geographic distrubition, we would expect its roots t...

  19. Zn pollution counteracts Cd toxicity in metal-tolerant ectomycorrhizal fungi and their host plant, Pinus sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Krznaric, Erik; Wevers, Jan H L; Cloquet, Christophe; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Vanhaecke, Frank; Colpaert, Jan V

    2010-08-01

    Adaptive Zn and Cd tolerance have evolved in populations of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus. When exposed to high concentrations of both metals in vitro, a one-sided antagonism was apparent in the Zn- and Cd-tolerant isolates. Addition of high Zn concentrations restored growth of Cd-stressed isolates, but not vice versa. The antagonistic effect was not detected in a S. luteus isolate from non-contaminated land and in Paxillus involutus. The fungi were inoculated on pine seedlings and subsequently exposed to ecologically relevant Zn and Cd concentrations in single and mixed treatments. The applied doses severely reduced nutrient acquisition of non-mycorrhizal pines and pines inoculated with metal-sensitive S. luteus. Highest translocation of Zn and Cd to shoots occurred in the same plants. Seedlings inoculated with fungi collected from the polluted site reduced metal transfer to their host and maintained nutrient acquisition under high metal exposure. The isolate showing highest tolerance in vitro also offered best protection in symbiosis. The antagonistic effect of high Zn on Cd toxicity was confirmed in the plant experiment. The results indicate that a Zn- and Cd-polluted soil has selected ectomycorrhizal fungi that are able to survive and protect their phytobiont from nutrient starvation and excessive metal uptake. PMID:21966908

  20. Long-term evaluation of the needle surface wax condition of Pinus sylvestris around different industries in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija; Huttunen, Satu

    2005-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the annual dynamics of needle surface wax erosion and wettability in Scots pines exposed to a gradient of industrial pollutants emitted from the main factories of Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory, an oil refinery and a cement factory. Decreased emissions (in the case of the oil refinery and the cement factory) were reflected in the increased structural surface area (SSA, i.e. area covered by tubular waxes) on the needles. The nearly constant amount of emissions from the nitrogen fertilizer factory within the 1994-2000 period corresponded to negligible annual differences in SSA. Annual changes in the hydrophobicity of needles on the investigated transects were small. Despite the decreased pollution within the 7-year period, industrial emissions are still causing significantly accelerated wax erosion and increased wettability in needles sampled from the stands most heavily affected by pollutants. PMID:16005772

  1. Chronic irradiation of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: dosimetry and radiobiological effects.

    PubMed

    Yoschenko, Vasyl I; Kashparov, Valery A; Melnychuk, Maxim D; Levchuk, Svjatoslav E; Bondar, Yulia O; Lazarev, Mykola; Yoschenko, Maria I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 y old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y(-1)) to approximately 7 Gy y(-1) in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified, and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established. PMID:21878765

  2. [Dose dependence of the frequency of morphological changes in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Chernobyl exclusion zone].

    PubMed

    Ioshchenko, V I; Bondar', Iu O

    2009-01-01

    Patterns and main parameters of the dynamics of radioactive contamination of organs of Scots pine in the plantations of Chernobyl zone are presented. On the basis of this data and within the frameworks of the microdosimetric approach, the dosimetric model for the apical meristem of the pine trees was created. The dose rates were calculated for the trees of the experimental array growing at three sites in the exclusion zone and one outside, which differed by three orders of magnitude of the trees' radioactive contamination levels. Comparable high, up to several Gy/y, levels of the dose rate of chronic irradiation were shown for the plantation at the Red Forest site. Such an expressed radiation factor results in a high frequency of the morphological changes at this site. The dose rate-effect dependence was formulated for this type of the radiobiological effects. PMID:19368333

  3. Spatiotemporal patterns and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles from Europe.

    PubMed

    Holt, Eva; Kočan, Anton; Klánová, Jana; Assefa, Anteneh; Wiberg, Karin

    2016-10-01

    Using pine needles as a bio-sampler of atmospheric contamination is a relatively cheap and easy method, particularly for remote sites. Therefore, pine needles have been used to monitor a range of semi-volatile contaminants in the air. In the present study, pine needles were used to monitor polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the air at sites with different land use types in Sweden (SW), Czech Republic (CZ), and Slovakia (SK). Spatiotemporal patterns in levels and congener profiles were investigated. Multivariate analysis was used to aid source identification. A comparison was also made between the profile of indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs-PCBs 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) in pine needles and those in active and passive air samplers. Concentrations in pine needles were 220-5100 ng kg(-1) (∑18PCBs - ind-PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs)) and 0.045-1.7 ng toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg(-1) (dry weight (dw)). Thermal sources (e.g., waste incineration) were identified as important sources of PCBs in pine needles. Comparison of profiles in pine needles to active and passive air samplers showed a lesser contribution of lower molecular weight PCBs 28 and 52, as well as a greater contribution of higher molecular weight PCBs (e.g., 180) in pine needles. The dissimilarities in congener profiles were attributed to faster degradation of lower chlorinated congeners from the leaf surface or metabolism by the plant. PMID:27392626

  4. The effect of simulated acid rain on the biochemical composition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles.

    PubMed

    Shumejko, P; Ossipov, V; Neuvonen, S

    1996-01-01

    The effects of prolonged simulated acid rain on the biochemistry of Scots pine needles were studied in Finnish Lapland. Pine trees were exposed by spraying the foliage and soil with either clean water or simulated acid rain (SAR; both sulphuric and nitric acids) over the period 1985-1991. The concentrations of carbohydrates (starch, glucose, fructose, sucrose) in one-year-old pine needles were not affected by SAR-treatments. The SAR-treatments did not have significant effects on protein bound amino acids, which was true also for most of the free amino acids. However, the citrulline concentration was over three-fold greater in the foliage of pines exposed to SAR of pH 3 compared to irrigated controls. The concentrations of total phenolics, individual low molecular weight phenolics and soluble proanthocyanidins were not affected by the treatments, but insoluble proanthocyanidins had increased in acid-treated trees. Some of the studied biochemical compounds showed significant differences between two sub-areas (similar treatments) only 120 m apart.

  5. Particulate pollutants are capable to 'degrade' epicuticular waxes and to decrease the drought tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Pariyar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution causes the amorphous appearance of epicuticular waxes in conifers, usually called wax 'degradation' or 'erosion', which is often correlated with tree damage symptoms, e.g., winter desiccation. Previous investigations concentrated on wax chemistry, with little success. Here, we address the hypothesis that both 'wax degradation' and decreasing drought tolerance of trees may result from physical factors following the deposition of salt particles onto the needles. Pine seedlings were sprayed with dry aerosols or 50 mM solutions of different salts. The needles underwent humidity changes within an environmental scanning electron microscope, causing salt expansion on the surface and into the epistomatal chambers. The development of amorphous wax appearance by deliquescent salts covering tubular wax fibrils was demonstrated. The minimum epidermal conductance of the sprayed pine seedlings increased. Aerosol deposition potentially 'degrades' waxes and decreases tree drought tolerance. These effects have not been adequately considered thus far in air pollution research. PMID:23791043

  6. Long-term evaluation of the needle surface wax condition of Pinus sylvestris around different industries in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija; Huttunen, Satu

    2005-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the annual dynamics of needle surface wax erosion and wettability in Scots pines exposed to a gradient of industrial pollutants emitted from the main factories of Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory, an oil refinery and a cement factory. Decreased emissions (in the case of the oil refinery and the cement factory) were reflected in the increased structural surface area (SSA, i.e. area covered by tubular waxes) on the needles. The nearly constant amount of emissions from the nitrogen fertilizer factory within the 1994-2000 period corresponded to negligible annual differences in SSA. Annual changes in the hydrophobicity of needles on the investigated transects were small. Despite the decreased pollution within the 7-year period, industrial emissions are still causing significantly accelerated wax erosion and increased wettability in needles sampled from the stands most heavily affected by pollutants.

  7. [Dose dependence of the frequency of morphological changes in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Chernobyl exclusion zone].

    PubMed

    Ioshchenko, V I; Bondar', Iu O

    2009-01-01

    Patterns and main parameters of the dynamics of radioactive contamination of organs of Scots pine in the plantations of Chernobyl zone are presented. On the basis of this data and within the frameworks of the microdosimetric approach, the dosimetric model for the apical meristem of the pine trees was created. The dose rates were calculated for the trees of the experimental array growing at three sites in the exclusion zone and one outside, which differed by three orders of magnitude of the trees' radioactive contamination levels. Comparable high, up to several Gy/y, levels of the dose rate of chronic irradiation were shown for the plantation at the Red Forest site. Such an expressed radiation factor results in a high frequency of the morphological changes at this site. The dose rate-effect dependence was formulated for this type of the radiobiological effects.

  8. Chronic irradiation of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: dosimetry and radiobiological effects.

    PubMed

    Yoschenko, Vasyl I; Kashparov, Valery A; Melnychuk, Maxim D; Levchuk, Svjatoslav E; Bondar, Yulia O; Lazarev, Mykola; Yoschenko, Maria I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 y old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y(-1)) to approximately 7 Gy y(-1) in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified, and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  9. CHRONIC IRRADIATION OF SCOTS PINE TREES (PINUS SYLVESTRIS) IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE: DOSIMETRY AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 years old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y{sup -1}) to approximately 7 Gy y{sup -1} in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  10. Spatiotemporal patterns and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles from Europe.

    PubMed

    Holt, Eva; Kočan, Anton; Klánová, Jana; Assefa, Anteneh; Wiberg, Karin

    2016-10-01

    Using pine needles as a bio-sampler of atmospheric contamination is a relatively cheap and easy method, particularly for remote sites. Therefore, pine needles have been used to monitor a range of semi-volatile contaminants in the air. In the present study, pine needles were used to monitor polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the air at sites with different land use types in Sweden (SW), Czech Republic (CZ), and Slovakia (SK). Spatiotemporal patterns in levels and congener profiles were investigated. Multivariate analysis was used to aid source identification. A comparison was also made between the profile of indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs-PCBs 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) in pine needles and those in active and passive air samplers. Concentrations in pine needles were 220-5100 ng kg(-1) (∑18PCBs - ind-PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs)) and 0.045-1.7 ng toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg(-1) (dry weight (dw)). Thermal sources (e.g., waste incineration) were identified as important sources of PCBs in pine needles. Comparison of profiles in pine needles to active and passive air samplers showed a lesser contribution of lower molecular weight PCBs 28 and 52, as well as a greater contribution of higher molecular weight PCBs (e.g., 180) in pine needles. The dissimilarities in congener profiles were attributed to faster degradation of lower chlorinated congeners from the leaf surface or metabolism by the plant.

  11. An arabinogalactan-protein from cell culture of Malva sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Classen, Birgit; Blaschek, Wolfgang

    2002-03-01

    An arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) from suspension culture medium of Malva sylvestris was isolated by precipitation with beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent, followed by gel-permeation chromatography. It revealed characteristic features of AGPs: a high amount of polysaccharide with a ratio of galactose to arabinose of 1.9 : 1, some uronic acids, and a small protein moiety with the main amino acids serine, alanine and hydroxyproline. The molecular weight was estimated to be 1.3 x 10(6) Da. Linkage analyses showed that the AGP is composed of a highly branched core polysaccharide of 3-, 6-, and 3,6-linked Galp residues with terminal Araf, GlcAp and Galp. Partial acid hydrolysis resulted in loss of Araf residues at the periphery of the molecule and heavily reduced its reactivity with beta-glucosyl Yariv antigen.

  12. Genetic diversity of stilbene metabolism in Vitis sylvestris

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Dong; Halter, David; Baltenweck, Raymonde; Tisch, Christine; Tröster, Viktoria; Kortekamp, Andreas; Hugueney, Philippe; Nick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Stilbenes, as important secondary metabolites of grapevine, represent central phytoalexins and therefore constitute an important element of basal immunity. In this study, potential genetic variation in Vitis vinifera ssp. sylvestris, the ancestor of cultivated grapevine, was sought with respect to their output of stilbenes and potential use for resistance breeding. Considerable variation in stilbene inducibility was identified in V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris. Genotypic differences in abundance and profiles of stilbenes that are induced in response to a UV-C pulse are shown. Two clusters of stilbene ‘chemovars’ emerged: one cluster showed quick and strong accumulation of stilbenes, almost exclusively in the form of non-glycosylated resveratrol and viniferin, while the second cluster accumulated fewer stilbenes and relatively high proportions of piceatannol and the glycosylated piceid. For all 86 genotypes, a time dependence of the stilbene pattern was observed: piceid, resveratrol, and piceatannol accumulated earlier, whereas the viniferins were found later. It was further observed that the genotypic differences in stilbene accumulation were preceded by differential accumulation of the transcripts for chalcone synthase (CHS) and stilbene-related genes: phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL), stilbene synthase (StSy), and resveratrol synthase (RS). A screen of the population with respect to susceptibility to downy mildew of grapevine (Plasmopara viticola) revealed considerable variability. The subpopulation of genotypes with high stilbene inducibility was significantly less susceptible as compared with low-stilbene genotypes, and for representative genotypes it could be shown that the inducibility of stilbene synthase by UV correlated with the inducibility by the pathogen. PMID:25873669

  13. Effect of Malva sylvestris cream on burn injury and wounds in rats

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Ebrahim; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Akbari, Jafar; Enayati-fard, Reza; Azizi, Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Burn injury is one of the most health-threatening problems in the world. Malva sylvestris (M. sylvestris) flowers have a high mucilage content and are used as a remedy for cut wound and dermal infected wounds in Iranian folklore Medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of M. sylvestris cream on the second degree burn injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of 10 rats per group were burned with hot metal plate. Animals were administrated divided as control, normal saline, standard silver sulfadiazine 1% (SSD), 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris into separate groups. Wound area, percentage of wound contraction, and histological and bacteriological assessments were evaluated. Results: Wound sizes were not significantly different among groups on 1st and 3rd days after burn injury, while they were significantly different among groups after 7th day post-burn injury. The average areas of wounds on the 15th day were 7.5±2.9, 6.7±2, 10.5±1.6, 4.7±2, and 4.5±2 cm2 for base cream, normal saline, SSD, 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris, respectively. The results of histology exhibited well-formed horizontally-oriented collagen fibers in MS topical treatment groups. Microorganisms existed in the SSD group were most probably Staphilococcus epidermitis and for NS group were staphylococcus saprophiteccus. Conclusion: M. sylvestris cream improved histological changes of tissue components in the process of healing when compared with SSD cream. Therefore, it can be used as a topical treatment agent for burn wound. PMID:26909337

  14. Different patterns of genetic structure of relict and isolated populations of endangered peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann).

    PubMed

    Wachowiak, W; Prus-Glowacki, W

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in environmental conditions in populations of peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann) caused rapid decline or even extinction of the species in several stands in Central Europe. Conservation strategies for P. uliginosa require information about the evolutionary history and genetic structure of its populations. Using isozymes we assessed the genetic structure of P. uliginosa from four isolated stands in Poland and compared the results to genetic structures of other closely related pine species including eight populations of Pinus mugo, ten of Pinus sylvestris and one of Pinus uncinata. The level of genetic variability of P. uliginosa measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and average heterozygosity was similar to others related to P. uliginosa taxa from the reference group but it differs among populations. High genetic similarity was found between two populations of P. uliginosa from Low Silesian Pinewood. The populations were genetically distinct as compared to other populations including locus classicus of the species from the peat bog at Batorów Reserve. Very low genetic distance (DN = 0.002) and small genetic differentiation (GST = 0.003) were found between P. uliginosa and P. mugo in the sympatric populations of the species from Zieleniec peat bog suggesting the ongoing natural hybridisation and genetic contamination of peat-bog pine from this area. Some evidence for skew in allele frequency distribution potentially due to recent bottleneck was found in population from Low Silesian Pinewood. The analysed open pollinated progeny derived from two P. uliginosa stands from Low Silesian Pinewood showed the excess of homozygotes as compared to the maternal trees indicating high level of inbreeding (F = 0.105, F = 0.081). The results are discussed in the context of evolution of P. uliginosa populations, taxonomic relationships between the analysed species and conservation strategies for active protection of peat-bog pine. PMID:19875883

  15. Fossil records of subsection Pinus (genus Pinus, Pinaceae) from the Cenozoic in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamada, Mariko; Tsukagoshi, Minoru

    2014-03-01

    Extant pines of subsection Pinus (section Pinus, genus Pinus, Pinaceae) are predominantly distributed in Eastern Asia. However, the extent of diversification in the section has yet to be fully clarified. We reviewed fossil records of subsection Pinus from Japan and collected permineralized materials, in which anatomical details are preserved for better understanding of the diversification. Our results suggest that this subsection appeared in Japan no earlier than the Middle Eocene, with extant species (i.e., Pinus densiflora and Pinus thunbergii) appearing around the beginning of the Pleistocene. Pinus fujiii (Early Miocene to Early Pleistocene) is inferred to have a close affinity to P. thunbergii based on the medial arrangement of its leaf resin canals. Additionally, P. fujiii has a similar cone morphology to those of extant species living in China, bridging the morphological gap between P. thunbergii and Chinese relatives of P. thunbergii as inferred by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Our results also suggest that taxonomic revisions of Pinus miocenica and Pinus oligolepis are required among the Japanese fossil species reported to date.

  16. Severely reduced gravitropism in dark-grown hypocotyls of a starch-deficient mutant of Nicotiana sylvestris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Sack, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    Gravitropism in dark-grown hypocotyls of the wild type was compared with a starch-deficient Nicotiana sylvestris mutant (NS 458) to test the effects of starch deficiency on gravity sensing. In a time course of curvature measured using infrared video, the response of the mutant was greatly reduced compared to the wild type; 72 hours after reorientation, curvature was about 10 degrees for NS 458 and about 70 degrees for wild type. In dishes maintained in a vertical orientation, wild-type hypocotyls were predominantly vertical, whereas NS 458 hypocotyls were severely disoriented with about 5 times more orientational variability than wild type. Since the growth rates were equal for both genotypes and phototropic curvature was only slightly inhibited in NS 458, the mutation probably affects gravity perception rather than differential growth. Our data suggest that starch deficiency reduces gravitropic sensitivity more in dark-grown hypocotyls than in dark- or light-grown roots in this mutant and support the hypothesis that amyloplasts function as statoliths in shoots as well as roots.

  17. Evaluation of cutaneous wound healing activity of Malva sylvestris aqueous extract in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Mohammad; Ravarian, Behdad; Zardast, Mahmoud; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Fard, Mohammad Hasanpour; Valavi, Masoomeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Malva sylvestris aqueous extract on cutaneous wound healing in BALB/c mice. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven male BALB/c mice (2.5 months of age) were used. A cut wound (superficial fascia depth) was made locally. The mice were then divided into three groups: the first, second and third groups received topical administration of M. sylvestris 1% aqueous extract, silver sulfadiazine topical cream and cold cream (positive and negative control groups), respectively. On days 4, 7 and 10 excisional biopsies were performed and wound healing was evaluated histopathologically. The data were analyzed by the ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests. Results: On days 4 and 7, the numbers of inflammatory cells in the silver sulfadiazine and M. sylvestris-treated groups were significantly lower than the control group and keratinization at the edges of the wound in both groups was significantly higher than the control group. On the tenth day of the study, the Malva-treated mice showed better healing features and less fibrosis and scar formation, and also fewer hair follicles were damaged in this group. On the tenth day of the study, the numbers of inflammatory cells in M. sylvestris and silver sulfadiazine-treated groups were significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: The present study supports the beneficial effects of M. sylvestris on the wound healing process and suggests a potential clinical application. PMID:26221487

  18. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  19. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  20. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species. PMID:23760570

  1. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  2. Species-specific fine root biomass distribution alters competition in mixed forests under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyer, Christopher; Gutsch, Martin; Lasch, Petra; Suckow, Felicitas; Sterck, Frank; Mohren, Frits

    2010-05-01

    The importance of mixed forests in European silviculture has increased due to forest conversion policies and multifunctional forest management. Concurrently, evidences for substantial impacts of climate change on forest ecosystems accumulate. Projected drier and warmer conditions alter the water relations of tree species, their growth and ultimately their inter-specific competition in mixed stands. Process-based models are scientific tools to study the impact of climate change on and to deepen the understanding of the functioning of these systems based on ecological mechanisms. They allow for long-term, stand-level studies of forest dynamics which could only be addressed with great difficulty in an experimental or empirical setup. We used the process-based forest model 4C to simulate inter-specific competition in mixed stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Common beech (Fagus sylvatica) as well as Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Sessile / Pedunculate oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) under a) historical climate for model verification and b) under climate change scenario realizations of the climate model STAR 2.0 in Brandenburg, Germany. Some of the climate change scenario realizations feature a substantially drier and warmer summer climate which decreases the climatic water balance during the growing season. We assumed species-specific fine root biomass distributions which feature broadleaved fine roots in deeper soil layers and coniferous fine roots in upper soil layers according to several root excavation studies from mixed stands. The stands themselves were constructed from yield tables of the contributing species. The model verification provided good results for the basal area predictions under the historical climate. Under climate change, the number of days when the tree water demand exceeded the soil water supply was higher for the coniferous species than for broadleaved species. Furthermore, after 45 simulation years the basal area

  3. Clerodane and Ent-kaurane Diterpene Glycosyl and Glycoside Derivatives from the Leaves of Casearia sylvestris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five new clerodane diterpene glycosides caseariasides A-E (1-4) and three new ent-kaurane diterpene glucosides sylvestrisides C-E (6-8) were isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analyses....

  4. The protective effect of Malva sylvestris on rat kidney damaged by vanadium

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The protective effect of the common mallow (Malva sylvestris) decoction on renal damages in rats induced by ammonium metavanadate poisoning was evaluated. On the one hand, vanadium toxicity is associated to the production of reactive oxygen species, causing a lipid peroxidation and an alteration in the enzymatic antioxidant defence. On the other hand, many medicinal plants are known to possess antioxidant and radical scavenging properties, thanks to the presence of flavonoids. These properties were confirmed in Malva sylvestris by two separate methods; namely, the Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay and the Nitroblue Tetrazolium reduction assay. Results In 80 rats exposed to ammonium metavanadate (0.24 mmol/kg body weight in drinking water) for 90 days, lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured in kidney. A significant increase in the formation of free radicals and antioxidant enzyme activities was noticed. In addition, a histological examination of kidney revealed a structural deterioration of the renal cortical capsules and a shrinking of the Bowman space. In animals intoxicated by metavanadate but also given a Malva sylvestris decoction (0.2 g dry mallow/kg body weight), no such pathologic features were observed: lipid peroxidation levels, antioxidant enzyme activities and histological features appeared normal as compared to control rats. Conclusion Malva sylvestris is proved to have a high antioxidative potential thanks to its richness in phenolic compounds. PMID:21513564

  5. Investigation of Dynamics Biosynthesis of Phytoalexins induced in Malva Sylvestris by the Verticilium Dahliae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosynthesis of phytoalexins is an active mechanism utilized by plants to protect against pathogens. Phytoalexins from wild plant species may be more potent than those produced in cultivated plants. Two terpenoid substances from the pathogen-infected plant Malva sylvestris L. were isolated using t...

  6. Effects of ammonium and aluminium on the development and nutrition of Pinus nigra in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Boxman, A W; Krabbendam, H; Bellemakers, M J; Roelofs, J G

    1991-01-01

    Application of ammonium and aluminium to young Pinus nigra var. maritima (Ait.) Melville trees resulted in a variety of negative effects. Excess ammonium led to an increase in shoot/root ratio. The biomass of the fine roots declined, resulting in an increase of the coarse/fine root ratio. The degree of mycorrhizal infection of the roots decreased. The nitrogen content of the trees increased considerably, whereas particularly the levels of calcium magnesium, manganese and zinc decreased sharply. Excess aluminium resulted in a simultaneous reduction of root and shoot biomass, a decline of the fine root system, an increase in the coarse/fine root ratio and a decrease in the degree of mycorrhizal infection. Uptake of the divalent cations calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and zinc was restricted substantially, The nitrogen and phosphorus contents of the trees were hardly affected, whilst the potassium content of the shoot increased and of the roots decreased. This implicates that a deteriorating fine root system has to supply water and nutrients to a more demanding shoot. In the long term, high ammonium inputs and aluminium dissolution in forest ecosystems will lead to substantial nutrient deficiencies, just as has been found in the field. PMID:15092085

  7. Antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Phoenix sylvestris fruit pulp

    PubMed Central

    Shajib, Md. Shafiullah; Akter, Saleha; Ahmed, Tajnin; Imam, Mohammad Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Fruits of Phoenix sylvestris Roxb. (Arecaceae) are used to treat back pain, toothache, headache, arthritis, nervous debility and as sedative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of P. sylvestris fruit pulp (MEPS). The antinociceptive activity of MEPS was evaluated by heat-induced (hot plate, tail immersion test) and chemical-induced pain models (acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced nociception, glutamate-induced nociception and paw edema test). The effect of MEPS on central nervous system (CNS) was studied using hole cross test, open field test, sodium thiopental-induced sleeping time and elevated plus maze test. MEPS showed strong, significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in all heat-induced and chemical-induced pain models at all experimental doses. Involvement of opioid receptor mediated analgesia was evident from the reversal of analgesic effect by naloxone. MEPS also showed reduced locomotor activity in both hole cross and open field tests. The increase in sleeping time in sodium thiopental-induced sleeping test and anxiolytic activity in elevated plus maze test were also significant. So, it is evident that MEPS possesses strong central and peripheral antinociceptive activity as well as CNS depressant, sedative and anxiolytic activity. The results justify the ethnomedicinal use of P. sylvestris fruit in different painful conditions and CNS disorders. PMID:26483687

  8. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora seedlings that resembles naturally occurring 'shiro'.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maeda, Ken; Kobayashi, Hisayasu; Murata, Hitoshi

    2006-03-01

    We established an in vitro ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora. Mycorrhiza formed in a substrate of Modified Norkrans' C medium and granite-based soil had features similar to those observed previously only in naturally occurring mycorrhizal system called 'shiro,' and promoted the growth of plants with smaller root/shoot ratios. The in vitro formation of 'shiro' is essential for the development of T. matsutake system to produce mushrooms and is useful for the propagation and plantation of the mycorrhizal seedlings.

  9. Identification of sex pheromone components of jack pine budworm,Choristoneura pinus pinus freeman.

    PubMed

    Silk, P J; Kuenen, L P; Tan, S H; Roelofs, W L; Sanders, C J; Alford, A R

    1985-02-01

    Chemical identification and field-trapping experiments have shown that a blend of 85∶15 (E,Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetates and 85∶15 (E,Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ols (in a 9∶1 ratio) are female sex pheromone components for jack pine budworm,Choristoneura pinus pinus. This blend of chemicals, formulated in PVC (0.1 %, w/w) sources is as effective a trap bait as virgin females. Preliminary wind tunnel observations have indicated that this blend, effective as a trap bait, is not equivalent to females.

  10. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  11. SEASONAL PATTERNS OF FINE ROOT PRODUCTION AND TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubes were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) stands around three different tree age classes (16, 45, and > 250 yr old) to examine root spatial distribution in relation to canopy size and tree distribution, and to determine if rates of fine...

  12. Pre-clinical anti-inflammatory aspects of a cuisine and medicinal millennial herb: Malva sylvestris L.

    PubMed

    Prudente, Arthur S; Loddi, Alliete M V; Duarte, Márcia R; Santos, Adair R S; Pochapski, Marcia T; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Hayashi, Sirlei S; Campos, Francinete R; Pontarolo, Roberto; Santos, Fabio A; Cabrini, Daniela A; Otuki, Michel F

    2013-08-01

    Malva sylvestris has been used since ancient times for its emollient, laxative and anti-inflammatory properties, being extensively used as salads, soups and teas. The preset study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory action of M. sylvestris hydroalcoholic extract (HE) and its compounds in mice ear inflammation caused by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate in mice. The LC-MS analysis of the HE confirmed the presence of scopoletin, quercetin and malvidin 3-glucoside compounds in the HE of M. sylvestris. Topical application of the HE reduced ear oedema, polymorphonuclear cells influx (myeloperoxydase activity and histological analysis) and interleukin-1β levels in the tissue. The topical application of the compound present in the HE, malvidin 3-glucoside was also able to inhibit ear oedema and leukocytes migration. The other tested compounds, scopoletin, quercetin and malvidin 3,5-glucoside were able to prevent the formation of oedema and cell infiltration, but with less effectiveness when compared to HE and malvidin 3-glucoside. Therefore, these results consistently support the notion that M. sylvestris leaves possesses topical anti-inflammatory activity, the compound malvidin 3-glucoside seems to be major responsible for this effect, with the participation of other anti-inflammatory compounds in the extract. Thus, as recommended by population, M. sylvestris can be used as a future treatment to skin disorders. PMID:23684757

  13. Exceptional inheritance of plastids via pollen in Nicotiana sylvestris with no detectable paternal mitochondrial DNA in the progeny.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Gregory; Svab, Zora; Maliga, Pal

    2012-10-01

    Plastids and mitochondria, the DNA-containing cytoplasmic organelles, are maternally inherited in the majority of angiosperm species. Even in plants with strict maternal inheritance, exceptional paternal transmission of plastids has been observed. Our objective was to detect rare leakage of plastids via pollen in Nicotiana sylvestris and to determine if pollen transmission of plastids results in co-transmission of paternal mitochondria. As father plants, we used N. sylvestris plants with transgenic, selectable plastids and wild-type mitochondria. As mother plants, we used N. sylvestris plants with Nicotiana undulata cytoplasm, including the CMS-92 mitochondria that cause cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) by homeotic transformation of the stamens. We report here exceptional paternal plastid DNA in approximately 0.002% of N. sylvestris seedlings. However, we did not detect paternal mitochondrial DNA in any of the six plastid-transmission lines, suggesting independent transmission of the cytoplasmic organelles via pollen. When we used fertile N. sylvestris as mothers, we obtained eight fertile plastid transmission lines, which did not transmit their plastids via pollen at higher frequencies than their fathers. We discuss the implications for transgene containment and plant evolutionary histories inferred from cytoplasmic phylogenies.

  14. Experimental data of biomaterial derived from Malva sylvestris and charcoal tablet powder for Hg(2+) removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Alireza; Farjadfard, Sima; Leili, Mostafa; Kafaei, Raheleh; Haghshenas, Vajiheh; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2016-09-01

    In this experimental data article, a novel biomaterial was provided from Malva sylvestris and characterized its properties using various instrumental techniques. The operating parameters consisted of pH and adsorbent dose on Hg(2+) adsorption from aqueous solution using M. sylvestris powder (MSP) were compared with charcoal tablet powder (CTP), a medicinal drug. The data acquired showed that M. sylvestris is a viable and very promising alternative adsorbent for Hg(2+) removal from aqueous solutions. The experimental data suggest that the MSP is a potential adsorbent to use in medicine for treatment of poisoning with heavy metals; however, the application in animal models is a necessary step before the eventual application of MSP in situations involving humans. PMID:27294181

  15. Spatial variability of throughfall in a stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) with deciduous admixture as influenced by canopy cover and stem distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, Anna; Boczoń, Andrzej; Hildebrand, Robert; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation cover affects the amount of precipitation, its chemical composition and its spatial distribution, and this may have implications for the distribution of water, nutrients and contaminants in the subsurface soil layer. The aim of this study was a detailed diagnosis of the spatio-temporal variability in the amount of throughfall (TF) and its chemical components in a 72-year-old pine stand with an admixture of oak and birch. The spatio-temporal variability in the amount of TF water and the concentrations and deposition of the TF components were studied. The components that are exchanged in canopy (H+, K, Mg, Mn, DOC, NH4+) were more variable than the components whose TF deposition is the sum of wet and dry (including gas) deposition and which undergo little exchange in the canopy (Na, Cl, NO3-, SO42-). The spatial distribution was temporally stable, especially during the leafed period. This study also investigated the effect of the selected pine stand characteristics on the spatial distribution of throughfall and its chemical components; the characteristics included leaf area index (LAI), the proportion of the canopy covered by deciduous species and pine crowns, and the distance from the nearest tree trunk. The LAI measured during the leafed and leafless periods had the greatest effect on the spatial distribution of TF deposition. No relationship was found between the spatial distribution of the amount of TF water and (i) the LAI; (ii) the canopy cover of broadleaf species or pines; or (iii) the distance from the trunks.

  16. Synergistic, additive and antagonistic impacts of drought and herbivory on Pinus sylvestris: leaf, tissue and whole-plant responses and recovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synergies among stressors could result in catastrophic dysfunction of plant and ecosystem processes from an otherwise recoverable situation. To date, studies that have specifically tested for synergies among multiple stressors have almost exclusively focused on the presence or absences of specific s...

  17. Effect of raw humus under two adult Scots pine stands on ectomycorrhization, nutritional status, nitrogen uptake, phosphorus uptake and growth of Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Horst; Schäfer, Tina; Storbeck, Veronika; Härtling, Sigrid; Rudloff, Renate; Köck, Margret; Buscot, François

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (EM) formation improves tree growth and nutrient acquisition, particularly that of nitrogen (N). Few studies have coupled the effects of naturally occurring EM morphotypes to the nutrition of host trees. To investigate this, pine seedlings were grown on raw humus substrates collected at two forest sites, R2 and R3. Ectomycorrhiza morphotypes were identified, and their respective N uptake rates from organic (2-(13)C, (15)N-glycine) and inorganic ((15)NH(4)Cl, Na(15)NO(3), (15)NH(4)NO(3), NH(4)(15)NO(3)) sources as well as their phosphate uptake rates were determined. Subsequently, the growth and nutritional status of the seedlings were analyzed. Two dominant EM morphotypes displayed significantly different mycorrhization rates in the two substrates. Rhizopogon luteolus Fr. (RL) was dominant in R2 and Suillus bovinus (Pers.) Kuntze (SB) was dominant in R3. (15)N uptake of RL EM was at all times higher than that of SB EM. Phosphate uptake rates by the EM morphotypes did not differ significantly. The number of RL EM correlated negatively and the number of SB EM correlated positively with pine growth rate. Increased arginine concentrations and critical P/N ratios in needles indicated nutrient imbalances of pine seedlings from humus R2, predominantly mycorrhizal with RL. We conclude that different N supply in raw humus under Scots pine stands can induce shifts in the EM frequency of pine seedlings, and this may lead to EM formation by fungal strains with different ability to support tree growth.

  18. Effect of Root Moisture Content and Diameter on Root Tensile Properties

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuanjun; Chen, Lihua; Li, Ning; Zhang, Qiufen

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of slopes by vegetation has been a topical issue for many years. Root mechanical characteristics significantly influence soil reinforcement; therefore it is necessary to research into the indicators of root tensile properties. In this study, we explored the influence of root moisture content on tensile resistance and strength with different root diameters and for different tree species. Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Larix gmelinii, the most popular tree species used for slope stabilization in the rocky mountainous areas of northern China, were used in this study. A tensile test was conducted after root samples were grouped by diameter and moisture content. The results showedthat:1) root moisture content had a significant influence on tensile properties; 2) slightly loss of root moisture content could enhance tensile strength, but too much loss of water resulted in weaker capacity for root elongation, and consequently reduced tensile strength; 3) root diameter had a strong positive correlation with tensile resistance; and4) the roots of Betula platyphylla had the best tensile properties when both diameter and moisture content being controlled. These findings improve our understanding of root tensile properties with root size and moisture, and could be useful for slope stabilization using vegetation. PMID:27003872

  19. Effect of Root Moisture Content and Diameter on Root Tensile Properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanjun; Chen, Lihua; Li, Ning; Zhang, Qiufen

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of slopes by vegetation has been a topical issue for many years. Root mechanical characteristics significantly influence soil reinforcement; therefore it is necessary to research into the indicators of root tensile properties. In this study, we explored the influence of root moisture content on tensile resistance and strength with different root diameters and for different tree species. Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Larix gmelinii, the most popular tree species used for slope stabilization in the rocky mountainous areas of northern China, were used in this study. A tensile test was conducted after root samples were grouped by diameter and moisture content. The results showedthat:1) root moisture content had a significant influence on tensile properties; 2) slightly loss of root moisture content could enhance tensile strength, but too much loss of water resulted in weaker capacity for root elongation, and consequently reduced tensile strength; 3) root diameter had a strong positive correlation with tensile resistance; and4) the roots of Betula platyphylla had the best tensile properties when both diameter and moisture content being controlled. These findings improve our understanding of root tensile properties with root size and moisture, and could be useful for slope stabilization using vegetation. PMID:27003872

  20. Effect of Root Moisture Content and Diameter on Root Tensile Properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanjun; Chen, Lihua; Li, Ning; Zhang, Qiufen

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of slopes by vegetation has been a topical issue for many years. Root mechanical characteristics significantly influence soil reinforcement; therefore it is necessary to research into the indicators of root tensile properties. In this study, we explored the influence of root moisture content on tensile resistance and strength with different root diameters and for different tree species. Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Larix gmelinii, the most popular tree species used for slope stabilization in the rocky mountainous areas of northern China, were used in this study. A tensile test was conducted after root samples were grouped by diameter and moisture content. The results showedthat:1) root moisture content had a significant influence on tensile properties; 2) slightly loss of root moisture content could enhance tensile strength, but too much loss of water resulted in weaker capacity for root elongation, and consequently reduced tensile strength; 3) root diameter had a strong positive correlation with tensile resistance; and4) the roots of Betula platyphylla had the best tensile properties when both diameter and moisture content being controlled. These findings improve our understanding of root tensile properties with root size and moisture, and could be useful for slope stabilization using vegetation.

  1. Wait or escape? Contrasting submergence tolerance strategies of Rorippa amphibia, Rorippa sylvestris and their hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Melis; Bhikharie, Amit V.; McLean, Elizabeth H.; Boonman, Alex; Visser, Eric J. W.; Schranz, M. Eric; van Tienderen, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Differential responses of closely related species to submergence can provide insight into the evolution and mechanisms of submergence tolerance. Several traits of two wetland species from habitats with contrasting flooding regimes, Rorippa amphibia and Rorippa sylvestris, as well as F1 hybrid Rorippa × anceps were analysed to unravel mechanisms underlying submergence tolerance. Methods In the first submergence experiment (lasting 20 d) we analysed biomass, stem elongation and carbohydrate content. In the second submergence experiment (lasting 3 months) we analysed survival and the effect of re-establishment of air contact on biomass and carbohydrate content. In a separate experiment we analysed expression of two carbohydrate catabolism genes, ADH1 and SUS1, upon re-establishment of air contact following submergence. Key Results All plants had low mortality even after 3 months of submergence. Rorippa sylvestris was characterized by 100 % survival and higher carbohydrate levels coupled with lower ADH1 gene expression as well as reduced growth compared with R. amphibia. Rorippa amphibia and the hybrid elongated their stems but this did not pay-off in higher survival when plants remained submerged. Only R. amphibia and the hybrid benefited in terms of increased biomass and carbohydrate accumulation upon re-establishing air contact. Conclusions Results demonstrate contrasting ‘escape’ and ‘quiescence’ strategies between Rorippa species. Being a close relative of arabidopsis, Rorippa is an excellent model for future studies on the molecular mechanism(s) controlling these strategies. PMID:22499857

  2. Ontogenese de certains aspects de l'orientation du grillon des bois Nemobius sylvestris (Bosc), dans son milieu naturel.

    PubMed

    Beugnon, G; Mieulet, F; Campan, R

    1983-03-01

    The ontogeny of the orientation of the wood-cricket, Nemobius sylvestris, was studied experimentally in a variety of biotopes. In each experimental situation, the straightness of the routes taken by crickets improves with age. These results demonstrate that, depending on the variety of the constraints within each living area, various local individual solutions to the problem of orientation develop during ontogeny.

  3. Chronic ozone exacerbates the reduction in photosynthesis and acceleration of senescence caused by limited N availability in Nicotiana sylvestris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated ozone (O3) and limiting soil nitrogen (N) availability both negatively affect crop performance. However, little is known about how the combination of elevated O3 and limiting N affect crop growth and metabolism. In this study, we grew tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) in ambient and elevated O...

  4. Tolerance of roadside and old field populations of common teasel (Dipsacus fullonum subsp. sylvestris) to salt and low osmotic potentials during germination

    PubMed Central

    Beaton, Laura L.; Dudley, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants inhabiting degraded habitats must contend with stressful environments. However, their ability to adapt may be constrained by available genetic variation and genetic correlations between traits. Here, we examine the correlation between salt and drought tolerance in germinating seeds from contrasting populations of common teasel (Dipsacus fullonum subsp. sylvestris) growing on roadsides that experience high salinity due to de-icing salts, or growing in an old field site, remote from roadsides and free of salinity stress. We examined the contribution of drought and salinity tolerance to the tolerance of roadside conditions in seedlings from five maternal families from three roadside and three old field populations. Germination and early growth were compared under high salinity, low water potential set at −0.5 MPa with solutions of polyethylene glycol 8000, sodium chloride or vermiculite wetted to −0.5 MPa with distilled water. Root length and the emergence of cotyledons (where appropriate) were used as a measure of performance. Maternal families from roadside populations displayed greater tolerance of both high salinity and drought than families from old field populations. However, no maternal family possessed tolerance to both drought and salinity. Salt and drought tolerance during germination were not correlated, indicating that they are separate traits in this species.

  5. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    PubMed

    Herron, D A; Wingfield, M J; Wingfield, B D; Rodas, C A; Marincowitz, S; Steenkamp, E T

    2015-03-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world. PMID:26955193

  6. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Herron, D.A.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Rodas, C.A.; Marincowitz, S.; Steenkamp, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world. PMID:26955193

  7. Malva sylvestris Inhibits Inflammatory Response in Oral Human Cells. An In Vitro Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Benso, Bruna; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Alencar, Severino Matias; Murata, Ramiro Mendonça

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Malva sylvestris extract (MSE) and fractions in a co-culture model of cells infected by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. In addition, we evaluated the phytochemical content in the extract and fractions of M. sylvestris and demonstrated that polyphenols were the most frequent group in all samples studied. An in vitro dual-chamber model to mimic the periodontal structure was developed using a monolayer of epithelial keratinocytes (OBA-9) and a subepithelial layer of fibroblasts (HGF-1). The invasive periodontopathogen A. actinomycetemcomitans (D7S-1) was applied to migrate through the cell layers and induce the synthesis of immune factors and cytokines in the host cells. In an attempt to analyze the antimicrobial properties of MSE and fractions, a susceptibility test was carried out. The extract (MIC 175 μg/mL, MBC 500μg/mL) and chloroform fraction (MIC 150 μg/mL, MBC 250 μg/mL) were found to have inhibitory activity. The extract and all fractions were assessed using a cytotoxicity test and results showed that concentrations under 100 μg/mL did not significantly reduce cell viability compared to the control group (p > 0.05, viability > 90%). In order to analyze the inflammatory response, transcriptional factors and cytokines were quantified in the supernatant released from the cells. The chloroform fraction was the most effective in reducing the bacterial colonization (p< 0.05) and controlling inflammatory mediators, and promoted the down-regulation of genes including IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, CD14, PTGS, MMP-1 and FOS as well as the reduction of the IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF protein levels (p< 0.05). Malva sylvestris and its chloroform fraction minimized the A. actinomycetemcomitans infection and inflammation processes in oral human cells by a putative pathway that involves important cytokines and receptors. Therefore, this natural product may be considered as a

  8. Genetic variation in rooting ability of loblolly pine cuttings: effects of auxin and family on rooting by hypocotyl cuttings.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M S; Weir, R J

    1995-01-01

    After about 20 days, hypocotyl cuttings from 20-day-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings rooted easily in the presence of the auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), with roots forming directly from xylem parenchyma. In contrast, woody cuttings from 1-2-year-old hedged seedlings formed roots indirectly from callus tissue in 60-90 days, but IBA had little effect on rooting. Variation in rooting among hypocotyls from both half- and full-sib families was highly significant in response to IBA, and rooting did not occur within 20 days unless IBA was applied. Hypocotyls from poor rooting families tended to produce fewer roots per cutting than hypocotyls from good rooting families. Rooting by woody cuttings and hypocotyl cuttings from the same nine full-sib families was weakly correlated, raising the possibility that at least some common genetically controlled processes were affecting rooting by both types of cutting. The phytotropin N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), supplied at 1 micro M with 10 micro M IBA, significantly inhibited rooting by hypocotyl cuttings from both good and poor rooting families, but there was no significant family x treatment interaction. Family variation in rooting ability may be a function of the frequency of occurrence of auxin-responsive cells in the hypocotyls. PMID:14966010

  9. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M.; Naugolnykh, Serge V.; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene. PMID:26548658

  10. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  11. [Distribution of fine root biomass of main planting tree species in Loess Plateau, China].

    PubMed

    Jian, Sheng-Qi; Zhao, Chuan-Yan; Fang, Shu-Min; Yu, Kai

    2014-07-01

    The distribution of fine roots of Pinus tabuliformis, Populus tomentosa, Prunus armeniaca, Robinia pseudoacacia, Hippophae rhamnoides, and Caragana korshinskii was investigated by using soil core method and the fine root was defined as root with diameter less than 2 mm. The soil moisture and soil properties were measured. The results showed that in the horizontal direction, the distribution of fine root biomass of P. tabuliformis presented a conic curve, and the fine root biomass of the other species expressed logarithm correlation. Radial roots developed, the fine root biomass were concentrated within the scope of the 2-3 times crown, indicating that trees extended their roots laterally to seek water farther from the tree. In the vertical direction, the fine root biomass decreased with the increasing soil depth. Fine root biomass had significant negative correlation with soil water content and bulk density, while significant positive correlation with organic matter and total N contents.

  12. Intra-annual nutrient flux in Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Albaugh, Timothy J; Allen, H Lee; Stape, Jose L; Fox, Thomas R; Rubilar, Rafael A; Price, James W

    2012-10-01

    Intra-annual nutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium) flux was quantified for Pinus taeda L. at a nutrient-poor, well-drained sandy site in Scotland County, NC, USA where a 2 × 2 factorial of irrigation and nutrition was applied in four replications in a 10-year-old stand with 1200 stems ha(-1). Treatments were applied with the goal of providing optimum nutrition (no nutritional deficiencies) and water availability. Component (foliage, branch, stem and root) nutrient content was estimated monthly for 2 years using nutrient concentration and phenology assessments combined with destructive harvests. Positive flux values indicated nutrient accumulation in the trees while negative values indicated nutrient loss from the trees. Fertilization significantly increased nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium flux 140%, on average, over non-fertilized. Irrigation significantly increased calcium flux 28% while there was no significant irrigation effect on nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium or magnesium. Maximum nutrient fluxes (kg ha(-1) day(-1)) for non-fertilized and fertilized stands were 0.36 and 1.05 for nitrogen, 0.042 and 0.095 for phosphorus, 0.13 and 0.51 for potassium, 0.27 and 0.42 for calcium, and 0.04 and 0.12 for magnesium, respectively. Maximum flux was coincident with ephemeral tissue (foliage and fine root) development and likely would be higher in stands with more foliage than those observed in this study (projected leaf area indices were 1.5 and 3.0 for the non-fertilized and fertilized stands). Minimum nutrient fluxes (kg ha(-1) day(-1)) for non-fertilized and fertilized stands were -0.18 and -0.42 for nitrogen, -0.029 and -0.070 for phosphorus, -0.05 and -0.18 for potassium, -0.04 and -0.05 for calcium, and -0.02 and -0.03 for magnesium, respectively. Minimum fluxes were typically observed in the dormant season and were linked to foliage senescence and branch death. Foliage and branch component nutrient contents

  13. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    PubMed

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  14. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  15. Regulation of catalase activity in leaves of Nicotiana sylvestris by high CO sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Havir, E.A.; McHale, N.A. )

    1989-03-01

    The effect of high CO{sub 2} (1% CO{sub 2}/21% O{sub 2}) on the activity of specific forms of catalase (CAT-1, -2, and -3) in seedling leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum) was examined. In high CO{sub 2} total catalase activity decreased by 50% in the first 2 days, followed by a more gradual decline in the next 4 days. The loss of total activity resulted primarily from a decrease in CAT-1 catalase. In contrast, the activity of CAT-3 catalase, a form with enhanced peroxidatic activity, increased 3-fold in high CO{sub 2} relative to air controls after 4 days. Short-term exposure to high CO{sub 2} indicated that the 50% loss of total activity occurs in the firs 12 hours. Catalase levels increased to normal within 12 hours after seedlings were returned to air. When seedlings were transferred to air after prolonged exposure to high CO{sub 2} (13 days), the levels of CAT-1 catalase were partially restored while CAT-3 remained at its elevated level. Levels of superoxide dismutase activity and those of several peroxisomal enzymes were not affected by high CO{sub 2}. Total catalase levels did not decline when seedlings were exposed to atmospheres of 0.04% CO{sub 2}/5% O{sub 2} or 0.04% CO{sub 2}/1% O{sub 2}, indicating that regulation of catalase in high CO{sub 2} is not related directly to suppression of photorespiration. Antibodies prepared against CAT-1 catalase from N. tabacum reacted strongly against CAT-1 catalase from both N. sylvestris and N. tabacum but not against CAT-3 catalase from either species.

  16. Differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, on Pinus palustris and Pinus taeda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedenberg, N.A.; Whited, B.M.; Slone, D.H.; Martinson, S.J.; Ayres, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of host use by herbivore pests can have serious consequences for natural and managed ecosystems but are often poorly understood. Here, we provide the first quantification of large differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and longleaf pine, Pinus palustris P. Mill., and evaluate putative mechanisms for the disparity. Spatially extensive survey data from recent epidemics indicate that, per square kilometre, stands of loblolly versus longleaf pine in four forests (380-1273 km2) sustained 3-18 times more local infestations and 3-116 times more tree mortality. Differences were not attributable to size or age structure of pine stands. Using pheromone-baited traps, we found no differences in the abundance of dispersing D. frontalis or its predator Thanasimus dubius Fabricius between loblolly and longleaf stands. Trapping triggered numerous attacks on trees, but the pine species did not differ in the probability of attack initiation or in the surface area of bark attacked by growing aggregations. We found no evidence for postaggregation mechanisms of discrimination or differential success on the two hosts, suggesting that early colonizers discriminate between host species before a pheromone plume is present. ?? 2007 NRC.

  17. Effects of experimentally modified soil temperatures and nutrient availability on growth and mycorrhization of Pinus cembra at the alpine treeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Andreas; Peintner, Ursula; Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Soil temperature affects litter decomposition, nutrient uptake, root growth and respiration and it is suggested that soil temperature has direct impact on tree growth at the alpine treeline. We have evaluated the impact of experimentally modified soil temperatures and nutrient availability on growth and mycorrhization of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Eastern Alps (c. 2150 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria). Soil temperature in the rooting zone of naturally grown c. 25 year old trees (n=6 trees per treatment) was altered by shading and heat-trapping using non-transparent and glasshouse foils mounted c. 20 cm above soil surface. Additional trees were selected for a nitrogen fertilisation treatment and as controls. During the study period, mean soil temperatures at 10 cm depth were reduced by c. 3°C at the cooled vs. warmed plots. Soil moisture was not influenced due to soil water transport along the slope. Results revealed that changed soil temperatures did not significantly affect tree growth, gas exchange, needle nutrient content and specific leaf area. We also found no significant difference in degree of mycorrhization or number of mycorrhized root tips between treatments. On the other hand, nitrogen fertilization and a reduction of interspecific root competition led to significantly raised radial stem growth. Results indicate that tree growth at the selected study area was not limited by soil temperature, while interspecific competition for nutrients among trees and low stature vegetation (dwarf shrubs, grasses) had significant impact. Therefore, we suggest that root competition with alpine grassland and dwarf-shrub communities will hamper temperature driven advance of alpine treeline in the course of climate warming. Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF Project No. P22836-B16, 'Growth response of Pinus cembra to experimentally modified soil temperatures at the treeline').

  18. ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLY IN WHITE AND BROWN ROOT RESPIRATION OF PONDEROSA PINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Respiratory responses of fine ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) roots of differing morphology were measured to evaluate response to excision and to changes in the shoot light environment. Ponderosa pine seedlings were subject to either a 15:9 h light/dark environment over 24...

  19. INDEPENDENT AND CONTRASTING EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION ROOT ARCHITECTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on architecture of Pinus ponderosa fine roots and their associated mycorrhizal symbionts were measured over a 4-year period. The study was conducted in open-top field-exposure chambers located near Placerville, CA. A replicated (thr...

  20. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION ON SURVIVAL OF PONDEROSA PINE FINE ROOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used minihizaotrons to assess the effects of elevated CO2N and season on the life-span of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex Laws.) fine roots. CO2 levels were ambient air (A), ambient air + 175 ?mol mol-1 (A+175) and ambient air + 350 ?mol mol-1 (A+350). N treatments ...

  1. Modeling the physiological and growth responses of mature Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. to climatic change

    SciTech Connect

    Constable, J.V.H.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.; Laurence, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Using the TREGRO model we simulated the effects of altered CO{sub 2} (+200 {mu}L/L), temperature (+4{degrees}C) and O{sub 3} (0.5x, 1x and 2x ambient) on the physiology and growth of Pinus ponderosa. Photosynthesis (Pn) increased at elevated CO{sub 2} or temperature, enhancing total tree growth 29% and 13%, respectively. In both scenarios the greatest increase in dry matter was in fine root biomass. Ozone at all exposures reduced Pn, total tree growth was unaffected at 0.5x O{sub 3}, however, at higher O{sub 3} total growth was reduced 19% (1x) and 39% (2x). Reductions in fine root biomass and total non-structural carbohydrate dominated at all O{sub 3} exposures. Increased Pn at elevated CO{sub 2} or temperature reduced, but did not eliminate, O{sub 3}-induced growth reductions. In the model changes in Pn and stomatal conductance largely determined the growth response to multiple climatic alterations, however, changes in fine root biomass may control growth response in the field.

  2. [Soil carbon cycle of Pinus tabulaeformis forest in Huoditang forest region of Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Kang, Bowen; Liu, Jianjun; Dang, Kunliang; Chen, Haibin

    2006-05-01

    With soil carbon cycle compartment model,this paper studied the carbon storage and flux of each carbon compartment of soil under Pinus tabulaeformis, a main forest type in the Huoditang forest region of Qinling Mountain. The results showed that the storage of soil organic carbon was 146.071 t x hm(-2), with 130.366 t x hm(-2) in mineral soil layer and 12.626 t x hm(-2) in litter layer. The storage was lower than the average value of forest soils in China and of oak Sharptooth forest soil in Huoditang, but higher than that of the soils under temperate coniferous forest and tropical forest. The annual carbon input into litter layer was 5.939 t x hm(-2), with 56.9% from above-ground litter and 43.1% from underground dead roots, while that into mineral soil layer via humic acid was 2. 034 t x hm(-2). The annual amount of carbon released from the respiration of P. zabulaeformis forest-soil system was 14. 012 t x hm(-2), with litter layer, mineral soil layer, dead root system, and live root system occupied 15.7%, 14.5%, 11.7% and 58.1%, respectively.

  3. Isolation and characterization of ellagic acid derivatives isolated from Casearia sylvestris SW aqueous extract with anti-PLA(2) activity.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Saulo L; Calgarotto, Andrana K; Chaar, Jamal S; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2008-11-01

    The Casearia sylvestris SW (Flacourtiaceae) is utilized in folk medicine (Brazil and all Latin American) to treat several pathologic processes as inflammation, cancer, microbial infection and snake bites. Studies showed that C. sylvestris aqueous extract can inhibit many toxic effects caused by snake venoms (or caused by phospholipase A(2) isolated) from different species, mainly of Bothrops genus. Inhibition of enzymatic and myotoxic activities, decrease of edema formation and increase of the survival rate of rats injected with lethal doses of bothropic venoms are some toxic effects inhibited by C. sylvestris. In this study, four ellagic acid derivatives from aqueous extracts of C. sylvestris were isolated, characterized, and tested against effects from both total venom and PLA(2) (Asp 49 BthTX-II) from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu. The isolated compounds were as follows: ellagic acid (A), 3'-O-methyl ellagic acid (B), 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid (C), 3-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxy ellagic acid (D). The inhibition constant values (Ki) for enzymatic activity, as well the IC(50) values found in the edematogenic and myotoxic activities, indicate that the ellagic acid is the best inhibitor of these activities, while compounds C and D are the substances with lowest capacity on inhibiting these same effects. Our results show that the presence of hydroxyls at position 3 or 3' (compounds A and B) increases the capacity of these derivatives on inhibiting these toxic effects. However, the presence of methoxyl groups at position 3 or 3' reduced, but did not completely inhibit the capacity of compounds C and D on inhibiting all the toxic effects studied.

  4. Effects of an orabase formulation with ethanolic extract of Malva sylvestris L. in oral wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Kovalik, Ana Cristina; Bisetto, Paula; Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Campagnoli, Eduardo Baulm; Pilatti, Gibson Luiz; Santos, Fábio André

    2014-05-01

    Malva sylvestris L. is widely used in medicine for treatment of inflammatory processes. The plant has anti-inflammatory properties due to substances such as mucilage, flavonoids, and tannins. A mouthwash with leaves from the plant can be used for the treatment of wounds in the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to assess the wound healing effect of Malva sylvestris L. on a palate mucosa wound in rats. After intraperitoneal anesthesia, a 4-mm-diameter excisional wound was made in the center of the palatal mucosa of 136 rats, using a punch-out biopsy tool. Eight animals were used as baseline wound. The remaining rats were divided into four groups: CO, control; OB, orabase vehicle; CX, 2% chlorhexidine; and MA, 20% Malva in orabase. At 24 h postoperatively, the animals were immobilized without anesthetic to apply 25 mg of each substance twice a day, totaling 50 mg daily. The wound areas were measured photographically and the reepithelialization rates were determined histologically (%) after 0, 3, 7, 15, and 21 days. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. Similar healing pattern was observed among the groups (P>.05; ANOVA). According to the methodology, Malva sylvestris L. extract had no effect on wound healing in the palatal mucosa of rats.

  5. Identification and characterization of a novel neuropeptide (neuropeptide Y-HS) from leech salivary gland of Haemadipsa sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Hui; Chen, Yan; Bai, Xue-Wei; Yao, Hui-Min; Zhang, Xu-Guang; Yan, Xiu-Wen; Lai, Ren

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify immunomodulatory components from the leech salivary gland of Haemadipsa sylvestris. The Sephadex G-50, Resource(TM) S column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate and purify the salivary gland extracts (SGE). Structural analysis of isolated compounds was based on Edman degradation and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). The cDNA encoding the precursor of the compound was cloned from the cDNA library of the salivary gland of H. sylvestris. The levels of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effects on cell proliferation and cell viability were observed using MTT assay. A novel neuropeptide Y (Neuropeptide Y-HS) from the leech salivary gland of H. sylvestris was purified and characterized. It was composed of 36 amino acid residues and the amino acid sequence was determined to be FLEPPERPAVFTSVEQMKSYIKALNDYYLLLGRPRF-NH2, containing an amidated C-terminus. It showed significant inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and MCP-1. Neuropeptide Y was identified from leeches for the first time. The presence of neuropeptide Y-HS in leech salivary gland may help get blood meal from hosts and inhibit inflammation.

  6. Identification and characterization of a novel neuropeptide (neuropeptide Y-HS) from leech salivary gland of Haemadipsa sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Hui; Chen, Yan; Bai, Xue-Wei; Yao, Hui-Min; Zhang, Xu-Guang; Yan, Xiu-Wen; Lai, Ren

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify immunomodulatory components from the leech salivary gland of Haemadipsa sylvestris. The Sephadex G-50, Resource(TM) S column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate and purify the salivary gland extracts (SGE). Structural analysis of isolated compounds was based on Edman degradation and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). The cDNA encoding the precursor of the compound was cloned from the cDNA library of the salivary gland of H. sylvestris. The levels of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effects on cell proliferation and cell viability were observed using MTT assay. A novel neuropeptide Y (Neuropeptide Y-HS) from the leech salivary gland of H. sylvestris was purified and characterized. It was composed of 36 amino acid residues and the amino acid sequence was determined to be FLEPPERPAVFTSVEQMKSYIKALNDYYLLLGRPRF-NH2, containing an amidated C-terminus. It showed significant inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and MCP-1. Neuropeptide Y was identified from leeches for the first time. The presence of neuropeptide Y-HS in leech salivary gland may help get blood meal from hosts and inhibit inflammation. PMID:27667513

  7. Partial cambial mortality in high-elevation Pinus aristata (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Schauer, A J; Schoettle, A W; Boyce, R L

    2001-04-01

    Partial cambial mortality is a growth form that is characteristic of Pinus aristata trees. To better elucidate their cambial death pattern, tree size and aspect of cambial death data were gathered from three Pinus aristata forests in central Colorado, USA. Stripping frequency tended to be higher for larger diameter classes. Partial cambial mortality exhibits significant directionality within each stand. Furthermore, cambial death was measured to be most frequent on the wind-exposed side of stripped trees in two of the three study sites and appeared to be at the third. Data presented here support the hypothesis that wind plays a role in the occurrence of partial cambial mortality in Pinus aristata. The mechanisms by which wind causes cambial mortality remain unclear. PMID:11302850

  8. Mist, substrate water potential and cutting water potential influence rooting of stem cuttings of loblolly pine.

    PubMed

    Lebude, Anthony V; Goldfarb, Barry; Blazich, Frank A; Wise, Farrell C; Frampton, John

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the influence of cutting water potential (Psicut) on rooting of juvenile hardwood (dormant) and softwood (succulent) stem cuttings of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) propagated under varying substrate water potentials (Psisub) and volumes of mist application. Mist treatment and Psisub contributed to the Psicut of unrooted stem cuttings. When Psisub was held constant across mist treatments, mist treatment contributed strongly to Psicut. Substrate water potential affected rooting percentage when mist treatment was sub-optimal or excessive, otherwise mist treatment had a stronger effect than Psisub on rooting percentage. Cuttings rooted best when subjected to moderate cutting water potentials (-0.5 to -1.2 MPa) during the initial 4 or 5 weeks of the rooting period. Cuttings experiencing either severe water deficit or no water deficit rooted poorly. We conclude that the rooting environment should impose a moderate water stress on loblolly pine stem cuttings to achieve optimum rooting.

  9. Pathway for the biosynthesis of 4-methyl-1-hexanol volatilized from petal tissue of Nicotiana sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Kandra, Lili; Wagner, George J.

    1998-11-20

    Compounds volatilized from plant tissues play important roles in plant-insect and plant-herbivore interactions and are important to food quality/preference, and to the perfume and flavorant industries. While the chemistry of plant volatiles is well understood, less is known about the biosynthesis of this diverse group of compounds. This is particularly the case for non-terpenoid components such as volatile acyclic alcohols and their esters. Here we have studied metabolic pathways leading to formation of the anteiso-branched alcohol 4-methyl-1-hexanol volatilized by petal tissue of Nicotiana sylvestris. Evidence presented supports the involvement of steps in the pathways of both biosynthesis and degradation of isoleucine to form 2-oxo-3-methylvaleric acid then 2-methylbutyryl CoA. Results indicate that 2-methylbutyryl CoA is then elongated by addition of one acetate molecule via fatty acid synthase, followed by reduction to yield 4-methyl-1-hexanol. This pathway is in contrast to elongation of 2-oxo-3-methylvaleric acid via alpha-keto acid elongation leading to the formation of 4-methylhexanoyl acyl groups of tobacco leaf-trichome-secreted sugar esters.

  10. Chloroplast DNA Diversity among Trees, Populations and Species in the California Closed-Cone Pines (Pinus Radiata, Pinus Muricata and Pinus Attenuata)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Y. P.; Hipkins, V. D.; Strauss, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    The amount, distribution and mutational nature of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms were studied via analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in three closely related species of conifers, the California closed-cone pines-knobcone pine: Pinus attenuata Lemm.; bishop pine: Pinus muricata D. Don; and Monterey pine: Pinus radiata D. Don. Genomic DNA from 384 trees representing 19 populations were digested with 9-20 restriction enzymes and probed with cloned cpDNA fragments from Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] that comprise 82% of the chloroplast genome. Up to 313 restriction sites were surveyed, and 25 of these were observed to be polymorphic among or within species. Differences among species accounted for the majority of genetic (haplotypic) diversity observed [G(st) = 84(+/-13)%]; nucleotide diversity among species was estimated to be 0.3(+/-0.1)%. Knobcone pine and Monterey pine displayed almost no genetic variation within or among populations. Bishop pine also showed little variability within populations, but did display strong population differences [G(st) = 87(+/-8)%] that were a result of three distinct geographic groups. Mean nucleotide diversity within populations was 0.003(+/-0.002)%; intrapopulation polymorphisms were found in only five populations. This pattern of genetic variation contrasts strongly with findings from study of nuclear genes (allozymes) in the group, where most genetic diversity resides within populations rather than among populations or species. Regions of the genome subject to frequent length mutations were identified; estimates of subdivision based on length variant frequencies in one region differed strikingly from those based on site mutations or allozymes. Two trees were identified with a major chloroplast DNA inversion that closely resembled one documented between Pinus and Pseudotsuga. PMID:7905846

  11. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)convicilin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) by a combination of anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration chromatography. The protein is less abundant than vicilin in low-salt extracts of matur...

  12. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Dhirender; Kumar, Ajay; Kaushik, Pawan; Rana, A. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae) is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models. PMID:22761611

  13. [Systemic allergic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts, Pinus pinea].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N H

    1990-11-26

    An in vivo open oral provocation with pine nuts (Pinus pinea) confirmed information about systemic reaction after ingestion of pine nuts. In vitro tests suggested a systemic IgE allergic reaction. Pine nuts are employed in sweets and cakes and, as in the present case, in green salads.

  14. Organ-specific metabolic responses to drought in Pinus pinaster Ait.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, Marina; Guevara, M Ángeles; Sánchez-Gómez, David; de María, Nuria; Díaz, Luis Manuel; Mancha, Jose A; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Desai, Nalini; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Drought is an important driver of plant survival, growth, and distribution. Water deficit affects different pathways of metabolism, depending on plant organ. While previous studies have mainly focused on the metabolic drought response of a single organ, analysis of metabolic differences between organs is essential to achieve an integrated understanding of the whole plant response. In this work, untargeted metabolic profiling was used to examine the response of roots, stems, adult and juvenile needles from Pinus pinaster Ait. full-sib individuals, subjected to a moderate and long lasting drought period. Cyclitols content showed a significant alteration, in response to drought in all organs examined, but other metabolites increased or decreased differentially depending on the analyzed organ. While a high number of flavonoids were only detected in aerial organs, an induction of the glutathione pathway was mainly detected in roots. This result may reflect different antioxidant mechanisms activated in aerial organs and roots. Metabolic changes were more remarkable in roots than in the other organs, highlighting its prominent role in the response to water stress. Significant changes in flavonoids and ascorbate metabolism were also observed between adult and juvenile needles, consistent with previously proven differential functional responses between the two developmental stages. Genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes coding for a Myb1 transcription factor and a malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) were associated with different concentration of phenylalanine, phenylpropanoids and malate, respectively. The results obtained will support further research on metabolites and genes potentially involved in functional mechanisms related to drought tolerance in trees.

  15. Belowground carbon dynamics in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) immediately following diammonium phosphate fertilization.

    PubMed

    Gough, Christopher M; Seiler, John R

    2004-07-01

    Forest soils store an immense quantity of labile carbon (C) and a may be a large potential sink for atmospheric C. Forest management practices such as fertilization may enhance overall C storage in soils, yet changes in physiological processes following nutrient amendments have not been widely investigated. We intensively monitored belowground C dynamics for nearly 200 days following diammonium phosphate fertilization of pot-grown loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings in an effort to examine the short-term effects of fertilization on processes involved in soil C sequestration. Soil respiration rates initially increased in fertilized pots relative to controls, followed by a brief reversal in this trend and then a final sustained pattern of elevated rates of soil respiration in the fertilized treatment. Patterns in soil respiration rates over time reflected changes in autotrophic (root) and heterotrophic (microbial) components of soil respiration. Root respiration rates were greater in the fertilized treatment 49 days following fertilization and returned to control rates by the end of the study. In contrast, microbial respiration rates and microbial activity per soil C concentration remained depressed over the same time period. Compared with control seedlings, total root biomass was 27% greater in fertilized seedlings harvested at the end of the study, indicating that the elevated soil respiration rates observed toward the end of the study were a result of increased respiring root biomass. We conclude that fertilization, at least over the short-term, may increase soil C sequestration by increasing belowground biomass production and reducing microbial driven C turnover. PMID:15123456

  16. Organ-specific metabolic responses to drought in Pinus pinaster Ait.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, Marina; Guevara, M Ángeles; Sánchez-Gómez, David; de María, Nuria; Díaz, Luis Manuel; Mancha, Jose A; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Desai, Nalini; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Drought is an important driver of plant survival, growth, and distribution. Water deficit affects different pathways of metabolism, depending on plant organ. While previous studies have mainly focused on the metabolic drought response of a single organ, analysis of metabolic differences between organs is essential to achieve an integrated understanding of the whole plant response. In this work, untargeted metabolic profiling was used to examine the response of roots, stems, adult and juvenile needles from Pinus pinaster Ait. full-sib individuals, subjected to a moderate and long lasting drought period. Cyclitols content showed a significant alteration, in response to drought in all organs examined, but other metabolites increased or decreased differentially depending on the analyzed organ. While a high number of flavonoids were only detected in aerial organs, an induction of the glutathione pathway was mainly detected in roots. This result may reflect different antioxidant mechanisms activated in aerial organs and roots. Metabolic changes were more remarkable in roots than in the other organs, highlighting its prominent role in the response to water stress. Significant changes in flavonoids and ascorbate metabolism were also observed between adult and juvenile needles, consistent with previously proven differential functional responses between the two developmental stages. Genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes coding for a Myb1 transcription factor and a malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) were associated with different concentration of phenylalanine, phenylpropanoids and malate, respectively. The results obtained will support further research on metabolites and genes potentially involved in functional mechanisms related to drought tolerance in trees. PMID:26897116

  17. Differences in hydraulic architecture between mesic and xeric Pinus pinaster populations at the seedling stage.

    PubMed

    Corcuera, Leyre; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Notivol, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    We studied the intraspecific variability of maritime pine in a set of morphological and physiological traits: soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE, estimated by carbon isotope composition, δ(13)C), root morphology, xylem anatomy, growth and carbon allocation patterns. The data were collected from Pinus pinaster Aiton seedlings (25 half-sib families from five populations) grown in a greenhouse and subjected to water and water-stress treatments. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in water availability at the geographic location of the populations, and to study the potential trade-offs among traits. The drought-stressed seedlings demonstrated a decrease in hydraulic conductance and root surface area and increased WUE and root tip number. The relationships among the growth, morphological, anatomical and physiological traits changed with the scale of study: within the species, among/within populations. The populations showed a highly significant relationship between the percentage reduction in whole-plant hydraulic conductance and WUE. The differences among the populations in root morphology, whole-plant conductance, carbon allocation, plant growth and WUE were significant and consistent with dryness of the site of seed origin. The xeric populations exhibited lower growth and a conservative water use, as opposed to the fast-growing, less water-use-efficient populations from mesic habitats. The xeric and mesic populations, Tamrabta and San Cipriano, respectively, showed the most contrasting traits and were clustered in opposite directions along the main axis in the canonical discriminant analysis under both the control and drought treatments. The results suggest the possibility of selecting the Arenas population, which presents a combination of traits that confer increased growth and drought resistance.

  18. Carbon allocation belowground in Pinus pinaster using stable carbon isotope pulse labeling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannoura, M.; Bosc, A.; Chipeaux, C.; Sartore, M.; Lambrot, C.; Trichet, P.; Bakker, M.; Loustau, D.; Epron, D.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon allocation belowground competes with aboveground growth and biomass production. In the other hand, it contributes to resource acquisition such as nutrient, water and carbon sequestration in soil. Thus, a better characterization of carbon flow from plant to soil and its residence time within each compartment is an important issue for understanding and modeling forest ecosystem carbon budget. 13C pulse labeling of whole crown was conducted at 4 seasons to study the fate of assimilated carbon by photosynthesis into the root on 12 year old Pinus pinaster planted in the INRA domain of Pierroton. Maritime pine is the most widely planted species in South-West Europe. Stem, root and soil CO2 effluxes and their isotope composition were measured continuously by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy with a trace gas analyzer (TGA 100A; Campbell Scientific) coupled to flow-through chambers. 13CO2 recovery and peak were observed in respiration of each compartment after labeling. It appeared sequentially from top of stem to bottom, and to coarse root. The maximum velocity of carbon transfer was calculated as the difference in time lag of recovery between two positions on the trunk or on the root. It ranged between 0.08-0.2 m h-1 in stem and between 0.04-0.12 m h-1 in coarse root. This velocity was higher in warmer season, and the difference between time lag of recovery and peak increased after first frost. Photosynthates arrived underground 1.5 to 5 days after labeling, at similar time in soil CO2 effluxes and coarse root respiration. 0.08-1.4 g of carbon was respired per tree during first 20 days following labeling. It presented 0.6 -10% of 13C used for labeling and it is strongly related to seasons. The isotope signal was detected in fine root organs and microbial biomass by periodical core sampling. The peak was observed 6 days after labeling in early summer while it was delayed more than 10 days in autumn and winter with less amount of carbon allocated

  19. Diversity and saline resistance of endophytic fungi associated with Pinus thunbergii in coastal shelterbelts of Korea.

    PubMed

    Min, Young Ju; Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J; Quan, Ying; Jung, Sungcheol; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-03-28

    The Black Pine, Pinus thunbergii, is widely distributed along the eastern coast of Korea and its importance as a shelterbelt was highlighted after tsunamis in Indonesia and Japan. The root endophytic diversity of P. thunbergii was investigated in three coastal regions; Goseong, Uljin, and Busan. Fungi were isolated from the root tips, and growth rates of pure cultures were measured and compared between PDA with and without 3% NaCl to determine their saline resistance. A total of 259 isolates were divided into 136 morphotypes, of which internal transcribed spacer region sequences identified 58 species. Representatives of each major fungi phylum were present: 44 Ascomycota, 8 Zygomycota, and 6 Basidiomycota. Eighteen species exhibited saline resistance, many of which were Penicillium and Trichoderma species. Shoreline habitats harbored higher saline-tolerant endophytic diversity compared with inland sites. This investigation indicates that endophytes of P. thunbergii living closer to the coast may have higher resistance to salinity and potentially have specific relationships with P. thunbergii.

  20. In vitro mycorrhization and acclimatization of Amanita caesareoides and its relatives on Pinus densiflora.

    PubMed

    Endo, Naoki; Gisusi, Seiki; Fukuda, Masaki; Yamada, Akiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Amanita caesareoides is a sister species of Amanita caesarea, also known as Caesar's mushroom and one of the most desirable edible mycorrhizal mushrooms. However, cultivation of Caesar's mushrooms has not yet been successful due to the difficulties involved in establishing pure cultures. In this study, we established pure cultures of four Asian Caesar's mushroom species, i.e., A. caesareoides, Amanita javanica, Amanita esculenta, and Amanita similis, which were identified by sequence analysis of their rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Five selected isolates in A. caesareoides, A. javanica, and A. esculenta were tested for ectomycorrhizal syntheses with axenic Pinus densiflora seedlings in vitro. Ectomycorrhizal tips of each fungal isolate tested were observed on pine lateral roots within 5 months of inoculation. Seventeen pine seedlings that formed ectomycorrhizas in vitro with these three Amanita species were acclimatized under non-sterile conditions. Seven months following acclimatization, ectomycorrhizal colonization by A. caesareoides was observed on newly grown root tips, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the fungal rDNA ITS region. Two other Amanita species also survived during ectomycorrhizal acclimatization. These results suggest that the cultivation of A. caesareoides and its relatives can be attempted through mycorrhizal synthesis using P. densiflora as a host. This is the first report of in vitro mycorrhization of Asian Caesar's mushrooms and their acclimatization under non-sterile conditions.

  1. HPLC-DAD/MS characterization of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives in turnip tops (Brassica rapa L. Subsp. sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Romani, Annalisa; Vignolini, Pamela; Isolani, Laura; Ieri, Francesca; Heimler, Daniela

    2006-02-22

    Flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic derivatives of turnip tops (Brassica rapa L. subsp. sylvestris L.) were characterized for the first time in four samples from different origins. Turnip tops exhibit a high polyphenols content (ranging from 107 to 191 mg/100 g, fresh weight) and a good antiradical activity, determined with the DPPH* test. After a liquid-liquid extraction and fractionation procedures, most flavonoids (isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin glycosides) and hydroxycinnamic derivatives were identified by means of HPLC-DAD/MS techniques. Isorhamnetin glycosides were the main flavonoid derivatives, differing from that found in the vegetables belonging to the Brassica oleracea group.

  2. CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON FINE ROOT LENGTH, PRODUCTION, AND MORTALITY: A 4-YEAR PONDEROSA PINE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a 4-year study of Pinus ponderosa fine root (<2 mm) responses to atmospheric CO2 and N-fertilization. Seedlings were grown in open-top chambers at 3 CO2 levels (ambient, ambient+175 mol/mol, ambient+350 mol/mol) and 3 N-fertilization levels (0, 10, 20 g?m-2?yr-1). ...

  3. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  4. Root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, P. H.

    1995-01-01

    When a plant root is reoriented within the gravity field, it responds by initiating a curvature which eventually results in vertical growth. Gravity sensing occurs primarily in the root tip. It may involve amyloplast sedimentation in the columella cells of the root cap, or the detection of forces exerted by the mass of the protoplast on opposite sides of its cell wall. Gravisensing activates a signal transduction cascade which results in the asymmetric redistribution of auxin and apoplastic Ca2+ across the root tip, with accumulation at the bottom side. The resulting lateral asymmetry in Ca2+ and auxin concentration is probably transmitted to the elongation zone where differential cellular elongation occurs until the tip resumes vertical growth. The Cholodny-Went theory proposes that gravity-induced auxin redistribution across a gravistimulated plant organ is responsible for the gravitropic response. However, recent data indicate that the gravity-induced reorientation is more complex, involving both auxin gradient-dependent and auxin gradient-independent events.

  5. Root canal

    MedlinePlus

    Endodontic therapy ... the root of a tooth. Generally, there is pain and swelling in the area. The infection can ... You may have some pain or soreness after the procedure. An over-the-counter anti-inflammatory drug, such as ibuprofen or naproxen, can help relieve ...

  6. Specific features of the recent accumulation of 137Cs in tree roots of forest ecosystems within the zone of radioactive contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Ol'ga; Klyashtorin, Alexey; Popova, Evgenia

    2015-04-01

    Despite numerous studies of the accumulation of technogenic radionuclides in the root systems, no clear regularities of this process have been established. The tendencies found in the works of Russian and foreign researchers are rather discrepant. Some authors argue that the accumulation of radionuclides in the roots is more pronounced than that in the aboveground parts of the plants (Skovorodnikova, 2005; Romantseva, 2012; Sennerby et al., 1994; Mamikhin, 2002; Fircks et al., 2002}. Other works attest to a higher accumulation of radionuclides in the aboveground pars (Juznic et al., 1990; Chibowski, 2000; Zhianski et al., 2005), which is also typical of the stable isotopes of these elements, including 133Cs (Dong Jin Kang, YongJin Seo, Tsukasa Saito et al,2012). It is also stated that the accumulation of radionuclides in the aboveground and underground parts of plants may differ in dependence on the soil-ecological conditions and other factors (Kozhakhanov et al., 2011; Grabovskyi et al., 2013). The aim of our study was to evaluate the accumulation of 137Cs in the root systems of arboreal plants in forest ecosystems within the near zone of the Chernobyl fallout on the plots with similar soil and phytocenotic features. Pine and birch stands were studied within the 30-km-wide exclusion zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in Ukraine in 1992-1993, when the density of the radioactive contamination of the upper (0-20 cm) layer with 137Cs reached 2153.8 kBq/m2), and in Bryansk oblast of Russia in 2013-2014, when the density of contamination varied from 1458.4 kBq/m2 (pine stand) to 2578.3 kBq/m2 (birch stand). The tree layer in these ecosystems was dominated by Pinus sylvestris (L.) and Betula pendula (Roth.), respectively. Quercus robur (L.), Picea abies (L.), and Sorbus aucuparia (L.) were also present. The specific activity of 137Cs was measured in the samples from the aboveground parts of model trees and their roots differentiated by size (0-3, 3-10, 10

  7. Linking carbon and water relations to drought-induced mortality in Pinus flexilis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Mitton, Jeffry

    2015-07-01

    Survival of tree seedlings at high elevations has been shown to be limited by thermal constraints on carbon balance, but it is unknown if carbon relations also limit seedling survival at lower elevations, where water relations may be more important. We measured and modeled carbon fluxes and water relations in first-year Pinus flexilis seedlings in garden plots just beyond the warm edge of their natural range, and compared these with dry-mass gain and survival across two summers. We hypothesized that mortality in these seedlings would be associated with declines in water relations, more so than with carbon-balance limitations. Rather than gradual declines in survivorship across growing seasons, we observed sharp, large-scale mortality episodes that occurred once volumetric soil-moisture content dropped below 10%. By this point, seedling water potentials had decreased below -5 MPa, seedling hydraulic conductivity had decreased by 90% and seedling hydraulic resistance had increased by >900%. Additionally, non-structural carbohydrates accumulated in aboveground tissues at the end of both summers, suggesting impairments in phloem-transport from needles to roots. This resulted in low carbohydrate concentrations in roots, which likely impaired root growth and water uptake at the time of critically low soil moisture. While photosynthesis and respiration on a leaf area basis remained high until critical hydraulic thresholds were exceeded, modeled seedling gross primary productivity declined steadily throughout the summers. At the time of mortality, modeled productivity was insufficient to support seedling biomass-gain rates, metabolism and secondary costs. Thus the large-scale mortality events that we observed near the end of each summer were most directly linked with acute, episodic declines in plant hydraulic function that were linked with important changes in whole-seedling carbon relations.

  8. Linking carbon and water limitations to drought-induced mortality of Pinus flexilis seedlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Mitton, Jeffry

    2015-01-01

    Survival of tree seedlings at high elevations has been shown to be limited by thermal constraints on carbon balance, but it is unknown if carbon relations also limit seedling survival at lower elevations, where water relations may be more important. We measured and modeled carbon fluxes and water relations in first-year Pinus flexilis seedlings in garden plots just beyond the warm edge of their natural range, and compared these with dry-mass gain and survival across two summers. We hypothesized that mortality in these seedlings would be associated with declines in water relations, more so than with carbon-balance limitations. Rather than gradual declines in survivorship across growing seasons, we observed sharp, large-scale mortality episodes that occurred once volumetric soil-moisture content dropped below 10%. By this point, seedling water potentials had decreased below −5 MPa, seedling hydraulic conductivity had decreased by 90% and seedling hydraulic resistance had increased by >900%. Additionally, non-structural carbohydrates accumulated in aboveground tissues at the end of both summers, suggesting impairments in phloem-transport from needles to roots. This resulted in low carbohydrate concentrations in roots, which likely impaired root growth and water uptake at the time of critically low soil moisture. While photosynthesis and respiration on a leaf area basis remained high until critical hydraulic thresholds were exceeded, modeled seedling gross primary productivity declined steadily throughout the summers. At the time of mortality, modeled productivity was insufficient to support seedling biomass-gain rates, metabolism and secondary costs. Thus the large-scale mortality events that we observed near the end of each summer were most directly linked with acute, episodic declines in plant hydraulic function that were linked with important changes in whole-seedling carbon relations.

  9. Genetic transformation and gene expression in white pine (pinus strobus)

    SciTech Connect

    Minocha, R.

    1987-10-01

    The objectives of the study were: (1) to develop protocols for transformation of white pine (Pinus strobus) embryonic tissue; and (2) to analyze the regulation of foreign gene expression in Pinus strobus. A number of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains containing chimeric genes for neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII for kanamycin resistance) and chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) under the control of either a constitutive promoter (NOS-nopaline synthase) or light-inducible promoters (RuBisCO small subunit and chlorophyll a/b binding protein) were used. A variety of tissues from white pine seedlings and mature trees was used. The techniques for transformation were modified from those used for tobacco transformation. The results show that white pine tissue from young seedlings is high suitable for transformation by A. tumefaciens. Whereas the normal tissues are very sensitive to kanamycin, transformed callus was quite resistant to this antibiotic.

  10. Elevated CO2 and O3 effects on fine-root survivorship in ponderosa pine mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Donald L; Johnson, Mark G; Tingey, David T; Storm, Marjorie J

    2009-07-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) concentrations are rising, which may have opposing effects on tree C balance and allocation to fine roots. More information is needed on interactive CO(2) and O(3) effects on roots, particularly fine-root life span, a critical demographic parameter and determinant of soil C and N pools and cycling rates. We conducted a study in which ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings were exposed to two levels of CO(2) and O(3) in sun-lit controlled-environment mesocosms for 3 years. Minirhizotrons were used to monitor individual fine roots in three soil horizons every 28 days. Proportional hazards regression was used to analyze effects of CO(2), O(3), diameter, depth, and season of root initiation on fine-root survivorship. More fine roots were produced in the elevated CO(2) treatment than in ambient CO(2). Elevated CO(2), increasing root diameter, and increasing root depth all significantly increased fine-root survivorship and median life span. Life span was slightly, but not significantly, lower in elevated O(3), and increased O(3) did not reduce the effect of elevated CO(2). Median life spans varied from 140 to 448 days depending on the season of root initiation. These results indicate the potential for elevated CO(2) to increase the number of fine roots and their residence time in the soil, which is also affected by root diameter, root depth, and phenology. PMID:19415339

  11. Uptake of trifluoroacetate by Pinus ponderosa via atmospheric pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benesch, J. A.; Gustin, M. S.

    Trifluoroacetate (TFA, CF 3COO -), a break down product of hydro(chloro)-fluorocarbons (HFC/HCFCs), has been suggested to contribute to forest decline syndrome. To investigate the possible effects, Pinus ponderosa was exposed to TFA applied as mist (150 and 10,000 ng l -1) to foliar surfaces. Needles accumulated TFA as a function of concentration and time. However, no adverse physiological responses, as plant morphology, photosynthetic and conductance rates, were observed at the TFA concentrations used in this study.

  12. Leaves, flowers, immature fruits and leafy flowered stems of Malva sylvestris: a comparative study of the nutraceutical potential and composition.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-06-01

    Malva sylvestris is widely used in Mediterranean and European traditional medicine and ethnoveterinary for the treatment of external and internal inflammation, as well as injuries. Moreover, its use is not only limited to therapeutic purposes; but also the species is locally regarded as a food wild herb. Considering that antioxidants and free radical scavengers can exert also an anti-inflammatory effect, the extracts of different parts of the medicinal/edible plant M. sylvestris (leaves, flowers, immature fruits and leafy flowered stems) were compared for their nutraceutical potential (antioxidant properties) and chemical composition. Particularly, mallow leaves revealed very strong antioxidant properties including radical-scavenging activity (EC(50)=0.43 mg/mL), reducing power (0.07 mg/mL) and lipid peroxidation inhibition in lipossomes (0.04 mg/mL) and brain cells homogenates (0.09 mg/mL). This part of the plant is also the richest in nutraceuticals such as powerful antioxidants (phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols), unsaturated fatty acids (e.g. alpha-linolenic acid), and minerals measured in ash content. PMID:20233600

  13. Fumonisin production by Gibberella fujikuroi strains from Pinus species.

    PubMed

    Mirete, S; Patiño, B; Vázquez, C; Jiménez, M; Hinojo, M J; Soldevilla, C; González-Jaén, M T

    2003-12-31

    Fumonisins are important mycotoxins basically produced by strains from the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (with anamorphs in Fusarium genus) which contaminate food and feed products representing a risk to human and animal health. In this work, we report for the first time the fumonisin production of Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon strains associated to edible pine nuts of Pinus pinea. P. pinea is an important and widely distributed Pinus species in the Mediterranean area where their pine nuts are consumed raw or slightly processed in diverse food products. In this work, characterization and further identification of those strains were performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs) of the intergenic spacer region of the rDNA (IGS) with the aid of the eight mating populations (A-H) described for G. fujikuroi species complex. The method was powerful to detect polymorphism, allowing discrimination between individuals and could be used to study the genetic relationships among them and within the G. fujikuroi species complex. Fusarium strains associated to Pinus radiata were also included in the present study. These strains did not produce fumonisins and showed no close relation with the strains isolated from P. pinea. The approach used in this work was rapid and proved to be efficient to assist identification and to characterize and analyse relatedness of new isolates within the G. fujikuroi species complex.

  14. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  15. Root Transcript Profiling of Two Rorippa Species Reveals Gene Clusters Associated with Extreme Submergence Tolerance1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, Rashmi; Mustroph, Angelika; Boonman, Alex; Akman, Melis; Ammerlaan, Ankie M.H.; Breit, Timo; Schranz, M. Eric; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.; van Tienderen, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Complete submergence represses photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, causing rapid mortality in most terrestrial plants. However, some plants have evolved traits allowing them to survive prolonged flooding, such as species of the genus Rorippa, close relatives of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We studied plant survival, changes in carbohydrate and metabolite concentrations, and transcriptome responses to submergence of two species, Rorippa sylvestris and Rorippa amphibia. We exploited the close relationship between Rorippa species and the model species Arabidopsis by using Arabidopsis GeneChip microarrays for whole-genome transcript profiling of roots of young plants exposed to a 24-h submergence treatment or air. A probe mask was used based on hybridization of genomic DNA of both species to the arrays, so that weak probe signals due to Rorippa species/Arabidopsis mismatches were removed. Furthermore, we compared Rorippa species microarray results with those obtained for roots of submerged Arabidopsis plants. Both Rorippa species could tolerate deep submergence, with R. sylvestris surviving much longer than R. amphibia. Submergence resulted in the induction of genes involved in glycolysis and fermentation and the repression of many energy-consuming pathways, similar to the low-oxygen and submergence response of Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa). The qualitative responses of both Rorippa species to submergence appeared roughly similar but differed quantitatively. Notably, glycolysis and fermentation genes and a gene encoding sucrose synthase were more strongly induced in the less tolerant R. amphibia than in R. sylvestris. A comparison with Arabidopsis microarray studies on submerged roots revealed some interesting differences and potential tolerance-related genes in Rorippa species. PMID:24077074

  16. Chemical composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal, phytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Mediterranean Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea resin essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ulukanli, Zeynep; Karabörklü, Salih; Bozok, Fuat; Ates, Burhan; Erdogan, Selim; Cenet, Menderes; Karaaslan, Merve Göksin

    2014-12-01

    Essential oils of the resins of Pinus brutia and Pinus pinea were evaluated for their biological potential. Essential oils were characterized using GC-MS and GC/FID. in vitro antimicrobial, phytotoxic, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities were carried out using the direct contact and the fumigant assays, respectively. The chemical profile of the essential oils of the resins of P. pinea and P. brutia included mainly α-pinene (21.39% and 25.40%), β-pinene (9.68% and 9.69%), and caryophyllene (9.12% and 4.81%). The essential oils of P. pinea and P. brutia exerted notable antimicrobial activities on Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, insecticidal activities on Ephestia kuehniella eggs, phytotoxic activities on Lactuca sativa, Lepidium sativum, and Portulaca oleracea, as well as antioxidant potential. Indications of the biological activities of the essential oils suggest their use in the formulation of ecofriendly and biocompatible pharmaceuticals.

  17. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  18. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Jared W; Chhatre, Vikram E; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J; Neale, David B; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C Dana; Peter, Gary F; Davis, John M; Echt, Craig S

    2015-06-11

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r(2), between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r(2) did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii.

  19. A Consensus Genetic Map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and Extent of Linkage Disequilibrium in Two Genotype-Phenotype Discovery Populations of Pinus taeda

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Jared W.; Chhatre, Vikram E.; Wu, Le-Shin; Chamala, Srikar; Neves, Leandro Gomide; Muñoz, Patricio; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Neale, David B.; Kirst, Matias; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Nelson, C. Dana; Peter, Gary F.; Echt, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via genotyping of 1251 individuals from four pedigrees. It is the densest linkage map for a conifer to date. Average marker spacing was 0.6 cM and total map length was 2305 cM. Functional predictions of mapped genes were improved by aligning expressed sequence tags used for marker discovery to full-length P. taeda transcripts. Alignments to the P. taeda genome mapped 3305 scaffold sequences onto 12 linkage groups. The consensus genetic map was used to compare the genome-wide linkage disequilibrium in a population of distantly related P. taeda individuals (ADEPT2) used for association genetic studies and a multiple-family pedigree used for genomic selection (CCLONES). The prevalence and extent of LD was greater in CCLONES as compared to ADEPT2; however, extended LD with LGs or between LGs was rare in both populations. The average squared correlations, r2, between SNP alleles less than 1 cM apart were less than 0.05 in both populations and r2 did not decay substantially with genetic distance. The consensus map and analysis of linkage disequilibrium establish a foundation for comparative association mapping and genomic selection in P. taeda and P. elliottii. PMID:26068575

  20. Characterization of the volatile fraction emitted by Pinus spp. by one- and two-dimensional chromatographic techniques with mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Mateus, E; Barata, R C; Zrostlíková, Jitka; Gomes da Silva, M D R; Paiva, M R

    2010-03-12

    The chemical composition of the needles of P. pinea, P. pinaster, P. halepensis, P. nigra, P. brutia, P. patula, P. radiata, P. taeda, P. elliotti, P. kesiya, P. sylvestris and P. eldarica was investigated. Headspace solid-phase microextraction and steam distillation extraction were used to collect the volatile fractions. Samples were analyzed using one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D-GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) associated with a quadrupole and a time-of-flight mass detectors. Results showed that the analytical capabilities of 1D-GC are partially limited by the separation power of the columns. The higher sensibility and the absence of peak skewing of the time-of-flight mass analyzer, with the use of automated peak finding and deconvolution algorithms, allowed for the detection of trace components with qualitative full spectra and the extraction of true mass spectra from coeluting compounds, promoting their reliable identification and thus significantly improving results obtained by 1D-GC/MS, when using a quadrupole mass analyzer. The use of GC x GC resulted in enhanced separation efficiency and increased signal to noise ratio (sensitivity) of the analytes, maximizing mass spectra quality and improving compound detection and identification. This work shows the use of 1D-GC/ToFMS for the analysis of pine needles volatiles, achieving the detection of 177 compounds, that is more than twice the number previously identified by standard 1D-GC/MS. The analysis by GC x GC for the same sample allowed the detection of 212 compounds. The enantioselective GC x GC analysis performed for all the Pinus spp. under study achieved the detection of 422 different compounds. Cross-over phenomena according to operational conditions are highlighted and discussed.

  1. Spatial patterns of ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculum in arbuscular mycorrhizal barrens communities: implications for controlling invasion by Pinus virginiana.

    PubMed

    Thiet, Rachel K; Boerner, R E J

    2007-09-01

    Invasion of globally threatened ecosystems dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, such as the alkaline prairies and serpentine barrens of eastern North America, by species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) pine (Pinus) seriously threatens the persistence, conservation, and ongoing restoration of these rare plant communities. Using Maryland serpentine barrens and an Ohio alkaline prairie complex as model systems, we tested the hypothesis that the invasiveness of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana L.) into such communities is regulated by the spatial pattern of ECM fungal inoculum in the soil. ECM colonization of pine seedlings can occur by (1) hyphae growing from the roots of mature ECM pines colonizing nearby seedlings (contagion model), (2) pine seedlings being infected after germinating in open areas where spores are concentrated in feces of animals that have consumed sporocarps (centers of infection model), and (3) colonization from spores that are wind-dispersed across the landscape (background model). To test these models of dispersal of ECM fungal inoculum into these barrens, we used autocorrelation and spatially explicit mapping techniques (semivariance analysis and kriging) to characterize the distribution and abundance of ECM inoculum in soil. Our results strongly suggest that ECM fungi most often disperse into open barrens by contagion, thereby facilitating rapid pine colonization in an advancing front from mature pine forests bordering the barrens. Spatial patterns consistent with the centers of infection model were present but less common. Thus, current management techniques that rely on cutting and fire to reverse pine invasion may be ineffective because they do not kill or disrupt hyphal mats attached to mature roots of neighboring pines. Management alternatives are discussed. PMID:17356853

  2. A 2-component system is involved in the early stages of the Pisolithus tinctorius-Pinus greggii symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Martínez, Aseneth; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto; Galván-Gordillo, Santiago Valentín; Toscano Morales, Roberto; Gómez-Silva, Lidia; Valdés, María; Hinojosa-Moya, Jesús; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis results in profound morphological and physiological modifications in both plant and fungus. This in turn is the product of differential gene expression in both co-symbionts, giving rise to specialized cell types capable of performing novel functions. During the precolonization stage, chemical signals from root exudates are sensed by the ectomycorrizal fungus, and vice versa, which are in principle responsible for the observed change in the developmental symbionts program. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the signaling and recognition between ectomycorrhizal fungi and their host plants. In the present work, we characterized a novel lactone, termed pinelactone, and identified a gene encoding for a histidine kinase in Pisolithus tictorius, which function is proposed to be the perception of the aforementioned metabolites. In this study, the use of closantel, a specific inhibitor of histidine kinase phosphorylation, affected the capacity for fungal colonization in the symbiosis between Pisolithus tinctorius and Pinus greggii, indicating that a 2-component system (TCS) may operate in the early events of plant-fungus interaction. Indeed, the metabolites induced the accumulation of Pisolithus tinctorius mRNA for a putative histidine kinase (termed Pthik1). Of note, Pthik1 was able to partially complement a S. cerevisiae histidine kinase mutant, demonstrating its role in the response to the presence of the aforementioned metabolites. Our results indicate a role of a 2-component pathway in the early stages of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis before colonization. Furthermore, a novel lactone from Pinus greggii root exudates may activate a signal transduction pathway that contributes to the establishment of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

  3. Spatial patterns of ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculum in arbuscular mycorrhizal barrens communities: implications for controlling invasion by Pinus virginiana.

    PubMed

    Thiet, Rachel K; Boerner, R E J

    2007-09-01

    Invasion of globally threatened ecosystems dominated by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants, such as the alkaline prairies and serpentine barrens of eastern North America, by species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) pine (Pinus) seriously threatens the persistence, conservation, and ongoing restoration of these rare plant communities. Using Maryland serpentine barrens and an Ohio alkaline prairie complex as model systems, we tested the hypothesis that the invasiveness of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana L.) into such communities is regulated by the spatial pattern of ECM fungal inoculum in the soil. ECM colonization of pine seedlings can occur by (1) hyphae growing from the roots of mature ECM pines colonizing nearby seedlings (contagion model), (2) pine seedlings being infected after germinating in open areas where spores are concentrated in feces of animals that have consumed sporocarps (centers of infection model), and (3) colonization from spores that are wind-dispersed across the landscape (background model). To test these models of dispersal of ECM fungal inoculum into these barrens, we used autocorrelation and spatially explicit mapping techniques (semivariance analysis and kriging) to characterize the distribution and abundance of ECM inoculum in soil. Our results strongly suggest that ECM fungi most often disperse into open barrens by contagion, thereby facilitating rapid pine colonization in an advancing front from mature pine forests bordering the barrens. Spatial patterns consistent with the centers of infection model were present but less common. Thus, current management techniques that rely on cutting and fire to reverse pine invasion may be ineffective because they do not kill or disrupt hyphal mats attached to mature roots of neighboring pines. Management alternatives are discussed.

  4. Ostryopsis davidiana seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi facilitate formation of mycorrhizae on Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shu-Lan; Li, Guo-Lei; Liu, Yong; Kasten Dumroese, R; Lv, Rui-Heng

    2009-08-01

    Reforestation in China is important for reversing anthropogenic activities that degrade the environment. Pinus tabulaeformis is desired for these activities, but survival and growth of seedlings can be hampered by lack of ectomycorrhizae. When outplanted in association with Ostryopsis davidiana plants on reforestation sites, P. tabulaeformis seedlings become mycorrhizal and survival and growth are enhanced; without O. davidiana, pines often remain without mycorrhizae and performance is poorer. To better understand this relationship, we initiated an experiment using rhizoboxes that restricted root and tested the hypothesis that O. davidiana seedlings facilitated ectomycorrhizae formation on P. tabulaeformis seedlings through hyphal contact. We found that without O. davidiana seedlings, inocula of five indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi were unable to grow and associate with P. tabulaeformis seedlings. Inocula placed alongside O. davidiana seedlings, however, resulted in enhanced growth and nutritional status of O. davidiana and P. tabulaeformis seedlings, and also altered rhizosphere pH and phosphatase activity. We speculate that these species form a common mycorrhizal network and this association enhances outplanting performance of P. tabulaeformis seedlings used for forest restoration.

  5. Phytoremediation of cadmium and zinc by Populus deltoids and Pinus tada

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.; Houpis, J.; Johnson, K.; Schulz, K.; Smith, M.; Paul, G.

    1998-12-31

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants to uptake contaminants and thereby lower soil contamination, is an emerging alternative to the costly and often impractical conventional methods of soil remediation. There has been limited research in using trees for metal extraction, despite their high potential for remediating contaminated soils. The authors investigated the cadmium phytoextraction capability of Pinus taeda. Cadmium uptake was investigated using a randomized design with four replicates of each treatment. Seeds were germinated, grown for 60 days and treated with cadmium at 4 mg/L [supplied as cadmium nitrate tetrahydrate (Cd-(NO{sub 3})2x4H{sub 2}O)] or with potassium nitrate (KNO{sub 3}) as a control. Seedlings were harvested at either seven or seventeen days. Metal analysis of plant tissues was conducted by atomic absorption spectroscopy following acid digestion. A phytoextraction coefficient was determined and data were analyzed using analysis of variance. P. taeda seedlings treated with cadmium contained significantly higher Cd tissue levels than control seedlings. Cd tissue levels did not differ significantly between seedlings harvested seven days and seedlings harvested seventeen days after treatment. Cd levels also differed significantly between all plant organs (leaves, stems and roots).

  6. Modeling the response of mature Pinus ponderosa Laws. to tropospheric ozone: Effects of genotypic variability

    SciTech Connect

    Constable, J.V.H.; Taylor, G.E. Jr. ); Weinstein, D.A.; Laurence, J.A. )

    1994-06-01

    Regionally distributed pollutants (e.g., tropospheric ozone and CO[sub 2]) can influence the growth of terrestrial plants. The mosaic of genotypes in natural populations makes it difficult to predict the ecological consequences of pollutants throughout a species' distribution. We simulated the response of Pinus ponderosa Laws to ambient, sub-ambient and above-ambient troposopheric O[sub 3] for 3 years using TREGRO, a physiologically based three growth model. Parameters controlling growth and carbon allocation were obtained from the literature and were varied to simulate intravarietal and intervarietal genotypes (western var. Ponderosa and eastern var. Scopulorum) of Ponderosa Pine. Parameter differences between the varieties include physiology, carbon allocation and phenoloy. Ozone altered 3 year biomass gain (+6% to 61%) and fine root to leaf mass ratio ([minus]8% to [minus]14%) in spite of a small effect on photosynthesis ([<=] 10%). Overall, O[sub 3] caused growth differences between varieties to be reduced. The reduction in growth differences between genotypes due to ozone has consequences for regional identification of populations sensitive to the effects of tropospheric ozone.

  7. Fertilization with urea, ammonium and nitrate produce different effects on growth, hydraulic traits and drought tolerance in Pinus taeda seedlings.

    PubMed

    Faustino, Laura I; Moretti, Ana P; Graciano, Corina

    2015-10-01

    Urea fertilization decreases Pinus taeda L. growth in clay soils of subtropical areas. The negative effect of urea is related to changes in some hydraulic traits, similar to those observed in plants growing under drought. The aims of this work were (i) to determine whether different sources of nitrogen applied as fertilizers produce similar changes in growth and hydraulic traits to those observed by urea fertilization and (ii) to analyze the impact of those changes in plant drought tolerance. Plants fertilized with urea, nitrate [Formula: see text] or ammonium [Formula: see text] were grown well watered or with reduced water supply. Urea and [Formula: see text] fertilization reduced plant growth and increased root hydraulic conductance scaled by root dry weight (DW). [Formula: see text] fertilization did not reduce plant growth and increased shoot hydraulic conductance and stem hydraulic conductivity. We conclude that [Formula: see text] is the ion involved in the changes linked to the negative effect of urea fertilization on P. taeda growth. [Formula: see text] fertilization does not change drought susceptibility and it produces changes in shoot hydraulic traits, therefore plants avoid the depressive effect of fertilization. Urea and [Formula: see text] fertilizers induce changes in DW and root hydraulic conductance and consequently plants are less affected by drought.

  8. Biochemical responses of the mycorrhizae in Pinus massoniana to combined effects of Al, Ca and low pH.

    PubMed

    Kong, F X; Liu, Y; Hu, W; Shen, P P; Zhou, C L; Wang, L S

    2000-02-01

    Biochemical responses of Pinus massoniana, with and without the inoculation mycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius at the root, to artificial acid rain (pH 2.0) and various Ca/Al ratios were investigated. Some enzymes associated with the nutritive metabolism, such as acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, nitrate reductase, mannitol dehydrogenase and trehalase, in the roots, stems and leaves of plant were obviously inhibited by the artificial acid rain and Al. After treatment with pH 2.0 + Ca/Al (0/1 or 1/10) artificial acid rain, the protein content in the organs was decreased. However, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations were induced. It demonstrated that acid rain and Al could induce oxygen radicals in plant. Compared with the treatments with lower pH or Al, respectively, the combination of lower pH and Al concentration was more toxic to P. massoniana. Al toxicity could be ameliorated by the addition of Ca and the amelioration was the most when the ratio was 1/1 among the various Ca/Al ratio. Infection with mycorrhizal fungus P. tinctorius at the root of P. massoniana increased the ability of the plant to resist the toxicity of artificial acid rain and Al stress.

  9. Identification and mapping of a third blackleg resistance locus in Brassica napus derived from B. rapa subsp. sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fengqun; Lydiate, Derek J; Rimmer, S Roger

    2008-01-01

    The spectrum of resistance to isolates of Leptosphaeria maculans and the map location of a new blackleg resistance gene found in the canola cultivar Brassica napus 'Surpass 400' are described. Two blackleg resistance genes, LepR1 and LepR2, from B. rapa subsp. sylvestris and introgressed in B. napus were identified previously. 'Surpass 400' also has blackleg resistance introgressed from B. rapa subsp. sylvestris. Using 31 diverse isolates of L. maculans, the disease reaction of 'Surpass 400' was compared with those of the resistant breeding lines AD9 (which contains LepR1), AD49 (which contains LepR2), and MC1-8 (which contains both LepR1 and LepR2). The disease reaction on 'Surpass 400' was different from those observed on AD9 and MC1-8, indicating that 'Surpass 400' carries neither LepR1 nor both LepR1 and LepR2 in combination. Disease reactions of 'Surpass 400' to most of the isolates tested were indistinguishable from those of AD49, which suggested 'Surpass 400' might contain LepR2 or a similar resistance gene. Classical genetic analysis of F1 and BC1 plants showed that a dominant allele conferred resistance to isolates of L. maculans in 'Surpass 400'. The resistance gene, which mapped to B. napus linkage group N10 in an interval of 2.9 cM flanked by microsatellite markers sR12281a and sN2428Rb and 11.7 cM below LepR2, was designated LepR3. A 9 cM region of the B. napus genome containing LepR3 was found to be syntenic with a segment of Arabidopsis chromosome 5.

  10. Composition and Structure of Pinus koraiensis Mixed Forest Respond to Spatial Climatic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingli; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Guangsheng; Xiao, Chunwang

    2014-01-01

    Background Although some studies have indicated that climate changes can affect Pinus koraiensis mixed forest, the responses of composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forests to climatic changes are unknown and the key climatic factors controlling the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest are uncertain. Methodology/principal findings Field survey was conducted in the natural Pinus koraiensis mixed forests along a latitudinal gradient and an elevational gradient in Northeast China. In order to build the mathematical models for simulating the relationships of compositional and structural attributes of the Pinus koraiensis mixed forest with climatic and non-climatic factors, stepwise linear regression analyses were performed, incorporating 14 dependent variables and the linear and quadratic components of 9 factors. All the selected new models were computed under the +2°C and +10% precipitation and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenarios. The Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month were observed to be key climatic factors controlling the stand densities and total basal areas of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Increased summer temperatures and precipitations strongly enhanced the stand densities and total basal areas of broadleaf trees but had little effect on Pinus koraiensis under the +2°C and +10% precipitation scenario and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenario. Conclusions/significance These results show that the Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month are key climatic factors which shape the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Although the Pinus koraiensis would persist, the current forests dominated by Pinus koraiensis in the region would all shift and become broadleaf-dominated forests due to the dramatic increase of broadleaf trees under the future global warming and increased

  11. Plant host and soil origin influence fungal and bacterial assemblages in the roots of woody plants.

    PubMed

    Bonito, Gregory; Reynolds, Hannah; Robeson, Michael S; Nelson, Jessica; Hodkinson, Brendan P; Tuskan, Gerald; Schadt, Christopher W; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2014-07-01

    Microbial communities in plant roots provide critical links between above- and belowground processes in terrestrial ecosystems. Variation in root communities has been attributed to plant host effects and microbial host preferences, as well as to factors pertaining to soil conditions, microbial biogeography and the presence of viable microbial propagules. To address hypotheses regarding the influence of plant host and soil biogeography on root fungal and bacterial communities, we designed a trap-plant bioassay experiment. Replicate Populus, Quercus and Pinus plants were grown in three soils originating from alternate field sites. Fungal and bacterial community profiles in the root of each replicate were assessed through multiplex 454 amplicon sequencing of four loci (i.e., 16S, SSU, ITS, LSU rDNA). Soil origin had a larger effect on fungal community composition than did host species, but the opposite was true for bacterial communities. Populus hosted the highest diversity of rhizospheric fungi and bacteria. Root communities on Quercus and Pinus were more similar to each other than to Populus. Overall, fungal root symbionts appear to be more constrained by dispersal and biogeography than by host availability.

  12. The oldest know Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm. )

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstein, F.C. ); Yamaguchi, D.K. )

    1992-08-01

    We have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata) more than 1600 yr old, including four that are more than 2 1 00 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the southern Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 B.C. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr, The ages of these trees show that Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, under arid environmental conditions, achieve much older ages than have been previously reported. The ages also show that previously inferred trends in bristlecone pine ages, where maximum ages in the eastern range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines are much less than maximum ages in the western range of Great Basin bristlecone pines (Pinus longaea), are less strong than previously supposed. Ancient Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, such as those found in this study, have the potential to expand our knowledge of late Holocene climatic conditions in western North America.

  13. [Community characteristics of Pinus armandi forest on Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dexiang; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Dengwu; Lei, Ruide; Lan, Guoyu

    2004-03-01

    The community characteristics of Pinus armandi forest distributed on the mid-west zone of Qinling Mountains' south slope were investigated. The results showed that there were 166 seed plants belonging to 51 families, 111 generas. Among them, 65 genera, 66.7% of the total, belonged to temperate biome. There was a closely relationship between Pinus armandi forest and the temperate biome. As regards to the physiognomy of the community, phanerophyte made up 75.9% of the total, dominating the community. In the community, 96 species with middle-sized leaves made up 57.8%, and there were 139 single leaf species, accounted for 83.7% of the total. There was a complicated vertical structure in the community, which could be divided into three layers:arbor layer, shrub layer and herb layer. In addition, there were also a lot of inter-stratum plants in the community. It is also found that the lack of seedlings, saplings and small trees was due to both the self-thinning caused by intra-specific competition and the alien-thinning by inter-specific competition for the light resource in the stand. The population of P. armandi was characterized with the patch size about 100 m2. The dynamics of the community showed that the community was stable and in a process of development.

  14. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  15. Antimicrobial activities of several parts of Pinus brutia, Juniperus oxycedrus, Abies cilicia, Cedrus libani and Pinus nigra.

    PubMed

    Diğrak, M; Ilçim, A; Hakki Alma, M

    1999-11-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial activities of several parts of various trees grown in the Kahramanmaraş region of Turkey were investigated by the disc diffusion method. Chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves, resins, barks, cones and fruits of Pinus brutia Ten., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Abies cilicia Ant. & Kotschy Carr., Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Pinus nigra Arn. were prepared and tested against Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Bacillus cereus FMC 19, Escherichia coli DM, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 3, Enterobacter aerogenes CCM 2531, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1, Listeria monocytogenes Scoot A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 5007, Candida albicans CCM 314, Candida tropicalis MDC 86 and Penicillium italicum K. The results showed that antifungal effects were not observed for the whole extracts, E. coli was not inhibited by any of the plant extracts except by the chloroform and acetone extracts of the leaves of A. cilicia, which showed inhibition zones of 16-18 mm, respectively. All the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the development of the other bacteria studied. When the results of this study were compared with an ampicillin standard, it was found that the microorganisms studied were generally susceptible, intermediate or resistant to the extracts of species when compared with the ampicillin standard. On the other hand, the acetone and methanol extracts of Juniperus fruits were found to be quite resistant.

  16. [Vertical distribution of fuels in Pinus yunnanensis forest and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, San; Niu, Shu-Kui; Li, De; Wang, Jing-Hua; Chen, Feng; Sun, Wu

    2013-02-01

    In order to understand the effects of fuel loadings spatial distribution on forest fire kinds and behaviors, the canopy fuels and floor fuels of Pinus yunnanensis forests with different canopy density, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, and stand age and at different altitude, slope grade, position, and aspect in Southwest China were taken as test objects, with the fuel loadings and their spatial distribution characteristics at different vertical layers compared and the fire behaviors in different stands analyzed. The relationships between the fuel loadings and the environmental factors were also analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). In different stands, there existed significant differences in the vertical distribution of fuels. Pinus yunnanensis-Qak-Syzygium aromaticum, Pinus yunnanensis-oak, and Pinus yunnanensis forests were likely to occur floor fire but not crown fire, while Pinus yunnanensis-Platycladus orientalis, Pinus yunnanensis-Keteleeria fortune, and Keteleeria fortune-Pinus yunnanensis were not only inclined to occur floor fire, but also, the floor fire could be easily transformed into crown fire. The crown fuels were mainly affected by the stand age, altitude, DBH, and tree height, while the floor fuels were mainly by the canopy density, slope grade, altitude, and stand age.

  17. [Vertical distribution of fuels in Pinus yunnanensis forest and related affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Wang, San; Niu, Shu-Kui; Li, De; Wang, Jing-Hua; Chen, Feng; Sun, Wu

    2013-02-01

    In order to understand the effects of fuel loadings spatial distribution on forest fire kinds and behaviors, the canopy fuels and floor fuels of Pinus yunnanensis forests with different canopy density, diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, and stand age and at different altitude, slope grade, position, and aspect in Southwest China were taken as test objects, with the fuel loadings and their spatial distribution characteristics at different vertical layers compared and the fire behaviors in different stands analyzed. The relationships between the fuel loadings and the environmental factors were also analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). In different stands, there existed significant differences in the vertical distribution of fuels. Pinus yunnanensis-Qak-Syzygium aromaticum, Pinus yunnanensis-oak, and Pinus yunnanensis forests were likely to occur floor fire but not crown fire, while Pinus yunnanensis-Platycladus orientalis, Pinus yunnanensis-Keteleeria fortune, and Keteleeria fortune-Pinus yunnanensis were not only inclined to occur floor fire, but also, the floor fire could be easily transformed into crown fire. The crown fuels were mainly affected by the stand age, altitude, DBH, and tree height, while the floor fuels were mainly by the canopy density, slope grade, altitude, and stand age. PMID:23705375

  18. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on growth and phosphorus efficiency of Pinus massoniana under low phosphorus stress].

    PubMed

    Pang, Li; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Zhi-Chun; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Chu, De-Yu

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition dramatically raised in recent decades, resulting in increases of soil N availability and N/P ratio, which would impact plant growth and P efficiency under low P stress. Taking breeding population of Pinus massoniana as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to simulate two P conditions, i. e., homogeneous low P availability vs. heterogeneous low P among soil layers, in combination with two N deposition levels on growth traits and P absorption and utilization efficiency of P. massoniana. Under the homogeneous low phosphorus condition, growth traits and P efficiency of P. massoniana were not significantly improved by simulated nitrogen deposition, but significant nitrogen x family interaction effect was detected, with the biomass of family 40x44 and 71x20 being increased, 36x29 and 73x23 being decreased. Under the heterogeneous low P condition, significant N effects on the seedling height, biomass and P absorption efficiency were observed, due to promoted root length and root distribution ratio of topsoil. In addition, the effects of simulated N deposition on growth and P efficiency of P. massoniana were relevant to the N/P ratio. Under the homogeneous low P condition, the N/P ratio of P. massoniana plant was 13.8, plants exhibited a low sensitivity to simulated N deposition, root secreted APase activity was increased but the plant growth was not promoted. In comparison, the plant N/P ratio was 9.7 under the heterogeneous low P condition, and the plant growth and P efficiency were significantly promoted, while no obvious change occurred in root secreted APase activity.

  19. Chemopreventive activity of compounds extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) Sw against DNA damage induced by particulate matter emitted by sugarcane burning near Araraquara, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Prieto, A.M.; Santos, A.G.; Csipak, A.R.; Caliri, C.M.; Silva, I.C.; Arbex, M.A.; Silva, F.S.; Marchi, M.R.R.

    2012-12-15

    Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris is thought to be antimutagenic. In this study, we attempted to determine whether this extract and casearin X (a clerodane diterpene from C. sylvestris) are protective against the harmful effects of airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. To that end, we used the Tradescantia micronucleus test in meiotic pollen cells of Tradescantia pallida, the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells, and the comet assay in mouse blood cells. The mutagenic compound was total suspended particulate (TSP) from air. For the Tradescantia micronucleus test, T. pallida cuttings were treated with the extract at 0.13, 0.25, or 0.50 mg/ml. Subsequently, TSP was added at 0.3 mg/ml, and tetrads from the inflorescences were examined for micronuclei. For the micronucleus test in mouse bone marrow cells and the comet assay in mouse blood cells, Balb/c mice were treated for 15 days with the extract—3.9, 7.5, or 15.0 mg/kg body weight (BW)—or with casearin X—0.3, 0.25, or 1.2 mg/kg BW—after which they received TSP (3.75 mg/kg BW). In T. pallida and mouse bone marrow cells, the extract was antimutagenic at all concentrations tested. In mouse blood cells, the extract was antigenotoxic at all concentrations, whereas casearin X was not antimutagenic but was antigenotoxic at all concentrations. We conclude that C. sylvestris ethanolic extract and casearin X protect DNA from damage induced by airborne pollutants from sugarcane burning. -- Highlights: ► We assessed DNA protection of C. sylvestris ethanolic extract. ► We assessed DNA protection of casearin X. ► We used Tradescantia pallida micronucleus test as screening. ► We used comet assay and micronucleus test in mice. ► The compounds protected DNA against sugar cane burning pollutants.

  20. Root responses to flooding.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Margret

    2013-06-01

    Soil water-logging and submergence pose a severe threat to plants. Roots are most prone to flooding and the first to suffer from oxygen shortage. Roots are vital for plant function, however, and maintenance of a functional root system upon flooding is essential. Flooding-resistant plants possess a number of adaptations that help maintain oxygen supply to the root. Plants are also capable of initiating organogenesis to replace their original root system with adventitious roots if oxygen supply becomes impossible. This review summarizes current findings on root development and de novo root genesis in response to flooding.

  1. One-step synthesis of polydispersed silver nanocrystals using Malva sylvestris: an eco-friendly mosquito larvicide with negligible impact on non-target aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Hoti, S L; Rajeswary, Mohan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    The synthesis of eco-friendly nanoparticles is evergreen branch of nanoscience with a growing number of biomedical implications. In this study, we investigated the synthesis of polydisperse and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap leaf extract of Malva sylvestris (Malvaceae). Bio-reduced AgNP were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The acute toxicity of M. sylvestris leaf extract and green-synthesized AgNP was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, AgNP showed higher toxicity against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with LC50 values of 10.33, 11.23, and 12.19 μg/mL, respectively. Green-synthesized AgNP were found safer to non-target organisms Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with respective LC50 values ranging from 813.16 to 1044.52 μg/mL. Overall, this research firstly shed light on the mosquitocidal potential of M. sylvestris, a potential bio-resource for rapid, cheap and effective synthesis of polydisperse and highly stable silver nanocrystals. PMID:27075309

  2. Nematodes of Heligmonellidae (Strongylida) of Pogonomys championi Flannery and Pogonomys sylvestris Thomas (Rodentia: Muridae) from Papua New Guinea with descriptions of five new species.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R

    2015-10-01

    Eight species of heligmonellid nematodes including five new species and a putative new species were identified from the digestive tracts of 12 Pogonomys championi Flannery and 27 P. sylvestris Thomas (Murinae: Hydromyini) from Papua Indonesia. Hasanuddinia pogonomyos Smales, 2014 had been previously described from P. loriae Thomas and P. macrourus (Milne-Edwards) and Odilia mackerrasae (Mawson, 1961) from several endemic rodent species. Bunomystrongylus ilami n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the number of rounded ridges in the synlophe; Hasanuddinia hasegawai n. sp. by the number of ridges, three ventral being hypertrophied, in the synlophe; Montistrongylus kaindiensis n. sp. by the number of ridges in the synlophe and the length of the spicules; Odilia helgeni n. sp. in the characters of the synlophe ridges; Odilia whittingtoni n. sp. in the characters of the synlophe ridges and the length of the spicules. Species richness of the nematode assemblage of P. sylvestris, nine species and a juvenile heligmonellid, was comparable to those of P. loriae and P. macrourus but that of P. championi, five species, was considered depauperate. Species composition showed both commonalities between the host species as well as distinctive features. Three of five species in the assemblage were unique to P. championi and five of nine species to P. sylvestris.

  3. One-step synthesis of polydispersed silver nanocrystals using Malva sylvestris: an eco-friendly mosquito larvicide with negligible impact on non-target aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Hoti, S L; Rajeswary, Mohan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    The synthesis of eco-friendly nanoparticles is evergreen branch of nanoscience with a growing number of biomedical implications. In this study, we investigated the synthesis of polydisperse and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap leaf extract of Malva sylvestris (Malvaceae). Bio-reduced AgNP were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The acute toxicity of M. sylvestris leaf extract and green-synthesized AgNP was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, AgNP showed higher toxicity against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with LC50 values of 10.33, 11.23, and 12.19 μg/mL, respectively. Green-synthesized AgNP were found safer to non-target organisms Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with respective LC50 values ranging from 813.16 to 1044.52 μg/mL. Overall, this research firstly shed light on the mosquitocidal potential of M. sylvestris, a potential bio-resource for rapid, cheap and effective synthesis of polydisperse and highly stable silver nanocrystals.

  4. Limitations of Photosynthesis in Pinus taeda L. (Loblolly Pine) at Low Soil Temperatures 1

    PubMed Central

    Day, Thomas A.; Heckathorn, Scott A.; DeLucia, Evan H.

    1991-01-01

    The relative importance of stomatal and nonstomatal limitations to net photosynthesis (A) and possible signals responsible for stomatal limitations were investigated in unhardened Pinus taeda seedlings at low soil temperatures. After 2 days at soil temperatures between 13 and 7°C, A was reduced by 20 to 50%, respectively. The reduction in A at these moderate root-chilling conditions appeared to be the result of stomatal limitations, based on the decrease in intercellular CO2 concentrations (ci). This conclusion was supported by A versus ci analysis and measurements of O2 evolution at saturating CO2, which suggested increases in stomatal but not biochemical limitations at these soil temperatures. Nonuniform stomatal apertures, which were demonstrated with abscisic acid, were not apparent 2 days after root chilling, and results of our A versus ci analysis appear valid. Bulk shoot water potential (ψ) declined as soil temperature dropped below 16°C. When half the root system of seedlings was chilled, shoot ψ and gas-exchange rates did not decline. Thus, nonhydraulic root-shoot signals were not implicated in stomatal limitations. The initial decrease in leaf conductance to water vapor after root chilling appeared to precede any detectable decrease in bulk fascicle ψ, but may be in response to a decrease in turgor of epidermal cells. These reductions in leaf conductance to water vapor, which occurred within 30 minutes of root chilling, could be delayed and temporarily reversed by reducing the leaf-to-air vapor-pressure deficit, suggesting that hydraulic signals may be involved in initiating stomatal closure. By independently manipulating the leaf-to-air vapor-pressure deficit of individual fascicles, we could induce uptake of water vapor through stomata, suggesting that nonsaturated conditions occur in the intercellular airspaces. There was an anomaly in our results on seedlings maintained for 2 days at soil temperatures below 7°C. Lower A appeared primarily the

  5. Use of dendrochronological method in Pinus halepensis to estimate the soil erosion in the South East of Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Raquel; Marques, Maria Jose; Bienes, Ramón

    2007-05-25

    The rate of soil erosion in pine forests (Pinus halepensis) located in the Southeast of Madrid has been estimated using dendrochronological analysis based on the change in ring-growth pattern from concentric to eccentric when the root is exposed. Using 49 roots spread across five inclined areas, it has been found that the length and direction of the hillsides, as well as their vegetation cover affect the rate of erosion, while the slope itself does not. The erosion rates found for the different areas studied vary between 3.5 and 8.8 mm year(-1), that is between 40 and 101 t ha(-1) year(-1) respectively. These values are between 2 and 3 times greater than those predicted by USLE, for which this equation underestimates soil loss for Central Spain's Mediterranean conditions. Nonetheless, both methods (using dendrochronology to determine actual soil loss and theoretical prediction with USLE) are able to establish the same significant differences among the areas studied, allowing for the comparative estimate of the severity of the area's erosion problem.

  6. Use of dendrochronological method in Pinus halepensis to estimate the soil erosion in the South East of Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Raquel; Marques, Maria Jose; Bienes, Ramón

    2007-05-25

    The rate of soil erosion in pine forests (Pinus halepensis) located in the Southeast of Madrid has been estimated using dendrochronological analysis based on the change in ring-growth pattern from concentric to eccentric when the root is exposed. Using 49 roots spread across five inclined areas, it has been found that the length and direction of the hillsides, as well as their vegetation cover affect the rate of erosion, while the slope itself does not. The erosion rates found for the different areas studied vary between 3.5 and 8.8 mm year(-1), that is between 40 and 101 t ha(-1) year(-1) respectively. These values are between 2 and 3 times greater than those predicted by USLE, for which this equation underestimates soil loss for Central Spain's Mediterranean conditions. Nonetheless, both methods (using dendrochronology to determine actual soil loss and theoretical prediction with USLE) are able to establish the same significant differences among the areas studied, allowing for the comparative estimate of the severity of the area's erosion problem. PMID:17379273

  7. Structure and species composition of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities colonizing seedlings and adult trees of Pinus montezumae in Mexican neotropical forests.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Frédérique; Ortega-Larrocea, María del Pilar; Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    Mexico is a center of diversity for pines, but few studies have examined the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities associated with pines in this country. We investigated the ECM communities associated with Pinus montezumae seedlings and mature trees in neotropical forests of central Mexico and compared their structure and species composition. Root tips were sampled on both planted seedlings and naturally occurring adult trees. A total of 42 ECM operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was found on P. montezumae. Diversity and similarity indices showed that community structure was similar for both plant growth stages, but phylogenetic diversity and Chao-estimated richness were higher for seedlings. Species composition differed between communities. The dominant OTUs belonged to the families Atheliaceae, Cortinariaceae, and Sebacinaceae, although different taxa appeared to colonize seedlings and adults. Only 12 OTUs were shared between seedlings and adults, which suggests that ECM fungi which colonize seedlings are still not fully incorporated into mycelial networks and that ECM taxa colonizing young individuals of P. montezumae are likely to come from fungal propagules. Intra-generic diversity could be an insurance mechanism to maintain forest productivity under stressed conditions. This is the first report describing the abundance of Atheliaceae in tree roots in neotropical ecosystems.

  8. Soil warming increased whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Gerhard; Grams, Thorsten E E; Matyssek, Rainer; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    This study quantified the effect of soil warming on sap flow density (Qs) of Pinus cembra L. at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps. To enhance soil temperature we installed a transparent roof construction above the forest floor around six trees. Six other trees served as controls in the absence of any manipulation. Roofing enhanced growing season mean soil temperature by 1.6, 1.3 and 1.0 °C at 5, 10 and 20 cm soil depth, respectively, while soil water availability was not affected. Sap flow density (using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes) and environmental parameters were monitored throughout three growing seasons. During the first year of treatment, no warming effect was detected on Qs. However, soil warming caused Qs to increase significantly by 11 and 19% above levels in control trees during the second and third year, respectively. This effect appeared to result from warming-induced root production, a reduction in viscosity and perhaps an increase also in root hydraulic conductivity. Hardly affected were leaf-level net CO2 uptake rate and conductance for water vapour, so that water-use efficiency stayed unchanged as confirmed by needle δ(13)C analysis. We conclude that tree water loss will increase with soil warming, which may alter the water balance within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps in a future warming environment.

  9. Identification and characterization of water-stress-responsive genes in hydroponically grown maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Dubos, Christian; Le Provost, Gregoire; Pot, David; Salin, Franck; Lalane, Celine; Madur, Delphine; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; Plomion, Christophe

    2003-02-01

    Growth, development and productivity of long-lived organisms such as forest trees are continuously challenged by abiotic stresses, and may also be greatly affected by predicted climatic change. As a first step toward creating stress-resistant maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) varieties by marker-assisted breeding, we describe the identification and characterization of water-stress-responsive genes in hydroponically grown seedlings that were well watered (-0.08 MPa) or subjected to water deprivation (-0.45 MPa) by the addition of polyethylene glycol. The cDNA amplified fragment-length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique was used to identify genes regulated by water deprivation. Approximately 4000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were screened, of which 28 increased and 20 decreased in seedlings subjected to water deprivation. Of these 48 TDFs, 62.6% corresponded to proteins of known function, which indicate the main mechanisms involved in the osmotic stress response (photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall synthesis and plant defense). We found that 16.6% of the 48 TDFs were similar to Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh gene products, 10.4% were similar to Pinus taeda L. expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and 10.4% did not match any sequences in the public databases. The relative abundance of these transcripts was quantitatively analyzed by reverse northern of both needle and root tissues, confirming the effectiveness of the cDNA-AFLP technique in detecting differentially expressed genes. The identification and characterization of water-stress-responsive genes provide new insights into the nature of the machinery involved in the response to water deprivation in a forest tree.

  10. Water and nutrient acquisition by roots and canopies

    SciTech Connect

    Oren, R.; Sheriff, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Water and nutrient supply rates, as well as internal (plant) and external (soil) deficits, can have major effects on physiological activity and growth. Effects of water or nutrient deficits on growth can be demonstrated separately, but they often interact, as shown for several Pinus species, and by Turner (1982) for Pinus radiata. Moist soil and wet canopy surfaces facilitate nutrient uptake through roots and foliage, respectively. Water uptake is affected by the number and distribution of roots in relation to the distribution of soil moisture, and by the wetness and hydraulic permeability of foliage. Nutrient uptake is similarly affected by tissue characteristics and nutrient concentration, but also depends on the moisture regime in the bulk soil and in the vicinity of absorbing surfaces. In this chapter, we discuss generalities based on results from observational studies of unmanipulated plants and of stands. We also consider information from experimental manipulation of nutrient and water availability. A more thorough treatment of the effects of mycorrhizae and anthropogenic pollution on water and nutrient acquisition is given, respectively.

  11. Needles of Pinus halepensis as Biomonitors of Bioaerosol Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Galès, Amandine; Latrille, Eric; Wéry, Nathalie; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Godon, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We propose using the surface of pine trees needles to biomonitor the bioaerosol emissions at a composting plant. Measurements were based on 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, a bioindicator of composting plant emissions. A sampling plan was established based on 29 samples around the emission source. The abundance of 16S rRNA gene copies of S. rectivirgula per gram of Pinus halepensis needles varied from 104 to 102 as a function of the distance. The signal reached the background level at distances around the composting plant ranging from 2 km to more than 5.4 km, depending on the local topography and average wind directions. From these values, the impacted area around the source of bioaerosols was mapped. PMID:25379901

  12. Early Holocene pinyon ( Pinus monophylla) in the northeastern Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, David B.; Rhode, David

    1990-01-01

    Fine-grained excavation and analysis of a stratigraphic column from Danger Cave, northeastern Great Basin, suggests prehistoric hunter-gatherers were collecting and using singleleaf pinyon ( Pinus monophylla) near the site for at least the last 7500 yr. Human use of the cave began after the retreat of Lake Bonneville from the Gilbert level, shortly before 10,000 yr B.P. In stratum 9, culturally deposited pine nut hulls appear in the sequence by about 7900 yr B.P. and are continuously present thereafter. A hull fragment in stratum 10 is directly dated to 7410 ± 120 yr B.P. These dates are at least 2000 yr earlier than expected by extrapolation to macrofossil records from the east-central and central Great Basin, and necessitate some revision of current biogeographical models of late Quaternary pinyon migration.

  13. Effects of octadecanoid metabolites and inhibitors on induced nicotine accumulation inNicotiana sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, I T; Schmelz, E A; Zhang, Z P

    1996-01-01

    We examined the effects of inhibitors of the octadecanoid pathway (n-propyl gallate, acetosalicylic acid, salicylhydroxamic acid, methyl salicylate, and antipyrine) on wound- and jasmonate-induced nicotine accumulation and compared the nicotine-inducing ability of exogeneous additions of linolenic acid (18:3) and its methyl ester, linoleic acid (18:2), abscisic acid, traumatic acid, and methyl dihydrojasmonate to the nicotine-inducing ability of exogenous additions of methyl jasmonate (MJ). The first four of these inhibitors significantly reduced wound-induced nicotine accumulation when applied in a lanolin paste to wounded tissues immediately after wounding at concentrations of 89-90µg/plant. When methyl salicylate and propyl gallate were mixed individually with MJ, neither inhibited MJ-induced nicotine synthesis, which suggests that the inhibitors block jasmonate synthesis or release from stored pools and not its effects. Linolenic acid or its methyl ester applied to undamaged plants or damaged plants (to either damaged or undamaged leaves) or to the roots of hydroponically growing plants did not induce nicotine accumulation or increase nicotine accumulation above levels found in damaged plants. Similarly, traumatic acid, linoleic acid, and abscisic acid did not induce nicotine accumulations. Methyl dihydrojasmonate, which is biosynthetically derived from linoleic acid, had 12-56% of the nicotine-inducing acitivity of MJ when added to the roots of hydroponically grown plants. The signal transduction pathway mediating wound-induced nicotine production therefore shares many features of the pathway eliciting wound-induced proteinase inhibitor production but differs in not being regulated at the lipase step in jasmonic acid production and not being responsive to abscisic acid. PMID:24226983

  14. Greek Pinus essential oils: larvicidal activity and repellency against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koutsaviti, Katerina; Giatropoulos, Athanassios; Pitarokili, Danae; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Michaelakis, Antonios; Tzakou, Olga

    2015-02-01

    The needle volatiles metabolites of seven Pinus spp.: Pinus nigra (3 samples), Pinus stankewiczii, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Pinus canariensis, Pinus pinaster and Pinus strobus from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. P. nigra and P. canariensis essential oils were dominated by α-pinene (24.9-28.9 % and 15 %, respectively) and germacrene D (20.3-31.9 % and 55.8 %, respectively), whereas P. brutia and P. strobus by α-pinene (20.6 % and 31.4 %, respectively) and β-pinene (31.7 % and 33.6 %, respectively). P. halepensis and P. pinaster oils were characterized by β-caryophyllene (28.5 % and 22.5 %, respectively). Finally, β-pinene (31.4 %), germacrene D (23.3 %) and α-pinene (17.5 %) were the most abundant compounds in the needle oil of P. stankewiczii. Additionally the larvicidal and repellent properties of their essential oils were evaluated against Aedes albopictus, a mosquito of great ecological and medical importance. The results of bioassays revealed that repellent abilities of the tested essential oils were more potent than their larvicidal activities. The essential oils of P. brutia, P. halepensis and P. stankewiczii presented considerable larvicidal activity (LC50 values 67.04 mgL(-1) and 70.21 mgL(-1), respectively), while the others were weak to inactive against larvae. The essential oils of P. halepensis, P. brutia, and P. stankewiczii presented a high repellent activity, even at the dose of 0.2 μL cm(-2), while in the dose of 0.4 μL cm(-2), almost all the tested EOs displayed protection against the mosquito. PMID:25399814

  15. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Ian A; St John, Mark G; Yeates, Gregor W; Morse, Chris W; Bonner, Karen I; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A

    2014-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. PMID:25228312

  16. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, Ian A.; St John, Mark G.; Yeates, Gregor W.; Morse, Chris W.; Bonner, Karen I.; Orwin, Kate; Peltzer, Duane A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant invasions can change soil biota and nutrients in ways that drive subsequent plant communities, particularly when co-invading with belowground mutualists such as ectomycorrhizal fungi. These effects can persist following removal of the invasive plant and, combined with effects of removal per se, influence subsequent plant communities and ecosystem functioning. We used field observations and a soil bioassay with multiple plant species to determine the belowground effects and post-removal legacy caused by invasion of the non-native tree Pinus contorta into a native plant community. Pinus facilitated ectomycorrhizal infection of the co-occurring invasive tree, Pseudotsuga menziesii, but not conspecific Pinus (which always had ectomycorrhizas) nor the native pioneer Kunzea ericoides (which never had ectomycorrhizas). Pinus also caused a major shift in soil nutrient cycling as indicated by increased bacterial dominance, NO3-N (17-fold increase) and available phosphorus (3.2-fold increase) in soils, which in turn promoted increased growth of graminoids. These results parallel field observations, where Pinus removal is associated with invasion by non-native grasses and herbs, and suggest that legacies of Pinus on soil nutrient cycling thus indirectly promote invasion of other non-native plant species. Our findings demonstrate that multi-trophic belowground legacies are an important but hitherto largely unconsidered factor in plant community reassembly following invasive plant removal. PMID:25228312

  17. Two SCARECROW-LIKE genes are induced in response to exogenous auxin in rooting-competent cuttings of distantly related forest species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Conchi; Vielba, Jesús M; Ferro, Enrique; Covelo, Guillermo; Solé, Alicia; Abarca, Dolores; de Mier, Belén S; Díaz-Sala, Carmen

    2007-10-01

    We characterized SCARECROW-LIKE genes induced by auxin in rooting-competent cuttings of two distantly related forest species (Pinus radiata D. Don and Castanea sativa Mill.) before the activation of cell division that results in adventitious root formation. The predicted protein sequences contain domains characteristic of the GRAS protein family and show a strong similarity to the SCARECROW-LIKE proteins, indicating conserved functions of these proteins. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that these genes are expressed at relatively high levels in roots. Induction of increased mRNA levels in rooting-competent cuttings of both species in response to exogenous auxin was observed within the first 24 h of the root induction process, a time when cell reorganization takes place, but before the resumption of cell division and the appearance of adventitious root primordia. These results suggest that SCARECROW-LIKE genes play a role during the earliest stages of adventitious root formation.

  18. Lactarius deliciosus and Pinus radiata in New Zealand: towards the development of innovative gourmet mushroom orchards.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Laguette, Alexis; Cummings, Nicholas; Butler, Ruth Catherine; Willows, Anna; Hesom-Williams, Nina; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Yun

    2014-10-01

    The cultivation of Lactarius deliciosus (saffron milk cap) in New Zealand began in 2002 when fruiting bodies were produced in an Otago plantation of Pinus radiata seedlings artificially mycorrhized by L. deliciosus. In 2007, 42 P. radiata seedlings mycorrhized by L. deliciosus under controlled conditions were planted in a grass field at Plant and Food Research (Lincoln, Canterbury). The effects of pine bark mulch application and initial degree of mycorrhization of seedlings were examined to determine their influence on tree growth, development of mycorrhizae (i.e. their multiplication on the root system and their degree of branching) and fruiting body production. Mulch application increased tree growth significantly over 4 years. High initial mycorrhization slightly stimulated tree growth over 2 years. The initial degree of mycorrhization was positively, but not strongly, related to the persistence and development of L. deliciosus mycorrhizae and rhizomorphs based on root sample analyses 2 years after planting. However, mulching strongly reduced the proportion of highly branched L. deliciosus mycorrhizae compared with poorly ramified ones. A positive correlation was observed between the fruiting of L. deliciosus and the development of mycorrhizae. Mulching delayed the onset of fruiting body production. In 2010, fruiting bodies were produced only from non-mulched trees with eight of these (38 %) producing a total of 12 fruiting bodies. In 2011, 19 non-mulched trees (90 %) and 9 mulched trees (45 %) produced 143 and 47 fruiting bodies, respectively, totalling 190 fruiting bodies. By 2012, 19 non-mulched trees (90 %) and 13 mulched trees (65 %) produced 333 and 236 fruiting bodies, respectively, totalling 569 fruiting bodies (c. 30 kg). This study presents new information on factors influencing the onset of fruiting and the development of yields in a plantation of P. radiata mycorrhized by L. deliciosus. Projected yields as high as c. 300 kg/ha from the

  19. Growth of mycorrhizal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings planted in oil sands reclaimed areas.

    PubMed

    Onwuchekwa, Nnenna E; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Quoreshi, Ali; Khasa, Damase P

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of ectomycorrhizal inoculation at the tree nursery seedling production stage on growth and survival was examined in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) planted in oil sands reclamation sites. The seedlings were inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme strain # UAMH 5247, Suillus tomentosus strain # UAMH 6252, and Laccaria bicolor strain # UAMH 8232, as individual pure cultures and in combinations. These treatments were demonstrated to improve salinity resistance and water uptake in conifer seedlings. The field responses of seedlings to ectomycorrhizal inoculation varied between plant species, inoculation treatments, and measured parameters. Seedling inoculation resulted in higher ectomycorrhizal colonization rates compared with non-inoculated control, which had also a relatively small proportion of roots colonized by the nursery contaminant fungi identified as Amphinema byssoides and Thelephora americana. Seedling inoculation had overall a greater effect on relative height growth rates, dry biomass, and stem volumes in jack pine compared with white spruce. However, when examined after two growing seasons, inoculated white spruce seedlings showed up to 75% higher survival rates than non-inoculated controls. The persistence of inoculated fungi in roots of planted seedlings was examined at the end of the second growing season. Although the inoculation with H. crustuliniforme triggered growth responses, the fungus was not found in the roots of seedlings at the end of the second growing season suggesting a possibility that the observed growth-promoting effect of H. crustuliniforme may be transient. The results suggest that the inoculation of conifer seedlings with ectomycorrhizal fungi could potentially be carried out on a large scale in tree nurseries to benefit postplanting performance in oil sands reclamation sites. However, these practices should take into consideration the differences in responses between the different

  20. Changes in root architecture under elevated concentrations of CO₂ and nitrogen reflect alternate soil exploration strategies.

    PubMed

    Beidler, Katilyn V; Taylor, Benton N; Strand, Allan E; Cooper, Emily R; Schönholz, Marcos; Pritchard, Seth G

    2015-02-01

    Predicting the response of fine roots to increased atmospheric CO₂ concentration has important implications for carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. Root architecture is known to play an important role in how trees acquire soil resources in changing environments. However, the effects of elevated CO₂ on the fine-root architecture of trees remain unclear. We investigated the architectural response of fine roots exposed to 14 yr of CO₂ enrichment and 6 yr of nitrogen (N) fertilization in a Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) forest. Root traits reflecting geometry, topology and uptake function were measured on intact fine-root branches removed from soil monoliths and the litter layer. CO₂ enrichment resulted in the development of a fine-root pool that was less dichotomous and more exploratory under N-limited conditions. The per cent mycorrhizal colonization did not differ among treatments, suggesting that root growth and acclimation to elevated CO₂ were quantitatively more important than increased mycorrhizal associations. Our findings emphasize the importance of architectural plasticity in response to environmental change and suggest that changes in root architecture may allow trees to effectively exploit larger volumes of soil, thereby pre-empting progressive nutrient limitations.

  1. The Root Pressure Phenomenon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    Describes experiments demonstrating that root pressure in plants is probably controlled by a circadian rhythm (biological clock). Root pressure phenomenon plays significant part in water transport in contradiction with prevalent belief. (PS)

  2. Using Square Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William Wynne

    1976-01-01

    This article describes techniques which enable the user of a comparatively simple calculator to perform calculations of cube roots, nth roots, trigonometric, and inverse trigonometric functions, logarithms, and exponentials. (DT)

  3. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0–10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0–10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05; for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10–20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0–10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment. PMID:26400019

  4. A single ectomycorrhizal fungal species can enable a Pinus invasion.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Jeremy; Horton, Thomas R; Pauchard, Aníbal; Nuñnez, Martin A

    2015-05-01

    Like all obligately ectomycorrhizal plants, pines require ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts to complete their life cycle. Pines introduced into regions far from their native range are typically incompatible with local ectomycorrhizal fungi, and, when they invade, coinvade with fungi from their native range. While the identities and distributions of coinvasive fungal symbionts of pine invasions are poorly known, communities that have been studied are notably depauperate. However, it is not yet clear whether any number of fungal coinvaders is able to support a Pinaceae invasion, or whether very depauperate communities are unable to invade. Here, we ask whether there is evidence for a minimum species richness of fungal symbionts necessary to support a pine/ectomycorrhizal fungus coinvasion. We sampled a Pinus contorta invasion front near Coyhaique, Chile, using molecular barcoding to identify ectomycorrhizal fungi. We report that the site has a total richness of four species, and that many invasive trees appear to be supported by only a single ectomycorrhizal fungus, Suillus luteus. We conclude that a single ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus can suffice to enable a pine invasion. PMID:26236856

  5. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N(NH4+(-N)), P < 0.05; for nitrate N(NO3-(-N)), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for NO3-(-N), P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment. PMID:26400019

  6. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N (-N), P < 0.05 for nitrate N (-N), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for -N, P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  7. Urbanization in China drives soil acidification of Pinus massoniana forests.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Mo, Jiangming; Wang, Shizhong; Liu, Juxiu; Chen, Hao

    2015-09-24

    Soil acidification instead of alkalization has become a new environmental issue caused by urbanization. However, it remains unclear the characters and main contributors of this acidification. We investigated the effects of an urbanization gradient on soil acidity of Pinus massoniana forests in Pearl River Delta, South China. The soil pH of pine forests at 20-cm depth had significantly positive linear correlations with the distance from the urban core of Guangzhou. Soil pH reduced by 0.44 unit at the 0-10 cm layer in urbanized areas compared to that in non-urbanized areas. Nitrogen deposition, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were key factors influencing soil acidification based on a principal component analysis. Nitrogen deposition showed significant linear relationships with soil pH at the 0-10 cm (for ammonium N(NH4+(-N)), P < 0.05; for nitrate N(NO3-(-N)), P < 0.01) and 10-20 cm (for NO3-(-N), P < 0.05) layers. However, there was no significant loss of exchangeable non-acidic cations along the urbanization gradient, instead their levels were higher in urban than in urban/suburban area at the 0-10 cm layer. Our results suggested N deposition particularly under the climate of high temperature and rainfall, greatly contributed to a significant soil acidification occurred in the urbanized environment.

  8. [Soil microbial functional diversity of different altitude Pinus koraiensis forests].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-xue; Wang, Ning; Wang, Nan-nan; Sun, Xue; Feng, Fu-juan

    2015-12-01

    In order to comprehensively understand the soil microbial carbon utilization characteristics of Pinus koraiensis forests, we took the topsoil (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm) along the 700-1100 m altitude in Changbai Mountains and analyzed the vertical distributed characteristics and variation of microbial functional diversity along the elevation gradient by Biolog microplate method. The results showed that there were significant differences in functional diversity of microbial communities at different elevations. AWCD increased with the extension of incubation time and AWCD at the same soil depth gradually decreased along with increasing altitude; Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh diversity index also showed the same trend with AWCD and three different diversity indices were significantly different along the elevation gradient; Species diversity and functional diversity showed the same variation. The utilization intensities of six categories carbon sources had differences while amino acids were constantly the most dominant carbon source. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that soil microbial carbon utilization at different altitudes had obvious spatial differentiation, as reflected in the use of carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids. In addition, the cluster of the microbial diversity indexes and AWCD values of different altitudes showed that the composition of vegetation had a significant impact on soil microbial composition and functional activity. PMID:27112001

  9. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention. PMID:17474862

  10. Nitrogen metabolism in Lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Heerden, P. S.; Towers, G. H.; Lewis, N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The primary metabolic fate of phyenylalanine, following its deamination in plants, is conscription of its carbon skeleton for lignin, suberin, flavonoid, and related metabolite formation. Since this accounts for approximately 30-40% of all organic carbon, an effective means of recycling the liberated ammonium ion must be operative. In order to establish how this occurs, the uptake and metabolism of various 15N-labeled precursors (15N-Phe, 15NH4Cl, 15N-Gln, and 15N-Glu) in lignifying Pinus taeda cell cultures was investigated, using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography, 15N NMR, and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analyses. It was found that the ammonium ion released during active phenylpropanoid metabolism was not made available for general amino acid/protein synthesis. Rather it was rapidly recycled back to regenerate phenylalanine, thereby providing an effective means of maintaining active phenylpropanoid metabolism with no additional nitrogen requirement. These results strongly suggest that, in lignifying cells, ammonium ion reassimilation is tightly compartmentalized.

  11. [Soil microbial functional diversity of different altitude Pinus koraiensis forests].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong-xue; Wang, Ning; Wang, Nan-nan; Sun, Xue; Feng, Fu-juan

    2015-12-01

    In order to comprehensively understand the soil microbial carbon utilization characteristics of Pinus koraiensis forests, we took the topsoil (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm) along the 700-1100 m altitude in Changbai Mountains and analyzed the vertical distributed characteristics and variation of microbial functional diversity along the elevation gradient by Biolog microplate method. The results showed that there were significant differences in functional diversity of microbial communities at different elevations. AWCD increased with the extension of incubation time and AWCD at the same soil depth gradually decreased along with increasing altitude; Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh diversity index also showed the same trend with AWCD and three different diversity indices were significantly different along the elevation gradient; Species diversity and functional diversity showed the same variation. The utilization intensities of six categories carbon sources had differences while amino acids were constantly the most dominant carbon source. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that soil microbial carbon utilization at different altitudes had obvious spatial differentiation, as reflected in the use of carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids. In addition, the cluster of the microbial diversity indexes and AWCD values of different altitudes showed that the composition of vegetation had a significant impact on soil microbial composition and functional activity.

  12. Seasonal differences in freezing stress resistance of needles of Pinus nigra and Pinus resinosa: evaluation of the electrolyte leakage method.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, M L; Palta, J P; Reich, P B

    1992-10-01

    Seasonal changes in freezing stress resistance of needles of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) trees were measured by an electrolyte leakage method and by visual observation. During most of the year, freezing stress resistance determined by the two methods gave similar results. The electrolyte leakage method provided a good estimate of seasonal changes in freezing stress resistance except for red pine needles in their most winter-hardy state. To obtain a reliable estimate of freezing stress resistance in winter-hardy red pine needles it was necessary to combine the electrolyte leakage method with visual observations. When red pine needles survived exposure to -80 degrees C or lower, electrolyte leakage was never more than 30% even when the needles were exposed to a slow freeze-thaw stress of -196 degrees C. However, rapid freezing of red pine needles to -196 degrees C resulted in electrolyte leakage of over 80%. Red pine needles attained a much higher freezing stress resistance during the winter than Austrian pine. Red pine needles also acclimated and deacclimated faster than Austrian pine needles. An index of injury was developed based on the electrolyte leakage method ((R(2) + R(1))/2, where R(1) is the minimum % electrolyte leakage from noninjured tissue and R(2) is the maximum % electrolyte leakage at the highest injury) that reliably predicted freezing stress resistance of pine needles for most of the year. Important aspects for developing a successful index of injury for pine needles are: use of cut needles, vacuum infiltration and shaking during incubation in water.We conclude that: (1) during cold acclimation the cell wall properties of the pine needles changed and these changes, which appeared to differ in the two species, might explain the very low leakage of electrolytes from winter-hardy needles of red pine; (2) pine needles survive winter by developing the ability to tolerate extracellular ice formation, because

  13. Discrete square root smoothing.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaminski, P. G.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The basic techniques applied in the square root least squares and square root filtering solutions are applied to the smoothing problem. Both conventional and square root solutions are obtained by computing the filtered solutions, then modifying the results to include the effect of all measurements. A comparison of computation requirements indicates that the square root information smoother (SRIS) is more efficient than conventional solutions in a large class of fixed interval smoothing problems.

  14. Corky root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corky root rot (corchosis) was first reported in Argentina in 1985, but the disease was presumably present long before that. The disease occurs in most alfalfa-growing areas of Argentina but is more common in older stands. In space-planted alfalfa trials scored for root problems, corky root rot was ...

  15. WHY ROOTING FAILS.

    SciTech Connect

    CREUTZ,M.

    2007-07-30

    I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four 'tastes.' The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

  16. Rooting Gene Trees without Outgroups: EP Rooting

    PubMed Central

    Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Little, Roderick J. A.; Lake, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167–181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301–316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60–76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489–493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763–766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255–260). PMID:22593551

  17. Sampling open-top chambers and plantations for live fine-root biomass of loblolly pine. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Zarnoch, S.J.; Marx, D.H.; Ruehle, J.L.; Baldwin, V.C.

    1993-09-08

    A soil-core sampling protocol was developed for estimating the standing crop of live fine-root biomass in young loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.). Some of the pines were in ozone experiments in open-top chambers. Others were in young plantations. Attempts were made to find strata that would reduce the variability of estimates. With the pilot study estimates of variability, sampling designs were developed to meet specified criteria of precision. Estimates of fine-root biomass based on three soil-core sizes increased monotonically with core size.

  18. Selecting ectomycorrhizal fungi for inoculating plantations in south China: effect of Scleroderma on colonization and growth of exotic Eucalyptus globulus, E. urophylla, Pinus elliottii, and P. radiata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying Long; Kang, Li Hua; Malajczuk, Nicholas; Dell, Bernard

    2006-06-01

    Plantation forestry with exotic trees in south China needs compatible symbionts to improve the growth of seedlings in nurseries and to enhance establishment and growth in the field. Scleroderma, a potentially suitable symbiont for inoculation, is not being used in containerized nurseries in the region due to poor knowledge of its host range. The ability of 15 collections of Scleroderma, nine from Australia and six from Asia, to colonize and promote growth of four important exotic plantation trees (Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Eucalyptus urophylla ST Blake, Pinus elliottii Engl., and Pinus radiata D. Don) was examined in a nursery potting mix. There was generally low host specificity of Scleroderma between tree genera. At 12 weeks after inoculation, 13 to 14 of the 15 spore collections formed ectomycorrhizas on seedlings of eucalypts or pines. The extent of colonization differed between spore treatments with two or four collections forming abundant mycorrhizas (>50% fine roots colonized) on E. globulus or E. urophylla, respectively, and three or five on P. radiata or P. elliottii, respectively. Three collections from Australia strongly colonized all hosts resulting in 26 to 100% of short roots being colonized. Chinese Scleroderma collections resulted in fewer mycorrhizas on eucalypts than on pines. Inoculation stimulated the growth (shoot height and dry weight) of eucalypt and pine seedlings by up to 105% where Scleroderma mycorrhizas developed. The results suggest that there is a need to source Scleroderma from outside China for inoculating eucalypts in Chinese nurseries whereas Chinese collections of Scleroderma could be used in pine nurseries. Further screening of Australian and Chinese Scleroderma should be performed in Chinese nurseries and in the field before final commercial decisions are made. PMID:16534620

  19. [Fine root biomass of four main vegetation types in Daluo Mountain of Ningxia, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Su, Ji-Shuai; Cheng, Ji-Min; Gao, Yang; Qiu, Zhi-Hu; Cao, Huai-qing

    2013-03-01

    By the method of soil core sampling, this paper studied the fine root biomass, soil water content, and soil bulk density in 0-40 cm soil layer of four main vegetation types (Picea crassifolia forest, Pinus tabulaeformis forest, deciduous shrubs, and desert grassland) in Daluo Mountain of Ningxia, and the fine root biomass in the 0-40 cm soil layer of P. crassifolia forests with the ages of 50-, 70-, and 100 a. The fine root biomass of the four vegetation types was mainly distributed in 0-20 cm soil layer, with the rank of P. tabulaeformis forest > P. crassifolia forest > deciduous shrubs > desert grassland, and the fine root biomass of P. tabulaeformis forest was significantly higher than that of the other three vegetation types. The fine root biomass of the P. crassifolia forests with different ages was 70 a > 100 a > 50 a, and there were no significant differences in the live fine root biomass ratio and dead fine root biomass ratio among the three P. crassifolia forests. The soil water content in the 0-40 cm soil layer of the four vegetation types was P. crassifolia forest > P. tabulaeformis forest > deciduous shrubs > desert grassland, while the soil bulk density followed an opposite pattern, and was significantly negatively correlated with the fine root biomass.

  20. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index was calculated using principal component analysis. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities were significantly lower in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations compared with Pinus plantation, but they were significantly higher in the third and fourth generations than in the first and second generations and significantly lower than in Pinus plantation. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower in Eucalyptus plantations (1.8-2.5 g kg-1 and 26-66 mg kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (14.3 g kg-1 and 92 mg kg-1), but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations (0.9-1.1 g kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (0.4 g kg-1). As an integrated indicator, soil quality index was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92) and lowest in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations (0.24 and 0.13). Soil quality index in the third and fourth generations (0.36 and 0.38) was between that in Pinus plantation and in first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understorey coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during

  1. [Comparative sequence analysis of the LEA gene fragment in Pinus sibirica du tour and Pinus pumila (Pallas) regel].

    PubMed

    Mglinets, A V; Sokolov, V A; Petrova, E A; Goroshkevich, S N

    2014-02-01

    A comparative sequence analysis of the LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA)-like gene) intron fragment was performed in Pinus sibirica and P. pumila differing in geographic origin. It was demonstrated that in P. sibirica this fragment was represented by two types of PCR products, 224 and 202 bp in size. Similarly, in accessions of P. pumila, two PCR products of 224 and 159 bp in size were identified. Comparison of 224 bp fragments in P. sibirica and P. pumila showed that they differed in single nucleotide substitutions. Analysis of the intron fragment in a plant, which was characterized as an interspecific hybrid based on morphological characters, showed that it had fragments of 224 and 159 bp in size. The sequence of 224 bp fragment was similar to that of the corresponding fragment in P. sibirica. The structure of the short fragment was the same as the structure of the corresponding fragment in P. pumila. The data obtained are discussed in terms of the use of the sequences examined for species taxonomic classification and of an analysis of species hybridization. PMID:25711024

  2. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fire for Pinus and Abies across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.

  3. Paleoclimatic implications of glacial and postglacial refugia for Pinus pumila in western Beringia

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P M; Lozhkin, A V; Solomatkina, T B; Brown, T A

    2010-02-05

    Palynological results from Julietta Lake currently provide the most direct evidence to support the existence of a glacial refugium for Pinus pumila in mountains of southwestern Beringia. Both percentages and accumulation rates indicate the evergreen shrub survived until at least {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. in the Upper Kolyma region. Percentage data suggest numbers dwindled into the late glaciation, whereas pollen accumulation rates point towards a more rapid demise shortly after {approx}19,000 14C yr B.P. Pinus pumila did not re-establish in any great numbers until {approx}8100 14C yr B.P., despite the local presence {approx}9800 14C yr B.P. of Larix dahurica, which shares similar summer temperature requirements. The postglacial thermal maximum (in Beringia {approx}11,000-9000 14C yr B.P.) provided Pinus pumila shrubs with equally harsh albeit different conditions for survival than those present during the LGM. Regional records indicate that in this time of maximum warmth Pinus pumila likely sheltered in a second, lower-elevation refugium. Paleoclimatic models and modern ecology suggest that shifts in the nature of seasonal transitions and not only seasonal extremes have played important roles in the history of Pinus pumila over the last {approx}21,000 14C yr B.P.

  4. Effect of diflubenzuron on the development of Pinus pinaster seedlings inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Miguel A; Sousa, Nadine R; Franco, Albina R; Costa, Vítor; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

    2013-01-01

    Diflubenzuron (DFB) is an insecticide commonly used to control forest pests. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of diflubenzuron on the development of Pinus pinaster seedlings and Pisolithus tinctorius under laboratory conditions and to study the possible protective role of this ectomycorrhizal fungus against the effects of diflubenzuron. In vitro experiments revealed that diflubenzuron inhibited fungal growth at all tested concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg L(-1)). Root growth was inhibited at the two highest diflubenzuron concentrations. The activity of the antioxidant defence system of non-inoculated P. pinaster increased at 1 and 10 mg DFB kg(-1) substrate, and inoculation increased the threshold to the highest concentration. The protective role of the ectomycorrhizal fungus was seen in the increase of CAT activity. This study revealed that despite causing no mortality, diflubenzuron has the ability to cause sub-lethal damage to P. pinaster. The disproportionate use of this insecticide may lead to higher amounts of its residues in soil and the biosphere, endangering trees, fungi and their symbiosis.

  5. Eucalyptus urograndis and Pinus taeda enhance removal of chlorobenzene and benzene in sand culture: A greenhouse study.

    PubMed

    Barcellos, Diego; Morris, Lawrence A; Nzengung, Valentine; Moura, Tiago; Mantripragada, Nehru; Thompson, Aaron

    2016-10-01

    Contamination of soils and groundwater by chlorobenzene and benzene is a common problem at industrial sites worldwide. Since chemical remediation techniques are rarely completely effective, remnants of these contaminants often persist at levels that can still influence ecosystem health. We evaluated the potential of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus urograndis to accelerate the removal of these compounds from sand/water systems using a completely randomized block greenhouse experiment with a no-plant control. At 2-day intervals, we added a solution containing both chlorobenzene and benzene with the same concentration of 50 mg L(-1) (25 mg pot(-1)), and we monitored leachate concentrations daily. The planted treatments showed greater decrease of contaminants over time. In the absence of plants, the contaminant mass decreased 50-60% during each 2-day cycle; whereas, in the planted treatments the contaminant mass decreased 91-98%. At the end of the experiment the plant roots, leaves, and the sand-substrate each contained less than 1 mg kg(-1) of contaminants, which is ∼1% of the total contaminant mass added. In addition, we observed no tree mortality even at concentrations exceeding the aqueous solubility limit of both compounds. Our results suggest both trees are good candidates for remediating chlorobenzene and benzene in soils and groundwater. PMID:27159839

  6. Eucalyptus urograndis and Pinus taeda enhance removal of chlorobenzene and benzene in sand culture: A greenhouse study.

    PubMed

    Barcellos, Diego; Morris, Lawrence A; Nzengung, Valentine; Moura, Tiago; Mantripragada, Nehru; Thompson, Aaron

    2016-10-01

    Contamination of soils and groundwater by chlorobenzene and benzene is a common problem at industrial sites worldwide. Since chemical remediation techniques are rarely completely effective, remnants of these contaminants often persist at levels that can still influence ecosystem health. We evaluated the potential of Pinus taeda and Eucalyptus urograndis to accelerate the removal of these compounds from sand/water systems using a completely randomized block greenhouse experiment with a no-plant control. At 2-day intervals, we added a solution containing both chlorobenzene and benzene with the same concentration of 50 mg L(-1) (25 mg pot(-1)), and we monitored leachate concentrations daily. The planted treatments showed greater decrease of contaminants over time. In the absence of plants, the contaminant mass decreased 50-60% during each 2-day cycle; whereas, in the planted treatments the contaminant mass decreased 91-98%. At the end of the experiment the plant roots, leaves, and the sand-substrate each contained less than 1 mg kg(-1) of contaminants, which is ∼1% of the total contaminant mass added. In addition, we observed no tree mortality even at concentrations exceeding the aqueous solubility limit of both compounds. Our results suggest both trees are good candidates for remediating chlorobenzene and benzene in soils and groundwater.

  7. The individual and combined effects of ozone and simulated acid rain on growth, gas exchange rate and water-use efficiency of Pinus armandi Franch.

    PubMed

    Shan, Y; Feng, Z; Izuta, T; Aoki, M; Totsuka, T

    1996-01-01

    The seedlings of Pinus armandi Franch. were exposed to ozone (O(3)) at 300 ppb for 8 h a day, 6 days a week, and simulated acid rain of pH 3.0 or 2.3, 6 times a week, alone or in combination, for 14 weeks from 15 June to 20 September 1993. The control seedlings were exposed to charcoal-filtered air and simulated rain of pH 6.8 during the same period. Significant interactive effects of O(3) and simulated acid rain on whole plant net photosynthetic rate were observed, but not on other determined parameters. The exposure of the seedlings to O(3) caused the reductions in the dry weight growth, root dry weight relative to the whole plant dry weight, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate in light, water-use efficiency and root respiration activity, and increases in shoot/root ratio, and leaf dry weight relative to the whole plant dry weight without an appearance of acute visible foliar injury, but did not affect the dark respiration rate and transpiration rate in the darkness. The decreased net photosynthetic rate was considered to be the major cause for the growth reduction of the seedlings exposed to O(3). On the other hand, the exposure of the seedlings to simulated acid rain reduced the net photosynthetic rate per unit chlorophyll a + b content, but did not induce the significant change in other determined parameters.

  8. Deep rooting in winter wheat: rooting nodes of deep roots in two cultivars with deep and shallow root systems.

    PubMed

    Araki, H; Iijima, M

    2001-09-01

    Deep rooting of wheat has been suggested that it influences the tolerance to various environmental stresses. In this study, the nodes from which the deepest penetrated roots had emerged were examined in winter wheat. The wheat was grown in long tubes with or without mechanical stress and in large root boxes. The length and growth angle of each axile root were examined to analyze the difference in the vertical distribution of the roots between the two wheat cultivars, one with a deep and one with a shallow root system. In Shiroganekomugi, a Japanese winter wheat cultivar with a shallow root system, the rooting depths of the seminal and nodal roots decreased as the rooting nodes advanced acropetally. Six out of nine deepest roots were seminal root in the non-mechanical stress conditions. In Mutsubenkei, a Japanese winter wheat cultivar with a deep root system, grown in root boxes, not only the seminal roots but also the coleoptilar and the first nodal roots penetrated to a depth of more than 1.3 m in the root box, and became the deepest roots. In both cultivars, the seminal roots became the deepest roots under the mechanical stress conditions. There were no clear tendencies in the root growth angles among the rooting nodes in the wheat root system. This indicates that the length of the axile roots can explain the differences in the rooting depths among axile roots in a wheat root system. On the other hand, the axile roots of Mutsubenkei elongated significantly more vertically than those of Shiroganekomugi. This suggests that not only seminal but also nodal roots exhibit strong positive gravitropism and penetrate deeply in a cultivar with a deep root system. In wheat cultivars, it is likely that the extent of its Root Depth Index results partly from the gravitropic responses of both seminal and nodal roots.

  9. Intraspecific variation buffers projected climate change impacts on Pinus contorta.

    PubMed

    Oney, Brian; Reineking, Björn; O'Neill, Gregory; Kreyling, Juergen

    2013-02-01

    Species distribution modeling (SDM) is an important tool to assess the impact of global environmental change. Many species exhibit ecologically relevant intraspecific variation, and few studies have analyzed its relevance for SDM. Here, we compared three SDM techniques for the highly variable species Pinus contorta. First, applying a conventional SDM approach, we used MaxEnt to model the subject as a single species (species model), based on presence-absence observations. Second, we used MaxEnt to model each of the three most prevalent subspecies independently and combined their projected distributions (subspecies model). Finally, we used a universal growth transfer function (UTF), an approach to incorporate intraspecific variation utilizing provenance trial tree growth data. Different model approaches performed similarly when predicting current distributions. MaxEnt model discrimination was greater (AUC - species model: 0.94, subspecies model: 0.95, UTF: 0.89), but the UTF was better calibrated (slope and bias - species model: 1.31 and -0.58, subspecies model: 1.44 and -0.43, UTF: 1.01 and 0.04, respectively). Contrastingly, for future climatic conditions, projections of lodgepole pine habitat suitability diverged. In particular, when the species' intraspecific variability was acknowledged, the species was projected to better tolerate climatic change as related to suitable habitat without migration (subspecies model: 26% habitat loss or UTF: 24% habitat loss vs. species model: 60% habitat loss), and given unlimited migration may increase amount of suitable habitat (subspecies model: 8% habitat gain or UTF: 12% habitat gain vs. species model: 51% habitat loss) in the climatic period 2070-2100 (SRES A2 scenario, HADCM3). We conclude that models derived from within-species data produce different and better projections, and coincide with ecological theory. Furthermore, we conclude that intraspecific variation may buffer against adverse effects of climate change. A key

  10. [Stem respiration of Pinus koraiensis in Changbai Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Ji, Lanzhu; Li, Qiurong; Xiao, Dongmei; Liu, Hailiang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, soil respiration chamber, a simple and precise method, was used to measure the stem respiration of trees. LI-6400-09 respiration chamber serving as a system is usually used in soil respiration, but we made polyvinyl chloride (PVC) collar and fixed it on the stem surface to measure the stem respiration. From May to October 2003, the stem respiration of Pinus koraiensis, the dominant tree species in Changbai Mountain, was measured in different time and different places using this technique. Meanwhile, the temperatures in the stems and in the forests were measured. The results showed that the stem respiration rate had a remarkably seasonal tendency with a single peak, the maximum was in August and the minimum was in February. The stem respiration rate had an exponential relationship with stem temperature, and the curve exponential regressions for stem respiration rate and temperature factor of trees with big DBH were better than those with small DBH. The stem respiration in different DBH trees was higher in the south stem face than that in the north stem face, and the variance of respiration rate between south and north decreased with a decrease of DBH trees. During the growing season from May to October, the average maintenance respiration accounted for 63.63% in different DBH trees, and the maintenance respiration contribution to total respiratory consumption increased with increasing DBH, which was 66.76, 73.29% and 50.84%, respectively. The stem respiration Q10 values ranged from 2.56-3.32 in different DBH of trees, and the seasonal tendency for stem R, and Rm in different DBH of trees was obtained by using respiration Q10. Therefore, the differences between different parts of stem and different DBH of trees should be considered in estimating the respiration model in ecosystem. PMID:15852948

  11. Phylogeography of Pinus subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Jardón-Barbolla, Lev; Delgado-Valerio, Patricia; Geada-López, Gretel; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Piñero, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Four species of Pinus subsection Australes occur in the Caribbean Basin: P. caribaea, P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis. This study analyses the phylogeography of these species to assess possible colonization events from Central America to the islands and subsequent population expansions during glacial periods driven by both drier climate and larger emerged land areas. Methods Allele size data were obtained for plastid microsatellites for 314 individuals from 24 populations, covering the distribution range of subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin. Key Results In total, 113 plastid haplotypes were identified. The highest genetic diversity was found in populations of P. caribaea. Overall, Caribbean Basin populations fit the isolation by distance model. Significant phylogeographical structure was found (RST = 0·671 > permuted RST = 0·101; P < 0·0001). The haplotype network and a Bayesian analysis of population structure (BAPS) indicated different Central American origins for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea plastids, with Central America populations in northern and south-eastern groups. Sudden expansion times for BAPS clusters were close to three glacial maxima. Conclusions Central America contains ancestral plastid haplotypes. Population expansion has played a major role in the distribution of genetic diversity in P. caribaea var. hondurensis. Two colonization events gave rise to the P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea lineages. Plastid variation in the eastern species (P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis) evolved independently from that in P. caribaea var. caribaea. Incomplete lineage sorting between P. cubensis and P. maestrensis is apparent. Inferred expansion times for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and for the eastern lineages correspond to glacial maxima, whereas those for P. caribaea var. hondurensis correspond to the beginning of the temperature decrease that

  12. A national scale estimation of soil carbon stocks of Pinus densiflora forests in Korea: a modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, K.; Park, C.; Ryu, S.; Lee, K.; Yi, M.; Kim, C.; Park, G.; Kim, R.; Son, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Soil carbon (C) stocks of Pinus densiflora forests in Korea were estimated using a generic forest soil C dynamics model based on the process of dead organic matter input and decomposition. Annual input of dead organic matter to the soil was determined by stand biomass and turnover rates of tree components (stem, branch, twig, foliage, coarse root, and fine root). The model was designed to have a simplified structure consisting of three dead organic matter C (DOC) pools (aboveground woody debris (AWD), belowground woody debris (BWD), and litter (LTR) pool) and one soil organic C (SOC) pool. C flows in the model were regulated by six turnover rates of stem, branch, twig, foliage, coarse root, and fine root, and four decay rates of AWD, BWD, LTR, and SOC. To simulate the soil C stocks of P. densiflora forests, statistical data of forest land area (1,339,791 ha) and growing stock (191,896,089 m3) sorted by region (nine provinces and seven metropolitan cities) and stand age class (11 to 20- (II), 21 to 30- (III), 31 to 40- (IV), 41 to 50- (V), and 51 to 60-year-old (VI)) were used. The growing stock of each stand age class was calculated for every region and representable site index was also determined by consulting the yield table. Other model parameters related to the stand biomass, annual input of dead organic matter and decomposition were estimated from previous studies conducted on P. densiflora forests in Korea, which were also applied for model validation. As a result of simulation, total soil C stock of P. densiflora forests were estimated as 53.9 MtC and soil C stocks per unit area ranged from 28.71 to 47.81 tC ha-1 within the soil depth of 30 cm. Also, soil C stocks in the P. densiflora forests of age class II, III, IV, V, and VI were 16,780,818, 21,450,812, 12,677,872, 2,366,939, and 578,623 tC, respectively, and highly related to the distribution of age classes. Soil C stocks per unit area initially decreased with stand age class and started to increase

  13. [Acceleration of Embryonic Development of Pinus sibirica Trees with a One-Year Reproductive Cycle].

    PubMed

    Tret'yakova, I N; Lukina, N V

    2016-01-01

    The study of the formation of embryonic structures in Pinus sibirica forms with a one-year reproductive cycle showed that the acceleration of the embryonic process manifested itself as a reduction of the coenocytic stage of the female gametophyte development (1.5 months instead of 1 year). The egg was not fertilized because of the asynchronous maturation of male and female gametophytes. Seeds without embryos were formed. We assumed that the acceleration of the reproductive process in Pinus sibirica was caused by a mutation in the female generative organs.

  14. [Acceleration of Embryonic Development of Pinus sibirica Trees with a One-Year Reproductive Cycle].

    PubMed

    Tret'yakova, I N; Lukina, N V

    2016-01-01

    The study of the formation of embryonic structures in Pinus sibirica forms with a one-year reproductive cycle showed that the acceleration of the embryonic process manifested itself as a reduction of the coenocytic stage of the female gametophyte development (1.5 months instead of 1 year). The egg was not fertilized because of the asynchronous maturation of male and female gametophytes. Seeds without embryos were formed. We assumed that the acceleration of the reproductive process in Pinus sibirica was caused by a mutation in the female generative organs. PMID:27149748

  15. The role of mesophyll conductance during water stress and recovery in tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris): acclimation or limitation?

    PubMed

    Galle, Alexander; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Tomas, Magdalena; Pou, Alicia; Medrano, Hipolito; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel; Flexas, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    While the responses of photosynthesis to water stress have been widely studied, acclimation to sustained water stress and recovery after re-watering is poorly understood. In particular, the factors limiting photosynthesis under these conditions, and their possible interactions with other environmental conditions, are unknown. To assess these issues, changes of photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation (A(N)) and its underlying limitations were followed during prolonged water stress and subsequent re-watering in tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) plants growing under three different climatic conditions: outdoors in summer, outdoors in spring, and indoors in a growth chamber. In particular, the regulation of stomatal conductance (g(s)), mesophyll conductance to CO(2) (g(m)), leaf photochemistry (chlorophyll fluorescence), and biochemistry (V(c,max)) were assessed. Leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence data revealed that water stress induced a similar degree of stomatal closure and decreased A(N) under all three conditions, while V(c,max) was unaffected. However, the behaviour of g(m) differed depending on the climatic conditions. In outdoor plants, g(m) strongly declined with water stress, but it recovered rapidly (1-2 d) after re-watering in spring while it remained low many days after re-watering in summer. In indoor plants, g(m) initially declined with water stress, but then recovered to control values during the acclimation period. These differences were reflected in different velocities of recovery of A(N) after re-watering, being the slowest in outdoor summer plants and the fastest in indoor plants. It is suggested that these differences among the experiments are related to the prevailing climatic conditions, i.e. to the fact that stress factors other than water stress have been superimposed (e.g. excessive light and elevated temperature). In conclusion, besides g(s), g(m) contributes greatly to the limitation of photosynthesis during water stress and during

  16. Root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ‘root canal irrigants’ and ‘endodontic irrigants.’ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance. PMID:21217955

  17. Automatic determination of trunk diameter, crown base and height of scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Based on analysis of 3D point clouds gathered from multi-station terrestrial laser scanning. (Polish Title: Automatyczne okreslanie srednicy pnia, podstawy korony oraz wysokosci sosny zwyczajnej (Pinus Silvestris L.) Na podstawie analiz chmur punktow 3D pochodzacych z wielostanowiskowego naziemnego skanowania laserowego)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Wężyk, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in recent years resulted in its recognition and implementation in many industries, including forestry and nature conservation. The use of the 3D TLS point clouds in the process of inventory of trees and stands, as well as in the determination of their biometric features (trunk diameter, tree height, crown base, number of trunk shapes), trees and lumber size (volume of trees) is slowly becoming a practice. In addition to the measurement precision, the primary added value of TLS is the ability to automate the processing of the clouds of points 3D in the direction of the extraction of selected features of trees and stands. The paper presents the original software (GNOM) for the automatic measurement of selected features of trees, based on the cloud of points obtained by the ground laser scanner FARO. With the developed algorithms (GNOM), the location of tree trunks on the circular research surface was specified and the measurement was performed; the measurement covered the DBH (l: 1.3m), further diameters of tree trunks at different heights of the tree trunk, base of the tree crown and volume of the tree trunk (the selection measurement method), as well as the tree crown. Research works were performed in the territory of the Niepolomice Forest in an unmixed pine stand (Pinussylvestris L.) on the circular surface with a radius of 18 m, within which there were 16 pine trees (14 of them were cut down). It was characterized by a two-storey and even-aged construction (147 years old) and was devoid of undergrowth. Ground scanning was performed just before harvesting. The DBH of 16 pine trees was specified in a fully automatic way, using the algorithm GNOM with an accuracy of +2.1%, as compared to the reference measurement by the DBH measurement device. The medium, absolute measurement error in the cloud of points - using semi-automatic methods "PIXEL" (between points) and PIPE (fitting the cylinder) in the FARO Scene 5.x., showed the error, 3.5% and 5.0%,.respectively The reference height was assumed as the measurement performed by the tape on the cut tree. The average error of automatic determination of the tree height by the algorithm GNOM based on the TLS point clouds amounted to 6.3% and was slightly higher than when using the manual method of measurements on profiles in the TerraScan (Terrasolid; the error of 5.6%). The relatively high value of the error may be mainly related to the small number of points TLS in the upper parts of crowns. The crown height measurement showed the error of +9.5%. The reference in this case was the tape measurement performed already on the trunks of cut pine trees. Processing the clouds of points by the algorithms GNOM for 16 analyzed trees took no longer than 10 min. (37 sec. /tree). The paper mainly showed the TLS measurement innovation and its high precision in acquiring biometric data in forestry, and at the same time also the further need to increase the degree of automation of processing the clouds of points 3D from terrestrial laser scanning.

  18. WATER-USE ALONG A HYDROLOGICAL GRADIENT IN CENTRAL FLORIDA: A TALE OF TWO PINUS SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although central Florida is relatively flat, the distribution of species on the landscape is controlled by subtle changes in elevation. Along a four-meter elevation gradient, xeric sandhill vegetation dominated by Pinus palustris (Longleaf pine) gives way to mesic pine flatwoods...

  19. LEAF AREA INDEX (LAI) CHANGE DETECTION ANALYSIS ON LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA) FOLLOWING COMPLETE UNDERSTORY REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The confounding effect of understory vegetation contributions to satellite-derived estimates of leaf area index (LAI) was investigated on two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forest stands located in Virginia and North Carolina. In order to separate NDVI contributions of the dominantc...

  20. Multi-Season Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Analysis of Pinus taeda Needle Tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus taeda (Loblolly pine) is one of the worlds most important timber crop and accounts for a significant portion of the southeastern U.S. landcover. Biogenic voltile organic compound (BVOC) content was extracted from the tissue material of P. taeda needles and analyzed over a m...

  1. CARBON ISOTOPE DISCRIMINATION AND GROWTH RESPONSE OF OLD PINUS PONDEROSA TREES TO STAND DENSITY REDUCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stand density reductions have been proposed as a method by which old-growth ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests of North America can be converted back to pre-1900 conditions, thereby reducing the danger of catastrophic forest fires and insect attacks while increasing product...

  2. MODIFYING LIGNIN IN CONIFERS: THE ROLE OF HCT DURING TRACHEARY ELEMENT FORMATION IN PINUS RADIATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) is involved in the production of methoxylated monolignols that are precursors to guaiacyl and syringyl lignin in angiosperm species. We identified and cloned a putative HCT gene from Pinus radiata, a coniferous gymnosperm, ...

  3. CO2 AND O3 ALTER PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND WATER VAPOR EXCHANGE FOR PINUS PONDEROSA NEEDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Effects of CO2 and O3 were determined for a key component of ecosystem carbon and water cycling: needle gas exchange (photosynthesis, conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency). The measurements were made on Pinus ponderosa seedlings grown in outdoor, sunlit, mesoc...

  4. Stand variation in Pinus radiata and its relationship with allometric scaling and critical buckling height

    PubMed Central

    Waghorn, Matthew J.; Watt, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Allometric relationships and the determination of critical buckling heights have been examined for Pinus radiata in the past. However, how they relate to more mature Pinus radiata exhibiting a wide range of stem diameters, slenderness and modulus of elasticity (E) at operationally used stand densities is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Pinus radiata stand structure variables and allometric scaling and critical buckling height. Methods Utilizing a Pinus radiata Nelder trial with stand density and genetic breed as variables, critical buckling height was calculated whilst reduced major axis regression was used to determine scaling exponents between critical height (Hcrit), actual height (H), ground line diameter (D), slenderness (S), density-specific stiffness (E/ρ) and modulus of elasticity (E). Key Results Critical buckling height was highly responsive to decreasing diameter and increasing slenderness. Safety factors in this study were typically considerably lower than previously reported margins in other species. As density-specific stiffness scaled negatively with diameter, the exponent of 0·55 between critical height and diameter did not meet the assumed value of 0·67 under constant density-specific stiffness. E scaled positively with stem slenderness to the power of 0·78. Conclusions The findings suggest that within species density-specific stiffness variation may influence critical height and the scaling exponent between critical height and diameter, which is considered so important in assumptions regarding allometric relationships. PMID:23388878

  5. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinus aristata Engelm., Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow core geographic and elevational distribution, occurs in disjunct populations and is threatened by multiple stresses, including rapid climate change, white pine blister rust, and bark beetles. Knowledge of genetic diversity and pop...

  6. EFFECTS OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND OZONE ON GROWTH AND BIOMASS ALLOCATION IN PINUS PONDEROSA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The future productivity of forests will be affected by combinations of elevated atmospheric CO2 and O3. Because productivity of forests will, in part, be determined by growth of young trees, we evaluated shoot growth and biomass responses of Pinus ponderosa seedlings exposed to ...

  7. Irrational Square Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misiurewicz, Michal

    2013-01-01

    If students are presented the standard proof of irrationality of [square root]2, can they generalize it to a proof of the irrationality of "[square root]p", "p" a prime if, instead of considering divisibility by "p", they cling to the notions of even and odd used in the standard proof?

  8. Trees and Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lethonee A.

    Constructing a family history can be significant in helping persons understand and appreciate the root system that supports and sustains them. Oral history can be a valuable resource in family research as Alex Haley demonstrated in writing "Roots." The major difficulty of using oral tradition in tracing a family history is that family members with…

  9. Influence of simulated acidic rain on root-infecting fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    Influences of the acidity of simulated rain on root-infecting fungi were investigated. Effects of rain acidity on Phytophthora cinnamomi were studied. Propagule densities in soil depended upon the acidity (pH 5.6, 4.0, 3.2, or 2.4) of simulated rain and soil depth (1, 2, 4, or 8 cm). Lowest densities occurred in 1 to 2 cm soil layers exposed to rains at pH 3.2 or 2.4. Sporangium production on radicles of Lupinus angustifolius in Lakeland sand moistened with rain solution at pH 2.4 was 47% less than production with solution at pH 5.6. A linear response to solution acidity was exhibited. Infection of L. angustifolius roots by zoospores demonstrated a linear response to acidity of rain. Approximately 44% fewer lesions occurred on roots of seedlings exposed to rain at pH 2.4 than on roots of seedlings exposed to rain at pH 5.6. The acidity (pH 5.6, 4.0, 3.2, or 2.4) of repeated rains had no consistent effect on disease progress among L. augustifolius seedlings planted in infested soil. The formation of ectomycorrhizae on Pinus taeda seedlings exhibited a quadratic response to acidity of repeated rains. The percentage of short roots that were ectomycorrhizal was greatest among seedlings exposed to rains at pH 2.4 and least among seedlings exposed to rains at pH 4.0. The density of Macrophomina phaseolina propagules in Lakeland sand exposed to repeated rains at pH 2.4 was an average of 20% less than densities associated with rains at pH 5.6, 4.0, or 3.2.

  10. Procerum root disease physiology and disease interactions with ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Procerum root disease of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.), caused by Leptographium procerum (Kendr.) Wingf., has been epidemic in Virginia Christmas tree plantations since 1990. Symptoms of chlorosis, wilt, and decreased apical growth resemble those of water stress. Resin infiltration of the xylem at the stem base may be responsible for vascular occlusion leading to severe water deficits and mortality. The pathogen has been isolated from the roots of ozone-sensitive eastern white pines in the field, although not from nearby tolerant trees. Ozone sensitivity may predispose the trees to infection. This study investigates the physiology of diseased white pines, and looks at the effects of ozone fumigation on disease development. Impacts of vascular occlusion upon host water relations and gas exchange were investigated in 8-yr-old, plantation-grown, white pine Christmas trees. Disease severity was estimated as the proportion of resin-soaked cross-sectional area at the base of the stem. The linear response of six physiological variables to disease severity was highly significant. Pre-dawn water potential, daily change in pre-dawn to mid-day water potential, stomatal conductance, and photosynthetic and transpiration rates all decreased significantly with increasing disease severity. Fumigation studies were conducted on white and loblolly (P. taeda L.) pine seedlings to determine if ozone exposure increased the incidence of root disease or the amount of stem tissue colonized by L. procerum. Six weeks post-inoculation, root and stem tissue were plated on a medium selective for L. procerum. Ozone treatment did not significantly affect the proportion of diseased roots per seedling or the vertical colonization of stem tissue in seedlings of either species.

  11. Root Nutrient Foraging1

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2014-01-01

    During a plant's lifecycle, the availability of nutrients in the soil is mostly heterogeneous in space and time. Plants are able to adapt to nutrient shortage or localized nutrient availability by altering their root system architecture to efficiently explore soil zones containing the limited nutrient. It has been shown that the deficiency of different nutrients induces root architectural and morphological changes that are, at least to some extent, nutrient specific. Here, we highlight what is known about the importance of individual root system components for nutrient acquisition and how developmental and physiological responses can be coupled to increase nutrient foraging by roots. In addition, we review prominent molecular mechanisms involved in altering the root system in response to local nutrient availability or to the plant's nutritional status. PMID:25082891

  12. Tree stability under wind: simulating uprooting with root breakage using a finite element method

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Défossez, Pauline; Danjon, Frédéric; Fourcaud, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Windstorms are the major natural hazard affecting European forests, causing tree damage and timber losses. Modelling tree anchorage mechanisms has progressed with advances in plant architectural modelling, but it is still limited in terms of estimation of anchorage strength. This paper aims to provide a new model for root anchorage, including the successive breakage of roots during uprooting. Methods The model was based on the finite element method. The breakage of individual roots was taken into account using a failure law derived from previous work carried out on fibre metal laminates. Soil mechanical plasticity was considered using the Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion. The mechanical model for roots was implemented in the numerical code ABAQUS using beam elements embedded in a soil block meshed with 3-D solid elements. The model was tested by simulating tree-pulling experiments previously carried out on a tree of Pinus pinaster (maritime pine). Soil mechanical parameters were obtained from laboratory tests. Root system architecture was digitized and imported into ABAQUS while root material properties were estimated from the literature. Key Results Numerical simulations of tree-pulling tests exhibited realistic successive root breakages during uprooting, which could be seen in the resulting response curves. Broken roots could be visually located within the root system at any stage of the simulations. The model allowed estimation of anchorage strength in terms of the critical turning moment and accumulated energy, which were in good agreement with in situ measurements. Conclusions This study provides the first model of tree anchorage strength for P. pinaster derived from the mechanical strength of individual roots. The generic nature of the model permits its further application to other tree species and soil conditions. PMID:25006178

  13. Water uptake of trees in a montane forest catchment and the geomorphological potential of root growth in Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory, Rocky Mountains, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeets, B.; Barnard, H. R.; Byers, A.

    2011-12-01

    The influence of vegetation on the hydrological cycle and the possible effect of roots in geomorphological processes are poorly understood. Gordon Gulch watershed in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, is a montane climate ecosystem of the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory whose study adds to the database of ecohydrological work in different climates. This work sought to identify the sources of water used by different tree species and to determine how trees growing in rock outcrops may contribute to the fracturing and weathering of rock. Stable isotopes (18O and 2H) were analyzed from water extracted from soil and xylem samples. Pinus ponderosa on the south-facing slope consumes water from deeper depths during dry periods and uses newly rain-saturated soils, after rainfall events. Pinus contorta on the north -facing slope shows a similar, expected response in water consumption, before and after rain. Two trees (Pinus ponderosa) growing within rock outcrops demonstrate water use from cracks replenished by new rains. An underexplored question in geomorphology is whether tree roots growing in rock outcrops contribute to long-term geomorphological processes by physically deteriorating the bedrock. The dominant roots of measured trees contributed approximately 30 - 80% of total water use, seen especially after rainfall events. Preliminary analysis of root growth rings indicates that root growth is capable of expanding rock outcrop fractures at an approximate rate of 0.6 - 1.0 mm per year. These results demonstrate the significant role roots play in tree physiological processes and in bedrock deterioration.

  14. Mandibular first molar with single root and single root canal

    PubMed Central

    Munavalli, Anil; Kambale, Sharnappa; Ramesh, Sachhi; Ajgaonkar, Nishant

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular molars demonstrate considerable anatomic complexities and abnormalities with respect to number of roots and root canals. Clinicians should be aware that there is a possibility of the existence of a fewer number of roots and root canals than the normal root canal anatomy. Mandibular first molar with a single root and single canal was diagnosed with the aid of dental operating microscope and multiple angled radiographs. This case report presents a rare case of successful endodontic management of mandibular first molar with a single root and root canal. PMID:26180424

  15. Root hydrotropism: an update.

    PubMed

    Cassab, Gladys I; Eapen, Delfeena; Campos, María Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    While water shortage remains the single-most important factor influencing world agriculture, there are very few studies on how plants grow in response to water potential, i.e., hydrotropism. Terrestrial plant roots dwell in the soil, and their ability to grow and explore underground requires many sensors for stimuli such as gravity, humidity gradients, light, mechanical stimulations, temperature, and oxygen. To date, extremely limited information is available on the components of such sensors; however, all of these stimuli are sensed in the root cap. Directional growth of roots is controlled by gravity, which is fixed in direction and intensity. However, other environmental factors, such as water potential gradients, which fluctuate in time, space, direction, and intensity, can act as a signal for modifying the direction of root growth accordingly. Hydrotropism may help roots to obtain water from the soil and at the same time may participate in the establishment of the root system. Current genetic analysis of hydrotropism in Arabidopsis has offered new players, mainly AHR1, NHR1, MIZ1, and MIZ2, which seem to modulate how root caps sense and choose to respond hydrotropically as opposed to other tropic responses. Here we review the mechanism(s) by which these genes and the plant hormones abscisic acid and cytokinins coordinate hydrotropism to counteract the tropic responses to gravitational field, light or touch stimuli. The biological consequence of hydrotropism is also discussed in relation to water stress avoidance.

  16. Wild European Apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) Population Dynamics: Insight from Genetics and Ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a Future Conservation Programme

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically “pure” populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple. PMID:24827575

  17. Wild European apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) population dynamics: insight from genetics and ecology in the Rhine Valley. Priorities for a future conservation programme.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Annik; Arnold, Claire; Cornille, Amandine; Bachmann, Olivier; Schnitzler, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The increasing fragmentation of forest habitats and the omnipresence of cultivars potentially threaten the genetic integrity of the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill). However, the conservation status of this species remains unclear in Europe, other than in Belgium and the Czech Republic, where it has been declared an endangered species. The population density of M. sylvestris is higher in the forests of the upper Rhine Valley (France) than in most European forests, with an unbalanced age-structure, an overrepresentation of adults and a tendency to clump. We characterize here the ecology, age-structure and genetic diversity of wild apple populations in the Rhine Valley. We use these data to highlight links to the history of this species and to propose guidelines for future conservation strategies. In total, 255 individual wild apple trees from six forest stands (five floodplain forests and one forest growing in drier conditions) were analysed in the field, collected and genotyped on the basis of data for 15 microsatellite markers. Genetic analyses showed no escaped cultivars and few hybrids with the cultivated apple. Excluding the hybrids, the genetically "pure" populations displayed high levels of genetic diversity and a weak population structure. Age-structure and ecology studies of wild apple populations identified four categories that were not randomly distributed across the forests, reflecting the history of the Rhine forest over the last century. The Rhine wild apple populations, with their ecological strategies, high genetic diversity, and weak traces of crop-to-wild gene flow associated with the history of these floodplain forests, constitute candidate populations for inclusion in future conservation programmes for European wild apple.

  18. Economic strategies of plant absorptive roots vary with root diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, D. L.; Wang, J. J.; Kardol, P.; Wu, H. F.; Zeng, H.; Deng, X. B.; Deng, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots typically vary along a dominant ecological axis, the root economics spectrum, depicting a tradeoff between resource acquisition and conservation. For absorptive roots, which are mainly responsible for resource acquisition, we hypothesized that root economic strategies differ with increasing root diameter. To test this hypothesis, we used seven plant species (a fern, a conifer, and five angiosperms from south China) for which we separated absorptive roots into two categories: thin roots (thickness of root cortex plus epidermis < 247 µm) and thick roots. For each category, we analyzed a range of root traits related to resource acquisition and conservation, including root tissue density, different carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) fractions (i.e., extractive, acid-soluble, and acid-insoluble fractions) as well as root anatomical traits. The results showed significant relationships among root traits indicating an acquisition-conservation tradeoff for thin absorptive roots while no such trait relationships were found for thick absorptive roots. Similar results were found when reanalyzing data of a previous study including 96 plant species. The contrasting economic strategies between thin and thick absorptive roots, as revealed here, may provide a new perspective on our understanding of the root economics spectrum.

  19. Effect of benfluralin on Pinus pinea seedlings mycorrhized with Pisolithus tinctorius and Suillus bellinii--study of plant antioxidant response.

    PubMed

    Franco, Albina R; Pereira, Sofia I A; Castro, Paula M L

    2015-02-01

    In this study, Pinus pinea seedlings mycorrhized with selected ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF), Pisolithus tinctorius and Suillus bellinii, were exposed to the herbicide benfluralin. Non-mycorrhized P. pinea seedlings and seedlings mycorrhized with ECMF were transferred to benfluralin-spiked soils at levels of 0.165, 1.65 and 16.5 mg kg(-1). Plant growth and the fungal role on plant antioxidant response were assessed. In the presence of benfluralin, higher plant growth was observed in mycorrhized plants compared to non-mycorrhized plants, but ECMF colonisation and nutrient uptake were affected by the herbicide. Benfluralin showed no effect on lipid peroxidation in P. pinea seedlings. However, seedlings mycorrhized with S. bellinii showed higher levels of lipid peroxidation when compared to non-mycorrhized ones, both in the presence and absence of benfluralin. The increase of lipid peroxidation could be related to seedling growth induced by the fungus and not to benfluralin toxicity. A similar trend was observed in seedlings mycorrhized with P. tinctorius when exposed to higher benfluralin concentrations, suggesting that the antioxidant response to benfluralin is related not only to fungus species, but also to the level of stress applied in the soil. The higher amount of superoxide dismutase activity in P. pinea seedlings tissues exposed to benfluralin could indicate a plant adaptative response to benfluralin toxicity. Catalase activity showed no increase with benfluralin exposure. Pre-established P. tinctorius mycorrhization conferred root protection and enhanced plant growth in benfluralin spiked soil, inferring that P. tinctorius - P. pinea association could advantageous for plant growth in soils contaminated with pesticides.

  20. Molecular cloning of a pathogen/wound-inducible PR10 promoter from Pinus monticola and characterization in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M; Piggott, Nina; Zamani, Arezoo

    2005-05-01

    In Pinus monticola (Dougl. ex D. Don), the class ten pathogenesis-related (PR10) proteins comprise a family of multiple members differentially expressed upon pathogen infection and other environmental stresses. One of them, PmPR10-1.13, is studied here by investigating its transcriptional regulation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. For functional analyses of the PmPR10-1.13 promoter, a 1,316-bp promoter fragment and three 5' deletions were translationally fused to the ss-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The 1,316-bp promoter-driven GUS activity first appeared in hypocotyls and cotyledons in 2- to 3-day-old seedlings. As transgenic plants grew, GUS activity was detected strongly in apical meristems, next in stems and leaves. No GUS activity was detected in roots and in reproductive tissues of flower organs. In adult plants, the PmPR10-1.13 promoter-directed GUS expression was upregulated following pathogen infection and by wounding treatment, which generally mimic the endogenous expression pattern in western white pine. Promoter analysis of 5' deletions demonstrated that two regions between -1,316 and -930, and between -309 and -100 were responsible for the wound responsiveness. By structural and functional comparisons with PmPR10-1.14 promoter, putative wound-responsive elements were potentially identified in the PmPR10-1.13 promoter. In conclusion, PmPR10-1.13 showed properties of a defence-responsive gene, being transcriptionally upregulated upon biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:15609047

  1. Molecular cloning of a pathogen/wound-inducible PR10 promoter from Pinus monticola and characterization in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Jun; Ekramoddoullah, Abul K M; Piggott, Nina; Zamani, Arezoo

    2005-05-01

    In Pinus monticola (Dougl. ex D. Don), the class ten pathogenesis-related (PR10) proteins comprise a family of multiple members differentially expressed upon pathogen infection and other environmental stresses. One of them, PmPR10-1.13, is studied here by investigating its transcriptional regulation in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. For functional analyses of the PmPR10-1.13 promoter, a 1,316-bp promoter fragment and three 5' deletions were translationally fused to the ss-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The 1,316-bp promoter-driven GUS activity first appeared in hypocotyls and cotyledons in 2- to 3-day-old seedlings. As transgenic plants grew, GUS activity was detected strongly in apical meristems, next in stems and leaves. No GUS activity was detected in roots and in reproductive tissues of flower organs. In adult plants, the PmPR10-1.13 promoter-directed GUS expression was upregulated following pathogen infection and by wounding treatment, which generally mimic the endogenous expression pattern in western white pine. Promoter analysis of 5' deletions demonstrated that two regions between -1,316 and -930, and between -309 and -100 were responsible for the wound responsiveness. By structural and functional comparisons with PmPR10-1.14 promoter, putative wound-responsive elements were potentially identified in the PmPR10-1.13 promoter. In conclusion, PmPR10-1.13 showed properties of a defence-responsive gene, being transcriptionally upregulated upon biotic and abiotic stresses.

  2. Quantitative measurements of root water uptake and root hydraulic conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Javaux, Mathieu; Meunier, Felicien; Couvreur, Valentin; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    How is root water uptake distributed along the root system and what root properties control this distribution? Here we present a method to: 1) measure root water uptake and 2) inversely estimate the root hydraulic conductivities. The experimental method consists in using neutron radiography to trace deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. The method was applied to lupines grown aluminium containers filled with a sandy soil. When the lupines were 4 weeks old, D2O was locally injected in a selected soil regions and its transport was monitored in soil and roots using time-series neutron radiography. By image processing, we quantified the concentration of D2O in soil and roots. We simulated the transport of D2O into roots using a diffusion-convection numerical model. The diffusivity of the roots tissue was inversely estimated by simulating the transport of D2O into the roots during night. The convective fluxes (i.e. root water uptake) were inversely estimating by fitting the experiments during day, when plants were transpiring, and assuming that root diffusivity did not change. The results showed that root water uptake was not uniform along the roots. Water uptake was higher at the proximal parts of the lateral roots and it decreased by a factor of 10 towards the distal parts. We used the data of water fluxes to inversely estimate the profile of hydraulic conductivities along the roots of transpiring plants growing in soil. The water fluxes in the lupine roots were simulated using the Hydraulic Tree Model by Doussan et al. (1998). The fitting parameters to be adjusted were the radial and axial hydraulic conductivities of the roots. The results showed that by using the root architectural model of Doussan et al. (1998) and detailed information of water fluxes into different root segments we could estimate the profile of hydraulic conductivities along the roots. We also found that: 1) in a tap-rooted plant like lupine water is mostly taken up by lateral roots; (2) water

  3. Reading with Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret I.

    1986-01-01

    Recommends a method of teaching Russian vocabulary that focuses on new words in context and on their structure: root, prefix, suffix, sound changes, and borrowings. Sources for teachers are given in the bibliography. (LMO)

  4. Posterior meniscal root injuries

    PubMed Central

    Moatshe, Gilbert; Chahla, Jorge; Slette, Erik; Engebretsen, Lars; Laprade, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal root tears (MRTs) are defined as radial tears within 1 cm of the meniscal root insertion, or an avulsion of the insertion of the meniscus. These injuries change joint loading due to failure of the meniscus to convert axial loads into hoop stresses, resulting in joint overloading and degenerative changes in the knee. Meniscal root repair is recommended in patients without advanced osteoarthritis (Outerbridge 3–4), in order to restore joint congruence and loading and therefore to avoid the long-term effect of joint overloading. Several techniques have been described. Improved knee function has been reported after meniscal root repair, but there are still conflicting reports on whether surgical treatment can prevent osteoarthritis. PMID:27347730

  5. Roots in plant ecology.

    PubMed

    Cody, M L

    1986-09-01

    In 1727 the pioneer vegetation scientist Stephen Hales realized that I much that was of importance to his subject material took place below on ground. A good deal of descriptive work on plant roots and root systems was done in the subsequent two centuries; in crop plants especially, the gross morphology of root systems was well known by the early 20th century. These descriptive studies were extended to natural grasslands by Weaver and his associates and to deserts by Cannon by the second decade of this century, but since that time the study of subterranean growth form appears to have lapsed, as a recent review by Kummerow indicates. Nevertheless, growth form is an important aspect of plant ecology, and subterranean growth form is especially relevant to the study of vegetation in and areas (which is the main subject of this commentary). Moreover, there is a real need for more research to be directed towards understanding plant root systems in general. PMID:21227785

  6. The phenomenology of rooting.

    PubMed

    Kerievsky, Bruce Stephen

    2010-09-01

    This paper examines the attractions of passionate involvement in wanting particular outcomes, which is popularly known as rooting. The author's lifelong personal experience is the source of his analysis, along with the insights provided by spiritual literature and especially the work of Dr. Thomas Hora, with whom the author studied for 30 years. The phrase "choiceless awareness," utilized by J. Krishnamurti, and attained via meditation, is seen as the means of transcending a rooting mode of being in the world.

  7. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp.

  8. Phytoavailability and speciation of aluminum carried by total suspended particulates (TSP) to Masson pine ( Pinus massoniana L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuiliang; Wang, Ping; Fan, Chinbay Q.; Xu, Hui

    2012-02-01

    Aluminum (Al) is an abundant metal in airborne particulate matter. Al concentrations carried by total suspended particulates (TSP) of the Nanjing atmosphere were distinctly higher in soils of industrial areas than the background concentration of the soils. This study aimed to assess the influence of the soils varying in their degree of contamination on the soil-to-plant transfer and translocation of Al to Masson pine ( Pinus massoniana L.). A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the phytoavailability and speciation of Al carried by TSP which was collected at urban and industrial sites over a 12-month period in the atmosphere of Nanjing, China. The extractable noncrystalline Al in environmental particulate samples could be operationally fractionated into insoluble (Alin), oxide (Alox), organic (Alor), carbonate (Alca), and exchangeable species (Alex) using Tessier's sequential extraction procedure. The results showed that relatively high Al concentrations in TSP and soil samples were observed at the industrial site due to emissions from a local industry that manufactures Al-based products. The distribution sequence of Al species was quite similar for TSP and soil samples, which was Alin > Alor > Alox > Alca > Alex. The order of industrial particulate matter (IPM) was Alin > Alox > Alca > Alex > Alor. Alor was not detectable. A greater migration of Alex species entered the pine roots and the highest Al contents were accumulated in the roots and declined in the aerial portions. The soil-to-pine Al transfer was extremely low even when grown on industrial Al-contaminated soils. A significant positive correlation was found between the Al contents in pine seedlings and rhizospheric Alex contents. In contrast, there was a strong negative correlation between rhizospheric Alex contents and seedling biomass. For the spiked soils, under the influence of IPM, Al phytoavailability decreased with elevated rhizospheric Al and Alex. Collectively, this study provided evidence

  9. Root architecture impacts on root decomposition rates in switchgrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaff, M.; Schadt, C.; Garten, C. T.; Jastrow, J. D.; Phillips, J.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    Roots strongly contribute to soil organic carbon accrual, but the rate of soil carbon input via root litter decomposition is still uncertain. Root systems are built up of roots with a variety of different diameter size classes, ranging from very fine to very coarse roots. Since fine roots have low C:N ratios and coarse roots have high C:N ratios, root systems are heterogeneous in quality, spanning a range of different C:N ratios. Litter decomposition rates are generally well predicted by litter C:N ratios, thus decomposition of roots may be controlled by the relative abundance of fine versus coarse roots. With this study we asked how root architecture (i.e. the relative abundance of fine versus coarse roots) affects the decomposition of roots systems in the biofuels crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). To understand how root architecture affects root decomposition rates, we collected roots from eight switchgrass cultivars (Alamo, Kanlow, Carthage, Cave-in-Rock, Forestburg, Southlow, Sunburst, Blackwell), grown at FermiLab (IL), by taking 4.8-cm diameter soil cores from on top of the crown and directly next to the crown of individual plants. Roots were carefully excised from the cores by washing and analyzed for root diameter size class distribution using WinRhizo. Subsequently, root systems of each of the plants (4 replicates per cultivar) were separated in 'fine' (0-0.5 mm), 'medium' (0.5-1 mm) and 'coarse' roots (1-2.5 mm), dried, cut into 0.5 cm (medium and coarse roots) and 2 mm pieces (fine roots), and incubated for 90 days. For each of the cultivars we established five root-treatments: 20g of soil was amended with 0.2g of (1) fine roots, (2) medium roots, (3) coarse roots, (4) a 1:1:1 mixture of fine, medium and coarse roots, and (5) a mixture combining fine, medium and coarse roots in realistic proportions. We measured CO2 respiration at days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 during the experiment. The 13C signature of the soil was -26‰, and the 13C signature

  10. Photosynthetic acclimation to enriched CO{sub 2} concentrations in Pinus Ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, M.P.

    1995-11-01

    By the middle of the 21st century earth`s ambient CO{sub 2} level is expected to increase two-fold ({approximately}350 umol/L). Higher levels of CO{sub 2} are expected to cause major changes in the morphological, physiological, and biochemical traits of the world`s vegetation. Therefore, we constructed an experiment designed to measure the long-term acclimation processes of Pinus Ponderosa. As a prominent forest conifer, Pinus Ponderosa is useful when assessing a large scale global carbon budget. Eighteen genetically variable families were exposed to 3 different levels of CO{sub 2} (350 umol/L, 525 umol/L, 700 umol/L), for three years. Acclimation responses were quantified by assays of photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll pigment concentrations.

  11. Voltammetric analysis of Pinus needles with physiological, phylogenetic, and forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Miranda, Annette S; König, Peter; Kahlert, Heike; Scholz, Fritz; Osete-Cortina, Laura; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa; Doménech-Carbó, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Polyphenolic compounds are electrochemically active components of vegetal matter which were targeted under simple experimental conditions to produce voltammetric profiles characterizing the metabolite composition. Application to bivariate and multivariate chemometric techniques permits to discriminate the species and age of plant leaves, illustrated here for the case of six Pinus species from two different subgenera. Such responses, associated with the electrochemical oxidation of polyphenolic compounds (quercetin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, among others), define a voltammetric profile which varies systematically with the age of the leaves for the different species. The application of this methodology for phylogenetic studies, plant physiology, forensic science, and chemoecology is discussed. Graphical Abstract Image of Pinus in a typical Mediterranean forest; Courtesy of the Botanic Garden of the University of Valencia. PMID:27173392

  12. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Pinus armandii (Pinaceae), an endemic conifer species to China1

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wan-Lin; Wang, Ruo-Nan; Yan, Xiao-Hao; Niu, Chuan; Gong, Lin-Lin; Li, Zhong-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Pinus armandii (Pinaceae) is an important conifer tree species in central and southwestern China, and it plays a key role in the local forest ecosystems. To investigate its population genetics and design effective conservation strategies, we characterized 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers for this species. Methods and Results: Eighteen novel polymorphic and 16 monomorphic microsatellite loci of P. armandii were isolated using Illumina MiSeq technology. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to five. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.061 to 0.609 with an average of 0.384, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.063 to 0.947 with an average of 0.436. Seventeen loci could be successfully transferred to five related Pinus species (P. koraiensis, P. griffithii, P. sibirica, P. pumila, and P. bungeana). Conclusions: These novel microsatellites could potentially be used to investigate the population genetics of P. armandii and related species. PMID:27785387

  13. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  14. Coarse root spatial distribution determined using a ground-penetrating radar technique in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Dong, Xinliang; Feng, Gang; Zhang, Shouren; Mucciardi, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    Coarse roots play a critical role in forest ecosystems and both abiotic and biotic factors affect their spatial distribution. To some extent, coarse root density may reflect the quantity of root biomass and biotic competition in forests. However, using traditional methods (e.g., excavation) to study coarse roots is challenging, because those methods are time-consuming and laborious. Furthermore, these destructive methods cannot be repeated in the same forests. Therefore, the discovery of non-destructive methods for root studies will be very significant. In this study, we used a ground-penetrating radar technique to detect the coarse root density of three habitats (ridge, slope and valley) and the dominant tree species (Castanopsis eyrei and Schima superba) in a subtropical forest. We found that (i) the mean of coarse root density for these three habitats was 88.04 roots m(-2), with roots being mainly distributed at depths of 0-40 cm. Coarse root densities were lower in deeper soils and in areas far from the trunk. (ii) Coarse root densities differed significantly among the three habitats studied here with slope habitat having the lowest coarse root density. Compared with S. superba, C. eyrei had more roots distributed in deeper soils. Furthermore, coarse roots with a diameter >3 cm occurred more frequently in the valleys, compared with root densities in ridge and slope habitats, and most coarse roots occurred at soil depths of 20-40 cm. (iii) The coarse root density correlated negatively with tree species richness at soil depths of 40-60 cm. The abundances of the dominant species, such as C. eyrei, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Pinus massoniana, had significant impacts on coarse root density. (iv) The soil depth of 0-40 cm was the "basic distribution layer" for coarse roots since the majority of coarse roots were found in this soil layer with an average root density of 84.18 roots m(-2), which had no significant linear relationships with topography, tree species richness

  15. Perennial Roots to Immortality1,2[C

    PubMed Central

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-01-01

    Maximum lifespan greatly varies among species, and it is not strictly determined; it can change with species evolution. Clonal growth is a major factor governing maximum lifespan. In the plant kingdom, the maximum lifespans described for clonal and nonclonal plants vary by an order of magnitude, with 43,600 and 5,062 years for Lomatia tasmanica and Pinus longaeva, respectively. Nonclonal perennial plants (those plants exclusively using sexual reproduction) also present a huge diversity in maximum lifespans (from a few to thousands of years) and even more interestingly, contrasting differences in aging patterns. Some plants show a clear physiological deterioration with aging, whereas others do not. Indeed, some plants can even improve their physiological performance as they age (a phenomenon called negative senescence). This diversity in aging patterns responds to species-specific life history traits and mechanisms evolved by each species to adapt to its habitat. Particularities of roots in perennial plants, such as meristem indeterminacy, modular growth, stress resistance, and patterns of senescence, are crucial in establishing perenniality and understanding adaptation of perennial plants to their habitats. Here, the key role of roots for perennial plant longevity will be discussed, taking into account current knowledge and highlighting additional aspects that still require investigation. PMID:24563283

  16. Effect of Pinus massoniana Lamb. bark extract on lytic cycle of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuxia; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Xuedong; Gao, Yaqian; Qin, Xing; Wu, Kun

    2012-10-01

    Pinus massoniana bark extract (PMBE) at a concentration of 60 microg/mL or more inhibits the expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic proteins, such as Rta, Zta, and EA-D. EBV lytic cycle was blocked by inhibiting the transcription of immediate-early genes. The results suggest that the PMBE has anti-EBV activity. Thus, the extract is potentially useful in preventing the lytic development of EBV in vitro. PMID:23214264

  17. Effect of Pinus massoniana Lamb. bark extract on lytic cycle of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuxia; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Xuedong; Gao, Yaqian; Qin, Xing; Wu, Kun

    2012-10-01

    Pinus massoniana bark extract (PMBE) at a concentration of 60 microg/mL or more inhibits the expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic proteins, such as Rta, Zta, and EA-D. EBV lytic cycle was blocked by inhibiting the transcription of immediate-early genes. The results suggest that the PMBE has anti-EBV activity. Thus, the extract is potentially useful in preventing the lytic development of EBV in vitro.

  18. Chemical composition changes in eucalyptus and pinus woods submitted to heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Brito, J O; Silva, F G; Leão, M M; Almeida, G

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of heat treatment on the chemical composition of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis woods to understand its role in wood processing. E. saligna and P. caribaea var. hondurensis woods were treated in a laboratorial electric furnace at 120, 140, 160 and 180 degrees C to induce their heat treatment. The chemical composition of the resulting products and those from original wood were determined by gas chromatography. Eucalyptus and Pinus showed a significant reduction in arabinose, manose, galactose and xylose contents when submitted to increasing temperatures. No significant alteration in glucose content was observed. Lignin content, however, increased during the heat process. There was a significant reduction in extractive content for Eucalyptus. On the other hand, a slight increase in extractive content has been determined for the Pinus wood, and that only for the highest temperature. These different behaviors can be explained by differences in chemical constituents between softwoods and hardwoods. The results obtained in this study provide important information for future research and utilization of thermally modified wood.

  19. Chloroplast evolution in the Pinus montezumae complex: a coalescent approach to hybridization.

    PubMed

    Matos, J A; Schaal, B A

    2000-08-01

    This study addresses the evolutionary history of the chloroplast genomes of two closely related pine species, Pinus hartwegii Lindl. and P. montezumae Lamb (subsect. Ponderosae) using coalescent theory and some of the statistical tools that have been developed from it during the past two decades. Pinus hartwegii and P. montezumae are closely related species in the P. montezumae complex (subsect. Ponderosae) of Mexico and Central America. Pinus hartwegii is a high elevation species, whereas P. montezumae occurs at lower elevations. The two species occur on many of the same mountains throughout Mexico. A total of 350 individuals of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae were collected from Nevado de Colima (Jalisco), Cerro Potosí (Nuevo León), Iztaccihuatl/Popocatepetl (México), and Nevado de Toluca (México). The chloroplast genome of P. hartwegii and P. montezumae was mapped using eight restriction enzymes. Fifty-one different haplotypes were characterized; 38 of 160 restriction sites were polymorphic. Clades of most parsimoniously related chloroplast haplotypes are geographically localized and do not overlap in distribution, and the geographically localized clades of haplotypes include both P. hartwegii and P. montezumae. Some haplotypes in the clades occur in only one of the two species, whereas other haplotypes occur in both species. These data strongly suggest ancient and/or ongoing hybridization between P. hartwegii and P. montezumae and a shared chloroplast genome history within geographic regions of Mexico. PMID:11005290

  20. Glutamate signalling in roots.

    PubMed

    Forde, Brian G

    2014-03-01

    As a signalling molecule, glutamate is best known for its role as a fast excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian nervous system, a role that requires the activity of a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). The unexpected discovery in 1998 that Arabidopsis thaliana L. possesses a family of iGluR-related (GLR) genes laid the foundations for an assessment of glutamate's potential role as a signalling molecule in plants that is still in progress. Recent advances in elucidating the function of Arabidopsis GLR receptors has revealed similarities with iGluRs in their channel properties, but marked differences in their ligand specificities. The ability of plant GLR receptors to act as amino-acid-gated Ca(2+) channels with a broad agonist profile, combined with their expression throughout the plant, makes them strong candidates for a multiplicity of amino acid signalling roles. Although root growth is inhibited in the presence of a number of amino acids, only glutamate elicits a specific sequence of changes in growth, root tip morphology, and root branching. The recent finding that the MEKK1 gene is a positive regulator of glutamate sensitivity at the root tip has provided genetic evidence for the existence in plants of a glutamate signalling pathway analogous to those found in animals. This short review will discuss the most recent advances in understanding glutamate signalling in roots, considering them in the context of previous work in plants and animals.

  1. Differences in defence responses of Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana to the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera are affected by water deficit.

    PubMed

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; El Kayal, Walid; Copeland, Charles C J; Zaharia, L Irina; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2016-04-01

    We tested the hypotheses that responses to the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera will differ between the evolutionarily co-evolved host lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and the naïve host jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and that these responses will be influenced by water availability. G. clavigera inoculation resulted in more rapid stem lesion development in lodgepole than in jack pine; water deficit delayed lesion development in both species. Decreased hydraulic conductivity was observed in inoculated lodgepole pine seedlings, likely because of tracheid occlusion by fungal hyphae and/or metabolite accumulation. Drought but not inoculation significantly impacted bark abscisic acid levels. Jasmonic and salicylic acid were implicated in local and systemic responses of both species to G. clavigera, with salicylic acid appearing to play a greater role in jack pine response to G. clavigera than lodgepole pine. Water deficit increased constitutive levels and/or attenuated induced responses to G. clavigera for several monoterpenes in lodgepole but not jack pine. Instead, inoculation of well-watered but not water deficit jack pine resulted in a greater number of xylem resin ducts. These findings reveal mechanisms underlying differences in G. clavigera-induced responses between lodgepole and jack pine hosts, and how water availability modulates these responses. PMID:26205849

  2. Anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils: effects of Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris, and Lippia graveolens on trophozoites growth, viability, adherence, and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Machado, Marisa; Dinis, Augusto M; Salgueiro, Ligia; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Custódio, José B A; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2010-04-01

    The present work evaluates the anti-Giardia activity of phenolic-rich essential oils obtained from Thymbra capitata, Origanum virens, Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and Lippia graveolens aromatic plants. The effects were evaluated on parasite growth, cell viability adherence, and morphology. The tested essential oils inhibited the growth of Giardia lamblia. T. capitata essential oil is the most active followed by O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris, and L. graveolens oils. The tested essential oils at IC50 (71-257) microg/ml inhibited parasite adherence (p < 0.001) since the first hour of incubation and were able to kill almost 50% of the parasites population in a time-dependent manner. The main ultrastructural alterations promoted by essential oils were deformations in typical trophozoite appearance, often roundly shape, irregular dorsal and ventral surface, presence of membrane blebs, electrodense precipitates in cytoplasm and nuclei, and internalization of flagella and ventral disc. Our data suggest that essential oils induced cell death probably by processes associated to the loss of osmoregulation caused by plasmatic membrane alterations. Experiments revealed that the essential oils did not present cytotoxic effects in mammalian cells. In conclusion, T. capitata, O. virens, T. zygis subsp. sylvestris chemotype thymol, and L. graveolens essential oils have antigiardial activity in vitro and seem to have potential for the treatment of the parasitic disease caused by the protozoan G. lamblia. PMID:20217133

  3. Root architecture and root and tuber crop productivity.

    PubMed

    Villordon, Arthur Q; Ginzberg, Idit; Firon, Nurit

    2014-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that optimization of root architecture for resource capture is vital for enabling the next green revolution. Although cereals provide half of the calories consumed by humans, root and tuber crops are the second major source of carbohydrates globally. Yet, knowledge of root architecture in root and tuber species is limited. In this opinion article, we highlight what is known about the root system in root and tuber crops, and mark new research directions towards a better understanding of the relation between root architecture and yield. We believe that unraveling the role of root architecture in root and tuber crop productivity will improve global food security, especially in regions with marginal soil fertility and low-input agricultural systems.

  4. Global Patterns of Vertical Root Distributions and Maximum Rooting Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, H. J.; Jackson, R. B.

    2001-05-01

    Plant roots are important pathways in global biogeochemical cycles. Roots transport water from the soil to the atmosphere and carbon from the atmosphere into the soil, redistribute nutrients and water in the soil profile, and contribute to the weathering of soil minerals. Data on the vertical distribution and maximum depths of roots in the soil profile are needed to quantify these and other processes. The global coverage of such root data is uneven, which makes it desirable to estimate global root distributions and maximum rooting depths from measurements of aboveground vegetation structure, soil parameters, and climatic variables. We analyzed root two databases compiled from the literature to determine the biotic and abiotic factors that influence vertical root distributions in global ecosystems and maximum rooting depths of individual plants. The first database included 520 vertical root profiles from 286 geographic locations. The second database included 1350 rooting depths for individual plants species from water-limited systems globally. Vertical root distributions were characterized by interpolated 50% and 95% rooting depths (the depths above which 50% or 95% of all roots are located). The 95% rooting depths increased with decreasing latitude from 80\\deg to 30\\deg, but showed no clear trend in the tropics. Mean annual evapotranspiration, precipitation, and length of the warm season were all positively correlated with rooting depths. Globally, more than 90% of all profiles had at least 50% of all roots in the upper 0.3 m of the soil profile (incl. organic horizons) and 95% of all roots in the upper 2 m. Deeper 50% and 95% rooting depths were mainly found in water-limited ecosystems. Median rooting depths of individual plants in water-limited ecosystems increased with increasing precipitation from less than 1 m in deserts with <50 mm of mean annual precipitation to about 2 m in climates with 650 to 750 mm mean annual precipitation. Maximum rooting depths were

  5. Fine root dynamics in lodgepole pine and white spruce stands along productivity gradients in reclaimed oil sands sites.

    PubMed

    Jamro, Ghulam Murtaza; Chang, Scott X; Naeth, M Anne; Duan, Min; House, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Open-pit mining activities in the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada, create disturbed lands that, by law, must be reclaimed to a land capability equivalent to that existed before the disturbance. Re-establishment of forest cover will be affected by the production and turnover rate of fine roots. However, the relationship between fine root dynamics and tree growth has not been studied in reclaimed oil sands sites. Fine root properties (root length density, mean surface area, total root biomass, and rates of root production, turnover, and decomposition) were assessed from May to October 2011 and 2012 using sequential coring and ingrowth core methods in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss) stands. The pine and spruce stands were planted on peat mineral soil mix placed over tailings sand and overburden substrates, respectively, in reclaimed oil sands sites in Alberta. We selected stands that form a productivity gradient (low, medium, and high productivities) of each tree species based on differences in tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) increments. In lodgepole pine stands, fine root length density and fine root production, and turnover rates were in the order of high > medium > low productivity sites and were positively correlated with tree height and DBH and negatively correlated with soil salinity (P < 0.05). In white spruce stands, fine root surface area was the only parameter that increased along the productivity gradient and was negatively correlated with soil compaction. In conclusion, fine root dynamics along the stand productivity gradients were closely linked to stand productivity and were affected by limiting soil properties related to the specific substrate used for reconstructing the reclaimed soil. Understanding the impact of soil properties on fine root dynamics and overall stand productivity will help improve land reclamation outcomes. PMID:26668730

  6. Fine root dynamics in lodgepole pine and white spruce stands along productivity gradients in reclaimed oil sands sites.

    PubMed

    Jamro, Ghulam Murtaza; Chang, Scott X; Naeth, M Anne; Duan, Min; House, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Open-pit mining activities in the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada, create disturbed lands that, by law, must be reclaimed to a land capability equivalent to that existed before the disturbance. Re-establishment of forest cover will be affected by the production and turnover rate of fine roots. However, the relationship between fine root dynamics and tree growth has not been studied in reclaimed oil sands sites. Fine root properties (root length density, mean surface area, total root biomass, and rates of root production, turnover, and decomposition) were assessed from May to October 2011 and 2012 using sequential coring and ingrowth core methods in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss) stands. The pine and spruce stands were planted on peat mineral soil mix placed over tailings sand and overburden substrates, respectively, in reclaimed oil sands sites in Alberta. We selected stands that form a productivity gradient (low, medium, and high productivities) of each tree species based on differences in tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) increments. In lodgepole pine stands, fine root length density and fine root production, and turnover rates were in the order of high > medium > low productivity sites and were positively correlated with tree height and DBH and negatively correlated with soil salinity (P < 0.05). In white spruce stands, fine root surface area was the only parameter that increased along the productivity gradient and was negatively correlated with soil compaction. In conclusion, fine root dynamics along the stand productivity gradients were closely linked to stand productivity and were affected by limiting soil properties related to the specific substrate used for reconstructing the reclaimed soil. Understanding the impact of soil properties on fine root dynamics and overall stand productivity will help improve land reclamation outcomes.

  7. Wired to the roots

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amutha Sampath; Bais, Harsh P.

    2012-01-01

    Often, plant-pathogenic microbe interactions are discussed in a host-microbe two-component system, however very little is known about how the diversity of rhizospheric microbes that associate with plants affect host performance against pathogens. There are various studies, which specially direct the importance of induced systemic defense (ISR) response in plants interacting with beneficial rhizobacteria, yet we don’t know how rhizobacterial associations modulate plant physiology. In here, we highlight the many dimensions within which plant roots associate with beneficial microbes by regulating aboveground physiology. We review approaches to study the causes and consequences of plant root association with beneficial microbes on aboveground plant-pathogen interactions. The review provides the foundations for future investigations into the impact of the root beneficial microbial associations on plant performance and innate defense responses. PMID:23073006

  8. Timing and magnitude of C partitioning through a young loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand using 13C labeling and shade treatments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Warren, Jeffrey M.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Garten, Jr., Charles T.; Norby, Richard J.; Childs, Joanne; Brice, Deanne Jane; Evans, R. M.; Gu, Lianhong; Thornton, Peter E.; Weston, David J.

    2011-12-30

    The dynamics of rapid changes in carbon (C) partitioning within forest ecosystems are not well understood, which limits improvement of mechanistic models of C cycling. Our objective was to inform model processes by describing relationships between C partitioning and accessible environmental or physiological measurements, with a special emphasis on short-term C flux through a forest ecosystem. We exposed eight 7-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees to air enriched with 13CO2 and then implemented adjacent light shade (LS) and heavy shade (HS) treatments in order to manipulate C uptake and flux. The impacts of shading on photosynthesis, plant water potential,more » sap flow, basal area growth, root growth, and soil CO2 efflux rate (CER) were assessed for each tree over a three-week period. The progression of the 13C label was concurrently tracked from the atmosphere through foliage, phloem, roots, and surface soil CO2 efflux. The HS treatment significantly reduced C uptake, sap flow, stem growth and fine root standing crop, and resulted in greater residual soil water content to 1 m depth. Sap flow was strongly correlated with CER on the previous day, but not the current day, with no apparent treatment effect on the relationship. Although there were apparent reductions in new C flux belowground, the heavy shade treatment did not noticeably reduce the magnitude of belowground autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration based on surface soil CO2 efflux rate (CER), which was overwhelmingly driven by soil temperature and moisture. The 13C label was immediately detected in foliage on label day (half-life = 0.5 d), progressed through phloem by day 2 (half-life = 4.7 d), roots by day 2-4, and subsequently was evident as respiratory release from soil which peaked between days 3-6. The δ13C of soil CO2 efflux was strongly correlated with phloem 13C on the previous day, or two days earlier. While the 13C label was readily tracked through the ecosystem, the fate of root

  9. Accelerated Stem Growth Rates and Improved Fiber Properties of Loblolly Pine: Functional Analysis Of CyclinD from Pinus taeda

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John Cairney, School of Biology and Institute of Paper Science and Technology @ Georgia Tech, Georgia Institute of Technology; Dr. Gary Peter, University of Florida; Dr. Ulrika Egertsdotter, Dept. of Forestry, Virgina Tech; Dr. Armin Wagner, New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd.

    2005-11-30

    A sustained supply of low-cost, high quality raw materials is essential for the future success of the U.S. forest products industry. To maximize stem (trunk) growth, a fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate cell divisions within the cambial meristem is essential. We hypothesize that auxin levels within the cambial meristem regulate cyclin gene expression and this in turn controls cell cycle progression as occurs in all eukaryotic cells. Work with model plant species has shown that ectopic overexpression of cyclins promotes cell division thereby increasing root growth > five times. We intended to test whether ectopic overexpression of cambial cyclins in the cambial zone of loblolly pine also promotes cell division rates that enhance stem growth rates. Results generated in model annual angiosperm systems cannot be reliably extrapolated to perennial gymnosperms, thus while the generation and development of transgenic pine is time consuming, this is the necessary approach for meaningful data. We succeeded in isolating a cyclin D gene and Clustal analysis to the Arabidopsis cyclin D gene family indicates that it is more closely related to cyclin D2 than D1 or D3 Using this gene as a probe we observed a small stimulation of cyclin D expression in somatic embryo culture upon addition of auxin. We hypothesized that trees with more cells in the vascular cambial and expansion zones will have higher cyclin mRNA levels. We demonstrated that in trees under compressive stress where the rates of cambial divisions are increased on the underside of the stem relative to the top or opposite side, there was a 20 fold increase in the level of PtcyclinD1 mRNA on the compressed side of the stem relative to the opposite. This suggests that higher secondary growth rates correlate with PtcyclinD1 expression. We showed that larger diameter trees show more growth during each year and that the increased growth in loblolly pine trees correlates with more cell

  10. Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Osteoclastogenic and Antioxidant Effects of Malva sylvestris Extract and Fractions: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Franchin, Marcelo; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato; Alencar, Severino Matias; Franco, Gilson Cesar Nobre; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Given their medical importance, natural products represent a tremendous source of drug discovery. The aim of this study was to investigate Malva sylvestris L. extract and fractions and their pharmacological activities followed by chemical identification. The aqueous fraction (AF) was identified as the bioactive fraction in the in vitro and in vivo assays. The AF controlled the neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity by 66%, inhibited the antiedematogenic activity by 58.8%, and controlled IL-1β cytokine expression by 54%. The in vitro viability tests showed a concentration-dependent effect, where the MSE and fractions at concentrations under 10 μg/mL were non-toxic to cells. Transcriptional factors of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), cathepsin K (Ctsk) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were analyzed by qPCR in RAW 264.7 cell lines. The gene expression analysis showed that the AF was the only treatment that could downregulate all the study genes: CAII, Ctsk and TRAP (p<0.05). TRAP staining was used to evaluate osteoclast formation. AF treatments reduced the number of osteoclastogenesis 2.6-fold compared to the vehicle control group. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity decreased 75% with the AF treatment. Moreover, the bioactive fraction had the ability to regulate the oxidation pathway in the ABTS (2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay with an activity equivalent to 1.30 μmol Trolox/g and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals 1.01 g/L. Positive ion ESI-mass spectrometry for molecular ions at m/z 611 and 633 confirmed rutin as the major compound in the AF. The AF of M. sylvestris presented anti-inflammatory, controlled osteoclastogenic mechanisms and antioxidant abilities in different in vitro and in vivo methods. In addition, we suggest that given its multi-target activity the bioactive fraction may be a good candidate in the therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:27643502

  11. Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Osteoclastogenic and Antioxidant Effects of Malva sylvestris Extract and Fractions: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Benso, Bruna; Franchin, Marcelo; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato; Alencar, Severino Matias; Franco, Gilson Cesar Nobre; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Given their medical importance, natural products represent a tremendous source of drug discovery. The aim of this study was to investigate Malva sylvestris L. extract and fractions and their pharmacological activities followed by chemical identification. The aqueous fraction (AF) was identified as the bioactive fraction in the in vitro and in vivo assays. The AF controlled the neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity by 66%, inhibited the antiedematogenic activity by 58.8%, and controlled IL-1β cytokine expression by 54%. The in vitro viability tests showed a concentration-dependent effect, where the MSE and fractions at concentrations under 10 μg/mL were non-toxic to cells. Transcriptional factors of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), cathepsin K (Ctsk) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were analyzed by qPCR in RAW 264.7 cell lines. The gene expression analysis showed that the AF was the only treatment that could downregulate all the study genes: CAII, Ctsk and TRAP (p<0.05). TRAP staining was used to evaluate osteoclast formation. AF treatments reduced the number of osteoclastogenesis 2.6-fold compared to the vehicle control group. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity decreased 75% with the AF treatment. Moreover, the bioactive fraction had the ability to regulate the oxidation pathway in the ABTS (2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay with an activity equivalent to 1.30 μmol Trolox/g and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals 1.01 g/L. Positive ion ESI-mass spectrometry for molecular ions at m/z 611 and 633 confirmed rutin as the major compound in the AF. The AF of M. sylvestris presented anti-inflammatory, controlled osteoclastogenic mechanisms and antioxidant abilities in different in vitro and in vivo methods. In addition, we suggest that given its multi-target activity the bioactive fraction may be a good candidate in the therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Osteoclastogenic and Antioxidant Effects of Malva sylvestris Extract and Fractions: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Benso, Bruna; Franchin, Marcelo; Massarioli, Adna Prado; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato; Alencar, Severino Matias; Franco, Gilson Cesar Nobre; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Given their medical importance, natural products represent a tremendous source of drug discovery. The aim of this study was to investigate Malva sylvestris L. extract and fractions and their pharmacological activities followed by chemical identification. The aqueous fraction (AF) was identified as the bioactive fraction in the in vitro and in vivo assays. The AF controlled the neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity by 66%, inhibited the antiedematogenic activity by 58.8%, and controlled IL-1β cytokine expression by 54%. The in vitro viability tests showed a concentration-dependent effect, where the MSE and fractions at concentrations under 10 μg/mL were non-toxic to cells. Transcriptional factors of carbonic anhydrase II (CAII), cathepsin K (Ctsk) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were analyzed by qPCR in RAW 264.7 cell lines. The gene expression analysis showed that the AF was the only treatment that could downregulate all the study genes: CAII, Ctsk and TRAP (p<0.05). TRAP staining was used to evaluate osteoclast formation. AF treatments reduced the number of osteoclastogenesis 2.6-fold compared to the vehicle control group. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) activity decreased 75% with the AF treatment. Moreover, the bioactive fraction had the ability to regulate the oxidation pathway in the ABTS (2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay with an activity equivalent to 1.30 μmol Trolox/g and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals 1.01 g/L. Positive ion ESI-mass spectrometry for molecular ions at m/z 611 and 633 confirmed rutin as the major compound in the AF. The AF of M. sylvestris presented anti-inflammatory, controlled osteoclastogenic mechanisms and antioxidant abilities in different in vitro and in vivo methods. In addition, we suggest that given its multi-target activity the bioactive fraction may be a good candidate in the therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:27643502

  13. The Roots of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Colleen, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This newsletter covers educational issues affecting schools in the Western Regional Educational Laboratory's 4-state region (Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah) and nationwide. The following articles appear in the Volume 4, Number 1 issue: (1) "The Roots of Reading"; (2) "Breaking the Code: Reading Literacy in K-3"; (3) "Improving Secondary…

  14. Great Plains Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Sandy White Hawk, Sicangu Lakota, was adopted by white missionaries as an infant and suffered child abuse. After 33 years, she found her birth family and formed First Nations Orphans Association, which uses songs and ceremonies to help adoptees return to their roots. Until the 1970s, federal agencies and welfare organizations facilitated removal…

  15. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of two phosphate transporter genes from Rhizopogon luteolus and Leucocortinarius bulbiger, two ectomycorrhizal fungi of Pinus tabulaeformis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Rong; Wang, Jugang; Liu, Min; Duan, Guozhen; Gao, Xiaomin; Bai, Shulan; Han, Yachao

    2016-10-01

    Inorganic phosphorus (Pi) is essential for plant growth, and phosphate (P) deficiency is a primary limiting factor in Pinus tabulaeformis development in northern China. P acquisition in mycorrhizal plants is highly dependent on the activities of phosphate transporters of their root-associated fungi. In the current study, two phosphate transporter genes, RlPT and LbPT, were isolated from Rhizopogon luteolus and Leucocortinarius bulbiger, respectively, two ectomycorrhizal fungi forming symbiotic interactions with the P. tabulaeformis. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the sequence of the phosphate transporter of L. bulbiger is most closely related to a phosphate transporter of Hebeloma cylindrosporum, whereas the phosphate transporter of R. luteolus is most closely related to that of Piloderma croceum. The subcellular localization indicated that RlPT and LbPT were expressed in the plasma membrane. The complementation assay in yeast indicated that both RlPT and LbPT partially compensated for the absence of phosphate transporter activity in the MB192 yeast strain, with a K m value of 57.90 μmol/L Pi for RlPT and 35.87 μmol/L Pi for LbPT. qPCR analysis revealed that RlPT and LbPT were significantly up-regulated at lower P availability, which may enhance P uptake and transport under Pi starvation. Our results suggest that RlPT and LbPT presumably play a key role in Pi acquisition by P. tabulaeformis via ectomycorrhizal fungi.

  16. Phytochemical evaluation, antioxidant assay, antibacterial activity and determination of cell viability (J774 and THP1 alpha cell lines) of P. sylvestris leaf crude and methanol purified fractions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dinesh C; Shukla, Ritu; Ali, Jasarat; Sharma, Swati; Bajpai, Priti; Pathak, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Phoenix sylvestris (Arecaceae family) known as Indian Date Palm has been identified as a component of traditional medicine against various ailments. The present study was focused on phytochemical screening of crude hexane, dichloromethane and methanol leaf extracts. The crude extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in the plant leaves. In the study methanol extract was found most potent, so this extract was further fractionated by column chromatography and 9 methanol purified fractions (MPFs) were isolated. Most potential MPF8 (20:80 chloroform: methanol ratio fraction) significantly enhanced free radicals and antibacterial activity. The best MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) of MPF8 was investigated against M. luteus and E. coli at 1 mg/ml concentration. However, against other bacteria the MIC ranged from 1 mg/ml to 3 mg/ml. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of many biologically active compounds such as alcohols, flavonoids, aromatic compounds, aldehydes, terpenoids fatty acid methyl esters, and phenolics. Pentadecanoic acid occupied maximum (52 %) area in GC-MS profiling. MPF8 was assayed for in-vitro cytotoxicity by MTT assay which confirms its less cytotoxicity at lower concentration and also significant ROS determination against J774 and THP1 cell lines after 2 and 4 hours. PMID:27047320

  17. Phytochemical evaluation, antioxidant assay, antibacterial activity and determination of cell viability (J774 and THP1 alpha cell lines) of P. sylvestris leaf crude and methanol purified fractions

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dinesh C.; Shukla, Ritu; Ali, Jasarat; Sharma, Swati; Bajpai, Priti; Pathak, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Phoenix sylvestris (Arecaceae family) known as Indian Date Palm has been identified as a component of traditional medicine against various ailments. The present study was focused on phytochemical screening of crude hexane, dichloromethane and methanol leaf extracts. The crude extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in the plant leaves. In the study methanol extract was found most potent, so this extract was further fractionated by column chromatography and 9 methanol purified fractions (MPFs) were isolated. Most potential MPF8 (20:80 chloroform: methanol ratio fraction) significantly enhanced free radicals and antibacterial activity. The best MIC (Minimum inhibitory concentration) of MPF8 was investigated against M. luteus and E. coli at 1 mg/ml concentration. However, against other bacteria the MIC ranged from 1 mg/ml to 3 mg/ml. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of many biologically active compounds such as alcohols, flavonoids, aromatic compounds, aldehydes, terpenoids fatty acid methyl esters, and phenolics. Pentadecanoic acid occupied maximum (52 %) area in GC-MS profiling. MPF8 was assayed for in-vitro cytotoxicity by MTT assay which confirms its less cytotoxicity at lower concentration and also significant ROS determination against J774 and THP1 cell lines after 2 and 4 hours. PMID:27047320

  18. Identification and mapping of a novel blackleg resistance locus LepR4 in the progenies from Brassica napus × B. rapa subsp. sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fengqun; Gugel, Richard K; Kutcher, H Randy; Peng, Gary; Rimmer, S Roger

    2013-02-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is one of the most economically important diseases of Brassica napus worldwide. Two blackleg-resistant lines, 16S and 61446, were developed through interspecific hybridization between B. napus and B. rapa subsp. sylvestris and backcrossing to B. napus. Classical genetic analysis demonstrated that a single recessive gene in both lines conferred resistance to L. maculans and that the resistance alleles were allelic. Using BC(1) progeny derived from each resistant plant, this locus was mapped to B. napus linkage group N6 and was flanked by microsatellite markers sN2189b and sORH72a in an interval of about 10 cM, in a region equivalent to about 6 Mb of B. rapa DNA sequence. This new resistance gene locus was designated as LepR4. The two lines were evaluated for resistance to a wide range of L. maculans isolates using cotyledon inoculation tests under controlled environment conditions, and for stem canker resistance in blackleg field nurseries. Results indicated that line 16S, carrying LepR4a, was highly resistant to all isolates tested on cotyledons and had a high level of stem canker resistance under field conditions. Line 61446, carrying LepR4b, was only resistant to some of the isolates tested on cotyledons and was weakly resistant to stem canker under field conditions.

  19. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  20. Differential responses of needle and branch order-based root decay to nitrogen addition: dominant effects of acid-unhydrolyzable residue and microbial enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Liang; Chen, Weiwei; Zhang, Xinyu; Gao, Wenlong; Yang, Hao; Li, Dandan; Li, Shenggong

    2016-04-01

    Both chemical differences between foliage and different orders of fine roots and their contrasting decomposing microenvironments may affect their decomposition. However, little is known about how foliage and branch order-based root decomposition responds to increased N availability and the response mechanisms behind. The effects of different doses of N addition on the decomposition of needles and order-based roots of Pinus elliottii (slash pine) were monitored using the litterbag method for 524 days in a subtropical slash pine plantation in south China. The acid-unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) concentration and microbial extracellular enzymatic activities (EEA) in decomposing needles and roots were also determined. Our results indicate that the responses of needle and order-based root decomposition were N-dose-specific. The decomposition of both needles and lower-order roots was inhibited under the high N dose rate. The retarded decomposition of lower-order roots could be explained more by the increased binding of AUR to inorganic N ions, while the retarded decomposition of needles could be explained more by the reduced microbial EEA. Further, in contrast to lower-order roots, N addition had no effect on the decomposition of higher-order roots. We conclude that the decomposition of foliage and fine roots may fail to mirror each other at ambient conditions or in response to N deposition due to their contrasting decomposition microenvironments and tissue chemistry. Given the differential effects of N addition on order-based roots, our findings highlight the need to consider the tissue chemistry heterogeneity within branching fine root systems when predicting the responses of root decomposition to N loading.

  1. Advances in root reinforcement experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giadrossich, Filippo; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Niedda, Marcello

    2013-04-01

    Root reinforcement is considered in many situations an important effect of vegetation for slope stability. In the past 20 years many studies analyzed root reinforcement in laboratory and field experiments, as well as through modeling frameworks. Nearby the important contribution of roots to shear strength, roots are recognized to impart stabilization also through lateral (parallel to slope) redistribution of forces under tension. Lateral root reinforcement under tensile solicitations (such as in the upper part of a shallow landslide) was documented and discussed by some studies. The most common method adopted to measure lateral root reinforcement are pullout tests where roots (single or as bundle) are pulled out from a soil matrix. These conditions are indeed representative for the case where roots within the mass of a landslide slip out from the upper stable part of the slope (such in a tension crack). However, there is also the situation where roots anchored at the upper stable part of the slope slip out from the sliding soil mass. In this last case it is difficult to quantify root reinforcement and no study discussed this mechanism so far. The main objective of this study is to quantify the contribution of roots considering the two presented cases of lateral root reinforcement discussed above - roots slipping out from stable soil profile or sliding soil matrix from anchored roots-, and discuss the implication of the results for slope stability modeling. We carried out a series of laboratory experiments for both roots pullout and soil sliding mechanisms using a tilting box with a bundle of 15 roots. Both Douglas (Pseudotsuga menziesii) roots and soil were collected from the study area in Sardinia (Italy), and reconstructed in laboratory, filling the root and soil layer by layer up to 0.4 meter thickness. The results show that the ratio between pullout force and force transferred to the root during soil sliding range from 0.5 to 1. This results indicate that

  2. Nitrogen (N) Deposition Impacts Seedling Growth of Pinus massoniana via N:P Ratio Effects and the Modulation of Adaptive Responses to Low P (Phosphorus)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Zhichun; Yang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Background In forest ecosystems with phosphorus (P) deficiency, the impact of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on nutritional traits related to P uptake and P use potentially determines plant growth and vegetation productivity. Methodology/Principal Findings Two N deposition simulations were combined with three soil P conditions (homogeneous P deficiency with evenly low P; heterogeneous P deficiency with low subsoil P and high topsoil P; high P) using four full-sib families of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana). Under homogeneous P deficiency, N had a low effect on growth due to higher N:P ratios, whereas N-sensitive genotypes had lower N:P ratios and greater N sensitivity. The N effect increased under higher P conditions due to increased P concentration and balanced N:P ratios. An N:P threshold of 12.0–15.0 was detected, and growth was increased by N with an N:P ratio ≤ 12.0 and increased by P with an N:P ratio ≥ 15.0. Under homogeneous P deficiency, increased P use efficiency by N deposition improved growth. Under heterogeneous P deficiency, a greater P deficiency under N deposition due to increased N:P ratios induced greater adaptive responses to low P (root acid phosphatase secretion and topsoil root proliferation) and improved P acquisition and growth. Conclusions/Significance N deposition diversely affected seedling growth across different P conditions and genotypes via N:P ratio effects and the modulation of adaptive responses to low P. The positive impact of N on growth was genotype-specific and increased by soil P addition due to balanced N:P ratios. These results indicate the significance of breeding N-sensitive tree genotypes and improving forest soil P status to compensate for increasing N deposition. PMID:24205376

  3. Nucleotide polymorphisms in a pine ortholog of the Arabidopsis degrading enzyme cellulase KORRIGAN are associated with early growth performance in Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, José Antonio; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Collada, Carmen; Guevara, María Angeles; Boury, Christophe; de María, Nuria; Eveno, Emmanuelle; Aranda, Ismael; Garnier-Géré, Pauline H; Brach, Jean; Alía, Ricardo; Plomion, Christophe; Cervera, María Teresa

    2015-09-01

    We have carried out a candidate-gene-based association genetic study in Pinus pinaster Aiton and evaluated the predictive performance for genetic merit gain of the most significantly associated genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used a second generation 384-SNP array enriched with candidate genes for growth and wood properties to genotype mother trees collected in 20 natural populations covering most of the European distribution of the species. Phenotypic data for total height, polycyclism, root-collar diameter and biomass were obtained from a replicated provenance-progeny trial located in two sites with contrasting environments (Atlantic vs Mediterranean climate). General linear models identified strong associations between growth traits (total height and polycyclism) and four SNPs from the korrigan candidate gene, after multiple testing corrections using false discovery rate. The combined genomic breeding value predictions assessed for the four associated korrigan SNPs by ridge regression-best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP) and cross-validation accounted for up to 8 and 15% of the phenotypic variance for height and polycyclic growth, respectively, and did not improve adding SNPs from other growth-related candidate genes. For root-collar diameter and total biomass, they accounted for 1.6 and 1.1% of the phenotypic variance, respectively, but increased to 15 and 4.1% when other SNPs from lp3.1, lp3.3 and cad were included in RR-BLUP models. These results point towards a desirable integration of candidate-gene studies as a means to pre-select relevant markers, and aid genomic selection in maritime pine breeding programs. PMID:26093373

  4. Nucleotide polymorphisms in a pine ortholog of the Arabidopsis degrading enzyme cellulase KORRIGAN are associated with early growth performance in Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, José Antonio; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Collada, Carmen; Guevara, María Angeles; Boury, Christophe; de María, Nuria; Eveno, Emmanuelle; Aranda, Ismael; Garnier-Géré, Pauline H; Brach, Jean; Alía, Ricardo; Plomion, Christophe; Cervera, María Teresa

    2015-09-01

    We have carried out a candidate-gene-based association genetic study in Pinus pinaster Aiton and evaluated the predictive performance for genetic merit gain of the most significantly associated genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used a second generation 384-SNP array enriched with candidate genes for growth and wood properties to genotype mother trees collected in 20 natural populations covering most of the European distribution of the species. Phenotypic data for total height, polycyclism, root-collar diameter and biomass were obtained from a replicated provenance-progeny trial located in two sites with contrasting environments (Atlantic vs Mediterranean climate). General linear models identified strong associations between growth traits (total height and polycyclism) and four SNPs from the korrigan candidate gene, after multiple testing corrections using false discovery rate. The combined genomic breeding value predictions assessed for the four associated korrigan SNPs by ridge regression-best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP) and cross-validation accounted for up to 8 and 15% of the phenotypic variance for height and polycyclic growth, respectively, and did not improve adding SNPs from other growth-related candidate genes. For root-collar diameter and total biomass, they accounted for 1.6 and 1.1% of the phenotypic variance, respectively, but increased to 15 and 4.1% when other SNPs from lp3.1, lp3.3 and cad were included in RR-BLUP models. These results point towards a desirable integration of candidate-gene studies as a means to pre-select relevant markers, and aid genomic selection in maritime pine breeding programs.

  5. Hairy roots are more sensitive to auxin than normal roots

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wen Hui; Petit, Annik; Guern, Jean; Tempé, Jacques

    1988-01-01

    Responses to auxin of Lotus corniculatus root tips or protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains 15834 and 8196 were compared to those of their normal counterparts. Three different types of experiments were performed, involving long-term, medium-term, or short-term responses to a synthetic auxin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. Root tip elongation, proton excretion by root tips, and transmembrane electrical potential difference of root protoplasts were measured as a function of exogenous auxin concentration. The sensitivity of hairy root tips or protoplasts to exogenous auxin was found to be 100-1000 times higher than that of untransformed material. PMID:16593928

  6. The Influence of Pinus brutia on the Water Balance of Fractured Mediterranean Mountain Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliades, Marinos; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lubczynski, Maciek; Christou, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In dry Mediterranean environments, both rainfall and temperature vary throughout the year and frequent droughts occur. The mountainous topography is characterized by steep slopes, often leading to shallow soil layers with limited water storage capacity. While for most of the tree species, these conditions can be characterized as unfavourable, Pinus brutia trees manage to survive and thrive. The main objective of this study is to define and quantify the water balance components of a Pinus brutia forest at tree level. Our study was conducted from 30/12/2014 until 31/09/2015 in an 8966-m2 fenced area of Pinus brutia forest. The site is located on the northern foothills of Troodos mountain at 620 m elevation, in Cyprus. The slope of the site ranged between 0 and 82%. The average daily minimum temperature is 5 0C in January and the average daily maximum temperature is 35 oC in August. The mean annual rainfall is 425 mm. We measured the diameter at breast height (DBH) from a total of 122 trees. Based on the average DBH, four trees were selected for monitoring (two were above the average DBH and two were below). We measured soil depth in a 1-m grid around each of the four selected trees. We processed soil depths in ArcGIS software (ESRI) to create a soil depth map. We used a Total Station and a differential GPS for the creation of a high resolution DEM of the area covering the four selected trees. We installed soil moisture sensors at 15-cm depth at distances of 1 and 2 m from the selected trees and a second sensor at 30-cm depth when the soil was deeper than 20 cm.. We randomly installed four metric manual rain gauges under each trees' canopy to measure throughfall and for stemflow we installed a plastic tube around each tree trunk and connected it to a manual rain gauge. We used six sap flow heat ratio method instruments to determine sap flow rates of the Pinus brutia trees. Two trees had one sensor installed at 1.3 m height facing north. The remaining trees had two sap

  7. Aquaporins and root water relations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water is one of the most critical resources limiting plant growth and crop productivity, and root water uptake is an important aspect of plant physiology governing plant water use and stress tolerance. Pathways of root water uptake are complex and are affected by root structure and physiological res...

  8. Strigolactones Effects on Root Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltai, Hinanit

    2012-07-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) were defined as a new group of plant hormones that suppress lateral shoot branching. Our previous studies suggested SLs to be regulators of root development. SLs were shown to alter root architecture by regulating lateral root formation and to affect root hair elongation in Arabidopsis. Another important effect of SLs on root growth was shown to be associated with root directional growth. Supplementation of SLs to roots led to alterations in root directional growth, whereas associated mutants showed asymmetrical root growth, which was influenced by environmental factors. The regulation by SLs of root development was shown to be conducted via a cross talk of SLs with other plant hormones, including auxin. SLs were shown to regulate auxin transport, and to interfere with the activity of auxin-efflux carriers. Therefore, it might be that SLs are regulators of root directional growth as a result of their ability to regulated auxin transport. However, other evidences suggest a localized effect of SLs on cell division, which may not necessarily be associated with auxin efflux. These and other, recent hypothesis as to the SLs mode of action and the associated root perception and response to environmental factors will be discussed.

  9. Diagravitropism in corn roots.

    PubMed

    Leopold, A C; Wettlaufer, S H

    1988-01-01

    The diagravitropic behavior of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots grown in darkness provides an opportunity for comparison of two qualitatively different gravitropic systems. As with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism is shown to require the presence of the root cap, have a similar time course for the onset of curvature, and a similar presentation time. In contrast with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism appears to have a more limited requirement for calcium, for it is insensitive to the elution of calcium by EGTA and insensitive to the subsequent addition of a calcium/EGTA complex. These results are interpreted as indicating that whereas the same sensing system is shared by the two types of gravitropism, separate transductive systems are involved, one for diagravitropism, which is relatively independent of calcium, and one for positive gravitropism, which is markedly dependent on calcium.

  10. Springback in root gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Leopold, A C; Wettlaufer, S H

    1989-01-01

    Conditions under which a gravistimulus of Merit corn roots (Zea mays L.) is withdrawn result in a subsequent loss of gravitropic curvature, an effect which we refer to as springback.' This loss of curvature begins within 1 to 10 minutes after removal of the gravistimulus. It occurs regardless of the presence or absence of the root cap. It is insensitive to inhibitors of auxin transport (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, naphthylphthalamic [correction of naphthylphthalmaic] acid) or to added auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Springback is prevented if a clinostat treatment is interjected to neutralize gravistimulation during germination, which suggests that the change in curvature is a response to a memory' effect carried over from a prior gravistimulation. PMID:11537456

  11. Springback in root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    Conditions under which a gravistimulus of Merit corn roots (Zea mays L.) is withdrawn result in a subsequent loss of gravitropic curvature, an effect which we refer to as springback.' This loss of curvature begins within 1 to 10 minutes after removal of the gravistimulus. It occurs regardless of the presence or absence of the root cap. It is insensitive to inhibitors of auxin transport (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, naphthylphthalamic [correction of naphthylphthalmaic] acid) or to added auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Springback is prevented if a clinostat treatment is interjected to neutralize gravistimulation during germination, which suggests that the change in curvature is a response to a memory' effect carried over from a prior gravistimulation.

  12. Diagravitropism in corn roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    The diagravitropic behavior of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots grown in darkness provides an opportunity for comparison of two qualitatively different gravitropic systems. As with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism is shown to require the presence of the root cap, have a similar time course for the onset of curvature, and a similar presentation time. In contrast with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism appears to have a more limited requirement for calcium, for it is insensitive to the elution of calcium by EGTA and insensitive to the subsequent addition of a calcium/EGTA complex. These results are interpreted as indicating that whereas the same sensing system is shared by the two types of gravitropism, separate transductive systems are involved, one for diagravitropism, which is relatively independent of calcium, and one for positive gravitropism, which is markedly dependent on calcium.

  13. Metal(loid) allocation and nutrient retranslocation in Pinus halepensis trees growing on semiarid mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Parraga-Aguado, Isabel; Querejeta, Jose-Ignacio; González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Hector M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate internal metal(loid) cycling and the risk of metal(loid) accumulation in litter from Pinus halepensis trees growing at a mine tailing disposal site in semiarid Southeast Spain. Internal nutrient retranslocation was also evaluated in order to gain insight into the ability of pine trees to cope with the low-fertility soil conditions at the tailings. We measured metal(loid) concentrations in the foliage (young and old needles), woody stems and fresh leaf litter of pine trees growing on tailings. The nutrient status and stable isotope composition of pine foliage (δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(18)O as indicators of photosynthesis and water use efficiency) were also analyzed. Tailing soil properties in vegetation patches and in adjacent bare soil patches were characterized as well. Significant amounts of metal(loid)s such us Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb were immobilized in the woody stems of Pinus halepensis trees growing on tailings. Leaf litterfall showed high concentrations of As, Cd, Sb, Pb and Zn, which thereby return to the soil. However, water extractable metal(loid) concentrations in tailing soils were similar between vegetation patches (mineral soil under the litter layer) and bare soil patches. The pines growing on mine tailings showed very low foliar P concentrations in all leaf age classes, which suggests severe P deficiency. Young (current year) needles showed lower accumulation of metal(loid)s, higher nutrient concentrations (P and K), and higher water use efficiency (as indicated by and δ(13)C and δ(18)O data) than older needles. Substantial nutrient resorption occurred before leaf litterfall, with 46% retranslocation efficiency for P and 89% for K. In conclusion, phytostabilization of semiarid mine tailings with Pinus halepensis is feasible but would require careful monitoring of the trace elements released from litterfall, in order to assess the long term risk of metal(loid) transfer to the food chain.

  14. Effect of habitat and age on variations in volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from Quercus ilex and Pinus pinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, R. A.; Owen, S.; Duckham, S. C.; Boissard, C.; Hewitt, C. N.

    A dynamic branch enclosure was used to measure emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under field conditions from two common native Mediterranean species, Quercus ilex and Pinus pinea. In addition to α-pinene, β-pinene, sabinene, limonene and cineole, a suite of lesser known compounds were tentatively identified including cis- and trans-ocimene, cis- and trans-linalool oxide and sabinaketone. Emissions of isoprene from Quercus ilex were insignificant in comparison to those of the monoterpenes and were not detected from Pinus pinea. Variability in emission rates between two habitats, the forest and the dunes, were assessed for Quercus ilex. Temperature sensitivities of emissions and total summed emission rates from Quercus ilex were clearly related to environmental conditions. Emission rates from Pinus pinea showed great variability, but differences between normalised mean emission rates from mature forest and young plantation trees may be significant. Existing emission rate models were found to inadequately describe the observed data.

  15. Nitrogen nutrition and drought hardening exert opposite effects on the stress tolerance of Pinus pinea L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Villar-Salvador, Pedro; Peñuelas, Juan L; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2013-02-01

    Functional attributes determine the survival and growth of planted seedlings in reforestation projects. Nitrogen (N) and water are important resources in the cultivation of forest species, which have a strong effect on plant functional traits. We analyzed the influence of N nutrition on drought acclimation of Pinus pinea L. seedlings. Specifically, we addressed if high N fertilization reduces drought and frost tolerance of seedlings and whether drought hardening reverses the effect of high N fertilization on stress tolerance. Seedlings were grown under two N fertilization regimes (6 and 100 mg N per plant) and subjected to three drought-hardening levels (well-watered, moderate and strong hardening). Water relations, gas exchange, frost damage, N concentration and growth at the end of the drought-hardening period, and survival and growth of seedlings under controlled xeric and mesic outplanting conditions were measured. Relative to low-N plants, high-N plants were larger, had higher stomatal conductance (27%), residual transpiration (11%) and new root growth capacity and closed stomata at higher water potential. However, high N fertilization also increased frost damage (24%) and decreased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (9%). Drought hardening reversed to a great extent the reduction in stress tolerance caused by high N fertilization as it decreased frost damage, stomatal conductance and residual transpiration by 21, 31 and 24%, respectively, and increased plasmalemma stability to dehydration (8%). Drought hardening increased tissue non-structural carbohydrates and N concentration, especially in high-fertilized plants. Frost damage was positively related to the stability of plasmalemma to dehydration (r = 0.92) and both traits were negatively related to the concentration of reducing soluble sugars. No differences existed between moderate and strong drought-hardening treatments. Neither N nutrition nor drought hardening had any clear effect on seedling

  16. Effect of fire on soil microbial composition and activity in a Pinus canariensis forest and over time recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez Rojas, Irene; Fernández Lugo, Silvia; Arévalo Sierra, Jose Ramon; Pérez Fernández, María

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires are recurrent disturbances to forest ecosystems of Pinus canariensis, but their effects on soil microbial communities are not well characterized and have not previously been compared directly. Effects of fires on soil biotic properties are strongly dependent on the intensity of the fire, as well as on the type of soil and vegetation cover. This study aims at developing a comprehensive picture of the soil and vegetation dynamics to natural fries in an experiment comprising prescribed burning. The study was conducted at sites with similar soil, climatic, and other properties in a Canary pine forest in the Canary Islands, Spain. Soil microbial communities were assessed following four treatments: control, burnt soil the day after the fire, burnt soil three months after the fire and burnt soil six months after the. Burn treatments were conducted by the stuff from Cabildo de Canarias (Spain) on the 4th and 5th of June 2014. As a general rule, the organic carbon and the microbial biomass tend to decrease in the surface horizon after the fire, but the system responds increasing microbial activities and restoring soil variables in the subsequent months after the burning. Microbial biomass carbon significantly decreased in the burnt soils with their maximum negative effect immediately after the fire and during autumn, six months after the fire. Microbial biomass nitrogen also decreased in the burnt site immediately after the fire but increased in the following months, probably because of microbial assimilation of the increased amounts of available NH4+ and NO3‑ due to burning. Bacterial community composition was analyzed by metagenomics analyses Illumina showing strong variations amongst horizons and burning treatment both in total numbers and their composition. Changes in plant community were also monitored at the level of germination and plant recovery. Although fire negatively affects germination, seedling survival improves by increased growth rates of

  17. Uptake and distribution of nitrogen from acidic fog within a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.)/litter/soil system

    SciTech Connect

    Fenn, M.E.; Leininger, T.D.

    1995-11-01

    The magnitude and importance of wet deposition of N in forests of the South Coast (Los Angeles) Air Basin have not been well characterized. We exposed 3-yr-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) seedlings growing in native forest soil to acidic fog treatments (pH 3.1) simulating fog chemistry from a pine forest near Los Angeles, California. Fog solutions contained either {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +}, {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, or unlabeled N. The fog treatments were applied in open-top chambers in six 5-hr exposures. Soil treatments within each of the fog exposures were bare soil, soil overlain with L- and F-litter, and soil covered with plastic during the fog events to prevent fogwater from contacting soil. Seedlings were harvested and samples were collected 15 wk after the fog treatments. Uptake of {sup 15}N by roots was by far the dominant pathway for plant assimilation of fog-deposited {sup 15}N. Deposition of N in fog supplied 9.4% and 8.7% of the total N in current-year crown biomass in the litter-overlay and bare-soil treatments, respectively. Total N concentrations in every plant fraction except current-year stems were significantly higher in the bare-soil treatment than in the plastic-covered soil treatment. Less than 5% of the {sup 15}N deposited directly to the seedling crowns was retained by the plants in the covered-soil treatment, whereas 57% of the {sup 15}N deposited to the seedling/litter/soil systems was incorporated into plant biomass. The litter layers retained {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} more effectively than {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} more effectively than {sup 15}NO{sub 3}. Data from this study suggest that N deposited from fog may be an important source of N for plant growth in forests of the SCAB where fog occurrence and pollution exposure coincide. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Effect of fire on soil microbial composition and activity in a Pinus canariensis forest and over time recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez Rojas, Irene; Fernández Lugo, Silvia; Arévalo Sierra, Jose Ramon; Pérez Fernández, María

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires are recurrent disturbances to forest ecosystems of Pinus canariensis, but their effects on soil microbial communities are not well characterized and have not previously been compared directly. Effects of fires on soil biotic properties are strongly dependent on the intensity of the fire, as well as on the type of soil and vegetation cover. This study aims at developing a comprehensive picture of the soil and vegetation dynamics to natural fries in an experiment comprising prescribed burning. The study was conducted at sites with similar soil, climatic, and other properties in a Canary pine forest in the Canary Islands, Spain. Soil microbial communities were assessed following four treatments: control, burnt soil the day after the fire, burnt soil three months after the fire and burnt soil six months after the. Burn treatments were conducted by the stuff from Cabildo de Canarias (Spain) on the 4th and 5th of June 2014. As a general rule, the organic carbon and the microbial biomass tend to decrease in the surface horizon after the fire, but the system responds increasing microbial activities and restoring soil variables in the subsequent months after the burning. Microbial biomass carbon significantly decreased in the burnt soils with their maximum negative effect immediately after the fire and during autumn, six months after the fire. Microbial biomass nitrogen also decreased in the burnt site immediately after the fire but increased in the following months, probably because of microbial assimilation of the increased amounts of available NH4+ and NO3- due to burning. Bacterial community composition was analyzed by metagenomics analyses Illumina showing strong variations amongst horizons and burning treatment both in total numbers and their composition. Changes in plant community were also monitored at the level of germination and plant recovery. Although fire negatively affects germination, seedling survival improves by increased growth rates of seedlings

  19. Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) by Black Bear (Ursus americanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; Arundel, Terry A.

    2013-01-01

    We report a discovery of black bears (Ursus americanus) consuming seeds of southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis) on north slopes of the San Francisco Peaks near Flagstaff, Arizona, in high-elevation, mixed-species conifer forest. In one instance, a bear had obtained seeds from cones excavated from a larder horde made by a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Consumption of seeds of southwestern white pine by bears had not been previously documented. This discovery adds to the number of species of pine used by bears for food as well as the geographic range within which the behavior occurs.

  20. Price sensitivity of bioethanol produced in New Zealand from Pinus radiata wood

    SciTech Connect

    Manderson, G.J.; Spencer, K.; Paterson, A.H.J. . Dept. of Biotechnology); Qureshi, N. ); Jansen, D.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis conducted of designs for industry-scale ethanol production facilities that use both hexoses and pentoses to produce 97 to 107 tonnes of anhydrous ethanol per day from 960 tonnes of Pinus radiata wood of 50% moisture content (480 oven-dried tonnes). Various process options and available technologies were considered for cost comparisons. The base case plant design was used to assess the probable importance of not fermenting thee wood pentose fraction. When pentose sugars were not fermented, the ethanol price increased from $0.71/L to $0.75/L. The influence of various economic factors on selling price is assessed.

  1. On the specific pattern of long chain polyprenols in green needles of Pinus mugo Turra.

    PubMed

    Kazimierczak, B; Hertel, J; Swiezewska, E; Chojnacki, T; Marczewski, A

    1997-01-01

    In green needles of Pinus mugo the most abundant polyprenols occur as a mixture of prenologues in which the dominant alcohol is built of 16 isoprene units. The characteristic spectrum of polyprenols (prenol-15, -16 and -17) was the same irrespective of the location of plant and of distinct morphological differences observed in the various selected forms of this species. The constant pattern of the polyprenols spectrum was preserved throughout the 2-year life span of needles, although the level of polyprenols was increased 2-3-fold. The polyprenol pattern in Pinaceae family differs from species to species, thus it may serve as chemotaxonomic criterion within this systematic group.

  2. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study of sterols from Pinus elliotti tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Evans, R.; Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    A comparative study of the sterol components of slash pine (Pinus elliotti) callus tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings was carried out using GC-MS techniques. Cholesterol, desmosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol and cycloeucalenol were identified in all tissues while lophenol and 24-methylenelophenol were identified in only the seed and seedlings. 24-Ethylidenelophenol was detected in trace concentrations in only the seedlings. Sitosterol was the predominant sterol component, i.e., 80.8, 38.1 and 47.8% of the tissue culture, seed and seedling sterols, respectively.

  3. Changes in soil quality due to converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations and subsequent successive Eucalyptus planting in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2014-09-01

    Plants play a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index (SQI) was calculated. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities significantly decreased in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations after conversion from Pinus to Eucalyptus but gradually recovered in the 3rd and 4th generations. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower, but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations compared to the Pinus plantation. As an integrated indicator, SQI was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92), but decreased to 0.24 and 0.13 in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations, respectively. However, it recovered to 0.36 and 0.38 in the 3rd and 4th generations, respectively. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the "U" shaped change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understory coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality during plantation management.

  4. Root tips moving through soil

    PubMed Central

    Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    Root elongation occurs by the generation of new cells from meristematic tissue within the apical 1–2 mm region of root tips. Therefore penetration of the soil environment is carried out by newly synthesized plant tissue, whose cells are inherently vulnerable to invasion by pathogens. This conundrum, on its face, would seem to reflect an intolerable risk to the successful establishment of root systems needed for plant life. Yet root tip regions housing the meristematic tissues repeatedly have been found to be free of microbial infection and colonization. Even when spore germination, chemotaxis, and/or growth of pathogens are stimulated by signals from the root tip, the underlying root tissue can escape invasion. Recent insights into the functions of root border cells, and the regulation of their production by transient exposure to external signals, may shed light on long-standing observations. PMID:21455030

  5. Soil compaction and organic matter affect conifer seedling nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and diversity. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Amaranthus, M.P.; Page-Dumroese, D.; Harvey, A.; Cazares, E.; Bednar, L.F.

    1996-05-01

    Three levels of organic matter removal (bole only; bole and crowns; and bole, crowns, and forest floor) and three levels of mechanical soil compaction (no compaction, moderate compaction, and severe soil compaction) were studied as they influence Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) seedlings following outplanting. Moderate and severe soil compaction significantly reduced nonmycorrhizal root tip abundance on both Douglas-fir and western white pine seedlings (p less than or equal to 0.05). Ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in severely compacted areas with bole and crowns and bole, crowns, and forest floor removed. Ectomycorrhizal diversity also was significantly reduced on Douglas-fir seedlings in all severely compacted areas.

  6. [Effects of soil temperature and humidity on soil respiration rate under Pinus sylvestriformis forest].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Han, Shijie; Hu, Yanling; Dai, Guanhua

    2005-09-01

    Employing root-wrenching method and LI-6400-09 soil respiration chamber, this paper measured the diurnal changes of soil respiration rate with and without roots in situ on June 17, August 5, and October 10, 2003. The seasonal changes of soil respiration were also measured from May to September, 2004. The results showed that both the total and the root-wrenched soil respiration appeared single diurnal pattern, with the peaks presented during 12:00-14:00. The diurnal fluctuation of soil respiration on August 5 was smaller than that on June 17 and October 10. There were also obvious seasonal changes in total and root-wrenched soil respiration, as well as in root respiration, which were higher from June to August but lower in May and September. The average total soil respiration, root-wrenched soil respiration, and root respiration were 3.12, 1.94 and 1.18 micromol CO2 x m(-2) s(-1), respectively, and the contribution of roots to total soil respiration ranged from 26.5% to 52.6% from May to September, 2004. There were exponential correlations between respiration rate and soil temperature, and linear correlations between respiration rate and soil humidity. The Q10 values were 2.44, 2.55 and 2.27 for total soil respiration, root-wrenched soil respiration, and root respiration, respectively. The effect of soil temperature on root-wrenched soil respiration was lager than that on total soil respiration and root respiration. Soil humidity had a larger effect on total soil respiration than on root respiration and root-wrenched soil respiration. PMID:16355765

  7. Unique Features of the Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Megagenome Revealed Through Sequence Annotation

    PubMed Central

    Wegrzyn, Jill L.; Liechty, John D.; Stevens, Kristian A.; Wu, Le-Shin; Loopstra, Carol A.; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A.; Dougherty, William M.; Lin, Brian Y.; Zieve, Jacob J.; Martínez-García, Pedro J.; Holt, Carson; Yandell, Mark; Zimin, Aleksey V.; Yorke, James A.; Crepeau, Marc W.; Puiu, Daniela; Salzberg, Steven L.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Main, Doreen; Langley, Charles H.; Neale, David B.

    2014-01-01

    The largest genus in the conifer family Pinaceae is Pinus, with over 100 species. The size and complexity of their genomes (∼20–40 Gb, 2n = 24) have delayed the arrival of a well-annotated reference sequence. In this study, we present the annotation of the first whole-genome shotgun assembly of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), which comprises 20.1 Gb of sequence. The MAKER-P annotation pipeline combined evidence-based alignments and ab initio predictions to generate 50,172 gene models, of which 15,653 are classified as high confidence. Clustering these gene models with 13 other plant species resulted in 20,646 gene families, of which 1554 are predicted to be unique to conifers. Among the conifer gene families, 159 are composed exclusively of loblolly pine members. The gene models for loblolly pine have the highest median and mean intron lengths of 24 fully sequenced plant genomes. Conifer genomes are full of repetitive DNA, with the most significant contributions from long-terminal-repeat retrotransposons. In depth analysis of the tandem and interspersed repetitive content yielded a combined estimate of 82%. PMID:24653211

  8. Effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on stem maintenance and construction respiration in Pinus ponderosa

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, E.V.; Delucia, E.H.; Ball, J.T. |

    1995-06-01

    We measured woody tissue respiration on stems of 4-year-old Pinus ponderosa growing under ambient (350 ppm) and twice ambient (700 ppm) atmospheric CO{sub 2} in open top chambers located at the Institute of Forest Genetics in Placerville, CA. Mean daily respiration rate per unit volume of wood was greater in trees growing under the elevated (700 ppm) treatment (46.75 vs 40.45 mol m{sup -3} d{sup -1}). This difference was due to a higher Q{sub 10} of respiration in the elevated (Q{sub 10}=2.20) versus the ambient (Q{sub 10}=1.67) treatment. The higher Q{sub 10} and CO{sub 2} efflux rate were not due to differences in phenology but may reflect a difference in demand for metabolic energy. In contrast to results seen in leaves growing under elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} analysis of tissue construction costs suggests no difference in wood composition between treatments. Estimates of growth respiration calculated from construction costs also did not differ. Under future predicted atmospheric conditions, changes in the maintenance respiration of woody tissue may lead to an increase in the respiration component of whole plant carbon budgets of Pinus ponderosa.

  9. Fire-adapted traits of Pinus arose in the fiery Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    He, Tianhua; Pausas, Juli G; Belcher, Claire M; Schwilk, Dylan W; Lamont, Byron B

    2012-05-01

    • The mapping of functional traits onto chronograms is an emerging approach for the identification of how agents of natural selection have shaped the evolution of organisms. Recent research has reported fire-dependent traits appearing among flowering plants from 60 million yr ago (Ma). Although there are many records of fossil charcoal in the Cretaceous (65-145 Ma), evidence of fire-dependent traits evolving in that period is lacking. • We link the evolutionary trajectories for five fire-adapted traits in Pinaceae with paleoatmospheric conditions over the last 250 million yr to determine the time at which fire originated as a selective force in trait evolution among seed plants. • Fire-protective thick bark originated in Pinus c. 126 Ma in association with low-intensity surface fires. More intense crown fires emerged c. 89 Ma coincident with thicker bark and branch shedding, or serotiny with branch retention as an alternative strategy. These innovations appeared at the same time as the Earth's paleoatmosphere experienced elevated oxygen levels that led to high burn probabilities during the mid-Cretaceous. • The fiery environments of the Cretaceous strongly influenced trait evolution in Pinus. Our evidence for a strong correlation between the evolution of fire-response strategies and changes in fire regime 90-125 Ma greatly backdates the key role that fire has played in the evolution of seed plants.

  10. Impact of Pinus Afforestation on Soil Chemical Attributes and Organic Matter in South Brazilian highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro Dick, D.; Benvenuti Leite, S.; Dalmolin, R.; Almeida, H.; Knicker, H.; Martinazzo, R.

    2009-04-01

    The region known as Campos de Cima da Serra, located at 800 to 1400 m above sea level in the northeas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, is covered by a mosaic of natural grassland and Araucaria forest. Cattle raising, introduced by the first European settlers about 200 years ago, is the traditional economic activity in the region, occurring extensively and continuously on the natural pasture. In the last 30 years, while seeking for higher profits, local farmers have introduced agricultural crops and Pinus Taeda plantations in the original pasture lands. Pinus plantations are established in this area as dense monocultures and not as a sylvipastoral system, representing, thus, a severe threaten to the Campos' biodiversity. The soils are shallow, though very acidic (pH 4.2) and rich in exchangeable Al (28 to 47% of Al saturation), and present high contents of SOM in the surface layer (in general, higher than 4 %), which shows a low decomposition degree, as indicated by its high proportion of C-O alkyl groups (51 to 59 %). Considering that the biome sustainability of this region is being progressively affected by the change of land use and that systematic studies about exotic trees afforestation in that region are very scarce, our main objective was to investigate the impact of the introduction of Pinus on the SOM composition and chemical attributes of highland soils in 8 (Pi8) and 30 (Pi30) years old plantations, using as reference the original condition under native pasture (NP). In each studied Leptosol, soil samples were collected from three layers down to 15 cm ( 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm). Contents of exchangeable cations and of micronutrients and soil pH were determined. The SOM composition was investigated by means of elemental analyses, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy (three replicates). Prior to the spectroscopic analyses, samples were demineralized with 10% HF solution and organic matter loss was monitored. From the FTIR spectra, an aromaticity index

  11. Simulation of Tsunami Resistance of a Pinus Thunbergii tree in Coastal Forest in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanko, K.; Suzuki, S.; Noguchi, H.; Hagino, H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests reduce fluid force of tsunami, whereas extreme tsunami sometimes breaks down the forest trees. It is difficult to estimate the interactive relationship between the fluid and the trees because fluid deform tree architecture and deformed tree changes flow field. Dynamic tree deformation and fluid behavior should be clarified by fluid-structure interaction analysis. For the initial step, we have developed dynamic simulation of tree sway and breakage caused by tsunami based on a vibrating system with multiple degrees of freedom. The target specie of the simulation was Japanese black pine (pinus thunbergii), which is major specie in the coastal forest to secure livelihood area from the damage by blown sand and salt in Japanese coastal area. For the simulation, a tree was segmented into 0.2 m long circular truncated cones. Turning moment induced by tsunami and self-weight was calculated at each segment bottom. Tree deformation was computed on multi-degree-of-freedom vibration equation. Tree sway was simulated by iterative calculation of the tree deformation with time step 0.05 second with temporally varied flow velocity of tsunami. From the calculation of bending stress and turning moment at tree base, we estimated resistance of a Pinus thunbergii tree from tsunami against tree breakage.

  12. Catalytic Conversion of Pinus densiflora Over Mesoporous Catalysts Using Pyrolysis Process.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sung Kyun; Lee, In-Gu; Lee, Hyung Won; Chea, Kwang-Seok; Jo, Tae Su; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Sang Chai; Ko, Chang Hyun; Park, Young-Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the possibility of obtaining valuable chemicals from Pinus densiflora, a native Korean tree species occupying 21.4% of the total area under forests in South Korea. Two representative mesoporous catalysts, Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F, as well as hierarchical mesoporous MFI (Meso-MFI) that has both mesopores and micropores, were used as catalysts. Compared to non-catalytic pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis was shown to reduce the fractions of levoglucosan, phenolics, and acids in bio-oil, while increasing the fractions of aromatics, PAHs, and furans. Meso-MFI with strong acid sites showed a high selectivity toward aromatics and PAHs, whereas Al-MCM-41 and Al-MSU-F with weak acid sites exhibited a high selectivity toward furanic compounds. The results of this study indicate that choosing a catalyst with an adequate quantity of acidic sites with the required strength is critical for enhancing the production of desired chemicals from Pinus densiflora. PMID:27433632

  13. [Canopy interception of Pinus tabulaeformis plantation on Longzhong Loess Plateau, Northwest China: characteristics and simulation].

    PubMed

    Fang, Shu-Min; Zhao, Chuan-Yan; Jian, Sheng-Qi; Yu, Kai

    2013-06-01

    Taking the Pinus tabulaeformis plantation in the Anjiagou catchment on Longzhong Loess Plateau as test object, an observation was made on the characteristics of throughfall, stemflow, interception, and canopy structure of P. tabulaeformi during its growth season (from May to September) in 2011. Based on the observed data, the revised Gash analytical model was adopted to simulate the canopy interception, aimed to understand the ecological hydrological processes of Pinus tabulaeformis plantation and related mechanisms. In the observation period, a total of 19 precipitation events were observed, with a total precipitation of 215.80 mm. The throughfall, stemflow, and canopy interception were 165.24 mm, 2.29 mm, and 48.27 mm, occupying 76.7%, 1.1%, and 22.4% of the total precipitation, respectively. The simulated canopy interception was 41.24 mm, being 7.13 mm lower than the observed value and with a relative error of 14.7%. There were 33.8% and 60.0% of interception were evaporated from the canopy during and after precipitation, respectively. The revised Gash analytical model was highly sensitive to the canopy storage capacity, forest coverage, rainfall intensity, and evaporation, but less sensitive to the stemflow rate and stem water holding capacity.

  14. Fire-adapted traits of Pinus arose in the fiery Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    He, Tianhua; Pausas, Juli G; Belcher, Claire M; Schwilk, Dylan W; Lamont, Byron B

    2012-05-01

    • The mapping of functional traits onto chronograms is an emerging approach for the identification of how agents of natural selection have shaped the evolution of organisms. Recent research has reported fire-dependent traits appearing among flowering plants from 60 million yr ago (Ma). Although there are many records of fossil charcoal in the Cretaceous (65-145 Ma), evidence of fire-dependent traits evolving in that period is lacking. • We link the evolutionary trajectories for five fire-adapted traits in Pinaceae with paleoatmospheric conditions over the last 250 million yr to determine the time at which fire originated as a selective force in trait evolution among seed plants. • Fire-protective thick bark originated in Pinus c. 126 Ma in association with low-intensity surface fires. More intense crown fires emerged c. 89 Ma coincident with thicker bark and branch shedding, or serotiny with branch retention as an alternative strategy. These innovations appeared at the same time as the Earth's paleoatmosphere experienced elevated oxygen levels that led to high burn probabilities during the mid-Cretaceous. • The fiery environments of the Cretaceous strongly influenced trait evolution in Pinus. Our evidence for a strong correlation between the evolution of fire-response strategies and changes in fire regime 90-125 Ma greatly backdates the key role that fire has played in the evolution of seed plants. PMID:22348443

  15. Crystallization and initial crystallographic characterization of a vicilin-type seed storage protein from Pinus koraiensis

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Tengchuan; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin-type 7S seed storage protein was isolated from defatted pine-nut extract and purified by sequential gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapour-diffusion method in hanging drops. The cupin superfamily of proteins includes the 7S and 11S seed storage proteins. Many members of this family of proteins are known allergens. In this study, the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) vicilin-type 7S seed storage protein was isolated from defatted pine-nut extract and purified by sequential gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography. Well diffracting single crystals were obtained by the vapor-diffusion method in hanging drops. The crystals belong to the primitive cubic space group P2{sub 1}3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 148.174 Å. Two vicilin molecules were present in the asymmetric unit and the Matthews coefficient was determined to be 2.90 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, with a corresponding solvent content of ∼58%. A molecular-replacement structural solution has been obtained using the program Phaser. Refinement of the structure is currently under way.

  16. Philosophical Roots of Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanovic, M.

    2008-10-01

    We shall consider the philosophical roots of cosmology in the earlier Greek philosophy. Our goal is to answer the question: Are earlier Greek theories of pure philosophical-mythological character, as often philosophers cited it, or they have scientific character. On the bases of methodological criteria, we shall contend that the latter is the case. In order to answer the question about contemporary situation of the relation philosophy-cosmology, we shall consider the next question: Is contemporary cosmology completely independent of philosophical conjectures? The answer demands consideration of methodological character about scientific status of contemporary cosmology. We also consider some aspects of the relation contemporary philosophy-cosmology.

  17. The Roots of Beowulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The first Beowulf Linux commodity cluster was constructed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in 1994 and its origins are a part of the folklore of high-end computing. In fact, the conditions within Goddard that brought the idea into being were shaped by rich historical roots, strategic pressures brought on by the ramp up of the Federal High-Performance Computing and Communications Program, growth of the open software movement, microprocessor performance trends, and the vision of key technologists. This multifaceted story is told here for the first time from the point of view of NASA project management.

  18. Matching roots to their environment

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.; George, Timothy S.; Gregory, Peter J.; Bengough, A. Glyn; Hallett, Paul D.; McKenzie, Blair M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants form the base of the terrestrial food chain and provide medicines, fuel, fibre and industrial materials to humans. Vascular land plants rely on their roots to acquire the water and mineral elements necessary for their survival in nature or their yield and nutritional quality in agriculture. Major biogeochemical fluxes of all elements occur through plant roots, and the roots of agricultural crops have a significant role to play in soil sustainability, carbon sequestration, reducing emissions of greenhouse gasses, and in preventing the eutrophication of water bodies associated with the application of mineral fertilizers. Scope This article provides the context for a Special Issue of Annals of Botany on ‘Matching Roots to Their Environment’. It first examines how land plants and their roots evolved, describes how the ecology of roots and their rhizospheres contributes to the acquisition of soil resources, and discusses the influence of plant roots on biogeochemical cycles. It then describes the role of roots in overcoming the constraints to crop production imposed by hostile or infertile soils, illustrates root phenotypes that improve the acquisition of mineral elements and water, and discusses high-throughput methods to screen for these traits in the laboratory, glasshouse and field. Finally, it considers whether knowledge of adaptations improving the acquisition of resources in natural environments can be used to develop root systems for sustainable agriculture in the future. PMID:23821619

  19. Geophysical Imaging of Root Architecture and Root-soil Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Dafflon, B.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Roots play a critical role in controlling water and nutrient uptake, soil biogeochemical processes, as well as the physical anchorage for plants. While important processes, such as root hydraulic redistribution for optimal growth and survival have been recognized, representation of roots in climate models, e.g. its carbon storage, carbon resilience, root biomass, and role in regulating water and carbon fluxes across the rhizosphere and atmosphere interface is still challenging. Such a challenge is exacerbated because of the large variations of root architecture and function across species and locations due to both genetic and environmental controls and the lack of methods for quantifying root mass, distribution, dynamics and interaction with soils at field scales. The scale, complexity and the dynamic nature of plant roots call for minimally invasive methods capable of providing quantitative estimation of root architecture, dynamics over time and interactions with the soils. We present a study on root architecture and root-soil interactions using geophysical methods. Parameters and processes of interests include (1) moisture dynamics around root zone and its interaction with plant transpiration and environmental controls and (2) estimation of root structure and properties based on geophysical signals. Both pot and field scale studies were conducted. The pot scale experiments were conducted under controlled conditions and were monitored with cross-well electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), TDR moisture sensors and temperature probes. Pots with and without a tree were compared and the moisture conditions were controlled via a self regulated pumping system. Geophysical monitoring revealed interactions between roots and soils under dynamic soil moisture conditions and the role of roots in regulating the response of the soil system to changes of environmental conditions, e.g. drought and precipitation events. Field scale studies were conducted on natural trees using

  20. Viewing forests from below: fine root mass declines relative to leaf area in aging lodgepole pine stands.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, A S; Lieffers, V J; Landhäusser, S M

    2016-07-01

    In the continued quest to explain the decline in productivity and vigor with aging forest stands, the most poorly studied area relates to root system change in time. This paper measures the wood production, root and leaf area (and mass) in a chronosequence of fire-origin lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Loudon) stands consisting of four age classes (12, 21, 53, and ≥100 years), each replicated ~ five times. Wood productivity was greatest in the 53-year-old stands and then declined in the ≥100-year-old stands. Growth efficiency, the quantity of wood produced per unit leaf mass, steadily declined with age. Leaf mass and fine root mass plateaued between the 53- and ≥100-year-old stands, but leaf area index actually increased in the older stands. An increase in the leaf area index:fine root area ratio supports the idea that older stand are potentially limited by soil resources. Other factors contributing to slower growth in older stands might be lower soil temperatures and increased self-shading due to the clumped nature of crowns. Collectively, the proportionally greater reduction in fine roots in older stands might be the variable that predisposes these forests to be at a potentially greater risk of stress-induced mortality. PMID:27041684

  1. CANOPY CONDUCTANCE OF PINUS TAEDA, LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA AND QUERCUS PHELLOS UNDER VARYING ATMOSPHERIC AND SOIL WATER CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sap flow, and atmospheric and soil water data were collected in closed-top chambers under conditions of high soil water potential for saplings of Liquidambar styraciflua L., Quercus phellos L., and Pinus taeda L., three co-occurring species in the southeastern USA. Responses of c...

  2. Canopy Level Emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes from a Pinus taeda Experimental Plantation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) observed during 2007 from a Pinus taeda experimental plantation in Central North Carolina are compared with model estimates from MEGAN 2.1. Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) estimates of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) fluxes are ...

  3. [Effects of elevated O3 on the volatile organic compounds emit from Ginkgo biloba and Pinus tabulaeformis].

    PubMed

    Li, De-wen; Shi, Yi; He, Xing-yuan

    2008-02-01

    To study the impact of elevated tropospheric O3 concentrations on BVOCs emissions by Pinus tabulaeformis and Ginkgo biloba in urban area, the trees were exposed in open-top chambers. Two ozone treatments were established: ambient air (approximately 30 nmol x mol(-1) ) (CK) and elevated O3 concentrations (80 nmol x mol(-1) ) (O3 ). Elevated O3 concentrations significantly induced isoprene to emit for Pinus tabulaeformis and Ginkgo biloba (p < 0.05), and delta3-carene for Ginkgo biloba (p < 0.05). The emission rates were increased to 1.96, 9.71 and 0.09 microg/(g x h) (-1), respectively. There were no significant differences between ozone fumigation treatments for the other monoterpenes. At the same time, the relative abundances of the monoterpenes and isoprene were to be different between tree species and effect by O3 exposure. In CK chambers, the dominate BVOCs emitted by Ginkgo biloba was isoprene, and a-pinene for Pinus tabulaeformis. In the elevated O3 chambers, the isoprene accounted for 64.73% of Pinus tabulaeformis BVOCs. To sum up, the BVOCs emitting patterns were influenced by elevated O3 significantly.

  4. 76 FR 42631 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Pinus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... January 27, 1994 (59 FR 3824). On December 9, 2008, we received a petition dated December 8, 2008, from... published in the Federal Register on July 20, 2010 (75 FR 42033). In that finding we determined that the... Pinus albicaulis (75 FR 42033), and received 20 letters from the public. This 12-month finding is...

  5. Soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient content of pine trees (Pinus thunbergii) in areas impacted by acid deposition in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae E; Lee, Wi-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Acid deposition has caused detrimental effects on tree growth near industrial areas of the world. Preliminary work has indicated that concentrations of NO(3-), SO(4)(2-), F( - ) and Al in soil solutions were 2 to 33 times higher in industrial areas compared to non-industrial areas in Korea. This study evaluated soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient contents of red pine (Pinus thunbergii) needles in forest soils of industrial and non-industrial areas of Korea. Results confirm that forest soils of industrial areas have been acidified mainly by deposition of sulfate, resulting in increases of Al, Fe and Mn and decreases of Ca, Mg and K concentrations in soils and soil solutions. In soils of industrial areas, the molar ratios of Ca/Al and Mg/Al in forest soils were <2, which can lead to lower levels and availability of nutrients for tree growth. The Ca/Al molar ratio of Pinus thunbergii needles on non-industrial sites was 15, while that of industrial areas was 10. Magnesium concentrations in needles of Pinus thunbergii were lower in soils of industrial areas and the high levels of acid cations such as Al and Mn in these soils may have antagonized the uptake of base cations like Mg. Continued acidification can further reduce uptake of base cations by trees. Results show that Mg deficiency and high concentrations of Al and Mn in soil solution can be limiting factors for Pinus thunbergii growth in industrial areas of Korea.

  6. 75 FR 42033 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Pinus albicaulis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... soil erosion by physically stabilizing soils, initiating succession as a hardy pioneer or as an early... published in the Federal Register on January 27, 1994 (59 FR 3824). Species Information Pinus albicaulis is... listing actions (e.g., 75 FR 13910, March 23, 2010). The petitioner also cites several other models...

  7. HYDROLOGICAL AND CLIMATIC RESPONSES OF OLD-GROWTH PINUS ELLIOTTII VAR. DENSA IN MESIC PINE FLATWOODS FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus elliottii Englem. var. densa Little & Dorman (Southern Slash Pine) is unique in that it is the only native sub-tropical pine in the USA. Once occupying much of the south Florida landscape, it is now restricted to an estimated 3% of its pre human settlement area. Land manag...

  8. Soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient content of pine trees (Pinus thunbergii) in areas impacted by acid deposition in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae E; Lee, Wi-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Skousen, Jeffrey

    2009-10-01

    Acid deposition has caused detrimental effects on tree growth near industrial areas of the world. Preliminary work has indicated that concentrations of NO(3-), SO(4)(2-), F( - ) and Al in soil solutions were 2 to 33 times higher in industrial areas compared to non-industrial areas in Korea. This study evaluated soil nutrient bioavailability and nutrient contents of red pine (Pinus thunbergii) needles in forest soils of industrial and non-industrial areas of Korea. Results confirm that forest soils of industrial areas have been acidified mainly by deposition of sulfate, resulting in increases of Al, Fe and Mn and decreases of Ca, Mg and K concentrations in soils and soil solutions. In soils of industrial areas, the molar ratios of Ca/Al and Mg/Al in forest soils were <2, which can lead to lower levels and availability of nutrients for tree growth. The Ca/Al molar ratio of Pinus thunbergii needles on non-industrial sites was 15, while that of industrial areas was 10. Magnesium concentrations in needles of Pinus thunbergii were lower in soils of industrial areas and the high levels of acid cations such as Al and Mn in these soils may have antagonized the uptake of base cations like Mg. Continued acidification can further reduce uptake of base cations by trees. Results show that Mg deficiency and high concentrations of Al and Mn in soil solution can be limiting factors for Pinus thunbergii growth in industrial areas of Korea. PMID:18758977

  9. Do climate and outbreak frequency affect levels of foliar phytochemistry in different lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stands?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden) is a widely distributed tree in North American forests and is found in a variety of environments, each with different levels of disease activity. We quantified the levels of defense-associated metabolites (including soluble phenolics, lignin, and ter...

  10. Ectomycorrhizal fungal associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a hot spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Cullings, K; Makhija, S

    2001-12-01

    Molecular methods and comparisons of fruiting patterns (i.e., presence or absence of fungal fruiting bodies in different soil types) were used to determine ectomycorrhizal (EM) associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a thermal soil classified as ultra-acidic to extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4). EM were sampled by obtaining 36 soil cores from six paired plots (three cores each) of both thermal soils and forest soils directly adjacent to the thermal area. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) were collected for molecular identification and to compare fruiting body (above-ground) diversity to below-ground diversity. Our results indicate (i) that there were significant decreases in both the level of EM infection (130 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in forest soil; 68 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in thermal soil) and EM fungal species richness (4.0 +/- 0.5 species/core in forest soil; 1.2 +/- 0.2 species/core in thermal soil) in soils associated with the thermal feature; (ii) that the EM mycota of thermal soils was comprised of a small set of dominant species and included very few rare species, while the EM mycota of forest soils contained a few dominant species and several rare EM fungal species; (iii) that Dermocybe phoenecius and a species of Inocybe, which was rare in forest soils, were the dominant EM fungal species in thermal soils; (iv) that other than the single Inocybe species, there was no overlap in the EM fungal communities of the forest and thermal soils; and (v) that the fungal species forming the majority of the above-ground fruiting structures in thermal soils (Pisolithus tinctorius, which is commonly used in remediation of acid soils) was not detected on a single EM root tip in either type of soil. Thus, P. tinctorius may have a different role in these thermal soils. Our results suggest that this species may not perform well in remediation of all acid soils and that factors such as pH, soil temperature, and soil chemistry may interact to influence EM fungal

  11. Ectomycorrhizal fungal associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a hot spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Cullings, K; Makhija, S

    2001-12-01

    Molecular methods and comparisons of fruiting patterns (i.e., presence or absence of fungal fruiting bodies in different soil types) were used to determine ectomycorrhizal (EM) associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a thermal soil classified as ultra-acidic to extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4). EM were sampled by obtaining 36 soil cores from six paired plots (three cores each) of both thermal soils and forest soils directly adjacent to the thermal area. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) were collected for molecular identification and to compare fruiting body (above-ground) diversity to below-ground diversity. Our results indicate (i) that there were significant decreases in both the level of EM infection (130 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in forest soil; 68 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in thermal soil) and EM fungal species richness (4.0 +/- 0.5 species/core in forest soil; 1.2 +/- 0.2 species/core in thermal soil) in soils associated with the thermal feature; (ii) that the EM mycota of thermal soils was comprised of a small set of dominant species and included very few rare species, while the EM mycota of forest soils contained a few dominant species and several rare EM fungal species; (iii) that Dermocybe phoenecius and a species of Inocybe, which was rare in forest soils, were the dominant EM fungal species in thermal soils; (iv) that other than the single Inocybe species, there was no overlap in the EM fungal communities of the forest and thermal soils; and (v) that the fungal species forming the majority of the above-ground fruiting structures in thermal soils (Pisolithus tinctorius, which is commonly used in remediation of acid soils) was not detected on a single EM root tip in either type of soil. Thus, P. tinctorius may have a different role in these thermal soils. Our results suggest that this species may not perform well in remediation of all acid soils and that factors such as pH, soil temperature, and soil chemistry may interact to influence EM fungal

  12. Ectomycorrhizal fungal associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a hot spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, K.; Makhija, S.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular methods and comparisons of fruiting patterns (i.e., presence or absence of fungal fruiting bodies in different soil types) were used to determine ectomycorrhizal (EM) associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a thermal soil classified as ultra-acidic to extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4). EM were sampled by obtaining 36 soil cores from six paired plots (three cores each) of both thermal soils and forest soils directly adjacent to the thermal area. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) were collected for molecular identification and to compare fruiting body (above-ground) diversity to below-ground diversity. Our results indicate (i) that there were significant decreases in both the level of EM infection (130 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in forest soil; 68 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in thermal soil) and EM fungal species richness (4.0 +/- 0.5 species/core in forest soil; 1.2 +/- 0.2 species/core in thermal soil) in soils associated with the thermal feature; (ii) that the EM mycota of thermal soils was comprised of a small set of dominant species and included very few rare species, while the EM mycota of forest soils contained a few dominant species and several rare EM fungal species; (iii) that Dermocybe phoenecius and a species of Inocybe, which was rare in forest soils, were the dominant EM fungal species in thermal soils; (iv) that other than the single Inocybe species, there was no overlap in the EM fungal communities of the forest and thermal soils; and (v) that the fungal species forming the majority of the above-ground fruiting structures in thermal soils (Pisolithus tinctorius, which is commonly used in remediation of acid soils) was not detected on a single EM root tip in either type of soil. Thus, P. tinctorius may have a different role in these thermal soils. Our results suggest that this species may not perform well in remediation of all acid soils and that factors such as pH, soil temperature, and soil chemistry may interact to influence EM fungal

  13. The Mass Loss and Humification of Stumps and Roots in Masson Pine Plantations Based on Log File Records.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiao; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Tan, Bo; Xu, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Jian; Duan, Fei; Liu, Hui; Justine, Meta Francis

    2016-01-01

    Stumps account for a large proportion of coarse woody debris in managed forests, but their decay dynamics are poorly understood. The loss of mass and the degree of humification of the above-ground woody debris, below-ground woody debris, bark and root system (R1, 10 mm ≥ diameter > 0 mm; R2, 25 mm ≥ diameter >10 mm; 100 mm ≥ R3 > 25 mm; R4 > 100 mm) of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) stump systems were evaluated in southwestern China in a chronosequence of plantations cut 1-15 years prior to the study. The results indicated that above-ground woody debris decomposed more quickly than below-ground woody debris and bark, whereas the degree of humification followed the opposite trend. Compared with one-year stumps, the mass losses of 15-year stump systems were 60.4% for above-ground woody debris, 42.1% for below-ground woody debris, 47.3% for bark, 69.9% for R1, 47.3% for R2, 51.0% for R3, and 83.2% for R4. In contrast, below-ground woody debris showed a greater degree of humification compared with other components in the stump system. Among the root system, fine roots (R1, diameter ≤ 10 mm) had the largest k value (0.09), whereas the decay rate of coarser roots (R2, R3, R4; diameter > 10 mm) increased with increasing root diameter. However, coarse roots showed a larger degree of humification (0.2-0.6) than fine roots (0.3-0.4). These results suggest that below-ground woody debris and coarse roots may display a higher degree of humification, showing greater short-term contributions to overall humification when compared with the other components in the stump system.

  14. The Mass Loss and Humification of Stumps and Roots in Masson Pine Plantations Based on Log File Records

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiao; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Tan, Bo; Xu, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Jian; Duan, Fei; Liu, Hui; Justine, Meta Francis

    2016-01-01

    Stumps account for a large proportion of coarse woody debris in managed forests, but their decay dynamics are poorly understood. The loss of mass and the degree of humification of the above-ground woody debris, below-ground woody debris, bark and root system (R1, 10 mm ≥ diameter > 0 mm; R2, 25 mm ≥ diameter >10 mm; 100 mm ≥ R3 > 25 mm; R4 > 100 mm) of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) stump systems were evaluated in southwestern China in a chronosequence of plantations cut 1–15 years prior to the study. The results indicated that above-ground woody debris decomposed more quickly than below-ground woody debris and bark, whereas the degree of humification followed the opposite trend. Compared with one-year stumps, the mass losses of 15-year stump systems were 60.4% for above-ground woody debris, 42.1% for below-ground woody debris, 47.3% for bark, 69.9% for R1, 47.3% for R2, 51.0% for R3, and 83.2% for R4. In contrast, below-ground woody debris showed a greater degree of humification compared with other components in the stump system. Among the root system, fine roots (R1, diameter ≤ 10 mm) had the largest k value (0.09), whereas the decay rate of coarser roots (R2, R3, R4; diameter > 10 mm) increased with increasing root diameter. However, coarse roots showed a larger degree of humification (0.2–0.6) than fine roots (0.3–0.4). These results suggest that below-ground woody debris and coarse roots may display a higher degree of humification, showing greater short-term contributions to overall humification when compared with the other components in the stump system. PMID:27512999

  15. The Mass Loss and Humification of Stumps and Roots in Masson Pine Plantations Based on Log File Records.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiao; Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Tan, Bo; Xu, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Jian; Duan, Fei; Liu, Hui; Justine, Meta Francis

    2016-01-01

    Stumps account for a large proportion of coarse woody debris in managed forests, but their decay dynamics are poorly understood. The loss of mass and the degree of humification of the above-ground woody debris, below-ground woody debris, bark and root system (R1, 10 mm ≥ diameter > 0 mm; R2, 25 mm ≥ diameter >10 mm; 100 mm ≥ R3 > 25 mm; R4 > 100 mm) of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) stump systems were evaluated in southwestern China in a chronosequence of plantations cut 1-15 years prior to the study. The results indicated that above-ground woody debris decomposed more quickly than below-ground woody debris and bark, whereas the degree of humification followed the opposite trend. Compared with one-year stumps, the mass losses of 15-year stump systems were 60.4% for above-ground woody debris, 42.1% for below-ground woody debris, 47.3% for bark, 69.9% for R1, 47.3% for R2, 51.0% for R3, and 83.2% for R4. In contrast, below-ground woody debris showed a greater degree of humification compared with other components in the stump system. Among the root system, fine roots (R1, diameter ≤ 10 mm) had the largest k value (0.09), whereas the decay rate of coarser roots (R2, R3, R4; diameter > 10 mm) increased with increasing root diameter. However, coarse roots showed a larger degree of humification (0.2-0.6) than fine roots (0.3-0.4). These results suggest that below-ground woody debris and coarse roots may display a higher degree of humification, showing greater short-term contributions to overall humification when compared with the other components in the stump system. PMID:27512999

  16. Photophobic behavior of maize roots.

    PubMed

    Burbach, Christian; Markus, Katharina; Zhang, Yin; Schlicht, Markus; Baluška, František

    2012-07-01

    Primary roots of young maize seedlings showed peculiar growth behavior when challenged by placing them on a slope, or if whole seedlings were turned upside down. Importantly, this behavior was dependent on the light conditions. If roots were placed on slopes in the dark, they performed "crawling" behavior and advanced rapidly up the slope. However, as soon as these roots were illuminated, their crawling movements along their horizontal paths slowed down, and instead tried to grow downwards along the gravity vector. A similar light-induced switch in the root behavior was observed when roots were inverted, by placing them in thin glass capillaries. As long as they were kept in the darkness, they showed rapid growth against the gravity vector. If illuminated, these inverted roots rapidly accomplished U-turns and grew down along the gravity vector, eventually escaping from the capillaries upon reaching their open ends. De-capped roots, although growing vigorously, did not display these light-induced photophobic growth responses. We can conclude that intact root cap is essential for the photophobic root behavior in maize.

  17. Photophobic behavior of maize roots

    PubMed Central

    Burbach, Christian; Markus, Katharina; Zhang, Yin; Schlicht, Markus; Baluška, František

    2012-01-01

    Primary roots of young maize seedlings showed peculiar growth behavior when challenged by placing them on a slope, or if whole seedlings were turned upside down. Importantly, this behavior was dependent on the light conditions. If roots were placed on slopes in the dark, they performed “crawling” behavior and advanced rapidly up the slope. However, as soon as these roots were illuminated, their crawling movements along their horizontal paths slowed down, and instead tried to grow downwards along the gravity vector. A similar light-induced switch in the root behavior was observed when roots were inverted, by placing them in thin glass capillaries. As long as they were kept in the darkness, they showed rapid growth against the gravity vector. If illuminated, these inverted roots rapidly accomplished U-turns and grew down along the gravity vector, eventually escaping from the capillaries upon reaching their open ends. De-capped roots, although growing vigorously, did not display these light-induced photophobic growth responses. We can conclude that intact root cap is essential for the photophobic root behavior in maize. PMID:22751294

  18. Photophobic behavior of maize roots.

    PubMed

    Burbach, Christian; Markus, Katharina; Zhang, Yin; Schlicht, Markus; Baluška, František

    2012-07-01

    Primary roots of young maize seedlings showed peculiar growth behavior when challenged by placing them on a slope, or if whole seedlings were turned upside down. Importantly, this behavior was dependent on the light conditions. If roots were placed on slopes in the dark, they performed "crawling" behavior and advanced rapidly up the slope. However, as soon as these roots were illuminated, their crawling movements along their horizontal paths slowed down, and instead tried to grow downwards along the gravity vector. A similar light-induced switch in the root behavior was observed when roots were inverted, by placing them in thin glass capillaries. As long as they were kept in the darkness, they showed rapid growth against the gravity vector. If illuminated, these inverted roots rapidly accomplished U-turns and grew down along the gravity vector, eventually escaping from the capillaries upon reaching their open ends. De-capped roots, although growing vigorously, did not display these light-induced photophobic growth responses. We can conclude that intact root cap is essential for the photophobic root behavior in maize. PMID:22751294

  19. A Split-Root Technique for Measuring Root Water Potential

    PubMed Central

    Adeoye, Kingsley B.; Rawlins, Stephen L.

    1981-01-01

    Water encounters various resistances in moving along a path of decreasing potential energy from the soil through the plant to the atmosphere. The reported relative magnitudes of these pathway resistances vary widely and often these results are conflicting. One reason for such inconsistency is the difficulty in measuring the potential drop across various segments of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. The measurement of water potentials at the soil-root interface and in the root xylem of a transpiring plant remains a challenging problem. In the divided root experiment reported here, the measured water potential of an enclosed, nonabsorbing branch of the root system of young corn (Bonanza) plants to infer the water potential of the remaining roots growing in soil was used. The selected root branch of the seedling was grown in a specially constructed Teflon test tube into which a screen-enclosed thermocouple psychrometer was inserted and sealed to monitor the root's water potential. The root and its surrounding atmosphere were assumed to be in vapor equilibrium. Images PMID:16661886

  20. The roots of predictivism.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Eric Christian

    2014-03-01

    In The Paradox of Predictivism (2008, Cambridge University Press) I tried to demonstrate that there is an intimate relationship between predictivism (the thesis that novel predictions sometimes carry more weight than accommodations) and epistemic pluralism (the thesis that one important form of evidence in science is the judgments of other scientists). Here I respond to various published criticisms of some of the key points from Paradox from David Harker, Jarret Leplin, and Clark Glymour. Foci include my account of predictive novelty (endorsement novelty), the claim that predictivism has two roots, the prediction per se and predictive success, and my account of why Mendeleev's predictions carried special weight in confirming the Periodic Law of the Elements. PMID:24984449

  1. New roots for agriculture: exploiting the root phenome.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jonathan P; Brown, Kathleen M

    2012-06-01

    Recent advances in root biology are making it possible to genetically design root systems with enhanced soil exploration and resource capture. These cultivars would have substantial value for improving food security in developing nations, where yields are limited by drought and low soil fertility, and would enhance the sustainability of intensive agriculture. Many of the phenes controlling soil resource capture are related to root architecture. We propose that a better understanding of the root phenome is needed to effectively translate genetic advances into improved crop cultivars. Elementary, unique root phenes need to be identified. We need to understand the 'fitness landscape' for these phenes: how they affect crop performance in an array of environments and phenotypes. Finally, we need to develop methods to measure phene expression rapidly and economically without artefacts. These challenges, especially mapping the fitness landscape, are non-trivial, and may warrant new research and training modalities.

  2. New roots for agriculture: exploiting the root phenome

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Jonathan P.; Brown, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in root biology are making it possible to genetically design root systems with enhanced soil exploration and resource capture. These cultivars would have substantial value for improving food security in developing nations, where yields are limited by drought and low soil fertility, and would enhance the sustainability of intensive agriculture. Many of the phenes controlling soil resource capture are related to root architecture. We propose that a better understanding of the root phenome is needed to effectively translate genetic advances into improved crop cultivars. Elementary, unique root phenes need to be identified. We need to understand the ‘fitness landscape’ for these phenes: how they affect crop performance in an array of environments and phenotypes. Finally, we need to develop methods to measure phene expression rapidly and economically without artefacts. These challenges, especially mapping the fitness landscape, are non-trivial, and may warrant new research and training modalities. PMID:22527403

  3. Compensatory Root Water Uptake of Overlapping Root Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agee, E.; Ivanov, V. Y.; He, L.; Bisht, G.; Shahbaz, P.; Fatichi, S.; Gough, C. M.; Couvreur, V.; Matheny, A. M.; Bohrer, G.

    2015-12-01

    Land-surface models use simplified representations of root water uptake based on biomass distributions and empirical functions that constrain water uptake during unfavorable soil moisture conditions. These models fail to capture the observed hydraulic plasticity that allows plants to regulate root hydraulic conductivity and zones of active uptake based on local gradients. Recent developments in root water uptake modeling have sought to increase its mechanistic representation by bridging the gap between physically based microscopic models and computationally feasible macroscopic approaches. It remains to be demonstrated whether bulk parameterization of microscale characteristics (e.g., root system morphology and root conductivity) can improve process representation at the ecosystem scale. We employ the Couvreur method of microscopic uptake to yield macroscopic representation in a coupled soil-root model. Using a modified version of the PFLOTRAN model, which represents the 3-D physics of variably saturated soil, we model a one-hectare temperate forest stand under natural and synthetic climatic forcing. Our results show that as shallow soil layers dry, uptake at the tree and stand level shift to deeper soil layers, allowing the transpiration stream demanded by the atmosphere. We assess the potential capacity of the model to capture compensatory root water uptake. Further, the hydraulic plasticity of the root system is demonstrated by the quick response of uptake to rainfall pulses. These initial results indicate a promising direction for land surface models in which significant three-dimensional information from large root systems can be feasibly integrated into the forest scale simulations of root water uptake.

  4. Antimicrobial terpenes from oleoresin of ponderosa pine tree Pinus ponderosa: A defense mechanism against microbial invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Himejima, Masaki; Hobson, K.R.; Otsuka, Toshikazu; Wood, D.L.; Kubo, Isao )

    1992-10-01

    The oleoresin of the ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae) exhibited broad antimicrobial activity. In order to identify the active compounds, the oleoresin was steam distilled to give a distillate and residue. The distillate contained mainly monoterpenes and some sesquiterpenes, while the residue consisted chiefly of four structurally related diterpene acids. An antimicrobial assay with the pure compounds indicated that the monoterpenes were active primarily against fungi, but there was also some activity against gram-positive bacteria. The diterpene acids, in contrast, only exhibited activity against gram-positive bacteria. Although not all of the identified sesquiterpenes could be tested, longifolene showed activity only against gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, it appears that the oleoresin of P. ponderosa functions as a biochemical defense against microbial invasion.

  5. Effect of drought and osmotic stress on gene expression in Jack Pine. [Pinus banksiana

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, M.; Mayne, M.; Coleman, J.R.; Blumwald, E. )

    1991-05-01

    The effect of drought and osmotic stress was studied in Jack Pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings and cultured cell suspensions, respectively. The pattern of protein syntheses during stress was studied. Seedlings and cells were in vivo labeled with ({sup 35}S)methionine and membrane-bound proteins were isolated. proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE, and identified by staining and autoradiography. Several changes in protein profiles were induced by stress. Messenger RNAs were isolated, translated in vitro, and complementary DNA libraries from control and stressed plants and cells were constructed in E. coli strain JM109. Antibodies, raised against electroeluted membrane-bound proteins that were significantly induced and/or enhanced during stress, were used to isolate stress-related genes from cDNA libraries.

  6. Elastic constants of Pinus radiata D. Don by means of ultrasound transmission techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baradit, Erik; Fuentealba, Cecillia

    2001-08-01

    This work consists in applying the crystals theory and mechanical waves propagation in wood. The wood when is considered as a body of orthotropic symmetry satisfies Hooke's law in its tensor form. Therefore, from the dynamical point of view the elastic constant are expressed by means of Christoffel's equation and can be determined using the ultrasound wave propagation of different polarization through wood. To obtain the constants is necessary the measurement of longitudinal and shear waves in different directions. The experiment results show that in some cases the exact shear wave velocities are very difficult to measure due to waves superposition . In this work the elastic constants (three moduli of elasticity and three shear moduli) Pinus radiata D. Don growing in Chile by ultrasound trasmission techniques are estimated.

  7. [Effects of elevated ozone on Pinus armandii growth: a simulation study with open-top chamber].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Fu; Liu, Chen; He, Xing-Yuan; Ruan, Ya-Nan; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Peng, Jun-Jie; Li, Teng

    2013-10-01

    By using open-top chamber (OTC) and the techniques of dendrochronology, this paper studied the growth of Pinus armandii under elevated ozone, and explored the evolution dynamics and adaptation mechanisms of typical forest ecosystems to ozone enrichment. Elevated ozone inhibited the stem growth of P. armandii significantly, with the annual growth of the stem length and diameter reduced by 35.0% and 12.9%, respectively. The annual growth of tree-ring width and the annual ring cells number decreased by 11.5% and 54.1%, respectively, but no significant change was observed in the diameter of tracheid. At regional scale, the fluctuation of ozone concentration showed significant correlation with the variation of local vegetation growth (NDVI).

  8. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    PubMed

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones. PMID:26247310

  9. [Effects of elevated ozone on Pinus armandii growth: a simulation study with open-top chamber].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Fu; Liu, Chen; He, Xing-Yuan; Ruan, Ya-Nan; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Peng, Jun-Jie; Li, Teng

    2013-10-01

    By using open-top chamber (OTC) and the techniques of dendrochronology, this paper studied the growth of Pinus armandii under elevated ozone, and explored the evolution dynamics and adaptation mechanisms of typical forest ecosystems to ozone enrichment. Elevated ozone inhibited the stem growth of P. armandii significantly, with the annual growth of the stem length and diameter reduced by 35.0% and 12.9%, respectively. The annual growth of tree-ring width and the annual ring cells number decreased by 11.5% and 54.1%, respectively, but no significant change was observed in the diameter of tracheid. At regional scale, the fluctuation of ozone concentration showed significant correlation with the variation of local vegetation growth (NDVI). PMID:24483064

  10. Quantification and characterization of Si in Pinus Insignis Dougl by TXRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Henry; Bennun, Leonardo; Marcó, Lué M.

    2015-03-01

    A simple quantification of silicon is described, in woods such as Pinus Insigne Dougl obtained from the 8th region of Bío-Bío, 37°15″ South-73°19″ West, Chile. The samples were prepared through fractional calcination, and the ashes were directly analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique. The analysis of 16 samples that were calcined is presented. The samples were weighed on plastic reflectors in a microbalance with sensitivity of 0.1 µg. Later, the samples were irradiated in a TXRF PICOFOX spectrometer, for 350 and 700 s. To each sample, cobalt was added as an internal standard. Concentrations of silicon over the 1 % in each sample and the self-absorption effect on the quantification were observed, in masses higher than 100 μg.

  11. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    PubMed

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones.

  12. Low molecular weight carbohydrates in pine nuts from Pinus pinea L.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aceituno, L; Ramos, L; Martinez-Castro, I; Sanz, M L

    2012-05-16

    Low molecular weight carbohydrates in pine nuts from Pinus pinea L. (n = 7) have been studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as their trimethylsilyl oximes. Besides previously reported components, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, and raffinose, several soluble carbohydrates have been identified for the first time in this product, including saccharides (galactose, maltose, and planteose) and cyclitols (pinitol, galactinol, galactopinitol A1, fagopyritol B1, and other glycosyl-inositols). Most abundant cyclitols were chiro-inositol, fagopyritol B1, and pinitol, with concentrations ranging from 126.7 to 222.1 mg (100 g)(-1), 94.2 to 177.1 mg (100 g)(-1), and 51.2 to 282.8 mg (100 g)(-1), respectively.

  13. Chemical modification of coating of Pinus halepensis pollen by ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Naas, Oumsaad; Mendez, Maxence; Quijada, Melesio; Gosselin, Sylvie; Farah, Jinane; Choukri, Ali; Visez, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Pollen coating, located on the exine, includes an extractible lipid fraction. The modification of the pollen coating by air pollutants may have implications on the interactions of pollen with plant stigmas and human cells. Pinus halepensis pollen was exposed to ozone in vitro and the pollen coating was extracted with organic solvent and analyzed by GC-MS. Ozone has induced chemical changes in the coating as observed with an increase in dicarboxylic acids, short-chain fatty acids and aldehydes. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde was identified as the main reaction product and its formation was shown to occur both on native pollen and on defatted pollen. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde is very likely formed via the ozonolysis of acid coumaric-like monomers constitutive of the sporopollenin. Modification of pollen coating by air pollutants should be accounted for in further studies on effect of pollution on germination and on allergenicity.

  14. Application of hydrothermal treatment to affect the fermentability of Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge.

    PubMed

    Andrews, John; Smit, Anne-Marie; Wijeyekoon, Suren; McDonald, Ben; Baroutian, Saeid; Gapes, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    A hybrid technique incorporating a wet oxidation stage and secondary fermentation step was used to process Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge. The effect of hydrothermal oxidation at high temperature and pressure on the hydrolysis of constituents of the waste stream was studied. Biochemical acidogenic potential assays were conducted to assess acid production resulting from anaerobic hydrolysis of the wet oxidised hydrolysate under acidogenic conditions. Significant degradation of the lignin, hemicellulose, suspended solids, carbohydrates and extractives were observed with wet oxidation. In contrast, cellulose showed resistance to degradation under the experimental conditions. Extensive degradation of biologically inhibitory compounds by wet oxidation did not show a beneficial impact on the acidogenic or methanogenic potential compared to untreated samples. PMID:25125197

  15. Ectomycorrhizal specificity patterns in a mixed Pinus contorta and Picea engelmannii forest in Yellowstone National Park

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, K. W.; Vogler, D. R.; Parker, V. T.; Finley, S. K.

    2000-01-01

    We used molecular genetic methods to test two hypotheses, (i) that host plant specificity among ectomycorrhizal fungi would be common in a closed-canopy, mixed Pinus contorta-Picea engelmannii forest in Yellowstone National Park and (ii) that specificity would be more common in the early successional tree species, P. contorta, than in the invader, P. engelmannii. We identified 28 ectomycorrhizal fungal species collected from 27 soil cores. The proportion of P. engelmannii to P. contorta ectomycorrhizae was nearly equal (52 and 48%, respectively). Of the 28 fungal species, 18 composed greater than 95% of the fungal community. No species was associated exclusively with P. contorta, but four species, each found in only one core, and one species found in two cores were associated exclusively with P. engelmannii. These fungi composed less than 5% of the total ectomycorrhizae. Thus, neither hypothesis was supported, and hypothesized benefits of ectomycorrhizal specificity to both trees and fungi probably do not exist in this system.

  16. Chemical modification of coating of Pinus halepensis pollen by ozone exposure.

    PubMed

    Naas, Oumsaad; Mendez, Maxence; Quijada, Melesio; Gosselin, Sylvie; Farah, Jinane; Choukri, Ali; Visez, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Pollen coating, located on the exine, includes an extractible lipid fraction. The modification of the pollen coating by air pollutants may have implications on the interactions of pollen with plant stigmas and human cells. Pinus halepensis pollen was exposed to ozone in vitro and the pollen coating was extracted with organic solvent and analyzed by GC-MS. Ozone has induced chemical changes in the coating as observed with an increase in dicarboxylic acids, short-chain fatty acids and aldehydes. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde was identified as the main reaction product and its formation was shown to occur both on native pollen and on defatted pollen. 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde is very likely formed via the ozonolysis of acid coumaric-like monomers constitutive of the sporopollenin. Modification of pollen coating by air pollutants should be accounted for in further studies on effect of pollution on germination and on allergenicity. PMID:27155099

  17. Growth-Form Characteristics of Ancient Rocky Mountain Bristlecone Pines (Pinus aristata), Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunstein, F. Craig

    2006-01-01

    This report describes and illustrates growth-form characteristics of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata) at several sites in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. Most of this study concentrates on 1,000- to 2,500-year-old bristlecone pines; however, the report also describes some of the growth-form characteristics of younger trees (about 20 to less than 1,000 years old) in order to show the continuous changes in tree form from youth to old age. To better describe the trees in this study, some tree-structure nomenclature is introduced and a growth-form classification system is provided. Other topics include the relationship of the trees to their substrate and the potential changes in the growth forms of some bristlecone pines due to damage caused by fire, porcupines, impacts from tumbling boulders, and lightning strikes.

  18. Theon's Ladder for Any Root

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.; Wright, Marcus; Orchard, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Theon's ladder is an ancient algorithm for calculating rational approximations for the square root of 2. It features two columns of integers (called a ladder), in which the ratio of the two numbers in each row is an approximation to the square root of 2. It is remarkable for its simplicity. This algorithm can easily be generalized to find rational…

  19. Project Work on Plant Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devonald, V. G.

    1986-01-01

    Methods of investigating plant root growth developed for research purposes can be adopted for student use. Investigations of the effect of water table level and of ethylene concentration are described, and techniques of measuring root growth are explained. (Author/ML)

  20. Gut and Root Microbiota Commonalities

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Puebla, Shamayim T.; Servín-Garcidueñas, Luis E.; Jiménez-Marín, Berenice; Bolaños, Luis M.; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Martínez, Julio; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Animal guts and plant roots have absorption roles for nutrient uptake and converge in harboring large, complex, and dynamic groups of microbes that participate in degradation or modification of nutrients and other substances. Gut and root bacteria regulate host gene expression, provide metabolic capabilities, essential nutrients, and protection against pathogens, and seem to share evolutionary trends. PMID:23104406

  1. Determinants and Polynomial Root Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pillis, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    A little known property of determinants is developed in a manner accessible to beginning undergraduates in linear algebra. Using the language of matrix theory, a classical result by Sylvester that describes when two polynomials have a common root is recaptured. Among results concerning the structure of polynomial roots, polynomials with pairs of…

  2. Genetic Based Plant Resistance and Susceptibility Traits to Herbivory Influence Needle and Root Litter Nutrient Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Classen, Aimee T; Chapman, Samantha K.; Whitham, Thomas G; Hart, Stephen C; Koch, George W

    2007-01-01

    It is generally assumed that leaf and root litter decomposition have similar drivers and that nutrient release from these substrates is synchronized. Few studies have examined these assumptions, and none has examined how plant genetics (i.e., plant susceptibility to herbivory) could affect these relationships. Here we examine the effects of herbivore susceptibility and resistance on needle and fine root litter decomposition of pi on pine, Pinus edulis. The study population consists of individual trees that are either susceptible or resistant to herbivory by the pi on needle scale, Matsucoccus acalyptus, or the stem-boring moth, Dioryctria albovittella. Genetic analyses and experimental removals and additions of these insects have identified trees that are naturally resistant and susceptible to these insects. These herbivores increase the chemical quality of litter inputs and alter soil microclimate, both of which are important decomposition drivers. Our research leads to four major conclusions: Herbivore susceptibility and resistance effects on 1) needle litter mass loss and phosphorus (P) retention in moth susceptible and resistant litter are governed by microclimate, 2) root litter nitrogen (N) and P retention, and needle litter N retention are governed by litter chemical quality, 3) net nutrient release from litter can reverse over time, 4) root and needle litter mass loss and nutrient release are determined by location (above- vs. belowground), suggesting that the regulators of needle and root decomposition differ at the local scale. Understanding of decomposition and nutrient retention in ecosystems requires consideration of herbivore effects on above- and belowground processes and how these effects may be governed by plant genotype. Because an underlying genetic component to herbivory is common to most ecosystems of the world and herbivory may increase in climatic change scenarios, it is important to evaluate the role of plant genetics in affecting carbon and

  3. Isolating a functionally relevant guild of fungi from the root microbiome of Populus

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bonito, Gregory; Hameed, Khalid; Ventura, Rafael; Krishnan, Jay; Schadt, Christopher W.; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2016-05-27

    Plant roots interact with a bewilderingly complex community of microbes, including root-associated fungi that are essential for maintaining plant health. To improve understanding of the diversity of fungi in the rhizobiome of Populus deltoides, Populus trichocarpa and co-occurring plant hosts Quercus alba and Pinus taeda, we conducted field and greenhouse studies and sampled, isolated, and characterized the diversity of culturable root-associated fungi on these hosts. Using both general and selective isolation media we obtained more than 1800 fungal isolates from individual surface sterilized root tips. Sequences from the ITS and/or D1– D2 regions of the LSU rDNA were obtained frommore » 1042 of the >1800 pure culture isolates and were compared to accessions in the NCBI nucleotide database and analyzed through phylogenetics for preliminary taxonomic identification. Sequences from these isolates were also compared to 454 sequence datasets obtained directly from the Populus rhizosphere and endosphere. Although most of the ectomycorrhizal taxa known to associate with Populus evaded isolation, many of the abundant sequence types from rhizosphere and endosphere 454 datasets were isolated, including novel species belonging to the Atractiellales. Isolation and identification of key endorrhizal fungi will enable more targeted study of plant-fungal interactions. Genome sequencing is currently underway for a subset of our culture library with the aim of understanding the mechanisms involved in host-endophyte establishment and function. As a result, this diverse culture library of fungal root associates will be a valuable resource for metagenomic research, experimentation and further studies on plant-fungal interactions.« less

  4. [The assessment of no adverse effect doses for plant populations chronically exposed to radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T I; Maĭstrenko, T A; Belykh, E S; Geras'kin, S A

    2010-01-01

    Dose rates cause no adverse effects on natural populations of Pinus sylvestris L. and Vicia cracca L. inhabiting territories contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes (Vodny settlement, Komi Republic) were determined. A significant increase in embryonic lethal mutation frequency in V. cracca legumes and decrease in seedlings survival rate as compared with control values were registered at dose rate equal to 1.67 mGy/day, that is 280 times higher than the one calculated for the reference site. The adverse effects in P. sylvestris expressed in increased frequency of chromosome aberrations in meristematic root tips and decreased reproductive capacity of seeds were determined at absorbed dose rate equal to 0.083 mGy/day. Data obtained show that the decrease in plant reproductive capacity in case of chronic exposure of radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series can observe at lower weighted absorbed dose rates than in case of environmental contamination by artificial radionuclides.

  5. Identification and persistence of Pinus pollen DNA on cotton fabrics: A forensic application.

    PubMed

    Schield, Cassandra; Campelli, Cassandra; Sycalik, Jennifer; Randle, Christopher; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in plant genomics have had an impact on the field of forensic botany. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. Five volunteers wore a jacket with Pinus echinata pollen-containing cotton swatches for a 14-day period. Pollen decay was evaluated at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 14 by microscopy. Pollen grains were then transferred to slides using a portable forensic vacuum handle. Ten single grains per swatch were isolated for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted using a high throughput extraction method. A nine-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, including previously published primers from Pinus taeda, was developed. DNA was amplified by PCR using fluorescent dyes and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Pollen counts from cotton swatches in a 14-day period exhibited an exponential decay from 100% to 17%. The success rate of PCR amplification was 81.2%. Complete and partial STR profiles were generated from 250 pollen grains analyzed (44% and 37%, respectively). Due to the limited amount of DNA, drop-in events were observed (1.87%). However, the rate of contamination with pollen from other pine individuals originating from environmental sources was 4.4%. In conclusion, this study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear. This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact. PMID:26746823

  6. Identification and persistence of Pinus pollen DNA on cotton fabrics: A forensic application.

    PubMed

    Schield, Cassandra; Campelli, Cassandra; Sycalik, Jennifer; Randle, Christopher; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in plant genomics have had an impact on the field of forensic botany. However, the use of pollen DNA profiling in forensic investigations has yet to be applied. Five volunteers wore a jacket with Pinus echinata pollen-containing cotton swatches for a 14-day period. Pollen decay was evaluated at days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 14 by microscopy. Pollen grains were then transferred to slides using a portable forensic vacuum handle. Ten single grains per swatch were isolated for DNA analysis. DNA was extracted using a high throughput extraction method. A nine-locus short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex system, including previously published primers from Pinus taeda, was developed. DNA was amplified by PCR using fluorescent dyes and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Pollen counts from cotton swatches in a 14-day period exhibited an exponential decay from 100% to 17%. The success rate of PCR amplification was 81.2%. Complete and partial STR profiles were generated from 250 pollen grains analyzed (44% and 37%, respectively). Due to the limited amount of DNA, drop-in events were observed (1.87%). However, the rate of contamination with pollen from other pine individuals originating from environmental sources was 4.4%. In conclusion, this study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear. This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact.

  7. Regeneration complexities of Pinus gerardiana in dry temperate forests of Indian Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Shamet, G S; Mehta, Harsh; Alam, N M; Kaushal, Rajesh; Chaturvedi, O P; Sharma, Navneet; Khaki, B A; Gupta, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Pinus gerardiana is considered an important species in dry temperate forests of North-Western Indian Himalaya because of its influence on ecological processes and economic dependence of local people in the region. But, large numbers of biotic and abiotic factors have affected P. gerardiana in these forests; hence, there is a crucial need to understand the regeneration dynamics of this tree sp