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Sample records for pinus sylvestris roots

  1. Bacterial microbiomes of individual ectomycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris roots are shaped by soil horizon and differentially sensitive to nitrogen addition.

    PubMed

    Marupakula, Srisailam; Mahmood, Shahid; Jernberg, Johanna; Nallanchakravarthula, Srivathsa; Fahad, Zaenab A; Finlay, Roger D

    2017-10-02

    Plant roots select non-random communities of fungi and bacteria from the surrounding soil that have effects on their health and growth, but we know little about the factors influencing their composition. We profiled bacterial microbiomes associated with individual ectomycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris roots colonised by different fungi and analysed differences in microbiome structure related to soils from distinct podzol horizons and effects of short term additions of N, a growth-limiting nutrient commonly applied as a fertiliser, but known to influence patterns of carbon allocation to roots. Ectomycorrhizal roots growing in soil from different horizons harboured distinct bacterial communities. The fungi colonising individual roots had a strong effect on the associated bacterial communities. Even closely related species within the same ectomycorrhizal genus had distinct bacterial microbiomes in unfertilised soil, but fertilisation removed this specificity. Effects of N were rapid and context dependent, being influenced by both soil type and the particular ectomycorrhizal fungi involved. Fungal community composition changed in soil from all horizons, but bacteria only responded strongly to N in soil from the B horizon where community structure was different and bacterial diversity was significantly reduced, possibly reflecting changed carbon allocation patterns. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Ectomycorrhizal identity determines respiration and concentrations of nitrogen and non-structural carbohydrates in root tips: a test using Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur saplings.

    PubMed

    Trocha, Lidia K; Mucha, Joanna; Eissenstat, David M; Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2010-05-01

    Fine roots play a significant role in plant and ecosystem respiration (RS); therefore, understanding factors controlling that process is important both to advancing understanding and potentially in modelling carbon (C) budgets. However, very little is known about the extent to which ectomycorrhizal (ECM) identity may influence RS or the underlying chemistry that may determine those rates. In order to test these relationships, we examined RS, measured as O(2) consumption, of first-order ECM root tips of Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus robur L. saplings in relation to their ECM fungal symbionts and associated nitrogen (N), C and non-structural carbohydrate concentrations. Roots of P. sylvestris were colonized by Rhizopogon roseolus, Tuber sp. 1 and an unknown species of Pezizales. Fungal species colonizing Q. robur roots were Hebeloma sp., Tuber sp. 2 and one unidentified ECM fungus described as Tuber-like based on ECM morphology. ECM RS rates for different host species were significantly different and more than 97% of the variation in RS within a host species was explained by ECM root tip N concentrations. This may indicate that some of the variability in fine root RS-N relationships observed between and within different host species or their functional groups may be related to intraspecific host species differences in root tip N concentration among ECM fungal associates.

  3. Response to lead pollution: mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris forms the biomineral pyromorphite in roots and needles.

    PubMed

    Bizo, Maria L; Nietzsche, Sandor; Mansfeld, Ulrich; Langenhorst, Falko; Majzlan, Juraj; Göttlicher, Jörg; Ozunu, Alexandru; Formann, Steffi; Krause, Katrin; Kothe, Erika

    2017-06-01

    The development of mycorrhized pine seedlings grown in the presence of lead was assessed in order to investigate how higher plants can tolerate lead pollution in the environment. Examination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that Pb uptake was prominent in the roots, while a smaller amount was found in pine needles, which requires symplastic uptake and root-to-shoot transfer. Lead was concentrated in nanocrystalline aggregates attached to the cell wall and, according to elemental microanalyses, is associated with phosphorus and chlorine. The identification of the nanocrystalline phase in roots and needles was performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron X-ray micro-diffraction (μ-XRD), revealing the presence of pyromorphite, Pb5[PO4]3(Cl, OH), in both roots and needles. The extracellular embedding of pyromorphite within plant cell walls, featuring an indented appearance of the cell wall due to a callus-like outcrop of minerals, suggests a biogenic origin. This biomineralization is interpreted as a defense mechanism of the plant against lead pollution.

  4. Variation among matsutake ectomycorrhizae in four clones of Pinus sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Vaario, Lu-Min; Lu, Jinrong; Koistinen, Arto; Tervahauta, Arja; Aronen, Tuija

    2015-04-01

    Tricholoma matsutake is an ectomycorrhizal fungus that forms commercially important mushrooms in coniferous forests. In this study, we explored the ability of T. matsutake to form mycorrhizae with Pinus sylvestris by inoculating emblings produced through somatic embryogenesis (SE) in an aseptic culture system. Two months after inoculation, clones with less phenolic compounds in the tissue culture phase formed mycorrhizae with T. matsutake, while clones containing more phenols did not. Effects of inoculation on embling growth varied among clones; two of the four tested showed a significant increase in biomass and two had a significant increase in root density. In addition, results suggest that clones forming well-developed mycorrhizae absorbed more Al, Fe, Na, P, and Zn after 8 weeks of inoculation. This study illustrates the value of SE materials in experimental work concerning T. matsutake as well as the role played by phenolic compounds in host plant response to infection by mycorrhizal fungi.

  5. Spontaneous Hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian Seaside: A Morphological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Danusevičius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas; Petrokas, Raimundas; Christensen, Knud Ib

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija. PMID:22619615

  6. Spontaneous hybridization between Pinus mugo and Pinus sylvestris at the Lithuanian seaside: a morphological survey.

    PubMed

    Danusevičius, Darius; Marozas, Vitas; Brazaitis, Gediminas; Petrokas, Raimundas; Christensen, Knud Ib

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of spontaneous hybridization between an exotic species Pinus mugo and the native/local P. sylvestris at the seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija in Lithuania. The objective was to identify spontaneous hybrids between P. mugo and P. sylvestris based on morphology traits among the individuals naturally regenerating at the seaside spit. The field inventory was carried out over the entire Lithuanian part of the spit, and 200 individuals morphologically intermediate between P. sylvestris and P. mugo were identified. Based on a weighted trait index, the intermediate individuals were grouped into two groups, one morphologically close to P. sylvestris and another close to P. mugo. The needle micromorphological traits of the putative hybrids were of intermediate values between P. mugo and P. sylvestris. The results provide a strong evidence of spontaneous hybridization between P. mugo and P. sylvestris in Lithuanian seaside spit of Kursiu Nerija.

  7. The ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Lactarius deliciosus and Pinus sylvestris in forest soil samples: symbiotic efficiency and development on roots of a rDNA internal transcribed spacer-selected isolate of L. deliciosus.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Laguette, Alexis; Conventi, Serge; Ruiz, Guy; Plassard, Claude; Mousain, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    The effect on plant growth of pre-inoculation of Pinus sylvestris with the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) edible basidiomycete Lactarius deliciosus (isolate D45) under controlled conditions, and the development on roots of this basidiomycete, were investigated in gamma-irradiated and unsterilized containers containing different forest soil cores or a perlite-vermiculite mixture. Five months after planting, L. deliciosus mycorrhizal plants exhibited greater growth than the non-mycorrhizal ones in all soil types, i.e. up to a 325% increase in shoot height in the sterilized soils. The experiment demonstrated the dependency of P. sylvestris seedlings upon ECM symbiosis for their survival in gamma-irradiated, microbiologically disturbed soil samples. Furthermore, in two soils, the growth of L. deliciosus-inoculated seedlings was greater in the sterilized soil samples than in the non-sterilized ones, i.e. 46% and 132% increase in shoot height under sterilized soil conditions. In containers randomly sampled from each soil type, the degree of root colonization by the inoculated isolate, calculated as the number of mycorrhizal root tips divided by the total number of root tips x100, ranged from 80% to 35%. Within the short term, the inoculated isolate developed rapidly on roots, dominated, and hampered ectomycorrhiza formation by various unidentified (but not Lactarius) resident ECM fungi in unsterilized soil types. Results indicate that the ECM species L. deliciosus is worth investigating to ascertain if other isolates benefit pine growth like the isolate D45, and are therefore also attractive candidates for forestry applications in the Mediterranean area.

  8. Stem compression reversibly reduces phloem transport in Pinus sylvestris trees.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Nils; Tarvainen, Lasse; Lim, Hyungwoo; Tor-Ngern, Pantana; Palmroth, Sari; Oren, Ram; Marshall, John; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-10-01

    Manipulating tree belowground carbon (C) transport enables investigation of the ecological and physiological roles of tree roots and their associated mycorrhizal fungi, as well as a range of other soil organisms and processes. Girdling remains the most reliable method for manipulating this flux and it has been used in numerous studies. However, girdling is destructive and irreversible. Belowground C transport is mediated by phloem tissue, pressurized through the high osmotic potential resulting from its high content of soluble sugars. We speculated that phloem transport may be reversibly blocked through the application of an external pressure on tree stems. Thus, we here introduce a technique based on compression of the phloem, which interrupts belowground flow of assimilates, but allows trees to recover when the external pressure is removed. Metal clamps were wrapped around the stems and tightened to achieve a pressure theoretically sufficient to collapse the phloem tissue, thereby aiming to block transport. The compression's performance was tested in two field experiments: a (13)C canopy labelling study conducted on small Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees [2-3 m tall, 3-7 cm diameter at breast height (DBH)] and a larger study involving mature pines (∼15 m tall, 15-25 cm DBH) where stem respiration, phloem and root carbohydrate contents, and soil CO2 efflux were measured. The compression's effectiveness was demonstrated by the successful blockage of (13)C transport. Stem compression doubled stem respiration above treatment, reduced soil CO2 efflux by 34% and reduced phloem sucrose content by 50% compared with control trees. Stem respiration and soil CO2 efflux returned to normal within 3 weeks after pressure release, and (13)C labelling revealed recovery of phloem function the following year. Thus, we show that belowground phloem C transport can be reduced by compression, and we also demonstrate that trees recover after treatment, resuming C

  9. Ericaceous dwarf shrubs affect ectomycorrhizal fungal community of the invasive Pinus strobus and native Pinus sylvestris in a pot experiment.

    PubMed

    Kohout, Petr; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Bahram, Mohammad; Hadincová, Věroslava; Albrechtová, Jana; Tedersoo, Leho; Vohník, Martin

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between ericaceous understorey shrubs and the diversity and abundance of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcMF) associated with the invasive Pinus strobus and native Pinus sylvestris. Seedlings of both pines were grown in mesocosms and subjected to three treatments simulating different forest microhabitats: (a) grown in isolation and grown with (b) Vaccinium myrtillus or (c) Vaccinium vitis-idaea. Ericaceous plants did not act as a species pool of pine mycobionts and inhibited the ability of the potentially shared species Meliniomyces bicolor to form ectomycorrhizae. Similarly, Ericaceae significantly reduced the formation of Thelephora terrestris ectomycorrhizae in P. sylvestris. EcMF species composition in the mesocosms was strongly affected by both the host species and the presence of an ericaceous neighbour. When grown in isolation, P. strobus root tips were predominantly colonised by Wilcoxina mikolae, whereas those of P. sylvestris were more commonly colonised by Suillus and Rhizopogon spp. Interestingly, these differences were less evident (Suillus + Rhizopogon spp.) or absent (W. mikolae) when the pines were grown with Ericaceae. P. strobus exclusively associated with Rhizopogon salebrosus s.l., suggesting the presence of host specificity at the intrageneric level. Ericaceous plants had a positive effect on colonisation of P. strobus root tips by R. salebrosus s.l. This study demonstrates that the interaction of selective factors such as host species and presence of ericaceous plants may affect the realised niche of the ectomycorrhizal fungi.

  10. Screening Pinus sylvestris grown for the production of Christmas trees for resistance to western gall rust Peridermium harknessii using different sources of aeciospores

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Burnes; Jennifer Juzwik; Robert A. Blanchette

    1999-01-01

    Results showed a moderate to high susceptibility of Pinus sylvestris to western gall rust Peridermium barknessii, from Pinna sylvestris in Michigan and Pinna banksiana in Minnesota. In general, Pinus sylvestris seed sources were more susceptible to aeciospores collected from...

  11. Abundance, diversity, and vitality of mycorrhizae of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in lignite recultivation sites.

    PubMed

    Münzenberger, B; Golldack, J; Ullrich, A; Schmincke, B; Hüttl, R F

    2004-07-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands cover large areas in the Lusatian and the Middle German lignite mining districts. Due to adverse chemical substrate conditions, the root systems of the trees are restricted to the ameliorated top-spoil and the organic forest floor layers. To investigate functioning of fine root systems under the prevailing site factors, we studied mycorrhizal colonization rate and frequency as well as mycorrhizal diversity, vitality and growth phases in Scots pine ecosystems along a chronosequence in both mining districts. Mycorrhizal rate was close to 100% in both districts. Mycorrhizal abundance was higher in the organic forest floor layer than the mineral soil layer. In total, 25 morphotypes were recorded. Diversity differed between the districts. The mycorrhizae of Amphinema byssoides, Tuber puberulum, Pinirhiza discolor, Pinirhiza cf. bicolorata and E-type were present in both mining areas. These morphotypes are typical of nutrient-rich soils with high pH values. Compared with the undisturbed sites, vitality of mycorrhizae was very high at the test sites on spoil substrate, correlating with the high growth dynamics of mycorrhizae at recultivation sites. A relatively high carbon flow to the mycorrhizal root systems at these sites seems likely. Thus, mycorrhizal root systems are able to cope with the ameliorated top-spoil and the organic layer. The main reason for the adaptation is the large number of ectomycorrhizal fungal species available in this area where Pinus sylvestris is indigenous.

  12. Patterns of structural and defense investments in fine roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) across a strong temperature and latitudinal gradient in Europe.

    PubMed

    Zadworny, Marcin; McCormack, M Luke; Żytkowiak, Roma; Karolewski, Piotr; Mucha, Joanna; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2017-03-01

    Plant functional traits may be altered as plants adapt to various environmental constraints. Cold, low fertility growing conditions are often associated with root adjustments to increase acquisition of limiting nutrient resources, but they may also result in construction of roots with reduced uptake potential but higher tissue persistence. It is ultimately unclear whether plants produce fine roots of different structure in response to decreasing temperatures and whether these changes represent a trade-off between root function or potential root persistence. We assessed patterns of root construction based on various root morphological, biochemical and defense traits including root diameter, specific root length (SRL), root tissue density (RTD), C:N ratio, phenolic compounds, and number of phellem layers across up to 10 root orders in diverse populations of Scots pine along a 2000-km climatic gradient in Europe. Our results showed that different root traits are related to mean annual temperature (MAT) and expressed a pattern of higher root diameter and lower SRL and RTD in northern sites with lower MAT. Among absorptive roots, we observed a gradual decline in chemical defenses (phenolic compounds) with decreasing MAT. In contrast, decreasing MAT resulted in an increase of structural protection (number of phellem layers) in transport fine roots. This indicated that absorptive roots with high capacity for nutrient uptake, and transport roots with low uptake capacity, were characterized by distinct and contrasting trade-offs. Our observations suggest that diminishing structural and chemical investments into the more distal, absorptive roots in colder climates is consistent with building roots of higher absorptive capacity. At the same time, roots that play a more prominent role in transport of nutrients and water within the root system saw an increase in structural investment, which can increase persistence and reduce long-term costs associated with their frequent

  13. Annual Cambial Rhythm in Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris as Indicator for Climate Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Prislan, Peter; Gričar, Jožica; de Luis, Martin; Novak, Klemen; Martinez Del Castillo, Edurne; Schmitt, Uwe; Koch, Gerald; Štrus, Jasna; Mrak, Polona; Žnidarič, Magda T; Čufar, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    To understand better the adaptation strategies of intra-annual radial growth in Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris to local environmental conditions, we examined the seasonal rhythm of cambial activity and cell differentiation at tissue and cellular levels. Two contrasting sites differing in temperature and amount of precipitation were selected for each species, one typical for their growth and the other represented border climatic conditions, where the two species coexisted. Mature P. halepensis trees from Mediterranean (Spain) and sub-Mediterranean (Slovenia) sites, and P. sylvestris from sub-Mediterranean (Slovenia) and temperate (Slovenia) sites were selected. Repeated sampling was performed throughout the year and samples were prepared for examination with light and transmission electron microscopes. We hypothesized that cambial rhythm in trees growing at the sub-Mediterranean site where the two species co-exist will be similar as at typical sites for their growth. Cambium in P. halepensis at the Mediterranean site was active throughout the year and was never truly dormant, whereas at the sub-Mediterranean site it appeared to be dormant during the winter months. In contrast, cambium in P. sylvestris was clearly dormant at both sub-Mediterranean and temperate sites, although the dormant period seemed to be significantly longer at the temperate site. Thus, the hypothesis was only partly confirmed. Different cambial and cell differentiation rhythms of the two species at the site where both species co-exist and typical sites for their growth indicate their high but different adaptation strategies in terms of adjustment of radial growth to environmental heterogeneity, crucial for long-term tree performance and survival.

  14. Annual Cambial Rhythm in Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris as Indicator for Climate Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Prislan, Peter; Gričar, Jožica; de Luis, Martin; Novak, Klemen; Martinez del Castillo, Edurne; Schmitt, Uwe; Koch, Gerald; Štrus, Jasna; Mrak, Polona; Žnidarič, Magda T.; Čufar, Katarina.

    2016-01-01

    To understand better the adaptation strategies of intra-annual radial growth in Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris to local environmental conditions, we examined the seasonal rhythm of cambial activity and cell differentiation at tissue and cellular levels. Two contrasting sites differing in temperature and amount of precipitation were selected for each species, one typical for their growth and the other represented border climatic conditions, where the two species coexisted. Mature P. halepensis trees from Mediterranean (Spain) and sub-Mediterranean (Slovenia) sites, and P. sylvestris from sub-Mediterranean (Slovenia) and temperate (Slovenia) sites were selected. Repeated sampling was performed throughout the year and samples were prepared for examination with light and transmission electron microscopes. We hypothesized that cambial rhythm in trees growing at the sub-Mediterranean site where the two species co-exist will be similar as at typical sites for their growth. Cambium in P. halepensis at the Mediterranean site was active throughout the year and was never truly dormant, whereas at the sub-Mediterranean site it appeared to be dormant during the winter months. In contrast, cambium in P. sylvestris was clearly dormant at both sub-Mediterranean and temperate sites, although the dormant period seemed to be significantly longer at the temperate site. Thus, the hypothesis was only partly confirmed. Different cambial and cell differentiation rhythms of the two species at the site where both species co-exist and typical sites for their growth indicate their high but different adaptation strategies in terms of adjustment of radial growth to environmental heterogeneity, crucial for long-term tree performance and survival. PMID:28082994

  15. Comparative pathobiology of Heterobasidion annosum during challenge on Pinus sylvestris and Arabidopsis roots: an analysis of defensin gene expression in two pathosystems.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Emad; Xiao, Chaowen; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2014-03-01

    Heterobasidion annosum is widely known as a major root and butt rot pathogen of conifer trees, but little information is available on its interaction with the roots of herbaceous angiosperm plants. We investigated the infection biology of H. annosum during challenge with the angiosperm model Arabidopsis and monitored the host response after exposure to different hormone elicitors, chemicals (chitin, glucan and chitosan) and fungal species that represent diverse basidiomycete life strategies [e.g., pathogen (H. annosum), saprotroph (Stereum sanguinolentum) and mutualist (Lactarius rufus)]. The results revealed that the tree pathogen (H. annosum) and the saprotroph (S. sanguinolentum) could infect the Col-8 (Columbia) ecotype of Arabidopsis in laboratory inoculation experiments. Germinated H. annosum spores had appressorium-like penetration structures attached to the surface of the Arabidopsis roots. Subsequent invasive fungal growth led to the disintegration of the vascular region of the root tissues. Progression of root rot symptoms in Arabidopsis was similar to the infection development that was previously documented in Scots pine seedlings. Scots pine PsDef1 and Arabidopsis DEFLs (AT5G44973.1) and PDF1.2 were induced at the initial stage of the infection. However, differences in the expression patterns of the defensin gene homologs from the two plant groups were observed under various conditions, suggesting functional differences in their regulation. The potential use of the H. annosum-Arabidopsis pathosystem as a model for studying forest tree diseases is discussed.

  16. [Effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi on alleviating the decline of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantations on Keerqin sandy land].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Kang, Hong-Zhang; Xu, Mei-Ling; Wu, Xiang-Yun; Wang, Wei

    2007-12-01

    Based on the observations of air temperature, soil temperature, and root systems of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantations on southeastern Keerqin sandy land, the decline mechanisms of the plantations were analyzed from the aspect of the effects of temperature on the growth and survival of ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM). The results indicated that ECM could hardly survive with in 0-5 cm soil layer because of its high temperature environment, but the temperature condition in 20-40 cm soil layer was suitable for the survival and growth of ECM. 78% of the roots of 13-42 years old P. sylvestris var. mongolica tress were distributed in 20-40 cm soil layer, which suggested that the existence of ECM in this soil layer inhibited or alleviated the decline of the P. sylvestris var. mongolica plantations, and was not the inducing factor of the plantations' top withering, low growth rate, and tree death. The lack of ECM in surface soil layer (0-5 cm) could be one of the main reasons leading to the death of seedlings root systems, and thus, the failure of P. sylvestris var. mongolica plantations' regeneration.

  17. Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris Essential Oils Chemotypes and Monoterpene Hydrocarbon Enantiomers, before and after Inoculation with the Pinewood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana M; Mendes, Marta D; Lima, Ana S; Barbosa, Pedro M; Ascensão, Lia; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G; Mota, Manuel M; Figueiredo, A Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the causal agent of pine wilt disease, a serious threat to global forest populations of conifers, especially Pinus spp. A time-course study of the essential oils (EOs) of 2-year-old Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Pinus sylvestris following inoculation with the PWN was performed. The constitutive and nematode inoculation induced EOs components were analyzed at both the wounding or inoculation areas and at the whole plant level. The enantiomeric ratio of optically active main EOs components was also evaluated. External symptoms of infection were observed only in P. pinaster and P. sylvestris 21 and 15 days after inoculation, respectively. The EO composition analysis of uninoculated and unwounded plants revealed the occurrence of chemotypes for P. pinaster, P. halepensis and P. sylvestris, whereas P. pinea showed a homogenous EO composition. When whole plants were evaluated for EO and monoterpene hydrocarbon enantiomeric chemical composition, no relevant qualitative and quantitative differences were found. Instead, EO analysis of inoculated and uninoculated wounded areas revealed an increase of sesquiterpenes and diterpenic compounds, especially in P. pinea and P. halepensis, comparatively to healthy whole plants EOs. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Selectivity of Pinus sylvestris extract and essential oil to estrogen-insensitive breast cancer cells Pinus sylvestris against cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Ho Viet; Thao, Do Thi; Orav, Anne; Raal, Ain

    2015-01-01

    Background: So far, the anticancer action of pine tree extracts has mainly been shown for the species distributed widely around the Asian countries. Objective: Therefore, this study was performed to examine the potential cytotoxicity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native also to the European region and growing widely in Estonia. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic activity of methanol extract and essential oil of Scots pine needles was determined by sulforhodamine B assay in different human cancer cell lines. Results: This needle extract was found to suppress the viability of several human cancer cell lines showing some selectivity to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231(half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] 35 μg/ml) in comparison with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). It is the strongest cytotoxic effect at all measured, thus far for the needles and leaves extracts derived from various pine species, and is also the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine tree extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil showed the stronger cytotoxic effect to both negative and positive breast cancer cell lines (both IC50 29 μg/ml) than pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). Conclusion: The data from this report indicate that Scots pine needles extract and essential oil exhibits some potential as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agent for mammary tumors unresponsive to endocrine treatment. PMID:26664017

  19. Dehydrin stress proteins in Pinus sylvestris L. needles under conditions of extreme climate of Yakutia.

    PubMed

    Tatarinova, T D; Perk, A A; Bubyakina, V V; Vasilieva, I V; Ponomarev, A G; Maximov, T C

    2017-03-01

    This is the first study to investigate stress proteins dehydrins with the use of specific antibodies in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles and their changes in the annual cycle under extreme climate of Yakutia. No pronounced polymorphism of major dehydrins (14-15 and 66 kDa) has been found during the winter dormancy period of P. sylvestris. A clear correlation between the seasonal variations in dehydrins and changes in the water content in needles was revealed. Consistently high levels of dehydrins was retained throughout the period of low negative temperatures. It is assumed that dehydrins can participate in the formation of P. sylvestris L. resistance to the permafrost conditions.

  20. Effects of zinc on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Yury V; Kartashov, Alexander V; Ivanova, Alexandra I; Savochkin, Yury V; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V

    2016-05-01

    The 6-week-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) showed high sensitivity to chronic exposure to zinc in hydroculture, which manifested in a significant inhibition of growth. Changes in the architecture of the root system and the suppression of its growth were shown to be the most striking effects of the toxic effect of zinc. Based on the data relating to the accumulation of zinc predominantly in the root system (by up to 35 times at 300 μM ZnSO4) and to the reduction in its translocation into the aerial organs, we concluded that P. sylvestris is related to a group of plants that exclude zinc. The seedlings developed a manganese deficiency (revealed by a reduction in Mn content in the roots and needles of up to 3.5 times at 300 μM ZnSO4) but not an iron deficiency (revealed by an increase in iron content of up to 23.7% in the roots and up to 42.3% in the needles at average). The absence of signs of oxidative stress under the effect of the zinc was detected as evidenced by the reduction in the content of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals in the seedling organs. The leading role of low molecular weight antioxidants in the prevention of oxidative stress in the seedling organs was suggested. Under the influence of zinc, a significant increase in the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity of ethanol extracts of the seedling organs was found, which was caused by an increase in the total content of (+)-catechin and proanthocyanidins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Phytopathogenic Fungus Fusarium fujikuroi CF-295141, Isolated from Pinus sylvestris

    PubMed Central

    Bertoni-Mann, Michele; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; González-Menéndez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a new strain of Fusarium fujikuroi, isolated from Pinus sylvestris, which was also found to produce the mycotoxin beauvericin. The Illumina-based sequence analysis revealed an approximate genome size of 44.2 Mbp, containing 164 secondary metabolite biosynthetic clusters. PMID:27795279

  2. No evidence for depletion of carbohydrate pools in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, A.; Pirkebner, D.; Florian, C.; Oberhuber, W.

    2012-01-01

    The physiological mechanisms leading to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) decline in the dry inner Alpine valleys are still unknown. Testing the carbon starvation hypothesis, we analysed the seasonal course of mobile carbohydrate pools (NSC) of Scots pine growing at a xeric and a dry-mesic site within an inner Alpine dry valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) during the year 2009, which was characterized by exceptional soil dryness. Although, soil moisture content dropped to c. 10% at both sites during the growing season, NSC concentrations were rising in all tissues (branch, stem, root) till end of July, except in needles where maxima were reached around bud break. NSC concentrations were not significantly different in the analysed tissues at the xeric and the dry-mesic site. At the dry-mesic site NSC concentrations in the above ground tree biomass were significantly higher during the period of radial growth. An accumulation of NSC in roots at the end of July indicates a change in carbon allocation after an early cessation in above ground growth, possibly due to elevated below ground carbon demand. In conclusion our results revealed that extensive soil dryness during the growing season did not lead to carbon depletion. However, even though C-reserves were not exhausted, a sequestration of carbohydrate pools during drought periods might lead to deficits in carbon supply that weaken tree vigour and drive tree mortality. PMID:21974742

  3. Genetic and environmental control of seasonal carbohydrate dynamics in trees of diverse Pinus sylvestris populations.

    PubMed

    Oleksyn, J.; Zytkowiak, R.; Karolewski, P.; Reich, P. B.; Tjoelker, M. G.

    2000-06-01

    We explored environmental and genetic factors affecting seasonal dynamics of starch and soluble nonstructural carbohydrates in needle and twig cohorts and roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees of six populations originating between 49 degrees and 60 degrees N, and grown under common garden conditions in western Poland. Trees of each population were sampled once or twice per month over a 3-year period from age 15 to 17 years. Based on similarity in starch concentration patterns in needles, two distinct groups of populations were identified; one comprised northern populations from Sweden and Russia (59-60 degrees N), and another comprised central European populations from Latvia, Poland, Germany and France (49-56 degrees N). Needle starch concentrations of northern populations started to decline in late spring and reached minimum values earlier than those of central populations. For all populations, starch accumulation in spring started when minimum air temperature permanently exceeded 0 degrees C. Starch accumulation peaked before bud break and was highest in 1-year-old needles, averaging 9-13% of dry mass. Soluble carbohydrate concentrations were lowest in spring and summer and highest in autumn and winter. There were no differences among populations in seasonal pattern of soluble carbohydrate concentrations. Averaged across all populations, needle soluble carbohydrate concentrations increased from about 4% of needle dry mass in developing current-year needles, to about 9% in 1- and 2-year-old needles. Root carbohydrate concentration exhibited a bimodal pattern with peaks in spring and autumn. Northern populations had higher concentrations of fine-root starch in spring and autumn than central populations. Late-summer carbohydrate accumulation in roots started only after depletion of starch in needles and woody shoots. We conclude that Scots pine carbohydrate dynamics depend partially on inherited properties that are probably related to phenology of root

  4. Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Fayemiwo, Kehinde Adenike; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Okoro, Ovie Princewill; Awojide, Shola Hezekiah; Awoniyi, Ilias Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oils of locally sourced Pinus sylvestris (P. sylvestris) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus). The chemical composition of the essential oils of both plants was determined using GC-MS while the larvicidal bioassay was carried out using different concentrations of the oils against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus in accordance with the standard protocol. The results as determined by GC-MS showed that oil of S. aromaticum has eugenol (80.5%) as its principal constituent while P. sylvestris has 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha., .alpha.4-trimethyl (27.1%) as its dominant constituent. Both oils achieved over 85% larval mortality within 24 h. The larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible to the oils [LC50 (S. aromaticum)=92.56 mg/L, LC50(P. sylvestris)=100.39 mg/L] than C. quinquefasciatus [LC50(S. aromaticum)=124.42 mg/L; LC50(P. sylvestris)=128.00 mg/L]. S. aromaticum oil was more toxic to the mosquito larvae than oil of P. sylvestris but the difference in lethal concentrations was insignificant (P>0.05). The results justify the larvicidal potentials of both essential oils and the need to incorporate them in vector management and control. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Larvicidal efficacies and chemical composition of essential oils of Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium aromaticum against mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Fayemiwo, Kehinde Adenike; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Okoro, Ovie Princewill; Awojide, Shola Hezekiah; Awoniyi, Ilias Olufemi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal potentials of essential oils of locally sourced Pinus sylvestris (P. sylvestris) and Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum) against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (C. quinquefasciatus). Method The chemical composition of the essential oils of both plants was determined using GC-MS while the larvicidal bioassay was carried out using different concentrations of the oils against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus in accordance with the standard protocol. Results The results as determined by GC-MS showed that oil of S. aromaticum has eugenol (80.5%) as its principal constituent while P. sylvestris has 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, .alpha., .alpha.4-trimethyl (27.1%) as its dominant constituent. Both oils achieved over 85% larval mortality within 24 h. The larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible to the oils [LC50 (S. aromaticum)=92.56 mg/L, LC50(P. sylvestris)=100.39 mg/L] than C. quinquefasciatus [LC50(S. aromaticum)=124.42 mg/L; LC50(P. sylvestris)=128.00 mg/L]. S. aromaticum oil was more toxic to the mosquito larvae than oil of P. sylvestris but the difference in lethal concentrations was insignificant (P>0.05). Conclusion The results justify the larvicidal potentials of both essential oils and the need to incorporate them in vector management and control. PMID:24144127

  6. [Morphological abnormalities among the offspring of irradiated pines (pinus sylvestris L.) from chernobyl populations].

    PubMed

    Igonina, E V; Fedotov, I S; Korotkevich, A Iu; Rubanovich, A V

    2012-01-01

    The significant changes of the quantitative signs and the increase in the frequency of morphological abnormalities were found among the offspring of pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) exposed as a result of the Chernobyl accident. We have detected that the typical effects of radiation exposure (stimulation, inhibition, abnormalities of morphogenesis) are transmitted to the offspring of irradiated pine trees. The mechanisms of their occurrence are discussed.

  7. Effects of experimental conditions on mycorrhizal relationships between Pinus sylvestris and Lactarius deliciosus and unprecedented fruit-body formation of the Saffron milk cap under controlled soilless conditions.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Laguette, A; Plassard, C; Mousain, D

    2000-09-01

    The mycorrhizal relationships between pines and two edible species of Lactarius sect. Dapetes were investigated by optimizing the experimental conditions of mycelial growth and of mycorrhizal colonization of pine seedlings. In vitro mycelial growth of Lactarius deliciosus and L. sanguifluus was improved on a buffered medium containing glucose, amino acids, and vitamins. Two methods of mycorrhization of pines with Lactarius deliciosus were tested. The mycorrhizal colonization was rapid and intense under non-aseptic conditions with a low nutrient supply and without exogenous glucose. A positive influence of mycorrhizal colonization on Pinus sylvestris growth was subsequently observed. Under axenic conditions and with a high nutrient supply, mycorrhization was stimulated at 10 g/L of exogenous glucose, irrespective of the phosphorus concentration. At high phosphorus level (1 mM) and 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 g/L glucose, growth of Pinus sylvestris was reduced by inoculation. Stability and development of Pinus spp./Lactarius deliciosus symbioses were assayed in a climatic chamber using containers filled with a synthetic substrate. Over a 2-year culture period, the root systems of the pine seedlings were heavily colonized by Lactarius deliciosus. One year following inoculation, Lactarius deliciosus fruit-body primordia appeared associated with Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Six months later, two mature basidiomata were obtained. This is the first report of soilless fruit-body formation of this edible mushroom.

  8. Nutrient conservation increases with latitude of origin in European Pinus sylvestris populations.

    PubMed

    Oleksyn, J; Reich, P B; Zytkowiak, R; Karolewski, P; Tjoelker, M G

    2003-07-01

    Nutrient availability varies across climatic gradients, yet intraspecific adaptation across such gradients in plant traits related to internal cycling and nutrient resorption remains poorly understood. We examined nutrient resorption among six Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations of wide-ranging origin grown under common-garden conditions in Poland. These results were compared with mass-based needle N and P for 195 Scots pine stands throughout the species' European range. At the common site, green needle N (r(2)=0.81, P=0.01) and P (r(2)=0.58, P=0.08) concentration increased with increasing latitude of population origin. Resorption efficiency (the proportion of the leaf nutrient pool resorbed during senescence) of N and P of Scots pine populations increased with the latitude of seed origin (r(2) > or = 0.67, P < or = 0.05). The greater resorption efficiency of more northerly populations led to lower concentrations of N and P in senescent leaves (higher resorption proficiency) than populations originating from low latitudes. The direction of change in these traits indicates potential adaptation of populations from northern, colder habitats to more efficient internal nutrient cycling. For native Scots pine stands, results showed greater nutrient conservation in situ in cold-adapted northern populations, via extended needle longevity (from 2 to 3 years at 50 degrees N to 7 years at 70 degrees N), and greater resorption efficiency and proficiency, with their greater resorption efficiency and proficiency having genotypic roots demonstrated in the common-garden experiment. However, for native Scots pine stands, green needle N decreased with increasing latitude (r(2)=0.83, P=0.0002), and P was stable other than decreasing above 62 degrees N. Hence, the genotypic tendency towards maintenance of higher nutrient concentrations in green foliage and effective nutrient resorption, demonstrated by northern populations in the common garden, did not entirely compensate for

  9. Development and characterization of 25 EST-SSR markers in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (Pinaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Pan; Niu, Shihui; Yuan, Huwei; Li, Zhexin; Zhang, Yuncheng; Yuan, Lu; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: A set of novel expressed sequence tag (EST) microsatellite markers was developed in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica to promote further genetic studies in this species. • Methods and Results: One hundred seventy-five EST–simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were designed and synthesized for 31,653 isotigs based on P. tabuliformis EST sequences. The primer pairs were used to identify 25 polymorphic loci in 48 individuals. The number of alleles ranged from two to eight with observed and expected heterozygosity values of 0.0435 to 0.8125 and 0.0430 to 0.7820, respectively. • Conclusions: These new polymorphic EST-SSR markers will be useful for assessing genetic diversity, molecular breeding and genetic improvement, and conservation of P. sylvestris var. mongolica. PMID:25202597

  10. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbohydrates and stem growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) exposed to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Kofler, Werner; Schuster, Roman; Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Tree growth requires a continuous supply of carbon as structural material and as a source for metabolic energy. To detect whether intra-annual stem growth is related to changes in carbon allocation, we monitored seasonal dynamics of shoot and radial growth and concentrations of mobile carbohydrates (NSC) in above- and belowground organs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study area is situated within an inner Alpine dry environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria), which is characterized by recurring drought periods at the start of the growing season in spring and limited water holding capacity of nutrient deficient, shallow stony soils. Shoot elongation was monitored on lateral branches in the canopy and stem radius changes were continuously followed by electronic band dendrometers. Daily radial stem growth and tree water deficit (ΔW) were extracted from dendrometer records. ΔW is regarded a reliable measure of drought stress in trees and develops when transpirational water loss from leaves exceeds water uptake by the root system. Daily radial stem growth and ΔW were related to environmental variables and determination of NSC was performed using specific enzymatic assays. Results revealed quite early culmination of aboveground growth rates in late April (shoot growth) and late May (radial growth), and increasing accumulation of NSC in coarse roots in June. NSC content in roots peaked at the end of July and thereafter decreased again, indicating a shift in carbon allocation after an early cessation of aboveground stem growth. ΔW was found to peak in late summer, when high temperatures prevailed. That maximum growth rates of aboveground organs peaked quite before precipitation increased during summer is related to the finding that ΔW and radial stem growth were more strongly controlled by the atmospheric environment, than by soil water content. We conclude that as a response to the seasonal development of ΔW a shift in carbon allocation from aboveground

  11. [Pathways and rates of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea species recolonization into Scandinavia in Holocene].

    PubMed

    Sannikov, S N; Sannikova, N S

    2015-01-01

    The results are presented of comparative analysis of pathways, rates, and timing of recolonization into Scandinavia, in Holocene, of Pinus sylvestris populations and those of Picea abies and P. obovata. The dispersion rate, starting from 12 thou years before present (BP), is calculated using palynological data from scientific literature on radiometric dating. It is found out that P sylvestris spread into Central Scandinavia from the Alps via the Danish Isthmus about 8.2 thou years BP with the speed of 500-1250 km per 1 thou years. A hypothesis is put forward suggesting that such a fast speed is due to pine seeds hydrochory, which is much faster than anemochory according to our researches. From the northern part of the East European Plain, P. sylvestris spread into Fennoscandia with lower speed (520 km per 1 thou years). Populations of Picea species dispersed from the same regions with speed (131-164 km per 1 thou years) 3-10 times lower than that of P. sylvestris. Therefore, invasion of Picea abies from the Alps into Scandinavia via the Danish Isthmus did not have time to happen before the formation of the Kattegat Strait. By circumferential pathway, through Karelia, both species of Picea reached the northern parts of Scandinavia only 3.5 thou years BP, its central parts - 2 thou years BP, and its southern parts - 1.5 thou years BP, i.e., later than P. sylvestris by 4, 6.2, and 8.5 thou years respectively. Probably, this may be explained by the fact that in pines the time to seeding is twofold shorter, while their sprouts were more tolerant to climatic extremums in periglacial habitats in middle Holocene.

  12. Effect of long-term drought on carbon allocation and nitrogen uptake of Pinus sylvestris seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Aaltonen, Heidi; Lindén, Aki; Köster, Kajar; Biasi, Christina; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2015-04-01

    Weather extremes such as drought events are expected to increase in the future as a result of climate change. The drought affects the allocation of carbon assimilated by plants e.g. by modifying the root to shoot ratio, amount of fine roots and the amount of mycorrhizal fungal hyphae. We studied the effect of long term drought on the allocation of carbon in a common garden experiment with 4-year-old Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Half of the seedlings were exposed to long-term drought by setting the soil water content close to wilting point for over two growing seasons whereas the other half was grown in soil close to field capacity. We conducted a pulse labelling with 13CO2 in the end of the study by injecting a known amount of 13C enriched CO2 to the seedlings and measuring the CO2 uptake and distribution of 13C to the biomass of the seedlings and to the root and rhizosphere respiration. In addition, we studied the effect of drought on the decomposition of needle litter and uptake of nitrogen by 15N labelled needles buried in the soil in litter bags. The litterbags were collected and harvested in the end of the experiment and the changes in microbial community in the litterbags were studied from the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition. We also determined the 15N isotope concentrations from the needles of the seedlings to study the effect of drought on the nitrogen uptake of the seedlings. Our results indicate that the drought had a significant effect both on the biomass allocation of the seedlings and on the microbial species composition. The amount of carbon allocated belowground was much higher in the seedlings exposed to drought compared to the control seedlings. The seedlings seemed to adapt their carbon allocation to long-term drought to sustain adequate needle biomass and water uptake. The seedlings also adapted their osmotic potential and photosynthesis capacity to sustain the long-term drought as was indicated by the measurements of osmotic potential

  13. Changes in polyamine content and localization of Pinus sylvestris ADC and Suillus variegatus ODC mRNA transcripts during the formation of mycorrhizal interaction in an in vitro cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Karoliina; Sutela, Suvi; Häggman, Hely; Scagel, Carolyn; Vuosku, Jaana; Jokela, Anne; Sarjala, Tytti

    2006-01-01

    The involvement of polyamines (PAs) in the interaction between Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings and an ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus variegatus (Swatz: Fr.) O. Kunze was studied in an in vitro cultivation system. PA concentrations in seedlings were analysed after 1, 3, and 5 weeks in dual culture with S. variegatus, and changes in PA pools were compared with the growth of the seedlings. Pinus sylvestris arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and S. variegatus ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA transcripts were localized during the formation of mycorrhizas. During mycorrhiza formation, Suillus variegatus ODC transcripts were found in developing hyphal mantle and Hartig net, and P. sylvestris ADC transcripts in specific root parenchyma cells adjacent to tracheids and in mitotic cells of the root apical meristem. However, no unambiguous difference in ADC transcript localization between inoculated and non-inoculated roots was observed. Regardless of the unchanged distribution of ADC transcripts, inoculation with S. variegatus increased free putrescine, spermidine, and spermine concentrations in roots within the first week in dual culture. The concentration of free and conjugated putrescine and conjugated spermidine also increased in the needles due to the fungus. The fungus-induced lateral root formation and main root elongation were greatest between the first and third week in dual culture, coinciding with retarded accumulation or a decrease of free PAs. These results show that accumulation of PAs in the host plant is one of the first indicators of the establishment of ectomycorrhizal interaction between P. sylvestris and S. variegatus in the in vitro system.

  14. Object-based semi-automatic approach for forest structure characterization using lidar data in heterogeneous Pinus sylvestris stands

    Treesearch

    C. Pascual; A. Garcia-Abril; L.G. Garcia-Montero; S. Martin-Fernandez; W.B. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two-stage approach for characterizing the structure of Pinus sylvestris L. stands in forests of central Spain. The first stage was to delimit forest stands using eCognition and a digital canopy height model (DCHM) derived from lidar data. The polygons were then clustered into forest structure types based on the DCHM data...

  15. Detection of Intracellular Bacteria in the Buds of Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Laukkanen, Hanna; Pospiech, Helmut; Myllylä, Raili; Hohtola, Anja

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial isolates were obtained from pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tissue cultures and identified as Methylobacterium extorquens and Pseudomonas synxantha. The existence of bacteria in pine buds was investigated by 16S rRNA in situ hybridization. Bacteria inhabited the buds of every tree examined, primarily colonizing the cells of scale primordia and resin ducts. PMID:10877808

  16. Comparative analysis of transcript abundance in Pinus sylvestris after challenge with a saprotrophic, pathogenic or mutualistic fungus.

    PubMed

    Adomas, Aleksandra; Heller, Gregory; Olson, Ake; Osborne, Jason; Karlsson, Magnus; Nahalkova, Jarmila; Van Zyl, Len; Sederoff, Ron; Stenlid, Jan; Finlay, Roger; Asiegbu, Frederick O

    2008-06-01

    To investigate functional differences in the recognition and response mechanisms of conifer roots to fungi with different trophic strategies, Pinus sylvestris L. was challenged with a saprotrophic fungus Trichoderma aureoviride Rifai. The results were compared with separate studies investigating pine interactions with a pathogen, Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. sensu stricto and an ectomycorrhizal symbiont, Laccaria bicolor Maire (Orton). Global changes in the expression of 2109 conifer genes were assayed 1, 5 and 15 days after inoculation. Gene expression data from a cDNA microarray were analyzed by the 2-interconnected mixed linear model statistical approach. The total number of genes differentially expressed compared with the uninfected control was similar after challenge with the pathogen and the ectomycorrhizal symbiont, but the number of differentially expressed genes increased over time for H. annosum, and decreased for L. bicolor. Inoculation of pine roots with T. aureoviride resulted overall in a much lower number of genes with changed transcript levels compared with inoculation with H. annosum or L. bicolor. Functional classification of the differentially expressed genes revealed that the ectomycorrhizal fungus triggered transient induction of defence-related genes. The response and induction of defence against the pathogen was delayed and the magnitude increased over time. Thus, there were specific transcriptional responses depending on whether the conifer roots were challenged with mutualistic, saprotrophic or pathogenic fungi. This suggests that pine trees are able to recognize diverse fungal species and specifically distinguish whether they are pathogenic, neutral or beneficial microbial agents.

  17. Interactive effects of juvenile defoliation, light conditions, and interspecific competition on growth and ectomycorrhizal colonization of Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    PubMed

    Trocha, Lidia K; Weiser, Ewa; Robakowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings of forest tree species are exposed to a number of abiotic (organ loss or damage, light shortage) and biotic (interspecific competition) stress factors, which may lead to an inhibition of growth and reproduction and, eventually, to plant death. Growth of the host and its mycorrhizal symbiont is often closely linked, and hence, host damage may negatively affect the symbiont. We designed a pot experiment to study the response of light-demanding Pinus sylvestris and shade-tolerant Fagus sylvatica seedlings to a set of abiotic and biotic stresses and subsequent effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root tip colonization, seedling biomass, and leaf nitrogen content. The light regime had a more pronounced effect on ECM colonization than did juvenile damage. The interspecific competition resulted in higher ECM root tip abundance for Pinus, but this effect was insignificant in Fagus. Low light and interspecific competition resulted in lower seedling biomass compared to high light, and the effect of the latter was partially masked by high light. Leaf nitrogen responded differently in Fagus and Pinus when they grew in interspecific competition. Our results indicated that for both light-demanding (Pinus) and shade-tolerant (Fagus) species, the light environment was a major factor affecting seedling growth and ECM root tip abundance. The light conditions favorable for the growth of seedlings may to some extent compensate for the harmful effects of juvenile organ loss or damage and interspecific competition.

  18. [Alternative Ways of Pinus sylvestris L. Migration from Southern Siberia to Europe and Asia Minor].

    PubMed

    Sannikov, S N; Egorov, E V

    2015-01-01

    Allozyme analysis of the parameters of the Nei genetic distances and gene flow between the populations of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. along two hypothetical alternative ways of their migrations in the Miocene-Pliocene from Southern Siberia to the Balkans, Central Europe, and Asia Minor was used; a lower probability of their settlement on the southern shores of the East Paratethys than on the northern ones was identified. It is suggested that the Middle Araks Strait of Paratethys in the Miocene and extreme aridity of the climate in the Pliocene headed the migration of the populations on the southern way, while on the northern way there were no essential water and mountain barriers for pine dispersal.

  19. Fertility variation and status number in clonal seed orchards of Pinus sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Bilir, Nebi; Temiraga, Halime

    2012-11-15

    The present study was carried out to evaluate fertility variation, status number and gene diversity based on strobili productions in two clonal seed orchards of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). There were large differences among clones for the female and male strobili productions in the orchards. Positive and significant (p< or =0.05) correlations were found between female and male strobili production (r = 0.76, 0.55). Female fertility variation (1.03, 1.07) was larger than male fertility variation (1.02, 1.03) in the orchards. The status numbers estimated based on the total fertility were very high (97 and 98% of census numbers). The large fertility variation could be balanced by different treatments such as mixing seed equally from clones or genetinc thinning.

  20. Transpiration and canopy conductance in an inner alpine Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Gerhard; Leo, Marco; Oberhuber, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Canopy transpiration (Ec) of a 150-year old Pinus sylvestris L. stand in an inner alpine dry valley, Tyrol, Austria was estimated throughout two growing seasons 2011 and 2012 by means of xylem sap flow measurements. Although there were prolonged periods of limited soil water availability Ec did not show a clear trend with respect to soil water availability and averaged 0.4 ± 0.19 mm day-1 under conditions of non-limiting soil water availability and 0.37 ± 0.17 mm day-1 when soil water availability was limited. This is because canopy conductance declined significantly with increasing evaporative demand and thus significantly reduced tree water loss. The growing season total of Ec was 74 mm and 88 mm in 2011 and 2012, respectively, which is significantly below the values estimated for other P. sylvestris forest ecosystems in Central Europe, and thus reflecting a strong adaptation to soil drought during periods of high evaporative. PMID:27468179

  1. Temporal dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates and xylem growth in Pinus sylvestris exposed to drought

    PubMed Central

    Oberhuber, Walter; Swidrak, Irene; Pirkebner, Daniela; Gruber, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Wood formation requires a continuous supply of carbohydrates for structural growth and metabolism. In the montane belt of the central Austrian Alps we monitored the temporal dynamics of xylem growth and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in stem sapwood of Pinus sylvestris L. during the growing season 2009, which was characterized by exceptional soil dryness within the study area. Soil water content dropped below 10 % at the time of maximum xylem growth end of May. Histological analyses have been used to describe cambial activity and xylem growth. Determination of NSC was performed using specific enzymatic assays revealing that total NSC ranged from 0.8 to 1.7 % dry matter throughout the year. Significant variations (P < 0.05) of the size of the NSC pool were observed during the growing season. Starch showed persistent abundance throughout the year reaching a maximum shortly before onset of late wood formation in mid-July. Seasonal dynamics of NSC and xylem growth suggest that (i) high sink activity occurred at start of the growing season in spring and during late wood formation in summer and (ii) there was no particular shortage in NSC, which caused P. sylvestris to draw upon stem reserves more heavily during drought in 2009. PMID:22003262

  2. [Variability of the cytological parameters of Pinus sylvestris L. seeds from the unique Hrenovskoy pine forest].

    PubMed

    Butorina, A K; Cherkashina, O N; Chernodubov, A I; Avdeeva, I A

    2005-06-01

    Hrenovskoy pine forest is a unique island stand at the boundary of the species range of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. This object is of exceptional economic value, because it serves as a forest-seed base for the Voronezh oblast and some other regions of Russia; therefore, the stand and seed qualities have to be monitored constantly. The results of the first cytogenetic study of the seed progeny of P. sylvestris from the Morozov Grove, a high-quality stand in a reserved site within the Hrenovskoy pine forest, are reported. The studies have been performed in order to obtain a more correct assessment of seed quality based not only on their germination and energy of germination (traditionally used by forest breeders), but also on their genomic stability. The latter may be estimated by the stability of chromosome number in the somatic cells of seedlings and the regularity of mitotic divisions, because they also characterize the state of the generative system of parental forms and may serve as an integrated estimate of the stand development homeostasis. Therefore, the chromosome number, mitotic and nucleolar activities, and the number and spectrum of pathological mitoses (PMs) have been determined. Seedlings have been obtained from 240 seeds (collected from 12 trees) that resulted from free pollination. The cytological analysis of the rootlets of these seedlings has not detected any deviations from the chromosome number typical of the species P. sylvestris L. (2n = 24). However, considerable variation has been found in each family with respect to the mitotic index (MI) (from 4.2 +/- 0.36 to 8.1 +/- 0.39%) and the number of PMs (from 0.5 to 2.1%); micronuclei have also been found in each family (from 0.01 to 0.05%). In general, the phenotypic characteristics and the variation pattern of cytological parameters of the progeny of the trees studied in the Hrenovskoy pine forest, together with the high germination rate of seeds (90-98%), indicate that the current state of

  3. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Provenances

    PubMed Central

    Gülcü, Süleyman

    2017-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p > 0.05) for the characters, while there were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA). Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p < 0.05) correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively. PMID:28133603

  4. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Provenances.

    PubMed

    Gülcü, Süleyman; Bilir, Nebi

    2017-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p > 0.05) for the characters, while there were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA). Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p < 0.05) correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  5. Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7 promotes Pinus sylvestris reforestation of lead-contaminated mine tailing sites.

    PubMed

    Babu, A Giridhar; Shea, Patrick J; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-04-01

    Vegetation is critical to stabilize and remediate mine tailing sites, but plant growth is often poor due to toxicity from heavy metal(loid)s (HMs). A non-symbiotic endophytic fungus, Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7, isolated from Pb-contaminated mine tailing soil, exhibited both high tolerance to HMs and desirable plant growth-promoting characteristics. PDR1-7 promoted HM solubilization in mine tailing soil and removed significant amounts of Pb and other HMs from liquid media containing single and multiple metals. Pb removal efficiency increased with initial pH from 4 to 6 and with Pb concentration from 100 to 125 mg L(-1). Inoculating soil with PDR1-7 significantly increased nutrient availability and seedling growth, chlorophyll and protein contents, as well as antioxidative enzyme (superoxide dismutase) activity. A decrease in malondialdehyde indicated less oxidative stress. HM concentrations were much higher in Pinus sylvestris roots when PDR1-7 was present. These observations suggest the utility of Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7 for pine reforestation and phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated mine soil.

  6. Impact of experimentally elevated ozone on seed germination and growth of Russian pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea spp.) provenances.

    PubMed

    Prozherina, Nadezda; Nakvasina, Elena; Oksanen, Elina

    2009-12-01

    The impact of elevated ozone concentrations on early ontogenetic stages of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies, Picea obovata, P. abies x P. obovata) seedlings originating from different provenances in Russia were studied in the open-field ozone fumigation system located in Kuopio, Finland, over a span of 2 y. The AOT40 value (accumulated ozone dose over the threshold 40 ppb during daylight hours) was 11 ppm hr per growing season, which was 1.4 times higher than the ambient air concentration. The plants were measured for germination rate; shoot increment; needle length; and dry mass of needles, shoots, and roots. Significant differences between pine and spruce provenance response to ozone were found in all parameters. Ozone stress immediately reduced the germination rate of Northern pine provenances, whereas biomass reductions became evident during the second year of the exposure in all pine provenances. Spruce species were more tolerant to elevated ozone concentrations. Our results indicate that seedling development is vulnerable to increasing ozone concentrations and that attention must be paid to the provenance selection.

  7. [Radiation risk assessment for plant reference species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) from the area of radium production waste storage].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T I; Geras'kin, S A; Belykh, E S; Maĭstrenko, T A; Vakhrusheva, O M

    2012-01-01

    The risk of an enhanced level of radionuclides of the uranium and thorium decay series in the environment for reference plant species (Pinus sylvestris and Vicia cracca) was assessed. 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Po, 232Th and 228Th concentration factors for plants were found to be lower than one. The aboveground parts of Vicia cracca sampled from the area of the radium production waste storage mainly accumulated 22Ra, Pinus sylvestris branches--210Pb, 226Ra and 210Po. LOEDR calculated for the chromosome aberration frequency in both plant studies was 17-71 microGy/h. LOERD values for the reproductive capacity decrease in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 17-71 microGy/h and 116-258 microGy/h, correspondingly. EDR10 for the chromosome aberration frequency in P. sylvestris and V. cracca were 148 and 347 microGy/h, that is, correspondingly, 255 and 708 times higher that background values. EDR10 for the plant reproductive capacity was 11-34 microGy/h, which 19-69 times increases the background values.

  8. Twenty-two year results of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) provenance test in North Dakota

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Cunningham; David F. Van Haverbeke

    1991-01-01

    A provenance test of 49 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from eastern Europe, Russia, and Siberia was established in two plantations in north-central North Dakota. After 22 years, trees from seed sources within the region bounded by 20° to 57° east longitude and 50° to 58° north latitude were taller, and larger in diameter, and had denser crown and...

  9. Annual climate variation modifies nitrogen induced carbon accumulation of Pinus sylvestris forests.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyungwoo; Oren, Ram; Linder, Sune; From, Fredrik; Nordin, Annika; Fahlvik, Nils; Lundmark, Tomas; Näsholm, Torgny

    2017-09-01

    We report results from long-term simulated external nitrogen (N) input experiments in three northern Pinus sylvestris forests, two of moderately high and one of moderately low productivity, assessing effects on annual net primary production (NPP) of woody mass and its interannual variation in response to variability in weather conditions. A sigmoidal response of wood NPP to external N inputs was observed in the both higher and lower productivity stands, reaching a maximum of ~65% enhancement regardless of the native site productivity, saturating at an external N input of 4-5 g N·m(-2) ·yr(-1) . The rate of increase in wood NPP and the N response efficiency (REN , increase in wood NPP per external N input) were maximized at an external N input of ~3 g N·m(-2) ·yr(-1) , regardless of site productivity. The maximum REN was greater in the higher productivity than the lower productivity stand (~20 vs. ~14 g C/g N). The N-induced enhancement of wood NPP and its REN were, however, markedly contingent on climatic variables. In both of the higher and lower productivity stands, wood NPP increased with growing season precipitation (P), but only up to ~400 mm. The sensitivity of the response to P increased with increasing external N inputs. Increasing growing season temperature (T) somewhat increased the N-induced drought effect, whereas decreasing T reduced the drought effect. These responses of wood NPP infused a large temporal variation to REN , making the use of a fixed value unadvisable. Based on these results, we suggest that regional climate conditions and future climate scenarios should be considered when modeling carbon sequestration in response to N deposition in boreal P. sylvestris, and possibly other forests. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Individual traits as determinants of time to death under extreme drought in Pinus sylvestris L.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Forner, Núria; Sala, Anna; Biel, Carme; Savé, Robert; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2016-10-01

    Plants exhibit a variety of drought responses involving multiple interacting traits and processes, which makes predictions of drought survival challenging. Careful evaluation of responses within species, where individuals share broadly similar drought resistance strategies, can provide insight into the relative importance of different traits and processes. We subjected Pinus sylvestris L. saplings to extreme drought (no watering) leading to death in a greenhouse to (i) determine the relative effect of predisposing factors and responses to drought on survival time, (ii) identify and rank the importance of key predictors of time to death and (iii) compare individual characteristics of dead and surviving trees sampled concurrently. Time until death varied over 3 months among individual trees (from 29 to 147 days). Survival time was best predicted (higher explained variance and impact on the median survival time) by variables related to carbon uptake and carbon/water economy before and during drought. Trees with higher concentrations of monosaccharides before the beginning of the drought treatment and with higher assimilation rates prior to and during the treatment survived longer (median survival time increased 25-70 days), even at the expense of higher water loss. Dead trees exhibited less than half the amount of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) in branches, stem and relative to surviving trees sampled concurrently. Overall, our results indicate that the maintenance of carbon assimilation to prevent acute depletion of NSC content above some critical level appears to be the main factor explaining survival time of P. sylvestris trees under extreme drought. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. 13C discriminations of Pinus sylvestris vs. Pinus ponderosa at a dry site in Brandenburg (eastern Germany): 100-year growth comparison.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ralf; Insinna, Patrick A; Götz, Bernhard; Junge, Sebastian; Boettger, Tatjana

    2007-06-01

    The carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C, per thousand) and discrimination (Delta, per thousand) of old grown North American Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex P. et C. Laws. and European Pinus sylvestris L. were determined using trees grown under almost identical growing conditions in a mixed stand in Bralitz, Northeast Germany. Single-tree delta(13)C analyses of tree-ring cellulose of both species were carried out at a yearly resolution for the period 1901-2001 and the results compared with growth (basal area increment). Annual mean delta(13)C values for P. ponderosa ranged from-21.6 per thousand to-25.2 per thousand and for P. sylvestris from-21.4 per thousand to-24.4 per thousand. Accordingly, (13)C discrimination (Delta) showed higher values for P. ponderosa throughout the investigation period. Five characteristic periods of Delta were identified for both the tree species, reflecting positive and negative influences of environmental factors. Good growing conditions such as after-thinning events had a positive effect on Delta, reflecting higher values, while poor conditions like aridity and air pollution had a negative influence, reflecting lower values. The dynamics of Delta were likewise reflected in the growth (basal area increment, BAI). Higher (13)C discrimination values of P. ponderosa led to higher BAIs of P. ponderosa in comparison with P. sylvestris. Correlation function analyses confirmed that P. sylvestris was more dependent on precipitation than P. ponderosa, which showed a closer relationship with temperature. The results confirm that under predominantly dry growing conditions, P. ponderosa showed better growth performance than P. sylvestris, indicating better common intrinsic water-use efficiency and, therefore, higher rates of net photosynthesis at a given transpiration. In view of the prospect of climate change, the results are very significant for assessing both trees' physiological properties and, hence, their potential for coping with future growing

  12. Comparative recruitment success of pine provenances (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra) under simulated climate change in the Swiss Rhone valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Sarah; Moser, Barbara; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Wohlgemuth, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Low elevation Scots pine forests of European inner-alpine dry valleys may potentially disappear under continued climate warming, largely in response to increased warming and drought effects. In the upper Rhone valley, the driest region in Switzerland, increased Scots pine mortality in mature forest stands and sparse tree establishment after a large-scale forest fire already give evidence for ongoing climate change. Furthermore, vegetation models predict a decline of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens) even under a moderate temperature increase of 2-3°C. A decline of tree species in the region may lead to a transition from forest to a steppe-like vegetation. Such a change is of considerable concern for both biodiversity and natural hazard protection. Although changing climate conditions affect all life stages of a tree, its most vulnerable stage is recruitment. We tested P. sylvestris and P. nigra seedlings to simulated temperature increase and water stress, using seeds from the upper Rhone valley, Switzerland (CH), and from Peñyagolosa, Spain (ES). The experiment was located outdoors at the bottom of the Rhone Valley. Treatments consisted of factorial combinations of 3 precipitation regimes (‘wet spring-wet summer', ‘dry spring-dry summer' and ‘wet spring-dry summer') and 3 soil heating levels (+0 °C, +2.5 °C, +5 °C). Automatically operated shelters intercepted natural rainfall and different precipitation regimes were simulated by manual irrigation. We found significantly lower germination rates under dry conditions compared to wet conditions, whereas soil temperature affected germination rates only for P. nigra and when elevated by 5°C. Contrastingly, an increase of soil temperatures by 2.5 °C already caused a substantial decrease of survival rates under both ‘dry spring-dry summer' and ‘wet spring-dry summer' conditions. Precipitation regime was more important for survival than temperature increase. Seasonality of

  13. Stress acclimation and particulate matter accumulation in Pinus sylvestris saplings affected by moderate combinations of urban stressors.

    PubMed

    Hanslin, Hans Martin; Przybysz, Arkadiusz; Slimestad, Rune; Sæbø, Arne

    2017-03-27

    To predict how the function of urban vegetation and the provision of ecosystem services respond to combinations of natural and anthropogenic drivers, a better understanding of multiple stress interactions is required. This study tested combined effects of moderate levels of drought, soil salinity and exposure to diesel exhaust on parameters of physiology, metabolism, morphology and growth of Pinus sylvestris L. saplings. We found that plant responses were primarily dominated by single stressors and a few two-way interactions. Stressor combinations did not have considerable additional negative effects on plant performance compared to single stressors. Hence, synergistic and antagonistic interactions were rare and additive effects frequent. Drought cycles caused most negative effects, from chlorophyll a fluorescence and epicuticular wax content to growth responses, while soil salinity caused fewer negative effects but contributed to reduction in fine root growth and fluorescence parameters at low air contamination. Interestingly, the air contamination alone had only marginal effects on plant morphology and growth, but contributed an antagonistic effect, dampening the negative effect of drought and salinity on the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and fine root biomass. Although, these effects were moderate, it appears that exhaust exposure had a cross-acclimation effect on plant responses to drought and salinity. We also found that salinity had a negative effect on the accumulation of particulate matter on shoots, illustrating that the plant stress situation can affect the provisioning of certain ecosystem services like pollution attenuation. These findings have implications for the understanding of the complex natural and anthropogenic stress situation of urban, and how to maintain the ecological functions and delivery of ecosystem services.

  14. Photosynthetic electron transport adjustments in overwintering Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A G; Sane, P V; Zeinalov, Y; Malmberg, G; Gardeström, P; Huner, N P; Oquist, G

    2001-08-01

    As shown before [C. Ottander et al. (1995) Planta 197:176-183], there is a severe inhibition of the photosystem (PS) II photochemical efficiency of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) during the winter. In contrast, the in vivo PSI photochemistry is less inhibited during winter as shown by in vivo measurements of deltaA820/A820 (P700+). There was also an enhanced cyclic electron transfer around PSI in winter-stressed needles as indicated by 4-fold faster reduction kinetics of P700+. The differential functional stability of PSII and PSI was accompanied by a 3.7-fold higher intersystem electron pool size, and a 5-fold increase in the stromal electron pool available for P700+ reduction. There was also a strong reduction of the QB band in the thermoluminescence glow curve and markedly slower Q-A re-oxidation in needles of winter pine, indicating an inhibition of electron transfer between QA and QB. The data presented indicate that the plastoquinone pool is largely reduced in winter pine, and that this reduced state is likely to be of metabolic rather than photochemical origin. The retention of PSI photochemistry, and the suggested metabolic reduction of the plastoquinone pool in winter stressed needles of Scots pine are discussed in terms of the need for enhanced photoprotection of the needles during the winter and the role of metabolically supplied energy for the recovery of photosynthesis from winter stress in evergreens.

  15. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world’s coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories. PMID:26997421

  16. Wood properties of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) grown at elevated temperature and carbon dioxide concentration.

    PubMed

    Kilpeläinen, Antti; Peltola, Heli; Ryyppö, Aija; Sauvala, Kari; Laitinen, Kaisa; Kellomäki, Seppo

    2003-09-01

    Impacts of elevated temperature and carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) on wood properties of 15-year-old Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown under conditions of low nitrogen supply were investigated in open-top chambers. The treatments consisted of (i) ambient temperature and ambient [CO2] (AT+AC), (ii) ambient temperature and elevated [CO2] (AT+EC), (iii) elevated temperature and ambient [CO2] (ET+AC) and (iv) elevated temperature and elevated [CO2] (ET+EC). Wood properties analyzed for the years 1992-1994 included ring width, early- and latewood width and their proportions, intra-ring wood density (minimum, maximum and mean, as well as early- and latewood densities), mean fiber length and chemical composition of the wood (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and acetone extractive concentration). Absolute radial growth over the 3-year period was 54% greater in AT+EC trees and 30 and 25% greater in ET+AC and ET+EC trees, respectively, than in AT+AC trees. Neither elevated temperature nor elevated [CO2] had a statistically significant effect on ring width, early- and latewood widths or their proportions. Both latewood density and maximum intra-ring density were increased by elevated [CO2], whereas fiber length was increased by elevated temperature. Hemicellulose concentration decreased and lignin concentration increased significantly in response to elevated temperature. There were no statistically significant interaction effects of elevated temperature and elevated [CO2] on the wood properties, except on earlywood density.

  17. Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Bolsunovsky, A; Dementyev, D

    2014-12-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011-2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg(-1)(131)I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg(-1)(134)Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg(-1)(137)Cs. An important finding was the detection of (134)Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2-2.6), suggesting the presence of "older", pre-Fukushima accident (137)Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two-three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident (137)Cs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. ) tree-limit surveillance during recent decades, central Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Kullman, L. )

    1993-02-01

    The altitudinal tree-limit of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has been surveyed at the population level since the early- and mid-1970s in the Swedish Scandes. Elevational tree-limit advance was recorded for the majority of sites, despite statistically stable, although highly fluctuating climate with clusters of exceptionally cold winters and many relatively cool summers. The new tree-limit derived from pines established in the late 1950s. Tree-limit rise was concurrent with net population decline for the period 1972 to 1991, mainly as a result of failing regeneration. The main factor of individual vitality depression and mortality was deduced to be winter desiccation. The progressive tree-limit has a tendency for slow upslope advance during periods of climatic stability, even if punctuated by shorter events of unfavorable climate. Pine tree-limit dynamics is suggested to be a complex of climate/age/disturbance interactions. The tree-limit may decline altitudinally mainly in response to secular climate cooling, which makes it best suited for surveying sustained climatic trends and analogous paleoclimatic reconstruction. 51 refs., 12 figs., 1 tabs.

  19. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-03-21

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world's coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories.

  20. Persisting soil drought reduces leaf specific conductivity in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens).

    PubMed

    Sterck, Frank J; Zweifel, Roman; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Chowdhury, Qumruzzaman

    2008-04-01

    Leaf specific conductivity (LSC; the ratio of stem conductivity (K(P)) to leaf area (A(L))), a measure of the hydraulic capacity of the stem to supply leaves with water, varies with soil water content. Empirical evidence for LSC responses to drought is ambiguous, because previously published results were subject to many confounding factors. We tested how LSC of similar-sized trees of the same population, under similar climatic conditions, responds to persistently wet or dry soil. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.) trees were compared between a dry site and a wet site in the Valais, an inner alpine valley in Switzerland. Soil water strongly influenced A(L) and K(P) and the plant components affecting K(P), such as conduit radius, conduit density and functional sapwood area. Trees at the dry site had lower LSC than trees with the same stem diameter at the wet site. Low LSC in trees at the dry site was associated with a smaller functional sapwood area and narrower conduits, resulting in a stronger reduction in K(P) than in A(L). These observations support the hypothesis that trees maintain a homeostatic water pressure gradient. An alternative hypothesis is that relatively high investments in leaves compared with sapwood contribute to carbon gain over an entire season by enabling rapid whole-plant photosynthesis during periods of high water availability (e.g., in spring, after rain events and during morning hours when leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit is small). Dynamic data and a hydraulic plant growth model are needed to test how investments in leaves versus sapwood and roots contribute to transpiration and to maximizing carbon gain throughout entire growth seasons.

  1. [Postglacial migration and phenogeography of populations of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the northeast of the Russian Plain].

    PubMed

    Vidiakin, A I; Sannikov, S N; Petrova, I V; Sannikova, N S

    2014-01-01

    The history, distribution routes, and phenogeographic structure of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the northeast of the Russian Plain were studied on the basis of paleogeographic data and results of our own phenotypic and allozyme-genetic studies. It is assumed that, after the maximum Dnieper glaciation, P. sylvestris populations could successfully distribute to the northwest and north from the refugia of the South and Middle Urals as a result of seed dispersal by Belaya, Ufa, Chusovaya rivers (in Holocene, by Severnaya Dvina, Mezen', and Pechora rivers). On the basis of the hypothesis of "migration complexes" and the theory of hydrochory for coniferous species, a scheme of formation of a population structure of the Scots pine in the northeast of the Russian Plain is proposed.

  2. Reciprocal controlled crosses between Pinus sylvestris and P. mugo verified by a species-specific cpDNA marker.

    PubMed

    Wachowiak, Witold; Lewandowski, Andrzej; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław

    2005-01-01

    A species-specific marker of cpDNA (paternally inherited in pines) was used to verify the hybrid origin of seedlings from controlled reciprocal crosses between Pinus sylvestris and P. mugo. A very low degree of compatibility between those two species has been revealed. In the three consecutive years of experiments, no filled seeds were obtained in the combination with P. mugo as the seed parent. From P. sylvestris as the seed parent and P. mugo as the pollen donor, we succeeded to obtain four filled seeds (about 1 %), but only in one year. The seedling obtained from the seeds had cpDNA haplotypes specific to P. mugo, which proves their hybrid origin. This method enables verification of the result of controlled crosses. The importance of the results has been discussed in the aspect of postulated natural hybridisation in sympatric populations of the two species.

  3. Site fertility and the morphological and photosynthetic acclimation of Pinus sylvestris needles to light.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, U; Ellsworth, D S; Lukjanova, A; Tobias, M

    2001-11-01

    Morphological and photosynthetic acclimation of current-year needles to canopy gradients in light availability (seasonal mean integrated quantum flux density, Q(int)) was studied in the temperate conifer, Pinus sylvestris L., at two sites of contrasting nutrient availability. The nutrient-rich site supported a monospecific P. sylvestris stand on an old-field. The trees were approximately 30 years old and 19-21 m tall. Mean foliar N and P contents (+/- SD) were 1.53 +/- 0.11% and 0.196 +/- 0.017%, respectively. The nutrient-poor site was located on a raised bog supporting a sparse stand of 50- to 100-year-old trees, with a height of 1-2 m, and mean needle N and P contents of 0.86 +/- 0.12% and 0.074 +/- 0.010%, respectively. At both sites, needle thickness (T) and width (W) increased with increasing Qint, and leaf dry mass per unit leaf area (MA) was also greater at higher irradiance. The light effects on MA-the product of needle density (D) and volume to total area ratio (V/AT)-resulted primarily from large increases in V/AT with Qint rather than from modifications of D, which was relatively insensitive to light. Although needle morphology versus light relationships were qualitatively similar at both sites, needles were shorter, and the slopes of W, T, MA and V/AT versus light relationships were lower, at the nutrient-poor than at the nutrient-rich site, indicating that the plasticity of foliar morphological characteristics was affected by nutrient availability. As a result of lower plasticity, needles at the nutrient-poor site were narrower, thinner, and had lower MA at high irradiance than needles at the nutrient-rich site. The maximum carboxylase activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Vcmax) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax) scaled positively with foliar N and P contents. The correlations were generally stronger with P than with N, suggesting that needle photosynthetic capacity was more heavily limited by the

  4. Hydrogen apparent fractionation between source water and epicuticular waxes of Pinus sylvestris in North East Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newberry, S. L.; Grace, J.; Pedentchouk, N.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen isotopic composition of plant biomass provides crucial information about plant ecophysiology and local hydrology. Little is known about the apparent fractionation between hydrogen in source water and epicuticular leaf waxes of coniferous tree species that dominate the boreal forest ecosystem exposed to prolonged periods of sunlight during the growing season. In this study, single rope canopy access techniques were used to harvest needle and twig material from the upper, middle and lower crown of north and south facing branches of Pinus sylvestris within the subarctic forest of North East Finland. Samples were collected towards the beginning of the growing season in July and repeated in late September 2010. Leaf and twig waters were extracted cryogenically and analysed for D-enrichment. Individual n-alkanes are currently being quantified and analyzed for 13C/12C and D/H compositions. The molecular and isotopic data are supplemented by long-term in-situ cuvette photosynthetic assimilation measurements as well as relative humidity (RH), air temperature, precipitation and wind speed data collected by Helsinki University (SMEAR I). In addition RH, air temperature, wind speed and incoming solar radiation measurements were made at each individual sample point at the time of harvesting to quantify meteorological and microclimatological variation within individual trees. The outcome of this investigation will provide important insights into plant biochemistry and physiology of a crucial climate sensitive higher plant species subjected to continuous low light throughout the season. Furthermore, this work will expand our understanding of modern and palaeo-hydrology not only in northern Finland but also in other boreal forests around the world.

  5. Vertical gradients of mineral elements in Pinus sylvestris crown in alkalised soil.

    PubMed

    Mandre, Malle

    2009-12-01

    Alkalisation of soil has been assumed to be the principal cause of changes in vertical gradients of nutrients in Pinus sylvestris crown. The long-term influence of alkaline dust pollution (pHH2O 12.3-12.6) emitted from a cement plant on the element composition of soil and needles of Scots pine in different canopy layers was studied. In the polluted area, the pH of soils was >7, and high amounts of Ca, K and Mg were measured in the upper layers of soil (0-30 cm), while the mobility and solubility of some contaminants have decreased, nutrition processes have become complicated, and imbalance of mineral composition of trees was revealed. Reduced N and increased K, Ca and Mg concentrations in needles were observed in the heavily polluted area. Vertical gradients of elements and their ratios in canopies varied depending on the alkalisation level of soil. Needles on the upper-crown shoots had higher concentrations of N, C, Ca and Mg and lower concentrations of P and K compared to the lower layer of the crown. In the unpolluted area, higher concentrations of N, P, K and Ca were found in lower-crown needles and of C and Mg in needles at the top of the canopy. The P/N ratio below 0.125 indicated P deficiency in pines. The ratios N/Ca, N/Mg and N/K had significantly decreased, while the ratios Ca/Mg, K/Mg and K/Ca had a tendency to increase in heavily polluted sample plots. Magnitude of changes of element ratios indicates on the disbalances of availability and translocation of nutrients in the crown of trees.

  6. [Genetic structure, variability and differentiation of Pinus sylvestris L. populations in the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains and Rastoch'e].

    PubMed

    Pirko, Ia V; Korshikov, I I

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of electrophoretic analysis of 9 enzymous systems encoded by 20 gene loci the level of intra- and inter-population variation of two relict populations of Pinus sylvestris L. in the Ukrainian Carpathians and two ones in Rastochiye was studied. The less allele representation and the lower level of heterozygosity are typical for the Carpathian populations. Fst and Gst, parameters of populations subdivision, were not high--0.020 and 0.022 correspondingly and the coefficient DN was 0.008 in average. The results of the cluster analysis showed that only the populations of Rastochiye were united in one group indicating their genetic affinity.

  7. Manipulation of VOC emissions with methyl jasmonate and carrageenan in the evergreen conifer Pinus sylvestris and evergreen broadleaf Quercus ilex.

    PubMed

    Semiz, G; Blande, J D; Heijari, J; Işik, K; Niinemets, U; Holopainen, J K

    2012-03-01

    Plant defence can be induced by exposing plants to the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) or its volatile ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Carrageenans (Carr) - sulphated D-galactans extracted from red algae - can also induce plant defences. In this study, the effects of exogenous MeJA and Carr application (concentration 300 and 12.7 μmol, respectively) on volatile emissions from two widespread evergreen woody species, Pinus sylvestris (nine Turkish and one Finnish provenance) and Quercus ilex (Italian provenance) were investigated. We collected headspace samples from seedlings and analysed the quality and quantity of volatile compounds emitted by treated and control plants. In total, 19 monoterpenes, 10 sesquiterpenes, 10 green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and two aromatic compounds were emitted by P. sylvestris from all the provenances studied. Foliar MeJA application clearly affected the volatile profiles of trees from all the provenances. Effects of Carr were genotype specific. In Q. ilex, emissions of sesquiterpenes, GLVs and the homoterpene (E)-DMNT were all induced by MeJA application. However, emissions of most constitutively emitted monoterpenes were significantly reduced. Carr application also led to a significant reduction in monoterpene emissions, but without corresponding increases in other emissions. Our results indicate that exogenously applied MeJA and Carr can both significantly modify the volatile profiles of P. sylvestris and Q. ilex, but also that there are important provenance- and species-specific differences in the overall degree of elicitation and compositions of elicited compounds.

  8. Genetic variability and heritability of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Čepl, Jaroslav; Holá, Dana; Stejskal, Jan; Korecký, Jiří; Kočová, Marie; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Tomášková, Ivana; Palovská, Markéta; Rothová, Olga; Whetten, Ross W; Kaňák, Jan; Albrechtová, Jana; Lstibůrek, Milan

    2016-07-01

    Current knowledge of the genetic mechanisms underlying the inheritance of photosynthetic activity in forest trees is generally limited, yet it is essential both for various practical forestry purposes and for better understanding of broader evolutionary mechanisms. In this study, we investigated genetic variation underlying selected chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) parameters in structured populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown on two sites under non-stress conditions. These parameters were derived from the OJIP part of the ChlF kinetics curve and characterize individual parts of primary photosynthetic processes associated, for example, with the exciton trapping by light-harvesting antennae, energy utilization in photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers (RCs) and its transfer further down the photosynthetic electron-transport chain. An additive relationship matrix was estimated based on pedigree reconstruction, utilizing a set of highly polymorphic single sequence repeat markers. Variance decomposition was conducted using the animal genetic evaluation mixed-linear model. The majority of ChlF parameters in the analyzed pine populations showed significant additive genetic variation. Statistically significant heritability estimates were obtained for most ChlF indices, with the exception of DI0/RC, φD0 and φP0 (Fv/Fm) parameters. Estimated heritabilities varied around the value of 0.15 with the maximal value of 0.23 in the ET0/RC parameter, which indicates electron-transport flux from QA to QB per PSII RC. No significant correlation was found between these indices and selected growth traits. Moreover, no genotype × environment interaction (G × E) was detected, i.e., no differences in genotypes' performance between sites. The absence of significant G × E in our study is interesting, given the relatively low heritability found for the majority of parameters analyzed. Therefore, we infer that polygenic variability of these indices is

  9. Pinus sylvestris as a bio-indicator of territory pollution from aluminum smelter emissions.

    PubMed

    Kalugina, Olga Vladimirovna; Mikhailova, Tatiana Alekseevna; Shergina, Olga Vladimirovna

    2017-04-01

    The study demonstrates the efficiency of using Pinus sylvestris L. as a bio-indicator of polluting substances that enter the environment with the emission of a large aluminum smelter. Recent research has demonstrated that pollution from aluminum smelter emissions covers a vast territory. The highest content of polluting elements is registered at a distance of 3 km from the smelter, with maximum concentrations found in the industrial zone (0.5 km from the smelter). The farther from the aluminum smelter, the lower the amount of polluting elements in the needles, although the F level still exceeds the background values at a distance of about 60 km from the source, the levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd up to 50 km, S up to 40 km, and Fe and Cu up to 35 km mostly in north-eastern and south-eastern directions correlating with prevailing atmospheric transfer of the emissions. Pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is also most expressed at a distance of 3 km from the smelter, then it gradually decreases to coincide with background concentrations at a distance of more than 60 km. This is confirmed by changes in overall PAH content and in qualitative and quantitative compositions of individual PAHs. The greatest number of components (17 substances) has been found in samples from the territory of the plant area: phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, anthracene, fluorene, benz[а]anthracene, benz[b]fluoranthene, benz[k]fluoranthene, benz[а]pyrene, benz[е]pyrene, perylene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benz[g,h,i]perylene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene. The farther away from the plant, the lower the number of components detected in PAH fraction, mainly due to the fact that the concentrations of most toxic PAHs with five or six aromatic rings (benz[b]fluoranthene, benz[k]fluoranthene, benz[а]pyrene, benz[е]pyrene, perylene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benz[g,h,i]perylene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene) fall below the method detection limit

  10. Xylem and Leaf Functional Adjustments to Drought in Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pyrenaica at Their Elevational Boundary.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Uña, Laura; Rossi, Sergio; Aranda, Ismael; Fonti, Patrick; González-González, Borja D; Cañellas, Isabel; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Climatic scenarios for the Mediterranean region forecast increasing frequency and intensity of drought events. Consequently, a reduction in Pinus sylvestris L. distribution range is projected within the region, with this species being outcompeted at lower elevations by more drought-tolerant taxa such as Quercus pyrenaica Willd. The functional response of these species to the projected shifts in water availability will partially determine their performance and, thus, their competitive success under these changing climatic conditions. We studied how the cambial and leaf phenology and xylem anatomy of these two species responded to a 3-year rainfall exclusion experiment set at their elevational boundary in Central Spain. Additionally, P. sylvestris leaf gas exchange, water potential and carbon isotope content response to the treatment were measured. Likewise, we assessed inter-annual variability in the studied functional traits under control and rainfall exclusion conditions. Prolonged exposure to drier conditions did not affect the onset of xylogenesis in either of the studied species, whereas xylem formation ceased 1-3 weeks earlier in P. sylvestris. The rainfall exclusion had, however, no effect on leaf phenology on either species, which suggests that cambial phenology is more sensitive to drought than leaf phenology. P. sylvestris formed fewer, but larger tracheids under dry conditions and reduced the proportion of latewood in the tree ring. On the other hand, Q. pyrenaica did not suffer earlywood hydraulic diameter changes under rainfall exclusion, but experienced a cumulative reduction in latewood width, which could ultimately challenge its hydraulic performance. The phenological and anatomical response of the studied species to drought is consistent with a shift in resource allocation under drought stress from xylem to other sinks. Additionally, the tighter stomatal control and higher intrinsic water use efficiency observed in drought-stressed P. sylvestris may

  11. Xylem and Leaf Functional Adjustments to Drought in Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pyrenaica at Their Elevational Boundary

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-de-Uña, Laura; Rossi, Sergio; Aranda, Ismael; Fonti, Patrick; González-González, Borja D.; Cañellas, Isabel; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Climatic scenarios for the Mediterranean region forecast increasing frequency and intensity of drought events. Consequently, a reduction in Pinus sylvestris L. distribution range is projected within the region, with this species being outcompeted at lower elevations by more drought-tolerant taxa such as Quercus pyrenaica Willd. The functional response of these species to the projected shifts in water availability will partially determine their performance and, thus, their competitive success under these changing climatic conditions. We studied how the cambial and leaf phenology and xylem anatomy of these two species responded to a 3-year rainfall exclusion experiment set at their elevational boundary in Central Spain. Additionally, P. sylvestris leaf gas exchange, water potential and carbon isotope content response to the treatment were measured. Likewise, we assessed inter-annual variability in the studied functional traits under control and rainfall exclusion conditions. Prolonged exposure to drier conditions did not affect the onset of xylogenesis in either of the studied species, whereas xylem formation ceased 1–3 weeks earlier in P. sylvestris. The rainfall exclusion had, however, no effect on leaf phenology on either species, which suggests that cambial phenology is more sensitive to drought than leaf phenology. P. sylvestris formed fewer, but larger tracheids under dry conditions and reduced the proportion of latewood in the tree ring. On the other hand, Q. pyrenaica did not suffer earlywood hydraulic diameter changes under rainfall exclusion, but experienced a cumulative reduction in latewood width, which could ultimately challenge its hydraulic performance. The phenological and anatomical response of the studied species to drought is consistent with a shift in resource allocation under drought stress from xylem to other sinks. Additionally, the tighter stomatal control and higher intrinsic water use efficiency observed in drought-stressed P. sylvestris

  12. Reduced gravitropic sensitivity in roots of a starch-deficient mutant of Nicotiana sylvestris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Sack, F. D.

    1989-01-01

    Gravitropism was studied in seedlings of Nicotiana sylvestris Speg. et Comes wild-type (WT) and mutant NS 458 which has a defective plastid phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1.). Starch was greatly reduced in NS 458 compared to the WT, but small amounts of starch were detected in rootcap columella cells in NS 458 by light and electron microscopy. The roots of WT are more sensitive to gravity than mutant NS 458 roots since: (1) in mutant roots, curvature was reduced and delayed in the time course of curvature; (2) curvature of mutant roots was 24-56% that of WT roots over the range of induction periods tested; (3) in intermittent-stimulation experiments, curvature of mutant roots was 37% or less than that of WT roots in all treatments tested. The perception time, determined by intermittent-stimulation experiments, was < or = 5 s for WT roots and 30-60 s for mutant roots. The growth rates for WT and NS 458 roots were essentially equal. These results and our previous results with WT and starchless mutant Arabidopsis roots (Kiss et al. 1989, Planta 177, 198-206) support the conclusions that a full complement of starch is necessary for full gravitropic sensitivity and that amyloplasts function in gravity perception. Since a presumed relatively small increase in plastid buoyant mass (N. sylvestris mutant versus Arabidopsis mutant) significantly improves the orientation of the N. sylvestris mutant roots, we suggest that plastids are the likeliest candidates to be triggering gravity perception in roots of both mutants.

  13. Reduced gravitropic sensitivity in roots of a starch-deficient mutant of Nicotiana sylvestris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Sack, F. D.

    1989-01-01

    Gravitropism was studied in seedlings of Nicotiana sylvestris Speg. et Comes wild-type (WT) and mutant NS 458 which has a defective plastid phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1.). Starch was greatly reduced in NS 458 compared to the WT, but small amounts of starch were detected in rootcap columella cells in NS 458 by light and electron microscopy. The roots of WT are more sensitive to gravity than mutant NS 458 roots since: (1) in mutant roots, curvature was reduced and delayed in the time course of curvature; (2) curvature of mutant roots was 24-56% that of WT roots over the range of induction periods tested; (3) in intermittent-stimulation experiments, curvature of mutant roots was 37% or less than that of WT roots in all treatments tested. The perception time, determined by intermittent-stimulation experiments, was < or = 5 s for WT roots and 30-60 s for mutant roots. The growth rates for WT and NS 458 roots were essentially equal. These results and our previous results with WT and starchless mutant Arabidopsis roots (Kiss et al. 1989, Planta 177, 198-206) support the conclusions that a full complement of starch is necessary for full gravitropic sensitivity and that amyloplasts function in gravity perception. Since a presumed relatively small increase in plastid buoyant mass (N. sylvestris mutant versus Arabidopsis mutant) significantly improves the orientation of the N. sylvestris mutant roots, we suggest that plastids are the likeliest candidates to be triggering gravity perception in roots of both mutants.

  14. Effects of copper deficiency and copper toxicity on organogenesis and some physiological and biochemical responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings grown in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Yury V; Kartashov, Alexander V; Ivanova, Alexandra I; Savochkin, Yury V; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V

    2016-09-01

    The morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters of 6-week-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were studied under deficiency (1.2 nM) and chronic exposure to copper (0.32, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 μM CuSO4) in hydroculture. The deposit of copper in the seed allowed the seedlings to develop under copper deficiency without visible disruption of growth. The high sensitivity of Scots pine to the toxic effects of copper was shown, which manifested as a significant inhibition of growth and development. The loss of dominance of the main root and a strong inhibition of lateral root development pointed to a lack of adaptive reorganization of the root system architecture under copper excess. A preferential accumulation of copper in the root and a minor translocation in aerial organs confirmed that Scots pine belongs to a group of plants that exclude copper. Selective impairment in the absorption of manganese was discovered, under both deficiency and excess of copper in the nutrient solution, which was independent of the degree of development of the root system. Following 10 μM CuSO4 exposure, the absorption of manganese and iron from the nutrient solution was completely suppressed, and the development of seedlings was secured by the stock of these micronutrients in the seed. The absence of signs of oxidative stress in the seedling organs was shown under deficiency and excess of copper, as evidenced by the steady content of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals. Against this background, no changes in total superoxide dismutase activity in the organs of seedlings were revealed, and the increased content of low-molecular-weight antioxidants was observed in the roots under 1 μM and in the needles under 5 μM CuSO4 exposures.

  15. Living on the Edge: Contrasted Wood-Formation Dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean Conditions.

    PubMed

    Martinez Del Castillo, Edurne; Longares, Luis A; Gričar, Jožica; Prislan, Peter; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Čufar, Katarina; de Luis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e., in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48-75 days. In contrast, the growing season for P. sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for P. sylvestris.

  16. Living on the Edge: Contrasted Wood-Formation Dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Martinez del Castillo, Edurne; Longares, Luis A.; Gričar, Jožica; Prislan, Peter; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Čufar, Katarina; de Luis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e., in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48–75 days. In contrast, the growing season for P. sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for P. sylvestris. PMID:27047534

  17. Damage to stomata and inhibition of photosynthesis by toxic pollutants in Pinus sylvestris needles as affected by the exposure time

    SciTech Connect

    Kaipiainen, L.K.; Sofronova, G.I.; Hari, P.

    1995-11-01

    The impact of persistent exposure of Pinus sylvestris L. trees of various ages to industrial emissions on stomata and photosynthesis of needles was studied in relation to the exposure time. The electron microscopic examination of the needles revealed an erosion of the epicuticular wax and damage to stomata, which increased with needle age until stomata were completely occluded by polymetallic dust. Pollutant particles wee found to contain S, Cl, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Al, Ni, Fe, Cu, Co, Ti, and Zn. Photosynthetic rates were inhibited by 20-60%, depending on the needle age and tree condition. It is concluded that a nonuniformity in the toxicant distribution over the forest canopy and the age-dependent changes in the state of the cuticular wax layer are the most likely causes of variability in the extent to which individual trees were damaged by the toxicants.

  18. Influence of solar UV radiation on the nitrogen metabolism in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Krywult, Marek; Smykla, Jerzy; Kinnunen, Heli; Martz, Françoise; Sutinen, Marja-Liisa; Lakkala, Kaisa; Turunen, Minna

    2008-12-01

    Needles of 20-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings were studied in an ultraviolet (UV) exclusion field experiment (from 2000 to 2002) in northern Finland (67 degrees N). The chambers held filters that excluded both UV-B and UV-A, excluded UV-B only, transmitted all UV (control), or lacked filters (ambient). UV-B/UV-A exclusion decreased nitrate reductase (NR) activity of 1-year-old needles of Scots pines compared to the controls. The proportion of free amino acids varied in the range 1.08-1.94% of total proteins, and was significantly higher in needles of saplings grown under UV-B/UV-A exclusion compared to the controls or UV-B exclusion. NR activity correlated with air temperature, indicating a "chamber effect". The study showed that both UV irradiance and increasing temperature are significant modulators of nitrogen (N) metabolism in Scots pine needles.

  19. [Comparative study of allozyme polymorphism in groups of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) with different seed productivity].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Kalafat, L A

    2004-01-01

    Genotypes of 196 Pinus sylvestris L. plants from 10 natural populations of five Ukrainian regions have been determined using 19 polymorphic isozyme loci. Variability of quantity of full-grained, empty-grained and underdeveloped seeds in the cones of these plants has been studied. The basic indexes of genetic polymorphism were determined for 6 samples presented by 18-19 trees with high and low productivity of the full-grained, empty-grained and underdeveloped seeds. The maximum amount of rare alleles and genotypes as well as the highest heterozygosity (Ho = 0.285) were typical for the sample of plants with the maximum quantity of empty-grained seeds in the cones.

  20. Free radical generation in Pinus sylvestris and Larix decidua seeds primed with polyethylene glycol or potassium salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Naglreiter, Christina; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Goodman, Bernard A; Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, Harald R

    2005-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of Pinus sylvestris and Larix decidua seeds show that priming with PEG+200 mg kg(-1) gibberelic acid (GA(3)) results in appreciably higher free radical contents than in unprimed control samples. Only relatively minor changes in the free radical levels were observed in seeds primed with K(+) salts. However, both priming treatments have been reported previously to result in faster germination rates compared to controls without changing the germination percentage. In measurements on individual seeds of L. decidua, there were no significant differences between the mean free radical levels in viable and non-viable seeds within each treatment group. Thus, the elevation in free radical levels in the PEG+GA(3) treatments appear to be a direct consequence of the priming treatment and do not correspond to the initiation of germination.

  1. Age trends in tree ring growth and isotopic archives: A case study of Pinus sylvestris L. from northwestern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Giles H. F.; Demmler, Joanne C.; Gunnarson, BjöRn E.; Kirchhefer, Andreas J.; Loader, Neil J.; McCarroll, Danny

    2011-06-01

    Measurements of tree ring width and relative density have contributed significantly to many of the large-scale reconstructions of past climatic change, but to extract the climate signal it is first necessary to remove any nonclimatic age-related trends. This detrending can limit the lower-frequency climate information that may be extracted from the archive (the "segment length curse"). This paper uses a data set of ring widths, maximum latewood density and stable carbon and oxygen isotopes from 28 annually resolved series of known-age Pinus sylvestris L. trees in northwestern Norway to test whether stable isotopes in tree rings require an equivalent statistical detrending. Results indicate that stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios from tree rings whose cambial age exceeds c.50 years exhibit no significant age trends and thus may be used to reconstruct environmental variability and physiological processes at this site without the potential loss of low-frequency information associated with detrending.

  2. Height growth of different European Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. Provenances in a heavily polluted and a control environment.

    PubMed

    Oleksyn, J

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented of height measurements and degree of needle injury on five-year-old plants of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing near a phosphate fertiliser plant that emits SO(2) and fluorides. The populations of Scots pine represented in this experiment originate from 11 countries and were substantially differentiated in height growth and extent of needle necroses. Those populations which grew most rapidly were found to be the most sensitive to pollutant injury. The least productive provenances from the north of the range (Sweden, USSR) are at the same time characterized by lowest decline in height growth, lowest mortality and least extensive necroses. It is proposed that gene banks be established for the best genotypes likely to be eliminated in the heavily polluted conditions of Poland today.

  3. Ectomycorrhizal colonization of naturally regenerating Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings growing in different micro-habitats in boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Iwański, Michał; Rudawska, Maria

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the species richness and composition of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi colonizing Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings naturally regenerating in boreal forest, in three different microhabitats: on forest ground, on decaying stumps, and within moss layer on erratic boulders. We tested the hypothesis that habitat differences would affect the composition of the EM community of regenerating pine seedlings. In total, 16 EM species were detected, from which none occurred on seedlings growing in all three microhabitats. Piloderma croceum and Cenococcum geophilum were common for seedlings growing in forest ground and on boulders, while Tricholoma aestuans and Suillus luteus were shared between seedlings growing on forest ground and decaying stumps. EM species richness and composition were strikingly different between seedlings regenerating in different microhabitats. Results are discussed as a function of dispersal and niche differentiation of EM fungi.

  4. Arboreal insects associated with herbicide-stressed Pinus resinosa and Pinus sylvestris used as Sirex noctilio trap trees in New York.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Kevin J; Zylstra, Kelley E; Dubois, Garret D; Hoebeke, E Richard

    2012-12-01

    In September of 2004, Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) was detected in New York State and later found to be established over a larger area, including parts of southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States. A key component of S. noctilio detection and management plans in other parts of the world where S. noctilio has become established are chemically girdled trap trees. Trap tree usage in North America is confounded by the presence of diverse communities of organisms that inhabit dead and dying trees. We trapped a portion of the arboreal insect community arriving at Pinus resinosa Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L., trap trees girdled 3 mo before (April), one month before (June), and at S. noctilio flight (July) in central New York. Multiple-funnel traps attached to trap trees captured 30,031 individuals from 109 species of Scolytinae, Cerambycidae, and Siricidae. Ips pini (Say) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff) accounted for almost 50% of the scolytines captured at trap trees and were present on all girdling dates. Significantly more scolytines and cerambycids were captured on P. sylvestris compared with P. resinosa, but species richness of captured insects did not differ between the two trees. More total and conifer-inhabiting scolytines and cerambycids were captured in traps on trees girdled in April and June and higher observed species richness was found on trees girdled in April and controls. Results from this study suggest a large community of arboreal insects and associated organisms are attracted to chemically girdled trap trees and likely interact with S. noctilio.

  5. Cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra and Pinus sylvestris at their climatic limits in the Eastern Alps in 2007

    PubMed Central

    Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Summary It has been frequently stressed that at distributional boundaries, like at the Alpine timberline and within dry inner Alpine environments, tree growth will be affected first by changing climate conditions. Climate in 2007 was characterized by the occurrence of exceptionally mild temperatures in spring (3.4 and 2.7 °C above long-term mean (LTM) at timberline and the valley sites, respectively) with an almost continuous drought period recorded in April and slightly warmer than average temperatures throughout summer (1.3 °C above LTM at both sites). We compared temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra at the Alpine timberline (1950 m a.s.l.) and Pinus sylvestris at a xeric inner Alpine site (750 m a.s.l.) by repeated cellular analyses of micro-cores (n = 5 trees/site). While onset of wood formation in P. sylvestris and P. cembra differed by about two weeks (12 and 27 April, respectively), maximum daily growth rates peaked on 6 May at the valley site and on 23 June at timberline. At both sites maximum tracheid production was reached prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions during summer, i.e. an increase in precipitation and temperature. Xylem formation ended on 31 August and 28 October at the xeric site and at timberline, respectively. This study demonstrates the plasticity of tree-ring formation along an altitudinal transect in response to water availability and temperature. Whether early achievement of maximum growth rates is an adaptation to cope with extreme environmental conditions prevailing at limits of tree growth needs to be analysed more closely by taking belowground carbon allocation into account. PMID:24273354

  6. Cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra and Pinus sylvestris at their climatic limits in the Eastern Alps in 2007.

    PubMed

    Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas; Oberhuber, Walter

    2011-12-20

    It has been frequently stressed that at distributional boundaries, like at the Alpine timberline and within dry inner Alpine environments, tree growth will be affected first by changing climate conditions. Climate in 2007 was characterized by the occurrence of exceptionally mild temperatures in spring (3.4 and 2.7 °C above long-term mean (LTM) at timberline and the valley sites, respectively) with an almost continuous drought period recorded in April and slightly warmer than average temperatures throughout summer (1.3 °C above LTM at both sites). We compared temporal dynamics of cambial activity and xylem cell development in Pinus cembra at the Alpine timberline (1950 m a.s.l.) and Pinus sylvestris at a xeric inner Alpine site (750 m a.s.l.) by repeated cellular analyses of micro-cores (n = 5 trees/site). While onset of wood formation in P. sylvestris and P. cembra differed by about two weeks (12 and 27 April, respectively), maximum daily growth rates peaked on 6 May at the valley site and on 23 June at timberline. At both sites maximum tracheid production was reached prior to occurrence of more favourable climatic conditions during summer, i.e. an increase in precipitation and temperature. Xylem formation ended on 31 August and 28 October at the xeric site and at timberline, respectively. This study demonstrates the plasticity of tree-ring formation along an altitudinal transect in response to water availability and temperature. Whether early achievement of maximum growth rates is an adaptation to cope with extreme environmental conditions prevailing at limits of tree growth needs to be analysed more closely by taking belowground carbon allocation into account.

  7. Static and dynamic bending has minor effects on xylem hydraulics of conifer branches (Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris)

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, Stefan; Bertel, Clara; Dämon, Birgit; Beikircher, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The xylem hydraulic efficiency and safety is usually measured on mechanically unstressed samples, although trees may be exposed to combined hydraulic and mechanical stress in the field. We analysed changes in hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism during static bending of Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris branches as well as the effect of dynamic bending on the vulnerability. We hypothesized this mechanical stress to substantially impair xylem hydraulics. Intense static bending caused an only small decrease in hydraulic conductance (−19.5 ± 2.4% in P. abies) but no shift in vulnerability thresholds. Dynamic bending caused a 0.4 and 0.8 MPa decrease of the water potential at 50 and 88% loss of conductivity in P. sylvestris, but did not affect vulnerability thresholds in P. abies. With respect to applied extreme bending radii, effects on plant hydraulics were surprisingly small and are thus probably of minor eco-physiological importance. More importantly, results indicate that available xylem hydraulic analyses (of conifers) sufficiently reflect plant hydraulics under field conditions. PMID:24697679

  8. The fate of recently fixed carbon after drought release: towards unravelling C storage regulation in Tilia platyphyllos and Pinus sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Galiano, Lucía; Timofeeva, Galina; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Hommel, Robert; Gessler, Arthur

    2017-09-01

    Carbon reserves are important for maintaining tree function during and after stress. Increasing tree mortality driven by drought globally has renewed the interest in how plants regulate allocation of recently fixed C to reserve formation. Three-year-old seedlings of two species (Tilia platyphyllos and Pinus sylvestris) were exposed to two intensities of experimental drought during ~10 weeks, and (13) C pulse labelling was subsequently applied with rewetting. Tracking the (13) C label across different organs and C compounds (soluble sugars, starch, myo-inositol, lipids and cellulose), together with the monitoring of gas exchange and C mass balances over time, allowed for the identification of variations in C allocation priorities and tree C balances that are associated with drought effects and subsequent drought release. The results demonstrate that soluble sugars accumulated in P. sylvestris under drought conditions independently of growth trends; thus, non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) formation cannot be simply considered a passive overflow process in this species. Once drought ceased, C allocation to storage was still prioritized at the expense of growth, which suggested the presence of 'drought memory effects', possibly to ensure future growth and survival. On the contrary, NSC and growth dynamics in T. platyphyllos were consistent with a passive (overflow) view of NSC formation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 13C-isotopic fingerprint of Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus sylvestris L. wood related to the quality of standing tree mass in forests from NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Irene; González-Prieto, Serafin J; Cabaneiro, Ana

    2005-01-01

    Pine forest plantations of Pinus pinaster Ait. and P. sylvestris L. located in Galicia, NW Spain, were selected to study the 13C/12C-isotopic fingerprint in wood core samples in order to find possible relationships between the delta(13)C at natural abundance levels and the quality of the standing tree mass. For each pine species, 24 forests growing on acidic soils were studied: half developed over granite and half over schists. Two dominant trees from each plot, corresponding to all possible combinations of forest stands with high or low site index and with adults or young trees, were drilled at the basal part of trunks using a Pressler drill to obtain tree ring samples. The C-isotopic compositions of the litter and the soil organic matter from different soil depths were also determined and statistically significant correlations between these values and the 13C content of the wood were observed. Despite internal variations due to the influence of site index, tree age and parent material, the isotopic fingerprint of P. pinaster wood (mean value delta13C=-26.2+/-0.8 per thousand) significantly differed (P<0.001) from that of P. sylvestris (mean value delta13C=-24.6+/-0.7 per thousand). Relationships between the quality of the stand and the C-isotopic composition of the wood were observed, high quality stands having trees more 13C-depleted than low quality ones. A high correlation between wood delta13C and site index values for P. pinaster stands (r=-0.667, P<0.001) was found, this correlation being even clearer when only P. pinaster growing over schists (r=-0.833, P<0.001) are considered. Again, the correlation between the site index and the wood delta13C of young P. pinaster trees is higher when plots over granite or schists are separately considered. A similar fact occurs for adult P. sylvestris trees from schists stands, high quality specimens being 13C-depleted compared with low quality ones. On the other hand, 13C natural abundance of wood from P. sylvestris

  10. [Responses of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica radial growth to climate warming in Great Xing' an Mountins: a case study in Mangui].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing-Liang; He, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Cui, Ming-Xing; Li, Na

    2011-12-01

    Based on the theory and methodology of dendrochronology, the tree ring width chronology of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Mangui of Great Xing' an Mountains was developed, and the relationships between the standardized tree ring width chronology and local climate factors (temperature and precipitation) as well as the effects of climate factors on the P. sylvestris var. mongolica radial growth were analyzed. In this region, the mean monthly temperature in April-August of current year was the main factor limiting the radial growth, and the increasing mean monthly temperature from April to August had negative effects to the radial growth. The simulation of the variations of the radial growth by the mean monthly temperature change in April-August showed that the radial growth of P. sylvestris var. mongolica would present a declining trend accompanied with the warmer and drier regional climate condition.

  11. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  12. Tree rings of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) as a source of information about past climate in northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Rajmund; Zielski, Andrzej; Pospieszyńska, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) is a very common tree in Polish forests, and therefore was widely used as timber. A relatively large amount of available wood allowed a long-term chronology to be built up and used as a source of information about past climate. The analysis of reconstructed indexed values of mean temperature in 51-year moving intervals allowed the recognition of the coldest periods in the years 1207-1346, 1383-1425, 1455-1482, 1533-1574, 1627-1646, and 1694-1785. The analysis of extreme wide and narrow rings forms a complementary method of examining climatic data within tree rings. The tree ring widths, early wood and late wood widths of 16 samples were assessed during the period 1581-1676. The most apparent effect is noted in the dry summer of 1616. According to previous research and our findings, temperature from February to March seems to be one of the most stable climatic factors which influenced pine growth in Poland. Correlation coefficients in the calibration and validation procedure gave promising results for temperature reconstruction from the pine chronology.

  13. Environmental and developmental effects on the biosynthesis of UV-B screening pigments in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles.

    PubMed

    Kaffarnik, Florian; Seidlitz, Harald K; Obermaier, Josef; Sandermann, Heinrich; Heller, Werner

    2006-08-01

    The major UV-B screening pigments of the epidermal layer of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles are flavonol 3-o-glycosides (F3Gs) esterified with hydroxycinnamic acids at positions 3" and 6". Acylation is the last step in biosynthesis and is catalysed by position-specific hydroxycinnamoyl transferases (3" and 6"HCT). The UV-B dependence of these enzyme activities was studied in primary needles of Scots pine seedlings grown under different UV-B conditions in environmentally controlled sun simulators. 6"HCT activity was induced upon UV-B irradiation while 3"HCT activity was not induced but showed high constitutive values. To investigate the biosynthesis of diacylated F3Gs during needle development under natural conditions, the HCT activities and metabolite contents were analysed in needles of field-grown mature pine trees. Accumulation of diacylated compounds as well as of 6"HCT activity occurred transiently in the first year of needle development only. In contrast, 3"HCT activity exhibited broad maxima in two consecutive years during needle growth. The data suggest that acylated F3Gs are first formed as soluble compounds which are then translocated into the cell wall to be bound by their hydroxycinnamoyl residues.

  14. Microfibril angle in wood of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) after irradiation from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Tulik, Mirela; Rusin, Aleksandra

    2005-03-01

    The secondary cell wall structure of tracheids of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), especially the angle of microfibrils in the S(2) layer, was examined in wood deposited prior to and after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Microscopic analysis was carried out on wood samples collected in October 1997 from breast height of three pine trees 16, 30 and 42 years old. The polluted site was located in a distance of 5 km south from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant where radioactive contamination in 1997 was 3.7 x 10(5) kBq m(-2). Anatomical analysis showed that the structure of the secondary cell wall in tracheids formed after the Chernobyl accident was changed. Changes occurred both in S(2) and S(3) layers. The angle of microfibrils in S(2) layer in wood deposited after the Chernobyl accident was different in comparison to this measured in wood formed prior to the disaster. The intensity of the changes, i.e. alteration of the microfibrils angle in S(2) layer and unusual pattern of the S(3) layer, depended on the age of the tree and was most intensive in a young tree.

  15. Effects of Thinning and Water Supply Manipulation on the Productivity of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yi; Liu, Ming-yu; Wu, Jin-hua

    2016-01-01

    Management is an effective tool for increasing the productivity of Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica). This species has been widely planted in China, especially in sandy lands. However, optimization of management practices had not been fully explored. We established a system dynamic model to evaluate the effects of thinning and of manipulation of water supply on the productivity and population density of a Mongolian pine forest (17 scenarios in total). Different levels of thinning increased the mean biomass of Mongolian pine over no-management to a range from 202 to 256 t·ha-1. Increasing water supply decreased the mean biomass of Mongolian pine to a range from 176 to 199 t·ha-1. These results indicated that thinning at different levels may lead to an increase in biomass accumulation, while manipulating water supply may decrease biomass. Further, thinning appeared more effective than increasing water supply in efforts at maintaining high productivity of Mongolian pine forests. Moreover, the highest biomass occurred in a scenario with a thinning intensity of 30% in over-mature trees, indicating that this thinning intensity was the most effective choice for to the maintenance of the highest biomass in Mongolian pine forests. This study informs about the interactions between Mongolian pine and forest management, and provides guidelines for the practice of management of this forest type. PMID:27829012

  16. Actinobacteria possessing antimicrobial and antioxidant activities isolated from the pollen of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) grown on the Baikal shore.

    PubMed

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina V; Rebets, Yuriy V; Tokovenko, Bogdan T; Penzina, Tatyana A; Gornostay, Tatyana G; Adelshin, Renat V; Protasov, Eugenii S; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Timofeyev, Maxim A

    2016-10-01

    Isolated ecosystems existing under specific environmental conditions have been shown to be promising sources of new strains of actinobacteria. The taiga forest of Baikal Siberia has not been well studied, and its actinobacterial population remains uncharacterized. The proximity between the huge water mass of Lake Baikal and high mountain ranges influences the structure and diversity of the plant world in Siberia. Here, we report the isolation of eighteen actinobacterial strains from male cones of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) growing on the shore of the ancient Lake Baikal in Siberia. In addition to more common representative strains of Streptomyces, several species belonging to the genera Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, and Micromonospora were isolated. All isolated strains exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. We identified several strains that inhibited the growth of the pathogen Candida albicans but did not hinder the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several isolates were active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The high proportion of biologically active strains producing antibacterial and specific antifungal compounds may reflect their role in protecting pollen against phytopathogens.

  17. Variation and inheritance pattern in cone and seed characteristics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) for evaluation of genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Hakan; Topaçoğlu, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is one of the most common and important forest tree species in Turkey due to usefulness of its wood to many commercial uses. This species is classified as one of the economically important tree species for Turkish Forestry in the "National Tree Breeding and Seed Production Program". The objective of the present study was to investigate variation and inheritance pattern in cone and seed characteristics of Scots pine and to evaluate variation in cone and seed characters within and among clones and grafts. The results showed that maximum CV among the clones was found for SWe (21.95), FS (16.99) and CWe (16.88). According to the results of SAS, variation between the clones is averaged at 19.2% and variation within the clones is averaged at 24.4 %. Variation between the clones ranged from 3.6% (SW) to 34.5% (TC) and variation within the clones ranged from 12.3% (SW) to 38.1% (WL). For CW, AL, AW, WW and TC, genetic variation among clones was higher than within clones. When the results of study like compared with results obtained from natural populations, it was seen that genetic variability in seed orchard which was subjected to study was quite low. This case may have dangerous results for the future of forests.

  18. Ozone uptake and effects on transpiration, net photosynthesis, and dark respiration in Scots pine. [Pinus sylvestris L

    SciTech Connect

    Skaerby, L.; Troeng, E.; Bostroem, C.

    1987-09-01

    Ozone uptake, transpiration, net photosynthesis, and dark respiration were studied in the field by using an open gas exchange system in a 20-year-old stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). A current shoot was treated with ozone concentrations ranging from 120 to 400 ..mu..g x m/sup -3/ during one month. During daytime there was a linear relationship between ozone concentration and ozone uptake, and the deposition rate varied between 0.05 and 0.13 cm x s/sup -1/. Ozone at the highest concentrations seemed to decrease transpiration somewhat during daytime. At night, ozone was taken up only at the highest concentration. Both transpiration and stomatal conductance increased at night when ozone concentration was 250..mu..g x m/sup -3/ and higher. There was no significant influence on the net photosynthetic performance during exposure to ozone. Dark respiration, however, increased throughout the experimental period, and the accumulated respiration was about 60% higher for the ozone-exposed shoot at the end of the experiment.

  19. Tree rings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a source of information about past climate in northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Marcin; Przybylak, Rajmund; Zielski, Andrzej; Pospieszyńska, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a very common tree in Polish forests, and therefore was widely used as timber. A relatively large amount of available wood allowed a long-term chronology to be built up and used as a source of information about past climate. The analysis of reconstructed indexed values of mean temperature in 51-year moving intervals allowed the recognition of the coldest periods in the years 1207-1346, 1383-1425, 1455-1482, 1533-1574, 1627-1646, and 1694-1785. The analysis of extreme wide and narrow rings forms a complementary method of examining climatic data within tree rings. The tree ring widths, early wood and late wood widths of 16 samples were assessed during the period 1581-1676. The most apparent effect is noted in the dry summer of 1616. According to previous research and our findings, temperature from February to March seems to be one of the most stable climatic factors which influenced pine growth in Poland. Correlation coefficients in the calibration and validation procedure gave promising results for temperature reconstruction from the pine chronology.

  20. Feast and famine: previous defoliation limiting survival of pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa in Scots pine Pinus sylvestris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hódar, José A.; Zamora, Regino; Castro, Jorge; Baraza, Elena

    2004-12-01

    This study analyses the consequences of previous defoliation on the survival of the larvae of the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis and Schiffermüller) feeding on relict Scots pine Pinus sylvestris (L.) ssp. nevadensis Christ in the Sierra Nevada mountains (SE Spain). Egg batches of the pine processionary moth were placed on four groups of Scots pines that underwent different periods of herbivory. The larval survival was related to the nitrogen content, fibre, phenolics and terpenes in the needles. Larval survival was higher in undefoliated pines, lower in pines defoliated two consecutive years, and intermediate in pines defoliated only one year, suggesting a direct relationship between previous defoliation and larval survival. In contrast, none of the characteristics of the needles showed a clear relationship with larval survival. The resulting reduction in larval number also affects the capacity of the larvae to develop during winter, because it hampered nest warming. Thus, previous defoliation limits, although it does not impede, the possibility of repeated defoliation on Scots pine.

  1. Shift in fungal communities and associated enzyme activities along an age gradient of managed Pinus sylvestris stands.

    PubMed

    Kyaschenko, Julia; Clemmensen, Karina E; Hagenbo, Andreas; Karltun, Erik; Lindahl, Björn D

    2017-04-01

    Forestry reshapes ecosystems with respect to tree age structure, soil properties and vegetation composition. These changes are likely to be paralleled by shifts in microbial community composition with potential feedbacks on ecosystem functioning. Here, we assessed fungal communities across a chronosequence of managed Pinus sylvestris stands and investigated correlations between taxonomic composition and extracellular enzyme activities. Not surprisingly, clear-cutting had a negative effect on ectomycorrhizal fungal abundance and diversity. In contrast, clear-cutting favoured proliferation of saprotrophic fungi correlated with enzymes involved in holocellulose decomposition. During stand development, the re-establishing ectomycorrhizal fungal community shifted in composition from dominance by Atheliaceae in younger stands to Cortinarius and Russula species in older stands. Late successional ectomycorrhizal taxa correlated with enzymes involved in mobilisation of nutrients from organic matter, indicating intensified nutrient limitation. Our results suggest that maintenance of functional diversity in the ectomycorrhizal fungal community may sustain long-term forest production by retaining a capacity for symbiosis-driven recycling of organic nutrient pools.

  2. Changes in turnover rather than production regulate biomass of ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelium across a Pinus sylvestris chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Hagenbo, Andreas; Clemmensen, Karina E; Finlay, Roger D; Kyaschenko, Julia; Lindahl, Björn D; Fransson, Petra; Ekblad, Alf

    2017-04-01

    In boreal forest soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi are fundamentally important for carbon (C) dynamics and nutrient cycling. Although their extraradical mycelium (ERM) is pivotal for processes such as soil organic matter build-up and nitrogen cycling, very little is known about its dynamics and regulation. In this study, we quantified ERM production and turnover, and examined how these two processes together regulated standing ERM biomass in seven sites forming a chronosequence of 12- to 100-yr-old managed Pinus sylvestris forests. This was done by determining ERM biomass, using ergosterol as a proxy, in sequentially harvested in-growth mesh bags and by applying mathematical models. Although ERM production declined with increasing forest age from 1.2 to 0.5 kg ha(-1)  d(-1) , the standing biomass increased from 50 to 112 kg ha(-1) . This was explained by a drastic decline in mycelial turnover from seven times to one time per year with increasing forest age, corresponding to mean residence times from 25 d up to 1 yr. Our results demonstrate that ERM turnover is the main factor regulating biomass across differently aged forest stands. Explicit inclusion of ERM parameters in forest ecosystem C models may significantly improve their capacity to predict responses of mycorrhiza-mediated processes to management and environmental changes. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Root architecture and wind-firmness of mature Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Danjon, Frédéric; Fourcaud, Thierry; Bert, Didier

    2005-11-01

    This study aims to link three-dimensional coarse root architecture to tree stability in mature timber trees with an average of 1-m rooting depth. Undamaged and uprooted trees were sampled in a stand damaged by a storm. Root architecture was measured by three-dimensional (3-D) digitizing. The distribution of root volume by root type and in wind-oriented sectors was analysed. Mature Pinus pinaster root systems were organized in a rigid 'cage' composed of a taproot, the zone of rapid taper of horizontal surface roots and numerous sinkers and deep roots, imprisoning a large mass of soil and guyed by long horizontal surface roots. Key compartments for stability exhibited strong selective leeward or windward reinforcement. Uprooted trees showed a lower cage volume, a larger proportion of oblique and intermediate depth horizontal roots and less wind-oriented root reinforcement. Pinus pinaster stability on moderately deep soils is optimized through a typical rooting pattern and a considerable structural adaptation to the prevailing wind and soil profile.

  4. Impact of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantings on long term (137)Cs and (90)Sr recycling from a waste burial site in the Chernobyl Red Forest.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Yves; Colle, Claude; Yoschenko, Vasyl; Levchuk, Svjatoslav; Van Hees, May; Hurtevent, Pierre; Kashparov, Valery

    2009-12-01

    Plantings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on a waste burial site in the Chernobyl Red Forest was shown to greatly influence the long term redistribution of radioactivity contained in sub-surfaces trenches. After 15 years of growth, aboveground biomass of the average tree growing on waste trench no.22 had accumulated 1.7 times more (137)Cs than that of trees growing off the trench, and 5.4 times more (90)Sr. At the scale of the trench and according to an average tree density of 3300 trees/ha for the study zone, tree contamination would correspond to 0.024% of the (137)Cs and 2.52% of the (90)Sr contained in the buried waste material. A quantitative description of the radionuclide cycling showed a potential for trees to annually extract up to 0.82% of the (90)Sr pool in the trench and 0.0038% of the (137)Cs. A preferential (90)Sr uptake from the deep soil is envisioned while pine roots would take up (137)Cs mostly from less contaminated shallow soil layers. The current upward flux of (90)Sr through vegetation appeared at least equal to downward loss in waste material leaching as reported by Dewiere et al. (2004, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 74, 139-150). Using a prospective calculation model, we estimated that maximum (90)Sr cycling can be expected to occur at 40 years post-planting, resulting in 12% of the current (90)Sr content in the trench transferred to surface soils through biomass turnover and 7% stored in tree biomass. These results are preliminary, although based on accurate methodology. A more integrated ecosystem study leading to the coupling between biological and geochemical models of radionuclide cycling within the Red Forest seems opportune. Such a study would help in the adequate management of that new forest and the waste trenches upon which they reside.

  5. Comparison of the moss Pleurozium schreberi with needles and bark of Pinus sylvestris as biomonitors of pollution by industry in Stalowa Wola (southeast Poland).

    PubMed

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kosior, G; Kempers, A J

    2006-09-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals were determined in the terrestrial bryophyte Pleurozium schreberi and in samples of bark and current and previous year needles of Pinus sylvestris collected along transects around the Stalowa Wola industry center (southeast Poland) and compared with material of the same species from a control site. The suitability of bark and pine needles for use in monitoring of serious heavy metal pollution was investigated. In the examined area current and previous year pine needles can be considered suitable biomonitors for atmospheric pollution for Cu and Zn and bark for only Cu. Bioaccumulation abilities of Cd and Cu in P. schreberi and P. sylvestris current and previous year needles were similar. Current and previous year needles were better accumulators of Mn, Ni, and Zn compared to the moss P. schreberi. Bark was a better accumulator of Cd, Cu, and Ni and an inferior accumulator of Mn compared to P. schreberi in the examined area.

  6. Semi-automated stand delineation in Mediterranean Pinus sylvestris plantations through segmentation of LiDAR data: The influence of pulse density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varo-Martínez, Mª Ángeles; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.; Hernández-Clemente, Rocío; Duque-Lazo, Joaquín

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, forest-stand delineation has been assessed based on orthophotography. The application of LiDAR has improved forest management by providing high-spatial-resolution data on the vertical structure of the forest. The aim of this study was to develop and test a semi-automated algorithm for stands delineation in a plantation of Pinus sylvestris L. using LiDAR data. Three specific objectives were evaluated, i) to assess two complementary LiDAR metrics, Assmann dominant height and basal area, for the characterization of the structure of P. sylvestris Mediterranean forests based on object-oriented segmentation, ii) to evaluate the influence of the LiDAR pulse density on forest-stand delineation accuracy, and iii) to investigate the algorithmś effectiveness in the delineation of P. sylvestris stands for map prediction of Assmann dominant height and basal area. Our results show that it is possible to generate accurate P. sylvestris forest-stand segmentations using multiresolution or mean shift segmentation methods, even with low-pulse-density LiDAR - which is an important economic advantage for forest management. However, eCognition multiresolution methods provided better results than the OTB (Orfeo Tool Box) for stand delineation based on dominant height and basal area estimations. Furthermore, the influence of pulse density on the results was not statistically significant in the basal area calculations. However, there was a significant effect of pulse density on Assmann dominant height [F2,9595 = 5.69, p = 0.003].for low pulse density. We propose that the approach shown here should be considered for stand delineation in other large Pinus plantations in Mediterranean regions with similar characteristics.

  7. Experiments in rooting bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) cuttings

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1987-01-01

    Presented here are results of rooting studies using hedges established from juvenile seedlings of "blue" and "green" foliaged bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) from Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California. Rootability, averaged over all clones and all setting dates, was 88%. The average time for 50% of the...

  8. Accumulation of heavy metals and antioxidant responses in Pinus sylvestris L. needles in polluted and non-polluted sites.

    PubMed

    Kandziora-Ciupa, Marta; Ciepał, Ryszard; Nadgórska-Socha, Aleksandra; Barczyk, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc) in current-year, 1-year old and 2-year old needles of Pinus sylvestris L. Trees were from three heavily polluted (immediate vicinity of zinc smelter, iron smelter and power plant) and three relatively clean sites (nature reserve, ecologically clean site and unprotected natural forest community) in southern Poland. Analysis also concerned the antioxidant response and contents of protein, proline, total glutathione, non-protein thiols and activity of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) in the needles. Generally, in pine needles from the polluted sites, the concentrations of the metals were higher and increased with the age of needles, and in most cases, antioxidant responses also were elevated. The highest levels of Cd, Pb and Zn were found in 2-year old pine needles collected near the polluted zinc smelter (respectively: 6.15, 256.49, 393.5 mg kg(-1)), Fe in 2-year old pine needles in the vicinity of the iron smelter (206.82 mg kg(-1)) and Mn in 2-year old needles at the ecologically clean site (180.32 mg kg(-1)). Positive correlations were found between Fe, Mn and Pb and the content of proteins and NPTs, between Cd and non-protein -SH groups, and between Zn and proline levels. The activity of GPX increased under the influence of Mn, while glutathione levels tended to decrease as Mn levels rose. The data obtained show that the levels of protein and non-protein -SH groups may be useful in biological monitoring, and that these ecophysiological parameters seem to be good evidence of elevated oxidative stress caused by heavy metals.

  9. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the biosorption of textile dye (Reactive Red 195) onto Pinus sylvestris L.

    PubMed

    Aksakal, Ozkan; Ucun, Handan

    2010-09-15

    This study investigated the biosorption of Reactive Red 195 (RR 195), an azo dye, from aqueous solution by using cone biomass of Pinus sylvestris Linneo. To this end, pH, initial dye concentration, biomass dosage and contact time were studied in a batch biosorption system. Maximum pH for efficient RR 195 biosorption was found to be 1.0 and the initial RR 195 concentration increased with decreasing percentage removal. Biosorption capacity increased from 6.69 mg/g at 20 degrees C to 7.38 mg/g at 50 degrees C for 200mg/L dye concentration. Kinetics of the interactions was tested by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics, the Elovich equation and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided a better correlation for the experimental data studied in comparison to the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Moreover, the Elovich equation also showed a good fit to the experimental data. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium data. The activation energy of biosorption (Ea) was found to be 8.904 kJ/mol by using the Arrhenius equation. Using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients obtained at different temperatures, the study also evaluated the thermodynamic constants of biosorption (DeltaG(o), DeltaH(o) and DeltaS). The results indicate that cone biomass can be used as an effective and low-cost biosorbent to remove reactive dyes from aqueous solution. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Functional and Structural Mongolian Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) Model Integrating Architecture, Biomass and Effects of Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Letort, Véronique; Lu, Qi; Bai, Xuefeng; Guo, Yan; de Reffye, Philippe; Li, Baoguo

    2012-01-01

    Mongolian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) is one of the principal tree species in the network of Three-North Shelterbelt for windbreak and sand stabilisation in China. The functions of shelterbelts are highly correlated with the architecture and eco-physiological processes of individual tree. Thus, model-assisted analysis of canopy architecture and function dynamic in Mongolian Scots pine is of value for better understanding its role and behaviour within shelterbelt ecosystems in these arid and semiarid regions. We present here a single-tree functional and structural model, derived from the GreenLab model, which is adapted for young Mongolian Scots pines by incorporation of plant biomass production, allocation, allometric rules and soil water dynamics. The model is calibrated and validated based on experimental measurements taken on Mongolian Scots pines in 2007 and 2006 under local meteorological conditions. Measurements include plant biomass, topology and geometry, as well as soil attributes and standard meteorological data. After calibration, the model allows reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) canopy architecture and biomass dynamics for trees from one- to six-year-old at the same site using meteorological data for the six years from 2001 to 2006. Sensitivity analysis indicates that rainfall variation has more influence on biomass increment than on architecture, and the internode and needle compartments and the aboveground biomass respond linearly to increases in precipitation. Sensitivity analysis also shows that the balance between internode and needle growth varies only slightly within the range of precipitations considered here. The model is expected to be used to investigate the growth of Mongolian Scots pines in other regions with different soils and climates. PMID:22927982

  11. Foliar application of GA3 during terminal long-shoot bud development stimulates shoot apical meristem activity in Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Joanne E; Little, C H Anthony

    2006-10-01

    The effect of exogenous gibberellin (GA3) on shoot apical meristem activity in conifer vegetative buds was investigated by spraying 0 or 0.1% GA3 on the foliage of first-year Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings twice weekly for 9 weeks during development of the terminal long-shoot bud. Exogenous GA3 promoted mitotic activity in the apical zone, thereby increasing both the rate and duration of cataphyll formation and giving rise to a higher and wider apical meristem. The increase in number of cataphylls increased the number of axillary meristems, which developed as short-shoot buds.

  12. Root and stem partitioning of Pinus taeda

    Treesearch

    Timothy J. Albaugh; H. Lee Allen; Lance W. Kress

    2006-01-01

    We measured root and stem mass at three sites (Piedmont (P), Coastal Plain (C), and Sandhills (S)) in the southeastern United States. Stand density, soil texture and drainage, genetic makeup and environmental conditions varied with site while differences in tree size at each site were induced with fertilizer additions. Across sites, root mass was about one half of stem...

  13. Association of FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1-like gene FTL2 expression with growth rhythm in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    PubMed

    Avia, Komlan; Kärkkäinen, Katri; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Savolainen, Outi

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of the timing of bud set, an important trait in conifers, is relevant for adaptation and forestry practice. In common garden experiments, both Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) show a latitudinal cline in the trait. We compared the regulation of their bud set biology by examining the expression of PsFTL2, a Pinus sylvestris homolog to PaFTL2, a FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (FT/TFL1)-like gene, the expression levels of which have been found previously to be associated with the timing of bud set in Norway spruce. In a common garden study, we analyzed the relationship of bud phenology under natural and artificial photoperiods and the expression of PsFTL2 in a set of Scots pine populations from different latitudes. The expression of PsFTL2 increased in the needles preceding bud set and decreased during bud burst. In the northernmost population, even short night periods were efficient to trigger this expression, which also increased earlier under all photoperiodic regimes compared with the southern populations. Despite the different biology, with few limitations, the two conifers that diverged 140 million yr ago probably share an association of FTL2 with bud set, pointing to a common mechanism for the timing of growth cessation in conifers. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Raman Spectroscopic Online Investigation of Respiratory Quotients in Pinus Sylvestris and Picea Abies during Drought and Shading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, S.; Fischer, S.; Hartmann, H.; Trumbore, S.; Popp, J.; Frosch, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drought and heat waves have been linked to forest mortality event across the globe. The underlying physiological processes are still not elucidated but both tree carbon and water relations have been identified as the driving forces. While studies on tree hydraulics are straightforward, studies on the tree carbon balance are not. For example, the use of different carbon compounds for maintenance respiration during drought cannot be assessed with measurements of carbon pools but requires real-time analyses of respiration stoichiometry. However, so far there were no technical solutions for such applications. Here we introduce cavity-enhanced Raman spectrometry (CERS) for simultaneous real-time monitoring of O2 and CO2 and rapid and continuous quantification of dark respiration rates and the respiratory quotient (RQ), i.e. the ratio of CO2 produced over O2 consumed during respiration. This ratio indicates the proportions of different substrates (carbohydrates [COH], lipids, proteins) used during respiration and allows fundamental insights into tree physiology. CERS combines high temporal resolution with a high dynamic concentration range for all important gases, ranging from few ppm to 100 vol. % with a single measurement every few seconds. The respiration analysis of tree branches was performed in a closed chamber for two species of different drought tolerance, Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies. We applied not only drought but also a shading treatment because both cause reductions in carbon assimilation rates but have different effects on tree hydraulics. Declines in RQ during shading in both species indicate a switch from pure COH metabolism to a mixture of COH, lipids and proteins. During drought such declines occurred only in the drought-tolerant pine but not in spruce and the underlying more dynamic carbon use strategy in pine may provide a physiological basis for its drought tolerance, more detailed investigation still pending. Our study highlights the suitability

  15. Speciation history of three closely related pines Pinus mugo (T.), P. uliginosa (N.) and P. sylvestris (L.).

    PubMed

    Wachowiak, Witold; Palmé, Anna E; Savolainen, Outi

    2011-04-01

    Nucleotide polymorphisms at genomic regions including 17 nuclear loci, two chloroplast and one mitochondrial DNA fragments were used to study the speciation history of three pine species: dwarf mountain pine (Pinus mugo), peat-bog pine (P. uliginosa) and Scots pine (P. sylvestris). We set out to investigate three specific speciation scenarios: (I) P. uliginosa is a homoploid hybrid between the other two, (II) the species have evolved without gene flow after divergence and (III) there has been substantial gene flow between the species since their divergence. Overall, the genetic data suggest that P. mugo and P. uliginosa share the same gene pool (average net divergence of 0.0001) and that the phenotypic differences (e.g. growth form) are most likely due to very limited areas of the genome. P. mugo and P. uliginosa are more diverged from P. sylvestris than from each other (average net divergence of 0.0027 and 0.0026, respectively). The nucleotide patterns can best be explained by the divergence with migration speciation scenario, although the hybrid speciation scenario with small genomic contribution from P. sylvestris cannot be completely ruled out. We suggest that the large amount of shared polymorphisms between the pine taxa and the lack of monophyly at all loci studied between P. sylvestris and P. mugo-P. uliginosa can largely be explained by relatively recent speciation history and large effective population sizes but also by interspecific gene flow. These closely related pine taxa form an excellent system for searching for loci involved in adaptive variation as they are differentiated in phenotype and ecology but have very similar genetic background.

  16. Influence of tree provenance on biogenic VOC emissions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Magsarjav, Narantsetseg; Ghimire, Rajendra; Markkanen, Juha-Matti; Heijari, Juha; Vuorinen, Martti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2012-12-01

    Resin-storing plant species such as conifer trees can release substantial amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere under stress circumstances that cause resin flow. Wounding can be induced by animals, pathogens, wind or direct mechanical damage e.g. during harvesting. In atmospheric modelling of biogenic VOCs, actively growing vegetation has been mostly considered as the source of emissions. Root systems and stumps of resin-storing conifer trees could constitute a significant store of resin after tree cutting. Therefore, we assessed the VOC emission rates from the cut surface of Scots pine stumps and estimated the average emission rates for an area with a density of 2000 stumps per ha. The experiment was conducted with trees of one Estonian and three Finnish Scots pine provenances covering a 1200 km gradient at a common garden established in central Finland in 1991. VOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes and less than 0.1% of the total emission was sesquiterpenes. α-Pinene (7-92% of the total emissions) and 3-carene (0-76% of the total emissions) were the dominant monoterpenes. Proportions of α-pinene and camphene were significantly lower and proportions of 3-carene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene higher in the southernmost Saaremaa provenance compared to the other provenances. Total terpene emission rates (standardised to +20 °C) from stumps varied from 27 to 1582 mg h-1 m-2 when measured within 2-3 h after tree cutting. Emission rates decreased rapidly to between 2 and 79 mg h-1 m-2 at 50 days after cutting. The estimated daily terpene emission rates on a hectare basis from freshly cut stumps at a cut tree density of 2000 per ha varied depending on provenance. Estimated emission ranges were 100-710 g ha-1 d-1 and 137-970 g ha-1 d-1 in 40 and in 60 year-old forest stands, respectively. Our result suggests that emission directly from stump surfaces could be a significant source of monoterpene emissions for a few weeks after

  17. Relationship of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Population Density to Mortality of Pinus sylvestris

    PubMed Central

    Melakeberhan, H.; Webster, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Seven-month-old Scots pine seedlings were inoculated with water or culture filtrate (controls), with 10,000, or 20,000 (experiment 1), and with 2,500 (experiment 2) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus B.C. isolate nematodes and maintained under defined experimental conditions. Controls did not develop pine wilt disease over a 2-month period. In experiment 1, less than 50% of the inoculum was recovered from the nematode-inoculated seedlings in the first 48 hours, after which the nematode population of both treatments increased exponentially resulting in pine death and approximately equal populations at 216 hours after inoculation. In the second experiment, plant mortality, which was always preceded by 2-3 days of chlorosis and associated stem vascular necrosis, first occurred 14 days after inoculation. The nematode population increased until about day 40 after inoculation and declined thereafter. Nematodes extracted from the roots 2 weeks after inoculation accounted for ca.15% of the total number of nematodes per pine. The study indicates that the rate of nematode reproduction is a factor in pine wilt disease. However, the lack of a linear correlation between the number of nematodes and the timing of pine mortality suggests that the timing of pine death may also depend on the location of nematode damage to the host tissue. PMID:19287724

  18. Two new triterpenoids from the roots of Pinus densiflora.

    PubMed

    Otaka, Junnosuke; Komatsu, Masabumi; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Futamura, Yushi; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-01

    Chemical investigation of the roots of Pinus densiflora led to the isolation of two new triterpenoids, (24S)-3β-methoxy-24,25-epoxy-lanost-9(11)-ene (1) and 29-acetoxy-3α-methoxyserrat-14-en-21α-ol (2), together with three known serratene-type triterpenoids (3-5) and four known diterpenoids (6-9). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses.

  19. Hyperspectral and multispectral satellite sensors for mapping chlorophyll content in a Mediterranean Pinus sylvestris L. plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael Mª; Trujillo, Jesus; de la Orden, Manuel Sánchez; Hernández-Clemente, Rocío

    2014-02-01

    A new generation of narrow-band hyperspectral remote sensing data offers an alternative to broad-band multispectral data for the estimation of vegetation chlorophyll content. This paper examines the potential of some of these sensors comparing red-edge and simple ratio indices to develop a rapid and cost-effective system for monitoring Mediterranean pine plantations in Spain. Chlorophyll content retrieval was analyzed with the red-edge R750/R710 index and the simple ratio R800/R560 index using the PROSPECT-5 leaf model and the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) and experimental approach. Five sensors were used: AHS, CHRIS/Proba, Hyperion, Landsat and QuickBird. The model simulation results obtained with synthetic spectra demonstrated the feasibility of estimating Ca + b content in conifers using the simple ratio R800/R560 index formulated with different full widths at half maximum (FWHM) at the leaf level. This index yielded a r2 = 0.69 for a FWHM of 30 nm and r2 = 0.55 for a FWHM of 70 nm. Experimental results compared the regression coefficients obtained with various multispectral and hyperspectral images with different spatial resolutions at the stand level. The strongest relationships where obtained using high-resolution hyperspectral images acquired with the AHS sensor (r2 = 0.65) while coarser spatial and spectral resolution images yielded a lower root mean square error (QuickBird r2 = 0.42; Landsat r2 = 0.48; Hyperion r2 = 0.56; CHRIS/Proba r2 = 0.57). This study shows the need to estimate chlorophyll content in forest plantations at the stand level with high spatial and spectral resolution sensors. Nevertheless, these results also show the accuracy obtained with medium-resolution sensors when monitoring physiological processes. Generating biochemical maps at the stand level could play a critical rule in the early detection of forest decline processes enabling their use in precision forestry.

  20. Changes in the essential oil composition in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under anthropogenic stress.

    PubMed

    Judzentiene, Asta; Stikliene, Aida; Kupcinskiene, Eugenija

    2007-03-21

    Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF), a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005). Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles. Along the CF transect for current-year needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing pH of the pine bark (r = -0.582; p < 0.05) or with the increasing concentration of SO2 (r = -0.573; p < 0.05); for 1-year-old needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing pH of the bark (r = -0.534; p < 0.05). Along the OR transect, in both the current-year and 1-year-old needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing SO2 (respectively, r = -0.773; p < 0.01; r = -0.486; p < 0.05); an opposite relation was true for sesquiterpenes (respectively, r = -0.751; p < 0.01; r = 0.785; p < 0.01). The view was different along the NFF transect. For current-year needles, the percentage of monoterpenes was decreasing with the increasing NH3 (r = -0.669; p < 0.01); while the percentage of sesquiterpenes or oxysesquiterpenes was increasing with the increasing NH3 (respectively, r = 0.540; p < 0.05 and r = 0.688; p < 0.01). For each transect, cluster analysis of the percentages of components of essential oils in the needles allowed us to distinguish the most contrasting stands according to the concentration of air pollutants. Current-year needles were more effective as indicators of

  1. Did the ambient ozone affect stem increment of Scots Pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) on territories under regional pollution load? Step III of Lithuanian studies.

    PubMed

    Augustaitis, Algirdas; Augustaitiene, Ingrida; Cinga, Gintautas; Mazeika, Juozapas; Deltuvas, Romualdas; Juknys, Romualdas; Vitas, Adomas

    2007-03-21

    This study aimed to explore if changes in stem increment of Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) could be related to changes in ambient ozone concentration when the impact of tree dendrometric parameters (age, diameter) and crown defoliation are accounted for. More than 200 dominant and codominant trees from 12 pine stands, for which crown defoliation had been assessed since 1994, were chosen for increment boring and basal area increment computing. Stands are located in Lithuanian national parks, where since 1994-95 Integrated Monitoring Stations have been operating. Findings of the study provide statistical evidence that peak concentrations of ambient ozone (O3) can have a negative impact on pine tree stem growth under field conditions where O3 exposure is below phytotoxic levels.

  2. Removal of lead (II) ions from synthetic and real effluents using immobilized Pinus sylvestris sawdust: adsorption on a fixed-bed column.

    PubMed

    Taty-Costodes, V Christian; Fauduet, Henri; Porte, Catherine; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2005-08-31

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the potential of Pinus sylvestris sawdust, in a continuous flow removal of lead (II) ions from synthetic and industrial aqueous effluents. The kinetic parameters obtained in a batch process were used to scale-up the process on a mini-column and to choose the breakthrough model. The column experimental data concerning the volumes treated were correlated using the bed depth service time model. These experimental data closely fitted the bed depth service time model at 10% of the breakthrough curve. The results from the bed depth service time model on the mini-column were then used to design a pilot plant adsorption unit. The performance of the pilot plant column accurately agreed with that obtained from the mini-column. The experiments carried out in a dynamic reactor allowed to bring out the influence of various parameters on the efficiency of the P. sylvestris sawdust. In addition, the process was checked for the treatment of industrial aqueous effluents on a pilot plant scale and the results were in accordance with those obtained from synthetic effluents.

  3. Pinosylvin and monomethylpinosylvin, constituents of an extract from the knot of Pinus sylvestris, reduce inflammatory gene expression and inflammatory responses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Laavola, Mirka; Nieminen, Riina; Leppänen, Tiina; Eckerman, Christer; Holmbom, Bjarne; Moilanen, Eeva

    2015-04-08

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is known to be rich in phenolic compounds, which may have anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of a knot extract from P. sylvestris and two stilbenes, pinosylvin and monomethylpinosylvin, isolated from the extract. Inflammation is characterized by increased release of pro-inflammatory and regulatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO) produced by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway. The knot extract (EC50 values of 3 and 3 μg/mL) as well as two of its constituents, pinosylvin (EC50 values of 13 and 15 μM) and monomethylpinosylvin (EC50 values of 8 and 12 μM), reduced NO production and iNOS expression in activated macrophages. They also inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1. More importantly, pinosylvin and monomethylpinosylvin exerted a clear anti-inflammatory effect (80% inhibition at the dose of 100 mg/kg) in the standard in vivo model, carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in the mouse, with the effect being comparable to that of a known iNOS inhibitor L-NIL. The results reveal that the Scots pine stilbenes pinosylvin and monomethylpinosylvin are potential anti-inflammatory compounds.

  4. Direct and Indirect Effects of Climate on Demography and Early Growth of Pinus sylvestris at the Rear Edge: Changing Roles of Biotic and Abiotic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Raquel; Rabasa, Sonia G.; Granda, Elena; Escudero, Adrián; Hódar, José A.; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Rincón, Ana M.; Zamora, Regino; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Global change triggers shifts in forest composition, with warming and aridification being particularly threatening for the populations located at the rear edge of the species distributions. This is the case of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in the Mediterranean Basin where uncertainties in relation to its dynamics under these changing scenarios are still high. We analysed the relative effect of climate on the recruitment patterns of Scots pine and its interactions with local biotic and abiotic variables at different spatial scales. Number of seedlings and saplings was surveyed, and their annual shoot growth measured in 96 plots located across altitudinal gradients in three different regions in the Iberian Peninsula. We found a significant influence of climate on demography and performance of recruits, with a non-linear effect of temperature on the presence of juveniles, and a positive effect of precipitation on their survival. Abundance of juveniles of P. sylvestris that underwent their first summer drought was skewed towards higher altitudes than the altitudinal mean range of the conspecific adults and the optimum elevation for seedlings' emergence. At local level, light availability did not influence juveniles' density, but it enhanced their growth. Biotic interactions were found between juveniles and the herb cover (competition) and between the number of newly emerged seedlings and shrubs (facilitation). Results also highlighted the indirect effect that climate exerts over the local factors, modulating the interactions with the pre-existing vegetation that were more evident at more stressful sites. This multiscale approach improves our understanding of the dynamics of these marginal populations and some management criteria can be inferred to boost their conservation under the current global warming. PMID:23555794

  5. Direct and indirect effects of climate on demography and early growth of Pinus sylvestris at the rear edge: changing roles of biotic and abiotic factors.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Raquel; Rabasa, Sonia G; Granda, Elena; Escudero, Adrián; Hódar, José A; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Rincón, Ana M; Zamora, Regino; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Global change triggers shifts in forest composition, with warming and aridification being particularly threatening for the populations located at the rear edge of the species distributions. This is the case of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in the Mediterranean Basin where uncertainties in relation to its dynamics under these changing scenarios are still high. We analysed the relative effect of climate on the recruitment patterns of Scots pine and its interactions with local biotic and abiotic variables at different spatial scales. Number of seedlings and saplings was surveyed, and their annual shoot growth measured in 96 plots located across altitudinal gradients in three different regions in the Iberian Peninsula. We found a significant influence of climate on demography and performance of recruits, with a non-linear effect of temperature on the presence of juveniles, and a positive effect of precipitation on their survival. Abundance of juveniles of P. sylvestris that underwent their first summer drought was skewed towards higher altitudes than the altitudinal mean range of the conspecific adults and the optimum elevation for seedlings' emergence. At local level, light availability did not influence juveniles' density, but it enhanced their growth. Biotic interactions were found between juveniles and the herb cover (competition) and between the number of newly emerged seedlings and shrubs (facilitation). Results also highlighted the indirect effect that climate exerts over the local factors, modulating the interactions with the pre-existing vegetation that were more evident at more stressful sites. This multiscale approach improves our understanding of the dynamics of these marginal populations and some management criteria can be inferred to boost their conservation under the current global warming.

  6. Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available. We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 years) from a stand in southwest France. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots. CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots. The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately.

  7. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and metals in scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles from Eastern and Northern Europe: Spatiotemporal patterns, and potential sources.

    PubMed

    Holt, Eva; Kočan, Anton; Klánová, Jana; Assefa, Anteneh; Wiberg, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Pine needles were sampled to determine levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and metals in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles at industrial, urban and background sites in Sweden (SW), Czech Republic (CZ) and Slovakia (SK). Spatial and temporal patterns of PCDD/Fs in pine needles were investigated and principal component analysis (PCA) used to determine spatial patterns, potential sources and transport of PCDD/Fs. Levels of PCDD/Fs in pine needles were generally greatest near to industrial sites (Ʃ2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs (lower bound (LB)): 6 ng kg(-1) - 190 ng kg(-1)) compared to urban and background sites (Ʃ2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs (LB): 0.90 ng kg(-1) - 20 ng kg(-1)). Using metal contamination in pine needles helped to detect spatial patterns and separate local thermal sources of PCDD/Fs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cavitation induced by a surfactant leads to a transient release of water stress and subsequent 'run away' embolism in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hölttä, Teemu; Juurola, Eija; Lindfors, Lauri; Porcar-Castell, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Cavitation decreases the hydraulic conductance of the xylem and has, therefore, detrimental effects on plant water balance. However, cavitation is also hypothesized to relieve water stress temporarily by releasing water from embolizing conduits to the transpiration stream. Stomatal closure in response to decreasing water potentials in order to avoid excessive cavitation has been well documented in numerous previous studies. However, it has remained unclear whether the stomata sense cavitation events themselves or whether they act in response to a decrease in leaf water potential to a level at which cavitation is initiated. The effects of massive cavitation on leaf water potential, transpiration, and stomatal behaviour were studied by feeding a surfactant into the transpiration stream of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings. The stomatal response to cavitation in connection with the capacitive effect was also studied. A major transient increase in leaf water potential was found due to cavitation in the seedlings. As cavitation was induced by lowering the surface tension, the two mechanisms could be uncoupled, as the usual relation between xylem water potential and the onset of cavitation did not hold. Our results indicate that the seedlings responded more to leaf water potential and less to cavitation itself, as stomatal closure was insufficient to prevent the seedlings from being driven to 'run-away' cavitation in a manner of hours.

  9. Genotoxicity of dill (Anethum graveolens L.), peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) essential oils in human lymphocytes and Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lazutka, J R; Mierauskiene, J; Slapsyte, G; Dedonyte, V

    2001-05-01

    Genotoxic properties of the essential oils extracted from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) herb and seeds, peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) herb and pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles were studied using chromosome aberration (CA) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) tests in human lymphocytes in vitro, and Drosophila melanogaster somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) in vivo. In the CA test, the most active essential oil was from dill seeds, then followed essential oils from dill herb, peppermint herb and pine needles, respectively. In the SCE test, the most active essential oils were from dill herb and seeds followed by essential oils from pine needles and peppermint herb. Essential oils from dill herb and seeds and pine needles induced CA and SCE in a clear dose-dependent manner, while peppermint essential oil induced SCE in a dose-independent manner. All essential oils were cytotoxic for human lymphocytes. In the SMART test, a dose-dependent increase in mutation frequency was observed for essential oils from pine and dill herb. Peppermint essential oil induced mutations in a dose-independent manner. Essential oil from dill seeds was almost inactive in the SMART test.

  10. [Effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition on the soil chemical and biological properties of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    Lin, Gui-Gang; Zhao, Qiong; Zhao, Lei; Li, Hui-Chao; Zeng, De-Hui

    2012-05-01

    A full factorial experiment was conducted to study the effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition (8 g x m(-2)) on the soil NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N concentrations, potential net nitrogen mineralization rate (PNM) and nitrification rate (PNN), microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), MBC/MBN, urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities, and Olsen-P concentration in a Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land during a growth season. Understory removal decreased the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, PNM, MBC, and MBN/MBN significantly, increased the soil Olsen-P concentration, but had little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNN, and urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities. Nitrogen addition increased the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNM and PNN significantly, but had little effects on the other test properties. The interaction between understory removal and nitrogen addition had significant effects on the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, but little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration. However, the soil NO(3-)-N concentration in the plots of understory removal with nitrogen addition was increased by 27%, compared with the plots of nitrogen addition alone, which might lead to the leaching of NO3-. It was suggested that understory vegetation could play an important role in affecting the soil chemical and biological properties in Mongolian pine plantations, and hence, the importance of understory vegetation should not be neglected when the forest management and restoration were implemented.

  11. Contamination of environment in the road surroudings – impact of road salting on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegrová, Jitka; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter; Tanda, Stefan; Anděl, Petr

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive overview of the influence of transport on the environment is presented in this study. The complex analysis of soil and needle samples provides an extensive set of data, which presents elemental contamination of the environment near roads. Traffic pollution (including winter road treatment) has a significant negative influence on our environment. Besides sodium and chlorine from winter maintenance many other elements are emitted into the environment. Three possible sources of contamination are assumed for environmental contamination evaluation: car emission, winter maintenance and abrasion from breaks and clutches. The chemical analysis focused on the description of samples from inorganic point of view. The influence of the contamination potential on the sodium and chlorine content in the samples of 1st year-old and 2nd year-old needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is discussed. Additional soil samples were taken from each sampling site and analyzed to get insight in the sodium and chlorine distribution. Statistical evaluation was used for interpretation of complex interaction patterns between element concentrations in different aged needles based on localities character including distance from the road and element concentration in soils. This species of needles were chosen because of its heightened sensitivity towards salinization. The study was conducted in different parts of the Czech Republic. The resulting database is a source of valuable information about the influence of transport on the environment.

  12. [Allozyme variation of seed embryos and mating system in relict populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from the Kremenets Hill Ridge and Maloe Poles'e].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Kalafat, L A; Lisnichuk, A N; Velikorid'ko, T I; Mudrik, E A

    2011-07-01

    Allozyme variation at ten polymorphic loci and mating system was studied in three small isolated relict populations (4.4 to 22 ha) and in three artificial stands of Pinus sylvestris from the Kremenets Hill Ridge and Maloe Poles'e. It was established that the mean heterozygosity of 130 to 140 year-old trees from natural populations (H(O) = 0.288; H(E) = 0.277) was substantially lower, compared to 30 to 40 year-old trees from artificial stands (H(O) = 0.358; H(E) = 0.330). The observed heterozygosity of seed embryos (H(O) = 0.169 and 0.180) was substantially lower than of the mature trees from populations and artificial stands, respectively. In the embryo samples, irrespectively of the forest stand origin, substantial hetedrozygote deficiency was observed (at six to eight loci), compared to the Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The proportion of cross pollination in the populations and artificial stands was low, t(m) = 0.588 to 0.721; and t(m) = 0.455 to 0.837, respectively.

  13. Influence of growth on reproductive traits and its effect on fertility and gene diversity in a clonal seed orchard of scots pine, Pinus Sylvestris L.

    PubMed

    Dutkuner, I; Bilir, N; Ulusan, D

    2008-05-01

    This study was carried out in a clonal seed orchard of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), to determine the difference and interaction for reproductive and growth characters among clones and its impact on fertility variation and gene diversity Numbers of female and male strobili, and height and diameter at breast height were studied on six grafts chosen randomly in each of the 27 clones for the purpose. One-way analysis of variance revealed large differences in both reproductive and growth characters among clones. The differences were higher in growth characters than in reproductive traits. There was significant phenotypic correlation among growth and reproductive characters. So, growth characters had a greater effect on male and female fertility Estimates of total fertility variation (Sibling coefficient = 1.012), status number (26.8) and relative gene diversity (0.981) were computed. Fertility variation among clones was low, which caused a high relative population size (99% of census number). The positive phenotypic correlation between growth and reproductive characters showed that enhanced growth rate could be effective in improving fertility and gene diversity of seed orchard crop. The results of the study have implications in breeding and selection of plus tree and populations, establishment and thinning of seed orchards of the species.

  14. Effects of male fecundity, interindividual distance and anisotropic pollen dispersal on mating success in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seed orchard.

    PubMed

    Torimaru, T; Wennström, U; Lindgren, D; Wang, X-R

    2012-03-01

    Quantifying the effect of pollen dispersal and flowering traits on mating success is essential for understanding evolutionary responses to changing environments and establishing strategies for forest tree breeding. This study examined, quantitatively, the effects of male fecundity, interindividual distance and anisotropic pollen dispersal on the mating success of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), utilizing a well-mapped Scots pine seed orchard. Paternity analysis of 1021 seeds sampled from 87 trees representing 28 clones showed that 53% of the seeds had at least one potential pollen parent within the orchard. Pronounced variation in paternal contribution was observed among clones. Variations in pollen production explained up to 78% of the variation in mating success, which was 11.2 times greater for clones producing the largest amount of pollen than for clones producing the least pollen. Mating success also varied with intertree distance and direction, which explained up to 28% of the variance. Fertilization between neighboring trees 2.3 m apart was 2.4 times more frequent than between trees 4.6 m apart, and up to 12.4 times higher for trees downwind of the presumed prevailing wind direction than for upwind trees. The effective number of pollen donors recorded in the seed orchard (12.2) was smaller than the theoretical expectation (19.7). Based on the empirical observations, a mating model that best describes the gene dispersal pattern in clonal seed orchards was constructed.

  15. Mongolian pines (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) in the Hulun Buir steppe, China, respond to climate in adjustment to the local water supply.

    PubMed

    Bao, Guang

    2015-01-01

    The growth response of Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) to climate was studied at three sites in the Hulun Buir steppe on the eastern Mongolian Plateau, China. Correlation analysis revealed two patterns of response: (1) trees on two sites in the upstream section of the Yimin River are strongly limited by temperature and precipitation during the growing season from April to September, and (2) trees in the convergence area of the downstream section of the Yimin River and of the midstream section of the Hailar River are sensitive to precipitation during winter (December-January) and early spring (April) as well as to the early growing season temperature (April and June). These responses can be attributed to the positions where groundwater, recharged by the runoff from summer to autumn (July-September), could supply sufficient water needed for tree growth. Therefore, the patterns of growth-climate responses and of climate variation trends in this steppe region should be considered for the management and afforestation of Mongolian pines.

  16. Rates and quantities of carbon flux to ectomycorrhizal mycelium following 14C pulse labeling of Pinus sylvestris seedlings: effects of litter patches and interaction with a wood-decomposer fungus.

    PubMed

    Leake, J R; Donnelly, D P; Saunders, E M; Boddy, L; Read, D J

    2001-02-01

    We used a novel digital autoradiographic technique that enabled, for the first time, simultaneous visualization and quantification of spatial and temporal changes in carbon allocation patterns in ectomycorrhizal mycelia. Mycorrhizal plants of Pinus sylvestris L. were grown in microcosms containing non-sterile peat. The time course and spatial distribution of carbon allocation by P. sylvestris to mycelia of its mycorrhizal partners, Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fr. and Suillus bovinus (L.): Kuntze, were quantified following 14C pulse labeling of the plants. Litter patches were used to investigate the effects of nutrient resource quality on carbon allocation. The wood-decomposer fungus Phanerochaete velutina (D.C.: Pers.) Parmasto was introduced to evaluate competitive and territorial interactions between its mycelial cords and the mycelial system of S. bovinus. Growth of ectomycorrhizal mycelium was stimulated in the litter patches. Nearly 60% of the C transferred from host plant to external mycorrhizal mycelium (> 2 mm from root surfaces) was allocated to mycelium in the patches, which comprised only 12% of the soil area available for mycelial colonization. Mycelia in the litter patch most recently colonized by mycorrhizal mycelium received the largest investment of carbon, amounting to 27 to 50% of the total 14C in external mycorrhizal mycelium. The amount of C transfer to external mycelium of S. bovinus following pulse labeling was reduced from a maximum of 167 nmol in systems with no saprotroph to a maximum of 61 nmol in systems interacting with P. velutina. The 14C content of S. bovinus mycelium reached a maximum 24-36 h after labeling in control microcosms, but allocation did not reach a peak until 56 h after labeling, when S. bovinus interacted with mycelium of P. velutina. The mycelium of S. bovinus contained 9% of the total 14C in the plants (including mycorrhizae) at the end of the experiment, but this was reduced to 4% in the presence of P. velutina. The

  17. Fusarium spp. and Pinus strobus seedlings: root disease pathogens and taxa associated with seed

    Treesearch

    C. M. Ocamb; J. Juzwik; F. B. Martin

    2002-01-01

    Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L .) seeds were sown in soil infested wlth Fusarium proliferatum, root necrosis developed on seedling roots, and F. proliferatum as reisolated from symptomatic roots; thus, demonstrating that F. proliferatum is pathogenic to eastern white pine seedling. Soils...

  18. Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster

    PubMed Central

    Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S.; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available. We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 years) from a stand in southwest France. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots. CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots. The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately. PMID

  19. Online investigation of respiratory quotients in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies during drought and shading by means of cavity-enhanced Raman multi-gas spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Stefan; Fischer, Sarah; Hartmann, Henrik; Keiner, Robert; Trumbore, Susan; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-07-07

    Photosynthesis and respiration are major components of the plant carbon balance. During stress, like drought, carbohydrate supply from photosynthesis is reduced and the Krebs cycle respiration must be fueled with other stored carbon compounds. However, the dynamics of storage use are still unknown. The respiratory quotient (RQ, CO2 released per O2 consumed during respiration) is an excellent indicator of the nature of the respiration substrate. In plant science, however, online RQ measurements have been challenging or even impossible so far due to very small gas exchange fluxes during respiration. Here we apply cavity-enhanced multi-gas Raman spectrometry (CERS) for online in situ RQ measurements in drought-tolerant pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) and drought-intolerant spruce (Picea abies [L. H. Karst]). Two different treatments, drought and shading, were applied to reduce photosynthesis and force dependency on stored substrates. Changes in respiration rates and RQ values were continuously monitored over periods of several days with low levels of variance. The results show that both species switched from COH-dominated respiration (RQ = 1.0) to a mixture of substrates during shading (RQ = 0.77-0.81), while during drought only pine did so (RQ = 0.75). The gas phase measurements were complemented by concentration measurements of non-structural carbohydrates and lipids. These first results suggest a physiological explanation for greater drought tolerance in pine. CERS was proven as powerful technique for non-consumptive and precise real-time monitoring of respiration rates and respirational quotients for the investigation of plant metabolism under drought stress conditions that are predicted to increase with future climate change.

  20. Characterisation of the initial degradation stage of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood after attack by brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana.

    PubMed

    Irbe, Ilze; Andersone, Ingeborga; Andersons, Bruno; Noldt, Guna; Dizhbite, Tatiana; Kurnosova, Nina; Nuopponen, Mari; Stewart, Derek

    2011-07-01

    In our study, early period degradation (10 days) of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood by the brown-rot fungus Coniophora puteana (Schum.: Fr.) Karst. (BAM Ebw.15) was followed at the wood chemical composition and ultrastructure-level, and highlighted the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An advanced decay period of 50 days was chosen for comparison of the degradation dynamics. Scanning UV microspectrophotometry (UMSP) analyses of lignin distribution in wood cells revealed that the linkages of lignin and polysaccharides were already disrupted in the early period of fungal attack. An increase in the lignin absorption A(280) value from 0.24 (control) to 0.44 in decayed wood was attributed to its oxidative modification which has been proposed to be generated by Fenton reaction derived ROS. The wood weight loss in the initial degradation period was 2%, whilst cellulose and lignin content decreased by 6.7% and 1%, respectively. Lignin methoxyl (-OCH3) content decreased from 15.1% (control) to 14.2% in decayed wood. Diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (DRIFT) spectroscopy corroborated the moderate loss in the hemicellulose and lignin degradation accompanying degradation. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra and spin trapping confirmed the generation of ROS, such as hydroxyl radicals (HO∙), in the early wood degradation period. Our results showed that irreversible changes in wood structure started immediately after wood colonisation by fungal hyphae and the results generated here will assist in the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of wood biodegradation by brown-rot fungi with the ultimate aim of developing novel wood protection methods.

  1. Levels of selected trace elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) in an urbanized environment.

    PubMed

    Kosiorek, Milena; Modrzewska, Beata; Wyszkowski, Mirosław

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of selected trace elements in needles and bark of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), leaves and bark of silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), as well as in the soil in which the trees grew, depending on their localization and hence the distribution of local pollution sources. The content of trace elements in needles of Scots pine, leaves of silver birch, and Norway maple and in bark of these trees depended on the location, tree species, and analyzed organ. The content of Fe, Mn, and Zn in needles, leaves, and bark of the examined tree species was significantly higher than that of the other elements. The highest average content of Fe and Mn was detected in leaves of Norway maple whereas the highest average content of Zn was found in silver birch leaves. The impact of such locations as the center of Olsztyn or roadside along Road 51 on the content of individual elements tended to be more pronounced than the influence of the other locations. The influence of the sampling sites on the content of trace elements in tree bark was less regular than the analogous effect in needles and leaves. Moreover, the relevant dependences were slightly different for Scots pine than for the other two tree species. The concentrations of heavy metals determined in the soil samples did not exceed the threshold values set in the Regulation of the Minister for the Environment, although the soil along Road 51 and in the center of Olsztyn typically had the highest content of these elements. There were also significant correlations between the content of some trace elements in soil and their accumulation in needles, leaves, and bark of trees.

  2. Influence of copper on root growth and morphology of Pinus pinea L. and Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Arduini, I; Godbold, D L; Onnis, A

    1995-06-01

    We assessed the effects of Cu on root growth and morphology of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) seedlings grown in culture solutions supplied with 0.012 (control), 0.1, 1 or 5 micro M CuSO(4). The presence of 5 micro M Cu in the nutrient solution completely inhibited root growth of both species within 3 days. In both species, taproot elongation was reduced in the presence of 1 micro M Cu, although partial growth recovery occurred after 7 days of treatment. The presence of 0.1 micro M Cu in the culture solution slightly enhanced root elongation in P. pinaster, but did not significantly influence root elongation in P. pinea. In both species, root weight per unit length increased in response to Cu exposure, and in P. pinaster, root diameter was significantly increased. The Cu treatments also affected lateral root number and length. In the presence of 1 micro M Cu, both species formed only short lateral primordia. The 1 micro M Cu treatment increased the lateral root index (number of roots per cm of root length) of P. pinaster, but decreased that of P. pinea, compared with control values. Neither the 0.1 nor 1 micro M Cu treatment had a significant effect on the mitotic index of either species. We conclude that cell elongation is more sensitive to Cu than cell division. Cell membrane damage, as indicated by Trypan blue staining, occurred after 10 days of exposure to 1 micro M Cu.

  3. Toxic effects of cadmium and zinc on ectomycorrhizal colonization of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from soil inoculum

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley-Whitaker, J.; Cairney, J.W.G.; Meharg, A.A.

    2000-03-01

    Scots pine seedlings colonized by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi from natural soil inoculum were exposed to a range of Cd or Zn concentrations to investigate the effects of metals on ECM fungi-Scots pine associations in a realistic soil environment. Experiments focused on the relationship between the sensitivity of ECM fungi and their host plants, the influence of metals on ECM community dynamics on Scots pine roots, and the effects of metal exposure on ECM colonization from soil-borne propagules. Ectomycorrhizal colonization was inhibited by Cd and Zn, with a decrease in the proportion of ECM-colonized root tips. Shoot and root biomass, total root length, and total root-tip density, however, were unaffected by Cd or Zn. A decrease in the diversity of ECM morphotypes also occurred, which could have a negative effect on tree vigor. Overall, colonization by ECM fungi was more sensitive than seedling growth to Cd and Zn, and this could have serious implications for successful tree establishment on metal-contaminated soils.

  4. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)

    Treesearch

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris

    2004-01-01

    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  5. Processes, dynamics and modelling of radiocaesium cycling in a chronosequence of Chernobyl-contaminated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantations.

    PubMed

    Goor, François; Thiry, Yves

    2004-06-05

    In a large forested area affected by the Chernobyl radioactive fallout, especially in CIS, the lasting recycling of radiocaesium (137Cs) by the trees is a source of long-term contamination of woody products. The quantitative description of the 137Cs dynamics in contaminated forest is a prerequisite to predictive modelling and further management of such territories. Three even-aged mono-specific Scots pine stands (17, 37 and 57 years old) were selected in a contaminated woodland in southeastern Belarus to constitute an adequate chronosequence. We determined the potassium and radiocaesium annual fluxes involved in the biological cycling in each stand using a well-documented calculation methodology. Qualitatively, 137Cs was shown to be rapidly recycled in trees through the same pathways as K and to redistribute similarly between the tree components. Compared to K, a higher fraction of 137Cs, corresponding to about the half of the annual uptake, is immobilised in perennial organs. With tree development, trunk wood and bark become prevailing sinks for 137Cs since they represent an increasing pool of biomass. In the pine chronosequence, the current root absorption, respectively, mobilizes 0.53, 0.32 and 0.31% year(-1) of the total 137Cs pool in soil. Variations in the 137Cs uptake do not reflect differences in the 137Cs balance between stands. In the two older stands, 51 and 71% of the current tree contamination are related to earlier accumulation subsequent to the initial fallout interception and recycling. The soil is the dominant source of long-term tree contamination. A simple modelling based on the measured 137Cs fluxes indicates that, for young stands, radioactive decay-corrected contamination would stabilize after reaching a maximum of 25 years after the 137Cs deposition. Stemwood presents a maximum of 15 years after the deposition and decrease afterwards mainly through radioactive decay. In the older stands, the decontamination is constant without local maximum

  6. Influence of Procerum Root Disease on the Water Relations of Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.)

    Treesearch

    J.R. Butnor; J.R. Seiler; J.A. Gray

    2000-01-01

    Procerum root disease (PRD) is caused by the deuteromycete fungus Leptogruphium procerum (Kendr.) Wingf, formerly Verticic ladiella procera (Kendr.) and is most commonly isolated from Pinus sp. L., though the fungus has been isolated from other conifer species including Fraser fir (Abies fraseri...

  7. Bioindication of the anthropogenic effects on micropopulations of Pinus sylvestris, L. in the vicinity of a plant for the storage and processing of radioactive waste and in the Chernobyl NPP zone.

    PubMed

    Geraskin, S A; Zimina, L M; Dikarev, V G; Dikareva, N S; Zimin, V L; Vasiliyev, D V; Oudalova, A A; Blinova, L D; Alexakhin, R M

    2003-01-01

    Results of a comparative analysis of the frequency and spectrum of cytogenetic anomalies are presented for reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) samples taken from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris, L.) micropopulations growing at sites with differing levels of radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl NPP 30 km zone, and at the location of a facility for the processing and storage of radioactive wastes (the 'Radon' LWPE, near the town of Sosnovy Bor in the Leningrad Region). The data obtained indicate the presence of genotoxic contaminants in the environment of the tree micropopulations. Chemical toxins make the main contribution to the environmental contamination in the Sosnovy Bor area as compared with the influence of ionising radiation in the Chernobyl 30 km zone. The higher radioresistance of seeds of Scotch pine growing on the area of the 'Radon' LWPE and in the centre of Sosnovy Bor town was revealed with acute gamma-radiation.

  8. In Vitro Culture Conditions and OeARF and OeH3 Expressions Modulate Adventitious Root Formation from Oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5 mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency. PMID:24587768

  9. In vitro culture conditions and OeARF and OeH3 expressions modulate adventitious root formation from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) cuttings.

    PubMed

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5 mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency.

  10. Heterologous Array Analysis in Pinaceae: Hybridization of Pinus Taeda cDNA Arrays With cDNA From Needles and Embryogenic Cultures of P. Taeda, P. Sylvestris or Picea Abies

    PubMed Central

    van Zyl, Leonel; von Arnold, Sara; Bozhkov, Peter; Chen, Yongzhong; Egertsdotter, Ulrika; MacKay, John; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Shen, Jing; Zelena, Lyubov

    2002-01-01

    Hybridization of labelled cDNA from various cell types with high-density arrays of expressed sequence tags is a powerful technique for investigating gene expression. Few conifer cDNA libraries have been sequenced. Because of the high level of sequence conservation between Pinus and Picea we have investigated the use of arrays from one genus for studies of gene expression in the other. The partial cDNAs from 384 identifiable genes expressed in differentiating xylem of Pinus taeda were printed on nylon membranes in randomized replicates. These were hybridized with labelled cDNA from needles or embryogenic cultures of Pinus taeda, P. sylvestris and Picea abies, and with labelled cDNA from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum. The Spearman correlation of gene expression for pairs of conifer species was high for needles (r2 = 0.78 − 0.86), and somewhat lower for embryogenic cultures (r2 = 0.68 − 0.83). The correlation of gene expression for tobacco leaves and needles of each of the three conifer species was lower but sufficiently high (r2 = 0.52 − 0.63) to suggest that many partial gene sequences are conserved in angiosperms and gymnosperms. Heterologous probing was further used to identify tissue-specific gene expression over species boundaries. To evaluate the significance of differences in gene expression, conventional parametric tests were compared with permutation tests after four methods of normalization. Permutation tests after Z-normalization provide the highest degree of discrimination but may enhance the probability of type I errors. It is concluded that arrays of cDNA from loblolly pine are useful for studies of gene expression in other pines or spruces. PMID:18629264

  11. [Fine root production and turnover in Pinus massoniana plantation in Three Gorges Reservoir area of China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Li; Cheng, Rui-Mei; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Feng, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Ze-Bin; Ge, Xiao-Gai; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Wei-Yin

    2012-09-01

    By the methods of sequential soil cores and buried bags, an investigation was conducted to study the seasonal dynamics of fine roots in a 20-year-old Pinus massoniana plantation in Three Gorges Reservoir Area from March to December 2011, with the annual production and turnover rate of the fine roots calculated. In the plantation, the annual mean biomass of <2 mm fine roots was 146.98 g x m(-2) x a(-1), in which, the living root biomass (102.92 g x m(-2) x a(-1)) was far greater than that of the dead root biomass (44.06 g x m(-2) x a(-1)). Among the fine roots with different sizes, <1 mm fine roots had an obvious seasonal dynamics in their biomass, showing a unimodal curve in the sampling period. The annual production and turnover rate of <2 mm fine roots were 104. 12 g x m(-2) x 1(-1) and 1.05 a(-1), respectively, in which, the annual production of <1 mm and 1-2 mm fine roots was 58.35 and 45.77 g x m(-2) x a(-1), and the turnover rate was 1.41 and 0.69 a(-1), respectively.

  12. Correlation between infection by ophiostomatoid fungi and the presence of subterranean termites in Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Observations of subterranean termites feeding in pine sapwood containing ophiostomatoid fungi prompted a study to investigate the effect of infection by Leptographium fungi on the probability of encountering subterranean termites in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) roots. Root samples were collected f...

  13. Leaf water status and root system water flux of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) seedlings in relation to new root growth after transplanting

    Treesearch

    John C. Brissette; Jim L. Chambers

    1992-01-01

    Water relations and root growth of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) were studied four weeks after seedlings from a half-sib family had been transplanted to one of three regimes of soil water availability at a root zone temperature of either 15 or 20 °C. About one-third of the variation in new root growth was explained by the root zone...

  14. Tree Growth and Climate Relationship: Dynamics of Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Growing in the Near-Source Region of the Combined Heat and Power Plant During the Development of the Pro-Ecological Strategy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Sensuła, Barbara; Wilczyński, Sławomir; Opała, Magdalena

    Since the 1990s, the emission of pollutants was reduced in a majority of Polish and developing country factories whereas the level of energy production was similar to that prior to the 1990s. The conifer investigated in this study has grown for many years under the stress of industrial pollution. Despite this, the trees are preserved, to a large extent, sensitive to the natural climatic factors. We present a complex analysis of the climatic (sunshine, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and wind circulation) and anthropogenic factors influencing the radial increment dynamics of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the vicinity of the combined heat and power station in Łaziska (Poland). We analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution of growth reductions, the depth of reduction with respect to the distance from the emitter, the relationship between tree growth and climate during the industry development period and during proecological strategy application . Samples of carbon isotopic composition in pine needles from 2012 to 2013 were additionally determined. Pines series of 3 positions indicate that they have a similar sensitivity to most climatic elements of the previous and given year, but there is also a different rhythm between the studied populations of incremental growth of pines. The causes of diversity are due to the different types of habitat (site types) and industrial pollution. The variation in carbon stable isotopic composition in pine needles was connected with an increase of CO2.

  15. Actual evapotranspiration estimation in a Mediterranean mountain region by means of Landsat-5 TM and TERRA/AQUA MODIS imagery and Sap Flow measurements in Pinus sylvestris forest stands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristóbal, J.; Poyatos, R.; Ninyerola, M.; Pons, X.; Llorens, P.

    2009-04-01

    Evapotranspiration monitoring has important implications on global and regional climate modelling, as well as in the knowledge of the hydrological cycle and in the assessment of environmental stress that affects forest and agricultural ecosystems. An increase of evapotranspiration while precipitation remains constant, or is reduced, could decrease water availability for natural and agricultural systems and human needs. Consequently, water balance methods, as the evapotranspiration modelling, have been widely used to estimate crop and forest water needs, as well as the global change effects. Nowadays, radiometric measurements provided by Remote Sensing and GIS analysis are the technologies used to compute evapotranspiration at regional scales in a feasible way. Currently, the 38% of Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula) is covered by forests, and one of the most important forest species is Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) which represents the 18.4% of the area occupied by forests. The aim of this work is to model actual evapotranspiration in Pinus sylvestris forest stands, in a Mediterranean mountain region, using remote sensing data, and compare it with stand-scale sap flow measurements measured in the Vallcebre research area (42° 12' N, 1° 49' E), in the Eastern Pyrenees. To perform this study a set of 30 cloud-free TERRA-MODIS images and 10 Landsat-5 TM images of path 198 and rows 31 and 32 from June 2003 to January 2005 have been selected to perform evapotranspiration modelling in Pinus sylvestris forest stands. TERRA/AQUA MODIS images have been downloaded by means of the EOS Gateway. We have selected two different types of products which contain the remote sensing data we have used to model daily evapotranspiration, daily LST product and daily calibrated reflectances product. Landsat-5 TM images have been corrected by means of conventional techniques based on first order polynomials taking into account the effect of land surface relief using a Digital

  16. δ²H, δ¹³C and δ¹⁸O from whole wood, α-cellulose and lignin methoxyl groups in Pinus sylvestris: a multi-parameter approach.

    PubMed

    Mischel, Maria; Esper, Jan; Keppler, Frank; Greule, Markus; Werner, Willy

    2015-01-01

    Novel tree ring parameters - δ(13)C and δ(2)H from methoxyl groups - have been developed to reconstruct palaeoclimate. Tests with δ(13)C and δ(18)O derived from whole wood and cellulose samples, however, indicated differences in the isotopic composition and climate signal, depending on the extracted wood component. We assess this signal dependency by analysing (i) δ(13)C and δ(18)O from whole wood and cellulose and (ii) δ(13)C and δ(2)H from methoxyl groups, using Pinus sylvestris L. growing near Altenkirchen (Germany). Results indicate significant correlations among the time series derived from whole wood, cellulose, and lignin methoxyl groups. Compared with the whole wood samples, δ(13)C from methoxyl groups showed a different and overall lower response to climate parameters. On the other hand, δ(2)H from methoxyl groups showed high correlations with temperature and was also correlated with ring width, indicating its potential as a temperature proxy. Isotope time series with the highest correlation with climatic parameter were: (i) whole wood and cellulose δ(13)C with growing season precipitation and summer temperature; (ii) methoxyl groups with spring precipitation; (iii) whole wood and cellulose δ(18)O correlates with annual evapotranspiration and water balance; and (iv) methoxyl group δ(2)H with spring temperatures. These findings reveal that multiple climate elements can be reconstructed from different wood components and that whole wood proxies perform comparably to cellulose time series.

  17. Effects of warming treatment and precipitation manipulation on fine root length of Pinus densiflora seedlings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S. H.; Yoon, S. J.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.; Li, G.; Park, M.; An, J.; Son, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Fine roots are important for water and nutrient uptake and storage of carbon and nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems. In order to examine effects of climate change on fine root of Pinus densiflora seedlings, an open-field experiment with the warming treatment and precipitation manipulation had been conducted at a nursery in Seoul, South Korea. Two-year-old P. seedlings were planted in April, 2013. The air temperature of the warmed plots (W) was set to increase by 3°C compared to the temperature control plots (C) using infrared lamps. The precipitation manipulation consisted of the precipitation decreased using transparent panel (-30%; P-), the precipitation increased using pump and drip-irrigation (+30%; P+), and the precipitation control (0%; P0). The fine root length of the seedlings near the soil surface (0-15 cm depth) was estimated from January, 2014 to January, 2015 trimonthly using minirhizotrons. The mean fine root length (mm mm-2) were 115.0 (WP0), 163.7 (WP-), 90.5 (WP+), 114.4 (CP0), 130.2 (CP-), and 100.6 (CP+) during the study period, respectively. The mean fine root length was significantly affected by the precipitation manipulation (P<0.0001); however, it was not influenced by the warming treatment (P>0.1). There was no interaction between warming and precipitation effects in fine root length. The fine root length in P- plot was higher than those in P0 plot and P+ plot, regardless of the warming treatment, which indicated that water stress caused by P- might stimulate the fine root growth. Meanwhile, the no consistent patterns of fine root length by warming treatment was found under P+ plot and P0 plot, but a positive effect of warming on fine root length was observed under P+ plot only. Estimations of fine root production and mortality are required to determine the interaction between warming and precipitation effects on fine root dynamics more exactly. This study was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment (2014001310008).

  18. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO-2 AND N FERTILIZATION ON FINE ROOT DYNAMICS AND FUNGAL GROWTH IN SEEDLING PINUS PONDEROSA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated CO-2 and N fertilization on fine root growth of Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. C. Laws., grown in native soil in open-top field-exposure chambers at Placerville, CA, were monitored for a 2-year period using minirhizotrons. The experimental design was a...

  19. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO-2 AND N FERTILIZATION ON FINE ROOT DYNAMICS AND FUNGAL GROWTH IN SEEDLING PINUS PONDEROSA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated CO-2 and N fertilization on fine root growth of Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. C. Laws., grown in native soil in open-top field-exposure chambers at Placerville, CA, were monitored for a 2-year period using minirhizotrons. The experimental design was a...

  20. Elevational trends in hydraulic efficiency and safety of Pinus cembra roots.

    PubMed

    Losso, Adriano; Nardini, Andrea; Nolf, Markus; Mayr, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In alpine regions, elevational gradients in environmental parameters are reflected by structural and functional changes in plant traits. Elevational changes in plant water relations have also been demonstrated, but comparable information on root hydraulics is generally lacking. We analyzed the hydraulic efficiency (specific hydraulic conductivity k s, entire root system conductance K R) and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism (water potential at 50 % loss of conductivity Ψ 50) of the roots of Pinus cembra trees growing along an elevational transect of 600 m. Hydraulic parameters of the roots were compared with those of the stem and related to anatomical traits {mean conduit diameter (d), wall reinforcement [(t/b)(2)]}. We hypothesized that temperature-related restrictions in root function would cause a progressive limitation of hydraulic efficiency and safety with increasing elevation. We found that both root k s and K R decreased from low (1600 m a.s.l.: k s 5.6 ± 0.7 kg m(-1) s(-1) MPa(-1), K R 0.049 ± 0.005 kg m(-2) s (-1) MPa(-1)) to high elevation (2100 m a.s.l.: k s 4.2 ± 0.6 kg m(-1) s(-1) MPa(-1), K R 0.035 ± 0.006 kg m(-2) s(-1) MPa(-1)), with small trees showing higher K R than large trees. k s was higher in roots than in stems (0.5 ± 0.05 kg m(-1)s(-1)MPa(-1)). Ψ 50 values were similar across elevations and overall less negative in roots (Ψ 50 -3.6 ± 0.1 MPa) than in stems (Ψ 50 -3.9 ± 0.1 MPa). In roots, large-diameter tracheids were lacking at high elevation and (t/b)(2) increased, while d did not change. The elevational decrease in root hydraulic efficiency reflects a limitation in timberline tree hydraulics. In contrast, hydraulic safety was similar across elevations, indicating that avoidance of hydraulic failure is important for timberline trees. As hydraulic patterns can only partly be explained by the anatomical parameters studied, limitations and/or adaptations at the pit level are likely.

  1. Identification of genes differentially expressed in ectomycorrhizal roots during the Pinus pinaster-Laccaria bicolor interaction.

    PubMed

    Flores-Monterroso, Aranzazu; Canales, Javier; de la Torre, Fernando; Ávila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2013-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal associations are of major ecological importance in temperate and boreal forests. The development of a functional ectomycorrhiza requires many genetic and biochemical changes. In this study, suppressive subtraction hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes in the roots of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) inoculated with Laccaria bicolor, a mycorrhizal fungus. A total number of 200 unigenes were identified as being differentially regulated in maritime pine roots during the development of mycorrhiza. These unigenes were classified into 10 categories according to the function of their homologues in the GenBank database. Approximately, 40 % of the differentially expressed transcripts were genes that coded for unknown proteins in the databases or that had no homology to known genes. A group of these differentially expressed genes was selected to validate the results using quantitative real-time PCR. The transcript levels of the representative genes were compared between the non-inoculated and inoculated plants at 1, 5, 15 and 30 days after inoculation. The observed expression patterns indicate (1) changes in the composition of the wall cell, (2) tight regulation of defence genes during the development of mycorrhiza and (3) changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Ammonium excess or deficiency dramatically affected the stability of ectomycorrhiza and altered gene expression in maritime pine roots.

  2. Growth and carbon accumulation in root systems of Pinus taeda and Pinus ponderosa seedlings as affected by varying CO(2), temperature and nitrogen.

    PubMed

    King, J S; Thomas, R B; Strain, B R

    1996-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration enhances accumulation of carbon in fine roots, thereby altering soil carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling. To evaluate possible changes to belowground pools of carbon and nitrogen in response to elevated CO(2), an early and a late successional species of pine (Pinus taeda L. and Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, respectively) were grown from seed for 160 days in a 35 or 70 Pa CO(2) partial pressure at low or high temperature (30-year weekly mean and 30-year weekly mean + 5 degrees C) and a soil solution nitrogen concentration of 1 or 5 mM NH(4)NO(3) at the Duke University Phytotron. Seedlings were harvested at monthly intervals and growth parameters of the primary root, secondary root and tap root fractions evaluated. Total root biomass of P. ponderosa showed a positive CO(2) response (105% increase) (P = 0.0001) as a result of significant increases in all root fractions in the elevated CO(2) treatment, but all other main effects and interactions were insignificant. In P. taeda, there were significant interactions between CO(2) and temperature (P = 0.04) and CO(2) and nitrogen (P = 0.04) for total root biomass. An allometric analysis indicated that modulation of the secondary root fraction was the main response of the trees to altered environmental conditions. In P. ponderosa, there was an increase in the secondary root fraction relative to the primary and tap root fractions under conditions of low temperature. In P. taeda, there was a shift in carbon accumulation to the secondary roots relative to the primary roots under low temperature and low nitrogen. Neither species exhibited shifts in carbon accumulation in response to elevated CO(2). We conclude that both species have the potential to increase belowground biomass substantially in response to rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration, and this response is sensitive to temperature and nitrogen in P. taeda. Both species displayed small shifts

  3. Accumulative response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) to heavy metals enhanced by Pb-Zn ore mining and processing plants: Explicitly spatial considerations of ordinary kriging based on a GIS approach.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Marek; Halecki, Wiktor; Gąsiorek, Michał

    2017-02-01

    Plants have an accumulative response to heavy metals present in soils or deposited from airborne sources of emissions. Therefore, their tissues are very often used in studies of heavy metal contamination originating from different sources as a bioindicator of environmental pollution. This research was undertaken to examine accumulation capacities of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu and Cr in washed and unwashed needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) growing in a contaminated area. We collected needles of Scots pine and leaves of silver birch in an area around a sedimentation pond and metallurgic plant processing Pb and Zn ores near Olkusz, Poland. Concentrations of heavy metals, which have been linked with exposure to emissions, were determined from foliar samples collected at 33 sites. These sites were established at various distances (0.5-3.6 km) from the pond and metallurgic plant so as to identify the predominant accumulative response of plants. Spatial gradients for Pb and Zn were calculated using an ordinary kriging interpolation algorithm. A spatial pattern was identified by a GIS method to visualize maps over the Pb-Zn ore mining area. The accumulation of Zn (R(2) = 0.74, p < 0.05) and Pb (R(2) = 0.85, p < 0.01) in plant tissues correlated with soil concentrations. This tendency was not found in the case of Cu, Cd and Cr. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of the Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) Transport Inhibitors N-1-Naphthylphthalamic Acid and Morphactin on Endogenous IAA Dynamics in Relation to Compression Wood Formation in 1-Year-Old Pinus sylvestris (L.) Shoots.

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, B.; Tuominen, H.; Little, CHA.

    1994-01-01

    Both N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and methyl-2-chloro-9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid (CF) inhibit the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and, therefore, are attractive tools for investigating IAA's role in the regulation of plant growth. Ringing an intact conifer shoot with lanolin containing NPA or CF induces the formation of compression wood above the ring. This induction has been attributed to a postulated accumulation of IAA above the application site of the IAA transport inhibitor, but the validity of this postulation has never been confirmed. Using gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectroscopy with [13C6]IAA as an internal standard, we measured the levels of endogenous free and conjugated IAA in 1-year-old Pinus sylvestris (L.) shoots ringed with NPA or CF. The level of free IAA was dramatically decreased below the ring, indicating that the polar transport of endogenous IAA was inhibited by the treatment. However, the free IAA level above the ring, where compression wood was formed, was also slightly lower than in control shoots. The lack of IAA accumulation above the site of the IAA transport inhibitor could not be explained by an increase in IAA conjugation. Furthermore, the turnover of [2-14C]IAA, measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line radioactivity monitoring, was the same in NPA-treated and control shoots. The decrease in IAA level above a NPA or CF ring is attributed to these substances being transported acropetally and interfering with polar IAA transport along the shoot. It is concluded that compression wood formation above a NPA or CF ring is not associated with an overall increase in cambial region IAA level or increased IAA turnover. Instead, we suggest that acropetally transported NPA and CF induce compression wood formation by interacting with the NPA receptor in differentiating tracheids, thereby locally increasing IAA in these cells. PMID:12232343

  5. The role of below-ground competition during early stages of secondary succession: the case of 3-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in an abandoned grassland.

    PubMed

    Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Coll, Lluis; Balandier, Philippe

    2006-06-01

    In abandoned or extensively managed grasslands, the mechanisms involved in pioneer tree species success are not fully explained. Resource competition among plants and microclimate modifications have been emphasised as possible mechanisms to explain variation of survivorship and growth. In this study, we evaluated a number of mechanisms that may lead to successful survival and growth of seedlings of a pioneer tree species (Pinus sylvestris) in a grass-dominated grassland. Three-year-old Scots pines were planted in an extensively managed grassland of the French Massif Central and for 2 years were either maintained in bare soil or subjected to aerial and below-ground interactions induced by grass vegetation. Soil temperatures were slightly higher in bare soil than under the grass vegetation, but not to an extent explaining pine growth differences. The tall grass canopy reduced light transmission by 77% at ground level and by 20% in the upper part of Scots pine seedlings. Grass vegetation presence also significantly decreased soil volumetric water content (Hv) and soil nitrate in spring and in summer. In these conditions, the average tree height was reduced by 5% compared to trees grown in bare soil, and plant biomass was reduced by 85%. Scots pine intrinsic water-use efficiency (A/g), measured by leaf gas-exchange, increased when Hv decreased owing to a rapid decline of stomatal conductance (g). This result was also confirmed by delta 13C analyses of needles. A summer 15N labelling of seedlings and grass vegetation confirmed the higher NO3 capture capacity of grass vegetation in comparison with Scots pine seedlings. Our results provide evidence that the seedlings' success was linked to tolerance of below-ground resource depletion (particularly water) induced by grass vegetation based on morphological and physiological plasticity as well as to resource conservation.

  6. Polar transport and accumulation of indole-3-acetic acid during root regeneration by Pinus lambertiana embryos.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M S; Goldsmith, M H

    1970-12-01

    The relation of indoleacetic acid (IAA) transport to accumulation of auxin at the base of cuttings and to polar root formation was investigated with small cuttings from germinating embryos of Pinus lambertiana.The transport of endogenous auxin participates in regeneration of roots. This is shown by the facts that (1) more than 40% of the cuttings rooted without addition of exogenous indoleacetic acid; (2) the first regeneration always occurred at the basal tip of a slanting cut; and (3) 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), a specific inhibitor of auxin transport, totally inhibited rooting. Addition of IAA to the medium increased the number of roots formed per rooting hypocotyl.Sections of hypocotyls excised from dormant embryos and tested immediately after 2 h hydration were capable of polar transport of IAA. This polarity increased during the first 3 days of culture because of a marked increase in basipetal transport. Culturing the cuttings in 1 μM IAA for 3-5 days doubled both the basipetal transport of 1-(14)C-IAA by hypocotyl segments and the accumulation of radioactivity at the base of cuttings.The extent of the accumulation at the base of cuttings was similar at early (2 days, first mitoses) and late stages (5 days, organized meristem) of regeneration and was not affected by removal of the regenerating region immediately prior to uptake and transport of (14)C-IAA. The accumulation was inhibited by TIBA. In terms of increase in wet and dry weight and mitotic activity, the cotyledons rather than the regenerating root meristems were the most actively growing region of the cuttings. The upper part of the hypocotyl elongated more than the region of the slanting cut where regeneration was occurring.These results provide no support for the idea that the regenerating root controls the direction of polar transport by acting as a sink. The results are consistent with the view that polar auxin transport delivers auxin to the base of the cutting and raises the local

  7. Binding of RDX to Cell Wall Components of Pinus sylvestris and Picea glauca and Three-Year Mineralisation Study of Tissue-Associated RDX Residues.

    PubMed

    Schoenmuth, Bernd; Schenke, Detlef; Scharnhorst, Tanja; Combrinck, Sandra; McCrindle, Robert I; Mueller, Jakob O; Büttner, Carmen; Pestemer, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of soils with the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX, Research Department Explosive) as a result of military applications is a large-area problem globally. Since coniferous trees dominate the vegetation of large areas of military land in Central Europe, particularly in Germany, the long-term fate of (14)C-RDX in the conifers Scots pine and Dwarf Alberta spruce was studied. Acetic acid was the most effective solvent for the removal of extractable RDX residues from homogenates of RDX-laden tree material (85%, 80-90% and 64-80% for roots, wood and needles, respectively). On average, only a fifth of RDX-derived (14)C was bound in non-extractable residues (NER). Within the main cell wall compartments, lignin was the dominant binding site for NER (needles: 32-62%; roots: 38-42%). Hemicellulose (needles: 11-18%; roots: 6-11%) and cellulose (needles: 12-24%; roots: 1-2%) were less involved in binding and a considerable proportion of NER (needles: 15-24%; roots: 59-51%) was indigestible. After three-year incubation in rot chambers, mineralisation of tree-associated (14)C-RDX to (14)CO2 clearly dominated the mass balance in both tree species with 48-83%. 13-33% of (14)C-RDX-derived radioactivity remained in an unleachable form and the remobilisation by water leaching was negligible (< 2%).

  8. Effects of warming treatment and precipitation manipulation on fine root length and total root biomass of Pinus densiflora seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S. H.; Park, M.; Kim, S.; Lee, J.; Chang, H.; Son, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The effects of climate change on fine root (<2mm in diameter) length (FRL) and total root biomass (RB) were examined by an open-field warming treatment and precipitation manipulation system. An experimental nursery was established with 18 plots (2 temperature levels x 3 precipitation levels x 3 replicates) and seedlings of 2-year-old Pinus densiflora were planted in April, 2013. The air temperature of the warmed plots (W) was set to increase by 3°C compared to the temperature of control plots (C) using infrared lamps. The precipitation was manipulated to be 30% lower (P-) or higher (P+) than the precipitation control plots (P0) using transparent panels and drip irrigation. The FRL of the seedlings at 0-15 soil depth was estimated in January, April, July, October, and December, 2015 using minirhizotrons. The total RB was measured in March, 2016. The mean FRL during the study period and total RB were significantly affected by the precipitation manipulation (P<0.05); however, they were not influenced by the warming treatment. The interactive effect of warming and precipitation was significant only for total RB (P<0.05). The mean FRL and total RB in the P- plot were higher than those in the P+ and P0 plots. Water stress due to the decreased water availability might stimulate the root growth in the study. The mean FRL (mm mm-2) and total RB (g) in W*P- plot (232.4 and 105.0) were highest compared to those in other plots (WP+: 103.8 and 60.8; WP0: 106.5 and 47.8; CP-: 167.9 and 62.1; CP+: 135.4 and 61.2; CP0: 164.8 and 50.9). These results suggest that the combination of warming treatment and decreased precipitation might result in decreased soil moisture condition and increased fine root length and total root biomass in a seedling stage. This study was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment (2014001310008).

  9. [Effect of Pinus massoniana needle extract on root dentin demineralization in vitro].

    PubMed

    Chengfang, Tang; Jianping, Ruan; Yong, Zhu; Zixia, Li; Yanping, Zuo; Hongyan, Xu

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of Pinus massoniana needle extract (PMNE) on inhibiting demineralization of root dentin. Root dentin blocks were randomly divided into distilled deionized water (DDW) group, fluoride sodium (NaF) group, and 4%, 8% and 12% PMNE groups according to the experimental solution used in the process of pH cycling in each group. All specimens in each group experienced pH cycling for 8 d. The dentin mineral density (DMD) of the normal dentin and demineralized dentin and their D-value (ΔDMD) were determined using micro computed tomography. The morphology of dentin surface after pH cycling was also observed using a scanning electron microscope. The ΔDMD values in all PMNE groups and the NaF group were considerably lower than the ΔDMD in the DDW group (P<0.05). The ΔDMD values of the 8% and 12% PMNE groups had no difference (P>0.05), both of which were lower than the ΔDMD in the 4% PMNE group and higher than that in the NaF group (P<0.05). The dentin tubules were partly opened in the PMNE groups. The opening degrees of the dentin tubule in PMNE groups were significantly less and smaller than the opening degree in the DDW group and were larger than that in the NaF group. PMNE can inhibit the deminera-lization of root dentin and can slow down the reduction in DMD. PMNE has the potential to prevent caries, and 8% PMNE can effectively inhibit dentin demineralization.

  10. The evaluation of different forest structural indices to predict the stand aboveground biomass of even-aged Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in Kunduz, Northern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ercanli, İlker; Kahriman, Aydın

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effect of stand structural diversity, including the Shannon, improved Shannon, Simpson, McIntosh, Margelef, and Berger-Parker indices, on stand aboveground biomass (AGB) and developed statistical prediction models for the stand AGB values, including stand structural diversity indices and some stand attributes. The AGB prediction model, including only stand attributes, accounted for 85 % of the total variance in AGB (R (2)) with an Akaike's information criterion (AIC) of 807.2407, Bayesian information criterion (BIC) of 809.5397, Schwarz Bayesian criterion (SBC) of 818.0426, and root mean square error (RMSE) of 38.529 Mg. After inclusion of the stand structural diversity into the model structure, considerable improvement was observed in statistical accuracy, including 97.5 % of the total variance in AGB, with an AIC of 614.1819, BIC of 617.1242, SBC of 633.0853, and RMSE of 15.8153 Mg. The predictive fitting results indicate that some indices describing the stand structural diversity can be employed as significant independent variables to predict the AGB production of the Scotch pine stand. Further, including the stand diversity indices in the AGB prediction model with the stand attributes provided important predictive contributions in estimating the total variance in AGB.

  11. Biomass expansion factor and root-to-shoot ratio for Pinus in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Biomass Expansion Factor (BEF) and the Root-to-Shoot Ratio (R) are variables used to quantify carbon stock in forests. They are often considered as constant or species/area specific values in most studies. This study aimed at showing tree size and age dependence upon BEF and R and proposed equations to improve forest biomass and carbon stock. Data from 70 sample Pinus spp. grown in southern Brazil trees in different diameter classes and ages were used to demonstrate the correlation between BEF and R, and forest inventory data, such as DBH, tree height and age. Total dry biomass, carbon stock and CO2 equivalent were simulated using the IPCC default values of BEF and R, corresponding average calculated from data used in this study, as well as the values estimated by regression equations. The mean values of BEF and R calculated in this study were 1.47 and 0.17, respectively. The relationship between BEF and R and the tree measurement variables were inversely related with negative exponential behavior. Simulations indicated that use of fixed values of BEF and R, either IPCC default or current average data, may lead to unreliable estimates of carbon stock inventories and CDM projects. It was concluded that accounting for the variations in BEF and R and using regression equations to relate them to DBH, tree height and age, is fundamental in obtaining reliable estimates of forest tree biomass, carbon sink and CO2 equivalent. PMID:21943243

  12. Adaptation of fine roots to annual fertilization and irrigation in a 13-year-old Pinus pinaster stand.

    PubMed

    Bakker, M R; Jolicoeur, E; Trichet, P; Augusto, L; Plassard, C; Guinberteau, J; Loustau, D

    2009-02-01

    Effects of fertilization and irrigation on fine roots and fungal hyphae were studied in 13-year-old maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aït. in Soland), 7 years after the initiation of the treatments. The fertilization trials consisted of a phosphorus treatment, a complete fertilizer treatment (N, P, K, Ca and Mg), and an unfertilized treatment (control). Fertilizers were applied annually and were adjusted according to foliar target values. Two irrigation regimes (no irrigation and irrigation of a set amount each day) were applied from May to October. Root samples to depths of 120 cm were collected in summer of 2005, and the biomass of small roots (diameter 2-20 mm) and fine roots (diameter root morphology were assessed. Biomass and length of hyphae were studied by a mesh ingrowth bag technique. Total fine root biomass in the litter and in the 0-120 cm soil profile ranged between 111 and 296 g m(-2). Results derived from the measurements of biomass and root length, or root area, showed that both fertilizer treatments reduced the size of the fine root system, especially in the top soil layers, but did not affect small roots. Compared with control treatments, fine root morphology was affected by both fertilizer treatments with the fine roots having increased specific root length/area, and irrigation tended to reinforce this finer morphology. The amount of hyphae in the mesh ingrowth bags was higher in the fertilization and irrigation treatments than in the controls, suggesting further extension of the root system (ectomycorrhizal infection) and thus of the uptake system. Irrigation had no significant effect on the size of the fine root system, but resulted in a shallower rooting system. Total root to shoot ratios were unaffected by the treatments, but fine root mass:needle mass and fine root area index:leaf area index ratios decreased with increasing nutrient supply. Overall, compared with the control fine roots, increased nutrient supply resulted in a

  13. Selection for precocious flowering in Pinus sylvestris

    Treesearch

    Henry D. Gerhold

    1966-01-01

    The reproductive systems of forest trees that have evolved in wild habitats are usually characterized by delayed flowering age, cyclic seed years, and possibly an optimum, rather than a maximum, number of seeds per tree. Presumably these characteristics are favored by natural selection, though not necessarily in all species or in all situations.

  14. Association of Pinus banksiana Lamb. and Populus tremuloides Michx. seedling fine roots with Sistotrema brinkmannii (Bres.) J. Erikss. (Basidiomycotina).

    PubMed

    Potvin, Lynette R; Richter, Dana L; Jurgensen, Martin F; Dumroese, R Kasten

    2012-11-01

    Sistotrema brinkmannii (Bres.) J. Erikss. (Basidiomycotina, Hydanaceae), commonly regarded as a wood decay fungus, was consistently isolated from bareroot nursery Pinus banksiana Lamb. seedlings. S. brinkmannii was found in ectomycorrhizae formed by Thelephora terrestris Ehrh., Laccaria laccata (Scop.) Cooke, and Suillus luteus (L.) Roussel. In pure culture combinations with sterile P. banksiana and Populus tremuloides Michx. seedlings, S. brinkmannii colonized root cortical cells while not killing seedlings. Colonization by S. brinkmannii appeared to be intracellular but typical endo- or ectomycorrhizae were not formed. The fungus did not decay roots, although it was shown to produce cellulase in enzyme tests. Results suggest a unique association between S. brinkmannii and seedling roots that is neither mycorrhizal nor detrimental; its exact function remains to be elucidated.

  15. Soil respiration patterns in root gaps 27 years after small scale experimental disturbance in Pinus contorta forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S.; Berryman, E.; Hawbaker, T. J.; Ewers, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    While much attention has been focused on large scale forest disturbances such as fire, harvesting, drought and insect attacks, small scale forest disturbances that create gaps in forest canopies and below ground root and mycorrhizal networks may accumulate to impact regional scale carbon budgets. In a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest near Fox Park, WY, clusters of 15 and 30 trees were removed in 1988 to assess the effect of tree gap disturbance on fine root density and nitrogen transformation. Twenty seven years later the gaps remain with limited regeneration present only in the center of the 30 tree plots, beyond the influence of roots from adjacent intact trees. Soil respiration was measured in the summer of 2015 to assess the influence of these disturbances on carbon cycling in Pinus contorta forests. Positions at the centers of experimental disturbances were found to have the lowest respiration rates (mean 2.45 μmol C/m2/s, standard error 0.17 C/m2/s), control plots in the undisturbed forest were highest (mean 4.15 μmol C/m2/s, standard error 0.63 C/m2/s), and positions near the margin of the disturbance were intermediate (mean 3.7 μmol C/m2/s, standard error 0.34 C/m2/s). Fine root densities, soil nitrogen, and microclimate changes were also measured and played an important role in respiration rates of disturbed plots. This demonstrates that a long-term effect on carbon cycling occurs when gaps are created in the canopy and root network of lodgepole forests.

  16. Fine root production and carbohydrate concentrations of mature longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) as affected by season of prescribed fire and drought

    Treesearch

    Mary Anne Sword Sayer; James D. Haywood

    2005-01-01

    The historical range of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill) has been greatly reduced, in part, by lack of fire. Recently, the application of fire has become an accepted practice for the restoration of longleaf pine to former parts of its natural range. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of season of prescribed fire on the root growth...

  17. Soil CO2 evolution and root respiration in 11 year-old Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Plantations as Affected by Moisture and Nutrient Availability

    Treesearch

    Chris A. Maier; L.W. Kress

    2000-01-01

    We measured soil CO2 evolution rates with (Sff) and without (Sms) the forest floor litter and root respiration monthly in 11-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations during the fourth year of fertilization and irrigation treatments. Values of Sff...

  18. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing Fusarium root disease on sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) in a forest container nursery in California

    Treesearch

    J. E. Stewart; K. Otto; G. A. Cline; Kas Dumroese; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium species, specifically F. commune, F. proliferatum, and F. solani, can cause severe damping-off and root disease in container and bareroot forest nurseries throughout North America. Many conifer and hardwood species can be affected, but Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), western white pine (Pinus monticola), and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) are known to be...

  19. Influence of cultural practices on edaphic factors related to root disease in Pinus nursery seedlings

    Treesearch

    J Juzwik; K. M. Gust; R. R. Allmaras

    1999-01-01

    Conifer seedlings grown in bare-root nurseries are frequently damaged and destroyed by soil-borne pathogenic fungi that cause root rot. Relationships between nursery cultural practices, soils characteristics, and populations of potential pathogens in the soil were examined in three bare-root tree nurseries in the midwestern USA. Soil-borne populations of ...

  20. Soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed burning in young Corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands.

    PubMed

    Tufekcioglu, Aydin; Kucuk, Mehmet; Saglam, Bulent; Bilgili, Ertugrul; Altun, Lokman

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important tool in the management of forest ecosystems. Although both prescribed and wildland fires are common in Turkey, few studies have addressed the influence of such disturbances on soil properties and root biomass dynamics. In this study, soil properties and root biomass responses to prescribed fire were investigated in 25-year-old corsican pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stands in Kastamonu, Turkey. The stands were established by planting and were subjected to prescribed burning in July 2003. Soil respiration rates were determined every two months using soda-lime method over a two-year period. Fine (0-2 mm diameter) and small root (2-5 mm diameter) biomass were sampled approximately bimonthly using sequential coring method. Mean daily soil respiration ranged from 0.65 to 2.19 g Cm(-2) d(-1) among all sites. Soil respiration rates were significantly higher in burned sites than in controls. Soil respiration rates were correlated significantly with soil moisture and soil temperature. Fine root biomass was significantly lower in burned sites than in control sites. Mean fine root biomass values were 4940 kg ha(-1) for burned and 5450 kg ha(-1) for control sites. Soil pH was significantly higher in burned sites than in control sites in 15-35 cm soil depth. Soil organic matter content did not differ significantly between control and burned sites. Our results indicate that, depending on site conditions, fire could be used successfully as a tool in the management of forest stands in the study area.

  1. Understanding Trichoderma in the root system of Pinus radiata: associations between rhizosphere colonisation and growth promotion for commercially grown seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Pierre; Jones, E Eirian; Hill, Robert A; Stewart, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Two Trichoderma isolates (T. hamatum LU592 and T. atroviride LU132) were tested for their ability to promote the growth and health of commercially grown Pinus radiata seedlings. The colonisation behaviour of the two isolates was investigated to relate rhizosphere competence and root penetration to subsequent effects on plant performance. Trichoderma hamatum LU592 was shown to enhance several plant health and growth parameters. The isolate significantly reduced seedling mortality by up to 29%, and promoted the growth of shoots (e.g. height by up to 16%) and roots (e.g. dry weight by up to 31%). The introduction of LU592 as either seed coat or spray application equally improved seedling health and growth demonstrating the suitability of both application methods for pine nursery situations. However, clear differences in rhizosphere colonisation and root penetration between the two application methods highlighted the need for more research on the impact of inoculum densities. When spray-applied, LU592 was found to be the predominant Trichoderma strain in the plant root system, including bulk potting mix, rhizosphere and endorhizosphere. In contrast, T. atroviride LU132 was shown to colonise the root system poorly, and no biological impact on P. radiata seedlings was detected. This is the first report to demonstrate rhizosphere competence as a useful indicator for determining Trichoderma bio-inoculants for P. radiata. High indigenous Trichoderma populations with similar population dynamics to the introduced strains revealed the limitations of the dilution plating technique, but this constraint was alleviated to some extent by the use of techniques for morphological and molecular identification of the introduced isolates. Copyright © 2011 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diterpenoids from Casearia sylvestris

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two highly oxygenated clerodane diterpenes casearins U (1) and V (2) and two ent-kaurane diterpene glucosides sylvestrisides A (3) and B (4) were isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris, together with 13 known compounds. Their structures were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectro...

  3. From lifting to planting: Root dip treatments affect survival of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    Treesearch

    Tom E. Starkey; David B. South

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogels and clay slurries are the materials most commonly applied to roots of pines in the southern United States. Most nursery managers believe such applications offer a form of "insurance" against excessive exposure during planting. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of root dip treatments to: (1) support fungal growth; and (2) protect...

  4. Variability of rooting in a small second-generation population of the hybrid Pinus attenuradiata

    Treesearch

    J. W. Duffield; A. R. Liddicoet

    1949-01-01

    Propagation of conifers by rooting of cuttings is an old art that has recently benefited by the findings of the plant physiologist. The forest tree breeder may now use rooting as a tool in his efforts to evaluate the heredity of his trees. In a study undertaken to use vegetative propagation of members of a variable hybrid population as a guide for selecting superior...

  5. Immunolocalization of IAA and ABA in roots and needles of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) during drought and rewatering.

    PubMed

    De Diego, N; Rodríguez, J L; Dodd, I C; Pérez-Alfocea, F; Moncaleán, P; Lacuesta, M

    2013-05-01

    Anatomical, physiological and phytohormonal changes involved in drought tolerance were examined in different Pinus radiata D. Don breeds subjected to soil drying and rewatering. Breeds with the smallest stomatal chamber size had the lowest transpiration rate and the highest intrinsic water-use efficiency. Xylem cell size was positively correlated with leaf hydraulic conductance and needle indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations, whereas transpiration rate was negatively correlated with needle abscisic acid (ABA) levels. Since these two phytohormones seem important in regulating the P. radiata drought response, they were simultaneously immunolocalized in roots and needles of the most tolerant breed (P. radiata var. radiata × var. cedrosensis) during two sequential drought cycles and after rewatering. During drought, IAA was unequally distributed into the pointed area of the needle cross-section and mainly located in mesophyll and vascular tissue cells of needles, possibly inducing needle epinasty, whereas ABA was principally located in guard cells, presumably to elicit stomata closure. In the roots, at the end of the first drought cycle, while strong IAA accumulation was observed in the cortex, ABA levels decreased probably due to translocation to the leaves. Rewatering modified the distribution of both IAA and ABA in the needles, causing an accumulation principally in vascular tissue, with residual concentrations in mesophyll, likely favouring the acclimatization of the plants for further drought cycles. Contrarily, in the roots IAA and ABA were located in the exodermis, a natural barrier that regulates the phytohormone translocation to other plant tissues and hormone losses to the soil solution after rewatering. These results confirm that immunolocalization is an efficient tool to understand the translocation of IAA and ABA in plants subjected to different water stress situations, and clarify their role in regulating physiological responses such as stomata

  6. Root distribution of Pinus pinaster, P. radiata, Eucalyptus globulus and E. kochii and associated soil chemistry in agricultural land adjacent to tree lines.

    PubMed

    Sudmeyer, R A; Speijers, J; Nicholas, B D

    2004-12-01

    We quantified the extent and distribution of roots of four commonly planted tree species (Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Pinus radiata D. Don, P. pinaster Aiton and E. kochii Maiden & Blakely subsp. plenissima C.A. Gardner) in agricultural land adjacent to tree lines, and examined the effect of soil type and root pruning on root morphology. Root distribution in soil adjacent to tree lines was mapped by a trench profile method at 13 sites on the south coast of Western Australia. Soil samples were collected to determine water content and fertility. The lateral extent of tree roots ranged from 10 m for E. kochii to 44 m for P. pinaster. This equated to between 1.5 and 2.5 times tree height (H) for E. globulus and Pinus spp. to 4H for E. kochii. Root density declined logarithmically with distance from the trees and was greatest for P. pinaster and least for E. globulus (P < 0.001). The rate of decrease in root density with distance from the trees was greatest for the Pinus spp. and least for E. kochii (P < 0.05). Root density was generally greatest in the top 0.5 m of the soil profile and decreased with increasing depth. This decrease was relatively gradual in the deep sands, but abrupt in clay subsoil. Root dry mass in the sandy top soil beyond 0.5H ranged between 1.0 and 55.5 Mg km(treeline) (-1) for 6-year-old E. kochii and 50-year-old P. pinaster, respectively. Soil water content generally increased with distance from the trees (P < 0.001). There was no evidence of reduced soil fertility in the top 1.4 m of the soil profile adjacent to the trees. Two to four years after trees had been root pruned, both the lateral extent and vertical distribution of roots were similar for pruned and unpruned trees. The density of roots < 2 mm in diameter was greater for root-pruned trees than for unpruned trees (P < 0.05). We conclude that the study species can compete with agricultural crops based on the lateral extent of their roots and the occurrence of greatest root density

  7. Elevated CO2 increases root exudation from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) seedlings as an N-mediated response.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Richard P; Bernhardt, Emily S; Schlesinger, William H

    2009-12-01

    The degree to which forest ecosystems provide a long-term sink for increasing atmospheric CO(2) depends upon the capacity of trees to increase the availability of growth-limiting resources. It has been widely speculated that trees exposed to CO(2) enrichment may increase the release of root exudates to soil as a mechanism to stimulate microbes to enhance nutrient availability. As a first test to examine how the atmospheric CO(2) and nitrogen availability affect the rates of root exudation, we performed two experiments in which the exudates were collected from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings that were grown in controlled growth chambers under low and high CO(2) and at low and high rates of N supply. Despite the differences in experimental design between the two studies, plants grown at high CO(2) were larger, and thus whole plant exudation rates were higher under elevated CO(2) (P = 0.019), but the magnitude of this response depended on the N level in both studies. Seedlings increased mass-specific exudation rates in response to elevated CO(2) in both experiments, but only at low N supply. Moreover, N supply had a greater impact on the exudation rates than did CO(2), with mass-specific exudation rates significantly greater (98% and 69% in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively) in the seedlings grown at low N supply relative to high N supply. These results provide preliminary evidence that loblolly pines alter exudation rates in response to both CO(2) concentration and N supply, and support the hypothesis that increased C allocation to root exudates may be a mechanism by which trees could delay progressive N limitation in forested ecosystems.

  8. Fine Root Abundance and Dynamics of Stone Pine (Pinus cembra) at the Alpine Treeline Is Not Impaired by Self-shading.

    PubMed

    Kubisch, Petra; Leuschner, Christoph; Coners, Heinz; Gruber, Andreas; Hertel, Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    Low temperatures are crucial for the formation of the alpine treeline worldwide. Since soil temperature in the shade of tree canopies is lower than in open sites, it was assumed that self-shading may impair the trees' root growth performance. While experiments with tree saplings demonstrate root growth impairment at soil temperatures below 5-7°C, field studies exploring the soil temperature - root growth relationship at the treeline are missing. We recorded soil temperature and fine root abundance and dynamics in shaded and sun-exposed areas under canopies of isolated Pinus cembra trees at the alpine treeline. In contrast to the mentioned assumption, we found more fine root biomass and higher fine root growth in colder than in warmer soil areas. Moreover, colder areas showed higher fine root turnover and thus lower root lifespan than warmer places. We conclude that P. cembra balances enhanced fine root mortality in cold soils with higher fine root activity and by maintaining higher fine root biomass, most likely as a response to shortage in soil resource supply. The results from our study highlight the importance of in situ measurements on mature trees to understand the fine root response and carbon allocation pattern to the thermal growth conditions at the alpine treeline.

  9. Fine Root Abundance and Dynamics of Stone Pine (Pinus cembra) at the Alpine Treeline Is Not Impaired by Self-shading

    PubMed Central

    Kubisch, Petra; Leuschner, Christoph; Coners, Heinz; Gruber, Andreas; Hertel, Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    Low temperatures are crucial for the formation of the alpine treeline worldwide. Since soil temperature in the shade of tree canopies is lower than in open sites, it was assumed that self-shading may impair the trees’ root growth performance. While experiments with tree saplings demonstrate root growth impairment at soil temperatures below 5–7°C, field studies exploring the soil temperature – root growth relationship at the treeline are missing. We recorded soil temperature and fine root abundance and dynamics in shaded and sun-exposed areas under canopies of isolated Pinus cembra trees at the alpine treeline. In contrast to the mentioned assumption, we found more fine root biomass and higher fine root growth in colder than in warmer soil areas. Moreover, colder areas showed higher fine root turnover and thus lower root lifespan than warmer places. We conclude that P. cembra balances enhanced fine root mortality in cold soils with higher fine root activity and by maintaining higher fine root biomass, most likely as a response to shortage in soil resource supply. The results from our study highlight the importance of in situ measurements on mature trees to understand the fine root response and carbon allocation pattern to the thermal growth conditions at the alpine treeline. PMID:28469633

  10. DO ELEVATED CO2 AND N FERTILIZATION ALTER FINE ROOT-MYCORRHIZAE RELATIONSHIPS IN PINUS PONDEROSA?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite extensive studies on the response of plants to elevated CO2, climate change and N deposition, little is known about the response of roots and mycorrhizae in spite of their key role in plant water and nutrient acquisition. The effects of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on...

  11. Association of Pinus banksiana Lamb. and Populus tremuloides Michx. seedling fine roots with Sistotrema brinkmannii (Bres.) J. Erikss. (Basidiomycotina)

    Treesearch

    Lynette R. Potvin; Dana L. Richter; Martin F. Jurgensen; R. Kasten. Dumroese

    2012-01-01

    Sistotrema brinkmannii (Bres.) J. Erikss. (Basidiomycotina, Hydanaceae), commonly regarded as a wood decay fungus, was consistently isolated from bareroot nursery Pinus banksiana Lamb. seedlings. S. brinkmannii was found in ectomycorrhizae formed by Thelephora terrestris Ehrh., ...

  12. Reference genomes and transcriptomes of Nicotiana sylvestris and Nicotiana tomentosiformis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nicotiana sylvestris and Nicotiana tomentosiformis are members of the Solanaceae family that includes tomato, potato, eggplant and pepper. These two Nicotiana species originate from South America and exhibit different alkaloid and diterpenoid production. N. sylvestris is cultivated largely as an ornamental plant and it has been used as a diploid model system for studies of terpenoid production, plastid engineering, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis are considered to be modern descendants of the maternal and paternal donors that formed Nicotiana tabacum about 200,000 years ago through interspecific hybridization. Here we report the first genome-wide analysis of these two Nicotiana species. Results Draft genomes of N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis were assembled to 82.9% and 71.6% of their expected size respectively, with N50 sizes of about 80 kb. The repeat content was 72-75%, with a higher proportion of retrotransposons and copia-like long terminal repeats in N. tomentosiformis. The transcriptome assemblies showed that 44,000-53,000 transcripts were expressed in the roots, leaves or flowers. The key genes involved in terpenoid metabolism, alkaloid metabolism and heavy metal transport showed differential expression in the leaves, roots and flowers of N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis. Conclusions The reference genomes of N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis represent a significant contribution to the SOL100 initiative because, as members of the Nicotiana genus of Solanaceae, they strengthen the value of the already existing resources by providing additional comparative information, thereby helping to improve our understanding of plant metabolism and evolution. PMID:23773524

  13. Reference genomes and transcriptomes of Nicotiana sylvestris and Nicotiana tomentosiformis.

    PubMed

    Sierro, Nicolas; Battey, James N D; Ouadi, Sonia; Bovet, Lucien; Goepfert, Simon; Bakaher, Nicolas; Peitsch, Manuel C; Ivanov, Nikolai V

    2013-06-17

    Nicotiana sylvestris and Nicotiana tomentosiformis are members of the Solanaceae family that includes tomato, potato, eggplant and pepper. These two Nicotiana species originate from South America and exhibit different alkaloid and diterpenoid production. N. sylvestris is cultivated largely as an ornamental plant and it has been used as a diploid model system for studies of terpenoid production, plastid engineering, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis are considered to be modern descendants of the maternal and paternal donors that formed Nicotiana tabacum about 200,000 years ago through interspecific hybridization. Here we report the first genome-wide analysis of these two Nicotiana species. Draft genomes of N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis were assembled to 82.9% and 71.6% of their expected size respectively, with N50 sizes of about 80 kb. The repeat content was 72-75%, with a higher proportion of retrotransposons and copia-like long terminal repeats in N. tomentosiformis. The transcriptome assemblies showed that 44,000-53,000 transcripts were expressed in the roots, leaves or flowers. The key genes involved in terpenoid metabolism, alkaloid metabolism and heavy metal transport showed differential expression in the leaves, roots and flowers of N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis. The reference genomes of N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis represent a significant contribution to the SOL100 initiative because, as members of the Nicotiana genus of Solanaceae, they strengthen the value of the already existing resources by providing additional comparative information, thereby helping to improve our understanding of plant metabolism and evolution.

  14. [Effects of litterfall and root input on soil physical and chemical properties in Pinus massoniana plantations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China].

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-Gai; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Cheng, Rui-Mei; Zeng, Li-Xiong; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Tan, Ben-Wang

    2012-12-01

    An investigation was made on the soil physical and chemical properties in different-aged Pinus massoniana plantations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area under effects of litterfall and roots. The annual litter production in mature stand was 19.4% and 65.7% higher than that in nearly mature and middle-aged stands, respectively. The litter standing amount was in the sequence of mature stand > middle-aged stand > nearly mature stand, while the litter turnover coefficient was in the order of nearly mature stand (0.51) > mature stand (0.40) > middle-aged stand (0.36). The total root biomass, live root biomass, and dead root biomass were the highest in middle-aged stand, and the lowest in nearly mature stand. In middle-aged stand, soil total porosity was the highest, and soil bulk density was the lowest. Soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents were in the order of mature stand > middle-aged stand > nearly mature stand, soil nitrate nitrogen occupied a larger proportion of soil mineral N in nearly mature stand, while ammonium nitrogen accounted more in middle-aged and mature stands. In nearly mature stand, litter production was moderate but turnover coefficient was the highest, and soil nutrient contents were the lowest. In middle-aged stand, root biomass and soil total porosity were the highest, and soil bulk density were the lowest. In mature stand, root biomass was lower while soil nutrient contents were the highest. The increase of root biomass could improve soil physical properties.

  15. Interactions Between Pinus taeda (loblolly) Fine Roots and Soil Fungi: Impacts of Elevated CO2, N Availability, and Spatial Distribution of Fungi on Fine Root Persistence and Turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, A.; Beidler, K.; McGlinn, D.; Pritchard, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Fine root turnover represents the most significant mode of flux from plants into soil C pools. Unfortunately fine root senescence and decomposition, processes critical in turnover, are particularly understudied. For example, little is known about either the factors that influence fine-root decomposition or the fate of compounds they contain during root death. Better understanding fine root senescence and decomposition should reduce uncertainty associated with global climate models; including re-uptake of materials in dying leaves into these models has already been shown to increase their accuracy. Over 4400 individual fine-roots and 4734 rhizomorphs were tracked from initiation until disintegration over 12 years using minirhizotrons at the Duke FACE site. Image-based approaches such as minirhizotrons cannot directly assess fine-root physiological status. To assess fine-root function directly, we are now conducting manipulative experiments in P. taeda in which fine-root senescence is induced through two treatments, steam- and direct hand-girdling. Physiological status is then assessed by examining gene-expression, root anatomy and chemical composition of manipulated roots. Changing [CO2] did not change persistence times for roots, but did impact rhizomorph persistence. Both roots and rhizomorphs showed interactions between effects of N and CO2 on persistence. Most interesting is the interaction between fine-roots and rhizomorphs: fine root persistence times are reduced in the presence of rhizomorphs, but this effect depends on the amount of N available. Finally, we found experimentally inducing senescence via steam girdling to be very effective relative to hand-girdling. These results provide evidence of the importance of priming on function of soil fungi and the role of N availability on fine-root turnover. The ability to stimulate fine-root senescence provides a powerful experimental tool to examine the fates of resources contained in fine-root pools as these

  16. SEASONAL CHANGES IN ROOT AND SOIL RESPIRATION OF OZONE-EXPOSED PONDEROSA PINE (PINUS PONDEROSA) GROWN IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to(ozone 0-3)has been shown to decrease the allocation of carbon to tree roots. Decreased allocation of carbon to roots might disrupt root metabolism and rhizosphere organisms. The effects of soil type and shoot 0, exposure on below-ground respiration and soil microbial ...

  17. SEASONAL CHANGES IN ROOT AND SOIL RESPIRATION OF OZONE-EXPOSED PONDEROSA PINE (PINUS PONDEROSA) GROWN IN DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to(ozone 0-3)has been shown to decrease the allocation of carbon to tree roots. Decreased allocation of carbon to roots might disrupt root metabolism and rhizosphere organisms. The effects of soil type and shoot 0, exposure on below-ground respiration and soil microbial ...

  18. The Association of a Longidorus Species with Stunting and Root Damage of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Stephen W. Fraedrich; Michelle M. Cram

    2002-01-01

    A Longidorus species was consistently associated with patches of stunted and chlorotic loblolly pine seedlings at a forest-tree nursery in Georgia. Seedlings from affected areas had poorly developed root systems that lacked lateral and feeder roots. Longidorus population densities in composite soil samples from the margins of...

  19. Fine root respiration in mature eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) in situ: the importance of CO2 in controlled environments.

    Treesearch

    Barton D. Clinton; James M. Vose

    1999-01-01

    Clinton and Vose measured seasonal fine root respiration rate in situ while controlling chamber temperature and [CO2]. Atmospheric and [CO2] ([CO2]a) and measured soil [CO2] ([CO2]s) were alternately delivered...

  20. Indole-3-acetic acid producing root-associated bacteria on growth of Brazil Pine (Araucaria angustifolia) and Slash Pine (Pinus elliottii).

    PubMed

    Gumiere, Thiago; Ribeiro, Carlos Marcelo; Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro Figueiredo; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2014-04-01

    Araucaria forests in Brazil today correspond to only 0.7 % of the original 200 km(2) of natural forest that covered a great part of the southern and southeastern area of the Atlantic Forest and, although Araucaria angustifolia is an endangered species, illegal exploitation is still going on. As an alternative to the use of hardwoods, Pinus elliottii presents rapid growth and high tolerance to climatic stress and low soil fertility or degraded areas. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of IAA-producing bacteria on the development of A. angustifolia and P. elliottii. We used five bacterial strains previously isolated from the rhizosphere of A. angustifolia, which produce quantities of IAA ranging from 3 to 126 μg mL(-1). Microbiolized seeds were sown in a new gnotobiotic system developed for this work, that allowed the quantification of the plant hormone IAA produced by bacteria, and the evaluation of its effect on seedling development. Also, it was shown that P. elliottii roots were almost as satisfactory as hosts for these IAA producers as A. angustifolia, while different magnitudes of mass increases were found for each species. Thus, we suggest that these microbial groups can be helpful for the development and reestablishment of already degraded forests and that PGPR isolated from Araucaria rhizosphere have the potential to be beneficial in seedling production of P. elliottii. Another finding is that our newly developed gnotobiotic system is highly satisfactory for the evaluation of this effect.

  1. Incorporation of 13C labeled Pinus ponderosa needle and fine root litter into soil organic matter measured by Py-GC/MS-C-IRMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mambelli, S.; Gleixner, G.; Dawson, T. E.; Bird, J. A.; Torn, M. S.

    2006-12-01

    Developing effective strategies for enhancing C storage in soils requires understanding the influence of plant C quality. In turn, plant C quality impacts the decay continuum between plant residue and humified, stable SOM. This remains one of the least understood aspects of soil biogeochemistry. We investigated the initial phase of incorporation of 13C labeled Pinus ponderosa needle and fine root litter into SOM. The two litter types were placed in separate microcosms in the A horizon in a temperate conifer soil. Curie-point pyrolysis-gas chromatography coupled with on-line mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS-C- IRMS) were used to determine the identity and the 13C enrichment of pyrolysis products (fragments of carbohydrates, lignin, proteins and lipids). We compared the two initial litter types, needles and fine roots, to samples of the bulk soil (A horizon, < 2mm) and soil humin fraction (from chemical solubility) obtained from each microcosm 1.5y after litter addition. Pyrolysis of plant material and SOM produced 56 suitable products for isotopic analysis; of them, 15 occurred in both the litter and bulk soil, 7 in both the litter and the humin fraction and 9 in both bulk soil and the humin fraction. The pyrolysis products found in common in the plant and soil were related either to polysaccharides or were non-specific and could have originated from various precursors. The data suggest that the majority of plant inputs, both from needles or fine roots, were degraded very rapidly. In the humin fraction, the most recalcitrant pool of C in soil, with a measured turnover time of 260y (this soil), only products from the fragmentation of polysaccharides and alkyl-benzene compounds were found. Comparisons of the enrichment normalized by input level suggest little difference between the incorporation of C from needles versus fine roots into SOM. The most enriched fragments in the humin fraction were products from polysaccharides degradation

  2. The inflow of Cs-137 in soil with root litter and root exudates of Scots pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Olga; Popova, Evgenia

    2017-04-01

    In the model experiment on evaluation of Cs-137 inflow in the soil with litter of roots and woody plants root exudates on the example of soil and water cultures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was shown, that through 45 days after the deposit Cs-137 solution on pine needles (specific activity of solution was 3.718*106 Bk) of the radionuclide in all components of model systems has increased significantly: needles, small branches and trunk by Cs-137 surface contamination during the experiment; roots as a result of the internal distribution of the radionuclide in the plant; soil and soil solution due to the of receipt Cs-137 in the composition of root exudates and root litter. Over 99% of the total reserve of Cs-137 accumulated in the components of the soil and water systems, accounted for bodies subjected to external pollution (needles and small branches) and <0.5% - on the soil / soil solution, haven't been subjected to surface contamination. At the same contamination of soil and soil solution by Cs-137 in the model experiment more than a> 99.9% was due to root exudates

  3. Root penetration through sealing layers at mine deposit sites.

    PubMed

    Stoltz, Eva; Greger, Maria

    2006-12-01

    To prevent acid mine drainage arising from oxygen and water penetration of sulphide-rich mine tailings, the tailings are covered with layers of dry sealing material. Plant roots have a great ability to penetrate dense materials, and if the roots are able to penetrate the sealing layer of a tailings deposit, its oxygen-shielding properties could be reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether plant roots are able to penetrate sealing layers covering mine tailings deposits. Root penetration into layers of various sealing materials, such as clayey moraine (clay, 8-10%; silt, 22-37%; sand, 37-55%; gravel, 15-18%), moraine (unspecified), 6-mm bentonite (kaolin clay) fabric, lime and clay, Cefyll (mixture of pulverized coal fly ash, cement and water) and a mixture containing biosludge (30-35%) and bioashes (65-70%), was investigated. In the field, roots were studied by digging trenches alongside vegetation growing in 3- and 10-year-old mine sites. In the greenhouse root growth of Betula pendula, Pinus sylvestris, Poa pratensis and Salix viminalis were studied in compartments where the plants had been growing for 22 months. The results from the field experiment indicated that roots are able to penetrate both deep down in the cover layer (1.7 m) and also into the sealing layers of various materials, and even to penetrate hard Cefyll. The addition of nutrients in the top cover reduced deep root growth and thereby also penetration through the sealing layer. Low hydraulic conductivity of the sealing layer or a thick cover layer had less effect on root penetration. In the greenhouse experiment roots did not penetrate the thin bentonite fabric, due to low pH (2.1-2.7) that was created from the underlying weathered mine tailings. The clayey moraine was penetrated by all species used in the greenhouse experiment; Pinus sylvestris had the greatest ability to penetrate. To prevent root penetration of the other sealing layer, a suitable condition for the plants

  4. Water stress-responsive genes in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) roots identified by analyses of expressed sequence tag libraries.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, W Walter; Sun, Feng; Liang, Chun; Kolychev, Dmitri; Wang, Haiming; Zhao, Xin; Cordonnier-Pratt, Marie-Michele; Pratt, Lee H; Dean, Jeffrey F D

    2006-01-01

    Drought stress is the principal cause of seedling mortality in pine forests of the southeastern United States and in many other forested regions around the globe. As part of a larger effort to discover loblolly pine genes, this study subjected rooted cuttings of three unrelated pine genotypes to three watering regimens. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were obtained from both the 3' and 5' ends of 12,918 randomly selected cDNAs generated from root tissues. These ESTs were clustered to identify 6,765 unique transcripts (UniScripts) derived from 6,202 putative unique genes (UniGenes-S). Tentative annotations were assigned on the basis of BLASTX comparisons to the Protein Information Resource Nonredundant Reference (PIR-NREF) database. Expression levels of 42 UniScripts varied with high statistical significance with respect to treatment. Many of them resembled gene products shown to be important for drought tolerance in other species, including dehydrins, endochitinases, cytochrome P450 enzymes, pathogenesis-related proteins and various late-embryogenesis abundant (LEA) gene products. Similarly, expression levels of 110 UniScripts varied with high statistical significance among genotypes, indicating that gene expression patterns in this species are much more dependent on genotype than on treatment. Most of the water stress-induced pine UniScripts that appeared to encode products resembling drought tolerance factors in other species were most highly induced in a single genotype, suggesting that particularly useful adaptive alleles for drought tolerance might exist within the collection of cDNAs characterized from this genotype. Mining and visualizing the complete data set, as well as downloading of both EST and UniScript contig sequences, are possible using MAGIC Gene Discovery at http://fungen.org/genediscovery/.

  5. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of native and non-native Pinus and Quercus species in a common garden of 35-year-old trees.

    PubMed

    Trocha, Lidia K; Kałucka, Izabela; Stasińska, Małgorzata; Nowak, Witold; Dabert, Mirosława; Leski, Tomasz; Rudawska, Maria; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2012-02-01

    Non-native tree species have been widely planted or have become naturalized in most forested landscapes. It is not clear if native trees species collectively differ in ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity and communities from that of non-native tree species. Alternatively, EMF species community similarity may be more determined by host plant phylogeny than by whether the plant is native or non-native. We examined these unknowns by comparing two genera, native and non-native Quercus robur and Quercus rubra and native and non-native Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra in a 35-year-old common garden in Poland. Using molecular and morphological approaches, we identified EMF species from ectomycorrhizal root tips and sporocarps collected in the monoculture tree plots. A total of 69 EMF species were found, with 38 species collected only as sporocarps, 18 only as ectomycorrhizas, and 13 both as ectomycorrhizas and sporocarps. The EMF species observed were all native and commonly associated with a Holarctic range in distribution. We found that native Q. robur had ca. 120% higher total EMF species richness than the non-native Q. rubra, while native P. sylvestris had ca. 25% lower total EMF species richness than non-native P. nigra. Thus, across genera, there was no evidence that native species have higher EMF species diversity than exotic species. In addition, we found a higher similarity in EMF communities between the two Pinus species than between the two Quercus species. These results support the naturalization of non-native trees by means of mutualistic associations with cosmopolitan and novel fungi.

  6. Fine Root Longevity Still Under Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keel, S. G.; Blackburn, M.; Campbell, C.; Högberg, M. N.; Richter, A.; Wild, B.; Högberg, P.

    2008-12-01

    Assuming that fine roots (< 2 mm in diameter) turn over once per year, they represent a third of the global annual net primary productivity. These turnover estimates are based on rhizotron studies, where root longevity is determined by monitoring the appearance/disappearance of roots on a screen, which is inserted into the soil. Much slower fine root turnover rates were found using carbon (C) isotope methods (either 14C dating or continuous 13C-labelling), resulting in root longevities of several years. Stable C isotope tracer experiments, are argued to overestimate fine root longevities, mainly because the smallest roots with the highest turn over, are easily missed during sampling. The goal of the present study was therefore to carry out a C-labelling experiment, and specifically focus on the finest roots, namely root tips. In addition we sampled whole fine roots (<1 mm and 1-3 mm in diameter), as in other studies. We pulse labelled 14-year-old Pinus sylvestris (Pine) trees in the field for only three hours with highly 13C-enriched CO2 (24 atom percent). The mean residence time (MRT) of recently assimilated C in root tips was determined, as a measure for root longevity. Already two days after labelling, recent C had been translocated from the crowns to fine roots indicating rapid belowground C allocation. 13C signals in root tips were stronger than in whole roots, which shows that they are the most active part of the root system. MRT of C calculated using first order exponential decay functions of C in bulk roots were around 20 days in both <1mm and 1-3mm roots and 29 days in root tips. A rapid decline in 13C signals was observed which could be explained by a rapid decrease in the signal of the sucrose pool, which had a MRT of 5 days. However, part of the labelled C had been allocated to a pool with a slower turnover rate (most likely structural compounds such as cellulose) as indicated by persisting 13C signals measured 120 days after labelling. MRT of C in

  7. Morphological and physiological responses of Scots pine fine roots to water supply in a dry climatic region in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Ivano; Pannatier, Elisabeth Graf; Frey, Beat; Rigling, Andreas; Landolt, Werner; Zimmermann, Stephan; Dobbertin, Matthias

    2009-04-01

    In recent decades, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in inner-Alpine dry valleys of Switzerland have suffered from drought and elevated temperatures, resulting in a higher mortality rate of trees than the mean mortality rate in Switzerland. We investigated the responses of fine roots (standing crop, morphological and physiological features) to water supply in a Scots pine forest in the Rhone valley. Before irrigation started in 2003, low- and high-productivity Scots pine trees were selected based on their crown transparency. The fine root standing crop measured in spring from 2003 to 2005 was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. However, irrigation significantly enhanced the fine root standing crop during the vegetation period when values from spring were compared with values from fall in 2005. Irrigation slightly increased specific root length but decreased root tissue density. Fine root O2-consumption capacity decreased slightly in response to the irrigation treatment. Using ingrowth cores to observe the responses of newly produced fine roots, irrigation had a significantly positive effect on the length of fine roots, but there were no differences between the low- and high-productivity trees. In contrast to the weak response of fine roots to irrigation, the aboveground parts responded positively to irrigation with more dense crowns. The lack of a marked response of the fine root biomass to irrigation in the low- and high-productivity trees suggests that fine roots have a high priority for within-tree carbon allocation.

  8. Antihyperlipidemic effect of Casearia sylvestris methanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Tatiana; Pich, Claus T; Geremias, Reginaldo; Avila, Silvio; Daminelli, Elaine N; Pedrosa, Rozangela C; Bettiol, Jane

    2008-09-01

    Casearia sylvestris methanolic extract (MCE) was screened at doses of 125-500 mg/kg for its antihyperlipidemic activity. The antihyperlipidemic effect was evaluated in olive oil-loaded mice. Acute treatment caused inhibition in the triglyceride (TG) and serum lipase elevation-induced by 5 ml/kg of olive oil.

  9. Scots pine fine roots adjust along a 2000-km latitudinal climatic gradient.

    PubMed

    Zadworny, Marcin; McCormack, M Luke; Mucha, Joanna; Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    Patterns of plant biomass allocation and functional adjustments along climatic gradients are poorly understood, particularly belowground. Generally, low temperatures suppress nutrient release and uptake, and forests under such conditions have a greater proportion of their biomass in roots. However, it is not clear whether 'more roots' means better capacity to acquire soil resources. Herein we quantified patterns of fine-root anatomy and their biomass distribution across Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) populations both along a 2000-km latitudinal gradient and within a common garden experiment with a similar range of populations. We found that with decreasing mean temperature, a greater percentage of Scots pine root biomass was allocated to roots with higher potential absorptive capacity. Similar results were seen in the common experimental site, where cold-adapted populations produced roots with greater absorptive capacity than populations originating from warmer climates. These results demonstrate that plants growing in or originated from colder climates have more acquisitive roots, a trait that is likely adaptive in the face of the low resource availability typical of cold soils.

  10. Bio-engineering traits of Pinus radiata D.Don

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giadrossich, Filippo; Marden, Michael; Marrosu, Roberto; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Phillips, Chris John; Cohen, Denis; Niedda, Marcello

    2017-04-01

    Pinus radiata is widely cultivated in New Zealand. Due to steep slopes and intense rainfall, the silviculture of Pinus radiata forests is important to control erosion and slope stability. Bio-engineering traits such as root distribution and root tensile strength are fundamental to understand the effectiveness of Pinus radiata. This information is needed to use the state of the art root reinforcement model (the Root Bundle Model) and the physically-based slope stability model SOSlope. Yet, little is known about root distribution and tensile strength for this specie. We measured soil moisture and carried out 30 field tensile tests on roots of Pinus radiata. We also measured root distribution data from 5 plants, digging arc of circles 0.6 radian around the trees in four opposite directions. We fully excavated the root system of two trees. Using the Root Bundle Model, results of our measurements allow estimation of root reinforcement. With the slope stability model SOSlope, information on the intensity and frequency of harvesting and on the development of weak zones that can be supported by a stand of Pinus radiata in relation to slope stability can be calculated. An added value is that the collected data allow us to make inferences between number and sizes of roots, and growth direction.

  11. Imaging tree roots with borehole radar

    Treesearch

    John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Per Wikstrom; Tomas Lundmark; Sune Linder

    2006-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has been used to de-tect and map tree roots using surface-based antennas in reflection mode. On amenable soils these methods can accurately detect lateral tree roots. In some tree species (e.g. Pinus taeda, Pinus palustris), vertically orientated tap roots directly beneath the tree, comprise most of the root mass. It is...

  12. Constitutive Model of Single Root System’s Resistance to Tensile Stress - Taking Pinus tabulaeformis, Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica and Larix gmelinii as Experimental Objects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lihua; Wang, Pinghua; Yang, Yuanjun; He, Jia

    2014-01-01

    A constitutive model for the stress-strain relationship of single forest root system was developed in order to provide theoretical foundations for the mechanisms of soil-reinforcement by root system and offer a reliable basis for the analysis of root tensile strength character. This study started a general form of linear and non-linear stress-strain relation that was mathematically defined by four boundary conditions observed in typical tensile tests of single roots. The parameters of the model were determined by experiment data and had definite physical meaning. The model was verified by experiment data, which showed that the calculated values were in good agreement with the experimental single root tensile test results. The constitutive model was validated and found to be feasible for modeling single root tensile stress. PMID:24736724

  13. Genome size and base composition of five Pinus species from the Balkan region.

    PubMed

    Bogunic, F; Muratovic, E; Brown, S C; Siljak-Yakovlev, S

    2003-08-01

    The 2C DNA content and base composition of five Pinus (2 n=24) species and two Pinus subspecies from the Balkan region have been estimated by flow cytometry. P. heldreichii (five populations) and P. peuce (one population) were assessed for the first time, as also were subspecies of P. nigra (three populations-two of subspecies nigra and one of subspecies dalmatica) along with P. sylvestris, and P. mugo from the same region. The 2C DNA values of these Pinus ranged from 42.5 pg to 54.9 pg (41.7-53.8 x 10(9)bp), and the base composition was quite stable (about 39.5% GC). Significant differences were observed between two subspecies of P. nigra and even between two populations of subsp. nigra. The two other species (P. sylvestris and P. mugo) had 2C values of 42.5 pg and 42.8 pg, respectively, while that of P. peuce was 54.9 pg. These genome sizes are in accordance with published values except for P. sylvestris, which was 20% below estimates made by other authors.

  14. Changes in very fine root respiration and morphology with time since last fire in a boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makita, Naoki; Pumpanen, Jukka; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank

    2016-04-01

    We examined the physiological and morphological responses of individual fine root segments in boreal forests stands with different age since the last fire to determine changes in specific fine root respiration and morphological traits during forest succession. We investigated the respiration of fine roots divided into three diameter classes (<0.5, 0.5-1.0, and 1.0-2.0 mm) in a Finnish boreal Pinus sylvestris L. in forest stands with 5, 45, 63, and 155 years since the last fire. Specific respiration rates of <0.5 mm roots in 155-year-old stands were 74%, 38%, and 31% higher than in 5-, 45-, and 63-year-old stands, respectively. However, the respiration rates of thicker diameter roots did not significantly change among stands with respect to time after fire. Similarly, fire disturbance had a strong impact on morphological traits of <0.5 mm roots, but not on thicker roots. Root respiration rates correlated positively with specific root length (length per unit mass) and negatively with root tissue density (mass per unit volume) in all stand ages. The linear regression lines fitted to the relationships between root respiration and specific root length or root tissue density showed significantly higher intercepts in 63- and 155-year-old than in 5-year-old stands. Significant shifts in the intercept of the common slope of respiration vs. morphology indicate the different magnitude of the changes in physiological performance among the fire age class. Despite a specific small geographic area, we suggest that the recovery of boreal forests following wildfire induces a strategy that favors carbon investment in nutrient and water exploitation efficiency with consequences for higher respiration, length, and lower tissue density of very fine roots.

  15. Mycelial production, spread and root colonisation by the ectomycorrhizal fungi Hebeloma crustuliniforme and Paxillus involutus under elevated atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Petra M A; Taylor, Andy F S; Finlay, Roger D

    2005-01-01

    Effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on the production and spread of ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelium from colonised Scots pine roots were investigated. Pinus sylvestris (L.) Karst. seedlings inoculated with either Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Bull:Fr.) Quel. or Paxillus involutus (Fr.) Fr. were grown at either ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) levels of CO2. Mycelial production was measured after 6 weeks in pots, and mycelial spread from inoculated seedlings was studied after 4 months growth in perlite in shallow boxes containing uncolonised bait seedlings. Plant and fungal biomass were analysed, as well as carbon and nitrogen content of seedling shoots. Mycelial biomass production by H. crustuliniforme was significantly greater under elevated CO2 (up to a 3-fold increase was observed). Significantly lower concentrations and total amounts of N were found in plants exposed to elevated CO2.

  16. Anti-PLA2 action test of Casearia sylvestris Sw.

    PubMed

    Raslan, D S; Jamal, C M; Duarte, D S; Borges, M H; De Lima, M E

    2002-01-01

    Casearia sylvestris (Flacourtiaceae) is a plant which grows in the wild. The crude extract and pure substances from this plant induced partial inhibition of the PLA: (phospholipase A2) activity of snake venoms and some purified toxins. C. sylvestris extract efficiently neutralized the hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities caused by crude venoms and toxins.

  17. Seasonal sucrose metabolism in individual first-order lateral roots of nine-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; C.C. Black

    1995-01-01

    Loblolly pine seedlings have distinctive temporal and spatial patterns of sucrose metabolism and growth with stems and roots as the major sucrose sinks, respectively, from spring to mid-fall and from mid-fall to early winter. Both nursery-grown and outplanted seedlings up to the age of 3 years followed this pattern. However, there have been no reports on the seasonal...

  18. Concentrations of sulphur and heavy metals in needles and rooting soils of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) trees growing along an urban-rural gradient in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fang Fang; Wen, Da Zhi; Kuang, Yuan Wen; Li, Jiong; Zhang, Ji Guang

    2009-07-01

    Current (C) and previous year (C + 1) needles and soils (organic horizon, 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm mineral depth) of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) trees were sampled at four forested sites (Huang Pu industrial district, HP; South China Botanical Garden, BG; Mao Feng Mt., MF; and Nan Kun Mt., NK) in Guangzhou along a urban-rural gradient and analyzed for sulfur (S) and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr and Pb) concentrations. Needle concentrations of all the elements were significantly higher at industrial HP than at other three sites, except for Cu and Pb which were highest at the traffic site (BG). The C + 1 needles generally had higher Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr than the C needles while the opposite was for Ni and S. Total and available Cd, Pb, Zn in soils peaked at the urban sites (HP and BG) and decreased at suburban MF and rural NK. Heavy metals were generally higher in the organic soils than in the mineral soils at all sites. Zinc and Pb at all sites, and Cd, S and Cu at the urban sites (HP and BG) in soils or pine needles were above or near their respective natural background levels, implying that threats resulted from these toxic elements occurred on local particularly urban forests, but did not for Cr and Ni due to their presence below their background values. Our results demonstrated that elements concentrations in needles and soils had reflected the variability of pollutants and the environmental quality change along the urban-rural transect, and were efficient as biomonitors to assess the influence of anthropogenic activities along the urbanization course on forest health.

  19. Pinus L. Pine

    Treesearch

    Stanley L. Krugman; James L. Jenkinson

    1974-01-01

    Growth habit, occurrence, and use. The genus Pinus, one of the largest and most important of the coniferous genera, comprises about 95 species and numerous varieties and hybrids. Pines are widely distributed, mostly in the Northern Hemisphere from sea level (Pinus contorta var. contorta) to timberline (P...

  20. Quantification of large vertical tree roots with borehole radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butnor, J. R.; Johnsen, K. H.; Wikström, P.; Lundmark, T.; Linder, S.

    2004-12-01

    Ground-penetrating radar can be used to detect tree roots provided there is sufficient electromagnetic contrast to separate roots from soil. Forest researchers need root biomass, distribution and architecture data to assess the effects of forest management practices on productivity and resource allocation in trees. Ground-penetrating radar is a non-destructive alternative to laborious excavations that are commonly employed. Tree roots are not ideal subjects for radar studies; clutter from non-target materials can degrade the utility of GPR profiles. On amenable soils, rapid root biomass surveys provide valuable information in a short period time, though some destructive ground-truthing may be required. Surface-based GPR can provide excellent resolution of lateral roots. However, some forest trees have significant allocation to large vertical taproots roots (i.e. loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., longleaf pine, Pinus palustris Mill.), which cannot be accurately assessed by surface measures. A collaborative project between the USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Radarteam AB and the Swedish Experimental Forest system was undertaken in 2003 to assess the potential of high-frequency borehole radar to detect vertical near surface reflectors (0-2 m). A variety of borehole methods were assessed to identify the most promising technique to image large vertical roots. We used a 1000 mhz transducer (Radarteam tubewave-1000) along with a GSSI ground-penetrating radar unit (Sir-20) to collect reflective data in boreholes adjacent to trees as well as cross-hole travel time measurements. This research was conducted near Vindeln in northern Sweden in August 2003. Six trees (Pinus sylvestris) whose DBH ranged from approximately 20-60 cm were intensively measured to provide information on a variety of size classes. On either side of each tree a 5 cm diameter hole was excavated to a depth of 2 m with a soil auger. One antenna was configured as a transmitter (Tx), the other

  1. New insights into the mycorrhizal Rhizoscyphus ericae aggregate: spatial structure and co-colonization of ectomycorrhizal and ericoid roots.

    PubMed

    Grelet, Gwen-Aëlle; Johnson, David; Vrålstad, Trude; Alexander, Ian J; Anderson, Ian C

    2010-10-01

    • Fungi in the Rhizoscyphus ericae aggregate have been recovered from the roots of co-occurring ericaceous shrubs and ectomycorrhizal trees. However, to date, there is no evidence that the same individual genotypes colonize both hosts, and no information on the extent of the mycelial networks that might form. • Using spatially explicit core sampling, we isolated fungi from neighbouring Pinus sylvestris (ectomycorrhizal) and Vaccinium vitis-idaea (ericoid mycorrhizal) roots and applied intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) typing to assess the occurrence and extent of shared genets. • Most isolates were identified as Meliniomyces variabilis, and isolates with identical ISSR profiles were obtained from neighbouring ericoid and ectomycorrhizal roots on a number of occasions. However, genet sizes were small (< 13  cm), and several genets were found in a single soil core. Genetic relatedness was independent of spatial separation at the scales investigated (< 43  m) and M. variabilis populations from sites 20  km apart were genetically indistinguishable. • We conclude that individual genets of M. variabilis can simultaneously colonize Scots pine and Vaccinium roots, but there is no evidence for the formation of large mycelial networks. Our data also suggest significant genotypic overlap between widely separated populations of this ubiquitous root-associated fungus.

  2. Nine Years of Irrigation Cause Vegetation and Fine Root Shifts in a Water-Limited Pine Forest

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Claude; Steffen, Jan; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Hajdas, Irka; Brunner, Ivano

    2014-01-01

    Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the inner-Alpine dry valleys of Switzerland have suffered from increased mortality during the past decades, which has been caused by longer and more frequent dry periods. In addition, a proceeding replacement of Scots pines by pubescent oaks (Quercus pubescens Willd.) has been observed. In 2003, an irrigation experiment was performed to track changes by reducing drought pressure on the natural pine forest. After nine years of irrigation, we observed major adaptations in the vegetation and shifts in Scots pine fine root abundance and structure. Irrigation permitted new plant species to assemble and promote canopy closure with a subsequent loss of herb and moss coverage. Fine root dry weight increased under irrigation and fine roots had a tendency to elongate. Structural composition of fine roots remained unaffected by irrigation, expressing preserved proportions of cellulose, lignin and phenolic substances. A shift to a more negative δ13C signal in the fine root C indicates an increased photosynthetic activity in irrigated pine trees. Using radiocarbon (14C) measurement, a reduced mean age of the fine roots in irrigated plots was revealed. The reason for this is either an increase in newly produced fine roots, supported by the increase in fine root biomass, or a reduced lifespan of fine roots which corresponds to an enhanced turnover rate. Overall, the responses belowground to irrigation are less conspicuous than the more rapid adaptations aboveground. Lagged and conservative adaptations of tree roots with decadal lifespans are challenging to detect, hence demanding for long-term surveys. Investigations concerning fine root turnover rate and degradation processes under a changing climate are crucial for a complete understanding of C cycling. PMID:24802642

  3. Nine years of irrigation cause vegetation and fine root shifts in a water-limited pine forest.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Claude; Steffen, Jan; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Hajdas, Irka; Brunner, Ivano

    2014-01-01

    Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the inner-Alpine dry valleys of Switzerland have suffered from increased mortality during the past decades, which has been caused by longer and more frequent dry periods. In addition, a proceeding replacement of Scots pines by pubescent oaks (Quercus pubescens Willd.) has been observed. In 2003, an irrigation experiment was performed to track changes by reducing drought pressure on the natural pine forest. After nine years of irrigation, we observed major adaptations in the vegetation and shifts in Scots pine fine root abundance and structure. Irrigation permitted new plant species to assemble and promote canopy closure with a subsequent loss of herb and moss coverage. Fine root dry weight increased under irrigation and fine roots had a tendency to elongate. Structural composition of fine roots remained unaffected by irrigation, expressing preserved proportions of cellulose, lignin and phenolic substances. A shift to a more negative δ13C signal in the fine root C indicates an increased photosynthetic activity in irrigated pine trees. Using radiocarbon (14C) measurement, a reduced mean age of the fine roots in irrigated plots was revealed. The reason for this is either an increase in newly produced fine roots, supported by the increase in fine root biomass, or a reduced lifespan of fine roots which corresponds to an enhanced turnover rate. Overall, the responses belowground to irrigation are less conspicuous than the more rapid adaptations aboveground. Lagged and conservative adaptations of tree roots with decadal lifespans are challenging to detect, hence demanding for long-term surveys. Investigations concerning fine root turnover rate and degradation processes under a changing climate are crucial for a complete understanding of C cycling.

  4. Adaptive fine root foraging patterns in climate experiments and natural gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostonen, Ivika; Truu, Marika; Parts, Kaarin; Truu, Jaak

    2017-04-01

    Site based manipulative experiments and studies along climatic gradients have long been keystones of ecological research. We aimed to compare the response of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) and fine roots in manipulative studies and along climate gradient to describe the universal trends in root traits and to raise hypotheses about general mechanisms in fine root system adaptation of forest trees in global change. The root traits from two climate manipulation experiments - Bangor FACE and FAHM in Estonia, manipulated by CO2 concentration and relative air humidity in silver birch forest ecosystems, respectively and the data for three most ubiquitous tree species - Norway spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and silver birch (Betula pendula) stands along natural gradient encompassing different climate and forest zones in Northern Europe were analysed. There are two main strategies in response of fine root system of trees: A) an extensive increase in absorptive root biomass, surface area and length, or B) a greater reliance on root-associated EcM fungi and bacterial communities with a smaller investment to absorptive root biomass. Trees in all studies tended to increase the EcM root biomass and the proportion of EcM root biomass of total fine root biomass towards harsh (northern boreal forests) or changed conditions (stress created by the increase in CO2 concentration or relative air humidity). We envisage a role of trilateral relation between the morphological traits of absorptive fine roots, exploration types of colonising EcM fungi and rhizosphere and bulk soil bacterial community structure. A significant change in EcM absorptive fine root biomass in all experiments and for all studied tree species coincided with changes in absorptive root morphology, being longer and thinner root tips with higher root tissue density in poor/treated sites. These changes were associated with significant shifts in community structure of dominating EcM fungi as well as soil and

  5. Fungal communities in mycorrhizal roots of conifer seedlings in forest nurseries under different cultivation systems, assessed by morphotyping, direct sequencing and mycelial isolation.

    PubMed

    Menkis, Audrius; Vasiliauskas, Rimvydas; Taylor, Andrew F S; Stenlid, Jan; Finlay, Roger

    2005-12-01

    Fungi colonising root tips of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies grown under four different seedling cultivation systems were assessed by morphotyping, direct sequencing and isolation methods. Roots were morphotyped using two approaches: (1) 10% of the whole root system from 30 seedlings of each species and (2) 20 randomly selected tips per plant from 300 seedlings of each species. The first approach yielded 15 morphotypes, the second yielded 27, including 18 new morphotypes. The overall community consisted of 33 morphotypes. The level of mycorrhizal colonisation of roots determined by each approach was about 50%. The cultivation system had a marked effect on the level of mycorrhizal colonisation. In pine, the highest level of colonisation (48%) was observed in bare-root systems, while in spruce, colonisation was highest in polyethylene rolls (71%). Direct internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequencing and isolation detected a total of 93 fungal taxa, including 27 mycorrhizal. A total of 71 (76.3%) fungi were identified at least to a genus level. The overlap between the two methods was low. Only 13 (13.9%) of taxa were both sequenced and isolated, 47 (50.5%) were detected exclusively by sequencing and 33 (35.5%) exclusively by isolation. All isolated mycorrhizal fungi were also detected by direct sequencing. Characteristic mycorrhizas were Phialophora finlandia, Amphinema byssoides, Rhizopogon rubescens, Suillus luteus and Thelephora terrestris. There was a moderate similarity in mycorrhizal communities between pine and spruce and among different cultivation systems.

  6. Appraisal on the wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils obtained from the cones and needles of Pinus species by in vivo and in vitro experimental models.

    PubMed

    Süntar, Ipek; Tumen, Ibrahim; Ustün, Osman; Keleş, Hikmet; Akkol, Esra Küpeli

    2012-01-31

    According to ethnobotanical data, Pinus species have been used against rheumatic pain and for wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. Essential oils from the cones and needles of five different Pinus species (Pinus brutia Ten., Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus nigra Arn., Pinus pinea L. and Pinus sylvestris L.) were evaluated for their in vivo wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities. In vivo wound healing activity of the ointments prepared from essential oils was evaluated by linear incision and circular excision experimental wound models subsequently histopathological analysis and hydroxyproline content. Furthermore, the essential oils were screened for anti-hyaluronidase activity. Additionally anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by using the method of Whittle, which is based on the inhibition of acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability. The essential oils obtained from the cones of Pinus pinea and Pinus halepensis demonstrated the highest effects on the wound healing activity models. On the other hand, the rest of the essential oils did not show any significant wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities. The experimental study revealed that essential oils obtained from the cones of Pinus pinea and Pinus halepensis display remarkable wound healing activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cytogenetic response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris Linnaeus, 1753) (Pinaceae) to heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Belousov, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Mashkina, Olga Sergeyevna; Popov, Vasily Nikolayevich

    2012-01-01

    We studied cytogenetic reactions of Scots pine seedlings to heavy metals - lead, cupric and zinc nitrates applied at concentrations 0.5 to 2000 µM. We determined the range of concentrations of heavy metals that causes mutagenic effect. Lead was found to cause the strongest genotoxicity as manifested by significant increase in the frequency of pathological mitosis, occurrence of fragmentations and agglutinations of chromosomes, various types of bridges, and a significant number of the micronuclei which were absent in the control. Possible cytogenetic mechanisms of the cytotoxic action of heavy metals are discussed.

  8. Pinus sylvestris switches respiration substrates under shading but not during drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Henrik; Fischer, Sarah; Hanf, Stefan; Frosch, Torsten; Poppp, Jürgen; Trumbore, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Reduced carbon assimilation during prolonged drought forces trees to rely on stored carbon to maintain vital processes like respiration. It has been shown, however, that the use of carbohydrates, a major carbon storage pool and main respiratory substrate in plants, strongly declines with deceasing plant hydration. Yet, no empirical evidence has been produced to what degree other carbon storage compounds like lipids and proteins may fuel respiration during drought. We exposed young scots pine trees to carbon limitation using either drought or shading and assessed respiratory substrate use by monitoring the respiratory quotient, δ13C of respired CO2and concentrations of the major storage compounds, i.e. carbohydrates (COH), lipids and amino acids. Generally, respiration was dominated by the most abundant substrate. Only shaded trees shifted from carbohydrate-dominated to lipid-dominated respiration and showed progressive carbohydrate depletion. In drought trees respiration was strongly reduced and fueled with carbohydrates from also strongly reduced carbon assimilation. Initial COH content was maintained during drought probably due to reduced COH mobilization and use and the maintained COH content may have prevented lipid catabolism via sugar signaling. Our results suggest that respiratory substrates other than carbohydrates are used under carbohydrate limitation but not during drought. Thus, respiratory substrate change cannot provide an efficient means to counterbalance carbon limitation under natural drought.

  9. Pinus sylvestris switches respiration substrates under shading but not during drought.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sarah; Hanf, Stefan; Frosch, Torsten; Gleixner, Gerd; Popp, Jürgen; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2015-08-01

    Reduced carbon (C) assimilation during prolonged drought forces trees to rely on stored C to maintain vital processes like respiration. It has been shown, however, that the use of carbohydrates, a major C storage pool and apparently the main respiratory substrate in plants, strongly declines with decreasing plant hydration. Yet no empirical evidence has been produced to what degree other C storage compounds like lipids and proteins may fuel respiration during drought. We exposed young scots pine trees to C limitation using either drought or shading and assessed respiratory substrate use by monitoring the respiratory quotient, δ(13) C of respired CO2 and concentrations of the major storage compounds, that is, carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids. Only shaded trees shifted from carbohydrate-dominated to lipid-dominated respiration and showed progressive carbohydrate depletion. In drought trees, the fraction of carbohydrates used in respiration did not decline but respiration rates were strongly reduced. The lower consumption and potentially allocation from other organs may have caused initial carbohydrate content to remain constant during the experiment. Our results suggest that respiratory substrates other than carbohydrates are used under carbohydrate limitation but not during drought. Thus, respiratory substrate shift cannot provide an efficient means to counterbalance C limitation under natural drought.

  10. Stilbenes as constitutive and induced protection compounds in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    Treesearch

    Anni Harju; Martti Venalainen

    2012-01-01

    The goals of our studies are to describe the natural variation in the concentration of constitutive heartwood extractives; estimate the genetic parameters related to heartwood characteristics; determine whether there is a genetic connection between constitutive and inducible production of stilbenes; and, together with technical experts, to develop fast and...

  11. Fungal Infection Increases the Rate of Somatic Mutation in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; Ganea, Laura-Stefana; Razzak, Abdur M; García Gil, M R

    2015-01-01

    Somatic mutations are transmitted during mitosis in developing somatic tissue. Somatic cells bearing the mutations can develop into reproductive (germ) cells and the somatic mutations are then passed on to the next generation of plants. Somatic mutations are a source of variation essential to evolve new defense strategies and adapt to the environment. Stem rust disease in Scots pine has a negative effect on wood quality, and thus adversely affects the economy. It is caused by the 2 most destructive fungal species in Scandinavia: Peridermium pini and Cronartium flaccidum. We studied nuclear genome stability in Scots pine under biotic stress (fungus-infected, 22 trees) compared to a control population (plantation, 20 trees). Stability was assessed as accumulation of new somatic mutations in 10 microsatellite loci selected for genotyping. Microsatellites are widely used as molecular markers in population genetics studies of plants, and are particularly used for detection of somatic mutations as their rate of mutation is of a much higher magnitude when compared with other DNA markers. We report double the rate of somatic mutation per locus in the fungus-infected trees (4.8×10(-3) mutations per locus), as compared to the controls (2.0×10(-3) mutations per locus) when individual samples were analyzed at 10 different microsatellite markers. Pearson's chi-squared test indicated a significant effect of the fungal infection which increased the number of mutations in the fungus-infected trees (χ(2) = 12.9883, df = 1, P = 0.0003134).

  12. Ecotypic variation in response to light spectra in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sonali S; García-Gil, M R

    2013-02-01

    We investigated Scots pine adaptive responses to the light spectra by measuring hypocotyl length in seeds sampled from three natural Scots pine ecotypes across a latitudinal cline ranging from 63° to 68° N in Sweden where the adaptive cline is known to be steeper. Seeds were germinated under dark (D) and three monochromatic continuous light wavelengths: blue (B), red (R) and far-red (FR). Analysis of variance revealed a northward decrease in the inhibitory effect of FR with respect to D, the so-called far red high irradiance response. Ecotypic variation for hypocotyl development was observed under the FR and D treatments, while the trends for the B and R treatments were not statistically significant. Under FR the ecotypic variation showed an increase in hypocotyl length northwards, in contrast to the treatment under D which showed a decrease in the hypocotyl length northwards. These results could be interpreted in view of the previously reported northward increase in FR requirement to maintain growth in Norway spruce and Scots pine. Prior to the performance of the main light experiment, the maternal effect on progeny performance was investigated, which showed the absence of maternal environment effect on the performance of the seedlings.

  13. Cytogenetic response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris Linnaeus, 1753) (Pinaceae) to heavy metals

    PubMed Central

    Belousov, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Mashkina, Olga Sergeyevna; Popov, Vasily Nikolayevich

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We studied cytogenetic reactions of Scots pine seedlings to heavy metals – lead, cupric and zinc nitrates applied at concentrations 0.5 to 2000 µM. We determined the range of concentrations of heavy metals that causes mutagenic effect. Lead was found to cause the strongest genotoxicity as manifested by significant increase in the frequency of pathological mitosis, occurrence of fragmentations and agglutinations of chromosomes, various types of bridges, and a significant number of the micronuclei which were absent in the control. Possible cytogenetic mechanisms of the cytotoxic action of heavy metals are discussed. PMID:24260654

  14. Mitochondrial respiratory pathways modulate nitrate sensing and nitrogen-dependent regulation of plant architecture in Nicotiana sylvestris

    PubMed Central

    Pellny, Till K; Van Aken, Olivier; Dutilleul, Christelle; Wolff, Tonja; Groten, Karin; Bor, Melike; De Paepe, Rosine; Reyss, Agnès; Van Breusegem, Frank; Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondrial electron transport pathways exert effects on carbon–nitrogen (C/N) relationships. To examine whether mitochondria–N interactions also influence plant growth and development, we explored the responses of roots and shoots to external N supply in wild-type (WT) Nicotiana sylvestris and the cytoplasmic male sterile II (CMSII) mutant, which has a N-rich phenotype. Root architecture in N. sylvestris seedlings showed classic responses to nitrate and sucrose availability. In contrast, CMSII showed an altered ‘nitrate-sensing’ phenotype with decreased sensitivity to C and N metabolites. The WT growth phenotype was restored in CMSII seedling roots by high nitrate plus sugars and in shoots by gibberellic acid (GA). Genome-wide cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of leaves from mature plants revealed that only a small subset of transcripts was altered in CMSII. Tissue abscisic acid content was similar in CMSII and WT roots and shoots, and growth responses to zeatin were comparable. However, the abundance of key transcripts associated with GA synthesis was modified both by the availability of N and by the CMSII mutation. The CMSII mutant maintained a much higher shoot/root ratio at low N than WT, whereas no difference was observed at high N. Shoot/root ratios were strikingly correlated with root amines/nitrate ratios, values of <1 being characteristic of high N status. We propose a model in which the amine/nitrate ratio interacts with GA signalling and respiratory pathways to regulate the partitioning of biomass between shoots and roots. PMID:18318685

  15. Delayed soil thawing affects root and shoot functioning and growth in Scots pine.

    PubMed

    Repo, Tapani; Lehto, Tarja; Finér, Leena

    2008-10-01

    In boreal regions, soil can remain frozen after the start of the growing season. We compared relationships between root characteristics and water relations in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) saplings subjected to soil frost treatments before and during the first week of the growing period in a controlled environment experiment. Delayed soil thawing delayed the onset of sap flow or totally blocked it if soil thawing lagged the start of the growing period by 7 days. This effect was reflected in the electrical impedance of needles and trunks and in the relative electrolyte leakage of needles. Prolonged soil frost reduced or completely inhibited root growth. In unfrozen soil, limited trunk sap flow was observed despite unfavorable aboveground growing conditions (low temperature, low irradiance, short photoperiod). Following the earliest soil thaw, sap flow varied during the growing season, depending on light and temperature conditions, phenological stage of the plant and the amount of live needles in the canopy. The results suggest that delayed soil thawing can reduce tree growth, and if prolonged, it can be lethal.

  16. Reconstructing the plant mitochondrial genome for marker discovery: a case study using Pinus.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Kevin; Cottrell, Joan; Ennos, Richard A; Vendramin, Giovanni Guiseppe; A'Hara, Stuart; King, Sarah; Perry, Annika; Wachowiak, Witold; Cavers, Stephen

    2016-12-20

    Whole-genome-shotgun (WGS) sequencing of total genomic DNA was used to recover ~1 Mbp of novel mitochondrial (mtDNA) sequence from Pinus sylvestris (L.) and three members of the closely-related Pinus mugo species complex. DNA was extracted from megagametophyte tissue from six mother trees from locations across Europe and 100 bp paired-end sequencing was performed on the Illumina HiSeq platform. Candidate mtDNA sequences were identified by their size and coverage characteristics, and by comparison with published plant mitochondrial genomes. Novel variants were identified, and primers targeting these loci were trialled on a set of 28 individuals from across Europe. In total, 31 SNP loci were successfully resequenced, characterising 15 unique haplotypes. This approach offers a cost effective means of developing marker resources for mitochondrial genomes in other plant species where reference sequences are unavailable. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Neolignans from the Leaves of Casearia sylvestris Swartz

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Six new neolignans, casearialignans A-F (1-6) and one known lignan syringaresinol-ß-D-glucoside were isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris. Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2 D NMR and high resolution ESI-MS spectroscopic analyses. The relative and absolute configura...

  18. Characterising the Land Surface Phenology of Mediterranean Pinus species using the MODIS NDVI time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor; Aragones, David; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.; Caparros-Santiago, Jose A.

    2017-04-01

    Land surface phenology (LSP) can improve the monitoring of forest areas and their change processes. The aim of this work is to characterize the temporal dynamics in Mediterranean Pinus forests. The different experiments were based on 679 mono-specific plots for the 5 native species in the Iberian Peninsula: P. sylvestris, P. pinea, P. halepensis, P. nigra and P. pinaster, which were obtained from the Third National Forest Inventory of Spain. The whole MODIS NDVI time series (2000-2016) were used to characterize the seasonal behavior of the pine forest. The following phenological parameters were extracted for each cycle from the smoothed time series: the day of beginning, end, middle and the length in days of season also base value, maximum value, amplitude and integrated value. Multi-temporal metrics were calculated to synthesize the inter-annual variability of the phenological parameters. An atypical behavior was detected for the years 2004 and 2011 and 2000, 2009 and 2015 for all Pinus species, matching wet and dry cycles, respectively. The inter and intra-species analysis of NDVI and LSP showed two different patterns: an important decreasing during the summer for those species such as P. halepensis, P. pinea y P. pinaster; and a lower NDVI variation among the year for P. sylvestris and P. nigra in certain areas. P. sylvestris had a phenological behavior different to P. pinea, P. halepensis and P. pinaster. P. nigra showed and heterogeneous intra-specific behaviour that might be associated to the existence of subspecies with different phenology.

  19. Chemical root pruning of conifer seedlings in Mexico

    Treesearch

    Arnulfo Aldrete; John G. Mexal

    2002-01-01

    Many countries grow seedlings for reforestation in polybags where root spiraling and root egression can decrease seedling survival and growth following outplanting. The overall objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of chemical root pruning on root spiraling, root egression, and nursery performance of Pinus pseudostrobus, P...

  20. Bioactivity of Malva Sylvestris L., a Medicinal Plant from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Molavi, Ghader; Ghasemi, Ghader

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae), an annual plant, has been already commonly used as a medicinal plant in Iran. In the present work, we evaluate some bioactivities of the plant extracts. Materials and Methods The aired-dried plant flowers and leaves were extracted by soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol. The antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and phytotoxic of the plant extracts were evaluated using disk diffusion method, MTT, and Lettuce assays, respectively. Results Both flowers and leaves of M. sylvestris methanol extracts exhibited strong antibacterial effects against Erwinia carotovora, a plant pathogen, with MIC value of 128 and 256 µg/ml, respectively. The flowers extract also showed high antibacterial effects against some human pathogen bacteria strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Entrococcus faecalis, with MIC value of 192, 200 and 256 µg/ml, respectively. The plant methanol extracts had relatively high cytotoxic activity against MacCoy cell line. Conclusion We concluded that Malva sylvestris can be candidated as an antiseptic, a chemopreventive or a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:23493458

  1. Development of SCAR markers for the discrimination of three species of medicinal plants, Angelica decursiva (Peucedanum decursivum), Peucedanum praeruptorum and Anthricus sylvestris, based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD).

    PubMed

    Choo, Byung Kil; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Ji, Yunui; Kim, Bo Bae; Choi, Goya; Yoon, Taesook; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2009-01-01

    Angelicae decursivae radix ('Jeonho' in Korean) is prescribed as the root of Angelica decursiva (= Peucedanum decursivum) and Peucedanum praeruptorum in Korean pharmacopoeia. However, Anthricus sylvestris has been usually distributed on the market because it is identical to the Korean plant name 'Jeonho'. Furthermore, due to the morphological similarity of the aerial parts and herbal medicines, the correct identification of these roots is difficult. Therefore, to develop a reliable method for discriminating among A. decursiva (= P. decursivum), P. praeruptorum and A. sylvestris, we applied the tools of molecular genetics, such as the analysis of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). In the comparison of rDNA-ITS sequences, we found a specific primer region for the identification of A. sylvestris among three varieties of the herb that produced a 273 bp strand of DNA specific to A. sylvestris. As the result of RAPD analysis, we developed one sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for A. decursiva and P. praeruptorum that amplified a 363 bp DNA fragment specific to both A. decursiva and P. praeruptorum and two markers for P. praeruptorum that amplified 145 bp and 305 bp DNA fragments specific to P. praeruptorum. Furthermore, we established the SCAR markers for the simultaneous discrimination of the three species by applying a multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a combination of primers. This method of discrimination would be useful in preventing the distribution of adulterates because it can identify each herb and distinguish it from inauthentic substitutions.

  2. Hydraulic architecture and tracheid allometry in mature Pinus palustris and Pinus elliottii trees.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Benecke, C A; Martin, T A; Peter, G F

    2010-03-01

    Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine, LL) and Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii (slash pine, SL) frequently co-occur in lower coastal plain flatwoods of the USA, with LL typically inhabiting slightly higher and better-drained microsites than SL. The hydraulic architecture and tracheid dimensions of roots, trunk and branches of mature LL and SL trees were compared to understand their role in species microsite occupation. Root xylem had higher sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) and was less resistant to cavitation compared with branches and trunk sapwood. Root k(s) of LL was significantly higher than SL, whereas branch and trunk k(s) did not differ between species. No differences in vulnerability to cavitation were observed in any of the organs between species. Across all organs, there was a significant but weak trade-off between water conduction efficiency and safety. Tracheid hydraulic diameter (D(h)) was strongly correlated with k(s) across all organs, explaining >73% of the variation in k(s). In contrast, tracheid length (L(t)) explained only 2.4% of the variability. Nevertheless, for trunk xylem, k(s) was 39.5% higher at 20 m compared with 1.8 m; this increase in k(s) was uncorrelated with D(h) and cell-wall thickness but was strongly correlated with the difference in L(t). Tracheid allometry markedly changed between sapwood of roots, trunks and branches, possibly reflecting different mechanical constraints. Even though vulnerability to cavitation was not different for sapwood of roots, branches or the trunks of LL and SL, higher sapwood to leaf area ratio and higher maximum sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity in roots of LL are functional traits that may provide LL with a competitive advantage on drier soil microsites.

  3. Holocene variability in the range distribution and abundance of Pinus, Picea abies, and Quercus in Romania; implications for their current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Tanţău, Ioan; Fărcaş, Sorina

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines fourteen fossil pollen datasets from Romania. It aims to investigate the temporal and spatial variability in the range distribution and abundance of three forest taxa, Pinus, Picea abies, and Quercus, during the Holocene. This is essential for understanding their current status in the forests of Eastern Europe, the conditions under which they arose, and the timing and processes responsible for their variability. Results from this synthesis do not indicate any apparent time lag in the establishment of Pinus diploxylon type ( Pinus sylvestris and Pinus mugo), Pinus cembra, P. abies, and Quercus across Romania within the limits of the dating resolution. However, the onset of the mass expansion of P. abies was not uniform, spreading earlier from sites in the western and north-western Carpathians (11,000-10,500 yr BP) than in the east (10,000 yr BP). We found that sites from the western, north-western, and northern Carpathians contained higher abundances of P. abies, whilst Quercus was in higher abundances in sites from the east, but there was no regional distinctiveness in the abundance of Pinus across the study area. However, P. diploxylon type was found in much higher abundance than P. cembra. Additionally, results indicate a greater proportion of Pinus (mainly P. diplxylon type) at high elevations, P. abies at mid to high elevations, and Quercus at low elevations (<500 m). The dominance of Pinus in the early Holocene boreal forest is likely the legacy of its local glacial refugia, fast life history strategies, high stress tolerance, and large habitat availability. In contrast, Pinus exhibited poor competitive abilities and was quickly replaced with P. abies and temperate deciduous taxa after 10,500 yr BP. P. abies has persisted in large abundances at higher elevations (above 1000 m) until the present day, as a result of good competitive abilities, and resilience to climate change and disturbance. The long-term dominance of P. abies appears to

  4. Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal volatile organic compound emission data from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) were collected using branch enclosure techniques in Central North Carolina, USA. Pinus taeda monoterpene emission rates were at least ten times higher than oxyge...

  5. Seasonal monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Pinus taeda and Pinus virginiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal volatile organic compound emission data from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) were collected using branch enclosure techniques in Central North Carolina, USA. Pinus taeda monoterpene emission rates were at least ten times higher than oxyge...

  6. Identification of black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) heartwood as a rich source of bioactive stilbenes by qNMR.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Kostas; Melliou, Eleni; Alizoti, Paraskevi; Magiatis, Prokopios

    2017-04-01

    Recently published studies have demonstrated the strong anti-inflammatory properties of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) heartwood extracts, related to its stilbene content. In order to find alternative sources of Pinus heartwood extracts rich in stilbenes, a large number of samples were investigated, using a new developed high-throughput screening method based on quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. The new method enabled us to measure the levels of pinosylvin, pinosylvin monomethyl ether and pinosylvin dimethyl ether in heartwood extracts in only 45 s per sample. The method was applied to 260 Pinus nigra trees originating from Peloponnese (southern Greece) from four different natural populations of the species. The results obtained showed that the total stilbenoids per dry heartwood weight varied greatly, ranging from 10.9 to 128.2 mg g(-1)drywood (average 59.92 ± 21.79 mg g(-1)drywood ). The major stilbene in all cases was pinosylvin monomethyl ether (40.32 ± 15.55 mg g(-1)drywood ), followed by pinosylvin (17.07±6.76 mg g(-1)drywood ) and pinosylvin dimethyl ether (2.54 ± 1.22 mg g(-1)drywood ). The highest stilbene content of P. nigra samples was found to be 6.3 times higher than the highest reported figure for P. sylvestris L. Pinus nigra heartwood is the richest source of pinosylvin and pinosylvin monomethyl ether identified to date and can be considered the best natural resource for production of bioactive extracts. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of Malva sylvestris.

    PubMed

    DellaGreca, Marina; Cutillo, Francesca; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Fiorentino, Antonio; Pacifico, Severina; Zarrelli, Armando

    2009-07-01

    Antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extract of Malva sylvestris was measured by its ability to scavenge the DPPH and superoxide anion radicals and to induce the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex. Analysis of the extract, carried out by different chromatographic techniques, led to the isolation of eleven compounds: 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-methoxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, ferulic acid, methyl 2-hydroxydihydrocinnamate, scopoletin, N-trans-feruloyl tyramine, a sesquiterpene, (3R,7E)-3-hydroxy-5,7-megastigmadien-9-one, and (10E,15Z)-9,12,13-trihydroxyoctadeca-10,15-dienoic acid. The antioxidant activities of all these compounds are reported.

  8. Malvone A, a phytoalexin found in Malva sylvestris (family Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Veshkurova, Olga; Golubenko, Zamira; Pshenichnov, Egor; Arzanova, Irina; Uzbekov, Vyacheslav; Sultanova, Elvira; Salikhov, Shavkat; Williams, Howard J; Reibenspies, Joseph H; Puckhaber, Lorraine S; Stipanovic, Robert D

    2006-11-01

    The isolation and structure of a phytoalexin, malvone A (2-methyl-3-methoxy-5,6-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) is reported. Malvone A formation is induced in Malva sylvestris L. by the plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae. In a turbimetric assay for toxicity to V. dahliae, it had an ED50 value of 24 microg/ml. The structure of malvone A was determined by MS and NMR spectroscopy, and by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The X-ray analysis showed water molecules were located in channels that run along the a-axis.

  9. Air lateral root pruning affects longleaf pine seedling root system morphology

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Dave Haywood

    2016-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedlings were cultured with air lateral root pruning (side-vented containers, VT) or without (solid-walled containers, SW). Seedling root system morphology and growth were assessed before planting and 8 and 14 months after planting. Although VT seedlings had greater root collar diameter than the SW before planting,...

  10. Effect of organic amendment and plant roots on the solubility and mobilization of lead in soils at a shooting range.

    PubMed

    Levonmäki, M; Hartikainen, H; Kairesalo, T

    2006-01-01

    Lead (Pb) dissolving gradually from spent pellets constitutes a serious environmental risk in and near shooting ranges, and remediation measures are necessary to prevent its movement to deeper soil layers and ground water. In this study, the effectiveness of organic amendment and plant roots in stabilizing Pb was assessed in a microcosm experiment. Planted (Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L.) and unplanted microcosms consisting of coarse-textured mineral soil covered with Pb-contaminated humic topsoil were coated with uncontaminated peat layers of 1 to 3 cm and incubated for 77 d. In a percolation test, the microcosms were washed with ultra pure water to simulate heavy rain so as to rinse water-soluble lead (Pbw) from the topsoil layer. Although Pbw remained below detection limits in the mineral soils in all test units, acid-soluble lead (Pba) increased. Peat amendment diminished Pba in the mineral soil layer, this effect being more pronounced in planted soils, indicating that Pb was taken up by the plants. The percolation test showed that the effect of Scots pine seedlings on Pb movement was minor when peat was added. A long-term dissolution test revealed that considerably more Pb was released from old pellets into soil extracts than from new ones, whereas only traces of Pb, if any, were dissolved in sterilized pure water.

  11. Contribution of root and rhizosphere respiration to the annual variation of carbon balance of a boreal Scots pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, J. F. J.; Pumpanen, J.; Kolari, P.; Juurola, E.; Nikinmaa, E.

    2009-06-01

    A large part of gross primary production (GPP) is consumed in root and rhizosphere respiration (Rr). To measure Rr, a group of evergreen coniferous Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees were girdled in a 45-year-old even aged forest in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland. In the girdling, phloem and bark were removed from breast height around the trees. We measured soil CO2 effluxes with a dynamic chamber at the girdled plot and at a non-girdled control plot in close vicinity. Before the girdling, effluxes were 22% higher at the plot to be girdled compared to the control plot. We scaled the measurements so that before girdling the effluxes representing total soil respiration (Rs) were at the same level. We compared the Rr and Rd to GPP measured with eddy covariance system. Our results show that Rr has higher seasonal variation than Rd, and also spatial variability was higher for Rr. The annual Rr:Rs and Rr:GPP-ratios were 0.36 and 0.21, respectively. Rr:Rd varied seasonally and in late summer and in autumn Rr exceeded Rd. Rr followed GPP with a delay of several weeks. During winter and spring Rr was very low, even when GPP and soil temperature had significantly risen. We conclude that Rr and Rd have different response to the environment and that for Rr the substrate availability is a more important explaining variable than soil temperature.

  12. Effect of Certain Nematodes on the Growth of Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Riffle, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma seedlings were inoculated separately with each of seven nematode species, and grown for 9 months at 20 C soil temperature. Hoplolaimus galeatus, Rotylenchus pumilis, Tylenchus exiguus, and Xiphinema americanum parasitized P. edulis seedlings, but did not significantly reduce seedling growth. Pinus edulis was not a host for Tylenchorhynchus cylindricus, Aphelenchoides cibolensis, or Criconemoides humilis. Xiphinema americanum and R. pumilis parasitized J. monosperma seedlings, and reduced their root weights and root collar diameters. Juniperus monosperma was not a host for A. cibolensis and T. exiguus, and parasitism of this tree species by T. cylindricus and C. humilis remains uncertain. PMID:19319253

  13. The influence of environmental, soil carbon, root, and stand characteristics on soil C02 efflux in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations located on the South Carolina Coastal Plain

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. Gough; John R. Seiler

    2004-01-01

    While the effect of soil temperature and rnoisture on soil C02 efflux (Ec) has becn widely investigated, the relationship between Ec and soil carbon (C). root, and stand parameters has not been comprehensively examined or quantified across extensive spatial and temporal scales. Wle measured E

  14. An arabinogalactan-protein from cell culture of Malva sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Classen, Birgit; Blaschek, Wolfgang

    2002-03-01

    An arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) from suspension culture medium of Malva sylvestris was isolated by precipitation with beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent, followed by gel-permeation chromatography. It revealed characteristic features of AGPs: a high amount of polysaccharide with a ratio of galactose to arabinose of 1.9 : 1, some uronic acids, and a small protein moiety with the main amino acids serine, alanine and hydroxyproline. The molecular weight was estimated to be 1.3 x 10(6) Da. Linkage analyses showed that the AGP is composed of a highly branched core polysaccharide of 3-, 6-, and 3,6-linked Galp residues with terminal Araf, GlcAp and Galp. Partial acid hydrolysis resulted in loss of Araf residues at the periphery of the molecule and heavily reduced its reactivity with beta-glucosyl Yariv antigen.

  15. Somatic Embryogenesis in Pinus spp.

    PubMed

    Montalbán, Itziar Aurora; García-Mendiguren, Olatz; Moncaleán, Paloma

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) has been the most important development for plant tissue culture, not only for mass propagation but also for enabling the implementation of biotechnological tools that can be used to increase the productivity and wood quality of plantation forestry. Development of SE in forest trees started in 1985 and nowadays many studies are focused on the optimization of conifer SE system. However, these advances for many Pinus spp. are not sufficiently refined to be implemented commercially. In this chapter, a summary of the main systems used to achieve SE in Pinus spp. is reported.

  16. Some physicochemical characteristics of pinus (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) seeds from North Algeria, their lipid profiles and volatile contents.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Nabil; Khettal, Bachra; Aid, Yasmine; Kherfellah, Souraya; Sobhi, Widad; Barragan-Montero, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of seeds of some pinus species (Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L., Pinus pinaster and Pinus canariensis) grown in North Algeria were determined. The results showed that the seeds consist of 19.8-36.7% oil, 14.25-26.62% protein, 7.8-8.6% moisture. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were the predominant elements present in seeds. Pinus seed's oil physicochemical properties show acid values (4.9-68.9), iodine values (93.3-160.4) and saponification values (65.9-117.9). Oil analysis showed that the major unsaturated fatty acids for the four species were linoleic acid (30-59%) and oleic acid (17.4-34.6%), while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (5-29%). Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry analysis of P. halepensis Mill., P. pinaster and P. canariensis volatile oils indicated that the major volatile compound was the limonene with relative percentage of 3.1, 7.5 and 10.8, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Malva sylvestris cream on burn injury and wounds in rats

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Ebrahim; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Akbari, Jafar; Enayati-fard, Reza; Azizi, Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Burn injury is one of the most health-threatening problems in the world. Malva sylvestris (M. sylvestris) flowers have a high mucilage content and are used as a remedy for cut wound and dermal infected wounds in Iranian folklore Medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of M. sylvestris cream on the second degree burn injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of 10 rats per group were burned with hot metal plate. Animals were administrated divided as control, normal saline, standard silver sulfadiazine 1% (SSD), 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris into separate groups. Wound area, percentage of wound contraction, and histological and bacteriological assessments were evaluated. Results: Wound sizes were not significantly different among groups on 1st and 3rd days after burn injury, while they were significantly different among groups after 7th day post-burn injury. The average areas of wounds on the 15th day were 7.5±2.9, 6.7±2, 10.5±1.6, 4.7±2, and 4.5±2 cm2 for base cream, normal saline, SSD, 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris, respectively. The results of histology exhibited well-formed horizontally-oriented collagen fibers in MS topical treatment groups. Microorganisms existed in the SSD group were most probably Staphilococcus epidermitis and for NS group were staphylococcus saprophiteccus. Conclusion: M. sylvestris cream improved histological changes of tissue components in the process of healing when compared with SSD cream. Therefore, it can be used as a topical treatment agent for burn wound. PMID:26909337

  18. Effect of Malva sylvestris cream on burn injury and wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Ebrahim; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Azadbakht, Mohammad; Akbari, Jafar; Enayati-Fard, Reza; Azizi, Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Burn injury is one of the most health-threatening problems in the world. Malva sylvestris (M. sylvestris) flowers have a high mucilage content and are used as a remedy for cut wound and dermal infected wounds in Iranian folklore Medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of M. sylvestris cream on the second degree burn injury in rats. Five groups of 10 rats per group were burned with hot metal plate. Animals were administrated divided as control, normal saline, standard silver sulfadiazine 1% (SSD), 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris into separate groups. Wound area, percentage of wound contraction, and histological and bacteriological assessments were evaluated. Wound sizes were not significantly different among groups on 1(st) and 3(rd) days after burn injury, while they were significantly different among groups after 7(th) day post-burn injury. The average areas of wounds on the 15(th) day were 7.5±2.9, 6.7±2, 10.5±1.6, 4.7±2, and 4.5±2 cm(2) for base cream, normal saline, SSD, 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris, respectively. The results of histology exhibited well-formed horizontally-oriented collagen fibers in MS topical treatment groups. Microorganisms existed in the SSD group were most probably Staphilococcus epidermitis and for NS group were staphylococcus saprophiteccus. M. sylvestris cream improved histological changes of tissue components in the process of healing when compared with SSD cream. Therefore, it can be used as a topical treatment agent for burn wound.

  19. Spatiotemporal patterns and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles from Europe.

    PubMed

    Holt, Eva; Kočan, Anton; Klánová, Jana; Assefa, Anteneh; Wiberg, Karin

    2016-10-01

    Using pine needles as a bio-sampler of atmospheric contamination is a relatively cheap and easy method, particularly for remote sites. Therefore, pine needles have been used to monitor a range of semi-volatile contaminants in the air. In the present study, pine needles were used to monitor polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the air at sites with different land use types in Sweden (SW), Czech Republic (CZ), and Slovakia (SK). Spatiotemporal patterns in levels and congener profiles were investigated. Multivariate analysis was used to aid source identification. A comparison was also made between the profile of indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs-PCBs 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) in pine needles and those in active and passive air samplers. Concentrations in pine needles were 220-5100 ng kg(-1) (∑18PCBs - ind-PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs)) and 0.045-1.7 ng toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg(-1) (dry weight (dw)). Thermal sources (e.g., waste incineration) were identified as important sources of PCBs in pine needles. Comparison of profiles in pine needles to active and passive air samplers showed a lesser contribution of lower molecular weight PCBs 28 and 52, as well as a greater contribution of higher molecular weight PCBs (e.g., 180) in pine needles. The dissimilarities in congener profiles were attributed to faster degradation of lower chlorinated congeners from the leaf surface or metabolism by the plant.

  20. CHRONIC IRRADIATION OF SCOTS PINE TREES (PINUS SYLVESTRIS) IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE: DOSIMETRY AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 years old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y{sup -1}) to approximately 7 Gy y{sup -1} in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  1. Deriving nitrogen critical levels and loads based on the responses of acidophytic lichen communities on boreal urban Pinus sylvestris trunks.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Sirkku

    2017-09-19

    The deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) compounds currently predominates over sulphur (S) deposition in most of the cities in Europe and North America. Acidophytic lichens growing on tree trunks are known to be sensitive to both N and S deposition. Given that tree species and climatic factors affect the composition of epiphytic lichen communities and modify lichen responses to air pollution, this study focused on the impact of urban air pollution on acidophytes growing on boreal conifer trunks. The study was performed in the Helsinki metropolitan area, southern Finland, where annual mean nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations range from 4-5μgm(-3) to >50μgm(-3). In addition, background forest sites in southern and northern Finland were included. The results demonstrated elevated N contents (≥0.7%) in Hypogymnia physodes and Platismatia glauca at all the sites where the species occurred. In the Helsinki metropolitan area, a higher frequency of green algae+Scoliociosporum chlorococcum and reduced numerical frequencies of other indicator lichen species (e.g. Pseudevernia furfuracea, Bryoria spp., Usnea spp.) were associated with elevated atmospheric concentrations of NO2 and particulate matter containing N, as well as elevated concentrations of inorganic N in bark. The N isotope values (δ(15)N) of lichens supported the uptake of oxidized N mainly originating from road traffic. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) also negatively affected the most sensitive species, despite the current low levels (1-4μgm(-3)yr(-1)). Critical levels of 5μgNO2m(-3)yr(-1) and 0.5μgNH3m(-3)yr(-1), and a critical load of 2-3kgNha(-1)yr(-1) are proposed for protecting the diversity of boreal acidophytes. This study calls for measurements of the throughfall of various N fractions in urban forest ecosystems along precipitation and temperature gradients to verify the proposed critical levels and loads. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A density management diagram for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.): A tool for assessing the forest's protective effect

    Treesearch

    Giorgio Vacchiano; Renzo Motta; James N. Long; John D. Shaw

    2008-01-01

    Density management diagrams (DMD) are graphical tools used in the design of silvicultural regimes in even-aged forests. They depict the relationship between stand density, average tree size, stand yield and dominant height, based upon relevant ecological and allometric relationships such as the self-thinning rule, the yield-density effect, and site index curves. DMD...

  3. Long-term evaluation of the needle surface wax condition of Pinus sylvestris around different industries in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija; Huttunen, Satu

    2005-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the annual dynamics of needle surface wax erosion and wettability in Scots pines exposed to a gradient of industrial pollutants emitted from the main factories of Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory, an oil refinery and a cement factory. Decreased emissions (in the case of the oil refinery and the cement factory) were reflected in the increased structural surface area (SSA, i.e. area covered by tubular waxes) on the needles. The nearly constant amount of emissions from the nitrogen fertilizer factory within the 1994-2000 period corresponded to negligible annual differences in SSA. Annual changes in the hydrophobicity of needles on the investigated transects were small. Despite the decreased pollution within the 7-year period, industrial emissions are still causing significantly accelerated wax erosion and increased wettability in needles sampled from the stands most heavily affected by pollutants.

  4. Streptomyces pini sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from phylloplane of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needle-like leaves.

    PubMed

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Poonguzhali, Selvaraj; Saravanan, Venkatakrishnan Sivaraj; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Pragatheswari, Dhandapani; Santhanakrishnan, Palani; Kim, Soo-Jin; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2016-10-01

    A novel siderophore-producing actinomycete, designated PL19T, was isolated from the Scots-pine needle-like leaves collected from TNAU campus, Coimbatore, India. The isolate was chemoorganotrophic in nutrition and able to grow at 30 °C, and the optimum pH and NaCl facilitated the growth pH 6-11 and 0-8 % (w/v), respectively. The cells are filamentous and the mycelia formed are basically of wide and intricately branched substrate mycelium from which aerial mycelia arises, later gets differentiated into spores that are warty and arranged spirally. The 16S rRNA gene of strain PL19T was sequenced and was highly similar to the type strains of species of the genus Streptomyces, including Streptomyces barkulensis RC1831T (98.8 % pairwise similarity), Streptomyces fenghuangensis GIMN4.003T (98.2 %), Streptomyces nanhaiensis SCSIO 01248T (98.0 %), Streptomyces radiopugnans R97T (97.9 %), Streptomyces atacamensis C60T (97.8 %) and Streptomyces macrosporus NBRC 14749T (97.2 %), all of which were subjected to taxonomical characterization using a polyphasic approach. The strains showed unique carbon utilization patterns, and it possesses iso-C16 : 0 anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as a major cellular fatty acids. The cell-wall was dominated with ll-type diaminopimelic acid, and the menaquinone type was MK-9(H6, H8). These chemotaxonomic evidences placed strain PL19T within the genus Streptomyces. The determination of G+C ratio (69.5 mol%) and DNA-DNA hybridization values (13.4-31.8 % with the phylogenetically related species) helped in further hierarchical classification of strain PL19T. Based on morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic data as well as DNA-DNA hybridization values, strain PL19T could be distinguished from the evolutionarily closest species currently available. All these collective data show that strain PL19T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces pini sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PL19T (=NRRL B-24728T=ICMP 17783T).

  5. Particulate pollutants are capable to 'degrade' epicuticular waxes and to decrease the drought tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Pariyar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution causes the amorphous appearance of epicuticular waxes in conifers, usually called wax 'degradation' or 'erosion', which is often correlated with tree damage symptoms, e.g., winter desiccation. Previous investigations concentrated on wax chemistry, with little success. Here, we address the hypothesis that both 'wax degradation' and decreasing drought tolerance of trees may result from physical factors following the deposition of salt particles onto the needles. Pine seedlings were sprayed with dry aerosols or 50 mM solutions of different salts. The needles underwent humidity changes within an environmental scanning electron microscope, causing salt expansion on the surface and into the epistomatal chambers. The development of amorphous wax appearance by deliquescent salts covering tubular wax fibrils was demonstrated. The minimum epidermal conductance of the sprayed pine seedlings increased. Aerosol deposition potentially 'degrades' waxes and decreases tree drought tolerance. These effects have not been adequately considered thus far in air pollution research.

  6. Malva sylvestris extract protects upon lithium carbonate-induced kidney damages in male rat.

    PubMed

    Ben Saad, Anouar; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Brahmi, Dalel; Smida, Amani; Ncib, Sana; Zouari, Nacim; Zourgui, Lazher

    2016-12-01

    Malva sylvestris has recently attracted special attention due to its potential activities in many chronic disorders. We aimed to assess the beneficial effects of Malva sylvestris extract against lithium carbonate induced renal damage in male Wistar rats. For this purpose, Malva sylvestris extract at a dose of 0.2g/kg was orally administrated, followed by 25mg/kg of lithium carbonate (intraperitoneal injection) for 30 days. Malva sylvestris extract was proved to contain large amounts of K(+), Na(+), Ca(++) and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids shown by the obtained HPLC-based analysis. The antioxidant capacities in vitro showed high level of radical scavenging activity and reducing power. The in vivo results showed that intraperitoneal injection of lithium carbonate exhibited a significant increase (p<0.01) of serum creatinine and urea and reduced serum sodium and potassium concentrations. Lithium carbonate also induced oxidative damage as indicated by a significant raise in LPO level associated with a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in the kidney. However, pretreatment with Malva sylvestris extract restored the status of all parameters studied. It can be concluded that lithium carbonate has induced oxidative stress, biochemical changes and histopathological damage but the supplementation with Malva sylvestris extract has prevented such toxicity.

  7. Pinus glabra Walt. Spruce Pine

    Treesearch

    Susan V. Kossuth; J.L. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Spruce pine (Pinus glabra), also called cedar pine, Walter pine, or bottom white pine, is a medium-sized tree that grows in limited numbers in swamps, river valleys, on hummocks, and along river banks of the southern Coastal Plain. Its wood is brittle, close-grained, nondurable, and is of limited commercial importance.

  8. ECTOMYCORRHIZAL DIVERSITY IN A LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L.) GENETICS PLANTATION: INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) Has co-evolved a high dependency on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations most likely because its natural range includes soils of varying moisture that are P- and/or N-deficient. Because of its wide geographic distrubition, we would expect its roots t...

  9. Fall nitrogen fertilization and the biology of Pinus taeda seedling development

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; C.C. Black; T.L. Kormanik; P.A. Counce

    1997-01-01

    In mid-September when stems and roots of nursery-grown loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings are actively accumulating dry weight (DW), an extra 10, 20, or 40 kg NH4NO3 ha-1 (10N, 20N, 4ON) was applied. Seedlings receiving no extra N (0N) were the controls. The temporal patterns...

  10. ECTOMYCORRHIZAL DIVERSITY IN A LOBLOLLY PINE (PINUS TAEDA L.) GENETICS PLANTATION: INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) Has co-evolved a high dependency on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations most likely because its natural range includes soils of varying moisture that are P- and/or N-deficient. Because of its wide geographic distrubition, we would expect its roots t...

  11. Hydraulic redistribution of water from Pinus ponderosa trees to seedlings: evidence for an ectomycorrhizal pathway.

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey M. Warren; J. Renee Brooks; Frederick C. Meinzer; Joyce L. Eberhart

    2008-01-01

    Although there is strong evidence for hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water by trees, it is not known if common myconhizal networks (CMN) can facilitate HR from mature trees to seedlings under field conditions. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings were planted into root-excluding 61-micron mesh barrier chambers buried in an old-growth...

  12. Short-term effects of fertilization on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) physiology

    Treesearch

    C.M. Gough; J.R. Seiler; Chris A. Maier

    2004-01-01

    Fertilization commonly increases biomass production in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). However, the sequence of short-term physiological adjustments allowing for the establishment of leaf area and enhanced growth is not well understood. The effects of fertilization on photosynthetic parameters, root respiration, and growth for over 200 d following...

  13. Performance of Slash Pine Bare-Root Seedlings and Containerized Rooted Cuttings Planted on Five Dates in Louisiana

    Treesearch

    Alper Akgul; Michael G. Messina; Alan Wilson; Joe Weber

    2004-01-01

    Landowners are interested in extending the normal planting season, as well as the comparative field performance, of nursery bare-root seedlings and containerized rooted cuttings. The effect of seasonal planting dates on field performance of two stock types of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) was examined. Slash pine bare-root seedlings (BRS) and...

  14. Responses of V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris (C.C. Gmelin) ecotypes originated from two different geographical regions of Turkey to salinity stress at seed germination and plantlet stages.

    PubMed

    Demir, K O K

    2007-08-15

    This research was carried out under the laboratory conditions of Department of Horticulture, Agriculture Faculty, Namik Kemal University in Turkey. In this research, salinity tolerance of V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris (C.C. Gmelin) ecotypes derived from Marmara Region and Akdeniz Region of Turkey was evaluated for various salinity levels at seed germination and plantlet stages. In addition to V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris (C.C. Gmelin); 5 BB Kober (V. berlandieri Planch. x V. riparia Michx.) and Isabella grape (V. labrusca L.) were also inserted to study to make a comparison. In order to determine responses of V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris (C.C. Gmelin) ecotypes, 5 BB Kober and Isabella grape to salinity, NaCl was added at 0 (control), 2.7, 5.4, 8.1 and 10.8 dS m(-1) to nutrient solution to achieve five salinity levels. Prior to study, all seeds were extracted from grape berries and stratified to be permeable to water by humidified sand. Afterwards, seeds were germinated under the different salinity stress conditions mentioned above. At the end of germination phases, germination percentages were calculated for all seed types and fresh weight (mg), dry weight (mg), water content (%), tolerance index values, Na+:K+ values were found out for shoots and roots of all plantlet types. No germination was observed during the germinations of all seeds under the stress conditions induced by 10.8 dS m(-1) NaCl treatment. On the basis of various salinity tolerance indexes, it was seen that Marmara Region plantlets were more resistant than Akdeniz Region for 8.1 dS m(-1) NaCl treatment. In conclusion, since V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris (C.C. Gmelin) ecotype from Marmara Region exhibits higher resistance to salinity, its rooted plant materials as grapevine rootstock can be used for salinity soil conditions in grape growing. Besides, it can be utilized from seeds of Marmara Region to obtain salinity resistant hybridized grapevine rootstocks in breeding programs of viticulture.

  15. Movement analyses of wood cricket ( Nemobius sylvestris) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    PubMed

    Brouwers, N C; Newton, A C

    2010-12-01

    Information on the dispersal ability of invertebrate species associated with woodland habitats is severely lacking. Therefore, a study was conducted examining the movement patterns of wood cricket (Nemobius sylvestris) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) on the Isle of Wight, UK. Juvenile (i.e. nymphs) and adult wood crickets were released and observed over time within different ground surface substrates. Their movement paths were recorded and subsequently analysed using random walk models. Nymphs were found to move more slowly than adults did; and, when given a choice, both nymphs and adults showed a preference for moving through or over leaf litter compared to bare soil or grass. A correlated random walk (CRW) model accurately described the movement pattern of adult wood crickets through leaf litter, indicating a level of directional persistence in their movements. The estimated population spread through leaf litter for adults was 17.9 cm min-1. Movements of nymphs through leaf litter could not accurately be described by a random walk model, showing a change in their movement pattern over time from directed to more random movements. The estimated population spread through leaf litter for nymphs was 10.1 cm min-1. The results indicate that wood cricket adults can be considered as more powerful dispersers than nymphs; however, further analysis of how the insects move through natural heterogeneous environments at a range of spatio-temporal scales needs to be performed to provide a complete understanding of the dispersal ability of the species.

  16. Cavity size and copper root pruning affect production and establishment of container-grown longleaf pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    Marry Anne Sword Sayer; James D. Haywood; Shi-Jean Susana. Sung

    2009-01-01

    With six container types, we tested the effects of cavity size (i.e., 60, 93, and 170 ml) and copper root pruning on the root system development of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings grown in a greenhouse. We then evaluated root egress during a root growth potential test and assessed seedling morphology and root system development 1 year after planting in...

  17. Severely reduced gravitropism in dark-grown hypocotyls of a starch-deficient mutant of Nicotiana sylvestris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Sack, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    Gravitropism in dark-grown hypocotyls of the wild type was compared with a starch-deficient Nicotiana sylvestris mutant (NS 458) to test the effects of starch deficiency on gravity sensing. In a time course of curvature measured using infrared video, the response of the mutant was greatly reduced compared to the wild type; 72 hours after reorientation, curvature was about 10 degrees for NS 458 and about 70 degrees for wild type. In dishes maintained in a vertical orientation, wild-type hypocotyls were predominantly vertical, whereas NS 458 hypocotyls were severely disoriented with about 5 times more orientational variability than wild type. Since the growth rates were equal for both genotypes and phototropic curvature was only slightly inhibited in NS 458, the mutation probably affects gravity perception rather than differential growth. Our data suggest that starch deficiency reduces gravitropic sensitivity more in dark-grown hypocotyls than in dark- or light-grown roots in this mutant and support the hypothesis that amyloplasts function as statoliths in shoots as well as roots.

  18. Severely reduced gravitropism in dark-grown hypocotyls of a starch-deficient mutant of Nicotiana sylvestris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Sack, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    Gravitropism in dark-grown hypocotyls of the wild type was compared with a starch-deficient Nicotiana sylvestris mutant (NS 458) to test the effects of starch deficiency on gravity sensing. In a time course of curvature measured using infrared video, the response of the mutant was greatly reduced compared to the wild type; 72 hours after reorientation, curvature was about 10 degrees for NS 458 and about 70 degrees for wild type. In dishes maintained in a vertical orientation, wild-type hypocotyls were predominantly vertical, whereas NS 458 hypocotyls were severely disoriented with about 5 times more orientational variability than wild type. Since the growth rates were equal for both genotypes and phototropic curvature was only slightly inhibited in NS 458, the mutation probably affects gravity perception rather than differential growth. Our data suggest that starch deficiency reduces gravitropic sensitivity more in dark-grown hypocotyls than in dark- or light-grown roots in this mutant and support the hypothesis that amyloplasts function as statoliths in shoots as well as roots.

  19. Evaluation of cutaneous wound healing activity of Malva sylvestris aqueous extract in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Mohammad; Ravarian, Behdad; Zardast, Mahmoud; Moallem, Seyed Adel; Fard, Mohammad Hasanpour; Valavi, Masoomeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Malva sylvestris aqueous extract on cutaneous wound healing in BALB/c mice. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven male BALB/c mice (2.5 months of age) were used. A cut wound (superficial fascia depth) was made locally. The mice were then divided into three groups: the first, second and third groups received topical administration of M. sylvestris 1% aqueous extract, silver sulfadiazine topical cream and cold cream (positive and negative control groups), respectively. On days 4, 7 and 10 excisional biopsies were performed and wound healing was evaluated histopathologically. The data were analyzed by the ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests. Results: On days 4 and 7, the numbers of inflammatory cells in the silver sulfadiazine and M. sylvestris-treated groups were significantly lower than the control group and keratinization at the edges of the wound in both groups was significantly higher than the control group. On the tenth day of the study, the Malva-treated mice showed better healing features and less fibrosis and scar formation, and also fewer hair follicles were damaged in this group. On the tenth day of the study, the numbers of inflammatory cells in M. sylvestris and silver sulfadiazine-treated groups were significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: The present study supports the beneficial effects of M. sylvestris on the wound healing process and suggests a potential clinical application. PMID:26221487

  20. Different patterns of genetic structure of relict and isolated populations of endangered peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann).

    PubMed

    Wachowiak, W; Prus-Glowacki, W

    2009-01-01

    Recent changes in environmental conditions in populations of peat-bog pine (Pinus uliginosa Neumann) caused rapid decline or even extinction of the species in several stands in Central Europe. Conservation strategies for P. uliginosa require information about the evolutionary history and genetic structure of its populations. Using isozymes we assessed the genetic structure of P. uliginosa from four isolated stands in Poland and compared the results to genetic structures of other closely related pine species including eight populations of Pinus mugo, ten of Pinus sylvestris and one of Pinus uncinata. The level of genetic variability of P. uliginosa measured by the mean number of alleles per locus and average heterozygosity was similar to others related to P. uliginosa taxa from the reference group but it differs among populations. High genetic similarity was found between two populations of P. uliginosa from Low Silesian Pinewood. The populations were genetically distinct as compared to other populations including locus classicus of the species from the peat bog at Batorów Reserve. Very low genetic distance (DN = 0.002) and small genetic differentiation (GST = 0.003) were found between P. uliginosa and P. mugo in the sympatric populations of the species from Zieleniec peat bog suggesting the ongoing natural hybridisation and genetic contamination of peat-bog pine from this area. Some evidence for skew in allele frequency distribution potentially due to recent bottleneck was found in population from Low Silesian Pinewood. The analysed open pollinated progeny derived from two P. uliginosa stands from Low Silesian Pinewood showed the excess of homozygotes as compared to the maternal trees indicating high level of inbreeding (F = 0.105, F = 0.081). The results are discussed in the context of evolution of P. uliginosa populations, taxonomic relationships between the analysed species and conservation strategies for active protection of peat-bog pine.

  1. Surface-based GPR underestimates below-stump root biomass

    Treesearch

    John R. Butnor; Lisa J. Samuelson; Thomas A. Stokes; Kurt H. Johnsen; Peter H. Anderson; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke

    2016-01-01

    Aims While lateral root mass is readily detectable with ground penetrating radar (GPR), the roots beneath a tree (below-stump) and overlapping lateral roots near large trees are problematic for surface-based antennas operated in reflection mode. We sought to determine if tree size (DBH) effects GPR root detection proximal to longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) and if...

  2. Aluminum fractions in root tips of slash pine and loblolly pine families differing in Al resistance

    Treesearch

    Jaroslaw Nowak; Alexander L. Friend

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) distribution among several cellular fractions was investigated in root tips of seedlings of one Al-resistant and one Al-sensitive family of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) grown in nutrient solution containing 100 M AlCl3 (pH 4) for 167 h....

  3. Response of Pinus ponderosa Seedlings to Stylet-Bearing Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Viglierchio, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Of 12 stylet-bearing nematodes used for inoculations, Pratylenchus penetrans, P. brachyurus, P. vulnus, Ditylenchus destructor, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla reproduced on Pinus ponderosa, while Xiphinema index, Aphelenchus avenae, Paratylenehus neoamblycephalus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and Macroposthonia xenoplax did not. P. vulnus, P. brachyurus, P. penetrans, A. avenae, D. destructor, T. semipenetrans, and P. neoamblycephalus significantly suppressed both the shoot and root wet weights of ponderosa pine seedlings obtained from stands in five different locations. X. index significantly suppressed root wet weights, M. xenoplax siguificantly suppressed shoot wet weight, and M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla suppressed neither at the inoculation levels used. Injurious nematodes tended to suppress root growth more than shoot growth. Seedlings from two locations produced greater shoot growth wet weight than did seedlings from the other three locations. The more injurious nematodes tended to cause an increase in the water content of shoots. Frequency analyses of seedling population shoot-root ratios indicated that ponderosa pine seedlings could be selected for better shoot-root ratios as well as for resistance to several pathogenic nematodes. PMID:19300659

  4. Nutrient use and uptake in Pinus taeda.

    PubMed

    Albaugh, Timothy J; Allen, H Lee; Fox, Thomas R

    2008-07-01

    We quantified nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) content, use (nutrient amount for one growth year), retranslocation (nutrients recycled before foliage senescence), uptake (use minus retranslocation), volume production per unit of uptake and fertilizer-uptake efficiency (percent applied taken up) in a 2 x 2 (nutrient and water) factorial experiment replicated four times in an 8-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand growing on a nutrient-poor sandy soil in Scotland County, North Carolina, USA. Over 14 years, we applied 1140, 168, 393, 168 and 146 kg ha(-1) of elemental N, P, K, Ca and Mg fertilizer, respectively, and an average of 710 mm year(-1) of irrigation. All plots received complete vegetation control. Fertilization about doubled tissue N, P, K and Mg contents at age 21, whereas irrigation resulted in smaller increases in nutrient contents. Maximum annual uptake was 101, 9.3, 44, 37 and 13 kg ha(-1) year(-1) and volume production per unit of nutrient uptake was 0.35, 3.5, 0.66, 1.1 and 3.1 m(3) kg(-1), for N, P, K, Ca and Mg, respectively. Irrigated plots had greater volume production per unit of N, P, K and Mg uptake than control plots, likely because irrigation allowed photosynthesis to continue during dry periods. Fertilized plus irrigated plots had less volume production per unit of these elements than the fertilized plots either because nutrient uptake exceeded the requirement for optimum growth or because available water (rainfall plus irrigation) was insufficient for the leaf area achieved with fertilization. At age 19, fertilizer-uptake efficiencies for N, P, K, Ca and Mg were 53, 24, 62, 57 and 39%, respectively, and increased with irrigation to 68, 36, 78, 116 and 55%, respectively. The scale of fertilizer uptake was likely a result of low native site nutrient availability, study longevity, measurement of all tissue components on site, a comprehensive assessment of coarse roots, and the 3-m rooting

  5. Effects of Crown Scorch on Longleaf Pine Fine Roots

    Treesearch

    Mary Anne Sword; James D. Haywood

    1999-01-01

    Photosynthate production is reduced by foliage loss. Thus, scorch-induced decreases in the leaf area of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) may reduce photosynthate allocation to roots. In this investigation the root carbohydrate concentrations and dynamics of longleaf pine after two intensities of prescribed burning were monitored. In...

  6. Constituent and induced tannin accumulations in roots of loblolly pines

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Walkinshaw

    1999-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L [L.]) has become the most important source of wood fiber in the Southern United States. This tree is an excellent competitor and recovers well from a variety of adverse conditions. The author presents a histological study of tannin in pine roots to measure tannin abundance as a primary trait to evaluate root health at the...

  7. Rooting of needle fascicles from western white pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    Ramond J. Hoff; Geral I. McDonald

    1968-01-01

    In one test, 45 out of 318 (14 percent) needle fascicles from 2-year-old seedlings of Pinus monticola Dougl. were rooted. Eight of the needle fascicles produced shoot growth. In another test, 392 out of 742 (53 percent) needle fascicles were rooted, but none of these produced shoot growth.

  8. Species-specific fine root biomass distribution alters competition in mixed forests under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyer, Christopher; Gutsch, Martin; Lasch, Petra; Suckow, Felicitas; Sterck, Frank; Mohren, Frits

    2010-05-01

    The importance of mixed forests in European silviculture has increased due to forest conversion policies and multifunctional forest management. Concurrently, evidences for substantial impacts of climate change on forest ecosystems accumulate. Projected drier and warmer conditions alter the water relations of tree species, their growth and ultimately their inter-specific competition in mixed stands. Process-based models are scientific tools to study the impact of climate change on and to deepen the understanding of the functioning of these systems based on ecological mechanisms. They allow for long-term, stand-level studies of forest dynamics which could only be addressed with great difficulty in an experimental or empirical setup. We used the process-based forest model 4C to simulate inter-specific competition in mixed stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Common beech (Fagus sylvatica) as well as Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Sessile / Pedunculate oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) under a) historical climate for model verification and b) under climate change scenario realizations of the climate model STAR 2.0 in Brandenburg, Germany. Some of the climate change scenario realizations feature a substantially drier and warmer summer climate which decreases the climatic water balance during the growing season. We assumed species-specific fine root biomass distributions which feature broadleaved fine roots in deeper soil layers and coniferous fine roots in upper soil layers according to several root excavation studies from mixed stands. The stands themselves were constructed from yield tables of the contributing species. The model verification provided good results for the basal area predictions under the historical climate. Under climate change, the number of days when the tree water demand exceeded the soil water supply was higher for the coniferous species than for broadleaved species. Furthermore, after 45 simulation years the basal area

  9. The protective effect of Malva sylvestris on rat kidney damaged by vanadium

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The protective effect of the common mallow (Malva sylvestris) decoction on renal damages in rats induced by ammonium metavanadate poisoning was evaluated. On the one hand, vanadium toxicity is associated to the production of reactive oxygen species, causing a lipid peroxidation and an alteration in the enzymatic antioxidant defence. On the other hand, many medicinal plants are known to possess antioxidant and radical scavenging properties, thanks to the presence of flavonoids. These properties were confirmed in Malva sylvestris by two separate methods; namely, the Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay and the Nitroblue Tetrazolium reduction assay. Results In 80 rats exposed to ammonium metavanadate (0.24 mmol/kg body weight in drinking water) for 90 days, lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured in kidney. A significant increase in the formation of free radicals and antioxidant enzyme activities was noticed. In addition, a histological examination of kidney revealed a structural deterioration of the renal cortical capsules and a shrinking of the Bowman space. In animals intoxicated by metavanadate but also given a Malva sylvestris decoction (0.2 g dry mallow/kg body weight), no such pathologic features were observed: lipid peroxidation levels, antioxidant enzyme activities and histological features appeared normal as compared to control rats. Conclusion Malva sylvestris is proved to have a high antioxidative potential thanks to its richness in phenolic compounds. PMID:21513564

  10. Investigation of Dynamics Biosynthesis of Phytoalexins induced in Malva Sylvestris by the Verticilium Dahliae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biosynthesis of phytoalexins is an active mechanism utilized by plants to protect against pathogens. Phytoalexins from wild plant species may be more potent than those produced in cultivated plants. Two terpenoid substances from the pathogen-infected plant Malva sylvestris L. were isolated using t...

  11. The protective effect of Malva sylvestris on rat kidney damaged by vanadium.

    PubMed

    Marouane, Wafa; Soussi, Ahlem; Murat, Jean-Claude; Bezzine, Sofiane; El Feki, Abdelfattah

    2011-04-23

    The protective effect of the common mallow (Malva sylvestris) decoction on renal damages in rats induced by ammonium metavanadate poisoning was evaluated. On the one hand, vanadium toxicity is associated to the production of reactive oxygen species, causing a lipid peroxidation and an alteration in the enzymatic antioxidant defence. On the other hand, many medicinal plants are known to possess antioxidant and radical scavenging properties, thanks to the presence of flavonoids. These properties were confirmed in Malva sylvestris by two separate methods; namely, the Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay and the Nitroblue Tetrazolium reduction assay. In 80 rats exposed to ammonium metavanadate (0.24 mmol/kg body weight in drinking water) for 90 days, lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured in kidney. A significant increase in the formation of free radicals and antioxidant enzyme activities was noticed. In addition, a histological examination of kidney revealed a structural deterioration of the renal cortical capsules and a shrinking of the Bowman space. In animals intoxicated by metavanadate but also given a Malva sylvestris decoction (0.2 g dry mallow/kg body weight), no such pathologic features were observed: lipid peroxidation levels, antioxidant enzyme activities and histological features appeared normal as compared to control rats. Malva sylvestris is proved to have a high antioxidative potential thanks to its richness in phenolic compounds.

  12. Clerodane and Ent-kaurane Diterpene Glycosyl and Glycoside Derivatives from the Leaves of Casearia sylvestris

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five new clerodane diterpene glycosides caseariasides A-E (1-4) and three new ent-kaurane diterpene glucosides sylvestrisides C-E (6-8) were isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analyses....

  13. Wound healing activity of Malva sylvestris and Punica granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Pirbalouti, Abdollah Ghasemi; Azizi, Shahrzad; Koohpayeh, Abed; Hamedi, Behzad

    2010-01-01

    The flowers of Malva sylvestris Linn. (Malvaceae) and Punica granatum Linn. (Punicaceae) are important medicinal plants in Iranian traditional medicine (Unani) whose have been used as remedy against edema, bum, wound and for their carminative, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The diethyl ether extract of M. sylvestris and P. granatum flowers were used to evaluate the wound healing activity at 200 mg/kg/day dose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Wounds were induced in Wister rats divided into six groups as following; Group I, normal rats were treated with simple ointment base. Group II, diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base (control). Groups III and IV, diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of extracts (diabetic animals), Groups V, diabetic rats were treated with simple ointment base containing of mixed extracts (1:1), Group VI, diabetic rats received the standard drug (nitrofurazone). The efficacy of treatment was evaluated based on wound area relative and histopathological characteristics. The extract-treated diabetic animals showed significant reduction in the wound area when compared with control. Also, histological studies of the tissue obtained on days 9th and 18th from the extract-treated by extract of M. sylvestris showed increased well organized bands of collagen, more fibroblasts and few inflammatory cells. These findings demonstrate that extract of M. sylvestis effectively stimulates wound contraction as compared to control group and other groups. M. sylvestris accelerated wound healing in rats and thus supports its traditional use.

  14. Seasonal variations in the deoxypodophyllotoxin content and yield of Anthriscus sylvestris L. (Hoffm.) grown in the field and under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Hendrawati, Oktavia; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Hille, Jacques; Quax, Wim J; Kayser, Oliver

    2011-08-10

    Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT) is the main lignan in Anthriscus sylvestris . For this study two sets of experiments with 16 plants and seeds, collected from a wide geographical range, were carried out. The DPT content in roots was significantly lower (p < 0.05) when the plants were cultivated in a non-native environment. For field-grown plants the highest DPT content was found in March (second year): 0.15% w/w (dry weight) in roots; 0.03% w/w in aerial parts. For plants grown in the climate room, the highest concentration (0.14% w/w) was observed in April (second year) in the roots and in July (first year) in the aerial parts (0.05% w/w). For the isolation of DPT, roots are the most suitable part. The best harvest times are March (second year) for outdoor plants and April (second year) for indoor plants when height content and adequate biomass give the optimal DPT yield.

  15. Soil C02 efflux across four age classes of plantation loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) on the Virginia Piedmont

    Treesearch

    P. Eric Wiseman; John R. Seiler

    2004-01-01

    Soil CO2 efflux resulting from microbial and root respiration is a major component of the forest C cycle. In this investigation, we examined in detail how soil CO2 efflux differs both spatially and temporally with respect to stand age for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations on the Virginia Piedmont...

  16. Vascular cambial sucrose metabolism and growth in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in relation to transplanting stress

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; C.C. Black

    1993-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SS) was the dominant enzyme of sucrose metabolism in both stem and root vascular cambial zone tissues of nursery-grown loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings.Acid invertase (AI) and neutral invertase (NI) activties were generally less than 10% of the SS activity in both tissues.In both cambial tissues, seasonal patterns of SS activity in stem and...

  17. Discrete shoot and root stem cell-promoting WUS/WOX5 functions are an evolutionary innovation of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Nardmann, Judith; Reisewitz, Pascal; Werr, Wolfgang

    2009-08-01

    The morphologically diverse bodies of seed plants comprising gymnosperms and angiosperms, which separated some 350 Ma, grow by the activity of meristems containing stem cell niches. In the dicot model Arabidopsis thaliana, these are maintained by the stem cell-promoting functions of WUS and WUSCHEL-related homeobox 5 (WOX5) in the shoot and the root, respectively. Both genes are members of the WOX gene family, which has a monophyletic origin in green algae. The establishment of the WOX gene phylogeny from basal land plants through gymnosperms to basal and higher angiosperms reveals three major branches: a basal clade consisting of WOX13-related genes present in some green algae and throughout all land plant genomes, a second clade containing WOX8/9/11/12 homologues, and a modern clade restricted to seed plants. The analysis of the origin of the modern branch in two basal angiosperms (Amborella trichopoda and Nymphaea jamesoniana) and three gymnosperms (Pinus sylvestris, Ginkgo biloba, and Gnetum gnemon) shows that all members of the modern clade consistently found in monocots and dicots exist at the base of the angiosperm lineage, including WUS and WOX5 orthologues. In contrast, our analyses identify a single WUS/WOX5 homologue in all three gymnosperm genomes, consistent with a monophyletic origin in the last common ancestor of gymnosperms and angiosperms. Phylogenetic data, WUS- and WOX5-specific evolutionary signatures, as well as the expression pattern and stem cell-promoting function of the single gymnosperm WUS/WOX5 pro-orthologue in Arabidopsis indicate a gene duplication event followed by subfunctionalization at the base of angiosperms.

  18. Fossil records of subsection Pinus (genus Pinus, Pinaceae) from the Cenozoic in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Yamada, Mariko; Tsukagoshi, Minoru

    2014-03-01

    Extant pines of subsection Pinus (section Pinus, genus Pinus, Pinaceae) are predominantly distributed in Eastern Asia. However, the extent of diversification in the section has yet to be fully clarified. We reviewed fossil records of subsection Pinus from Japan and collected permineralized materials, in which anatomical details are preserved for better understanding of the diversification. Our results suggest that this subsection appeared in Japan no earlier than the Middle Eocene, with extant species (i.e., Pinus densiflora and Pinus thunbergii) appearing around the beginning of the Pleistocene. Pinus fujiii (Early Miocene to Early Pleistocene) is inferred to have a close affinity to P. thunbergii based on the medial arrangement of its leaf resin canals. Additionally, P. fujiii has a similar cone morphology to those of extant species living in China, bridging the morphological gap between P. thunbergii and Chinese relatives of P. thunbergii as inferred by molecular phylogenetic analyses. Our results also suggest that taxonomic revisions of Pinus miocenica and Pinus oligolepis are required among the Japanese fossil species reported to date.

  19. Contrasting fine-root production, survival and soil CO2 efflux in pine and poplar plantation

    Treesearch

    M. D. Coleman; Richard E. Dickson; J. G. Isebrands

    2000-01-01

    Tree root activity, including fine-root production, turnover and metabolic activity are significant components of forest productivity and nutrient cycling. Differences in root activity among forest types are not well known. A 3-year study was undertaken in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and hybrid poplar (Populus tristis X P.

  20. Contrasting fine-root production, survival and soil CO2 efflux in pine and poplar plantations

    Treesearch

    M.D. Coleman; R.E. Dickson; J.G. Isebrands

    2000-01-01

    Tree root activity, including fine-root production, turnover and metabolic activity are significant components of forest productivity and nutrient cycling. Differences in root activity among forest types are not well known. A 3-year study was undertaken in red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and hybrid poplar (Populus tristis X P.

  1. Quantifying the coarse-root biomass of intensively managed loblolly pine plantations

    Treesearch

    Ashley T. Miller; H. Lee Allen; Chris A. Maier

    2006-01-01

    Most of the carbon accumulation during a forest rotation is in plant biomass and the forest floor. Most of the belowground biomass in older loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests is in coarse roots, and coarse roots persist longer after harvest than aboveground biomass and fine roots. The main objective was to assess the carbon accumulation in coarse...

  2. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  3. Fatty acids of Pinus elliottii tissues.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laseter, J. L.; Lawler, G. C.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The total fatty constituents of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) tissue cultures, seeds, and seedlings were examined by GLC and MS. Qualitatively, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was found to be very similar to that reported for other pine species. The fatty acid contents of the tissue cultures resembled that of the seedling tissues. The branched-chain C(sub 17) acid reported for several other Pinus species was confirmed as the anteiso isomer.

  4. Effects of emissions from copper-nickel smelters on the frost hardiness of Finns sylvestris needles in the subarctic region.

    PubMed

    Sutinen, M L; Raitio, H; Nivala, V; Ollikainen, R; Ritari, A

    1996-03-01

    It has been proposed that freezing injuries play an important role in the forest decline phenomenon. In this study, the effect of emissions from the copper-nickel smelters in Monchegorsk and Nikel-Zapolyarnyi in the Kola Peninsula, south-west Russia, on seasonal changes in the frost hardiness of Pinus sylvestris L. needles were studied. The frost hardiness of current-year needles during autumn, winter, spring and early summer in 1991-1993 was estimated by the electrolyte leakage method and by visual estimation of the proportion of damaged needles at nine sites in Finnish Lapland, at five sites in the vicinity of Monchegorsk and at two sites in Norway, in the vicinity of Nikel. The foliar S, Cu, and Ni concentrations also analysed. There were no significant differences at any time of the year between the frost hardiness of pine needles at the sites in Norway and Finnish Lapland. However, in the winter, the degree of visual damage at -45 °C, the temperature close to the lowest recorded temperature in this area, was slightly higher at the sites near to Nikel than at the sites in Finnish Lapland. In the Kola Peninsula the frost hardiness was consistently lower at the sites located 10 km to the south and 36 km to the south-west of Monchegorsk than at the other sites (48-110 km to the south-west). The differences were greatest in early June, 1991, when frost hardiness was -2 °C and -8°C at the sites closest to Monchegorsk. At the same time, the frost hardiness at the other sites was e.-20 °C. There were slight differences between years, but the trends were the same. A clearly increasing gradient in the S, Cu and Ni concentrations was observed on moving towards the emission point source at Monchegorsk. Highly elevated concentrations were found within 40 km of the smelter. The results suggest that air pollutants from the copper-nickel smelter have predisposed the pines to freezing injuries, rhus contributing to forest decline in the Kola Peninsula.

  5. Root rots

    Treesearch

    Kathryn Robbins; Philip M. Wargo

    1989-01-01

    Root rots of central hardwoods are diseases caused by fungi that infect and decay woody roots and sometimes also invade the butt portion of the tree. By killing and decaying roots, root rotting fungi reduce growth, decrease tree vigor, and cause windthrow and death. The most common root diseases of central hardwoods are Armillaria root rot, lnonotus root rot, and...

  6. Height growth determinants in pines: A case study of Pinus contorta and Pinus monticola

    Treesearch

    Isabelle Chuine; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Sally N. Aitken

    2006-01-01

    In this study we aimed to compare and explain the height growth performance of two contrasting pine species: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud) and western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don.). We compiled measurements of total height growth at different ages and shoot elongation phenology realized in several...

  7. Using among-year variation to assess maternal effects in Pinus aristata and Pinus flexilis

    Treesearch

    Erin M. Borgman; Anna W. Schoettle; Amy L. Angert

    2014-01-01

    Maternal effects, the effect of the maternal environment during development on offspring growth, can complicate the interpretation of common garden studies. Growing one or more generations in a common environment can help minimize maternal effects, but is often not practical with long-lived species. In Pinus aristata Engelm. and Pinus flexilis James, we assessed...

  8. Progeny analysis of the interspecific somatic hybrids: Nicotiana tabacum (CMS) + Nicotiana sylvestris with respect to nuclear and chloroplast markers.

    PubMed

    Aviv, D; Fluhr, R; Edelman, M; Galun, E

    1980-07-01

    The progeny of a fusion experiment involving N. sylvestris protoplasts and X-irradiated protoplasts of the cytoplasmic male sterile 'Line 92' (N. tabacum nucleus and alien, male-sterility inducing, cytoplasm) were analyzed. Three groups of somatic hybrid plants resulted: Type A, Type B-1 and Type B-2. These as well as their androgenic progenies and the progenies resulting from their pollination with N. tabacum or N. sylvestris were followed with respect to several nuclear and cytoplasmic traits. Those controlled by the nuclear genome were plant and flower morphologies; those controlled by genetic information in the cytoplasm were tentoxin sensitivity (affecting the coupling factor of chloroplast ATPase), the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and the restriction endonuclease pattern of plastid DNA. A further cytoplasmic trait investigated (exact site of genetic control not known) was male sterility. The examinations of the somatic-hybrid groups and their respective progenies indicated that: Type A plants have N. sylvestris nuclei and 'Line 92' plastids; Type B-1 plants also have 'Line 92' plastids but their genome is composed of N. sylvestris and N. tabacum nuclei; Type B-2 plants with impaired male fertility had N. sylvestris plastids and N. sylvestris nuclei.

  9. A functional promoter shift of a chloroplast gene: a transcriptional fusion between a novel psbA gene copy and the trnK (UUU) gene in Pinus contorta.

    PubMed

    Lidholm, J; Gustafsson, P

    1992-11-01

    A comparative transcription analysis of the chloroplast trnK-psbA-trnH region of the two pine species Pinus contorta and Pinus sylvestris is reported. The chloroplast genome of P. contorta has previously been shown to contain a duplicated psbA gene copy integrated closely upstream of the split trnK gene. This rearrangement has resulted in the gene order psbAI-trnK-psbAII-trnH, where psbAII is the ancestral psbA gene copy. In P. sylvestris, a species which lacks the psbA duplication, transcription of the trnK gene originates from a position 291 bp upstream of the trnK 5' exon, adjacent to a canonical promoter structure. In P. contorta, the corresponding promoter structure has been separated from the trnK gene by the insertion of psbAI, and has, in addition, been partially deleted. Analysis of the transcriptional organization of the trnK-psbA-trnH region of the two pine species revealed that the trnK gene in P. contorta is transcriptionally fused to the inserted psbAI gene copy. As a result, trnK is under the control of the psbA promoter in this species and has therefore acquired psbA-like expression characteristics. In P. sylvestris, accumulation of trnK transcripts is not significantly higher in light-grown than in dark-grown seedlings. In contrast, the level of trnK transcripts in P. contorta is approximately 12-fold higher in the light than in the dark. When light-grown seedlings of the two pine species were compared, an approximately 20-fold higher level of trnK RNAs was found in P. contorta. In both pine species, evidence was obtained for trnK-psbA and psbA-trnH co-transcription.

  10. Genetic diversity of Casearia sylvestris populations in remnants of the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Araujo, F L; Siqueira, M V B M; Grando, C; Viana, J P G; Pinheiro, J B; Alves-Pereira, A; Campos, J B; Brancalion, P H S; Zucchi, M I

    2017-01-23

    Guaçatonga (Casearia sylvestris) is a native plant of the Atlantic Forest, with high medicinal potential and relevance for reforestation programs. The aim of this study was to characterize, with microsatellite markers, two populations of C. sylvestris from remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest in the State of São Paulo. High allelic variation was found in both populations (NA = 101 and 117; AR = 12.5 and 14.4), although with high endogamy coefficients (f = 0.640 and 0.363). Estimates of genetic structure suggested the presence of considerable genetic divergence between the populations (FST = 0.103); however, there was no spatial genetic structure within the populations. Genetic divergence may have occurred due to decreased gene flow between the fragmented populations as the result of deforestation. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of genetic diversity and its characterization in native plants within remaining forest areas for the management and restoration of such areas.

  11. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  12. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  13. Antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Phoenix sylvestris fruit pulp

    PubMed Central

    Shajib, Md. Shafiullah; Akter, Saleha; Ahmed, Tajnin; Imam, Mohammad Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Fruits of Phoenix sylvestris Roxb. (Arecaceae) are used to treat back pain, toothache, headache, arthritis, nervous debility and as sedative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of P. sylvestris fruit pulp (MEPS). The antinociceptive activity of MEPS was evaluated by heat-induced (hot plate, tail immersion test) and chemical-induced pain models (acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced nociception, glutamate-induced nociception and paw edema test). The effect of MEPS on central nervous system (CNS) was studied using hole cross test, open field test, sodium thiopental-induced sleeping time and elevated plus maze test. MEPS showed strong, significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in all heat-induced and chemical-induced pain models at all experimental doses. Involvement of opioid receptor mediated analgesia was evident from the reversal of analgesic effect by naloxone. MEPS also showed reduced locomotor activity in both hole cross and open field tests. The increase in sleeping time in sodium thiopental-induced sleeping test and anxiolytic activity in elevated plus maze test were also significant. So, it is evident that MEPS possesses strong central and peripheral antinociceptive activity as well as CNS depressant, sedative and anxiolytic activity. The results justify the ethnomedicinal use of P. sylvestris fruit in different painful conditions and CNS disorders. PMID:26483687

  14. Antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Phoenix sylvestris fruit pulp.

    PubMed

    Shajib, Md Shafiullah; Akter, Saleha; Ahmed, Tajnin; Imam, Mohammad Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Fruits of Phoenix sylvestris Roxb. (Arecaceae) are used to treat back pain, toothache, headache, arthritis, nervous debility and as sedative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of P. sylvestris fruit pulp (MEPS). The antinociceptive activity of MEPS was evaluated by heat-induced (hot plate, tail immersion test) and chemical-induced pain models (acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced nociception, glutamate-induced nociception and paw edema test). The effect of MEPS on central nervous system (CNS) was studied using hole cross test, open field test, sodium thiopental-induced sleeping time and elevated plus maze test. MEPS showed strong, significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in all heat-induced and chemical-induced pain models at all experimental doses. Involvement of opioid receptor mediated analgesia was evident from the reversal of analgesic effect by naloxone. MEPS also showed reduced locomotor activity in both hole cross and open field tests. The increase in sleeping time in sodium thiopental-induced sleeping test and anxiolytic activity in elevated plus maze test were also significant. So, it is evident that MEPS possesses strong central and peripheral antinociceptive activity as well as CNS depressant, sedative and anxiolytic activity. The results justify the ethnomedicinal use of P. sylvestris fruit in different painful conditions and CNS disorders.

  15. Fusarium species associated with rhizosphere soil and diseased roots of eastern white pine seedlings and associated nursery soil

    Treesearch

    Cynthia M. Ocamb; Jennifer Juzwik

    1995-01-01

    Fusarium species isolated from necrotic roots of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) seedlings in two nurseries included F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. oxysporum, F. oxysporum var. redolens, F. proliferatum, F....

  16. Inoculum reduction measures to manage Armillaria root disease in a severely infected stand of ponderosa pine in south-central Washington: 35-year results

    Treesearch

    Charles G. Shaw; D.W. Omdal; A. Ramsey-Kroll; L.F. Roth

    2012-01-01

    A stand of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) severely affected by Armillaria root disease was treated with five different levels of sanitation by root removal to reduce root disease losses in the regenerating stand. Treatments included the following: (1) all trees pushed over by machine, maximum removal of roots by machine ripping, and visible...

  17. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments1

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Alexander J.; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. • Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. • Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies. PMID:25202578

  18. Influence of repeated prescribed fire and herbicide application on the fine root biomass of young longleaf pine

    Treesearch

    Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Eric A. Kuehler

    2010-01-01

    Photosynthate from mature foliage provides the energy source necessary for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) root system expansion. Crown scorch caused by repeated prescribed fire could decrease this energy and, in turn, reduce new root production. We conducted a study to assess the root biomass of restored longleaf pine saplings in response to...

  19. Exceptional inheritance of plastids via pollen in Nicotiana sylvestris with no detectable paternal mitochondrial DNA in the progeny.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Gregory; Svab, Zora; Maliga, Pal

    2012-10-01

    Plastids and mitochondria, the DNA-containing cytoplasmic organelles, are maternally inherited in the majority of angiosperm species. Even in plants with strict maternal inheritance, exceptional paternal transmission of plastids has been observed. Our objective was to detect rare leakage of plastids via pollen in Nicotiana sylvestris and to determine if pollen transmission of plastids results in co-transmission of paternal mitochondria. As father plants, we used N. sylvestris plants with transgenic, selectable plastids and wild-type mitochondria. As mother plants, we used N. sylvestris plants with Nicotiana undulata cytoplasm, including the CMS-92 mitochondria that cause cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) by homeotic transformation of the stamens. We report here exceptional paternal plastid DNA in approximately 0.002% of N. sylvestris seedlings. However, we did not detect paternal mitochondrial DNA in any of the six plastid-transmission lines, suggesting independent transmission of the cytoplasmic organelles via pollen. When we used fertile N. sylvestris as mothers, we obtained eight fertile plastid transmission lines, which did not transmit their plastids via pollen at higher frequencies than their fathers. We discuss the implications for transgene containment and plant evolutionary histories inferred from cytoplasmic phylogenies.

  20. Pre-clinical anti-inflammatory aspects of a cuisine and medicinal millennial herb: Malva sylvestris L.

    PubMed

    Prudente, Arthur S; Loddi, Alliete M V; Duarte, Márcia R; Santos, Adair R S; Pochapski, Marcia T; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Hayashi, Sirlei S; Campos, Francinete R; Pontarolo, Roberto; Santos, Fabio A; Cabrini, Daniela A; Otuki, Michel F

    2013-08-01

    Malva sylvestris has been used since ancient times for its emollient, laxative and anti-inflammatory properties, being extensively used as salads, soups and teas. The preset study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory action of M. sylvestris hydroalcoholic extract (HE) and its compounds in mice ear inflammation caused by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate in mice. The LC-MS analysis of the HE confirmed the presence of scopoletin, quercetin and malvidin 3-glucoside compounds in the HE of M. sylvestris. Topical application of the HE reduced ear oedema, polymorphonuclear cells influx (myeloperoxydase activity and histological analysis) and interleukin-1β levels in the tissue. The topical application of the compound present in the HE, malvidin 3-glucoside was also able to inhibit ear oedema and leukocytes migration. The other tested compounds, scopoletin, quercetin and malvidin 3,5-glucoside were able to prevent the formation of oedema and cell infiltration, but with less effectiveness when compared to HE and malvidin 3-glucoside. Therefore, these results consistently support the notion that M. sylvestris leaves possesses topical anti-inflammatory activity, the compound malvidin 3-glucoside seems to be major responsible for this effect, with the participation of other anti-inflammatory compounds in the extract. Thus, as recommended by population, M. sylvestris can be used as a future treatment to skin disorders.

  1. An allelopathic substance in red pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Fushimi, Yoshiko; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-03-01

    Aqueous methanol extracts of red pine (Pinus densiflora) needles inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), timothy (Pheleum pratense), Digitaria sanguinalis and Echinochloa crus-galli. Increasing the extract concentration increased inhibition, suggesting that the pine needles may have growth inhibitory substances and possess allelopathic potential. The aqueous methanol extract of the pine needles was purified, and a main inhibitory substance was isolated and determined by spectral data as 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid. This substance inhibited root and shoot growth of cress and Echinochloa crus-galli seedlings at concentrations greater than 0.1 mM. The endogenous concentration of the substance was 0.13 mmol/kg pine needle. These results suggest that 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of the pine needles and may play an important role in the allelopathy of red pine.

  2. Ecosystem carbon stocks in Pinus palustris forests

    Treesearch

    Lisa Samuelson; Tom Stokes; John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen; Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Pete Anderson; Jason Jackson; Lorenzo Ferrari; Tim A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper

    2014-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) restoration in the southeastern United States offers opportunities for carbon (C) sequestration. Ecosystem C stocks are not well understood in longleaf pine forests, which are typically of low density and maintained by prescribed fire. The objectives of this research were to develop allometric equations for...

  3. Crossability and relationships of Pinus muricata (Pinaceae)

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar; William B. Critchfield

    1988-01-01

    Crossing relationships were studies within and among the variable populations of Pinus muricata to test hypotheses about crossing barriers among certain populations. Crossability was assessed at the level of viable seed production following planned crosses. Populations north of Sea Ranch, Sonoma Co., California, crossed freely with parapatric but...

  4. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida)

    Treesearch

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) grows over a wide geographical range - from central Maine to New York and extreme southeastern Ontario, south to Virginia and southern Ohio, and in the mountains to eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and western South Carolina. Because it grows mostly on the poorer soils, its distribution is spotty.

  5. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) assisted migration trial

    Treesearch

    Sierra C. McLane; Sally N. Aitken

    2011-01-01

    Assisted migration - the translocation of a species into a climatically-suitable location outside of its current range - has been proposed as a means of saving vulnerable species from extinction as temperatures rise due to climate change. We explore this controversial technique using the keystone wildlife symbiote and ecosystem engineer, whitebark pine (Pinus...

  6. Genetic transformation of Pinus palustris (longleaf pine)

    Treesearch

    Alex M. Diner

    1999-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is an important softwood species in the Southeast United States. In presettlement times, this species occupied extensive, pure stands throughout the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains from southeastern Virginia to eastern Texas, as well as south...

  7. The extractives of Pinus pinaster wood

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway; W. E. Hillis; L. S. Lau

    1973-01-01

    The extractives in Pinus pinaster wood grown in South Australia were examined as part of an assessment of the suitability of this wood for manufacture of absorbent tissues from bisulphite pulps. The average petroleum solubility of the wood was 2.0% but the amount and composition of the petroleum extract varied widely depending upon the age of the...

  8. Experimental data of biomaterial derived from Malva sylvestris and charcoal tablet powder for Hg(2+) removal from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Alireza; Farjadfard, Sima; Leili, Mostafa; Kafaei, Raheleh; Haghshenas, Vajiheh; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2016-09-01

    In this experimental data article, a novel biomaterial was provided from Malva sylvestris and characterized its properties using various instrumental techniques. The operating parameters consisted of pH and adsorbent dose on Hg(2+) adsorption from aqueous solution using M. sylvestris powder (MSP) were compared with charcoal tablet powder (CTP), a medicinal drug. The data acquired showed that M. sylvestris is a viable and very promising alternative adsorbent for Hg(2+) removal from aqueous solutions. The experimental data suggest that the MSP is a potential adsorbent to use in medicine for treatment of poisoning with heavy metals; however, the application in animal models is a necessary step before the eventual application of MSP in situations involving humans.

  9. Modified water regimes affect photosynthesis, xylem water potential, cambial growth and resistance of juvenile Pinus taeda L. to Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    James P. Dunn; Peter L. Jr. Lorio

    1993-01-01

    We modified soil water supply to two groups of juvenile loblolly pines, Pinus taeda L., by sheltering or irrigating root systems in early summer or in later summer and measured oleoresin flow (primary defense), net photosynthesis, xylem water potential, and cambial growth throughout the growing season. When consistent significant differences in...

  10. Effect of container type and seedling size on survival and early height growth of Pinus palustris seedlings in Alabama, U.S.

    Treesearch

    David B. South; Sandy W. Harrisa; James P. Barnett; Mark J. Haindsa; Dean H. Gjerstada

    2005-01-01

    Three hardwall container types, one styroblock container type, and two mesh-covered plugs were used to grow longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings at a nursery in Louisiana. In 2001, these container types, along with bare-root seedlings (from a different seed source), were outplanted on two old-field sites and two cutover sites. There were...

  11. Black stain root disease studies on ponderosa pine parameters and disturbance treatments affecting infection and mortality

    Treesearch

    W.J. Otrosina; J.T. Kliejunas; S. Smith; D.R. Cluck; S.S. Sung; C.D. Cook

    2007-01-01

    Black stain root disease of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Doug. Ex Laws.), caused by Leptographium wageneri var. ponderosum (Harrington & Cobb) Harrington & Cobb, is increasing on many eastside Sierra Nevada pine stands in northeastern California. The disease is spread from tree to tree via root...

  12. Utility of Ground-Penetrating Radar as a Root Biomass Survey Tool in Forest Systems

    Treesearch

    John R. Butnor; J.A. Doolittle; Kurt H. Johnsen; L. Samuelson; T. Stokes; L. Kress

    2003-01-01

    Traditional methods of measuring tree root biomass are labor intensive and destructive in nature. We studied the utility of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to measure tree root biomass in situ within a replicated, intensive culture forestry experiment planted with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). The study site was located in Decatur County, Georgia,...

  13. Quantifying root lateral distribution and turnover using pine trees with a distinct stable carbon isotope signature

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Johnsen; Chris A. Maier; Lance W. Kress

    2005-01-01

    In order to help assess spatial competition for below-ground resources, we quantified the effects of fertilization on root biomass quantity and lateral root distribution of midrotation Pinus taeda trees. Open-top chambers exposed trees to ambient or ambient plus 200 µmol mol-1 atmospheric CO2...

  14. Quantifying the coarse-root biomass of intensively managed loblolly pine plantations

    Treesearch

    Ashley T. Miller; H. Lee Allen; Chris A. Maier

    2006-01-01

    Most of the carbon accumulation during a forest rotation is in plant biomass and the forest floor. Most of the belowground biomass in older loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests is in coarse roots, and coarse roots ersist longer after harvest than aboveground biomass and fine oots. The main objective was to assess the carbon accumulation in coarse...

  15. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  16. Long-Term Container Effects on Root System Architecture of Longleaf Pine

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; James D. Haywood; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Mary Anne Sword Sayer

    2009-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings cultured in three container cavity volumes and two cavity types (regular or copper oxychloride coating for root pruning) were excavated three years after planting in 2007 in Louisiana, U.S.A. Copper root pruning did not affect seedling growth. Seedlings from small cavities (60 ml) were smaller than those from medium (93...

  17. SEASONAL PATTERNS OF FINE ROOT PRODUCTION AND TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubes were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) stands around three different tree age classes (16, 45, and > 250 yr old) to examine root spatial distribution in relation to canopy size and tree distribution, and to determine if rates of fine...

  18. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  19. Root system structure in planted and seeded loblolly and shortleaf pine

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington; John C. Brissette; William C. Carlson

    1989-01-01

    Differences in root system structure attributable to stand origin were examined by pairing seeded and planted stands of loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf pine (P. echinata Mill.). The 17 paired stands were 3 to 9 years old and located in Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas on similar soil and site conditions. Root systems from 12...

  20. Prevention of Cold Damage to Container-Grown Longleaf Pine Roots

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Tinus; Mary Anne Sword; James P. Barnett

    2002-01-01

    When longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings are container-grown in open fields, their roots may be exposed to damaging, cold temperatures. Major losses in some nurseries have occurred. Between November 1996 and February 1997, we measured the cold hardiness of container-grown longleaf pine roots by measuring electrolyte leakage (a) of...

  1. Long-term Root Growth Response to Thinning, Fertilization, and Water Deficit in Plantation Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    M.A. Sword-Sayer; Z. Tang

    2004-01-01

    High water deficits limit the new root growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), potentially reducing soil resource availability and stand growth. We evaluated new root growth and stand production in response to thinning and fertilization in loblolly pine over a 6-year period that consisted of 3 years of low water deficit followed by 3 years of high...

  2. Seasonal Fine-Root Carbohydrate and Growth Relations of Plantation Loblolly Pine After Thinning and Fertilization

    Treesearch

    Eric A. Kuehler; Mary Anne Sword; C. Dan Andries

    1999-01-01

    In 1989, two levels each of stand density and fertilization were established in an 8-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation. In March 1995, treatments were reapplied, and root elongation and carbohydrate concentrations were monitored for 2 years. Our objective was to evaluate relationships between seasonal root growth and carbohydrate...

  3. Seedling mortality and development of root rot in white pine seedlings in two bare-root nurseries

    Treesearch

    J. Juzwik; D. J. Rugg

    1996-01-01

    Seedling mortality and development of root rot in white pine (Pinus strobus) were followed across locations and over time within three operational nursery fields with loamy sand soils at a provincial nursery in southwestern Ontario, Canada, and a state nursery in southern Wisconsin, USA. One Ontario field was fumigated with dazomet; the other was not...

  4. Root Disease Incidence in Eastern White Pine Plantations With and Without Symptoms of Ozone Injury in the Coweeta Basin of North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Theodor D. Leininger; W.E. Winner; S.A. Alexander

    1990-01-01

    A survey was conducted in the Coweeta Basin, Macon County, North Carolina, to determine the incidence of root diseases and their relatedness to ozone symptomatology in two eastern white pine (Pinus strobes) plantations. Heterobasidion annosum was isolated from

  5. [Comparison of chemical components of essential oils in needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm from Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Shen, Changmao; Duan, Wengui; Cen, Bo; Tan, Jianhui

    2006-11-01

    Essential oils were extracted by steam distillation from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm grown in Guangxi. Various factors such as pine needle dosage and extraction time which may influence the oil yield were investigated. The optimum conditions were found to be as follows: pine needle dosage 700 g, extraction time 5 h. The essential oil yields from the needles of Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm were 0.45% and 0.19%, respectively. Moreover, the chemical compositions of the essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty four components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus massoniana Lamb were separated and twenty of them (98.59%) were identified while seventy three components in the essential oil from needle of Pinus elliottottii Engelm were separated and twenty nine of them (94.23%) were identified. Generally, the compositions of the essential oils from needles of the two varieties were similar but the contents of some compounds differed greatly. Especially, the content of alpha-pinene in the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb needles was 2.6 times as that from Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles, but the content of beta-pinene was less than the latter. Mono- and sesquiterpenes were the main composition of the essential oils from Pinus massoniana Lamb and Pinus elliottottii Engelm needles.

  6. Pre-clinical efficacy assessment of Malva sylvestris on chronic skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Prudente, Arthur S; Sponchiado, Graziela; Mendes, Daniel A G B; Soley, Bruna S; Cabrini, Daniela A; Otuki, Michel F

    2017-09-01

    In the search for improved quality of life, the treatment of skin diseases like psoriasis (hyperproliferative disease) is valid, since it causes huge social discomfort to the patient. In this context, earlier studies showed that Malva sylvestris L. has anti-inflammatory activity demonstrated by acute animal models of skin inflammation, becoming a promising target for further studies. The present investigation aimed to verify the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of M. sylvestris (HEMS) on the chronic inflammatory and hyperproliferative response caused by multiple applications of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on mouse ears. Topical application of HEMS reduced oedema, leukocyte migration (mono- and polymorphonuclear cells) and keratinocyte hyperproliferation, confirmed by histology and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining. It was found that the anti-inflammatory effects of the extract did not involve the glucocorticoid system, and its incubation with HaCaT keratinocytes caused low toxicity and reduced cell proliferation by apoptosis. Thus, HEMS proved to be effective as an anti-psoriatic therapy, with the ability to prevent keratinocyte hyperproliferation and with low toxicity by topical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Root Moisture Content and Diameter on Root Tensile Properties

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuanjun; Chen, Lihua; Li, Ning; Zhang, Qiufen

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of slopes by vegetation has been a topical issue for many years. Root mechanical characteristics significantly influence soil reinforcement; therefore it is necessary to research into the indicators of root tensile properties. In this study, we explored the influence of root moisture content on tensile resistance and strength with different root diameters and for different tree species. Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Larix gmelinii, the most popular tree species used for slope stabilization in the rocky mountainous areas of northern China, were used in this study. A tensile test was conducted after root samples were grouped by diameter and moisture content. The results showedthat:1) root moisture content had a significant influence on tensile properties; 2) slightly loss of root moisture content could enhance tensile strength, but too much loss of water resulted in weaker capacity for root elongation, and consequently reduced tensile strength; 3) root diameter had a strong positive correlation with tensile resistance; and4) the roots of Betula platyphylla had the best tensile properties when both diameter and moisture content being controlled. These findings improve our understanding of root tensile properties with root size and moisture, and could be useful for slope stabilization using vegetation. PMID:27003872

  8. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    PubMed

    Herron, D A; Wingfield, M J; Wingfield, B D; Rodas, C A; Marincowitz, S; Steenkamp, E T

    2015-03-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world.

  9. Comparative mapping in Pinus: sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.).Tree Genet Genomes 7:457-468

    Treesearch

    Kathleen D. Jermstad; Andrew J. Eckert; Jill L. Wegrzyn; Annette Delfino-Mix; Dean A Davis; Deems C. Burton; David B. Neale

    2011-01-01

    The majority of genomic research in conifers has been conducted in the Pinus subgenus Pinus mostly due to the high economic importance of the species within this taxon. Genetic maps have been constructed for several of these pines and comparative mapping analyses have consistently revealed notable synteny. In contrast,...

  10. Chemical composition of Pinus sibirica (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Rogachev, Artem D; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F

    2015-01-01

    Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica), also known as Siberian cedar pine and Siberian cedar, is an important plant that has been long used as a source of natural compounds and materials (wood, needles, soft resin, turpentine, colophony). Its chemical composition has been studied well enough; however, to our surprise, no articles that compile the phytochemical data have been published so far. Presumably, this is due to the fact that most of the studies were published in journals difficult to access and not indexed by search systems. This review, for the first time, presents a systematic compilation of available data of secondary metabolites occurring in the needles, shoots, bark, wood, seeds, and oleoresin of Pinus sibirica. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  11. Redistribution of vegetation zones and populations of Larix sibirica Ledb. and Pinus sylvestris L. in central Siberia in a warming climate

    Treesearch

    N.M. Tchebakova; G.E. Rehfeldt; E.I. Parfenova

    2003-01-01

    Evidence for global warming over the past 200 years is overwhelming (Hulme et al. 1999), based on both direct weather observation and indirect physical and biological indicators such as retreating glaciers and snow/ice cover, increasing sea level, and longer growing seasons (IPCC 2001). Recent GCM projections of the Hadley Centre (Gordon et al. 2000) for Siberia show...

  12. Effect of raw humus under two adult Scots pine stands on ectomycorrhization, nutritional status, nitrogen uptake, phosphorus uptake and growth of Pinus sylvestris seedlings.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Horst; Schäfer, Tina; Storbeck, Veronika; Härtling, Sigrid; Rudloff, Renate; Köck, Margret; Buscot, François

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhiza (EM) formation improves tree growth and nutrient acquisition, particularly that of nitrogen (N). Few studies have coupled the effects of naturally occurring EM morphotypes to the nutrition of host trees. To investigate this, pine seedlings were grown on raw humus substrates collected at two forest sites, R2 and R3. Ectomycorrhiza morphotypes were identified, and their respective N uptake rates from organic (2-(13)C, (15)N-glycine) and inorganic ((15)NH(4)Cl, Na(15)NO(3), (15)NH(4)NO(3), NH(4)(15)NO(3)) sources as well as their phosphate uptake rates were determined. Subsequently, the growth and nutritional status of the seedlings were analyzed. Two dominant EM morphotypes displayed significantly different mycorrhization rates in the two substrates. Rhizopogon luteolus Fr. (RL) was dominant in R2 and Suillus bovinus (Pers.) Kuntze (SB) was dominant in R3. (15)N uptake of RL EM was at all times higher than that of SB EM. Phosphate uptake rates by the EM morphotypes did not differ significantly. The number of RL EM correlated negatively and the number of SB EM correlated positively with pine growth rate. Increased arginine concentrations and critical P/N ratios in needles indicated nutrient imbalances of pine seedlings from humus R2, predominantly mycorrhizal with RL. We conclude that different N supply in raw humus under Scots pine stands can induce shifts in the EM frequency of pine seedlings, and this may lead to EM formation by fungal strains with different ability to support tree growth.

  13. Synergistic, additive and antagonistic impacts of drought and herbivory on Pinus sylvestris: leaf, tissue and whole-plant responses and recovery

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synergies among stressors could result in catastrophic dysfunction of plant and ecosystem processes from an otherwise recoverable situation. To date, studies that have specifically tested for synergies among multiple stressors have almost exclusively focused on the presence or absences of specific s...

  14. Spatial variability of throughfall in a stand of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) with deciduous admixture as influenced by canopy cover and stem distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, Anna; Boczoń, Andrzej; Hildebrand, Robert; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation cover affects the amount of precipitation, its chemical composition and its spatial distribution, and this may have implications for the distribution of water, nutrients and contaminants in the subsurface soil layer. The aim of this study was a detailed diagnosis of the spatio-temporal variability in the amount of throughfall (TF) and its chemical components in a 72-year-old pine stand with an admixture of oak and birch. The spatio-temporal variability in the amount of TF water and the concentrations and deposition of the TF components were studied. The components that are exchanged in canopy (H+, K, Mg, Mn, DOC, NH4+) were more variable than the components whose TF deposition is the sum of wet and dry (including gas) deposition and which undergo little exchange in the canopy (Na, Cl, NO3-, SO42-). The spatial distribution was temporally stable, especially during the leafed period. This study also investigated the effect of the selected pine stand characteristics on the spatial distribution of throughfall and its chemical components; the characteristics included leaf area index (LAI), the proportion of the canopy covered by deciduous species and pine crowns, and the distance from the nearest tree trunk. The LAI measured during the leafed and leafless periods had the greatest effect on the spatial distribution of TF deposition. No relationship was found between the spatial distribution of the amount of TF water and (i) the LAI; (ii) the canopy cover of broadleaf species or pines; or (iii) the distance from the trunks.

  15. A comparison of the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in a reclaimed oil shale post-mining area and in a Calluna site in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Mandre, Malle; Klõseiko, Jaan; Pärn, Henn

    2010-07-01

    The growth of Scots pine and its suitability for afforestation of post-mining landscapes in Northeast Estonia were assessed in comparative analytical studies by using morphological parameters and mineral nutrition characteristics. The growth and nutrient uptake of Scots pine growing on post-mining substrate were compared with the characteristics of pines of the same age (22-23 years) in a Calluna forest site type predominant in North Estonia in similar climatic zone. Results of the analyses of soil upper layers showed that the concentration of N and P in soil did not differ between the opencast spoil and Calluna site, but significantly higher pH of soil and concentrations of K, Ca, and Mg were found in mine spoil. The concentrations of K and Mg in needles were significantly higher in the post-mining area, but the concentrations of N, P, and Ca did not differ significantly. Comparison of the needle nutrient concentration with the standard for optimum concentrations revealed P deficit in the post-mining area and P and K deficit in the Calluna site. Scots pine formed longer and thinner needles and shoots in the post-mining substrate than in the Calluna site. It was assumed that in the post-mining area the growth of pines is predominantly dependent on K and Ca concentrations in their tissues as the biomass of needles was strongly correlated with the K/Ca ratio, whereas the biomass in the Calluna site was correlated with the N/P ratio. The height and diameter of trees were significantly larger in the post-mining area.

  16. Processing of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch (Betula pubescens) leaf material in a small river system in the northern Cairngorms, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collen, P.; Keay, E. J.; Morrison, B. R. S.

    Processing rates, and macroinvertebrate colonisation, of pine needles and birch leaves were studied at eight sites on the river Nethy, a small river system in the Cairngorm region of north-eastern Scotland. Throughout this river system, processing rates were slow for pine (k values 0.0015-0.0034 day-1) and medium to fast for birch (k values 0.0085-0.0331 day-1). Plecopteran shredders dominated both pine and birch leaf packs during the early part of the experiment while chironomids were more important in the latter stages. It is suggested that the slow processing rate of pine needles could adversely affect the productivity of streams, particularly where needles provide the major allochthonous energy source and retentive features are limited. Forest managers should consider this when creating new pinewoods in treeless areas as it will take many years for the trees to reach a size at which they can effectively contribute retentive features, in the form of woody debris, to streams.

  17. Perennial roots to immortality.

    PubMed

    Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-10-01

    Maximum lifespan greatly varies among species, and it is not strictly determined; it can change with species evolution. Clonal growth is a major factor governing maximum lifespan. In the plant kingdom, the maximum lifespans described for clonal and nonclonal plants vary by an order of magnitude, with 43,600 and 5,062 years for Lomatia tasmanica and Pinus longaeva, respectively. Nonclonal perennial plants (those plants exclusively using sexual reproduction) also present a huge diversity in maximum lifespans (from a few to thousands of years) and even more interestingly, contrasting differences in aging patterns. Some plants show a clear physiological deterioration with aging, whereas others do not. Indeed, some plants can even improve their physiological performance as they age (a phenomenon called negative senescence). This diversity in aging patterns responds to species-specific life history traits and mechanisms evolved by each species to adapt to its habitat. Particularities of roots in perennial plants, such as meristem indeterminacy, modular growth, stress resistance, and patterns of senescence, are crucial in establishing perenniality and understanding adaptation of perennial plants to their habitats. Here, the key role of roots for perennial plant longevity will be discussed, taking into account current knowledge and highlighting additional aspects that still require investigation.

  18. Chronic ozone exacerbates the reduction in photosynthesis and acceleration of senescence caused by limited N availability in Nicotiana sylvestris

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elevated ozone (O3) and limiting soil nitrogen (N) availability both negatively affect crop performance. However, little is known about how the combination of elevated O3 and limiting N affect crop growth and metabolism. In this study, we grew tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris) in ambient and elevated O...

  19. Flavonoids and Other Phenolic Compounds in Needles of Pinus peuce and Other Pine Species from the Macedonian Flora.

    PubMed

    Karapandzova, Marija; Stefkov, Gjose; Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Stanoeva, Jasmina Petreska; Stefova, Marina; Kulevanova, Svetlana

    2015-06-01

    Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds in young needles of four pine species, Pinus peuce, P. nigra, P. mugo and P. sylvestris from the Macedonian flora were investigated. The amount of total phenols and total flavonoids were determined using Folin-Ciocalteau and aluminum chloride assay, respectively. The obtained results revealed that the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC) varied among different pine species ranging from 9.8 to 14.0 mg GAE/g and from 3.3 to 7.2 mg CE/g of dried plant material, respectively. Qualitative analysis of flavonoids and other phenolic components was made by a LC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) optimized chromatographic method. A total of 17 phenolic components were identified and classified as: acids (2), procyanidins (2) and flavonoid glycosides (13). The most prevalent components were flavonoid glycosides, especially flavonols and methylated flavonols (9). Additionally, 3 components were found as acylated flavonol glycosides with ferulic and p-coumaric acid. The last one was found not only in esterified form but also in the free form. Only one flavone-apigenin glycoside was detected. Procyanidins were identified as catechin derivatives, both dimers and trimers.

  20. Hydraulic redistribution of water from Pinus ponderosa trees to seedlings: evidence for an ectomycorrhizal pathway.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jeffrey M; Brooks, J Renée; Meinzer, Frederick C; Eberhart, Joyce L

    2008-01-01

    While there is strong evidence for hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water by trees, it is not known if common mycorrhizal networks (CMN) can facilitate HR from mature trees to seedlings under field conditions. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings were planted into root-excluding 61-microm mesh barrier chambers buried in an old-growth pine forest. After 2 yr, several mature trees were cut and water enriched in D(2)O and acid fuchsin dye was applied to the stumps. Fine roots and mycorrhizal root tips of source trees became heavily dyed, indicating reverse sap flow in root xylem transported water from stems throughout root systems to the root hyphal mantle that interfaces with CMN. Within 3 d, D(2)O was found in mesh-chamber seedling foliage > 1 m from source trees; after 3 wk, eight of 10 mesh-chamber seedling stem samples were significantly enriched above background levels. Average mesh-chamber enrichment was 1.8 x greater than that for two seedlings for which the connections to CMN were broken by trenching before D(2)O application. Even small amounts of water provided to mycorrhizas by HR may maintain hyphal viability and facilitate nutrient uptake under drying conditions, which may provide an advantage to seedlings hydraulically linked by CMN to large trees.

  1. Charting novel allergens from date palm pollen (Phoenix sylvestris) using homology driven proteomics.

    PubMed

    Saha, Bodhisattwa; Bhattacharya, Swati Gupta

    2017-08-08

    Pollen grains from Phoenix sylvestris (date palm), a commonly cultivated tree in India has been found to cause severe allergic diseases in an increasing percentage of hypersensitive individuals. To unearth its allergenic components, pollen protein were profiled by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting with date palm pollen sensitive patient sera. Allergens were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF employing a layered proteomic approach combining conventional database dependent search and manual de novo sequencing followed by homology-based search as Phoenix sylvestris is unsequenced. Derivatization of tryptic peptides by acetylation has been demonstrated to differentiate the 'b' from the 'y' ions facilitating efficient de novo sequencing. Ten allergenic proteins were identified, out of which six showed homology with known allergens while others were reported for the first time. Amongst these, isoflavone reductase, beta-conglycinin, S-adenosyl methionine synthase, 1, 4 glucan synthase and beta-galactosidase were commonly reported as allergens from coconut pollen and presumably responsible for cross-reactivity. One of the allergens had IgE binding epitope recognized by its glycan moiety. The allergenic potency of date palm pollen has been demonstrated using in vitro tests. The identified allergens can be used to develop vaccines for immunotherapy against date palm pollen allergy. Identification of allergenic proteins from sources harboring them is essential in developing therapeutic interventions. This is the first comprehensive study on the identification of allergens from Phoenix sylvestris (date palm) pollen, one of the major aeroallergens in India using a proteomic approach. Proteomic methods are being increasingly used to identify allergens. However, since many of these proteins arise from species which are un-sequenced, it becomes difficult to interpret those using conventional proteomics. Date palm being an unsequenced species, the Ig

  2. Malva sylvestris Inhibits Inflammatory Response in Oral Human Cells. An In Vitro Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Benso, Bruna; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Alencar, Severino Matias; Murata, Ramiro Mendonça

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Malva sylvestris extract (MSE) and fractions in a co-culture model of cells infected by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. In addition, we evaluated the phytochemical content in the extract and fractions of M. sylvestris and demonstrated that polyphenols were the most frequent group in all samples studied. An in vitro dual-chamber model to mimic the periodontal structure was developed using a monolayer of epithelial keratinocytes (OBA-9) and a subepithelial layer of fibroblasts (HGF-1). The invasive periodontopathogen A. actinomycetemcomitans (D7S-1) was applied to migrate through the cell layers and induce the synthesis of immune factors and cytokines in the host cells. In an attempt to analyze the antimicrobial properties of MSE and fractions, a susceptibility test was carried out. The extract (MIC 175 μg/mL, MBC 500μg/mL) and chloroform fraction (MIC 150 μg/mL, MBC 250 μg/mL) were found to have inhibitory activity. The extract and all fractions were assessed using a cytotoxicity test and results showed that concentrations under 100 μg/mL did not significantly reduce cell viability compared to the control group (p > 0.05, viability > 90%). In order to analyze the inflammatory response, transcriptional factors and cytokines were quantified in the supernatant released from the cells. The chloroform fraction was the most effective in reducing the bacterial colonization (p< 0.05) and controlling inflammatory mediators, and promoted the down-regulation of genes including IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, CD14, PTGS, MMP-1 and FOS as well as the reduction of the IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF protein levels (p< 0.05). Malva sylvestris and its chloroform fraction minimized the A. actinomycetemcomitans infection and inflammation processes in oral human cells by a putative pathway that involves important cytokines and receptors. Therefore, this natural product may be considered as a

  3. Malva sylvestris Inhibits Inflammatory Response in Oral Human Cells. An In Vitro Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Benso, Bruna; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Alencar, Severino Matias; Murata, Ramiro Mendonça

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Malva sylvestris extract (MSE) and fractions in a co-culture model of cells infected by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. In addition, we evaluated the phytochemical content in the extract and fractions of M. sylvestris and demonstrated that polyphenols were the most frequent group in all samples studied. An in vitro dual-chamber model to mimic the periodontal structure was developed using a monolayer of epithelial keratinocytes (OBA-9) and a subepithelial layer of fibroblasts (HGF-1). The invasive periodontopathogen A. actinomycetemcomitans (D7S-1) was applied to migrate through the cell layers and induce the synthesis of immune factors and cytokines in the host cells. In an attempt to analyze the antimicrobial properties of MSE and fractions, a susceptibility test was carried out. The extract (MIC 175 μg/mL, MBC 500μg/mL) and chloroform fraction (MIC 150 μg/mL, MBC 250 μg/mL) were found to have inhibitory activity. The extract and all fractions were assessed using a cytotoxicity test and results showed that concentrations under 100 μg/mL did not significantly reduce cell viability compared to the control group (p > 0.05, viability > 90%). In order to analyze the inflammatory response, transcriptional factors and cytokines were quantified in the supernatant released from the cells. The chloroform fraction was the most effective in reducing the bacterial colonization (p< 0.05) and controlling inflammatory mediators, and promoted the down-regulation of genes including IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, CD14, PTGS, MMP-1 and FOS as well as the reduction of the IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF protein levels (p< 0.05). Malva sylvestris and its chloroform fraction minimized the A. actinomycetemcomitans infection and inflammation processes in oral human cells by a putative pathway that involves important cytokines and receptors. Therefore, this natural product may be considered as a

  4. Needle Terpenes as Chemotaxonomic Markers in Pinus: Subsections Pinus and Pinaster.

    PubMed

    Mitić, Zorica S; Jovanović, Snežana Č; Zlatković, Bojan K; Nikolić, Biljana M; Stojanović, Gordana S; Marin, Petar D

    2017-05-01

    Chemical compositions of needle essential oils of 27 taxa from the section Pinus, including 20 and 7 taxa of the subsections Pinus and Pinaster, respectively, were compared in order to determine chemotaxonomic significance of terpenes at infrageneric level. According to analysis of variance, six out of 31 studied terpene characters were characterized by a high level of significance, indicating statistically significant difference between the examined subsections. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis has shown separation of eight groups, where representatives of subsect. Pinaster were distributed within the first seven groups on the dendrogram together with P. nigra subsp. laricio and P. merkusii from the subsect. Pinus. On the other hand, the eighth group included the majority of the members of subsect. Pinus. Our findings, based on terpene characters, complement those obtained from morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters studied over the past two decades. In addition, results presented in this article confirmed that terpenes are good markers at infrageneric level. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  5. Preliminary overview of the first extensive rust resistance screening tests of Pinus flexilis and Pinus aristata

    Treesearch

    Anna W. Schoettle; Richard A. Sniezko; Angelia Kegley; Kelly S. Burns

    2011-01-01

    Limber pine ( Pinus flexilis James) and Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (P. aristata Engelm.; hereafter referred to as bristlecone pine) are the dominant pines that occupy high elevation habitats of the southern Rockies. Bristlecone pine is primarily a subalpine and tree-line species while limber pine in the southern Rocky Mountains grows from 1600 m in the short grass...

  6. Rust resistance in seedling families of Pinus albicaulis and Pinus strobiformis and implications for restoration

    Treesearch

    R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; R. Danchok; J. Hamlin; J. Hill; D. Conklin

    2011-01-01

    Infection and mortality levels from Cronartium ribicola, the fungus causing white pine blister rust, are very high in parts of the geographic range of Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) and P. strobiformis (Southwestern white pine). Genetic resistance to this non-native fungus will be one of the key factors in maintaining or restoring populations of these species in...

  7. Optimisation of conditions for the extraction of casearins from Casearia sylvestris using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Karin F; Tininis, Aristeu G; Da Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Cavalheiro, Alberto J

    2006-01-01

    Optimal conditions for the extraction of casearins from Casearia sylvestris were determined using response surface methodology. The maceration and sonication extraction techniques were performed using a 3 x 3 x 3 full factorial design including three acidity conditions, three solvents of different polarities and three extraction times. The yields and selectivities of the extraction of casearins were significantly influenced by acidity conditions. Taking into account all variables tested, the optimal conditions for maceration extraction were estimated to involve treatment with dichloromethane saturated with ammonium hydroxide for 26 h. Similar yields and selectivities for casearins were determined for sonication extraction using the same solvent but for the much shorter time of 1 h. The best results for stabilisation of the fresh plant material were obtained using leaves that had been oven dried at 40 degrees C for 48 h.

  8. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    PubMed

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  9. Effects of Malva sylvestris and Its Isolated Polysaccharide on Experimental Ulcerative Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Rezaei, Hossein; Azarpira, Negar; Jafarpour, Mehrnaz; Ahmadi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Malva sylvestris is an edible plant that is consumed as a herbal supplement for its antiulcer and colon cleansing properties in traditional Persian medicine. This study was designed to evaluate its effects on ulcerative colitis, which is a chronic gastrointestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced by rectal instillation of acetic acid solution. Rats in different groups received aqueous, n-hexane, or ethanolic fractions of the plant before induction of colitis. Isolated polysaccharide of plant was also tested in 2 groups before and after induction of colitis. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of colitis showed that the aqueous fraction was very effective in preventing the inflammation and efficacy was lower for ethanolic and n-hexane fractions. Polysaccharide was effective in reducing signs of inflammation, especially as pretreatment. These beneficial effects provide evidences that this plant can be suggested for patients with this disease to improve their health condition or to reduce adverse effects of their medication.

  10. Regulation of catalase activity in leaves of Nicotiana sylvestris by high CO sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Havir, E.A.; McHale, N.A. )

    1989-03-01

    The effect of high CO{sub 2} (1% CO{sub 2}/21% O{sub 2}) on the activity of specific forms of catalase (CAT-1, -2, and -3) in seedling leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum) was examined. In high CO{sub 2} total catalase activity decreased by 50% in the first 2 days, followed by a more gradual decline in the next 4 days. The loss of total activity resulted primarily from a decrease in CAT-1 catalase. In contrast, the activity of CAT-3 catalase, a form with enhanced peroxidatic activity, increased 3-fold in high CO{sub 2} relative to air controls after 4 days. Short-term exposure to high CO{sub 2} indicated that the 50% loss of total activity occurs in the firs 12 hours. Catalase levels increased to normal within 12 hours after seedlings were returned to air. When seedlings were transferred to air after prolonged exposure to high CO{sub 2} (13 days), the levels of CAT-1 catalase were partially restored while CAT-3 remained at its elevated level. Levels of superoxide dismutase activity and those of several peroxisomal enzymes were not affected by high CO{sub 2}. Total catalase levels did not decline when seedlings were exposed to atmospheres of 0.04% CO{sub 2}/5% O{sub 2} or 0.04% CO{sub 2}/1% O{sub 2}, indicating that regulation of catalase in high CO{sub 2} is not related directly to suppression of photorespiration. Antibodies prepared against CAT-1 catalase from N. tabacum reacted strongly against CAT-1 catalase from both N. sylvestris and N. tabacum but not against CAT-3 catalase from either species.

  11. Ethylene and the Regulation of Senescence Processes in Transgenic Nicotiana sylvestris Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Thomas F.; Gonzalez-Carranza, Zinnia H.; Maunders, Martin J.; Roberts, Jeremy A.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Exposure of plants to ethylene can influence a spectrum of developmental processes including organ senescence and abscission. The aim of this study was to examine the role of the gaseous regulator in Nicotiana sylvestris plants exhibiting a silenced or constitutive ethylene response. Methods Transgenic N. sylvestris plants were generated that either ectopically expressed the Arabidopsis mutant ethylene receptor ETR1-1 or the tomato EIN3-like (LeEIL1) gene. Highly expressing homozygous lines were selected and the time-course of development, from germination to organ senescence, was studied. Key Results Fifty percent of the homozygous Pro35S:ETR1-1 lines examined showed a high susceptibility to collapse prior to flowering, with plant death occurring within a few days of leaf wilting. The time-course of leaf senescence in the remaining Pro35S:ETR1-1 lines was visibly arrested compared to wild type (negative segregant) plants and this observation was reaffirmed by chlorophyll and protein analysis. Petal necrosis was also delayed in Pro35S:ETR1-1 lines and corolla abscission did not take place. When senescence of Pro35S:ETR1-1 plants did take place this was accompanied by leaf bleaching, but tissues remained fully turgid and showed no signs of collapse. A single Pro35S:LeEIL1 line was found to exhibit consistently accelerated leaf and flower senescence and precocious flower bud shedding. Conclusions These observations support a role for ethylene in regulating a spectrum of developmental events associated with organ senescence and tissue necrosis. Furthermore, the transgenic lines generated during this study may provide a valuable resource for exploring how senescence processes are regulated in plants. PMID:17901061

  12. Pinus contorta X banksiana hybrids tested in northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    G. E. Rehfeldt; J. E. Lotan

    1970-01-01

    Between 1950 and 1955 hybrid progenies of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) X jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) were tested to determine whether adaptation and performance in Montana and Idaho justified improvement of lodgepole pine by hybridization. Average heights, diameters, and survival rates of hybrids, of jack pines native to the Lake States, and of...

  13. Partial cambial mortality in high-elevation Pinus aristata (Pinaceae)

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Schauer; Anna W. Schoettle; Richard L. Boyce

    2001-01-01

    Partial cambial mortality is a growth form that is characteristic of Pinus aristata trees. To better elucidate their cambial death pattern, tree size and aspect of cambial death data were gathered from three Pinus aristata forests in central Colorado, USA. Stripping frequency tended to be higher for larger diameter classes. Partial cambial mortality exhibits...

  14. Germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata Mast. provenances

    Treesearch

    Yulan Xu; Nianhui Cai; Bin He; Ruili Zhang; Wei Zhao; Jianfeng Mao; Anan Duan; Yue Li; Keith Woeste

    2016-01-01

    We studied seed germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata to explore the range of variability within the species and to inform afforestation practices. Phenotypes were evaluated at a forest tree nursery under conditions that support Pinus yunnanensis, one of the presumed parental species of P. densata...

  15. Root Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Ketelaarc, Tijs; Schiefelbein, John

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair specification in Arabidopsis is determined by position-dependent signaling and molecular feedback loops causing differential accumulation of a WD-bHLH-Myb transcriptional complex. The initiation of root hairs is dependent on the RHD6 bHLH gene family and auxin to define the site of outgrowth. Root hair elongation relies on polarized cell expansion at the growing tip, which involves multiple integrated processes including cell secretion, endomembrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and cell wall modifications. The study of root hair biology in Arabidopsis has provided a model cell type for insights into many aspects of plant development and cell biology. PMID:24982600

  16. Ammonium and nitrate acquisition by plants in response to elevated CO2 concentration: the roles of root physiology and architecture.

    PubMed

    Bauer, G A; Berntson, G M

    2001-02-01

    We examined changes in root system architecture and physiology and whole-plant patterns of nitrate reductase (NR) activity in response to atmospheric CO2 enrichment and N source to determine how changes in the form of N supplied to plants interact with rising CO2 concentration ([CO2]). Seedlings of Betula alleghaniensis Britt. and Pinus strobus L., which differ in growth rate, root architecture, and the partitioning of NR activity between leaves (Betula) and roots (Pinus), were grown in ambient (400 microl l(-1)) and elevated (800 microl l(-1)) [CO2] and supplied with either nitrate (NO3-) or ammonium (NH4+) as their sole N source. After 15 weeks of growth, plants were harvested and root system architecture, N uptake kinetics, and NR activity measured. Betula alleghaniensis responded to elevated [CO2] with significant increases in growth, regardless of the source of N. Pinus strobus showed no significant response in biomass production or allocation to elevated [CO2]. Both species exhibited significantly greater growth with NH4+ than with NO3-, along with lower root:shoot biomass ratios. Betula showed significant increases in total root length in response to elevated [CO2]. However, root N uptake rates in Betula (for both NO3- and NH4+) were either reduced or unchanged by elevated [CO2]. Pinus showed the opposite response to elevated [CO2], with no change in root architecture, but an increase in maximal uptake rates in response to elevated [CO2]. Nitrate reductase activity (on a mass basis) was reduced in leaves of Betula in elevated [CO2], but did not change in other tissues. Nitrate reductase activity was unaffected by elevated [CO2] in Pinus. Scaling this response to the whole-plant, NR activity was reduced in elevated [CO2] in Betula but not in Pinus. However, because Betula plants were larger in elevated [CO2], total whole-plant NR activity was unaffected.

  17. Using silvicultural practices to regulate competition, resource availability, and growing conditions for Pinus palustris seedlings underplanted in Pinus taeda forests

    Treesearch

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Huifeng Hu

    2016-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, many forest managers are interested in restoring longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) to upland sites that currently support loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We quantified the effects of four canopy treatments (uncut Control; MedBA, harvest to 9 m2·ha−1...

  18. Regeneration of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) three decades after stand-replacing fires

    Treesearch

    Jonathan D. Coop; Anna W. Schoettle

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are important highelevation pines of the southern Rockies that are forecast to decline due to the recent spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) into this region. Proactive management strategies to promote the evolution of rust resistance and maintain ecosystem function...

  19. [Distribution of fine root biomass of main planting tree species in Loess Plateau, China].

    PubMed

    Jian, Sheng-Qi; Zhao, Chuan-Yan; Fang, Shu-Min; Yu, Kai

    2014-07-01

    The distribution of fine roots of Pinus tabuliformis, Populus tomentosa, Prunus armeniaca, Robinia pseudoacacia, Hippophae rhamnoides, and Caragana korshinskii was investigated by using soil core method and the fine root was defined as root with diameter less than 2 mm. The soil moisture and soil properties were measured. The results showed that in the horizontal direction, the distribution of fine root biomass of P. tabuliformis presented a conic curve, and the fine root biomass of the other species expressed logarithm correlation. Radial roots developed, the fine root biomass were concentrated within the scope of the 2-3 times crown, indicating that trees extended their roots laterally to seek water farther from the tree. In the vertical direction, the fine root biomass decreased with the increasing soil depth. Fine root biomass had significant negative correlation with soil water content and bulk density, while significant positive correlation with organic matter and total N contents.

  20. Morphology, gas exchange, and chlorophyll content of longleaf pine seedlings in response to rooting volume, copper root pruning, and nitrogen supply in a container nursery

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Amy Ross-Davis; D. Andrew Scott

    2013-01-01

    Few pine species develop a seedling grass stage; this growth phase, characterized by strong, carrot-like taproots and a stem-less nature, poses unique challenges during nursery production. Fertilization levels beyond optimum could result in excessive diameter growth that reduces seedling quality as measured by the root bound index (RBI). We grew longleaf pine (Pinus...

  1. A Highly Polar Phytocomplex Involving Rutin is Responsible for the Neuromuscular Facilitation Caused by Casearia sylvestris (guaçatonga).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Edson H; Tribuiani, Natália; Foramiglio, Ameris L; Foramiglio, Caroline A; da Silva Tavares, Renata V; Bonomini, Tiago J; Bueno, Paula C P; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Hyslop, Stephen; Puebla, Pilar; Feliciano, Arturo S; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Of the various biological activities ascribed to extracts from Casearia sylvestris (guaçatonga), its facilitatory activity, i.e., ability to increase skeletal muscle contractile amplitude, has promising therapeutic applications. In this work, we investigated the components responsible for the previously described neurofacilitation caused by C. sylvestris leaves. The methanolic fraction of C. sylvestris leaves was initially fractionated by column chromatography and partitioned in a MeOH:H2O gradient. The resulting fractions were analyzed by analytical HPLC and yielded fraction 5:5 (F55) that was subjected to solid phase extraction and preparative HPLC. Of the seven resulting subfractions, only F55-6 caused muscle facilitation. Subfractions F55-6 and F55-7 (similar in composition to F55-6 by TLC analysis, but inactive) were analyzed by 1H-NMR to identify their constituents. This analysis identified a rutin-glycoside phytocomplex that caused neurofacilitation, a property that commercial rutin alone did not exhibit. F55-6 apparently caused neurofacilitation by the same mechanism (presynaptic action) as the methanolic fraction since its activity was also inhibited in tetrodotoxin-pretreated preparations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Effects of an orabase formulation with ethanolic extract of Malva sylvestris L. in oral wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Kovalik, Ana Cristina; Bisetto, Paula; Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Campagnoli, Eduardo Baulm; Pilatti, Gibson Luiz; Santos, Fábio André

    2014-05-01

    Malva sylvestris L. is widely used in medicine for treatment of inflammatory processes. The plant has anti-inflammatory properties due to substances such as mucilage, flavonoids, and tannins. A mouthwash with leaves from the plant can be used for the treatment of wounds in the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to assess the wound healing effect of Malva sylvestris L. on a palate mucosa wound in rats. After intraperitoneal anesthesia, a 4-mm-diameter excisional wound was made in the center of the palatal mucosa of 136 rats, using a punch-out biopsy tool. Eight animals were used as baseline wound. The remaining rats were divided into four groups: CO, control; OB, orabase vehicle; CX, 2% chlorhexidine; and MA, 20% Malva in orabase. At 24 h postoperatively, the animals were immobilized without anesthetic to apply 25 mg of each substance twice a day, totaling 50 mg daily. The wound areas were measured photographically and the reepithelialization rates were determined histologically (%) after 0, 3, 7, 15, and 21 days. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. Similar healing pattern was observed among the groups (P>.05; ANOVA). According to the methodology, Malva sylvestris L. extract had no effect on wound healing in the palatal mucosa of rats.

  3. Root growth

    Treesearch

    Terrell T. Baker; William H. Conner; B. Graeme Lockaby; Marianne K. Burke; John A. Stanturf

    2000-01-01

    While vegetation dynamics of forested floodplains have received considerable attention (Megonigal and others 1997, Mitch and Gosselink 1993), the highly dynamic fine root component of these ecosystems has been primarily ignored. Characterizing fine root growth is a challenging endeavor in any system, but the difficulties are particularly evident in forested floodplains...

  4. Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, S.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2014-01-01

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster contains numerous phenolic compounds such as catechins, taxifolin, and phenolic acids. These compounds have received considerable attentions because of their anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic and high antioxidant activities. Although P. pinaster bark has been intensely investigated in the past; there is comparably less information available in the literature in regard to P. eldarica bark. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of P. eldarica commonly found in Iran. A reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and taxifolin in P. pinaster and P. eldarica was developed. A mixture of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova pack C18 at 280 nm. The two studied Pinus species contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Among four marker compounds, the main substances identified in P. pinaster and P. eldarica were taxifolin and catechin, respectively. Furthermore, the composition of the bark oil of P. eldarica obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Thirty-three compounds accounting for 95.1 % of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenoid fractions, especially α-pinene (24.6%), caryophyllene oxide (14.0%), δ-3-carene (10.7%), (E)-β-caryophyllene (7.9%), and myrtenal (3.1%). PMID:25657795

  5. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Herron, D.A.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Rodas, C.A.; Marincowitz, S.; Steenkamp, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world. PMID:26955193

  6. Roots and Root Function: Introduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A number of current issues related to water management, ecohydrology, and climate change are giving impetus to new research aimed at understanding roots and their functioning. Current areas of research include: use of advanced imaging technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging to observe roots...

  7. The morphology and fine structure of the giant interneurons of the wood cricket Nemobius sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Insausti, T C; Lazzari, C R; Casas, J

    2011-02-01

    The structural and ultrastructural characteristics of giant interneurons in the terminal abdominal ganglion of the cricket Nemobius sylvestris were investigated by means of cobalt and fluorescent dye backfilling and transmission electron microscopy. The projections of the 8 eight pairs of the biggest ascending interneurons (giant interneurons) are described in detail. The somata of all interneurons analyzed are located contralateral to their axons, which project to the posterior region of the terminal ganglion and arborise in the cercal glomerulus. Neuron 7-1a is an exception, because its arborisation is restricted to the anterior region of the ganglion. The fine structure of giant interneurons shows typical features of highly active cells. We observed striking indentations in the perineural layer, enabling the somata of the giant interneurons to be very close to the haemolymph. The cercal glomerulus exhibits a high diversity of synaptic contacts (i.e. axo-dendritic, axo-axonic, dendro-axonic, and dendro-dendritic), as well as areas of tight junctions. Electrical synapses seem to be present, as well as mixed synapses. The anatomical organization of the giant interneurons is finally discussed in terms of functional implications and on a comparative basis.

  8. [Composition and food value of the flat pea (Lathyrus sylvestris L.)].

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, G; Bähr, H; Anke, M; Gruhn, K; Löhnert, H J; Wolf, I

    1982-05-01

    Flat pea (Lathyrus sylvestris L.) is suitable as 'pioneer plant' for the recultivation of slag heaps and mining areas for agricultural production. Flat pea contains between 20 and 30% crude protein in the dry matter and is richer in protein than other feed legumes. It is comparable to foxtail clover and lucerne as regards the content of amino acids (g/16 g N) and minerals. The digestibility of the crude nutrients of various dried products of flat pea was ascertained in seven experiments with five rams. The digestibility of the organic matter of the hay (before budding) was 66.2%, energy concentration 526 EFU/kg DM; 55% and 410 EFU/kg DM were ascertained for seed straw. The protein digestibility for hay and dried green fodder varied between 72.3 and 75.8%. Since there have been no reports lathyrogenous substances in the vegetative parts of flat pea, its use as green fodder or dried green fodder for feeding sheep, cattle or wild ruminants is possible.

  9. Cellulase-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Malva sylvestris: Process optimization and potential functionalities.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Hosein; Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi

    2017-03-19

    Enzyme-assisted extraction process of the water-soluble Malva sylvestris polysaccharides (MSPs) was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The highest yield (10.40%) of MSPs was achieved at 5.64% cellulase, 55.65°C temperature, 3.4h time, and 5.22 pH. Three homogeneous polysaccharide fractions (MSP-1, MSP-2, MSP-3) were purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography, which were composed of galactose, glucuronic acid, arabinose, rhamnose and mannose in different molar ratios with molecular weight range of 2.6×10(5)-8.8×10(5)Da. The fractions could significantly increase antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities in a dose-dependent pattern. MSP-2 revealed stronger antioxidant activities than MSP-1 and MSP-3, including reducing power and scavenging activity of DPPH and OH radicals. The antiproliferative activity of MSP-2 (1.0mg/mL) on the growth of A549 and HepG2 cells was 45.1% and 53.2%, respectively. The Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus PTCC 1015 and Staphylococcus aureus PTCC 1112) compared with Gram-negative ones (Escherichia coli PTCC 1763 and Salmonella typhimurium PTCC 1709) showed less sensitivity against the various MSPs (3-15mg/mL).

  10. Polysaccharide extraction from Malva sylvestris and its anti-oxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Samavati, Vahid; Manoochehrizade, Amir

    2013-09-01

    The effects of extraction temperature, extraction time, the ratio of water to raw material, and number of extraction on extraction yield of crude polysaccharides from the leaves of Malva sylvestris (MSLCP) were optimized by statistical analysis using response surface methodology. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize MSLCP extraction yield by implementing the CCD design. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and also analyzed by appropriate statistical methods (ANOVA). Statistical analysis of the results showed that the linear and quadratic terms of these four variables had significant effects. The optimal conditions for higher extraction yield of MSLCP were extraction temperature: 90 °C, extraction time: 4 h, number of extraction: 2 and the ratio of water to raw material: 21. Under these conditions, the experimental yield was 8.377±0.38%, which is well in close agreement with the value predicted by the model 8.608%. The results demonstrated that MSLCP had strong scavenging activities in vitro on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals. Overall, MSLCP may have potential applications in the medical and food industries.

  11. New steroidal lactones and homomonoterpenic glucoside from fruits of Malva sylvestris L.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Akhlaq; Ali, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract of defatted fruits of Malva sylvestris Linn. (Malvaceae) led to the isolation of six new steroidal lactones and a homomonoterpenic glucoside along with beta-sitosterol-3-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The structures of new phytoconstituents have been elucidated as cholest-5-en-3a-ol-18(21)-olide (sylvestrosterol A), cholest-9(11)-en-3alpha-ol-18(21)-olide (sylvestrosterol B), cholest-4,6,22-trien-3alpha-ol-18(21)-olide (sylvestrosterol C), 2-methyl-6-methylene-n-decan-2-olyl- 3beta-D-glucopyranoside (malvanoyl glucoside), cholest-7-en-18(21)-olide-3alpha-olyl-3beta-D-glucopyranoside (sylvestrogenin A), cholest-9(11)-en-18(21)-olide-3alpha-olyl-3beta-D-glucopyranoside (sylvestrogenin B) and cholest-5-en-8(21)-olide-3alpha-olyl-3beta-D-glucopyranoside (sylvestrogenin C).The structures of all these phytoconstituents have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions.

  12. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M.; Naugolnykh, Serge V.; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene. PMID:26548658

  13. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M; Naugolnykh, Serge V; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-11-09

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene.

  14. Modeling and mapping basal area of Pinus taeda L. plantation using airborne LiDAR data.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carlos A; Klauberg, Carine; Hudak, Andrew T; Vierling, Lee A; Fennema, Scott J; Corte, Ana Paula D

    2017-01-01

    Basal area (BA) is a good predictor of timber stand volume and forest growth. This study developed predictive models using field and airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data for estimation of basal area in Pinus taeda plantation in south Brazil. In the field, BA was collected from conventional forest inventory plots. Multiple linear regression models for predicting BA from LiDAR-derived metrics were developed and evaluated for predictive power and parsimony. The best model to predict BA from a family of six models was selected based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) and assessed by the adjusted coefficient of determination (adj. R²) and root mean square error (RMSE). The best model revealed an adj. R²=0.93 and RMSE=7.74%. Leave one out cross-validation of the best regression model was also computed, and revealed an adj. R² and RMSE of 0.92 and 8.31%, respectively. This study showed that LiDAR-derived metrics can be used to predict BA in Pinus taeda plantations in south Brazil with high precision. We conclude that there is good potential to monitor growth in this type of plantations using airborne LiDAR. We hope that the promising results for BA modeling presented herein will stimulate to operate this technology in Brazil.

  15. Observations on root disease of container whitebark pine seedlings treated with biological controls

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese

    2008-01-01

    I observed that whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm. [Pinaceae]) germinants treated with biological controls, one commercially available (Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22), and the other being studied for potential efficacy (Fusarium oxysporum isolate Q12), experienced less seedling mortality caused by root disease than did a...

  16. ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLY IN WHITE AND BROWN ROOT RESPIRATION OF PONDEROSA PINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Respiratory responses of fine ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) roots of differing morphology were measured to evaluate response to excision and to changes in the shoot light environment. Ponderosa pine seedlings were subject to either a 15:9 h light/dark environment over 24...

  17. INDEPENDENT AND CONTRASTING EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION ROOT ARCHITECTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on architecture of Pinus ponderosa fine roots and their associated mycorrhizal symbionts were measured over a 4-year period. The study was conducted in open-top field-exposure chambers located near Placerville, CA. A replicated (thr...

  18. ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLY IN WHITE AND BROWN ROOT RESPIRATION OF PONDEROSA PINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Respiratory responses of fine ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) roots of differing morphology were measured to evaluate response to excision and to changes in the shoot light environment. Ponderosa pine seedlings were subject to either a 15:9 h light/dark environment over 24...

  19. INDEPENDENT AND CONTRASTING EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION ROOT ARCHITECTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated CO2 and N fertilization on architecture of Pinus ponderosa fine roots and their associated mycorrhizal symbionts were measured over a 4-year period. The study was conducted in open-top field-exposure chambers located near Placerville, CA. A replicated (thr...

  20. Seasonal branch and fine root growth of juvenile loblolly pine five growing seasons after fertilization

    Treesearch

    M.A. Sword; D.A. Gravatt; P.L. Faulkner; J.L. Chambers

    1996-01-01

    In 1989, we established two replications of two fertilization treatments in a 10-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation. Between March and September 1993, branch internode and needle fascicle expansion in the upper and lower third of crowns were measured weekly on three south-facing branches of each of four trees, and new root...

  1. Copper-Treated Containers Influence Root Development of Longleaf Pine Seedlings

    Treesearch

    James P. Barnett; John M. McGilvray

    2002-01-01

    Development of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings grown in CopperblockTM containers and BC/ CFC First ChoiceTM Styrofoam blocks, with applications of Spin Out® root growth regulator, were compared to control seedlings. The copper treatments significantly changed seedling morphology; at...

  2. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION ON SURVIVAL OF PONDEROSA PINE FINE ROOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used minihizaotrons to assess the effects of elevated CO2N and season on the life-span of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex Laws.) fine roots. CO2 levels were ambient air (A), ambient air + 175 ?mol mol-1 (A+175) and ambient air + 350 ?mol mol-1 (A+350). N treatments ...

  3. Ten-year growth comparison between rooted cuttings and seedlings of loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    H.E. Stelzer; G. Sam Foster; D.V. Shaw; J.B. McRae

    1997-01-01

    Rooted cuttings and seedlings of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were established in a central Alabama field trial. Five, full-sib families, with an average number of six clones per family, were evaluated. Mean cutting/seedling height ratios revealed that despite initial differences in size, relative growth rates of both propagule types stabilized and...

  4. Temporal and spacial aspects of root and stem sucrose metabolism in loblolly pine trees

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean S. Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; C.C. Black

    1996-01-01

    We studied root and stem sucrose metabolism in trees excavated from a 9-year-old artificially regenerated loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation. Sucrose synthase (SS) activities in stem and taproot vascular cambial tissues followed similar seasonal patterns until they peaked during September. After September, stem SS activity disappeared...

  5. Seasonal Fine Root Carbohydrate Relations of Plantation Loblolly Pine After Thinning

    Treesearch

    Mary A. Sword; Eric A. Kuehler; Zhenmin Tang

    2000-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) occurs naturally on soils that are frequently low in fertility and water availability (Allen et al., 1990; Schultz 1997). Despite these limitations, this species maintains a high level of productivity on most sites (Schultz, 1997). Knowledge of plantation loblolly pine root system growth and physiology is needed to...

  6. Competition-Induced Reductions in Soil Water Availability Reduced Pine Root Extension Rates

    Treesearch

    K.H. Ludovici; L.A. Morris

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between soil water availability, root extension, and shoot growth of loblolly pine seedlings (Pinus taeda L.) was evaluated in a rhizotron sand mixture in the absence and presence of crabgrass (Digitaria spp.) competition. Heights and diameters of seedlings grown with crabgrass were reduced 33 and SO%, respectively, compared with...

  7. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION ON SURVIVAL OF PONDEROSA PINE FINE ROOTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used minihizaotrons to assess the effects of elevated CO2N and season on the life-span of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex Laws.) fine roots. CO2 levels were ambient air (A), ambient air + 175 ?mol mol-1 (A+175) and ambient air + 350 ?mol mol-1 (A+350). N treatments ...

  8. Seven chemicals fail to protect Ponderosa pine from Armillaria root disease in central Washington.

    Treesearch

    Gregory M. Filip; Lewis F. Roth

    1987-01-01

    Chemicals were applied once to the root collars of small-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) to prevent mortality caused by Armillaria obscura (Pers.) Herink Roll-Harisen (A. meilea sensu lato). After 10 years, none of the 15 treatments appeared to reduce mortality in treated trees vs. untreated trees....

  9. How does fire affect longleaf pine roots carbohydrates, foliar nutrients, and sapling growth?

    Treesearch

    Eric A. Kuehler; Marry Anne Sword Sayer; C. Dan Andries

    2006-01-01

    In central Louisiana, we conducted a prescribed-fire study in a 5-year-old longleaf pine (Pinus palustris P. Mill.) stand to evaluate the effects of fire on fine-root (2- to 5-mm diameter) carbohydrates, dormant season foliar nutrients, and sapling growth. Control, burn, and nonburned vegetation control treatments were studied using a randomized...

  10. Lithium induced, oxidative stress and related damages in testes and heart in male rats: The protective effects of Malva sylvestris extract.

    PubMed

    Saad, Anouar Ben; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Alimi, Hichem; Ncib, Sana; Smida, Amani; Zouari, Nacim; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-02-01

    Malva sylvestris is widely used in Mediterranean and European traditional medicine and ethnoveterinary for the treatment of various diseases. This study, carried out on male Wistar rats, evaluates the beneficial effects of Malva sylvestris extract upon lithium carbonate-induced damages in testes and heart. For this purpose, Malva sylvestris extract at a dose of 0.2g/kg was orally administrated, followed by 25mg/kg lithium carbonate (intraperitoneal injection, twice daily). Lithium carbonate treatment significantly (p<0.01) decreased the weight of testes, accessory sex organ and heart, sperm count and motility, and serum testosterone level. In addition, exposure to lithium carbonate significantly (p<0.01) increased lipid peroxidation level (LPO) and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in testes and heart. Treatment with M. sylvestris extract affords substantial protection in testes and heart by altering all the parameters to near normal levels that were further confirmed by histological examination. The beneficial effect of M. Sylvestris extract in several organs could be attributed to the interaction of antioxidant components, such as complex polysaccharides, as confirmed by phytochemical analysis.

  11. Transcriptome characterisation of Pinus tabuliformis and evolution of genes in the Pinus phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis) is an indigenous conifer species in northern China but is relatively underdeveloped as a genomic resource; thus, limiting gene discovery and breeding. Large-scale transcriptome data were obtained using a next-generation sequencing platform to compensate for the lack of P. tabuliformis genomic information. Results The increasing amount of transcriptome data on Pinus provides an excellent resource for multi-gene phylogenetic analysis and studies on how conserved genes and functions are maintained in the face of species divergence. The first P. tabuliformis transcriptome from a normalised cDNA library of multiple tissues and individuals was sequenced in a full 454 GS-FLX run, producing 911,302 sequencing reads. The high quality overlapping expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were assembled into 46,584 putative transcripts, and more than 700 SSRs and 92,000 SNPs/InDels were characterised. Comparative analysis of the transcriptome of six conifer species yielded 191 orthologues, from which we inferred a phylogenetic tree, evolutionary patterns and calculated rates of gene diversion. We also identified 938 fast evolving sequences that may be useful for identifying genes that perhaps evolved in response to positive selection and might be responsible for speciation in the Pinus lineage. Conclusions A large collection of high-quality ESTs was obtained, de novo assembled and characterised, which represents a dramatic expansion of the current transcript catalogues of P. tabuliformis and which will gradually be applied in breeding programs of P. tabuliformis. Furthermore, these data will facilitate future studies of the comparative genomics of P. tabuliformis and other related species. PMID:23597112

  12. Effects of Pinus pinaster and Pinus koraiensis seed oil supplementation on lipoprotein metabolism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Asset, G; Staels, B; Wolff, R L; Baugé, E; Madj, Z; Fruchart, J C; Dallongeville, J

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of vegetal oils obtained from Pinus pinaster and P. koraiensis seeds on plasma lipoprotein levels and apolipoprotein (apo) gene expression in rats. These oils contain two particular fatty acids of the delta5-unsaturated polymethylene-interrupted fatty acid (delta5-UPIFA) family: all-cis-5,9,12-1 8:3 (pinolenic) and/or all-cis-5,11,14-20:3 (sciadonic) acids. Rats were fed for 28 d a diet containing 5% (w/w) oil supplement. Two control diets were prepared to match the fatty acid composition of P. pinaster or P. koraiensis oils with the exception of delta5-UPIFA, which were replaced by oleic acid. Pinus pinaster seed oil decreased serum triglycerides by 30% (P < 0.02), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglycerides by 40% (P < 0.01), and VLDL-cholesterol by 33% (P < 0.03). Pinus koraiensis seed oil decreased serum triglycerides by 16% [not statistically significant (ns)] and VLDL-triglycerides by 21% (ns). Gel permeation chromatography and nondenaturating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a tendency of high density lipoprotein to shift toward larger particles in pine seed oil-supplemented rats. Finally, P. pinaster seed oil treatment was associated with a small decrease of liver apoC-III (P < 0.02) but not in apoE, apoA-I, or apoA-II mRNA levels. The levels of circulating apo were not affected by pine seed oil supplementation. In conclusion, P. pinaster seed oil has a triglyceride-lowering effect in rats, an effect that is due to a reduction in circulating VLDL.

  13. Nitrogen transport in the ectomycorrhiza association: the Hebeloma cylindrosporum-Pinus pinaster model.

    PubMed

    Müller, Tobias; Avolio, Meghan; Olivi, Martin; Benjdia, Mariam; Rikirsch, Enno; Kasaras, Alexis; Fitz, Michael; Chalot, Michel; Wipf, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The function of the ectomycorrhizal mutualism depends on the ability of the fungal symbionts to take up nutrients (particularly nitrogen) available in inorganic and/or organic form in the soil and to translocate them (or their metabolites) to the symbiotic roots. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying nutrient exchanges between fungus and plant at the symbiotic interface is necessary to fully understand the function of the mycorrhizal symbioses. The present review reports the characterization of several genes putatively involved in nitrogen uptake and transfer in the Hebeloma cylindrosporum-Pinus pinaster ectomycorrhizal association. Study of this model system will further clarify the symbiotic nutrient exchange which plays a major role in plant nutrition as well as in resistance of plants against pathogens, heavy metals, drought stress, etc. Ultimately, ecological balance is maintained and/or improved with the help of symbiotic associations, and therefore, warrant further understanding.

  14. Effects of experimentally modified soil temperatures and nutrient availability on growth and mycorrhization of Pinus cembra at the alpine treeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Andreas; Peintner, Ursula; Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Soil temperature affects litter decomposition, nutrient uptake, root growth and respiration and it is suggested that soil temperature has direct impact on tree growth at the alpine treeline. We have evaluated the impact of experimentally modified soil temperatures and nutrient availability on growth and mycorrhization of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Eastern Alps (c. 2150 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria). Soil temperature in the rooting zone of naturally grown c. 25 year old trees (n=6 trees per treatment) was altered by shading and heat-trapping using non-transparent and glasshouse foils mounted c. 20 cm above soil surface. Additional trees were selected for a nitrogen fertilisation treatment and as controls. During the study period, mean soil temperatures at 10 cm depth were reduced by c. 3°C at the cooled vs. warmed plots. Soil moisture was not influenced due to soil water transport along the slope. Results revealed that changed soil temperatures did not significantly affect tree growth, gas exchange, needle nutrient content and specific leaf area. We also found no significant difference in degree of mycorrhization or number of mycorrhized root tips between treatments. On the other hand, nitrogen fertilization and a reduction of interspecific root competition led to significantly raised radial stem growth. Results indicate that tree growth at the selected study area was not limited by soil temperature, while interspecific competition for nutrients among trees and low stature vegetation (dwarf shrubs, grasses) had significant impact. Therefore, we suggest that root competition with alpine grassland and dwarf-shrub communities will hamper temperature driven advance of alpine treeline in the course of climate warming. Acknowledgements This work was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF Project No. P22836-B16, 'Growth response of Pinus cembra to experimentally modified soil temperatures at the treeline').

  15. Characterization of the volatile fraction emitted by phloems of four pinus species by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santos, A M; Vasconcelos, T; Mateus, E; Farrall, M H; Gomes da Silva, M D R; Paiva, M R; Branco, M

    2006-02-10

    Pine forests constitute some of the most important renewable resources supplying timber, paper and chemical industries, among other functions. Characterization of the volatiles emitted by different Pinus species has proven to be an important tool to decode the process of host tree selection by herbivore insects, some of which cause serious economic damage to pines. Variations in the relative composition of the bouquet of semiochemicals are responsible for the outcome of different biological processes, such as mate finding, egg-laying site recognition and host selection. The volatiles present in phloem samples of four pine species, P. halepensis, P. sylvestris, P. pinaster and P. pinea, were identified and characterized with the aim of finding possible host-plant attractants for native pests, such as the bark beetle Tomicus piniperda. The volatile compounds emitted by phloem samples of pines were extracted by headspace solid-phase micro extraction, using a 2cm 50/30mm divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane table flex solid-phase microextraction fiber and its contents analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography, using flame ionization and a non polar and chiral column phases. The components of the volatile fraction emitted by the phloem samples were identified by mass spectrometry using time-of-flight and quadrupole mass analyzers. The estimated relative composition was used to perform a discriminant analysis among pine species, by means of cluster and principal component analysis. It can be concluded that it is possible to discriminate pine species based on the monoterpenes emissions of phloem samples.

  16. Gravitational stress on germinating Pinus pinea seeds.

    PubMed

    Ranaldi, Francesco; Giachetti, Eugenio; Guerin, Elizabeth; Bacci, Stefano; Paoletti, Elena; Boddi, Vieri; Vanni, Paolo

    2003-06-01

    In the germination of lipid-rich seeds, the glyoxylate cycle plays a control role in that, bypassing the two decarboxylative steps of the Krebs cycle; it allows the net synthesis of carbohydrates from lipids. The activity of isocitrate lyase, the key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle, is an indicator of the state of seed germination: stage of germination, growth of embryo, activation and progress of protein synthesis, depletion of lipidic supplies. In order to investigate the effects of gravity on seed germination, we carried out a study on the time pattern of germination of Pinus pinea seeds that were subjected to a hypergravitational stress (1000 g for 64 h at 4 degrees C), either in a dry or in a wet environment, before to be placed in germination plates. During the whole time of germination, we monitored the state of embryo growth and the most representative enzymes of the main metabolic pathways. In treated wet seeds, we observed an average germination of only 20% with a slowdown of the enzyme activities assayed and a noticeable degradation of lipidic reserves with respect to the controls. These differences in germination are not found for dry seeds.

  17. Cardioprotective effect of Malva sylvestris L. in myocardial ischemic/reprefused rats.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Hanheng; Li, Yinping; Cui, Yinghua; An, Yi

    2017-09-05

    The present investigation evaluated the cardioprotective effect of Malva sylvestris L. (MS) on myocardial ischemic/reperfusion (MI/R) in rats. All animals were divided into four groups: the sham operated group, ischemia/reperfusion group (MI/R), and the MS (250 and 500mg/kg) treated groups, who received MS 250 and 500mg/kg intragastrically for 15 consecutive days, respectively. At the end of the protocol, concentrations of aspartate transaminase (AST), creatine kinase-MB fraction (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were estimated in serum and the concentrations of other parameters, such as C-reactive protein, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1α), and nitric oxide (NO) were also estimated in the blood. Tissue homogenate concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interlukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-10 and IL-6 as well as oxidative stress parameters, such as lipid peroxidation, catalase, and superoxide dismutase were estimated in MI/R rats. Significant decreases (p<0.01) in AST, LDH, and CK-MB levels were observed in the MS-treated group compared with those in the MI/R group. C-reactive protein and MIP-1α levels decreased in the MS-treated group compared with those in the MI/R group. Plasma NO level was significantly enhanced in the MS-treated group than in the MI/R group. Moreover, treatment with MS significantly reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels and increased IL-10 levels in the MS group compared with the MI/R group. Treatment with MS also attenuated the altered oxidative stress parameters in MI/R rats. The present results indicate the cardioprotective effects of MS of reducing oxidative stress and the inflammatory response in MI/R rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification and characterization of a novel neuropeptide (neuropeptide Y-HS) from leech salivary gland of Haemadipsa sylvestris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Hui; Chen, Yan; Bai, Xue-Wei; Yao, Hui-Min; Zhang, Xu-Guang; Yan, Xiu-Wen; Lai, Ren

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify immunomodulatory components from the leech salivary gland of Haemadipsa sylvestris. The Sephadex G-50, Resource(TM) S column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were used to isolate and purify the salivary gland extracts (SGE). Structural analysis of isolated compounds was based on Edman degradation and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS). The cDNA encoding the precursor of the compound was cloned from the cDNA library of the salivary gland of H. sylvestris. The levels of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effects on cell proliferation and cell viability were observed using MTT assay. A novel neuropeptide Y (Neuropeptide Y-HS) from the leech salivary gland of H. sylvestris was purified and characterized. It was composed of 36 amino acid residues and the amino acid sequence was determined to be FLEPPERPAVFTSVEQMKSYIKALNDYYLLLGRPRF-NH2, containing an amidated C-terminus. It showed significant inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and MCP-1. Neuropeptide Y was identified from leeches for the first time. The presence of neuropeptide Y-HS in leech salivary gland may help get blood meal from hosts and inhibit inflammation. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Soil carbon cycle of Pinus tabulaeformis forest in Huoditang forest region of Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Kang, Bowen; Liu, Jianjun; Dang, Kunliang; Chen, Haibin

    2006-05-01

    With soil carbon cycle compartment model,this paper studied the carbon storage and flux of each carbon compartment of soil under Pinus tabulaeformis, a main forest type in the Huoditang forest region of Qinling Mountain. The results showed that the storage of soil organic carbon was 146.071 t x hm(-2), with 130.366 t x hm(-2) in mineral soil layer and 12.626 t x hm(-2) in litter layer. The storage was lower than the average value of forest soils in China and of oak Sharptooth forest soil in Huoditang, but higher than that of the soils under temperate coniferous forest and tropical forest. The annual carbon input into litter layer was 5.939 t x hm(-2), with 56.9% from above-ground litter and 43.1% from underground dead roots, while that into mineral soil layer via humic acid was 2. 034 t x hm(-2). The annual amount of carbon released from the respiration of P. zabulaeformis forest-soil system was 14. 012 t x hm(-2), with litter layer, mineral soil layer, dead root system, and live root system occupied 15.7%, 14.5%, 11.7% and 58.1%, respectively.

  20. Regeneration in a mixed stand of native Pinus canariensis and introduced Pinus pinea species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo, José Ramón; Naranjo-Cigala, Agustín; Pascual, Marcos Salas

    2005-09-01

    The main objective of our study is to determine whether regeneration of Pinus pinea (an exotic species) is spreading within a Pinus canariensis (native species) stand. The study area is located in the Natural Park of Tamadaba, 1400 m asl., in the NW of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands). Stems and regeneration of P. canariensis and P. pinea were mapped in five randomly selected plots where both species were planted together around 45 years ago. Densities and basal areas of both species were also recorded. P. canariensis demonstrated a greater ability to disperse than P. pinea. The two species showed different spatial patterns, with P. pinea tending toward a more aggregate spatial distribution of individuals than P. canariensis. Bivariate spatial relationships showed no difference from a random spatial distribution, indicating the lack of any pattern of aggregation or rejection between the species. These results indicated that P. pinea has not spread because it is less able to disperse (strongly barochorus) than P. canariensis (barochorus and anemochorus). Given that the future ability of P. pinea to disperse cannot be predicted, eradication of this species, together with additional plantings of P. canariensis in open areas, is proposed to restore the P. canariensis stand.

  1. Morphological and physiological damage by surfactant-polluted seaspray on Pinus pinea and Pinus halepensis.

    PubMed

    Nicolotti, Giovanni; Rettori, Andrea; Paoletti, Elena; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2005-06-01

    This paper reports morphological and physiological damage caused by polluted seaspray to coastal pine forests in Liguria (Northern Italy) and suggests the most reliable parameters for surfactant-pollution biomonitoring. Concentrations of surfactants in surface seawater, seaspray, and that deposited on Pinus halepensis and Pinus pinea needles were determined in samples from five sites. Decline of the pines in the Western part of Liguria was greater than in the East, and was associated with higher surfactant levels deposited on the crowns. Chloride content of needles was higher in damaged pines, even if it did not reach toxic levels. Stomata micromorphologies did not differ between species in the crown parts facing the sea, while differences were significant in the back crown parts that were not directly exposed to polluted sea breezes. Water content and noon water potential indicated interference in water relations of damaged trees. In conclusion, none of the investigated parameters was by itself a comprehensive index of surfactant damage. A simultaneous survey of several parameters is suggested to investigate the impact of surfactants on coastal vegetation. The most useful parameters were: directionality of crown damage, surfactant depositions on the needles, chloride accumulation in the needles, structural injury to epistomatal chambers, needle water content and potential.

  2. Postfire regeneration in Pinus pinea L. and Pinus pinaster aiton in Andalucia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Gallegos Pérula, Virginia; Navarro Cerrillo, Rafael M; Fernández Rebolloo, Pilar; Valle Murillo, Gemadel

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine postfire regeneration of tree, shrub, and dwarf shrub species, in relation to levels of damage in four planted pine forests (Pinus pinea, Pinus pinaster) in Andalusia. A prefire vegetation map was used for detailing species composition, vertical structure, and density and another for detailing the extent and intensity of fire damage. Between 3 and 7 years after the fires, an inventory was made of the vegetation in each area, using the step-point method. The information thus obtained was used to determine the amount of cover in the dwarf/shrub and tree layers, the frequency of species in each of the layers, floristic richness, and diversity (Shannon index). The botanical composition of the dwarf and shrub layer was analyzed using TWINSPAN. Variables were poorly correlated with level of fire damage, which suggests that the forests in this study followed the autosuccession model. Because of the artificial origin or seminatural condition, regeneration of the dominant tree species is poor, and it seems unlikely that forests will recover to their prefire state. Therefore action is recommended to restore these ecosystems.

  3. Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Piccardo, Maria Teresa; Pala, Mauro; Bonaccurso, Bruna; Stella, Anna; Redaelli, Anna; Paola, Gaudenzio; Valerio, Federico

    2005-01-01

    Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in pine needles of different ages (from 6 to 30 months) collected from two species, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of Genoa (Italy). In all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene) were higher than those for other less volatile PAHs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[a]pyrene). Concentrations of total PAHs found in P. nigra in the rural sites were, on the average, 2.3 times higher than those in P. pinaster growing nearby. In both pine species, concentrations of volatile PAHs increased according to needle age. Annual trends of other PAHs were more variable, with a general decrease in older needles. P. pinaster needles are shown to be more reliable passive samplers, since they are more resistant to plant diseases, and considerable variation in PAH concentration was observed in P. nigra needles with moulds and fungi.

  4. Differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, on Pinus palustris and Pinus taeda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedenberg, N.A.; Whited, B.M.; Slone, D.H.; Martinson, S.J.; Ayres, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of host use by herbivore pests can have serious consequences for natural and managed ecosystems but are often poorly understood. Here, we provide the first quantification of large differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and longleaf pine, Pinus palustris P. Mill., and evaluate putative mechanisms for the disparity. Spatially extensive survey data from recent epidemics indicate that, per square kilometre, stands of loblolly versus longleaf pine in four forests (380-1273 km2) sustained 3-18 times more local infestations and 3-116 times more tree mortality. Differences were not attributable to size or age structure of pine stands. Using pheromone-baited traps, we found no differences in the abundance of dispersing D. frontalis or its predator Thanasimus dubius Fabricius between loblolly and longleaf stands. Trapping triggered numerous attacks on trees, but the pine species did not differ in the probability of attack initiation or in the surface area of bark attacked by growing aggregations. We found no evidence for postaggregation mechanisms of discrimination or differential success on the two hosts, suggesting that early colonizers discriminate between host species before a pheromone plume is present. ?? 2007 NRC.

  5. Ectomycorrhizae of young and mature Scots pine trees in industrial regions in Poland

    Treesearch

    Barbara Kieliszewska-Rokicka; Maria Rudawska; Tomasz Leski

    1998-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizae of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees grown in forests influenced by different levels of air pollutants were investigated. Total numbers of mycorrhizal root tips in the soil horizons and the frequency of mycorrhizal morphotypes were compared as indicators of ectomycorrhizal status. The studies were conducted in two comparable...

  6. Significant contribution from foliage-derived ABA in regulating gas exchange in Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Patrick J; McAdam, Scott A M; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2017-02-01

    The complex regulatory system controlling stomata involves physical and chemical signals that affect guard cell turgor to bring about changes in stomatal conductance (gs). Abscisic acid (ABA) closes stomata, yet the mechanisms controlling foliar ABA status in tree species remain unclear. The importance of foliage-derived ABA in regulating gas exchange was evaluated under treatments that affected phloem export through girdling and reduced water availability in the tree species, Pinus radiata (D. Don). Branch- and whole-plant girdling increased foliar ABA levels leading to declines in gs, despite no change in plant water status. Changes in gs were largely independent of the more transient increases in foliar non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), suggesting that gradual accumulation of foliar ABA was the primary mechanism for reductions in gs and assimilation. Whole-plant girdling eventually reduced root NSC, hindering root water uptake and decreasing foliar water potential, causing a dramatic increase in ABA level in leaves and concentrations in the xylem sap of shoots (4032 ng ml-1), while root xylem sap concentrations remained low (43 ng ml-1). Contrastingly, the drought treatment caused similar increases in xylem sap ABA in both roots and shoots, suggesting that declines in water potential result in relatively consistent changes in ABA along the hydraulic pathway. ABA levels in plant canopies can be regulated independently of changes in root water status triggered by changes by both phloem export and foliar water status. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Xylem vulnerability to cavitation in Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus ponderosa from contrasting habitats.

    PubMed

    Stout, Deborah H; Sala, Anna

    2003-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa (ssp.) ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. & C. Laws) often co-occurs with Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mayr) Franco). Despite previous reports showing higher shoot vulnerability to water-stress-induced cavitation in ponderosa pine, this species extends into drier habitats than Douglas-fir. We examined: (1) whether roots and shoots of ponderosa pine in riparian and slope habitats are more vulnerable to water-stress-induced cavitation than those of Douglas-fir; (2) whether species-specific differences in vulnerability translate into differences in specific conductivity in the field; and (3) whether the ability of ponderosa pine to extend into drier sites is a result of (a) greater plasticity in hydraulic properties or (b) functional or structural adjustments. Roots and shoots of ponderosa pine were significantly more vulnerable to water-stress-induced cavitation (overall mean cavitation pressure, Psi(50%) +/- SE = -3.11 +/- 0.32 MPa for shoots and -0.99 +/- 0.16 MPa for roots) than those of Douglas-fir (Psi(50%) +/- SE = -4.83 +/- 0.40 MPa for shoots and -2.12 +/- 0.35 MPa for roots). However, shoot specific conductivity did not differ between species in the field. For both species, roots were more vulnerable to cavitation than shoots. Overall, changes in vulnerability from riparian to slope habitats were small for both species. Greater declines in stomatal conductance as the summer proceeded, combined with higher allocation to sapwood and greater sapwood water storage, appeared to contribute to the ability of ponderosa pine to thrive in dry habitats despite relatively high vulnerability to water-stress-induced cavitation.

  8. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  9. Root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, P. H.

    1995-01-01

    When a plant root is reoriented within the gravity field, it responds by initiating a curvature which eventually results in vertical growth. Gravity sensing occurs primarily in the root tip. It may involve amyloplast sedimentation in the columella cells of the root cap, or the detection of forces exerted by the mass of the protoplast on opposite sides of its cell wall. Gravisensing activates a signal transduction cascade which results in the asymmetric redistribution of auxin and apoplastic Ca2+ across the root tip, with accumulation at the bottom side. The resulting lateral asymmetry in Ca2+ and auxin concentration is probably transmitted to the elongation zone where differential cellular elongation occurs until the tip resumes vertical growth. The Cholodny-Went theory proposes that gravity-induced auxin redistribution across a gravistimulated plant organ is responsible for the gravitropic response. However, recent data indicate that the gravity-induced reorientation is more complex, involving both auxin gradient-dependent and auxin gradient-independent events.

  10. Root (Botany)

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1981-01-01

    Plant roots can contribute significantly to the stability of steep slopes. They can anchor through the soil mass into fractures in bedrock, can cross zones of weakness to more stable soil, and can provide interlocking long fibrous binders within a weak soil mass. In deep soil, anchoring to bedrock becomes negligible, and lateral reinforcement predominates

  11. [Production suitability regionalization study of Pinus massoniana].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhao, Man-Xi; Wang, Hui; Yang, Guang; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Lu, You-Yuan; Ye, Liang; Ke, Xiao; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2016-09-01

    The distribution, yield and sample information data of Pinus massoniana was obtained by document literature and sample investigation. Based on sample data from 12 provinces including 414 sample plots and environment factors in China,the distribution regionalization of P. massoniana was predicted by using Maxent and spatial analysis function of ArcGIS. The results showed that the northernmost distribution of P. massoniana was 33.5 degrees north latitude, and it mainly distributed in the southeast in China. Based on plant age, plant height, yield per plant and other growth index from 414 sample plots, combined vegetation form and other data, the growth regionalization of P. massoniana was carried out by using SPSS and related functions of ArcGIS. The results showed that Fujian, Guizhou and Guangxi had a lager distribution area of P. massoniana, meanwhile, it had a relatively higher yield of fresh pine needles. The relational model between environmental factors and shikimic acid,and procyanidin, and the total lignans was constructed by using SPSS regression analysis method. Then the spatial calculation function of ArcGIS was used tocarry out the quality regionalization of P. massoniana based on the relational model. The results showed that east of Sichuan, Guizhou, Chongqing had a good pine needles quality. Based on the distribution, growth and quality regionalization, the production suitability regionalization of P. massoniana was carried out. The results showed that the optimal planting base region mainly distributed in east of Sichuan, middle and east of Guizhou, and east of Guangxi. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Reference karyotype and cytomolecular map for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Treesearch

    M. Nurul Islam-faridi; C. Dana Nelson; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    2007-01-01

    A reference karyotype is presented for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L., subgenus Pinus , section Pinus, subsection Australes), based on fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), using 18s-28s rDNA, 5s rDNA, and Arabidopsis-type telomere repeat sequence (A-type TRS). Well...

  13. Postglacial recolonization history of the European crabapple (Malus sylvestris Mill.), a wild contributor to the domesticated apple.

    PubMed

    Cornille, A; Giraud, T; Bellard, C; Tellier, A; Le Cam, B; Smulders, M J M; Kleinschmit, J; Roldan-Ruiz, I; Gladieux, P

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the way in which the climatic oscillations of the Quaternary Period have shaped the distribution and genetic structure of extant tree species provides insight into the processes driving species diversification, distribution and survival. Deciphering the genetic consequences of past climatic change is also critical for the conservation and sustainable management of forest and tree genetic resources, a timely endeavour as the Earth heads into a period of fast climate change. We used a combination of genetic data and ecological niche models to investigate the historical patterns of biogeographic range expansion of a wild fruit tree, the European crabapple (Malus sylvestris), a wild contributor to the domesticated apple. Both climatic predictions for the last glacial maximum and analyses of microsatellite variation indicated that M. sylvestris experienced range contraction and fragmentation. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed a clear pattern of genetic structure, with one genetic cluster spanning a large area in Western Europe and two other genetic clusters with a more limited distribution range in Eastern Europe, one around the Carpathian Mountains and the other restricted to the Balkan Peninsula. Approximate Bayesian computation appeared to be a powerful technique for inferring the history of these clusters, supporting a scenario of simultaneous differentiation of three separate glacial refugia. Admixture between these three populations was found in their suture zones. A weak isolation by distance pattern was detected within each population, indicating a high extent of historical gene flow for the European crabapple.

  14. Leaves, flowers, immature fruits and leafy flowered stems of Malva sylvestris: a comparative study of the nutraceutical potential and composition.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-06-01

    Malva sylvestris is widely used in Mediterranean and European traditional medicine and ethnoveterinary for the treatment of external and internal inflammation, as well as injuries. Moreover, its use is not only limited to therapeutic purposes; but also the species is locally regarded as a food wild herb. Considering that antioxidants and free radical scavengers can exert also an anti-inflammatory effect, the extracts of different parts of the medicinal/edible plant M. sylvestris (leaves, flowers, immature fruits and leafy flowered stems) were compared for their nutraceutical potential (antioxidant properties) and chemical composition. Particularly, mallow leaves revealed very strong antioxidant properties including radical-scavenging activity (EC(50)=0.43 mg/mL), reducing power (0.07 mg/mL) and lipid peroxidation inhibition in lipossomes (0.04 mg/mL) and brain cells homogenates (0.09 mg/mL). This part of the plant is also the richest in nutraceuticals such as powerful antioxidants (phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols), unsaturated fatty acids (e.g. alpha-linolenic acid), and minerals measured in ash content.

  15. [Lactate as competitive inhibitor of Pinus pinea isocitrate lyase].

    PubMed

    Ranaldi, F; Iacoviello, C; Vanni, P

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effect of L-lactate on both the cleavage and the condensation reactions of Pinus pinea isocitrate lyase. This compound is a competitive of Pinus pinea isocitrate lyase towards both isocitrate and glyoxylate, whereas is a mixed type inhibitor towards succinate. Assuming that L-lactate acts as a glyoxylate analogue, our finding agrees with an uni-bi ordered mechanism of isocitrate lyase, with glyoxylate first substrate to enter the active site in the condensation reaction. Results are discussed and compared with those known in the literature about other structurally related metabolites.

  16. [Storage proteins from seeds of Pinus pinea L].

    PubMed

    Nasri, Nizar; Triki, Saïda

    2007-05-01

    The Mediterranean stone pine Pinus pinea L. (gymnosperm, Pinaceae) is much appreciated for its seed production, widely used in food preparation in the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds contain 25% proteins on a dry-weight basis. Pinus pinea accumulate globulins as major storage proteins in seeds (75% of total storage proteins), composed of several subunits of 10 to 150 kDa, revealed by SDS-PAGE. The albumin fraction (15%) represents three subunits of 14, 24 and 46 kDa. Glutelins, the least soluble fraction, represents a small proportion (10%). Their constitutive units have frequent PM of 43 kDa. Prolamins also represent a very small percentage (1 to 2%).

  17. Specific features of the recent accumulation of 137Cs in tree roots of forest ecosystems within the zone of radioactive contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Ol'ga; Klyashtorin, Alexey; Popova, Evgenia

    2015-04-01

    Despite numerous studies of the accumulation of technogenic radionuclides in the root systems, no clear regularities of this process have been established. The tendencies found in the works of Russian and foreign researchers are rather discrepant. Some authors argue that the accumulation of radionuclides in the roots is more pronounced than that in the aboveground parts of the plants (Skovorodnikova, 2005; Romantseva, 2012; Sennerby et al., 1994; Mamikhin, 2002; Fircks et al., 2002}. Other works attest to a higher accumulation of radionuclides in the aboveground pars (Juznic et al., 1990; Chibowski, 2000; Zhianski et al., 2005), which is also typical of the stable isotopes of these elements, including 133Cs (Dong Jin Kang, YongJin Seo, Tsukasa Saito et al,2012). It is also stated that the accumulation of radionuclides in the aboveground and underground parts of plants may differ in dependence on the soil-ecological conditions and other factors (Kozhakhanov et al., 2011; Grabovskyi et al., 2013). The aim of our study was to evaluate the accumulation of 137Cs in the root systems of arboreal plants in forest ecosystems within the near zone of the Chernobyl fallout on the plots with similar soil and phytocenotic features. Pine and birch stands were studied within the 30-km-wide exclusion zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in Ukraine in 1992-1993, when the density of the radioactive contamination of the upper (0-20 cm) layer with 137Cs reached 2153.8 kBq/m2), and in Bryansk oblast of Russia in 2013-2014, when the density of contamination varied from 1458.4 kBq/m2 (pine stand) to 2578.3 kBq/m2 (birch stand). The tree layer in these ecosystems was dominated by Pinus sylvestris (L.) and Betula pendula (Roth.), respectively. Quercus robur (L.), Picea abies (L.), and Sorbus aucuparia (L.) were also present. The specific activity of 137Cs was measured in the samples from the aboveground parts of model trees and their roots differentiated by size (0-3, 3-10, 10

  18. Influence of elevated CO2 and mycorrhizae on nitrogen acquisition: contrasting responses in Pinus taeda and Liquidambar styraciflua.

    PubMed

    Constable, J V; Bassirirad, H; Lussenhop, J; Zerihun, A

    2001-02-01

    An understanding of root system capacity to acquire nitrogen (N) is critical in assessing the long-term growth impact of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) on trees and forest ecosystems. We examined the effects of mycorrhizal inoculation and elevated [CO2] on root ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) uptake capacity in sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Mycorrhizal treatments included inoculation of seedlings with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith in sweetgum and the ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungus Laccaria bicolor (Maire) Orton in loblolly pine. These plants were then equally divided between ambient and elevated [CO2] treatments. After 6 months of treatment, root systems of both species exhibited a greater uptake capacity for NH4+ than for NO3-. In both species, mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased uptake capacity for NO3-, but not for NH4+. In sweetgum, the mycorrhizal effect on NO3- and NH4+ uptake capacity depended on growth [C02]. Similarly, in loblolly pine, the mycorrhizal effect on NO3- uptake capacity depended on growth [CO2], but the effect on NH4+ uptake capacity did not. Mycorrhizal inoculation significantly enhanced root nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in both species, but elevated [CO2] increased root NRA only in sweetgum. Leaf NRA in sweetgum did not change significantly with mycorrhizal inoculation, but increased in response to [CO2]. Leaf NRA in loblolly pine was unaffected by either treatment. The results indicate that the mycorrhizal effect on specific root N uptake in these species depends on both the form of inorganic N and the mycorrhizal type. However, our data show that in addressing N status of plants under high [CO2], reliable prediction is possible only when information about other root system adjustments (e.g., biomass allocation to fine roots) is simultaneously considered.

  19. Genetic diversity, structure and differentiation within and between cultivated (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa) and wild (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sylvestris) grapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic characterization of 502 diverse grape accessions including 342 cultivated (V. vinifera ssp. sativa) and 160 wild (V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris) grapes showed considerable genetic diversity among accessions. A total of 117 alleles were detected with the average of 14 alleles per locus. The tot...

  20. Differences in hydraulic architecture between mesic and xeric Pinus pinaster populations at the seedling stage.

    PubMed

    Corcuera, Leyre; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio; Notivol, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    We studied the intraspecific variability of maritime pine in a set of morphological and physiological traits: soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUE, estimated by carbon isotope composition, δ(13)C), root morphology, xylem anatomy, growth and carbon allocation patterns. The data were collected from Pinus pinaster Aiton seedlings (25 half-sib families from five populations) grown in a greenhouse and subjected to water and water-stress treatments. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in water availability at the geographic location of the populations, and to study the potential trade-offs among traits. The drought-stressed seedlings demonstrated a decrease in hydraulic conductance and root surface area and increased WUE and root tip number. The relationships among the growth, morphological, anatomical and physiological traits changed with the scale of study: within the species, among/within populations. The populations showed a highly significant relationship between the percentage reduction in whole-plant hydraulic conductance and WUE. The differences among the populations in root morphology, whole-plant conductance, carbon allocation, plant growth and WUE were significant and consistent with dryness of the site of seed origin. The xeric populations exhibited lower growth and a conservative water use, as opposed to the fast-growing, less water-use-efficient populations from mesic habitats. The xeric and mesic populations, Tamrabta and San Cipriano, respectively, showed the most contrasting traits and were clustered in opposite directions along the main axis in the canonical discriminant analysis under both the control and drought treatments. The results suggest the possibility of selecting the Arenas population, which presents a combination of traits that confer increased growth and drought resistance.

  1. Effects of Open-field Warming and Precipitation Manipulation on the Growth of Pinus densiflora Seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M. J.; Yoon, S. J.; Han, S. H.; Yun, H. M.; Chang, H.; Son, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of open-field artificial warming and precipitation manipulation on Pinus densiflora seedling growth. The temperature in warming plots have been set to be 3°C higher than control plots using infrared lamps since April, 2013. Precipitation manipulation consisted of precipitation decrease plots (-30%) with deployment of rain-capturing transparent panels, precipitation increase plots (+30%) with pump installation and drip-irrigation, and control plots. Two-year-old P. densiflora seedlings were planted in April, 2013. Seedling height and root collar diameter were measured in April and November, 2013 and April, 2014, and biomass were measured in April, 2013 and April, 2014. During the period of April to November, 2013, increments of seedling height and root collar diameter were not significantly different between control and warming plots. However, in April, 2014 seedling heights, new shoot lengths and weights were higher in warming plots than in control plots, with all precipitation manipulation treatments (p<0.05). Shoot to root ratio was lower in warming plots than in control plots with the precipitation decrease treatment (p<0.05). The seedling height growth observed in 2013 and 2014 might be explained by the previous year's fixed growth of P. densiflora. Lower shoot to root ratio in warming plots with precipitation decrease treatment might be resulted from water stress. In previous studies about artificial warming and/or precipitation manipulation, the effects were increase, decrease or no difference in growth. As these results suggest, responses of growth are species-specific and/or are dependent on the stage of growth and the treatment types of climate change experiments. Therefore, to examine the effects of climate changes on plant growth, multi-factor and long-term studies on diverse species are needed.

  2. Nitrogen Fixation Associated with Suillus tomentosus Tuberculate Ectomycorrhizae on Pinus contorta var. latifolia

    PubMed Central

    Paul, L. R.; Chapman, B. K.; Chanway, C. P.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Tuberculate ectomycorrhizae are a unique form of ectomycorrhiza where densely packed clusters of mycorrhizal root tips are enveloped by a thick hyphal sheath to form a tubercle. The functional significance of such a unique structure has not previously been established. The purpose of the present study was to investigate and measure the potential nitrogenase activity associated with Suillus tomentosus/Pinus contorta tuberculate ectomycorrhizae in two stand ages, young and old, and across a range of nitrogen-poor soil conditions. Methods Short roots were compared with other mycorrhizae and non-mycorrhizal secondary roots using tuberculate ectomycorrhizae. Assessment of nitrogenase activity was determined and quantitative measurements were taken on tuberculate ectomycorrhizae in situ in a variety of different circumstances, by using an adaptation of the acetylene reduction assay. Key Results Significant nitrogenase activity was measured associated with S. tomentosus/P. contorta tuberculate ectomycorrhizae whereas no nitrogenase activity was measured with non-tuberculate mycorrhizae or secondary roots without mycorrhizae. Average nitrogenase activity ranged from undetectable to 5696·7 nmol C2H4 g−1 tubercle 24 h−1. Maximum nitrogenase activity was 25 098·8 nmol C2H4 g−1 tubercle 24 h−1. Nitrogenase activity was significantly higher in young stands than in old stands of P. contorta. Season or some covariate also seemed to affect nitrogenase activity and there was suggestion of a site effect. Conclusions Suillus tomentosus/P. contorta tuberculate ectomycorrhizae are sites of significant nitrogenase activity. The nitrogenase activity measured could be an important contribution to the nitrogen budget of P. contorta stands. Season and stand age affect levels of nitrogenase activity. PMID:17468111

  3. Organ-specific metabolic responses to drought in Pinus pinaster Ait.

    PubMed

    de Miguel, Marina; Guevara, M Ángeles; Sánchez-Gómez, David; de María, Nuria; Díaz, Luis Manuel; Mancha, Jose A; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Desai, Nalini; Aranda, Ismael; Cervera, María-Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Drought is an important driver of plant survival, growth, and distribution. Water deficit affects different pathways of metabolism, depending on plant organ. While previous studies have mainly focused on the metabolic drought response of a single organ, analysis of metabolic differences between organs is essential to achieve an integrated understanding of the whole plant response. In this work, untargeted metabolic profiling was used to examine the response of roots, stems, adult and juvenile needles from Pinus pinaster Ait. full-sib individuals, subjected to a moderate and long lasting drought period. Cyclitols content showed a significant alteration, in response to drought in all organs examined, but other metabolites increased or decreased differentially depending on the analyzed organ. While a high number of flavonoids were only detected in aerial organs, an induction of the glutathione pathway was mainly detected in roots. This result may reflect different antioxidant mechanisms activated in aerial organs and roots. Metabolic changes were more remarkable in roots than in the other organs, highlighting its prominent role in the response to water stress. Significant changes in flavonoids and ascorbate metabolism were also observed between adult and juvenile needles, consistent with previously proven differential functional responses between the two developmental stages. Genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes coding for a Myb1 transcription factor and a malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) were associated with different concentration of phenylalanine, phenylpropanoids and malate, respectively. The results obtained will support further research on metabolites and genes potentially involved in functional mechanisms related to drought tolerance in trees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON FINE ROOT LENGTH, PRODUCTION, AND MORTALITY: A 4-YEAR PONDEROSA PINE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a 4-year study of Pinus ponderosa fine root (<2 mm) responses to atmospheric CO2 and N-fertilization. Seedlings were grown in open-top chambers at 3 CO2 levels (ambient, ambient+175 mol/mol, ambient+350 mol/mol) and 3 N-fertilization levels (0, 10, 20 g?m-2?yr-1). ...

  5. Below-ground carbon input to soil is controlled by nutrient availability and fine root dynamics in loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    John S. King; Timothy J. Albaugh; H. Lee Allen; Marilyn Buford; Boyd R. Strain; Phillip Dougherty

    2002-01-01

    Availability of growth limiting resources may alter root dynamics in forest ecosystems, possibly affecting the land-atmosphere exchange of carbon. This was evaluated for a commercially important southern timber species by installing a factorial experiment of fertilization and irrigation treatments in an 8-yr-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation...

  6. CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON FINE ROOT LENGTH, PRODUCTION, AND MORTALITY: A 4-YEAR PONDEROSA PINE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a 4-year study of Pinus ponderosa fine root (<2 mm) responses to atmospheric CO2 and N-fertilization. Seedlings were grown in open-top chambers at 3 CO2 levels (ambient, ambient+175 mol/mol, ambient+350 mol/mol) and 3 N-fertilization levels (0, 10, 20 g?m-2?yr-1). ...

  7. Hydraulic redistribution of soil water by roots affects whole-stand evapotranspiration and net ecosystem carbon exchange

    Treesearch

    J.-C. Domec; J.S. King; A. Noormets; E. Treasure; M.J. Gavazzi; G. Sun; S.G. McNulty

    2010-01-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of water via roots from moist to drier portions of the soil occurs in many ecosystems, potentially influencing both water use and carbon assimilation. By measuring soil water content, sap flow and eddy covariance, we investigated the temporal variability of HR in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation during months of...

  8. Effects of subsoiling on lateral roots, sucrose metabolizing enzymes, and soil ergosterol in two Jeffrey pine stands

    Treesearch

    W.J. Otrosina; Shi-Jean S. Sung; L.M. White

    1996-01-01

    We determined the effects of subsoiling on woody lateral roots and enzyme activities involved in stem carbon metabolism of 90- to 100-year-old Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. And Balf.) growing on the eastern side of the California Sierra Nevada Range.Twelve 1.0-ha plots were established on each of two sites. Four site treatments thinning and subsoiling entire...

  9. Responses of loblolly pine, sweetgum and crab grass roots to localized increases in nitrogen in two watering regimes

    Treesearch

    Kim H. Ludovici; L.A. Morris

    1995-01-01

    Root responses to differences in availability of nitrogen and soil water were studied in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings grown in monoculture and in competition with sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) or crab grass (Digitaria spp.). Rhizotron cells were maintained at high soil water availability (...

  10. Soil pCO2, soil respiration, and root activity in CO2 - fumigated and nitrogen-fertilized ponderosa pine

    Treesearch

    Dale Johnson; Donn Geisinger; Roger Walker; John Newman; James Vose; Katherine Elliott; Timothy Ball

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the effects of C02 and N treatments on soil pC02, calculated CO2 efflux, root biomass and soil carbon in open-top chambers planted with Pinus ponderosa seedlings. Based upon the literature, it was hypothesized that both elevated CO...

  11. Elevated CO2 and O3 effects on fine-root survivorship in ponderosa pine mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Donald L; Johnson, Mark G; Tingey, David T; Storm, Marjorie J

    2009-07-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) concentrations are rising, which may have opposing effects on tree C balance and allocation to fine roots. More information is needed on interactive CO(2) and O(3) effects on roots, particularly fine-root life span, a critical demographic parameter and determinant of soil C and N pools and cycling rates. We conducted a study in which ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings were exposed to two levels of CO(2) and O(3) in sun-lit controlled-environment mesocosms for 3 years. Minirhizotrons were used to monitor individual fine roots in three soil horizons every 28 days. Proportional hazards regression was used to analyze effects of CO(2), O(3), diameter, depth, and season of root initiation on fine-root survivorship. More fine roots were produced in the elevated CO(2) treatment than in ambient CO(2). Elevated CO(2), increasing root diameter, and increasing root depth all significantly increased fine-root survivorship and median life span. Life span was slightly, but not significantly, lower in elevated O(3), and increased O(3) did not reduce the effect of elevated CO(2). Median life spans varied from 140 to 448 days depending on the season of root initiation. These results indicate the potential for elevated CO(2) to increase the number of fine roots and their residence time in the soil, which is also affected by root diameter, root depth, and phenology.

  12. Root Transcript Profiling of Two Rorippa Species Reveals Gene Clusters Associated with Extreme Submergence Tolerance1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, Rashmi; Mustroph, Angelika; Boonman, Alex; Akman, Melis; Ammerlaan, Ankie M.H.; Breit, Timo; Schranz, M. Eric; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.; van Tienderen, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Complete submergence represses photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, causing rapid mortality in most terrestrial plants. However, some plants have evolved traits allowing them to survive prolonged flooding, such as species of the genus Rorippa, close relatives of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We studied plant survival, changes in carbohydrate and metabolite concentrations, and transcriptome responses to submergence of two species, Rorippa sylvestris and Rorippa amphibia. We exploited the close relationship between Rorippa species and the model species Arabidopsis by using Arabidopsis GeneChip microarrays for whole-genome transcript profiling of roots of young plants exposed to a 24-h submergence treatment or air. A probe mask was used based on hybridization of genomic DNA of both species to the arrays, so that weak probe signals due to Rorippa species/Arabidopsis mismatches were removed. Furthermore, we compared Rorippa species microarray results with those obtained for roots of submerged Arabidopsis plants. Both Rorippa species could tolerate deep submergence, with R. sylvestris surviving much longer than R. amphibia. Submergence resulted in the induction of genes involved in glycolysis and fermentation and the repression of many energy-consuming pathways, similar to the low-oxygen and submergence response of Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa). The qualitative responses of both Rorippa species to submergence appeared roughly similar but differed quantitatively. Notably, glycolysis and fermentation genes and a gene encoding sucrose synthase were more strongly induced in the less tolerant R. amphibia than in R. sylvestris. A comparison with Arabidopsis microarray studies on submerged roots revealed some interesting differences and potential tolerance-related genes in Rorippa species. PMID:24077074

  13. Carbon allocation belowground in Pinus pinaster using stable carbon isotope pulse labeling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannoura, M.; Bosc, A.; Chipeaux, C.; Sartore, M.; Lambrot, C.; Trichet, P.; Bakker, M.; Loustau, D.; Epron, D.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon allocation belowground competes with aboveground growth and biomass production. In the other hand, it contributes to resource acquisition such as nutrient, water and carbon sequestration in soil. Thus, a better characterization of carbon flow from plant to soil and its residence time within each compartment is an important issue for understanding and modeling forest ecosystem carbon budget. 13C pulse labeling of whole crown was conducted at 4 seasons to study the fate of assimilated carbon by photosynthesis into the root on 12 year old Pinus pinaster planted in the INRA domain of Pierroton. Maritime pine is the most widely planted species in South-West Europe. Stem, root and soil CO2 effluxes and their isotope composition were measured continuously by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy with a trace gas analyzer (TGA 100A; Campbell Scientific) coupled to flow-through chambers. 13CO2 recovery and peak were observed in respiration of each compartment after labeling. It appeared sequentially from top of stem to bottom, and to coarse root. The maximum velocity of carbon transfer was calculated as the difference in time lag of recovery between two positions on the trunk or on the root. It ranged between 0.08-0.2 m h-1 in stem and between 0.04-0.12 m h-1 in coarse root. This velocity was higher in warmer season, and the difference between time lag of recovery and peak increased after first frost. Photosynthates arrived underground 1.5 to 5 days after labeling, at similar time in soil CO2 effluxes and coarse root respiration. 0.08-1.4 g of carbon was respired per tree during first 20 days following labeling. It presented 0.6 -10% of 13C used for labeling and it is strongly related to seasons. The isotope signal was detected in fine root organs and microbial biomass by periodical core sampling. The peak was observed 6 days after labeling in early summer while it was delayed more than 10 days in autumn and winter with less amount of carbon allocated

  14. Chloroplast DNA Diversity among Trees, Populations and Species in the California Closed-Cone Pines (Pinus Radiata, Pinus Muricata and Pinus Attenuata)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Y. P.; Hipkins, V. D.; Strauss, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    The amount, distribution and mutational nature of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms were studied via analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in three closely related species of conifers, the California closed-cone pines-knobcone pine: Pinus attenuata Lemm.; bishop pine: Pinus muricata D. Don; and Monterey pine: Pinus radiata D. Don. Genomic DNA from 384 trees representing 19 populations were digested with 9-20 restriction enzymes and probed with cloned cpDNA fragments from Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] that comprise 82% of the chloroplast genome. Up to 313 restriction sites were surveyed, and 25 of these were observed to be polymorphic among or within species. Differences among species accounted for the majority of genetic (haplotypic) diversity observed [G(st) = 84(+/-13)%]; nucleotide diversity among species was estimated to be 0.3(+/-0.1)%. Knobcone pine and Monterey pine displayed almost no genetic variation within or among populations. Bishop pine also showed little variability within populations, but did display strong population differences [G(st) = 87(+/-8)%] that were a result of three distinct geographic groups. Mean nucleotide diversity within populations was 0.003(+/-0.002)%; intrapopulation polymorphisms were found in only five populations. This pattern of genetic variation contrasts strongly with findings from study of nuclear genes (allozymes) in the group, where most genetic diversity resides within populations rather than among populations or species. Regions of the genome subject to frequent length mutations were identified; estimates of subdivision based on length variant frequencies in one region differed strikingly from those based on site mutations or allozymes. Two trees were identified with a major chloroplast DNA inversion that closely resembled one documented between Pinus and Pseudotsuga. PMID:7905846

  15. Elevated CO2 and ozone reduce nitrogen acquisition by Pinus halepensis from its mycorrhizal symbiont.

    PubMed

    Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit; Le Thiec, Didier; Dizengremel, Pierre

    2001-03-01

    The effects of 700 µmol mol-1 CO2 and 200 nmol mol-1 ozone on photosynthesis in Pinus halepensis seedlings and on N translocation from its mycorrhizal symbiont, Paxillus involutus, were studied under nutrient-poor conditions. After 79 days of exposure, ozone reduced and elevated CO2 increased net assimilation rate. However, the effect was dependent on daily accumulated exposure. No statistically significant differences in total plant mass accumulation were observed, although ozone-treated plants tended to be smaller. Changes in atmospheric gas concentrations induced changes in allocation of resources: under elevated ozone, shoots showed high priority over roots and had significantly elevated N concentrations. As a result of different shoot N concentration and net carbon assimilation rates, photosynthetic N use efficiency was significantly increased under elevated CO2 and decreased under ozone. The differences in photosynthesis were mirrored in the growth of the fungus in symbiosis with the pine seedlings. However, exposure to CO2 and ozone both reduced the symbiosis-mediated N uptake. The results suggest an increased carbon cost of symbiosis-mediated N uptake under elevated CO2, while under ozone, plant N acquisition is preferentially shifted towards increased root uptake.

  16. Compensation processes of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) to ozone exposure and drought stress.

    PubMed

    Inclán, R; Gimeno, B S; Dizengremel, P; Sanchez, M

    2005-10-01

    A long-term experiment was performed to study the effects of O3 and drought-stress (DS) on Aleppo pine seedlings (Pinus halepensis Mill.) exposed in open-top chambers. Ozone reduced gas exchange rates, ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity (Rubisco), aboveground C and needle N concentrations and C/N ratio and Ca concentrations of the twigs under 3 mm (twigs<3) and the aerial biomass. Also it increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc) and N and K concentrations of the twigs<3. Water stress decreased gas exchange rates, predawn needle water potential (PsiPd), C/N ratio, twigs<3 Ca, plant growth, aerial biomass and increased N, twigs with a diameter above 3 mm P and Mg concentrations. The combined exposure to both stresses increased N concentrations of twigs<3 and roots and aboveground biomass K content and decreased root C, maximum daily assimilation rate and instantaneous water use efficiency. The sensitivity of Aleppo pine to both stresses is determined by plant internal resource allocation and compensation mechanisms to cope with stress.

  17. An elusive ectomycorrhizal fungus reveals itself: a new species of Geopora (Pyronemataceae) associated with Pinus edulis.

    PubMed

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Lau, Matthew K; Lamit, Louis J; Gehring, Catherine A

    2014-01-01

    Species of the genus Geopora are important ectomycorrhizal associates that can dominate the communities of some plant taxa, such as pinyon pine (Pinus edulis), a widespread tree of the western United States. Several members of the genus Geopora are known only from ectomycorrhizal root tips and thus have not been described formally. The sporocarps of some Geopora species occur infrequently because they depend on wet years for sporulation. In addition, Geopora sporocarps can be small and may be hypogeous at some developmental stage, limiting the opportunities for describing their morphology. Using molecular and morphological data, we have described a new species of fungus, Geopora pinyonensis, which produced ascocarps after unusually high precipitation at a northern Arizona site in summer 2012. Based on analysis of the ITS and nuLSU regions of the rDNA, G pinyonensis is a new species of Geopora. It has small sporocarps and ascospores relative to other members of the genus; however, these morphological features overlap with other species. Using rDNA data from sporocarps and ectomycorrhizal root tips, we show that the sporocarps correspond to an abundant species of ectomycorrhizal fungus associated with pinyon pines that is increasing in abundance in drought-affected landscapes and may promote drought tolerance. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  18. In vitro mycorrhization and acclimatization of Amanita caesareoides and its relatives on Pinus densiflora.

    PubMed

    Endo, Naoki; Gisusi, Seiki; Fukuda, Masaki; Yamada, Akiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Amanita caesareoides is a sister species of Amanita caesarea, also known as Caesar's mushroom and one of the most desirable edible mycorrhizal mushrooms. However, cultivation of Caesar's mushrooms has not yet been successful due to the difficulties involved in establishing pure cultures. In this study, we established pure cultures of four Asian Caesar's mushroom species, i.e., A. caesareoides, Amanita javanica, Amanita esculenta, and Amanita similis, which were identified by sequence analysis of their rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Five selected isolates in A. caesareoides, A. javanica, and A. esculenta were tested for ectomycorrhizal syntheses with axenic Pinus densiflora seedlings in vitro. Ectomycorrhizal tips of each fungal isolate tested were observed on pine lateral roots within 5 months of inoculation. Seventeen pine seedlings that formed ectomycorrhizas in vitro with these three Amanita species were acclimatized under non-sterile conditions. Seven months following acclimatization, ectomycorrhizal colonization by A. caesareoides was observed on newly grown root tips, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the fungal rDNA ITS region. Two other Amanita species also survived during ectomycorrhizal acclimatization. These results suggest that the cultivation of A. caesareoides and its relatives can be attempted through mycorrhizal synthesis using P. densiflora as a host. This is the first report of in vitro mycorrhization of Asian Caesar's mushrooms and their acclimatization under non-sterile conditions.

  19. Diversity and saline resistance of endophytic fungi associated with Pinus thunbergii in coastal shelterbelts of Korea.

    PubMed

    Min, Young Ju; Park, Myung Soo; Fong, Jonathan J; Quan, Ying; Jung, Sungcheol; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-03-28

    The Black Pine, Pinus thunbergii, is widely distributed along the eastern coast of Korea and its importance as a shelterbelt was highlighted after tsunamis in Indonesia and Japan. The root endophytic diversity of P. thunbergii was investigated in three coastal regions; Goseong, Uljin, and Busan. Fungi were isolated from the root tips, and growth rates of pure cultures were measured and compared between PDA with and without 3% NaCl to determine their saline resistance. A total of 259 isolates were divided into 136 morphotypes, of which internal transcribed spacer region sequences identified 58 species. Representatives of each major fungi phylum were present: 44 Ascomycota, 8 Zygomycota, and 6 Basidiomycota. Eighteen species exhibited saline resistance, many of which were Penicillium and Trichoderma species. Shoreline habitats harbored higher saline-tolerant endophytic diversity compared with inland sites. This investigation indicates that endophytes of P. thunbergii living closer to the coast may have higher resistance to salinity and potentially have specific relationships with P. thunbergii.

  20. Soil incorporation of logging residue affects fine-root and mycorrhizal root-tip dynamics of young loblolly pine clones.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Seth G; Maier, Chris A; Johnsen, Kurt H; Grabman, Andrea J; Chalmers, Anne P; Burke, Marianne K

    2010-10-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations cover a large geographic area of the southeastern USA and supply a large proportion of the nation's wood products. Research on management strategies designed to maximize wood production while also optimizing nutrient use efficiency and soil C sequestration is needed. We used minirhizotrons to quantify the effects of incorporating logging residues into soil on fine-root standing crop, production and mortality, and mycorrhizal root tips in young loblolly pine clones of contrasting ideotypes. Clone 93 is known to allocate more C to stem growth, while clone 32 allocates less C to stems and more to leaves. The relative allocation by these clones to support fine-root turnover is unknown. Clone 32 exhibited 37% more fine-root mortality than clone 93, which was mainly the result of a greater standing crop of fine roots. Fine-root standing crop in plots amended with logging residue was initially higher than control plots, but 2.5 years after planting, standing crop in control plots had exceeded that in mulched plots. Production of mycorrhizal root tips, on the other hand, was initially higher in control than mulched plots, but during the last 9 months of the study, mycorrhizal tip production was greater in mulched than control plots, especially for clone 93. As expected, turnover rate of fine roots was greater in surface soil (0-25 cm) compared with deeper (25-50 cm) soil and for small roots (< 0.4 mm diameter) compared with larger fine roots (0.4-2.0 mm diameter). Rates of fine-root turnover were similar in both clones. Organic matter additions reduced survivorship of individual roots and increased turnover rates of fine-root populations. Results indicate that management decisions should be tailored to fit the growth and allocation patterns of available clones.

  1. Isolation and characterization of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)convicilin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A vicilin-like globulin seed storage protein, termed convicilin, was isolated for the first time from Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) by a combination of anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and gel filtration chromatography. The protein is less abundant than vicilin in low-salt extracts of matur...

  2. Understory plant biomass dynamics of prescribed burned Pinus palustris stands

    Treesearch

    C.A. Gonzalez-Benecke; L.J. Samuelson; T.A. Stokes; W.P. Cropper Jr; T.A. Martin; K.H. Johnsen

    2015-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests are characterized by unusually high understory plant species diversity, but models describing understory ground cover biomass, and hence fuel load dynamics, are scarce for this fire-dependent ecosystem. Only coarse scale estimates, being restricted on accuracy and geographical extrapolation,...

  3. Missing and dark rings associated with drought in Pinus halepensis

    Treesearch

    Klemen Novak; Martin De Luis; Jozica Gricar; Peter Prislan; Maks Merela; Kevin T. Smith; Katarina. Cufar

    2016-01-01

    The responses of the vascular cambium and tracheid differentiation to extreme drought in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) were investigated. The research focused on the drought year of 2005, in the primary study area at Maigmo (MAI) in southeastern Spain, with comparisons in Jarafuel (JAL) and Guardamar (GUA). The climate in this region is...

  4. A holistic approach to genetic conservation of Pinus strobiformis

    Treesearch

    K.M. Waring; R. Sniezko; B.A. Goodrich; C. Wehenkel; J.J. Jacobs

    2017-01-01

    Pinus strobiformis (southwestern white pine) is threatened by both a rapidly changing climate and the tree disease white pine blister rust, caused by an introduced fungal pathogen, Cronartium ribicola. We began a proactive program in ~2009 to sustain P. strobiformis that includes genetic conservation, research, and management strategies. Research...

  5. Pinus ponderosa: geographic races and subspecies based on morphological variation

    Treesearch

    Robert Z. Callaham

    2013-01-01

    Morphological variation of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.), growing north of Mexico, is described. A map shows distributions of five putative races that are analyzed and discussed. Characteristics of branches, shoots, and needles were measured for 10 or fewer trees growing on 147 plots located at 1,500-ft elevational intervals...

  6. Effects of Arceuthobium americanum on twig growth of Pinus contorts.

    Treesearch

    Nancy Broshot; Lynn Larsen; Robert. Tinnin

    1986-01-01

    Patterns of branch growth in Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, (lodgepole pine) on the east side of the Cascade Range in Oregon were significantly altered by Arceuthobium americanum (lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe). There were decreases in the number, length, and mass of needles, as well as in the length and mass of twigs. These...

  7. Genic diversity, genetic structure, and biogeography of Pinus sabiniana Dougl.

    Treesearch

    F. Thomas Ledig

    1999-01-01

    Pinus sabiniana Dougl. (grey pine) forms savanna forests in the foothills surrounding California’s Great Central Valley. However, its fossil record, which dates from the late Miocene through the Pliocene and Pleistocene, is found exclusively in southern California, south of the species’ present range. A total of twenty-nine isozyme loci, representing eighteen enzyme...

  8. Aboveground tree biomass for Pinus ponderosa in northeastern California

    Treesearch

    Martin W. Ritchie; Jianwei Zhang; Todd A. Hamilton

    2013-01-01

    Forest managers need accurate biomass equations to plan thinning for fuel reduction or energy production. Estimates of carbon sequestration also rely upon such equations. The current allometric equations for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) commonly employed for California forests were developed elsewhere, and are often applied without consideration potential for...

  9. Intraspecific variation in himalayan white pine, Pinus griffithii

    Treesearch

    John B. Genys

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-one seed sources of Himalayan white pine (Pinus griffithii McClel.) (11 from native stands and 10 from planted trees) were studied in Maryland's State Forest Tree Nursery and in 11 plantations in Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Illinois and North Carolina. In the nursery, intraspecific variations were observed in leaf lengths, time of bud-set, tendency for...

  10. Early performance of Pinus contorta x banksiana hybrids

    Treesearch

    James E. Lotan

    1967-01-01

    Four Pinus contorta X banksiana hybrids developed in California were planted on two sites in Montana and one site in Idaho to determine whether they were suited to climate and soils of these three test locations and whether they were superior to Montana lodgepole pine. Height, diameter, crown width, number of branches per whorl, vigor, and survival were measured 5 and...

  11. The effects of fepeated prescribed burning on Pinus ponderosa growth

    Treesearch

    David L. Peterson; Stephen S. Sackett; Lindsay J. Robinson; Sally M. Haase

    1994-01-01

    The effect of repeated prescribed burning on long term growth of Pinus ponderosa in northern Arizona was examined. Fire treatments for hazard reduction were initiated in 1976,and growthwas evaluated in 1988 for fire rotations of 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years. Dendroecological analysis shows that there were only small changes in treegrowth (compared tocontrols) in the...

  12. Characteristics, histories, and future succession of northern Pinus pugens stands

    Treesearch

    Patrick Brose

    2017-01-01

    Pinus pungens (Table Mountain pine) stands are rare conifer-dominated communities that occur on xeric ridges and upper slopes throughout the central and southern Appalachian Mountains. At the northern end of this range, this uncommon forest community is essentially unstudied. Therefore, in 2006 I initiated a dendroecology study of three ...

  13. Influence of soil porosity on water use in Pinus taeda

    Treesearch

    G. Hacke; J.S. Sperry; B.E. Ewers; D.S. Ellsworth; K.V.R. Schäfer; R. Oren

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the hydraulic constraints imposed on water uptake from soils of different porosities in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) by comparing genetically related and even-aged plantations growing in loam versus sand soil. Water use was evaluated relative to the maximum transpiration rate (Ecrit) allowed by the soil-leaf...

  14. Impact of the eocene on the evolution of Pinus L.

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1993-01-01

    Pinus evolved in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the middle Mesozoic. By the late Cretaceous pines had spread east and west throughout Laurasia, attaining high diversity in eastern Asia, the eastern United States, and western Europe, but having little representation at high northern latitudes. Changing climates in the early Tertiary...

  15. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Dhirender; Kumar, Ajay; Kaushik, Pawan; Rana, A. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae) is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models. PMID:22761611

  16. Relative size and stand age determine Pinus banksiana mortality

    Treesearch

    Han Y. H. Chen; Songling Fu; Robert A. Monserud; Ian C. Gillies

    2008-01-01

    Tree mortality is a poorly understood process in the boreal forest. Whereas large disturbances reset succession by killing all or most trees, background tree mortality was hypothesized to be affected by competition, ageing, and stand composition. We tested these hypotheses on jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) mortality using data from long-term...

  17. Hybridization and classification of the white pines (Pinus section strobus)

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1986-01-01

    Many North American and Eurasian white pines retain their ability to hybridize even after long isolation, and about half of all white pine hybrids from controlled pollinations are inter-hemisphere crosses. Within the morphologically homogeneous and otherwise highly crossable core group of white pines, an exception in crossing behavior is Pinus lambertiana...

  18. Bishop pine (Pinus muricata) of inland Marin County, CA

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1986-01-01

    The locations and characteristics of five, small, previously undescribed stands of bishop pine (Pinus muricata) in central Marin Co., California, are reported. Three stands lie on dry sites in the Kent Lake Drainage north of Mt. Tamalpais: San Geronimo Ridge, a spur ridge above Little Carson Cr., and Oat Hill. These stands are anomalous in occurring...

  19. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in Cascadia: A climate change prognosis

    Treesearch

    Sierra C. McLane

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) predict that whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) will lose much of its current climatic range in Cascadia (the Pacific Northwest in the United States plus British Columbia, Canada) by the 2080s as the climate warms. However, the same models indicate that the species will simultaneously gain a large, climatically-favorable habitat...

  20. Impacts of prescribed fire on Pinus rigida Mill

    Treesearch

    Nicholas J. Carlo; Heidi J. Renninger; Kenneth L. Clark; Karina V.R. Schäfer

    2016-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the impacts of prescribed fire on three upland forest stands in the Northeastern Atlantic Plain, NJ, USA, was conducted. Effects of prescribed fire on water use and gas exchange of overstory pines were estimated via sap-flux rates and photosynthetic measurements on Pinus rigida Mill. Each study site had two sap-flux plots...

  1. Pinus ponderosa : A checkered past obscured four species

    Treesearch

    Ann Willyard; David S. Gernandt; Kevin Potter; Valerie Hipkins; Paula E. Marquardt; Mary Frances Mahalovich; Stephen K. Langer; Frank W. Telewski; Blake Cooper; Connor Douglas; Kristen Finch; Hassani H. Karemera; Julia Lefler; Payton Lea; Austin Wofford

    2016-01-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Molecular genetic evidence can help delineate taxa in species complexes that lack diagnostic morphological characters. Pinus ponderosa (Pinaceae; subsection Ponderosae ) is recognized as a problematic taxon: plastid phylogenies of exemplars were paraphyletic, and mitochondrial phylogeography suggested at...

  2. Rainfall interception and partitioning by pinus monophylla and juniperus osteosperma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated canopy interception of simulated rainfall by singleleaf piñon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) in central Nevada. Research has shown that although piñon and juniper occurred historically throughout the western United States, the infilling of woodlan...

  3. Positive Root Bounds and Root Separation Bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Aaron Paul

    In this thesis, we study two classes of bounds on the roots of a polynomial (or polynomial system). A positive root bound of a polynomial is an upper bound on the largest positive root. A root separation bound of a polynomial is a lower bound on the distance between the roots. Both classes of bounds are fundamental tools in computer algebra and computational real algebraic geometry, with numerous applications. In the first part of the thesis, we study the quality of positive root bounds. Higher quality means that the relative over-estimation (the ratio of the bound and the largest positive root) is smaller. We find that all known positive root bounds can be arbitrarily bad. We then show that a particular positive root bound is tight for certain important classes of polynomials. In the remainder of the thesis, we turn to root separation bounds. We observe that known root separation bounds are usually very pessimistic. To our surprise, we also find that known root separation bounds are not compatible with the geometry of the roots (unlike positive root bounds). This motivates us to derive new root separation bounds. In the second part of this thesis, we derive a new root separation for univariate polynomials by transforming a known bound into a new improved bound. In the third part of this thesis, we use a similar strategy to derive a new improved root separation bound for polynomial systems.

  4. The gymnosperm Pinus pinea contains both AOX gene subfamilies, AOX1 and AOX2.

    PubMed

    Frederico, António Miguel; Zavattieri, Maria Amely; Campos, Maria Doroteia; Cardoso, Hélia Guerra; McDonald, Allison E; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2009-12-01

    The gymnosperm Pinus pinea L. (stone pine) is a typical Mediterranean pine used for nuts and timber production, and as an ornamental around the world. Pine genomes are large in comparison to other species. The hypothesis that retrotransposons, such as gymny, made a large contribution to this alteration in genome size was recently confirmed. However, P. pinea is unique in other various aspects. P. pinea demonstrates a different pattern of gymny organization than other Pinus subgenera. Additionally, P. pinea has a highly recalcitrant behaviour in relation to standard conifer protocols for the induction of somatic embryogenesis or rooting. Because such types of cell reprogramming can be explained as a reaction of plant cells to external stress, it is of special interest to study sequence peculiarities in stress-inducible genes, such as the alternative oxidase (AOX). This is the first report containing molecular evidence for the existence of AOX in gymnosperms at the genetic level. P. pinea AOXs were isolated by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach and three genes were identified. Two of the genes belong to the AOX1 subfamily and one belongs to the AOX2 subfamily. The existence of both AOX subfamilies in gymnosperms is reported here for the first time. This discovery supports the hypothesis that AOX1 and AOX2 subfamilies arose prior to the separation of gymnosperms and angiosperms, and indicates that the AOX2 is absent in monocots because of subsequent gene loss events. Polymorphic P. pinea AOX1 sequences from a selected genetic clone are presented indicating non-allelic, non-synonymous and synonymous translation products.

  5. Fine root branch orders respond differentially to carbon source-sink manipulations in a longleaf pine forest.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dali L; Mitchell, Robert J; Hendricks, Joseph J

    2004-08-01

    Fine roots are a key component of carbon (C) flow and nitrogen (N) cycling in forest ecosystems. However, the complexity and heterogeneity of the fine root branching system have hampered the assessment and prediction of C and N dynamics at ecosystem scales. We examined how root morphology, biomass, and chemistry differed with root branch orders (1-5 with root tips classified as first order roots) and how different root orders responded to increased C sink strength (via N fertilization) and reduced carbon source strength (via canopy scorching) in a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris L.) ecosystem. With increasing root order, the diameter and length of individual roots increased, whereas the specific root length decreased. Total root biomass on an areal basis was similar among the first four orders but increased for the fifth order roots. Consequently, total root length and total root surface area decreased systematically with increasing root order. Fine root N and lignin concentrations decreased, while total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC) and cellulose concentrations increased with increasing root order. N addition and canopy disturbance did not alter root morphology, but they did influence root chemistry. N fertilization increased fine root N concentration and content per unit area in all five orders, while canopy scorching decreased root N concentration. Moreover, TNC concentration and content in fifth order roots were also reduced by canopy scorching. Our results indicate that the small, fragile, and more easily overlooked first and second order roots may be disproportionately important in ecosystem scale C and N fluxes due to their large proportions of fine root biomass, high N concentrations, relatively short lifespans, and potentially high decomposition rates.

  6. Determination of major and minor elements in the Malva sylvestris L. from Turkey using ICP-OES techniques.

    PubMed

    Hiçsönmez, U; Ereeş, F S; Ozdemir, C; Ozdemir, A; Cam, S

    2009-06-01

    In this work, Malva sylvestris var. mauritiana (L.) leaves were collected from different points in Muradiye region of Manisa-Turkey. The leaves were dissolved by wet digestion method using a mixture of mineral acid. Concentrations of Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sr, Sb, Si, Ti, U, Zn, and Zr in prepared solutions were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). High Ca (13,848 mg/kg) and Mg (1,936 mg/kg) concentrations were found at the leaves. Obtained values were compared with the internationally permitted (standard) values. The results of elements were analyzed statistically (analysis of variance test). For different leaf sizes, concentration factors were calculated.

  7. Inhibition of tumor proliferation associated with cell cycle arrest caused by extract and fraction from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae).

    PubMed

    Felipe, Karina Bettega; Kviecinski, Maicon Roberto; da Silva, Fabiana Ourique; Bücker, Nádia Falcão; Farias, Mirelle Sinfroni; Castro, Luiza Sheyla Evenni Porfirio Will; de Souza Grinevicius, Valdelúcia Maria Alves; Motta, Nadia Sandrini; Correia, João Francisco Gomes; Rossi, Maria Helena; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2014-09-29

    Casearia sylvestris is a tree found in tropical America. In Brazil it is known mainly as Guaçatonga. Literature reports suggest that the leaves and other plant parts have been used by indigenous populations from South America in preparations, mainly aqueous or hydroethanolic macerations or decoctions, most times taken orally for the primary treatment of several diseases, including cancer. This article reports the results of an investigation about the antiproliferative effects of Casearia sylvestris on tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Aqueous ethanolic maceration and column chromatography were done to obtain a crude aqueous ethanolic extract (CAE) and a chloroform fraction (f-CHCl3). The human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was used in culture. In vitro, non-cytotoxic concentrations were determined by MTT assay and the antiproliferative effect was assessed by the colony forming unit assay using non-cytotoxic concentrations. Effects on the cell cycle were observed through flow cytometry using a propidium iodide kit. Casearin C was identified in f-CHCl3 by chromatography and H(1) nuclear magnetic resonance. The effect on some key proteins of DNA damage (phosphorylation on the histone H2AX) and cell cycle control (p53, p16, cdk2) was evaluated through immunoblot. Antiproliferative effects in vivo were measured in tumor tissue from Ehrlich ascites-bearing mice through the (3)H-thymidine uptake assay and the trypan blue exclusion method. In vitro, EC50 values found at 24 h on MCF-7 cells were 141 µg/mL for CAE and 66 µg/mL for f-CHCl3. Inhibition on proliferation was recorded at concentrations as low as 4 µg/mL in the case of the f-CHCl3 (up to 40%) and up to 50% when CAE was added at 9 µg/mL. The cell cycle arrest was demonstrated by the reduction in terms of number of cells in phases G2/M and S, up to 38.9% and 51.9% when cells were treated with CAE, and 53.9% and 66.2%, respectively, when cells were treated with f-CHCl3. The number of cells in G1 was increased

  8. Terpene chemodiversity of relict conifers Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and Pinus peuce, endemic to Balkan.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D; Bojović, Srdjan

    2011-12-01

    Terpenes are often used as ecological and chemotaxonomic markers of plant species, as well as for estimation of geographic variability. Essential oils of relic and Balkan endemic/subendemic conifers, Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and P. peuce, in central part of Balkan Peninsula (Serbia and Montenegro), on the level of terpene classes and common terpene compounds were investigated. In finding terpene combinations, which could show the best diversity between species and their natural populations, several statistical methods were applied. Apart from the content of different terpene classes (P. omorika has the most abundant O-containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes; P. heldreichii and P. peuce have the largest abundance of sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons, resp.), the species are clearly separated according to terpene profile with 22 common compounds. But, divergences in their populations were established only in combination of several compounds (specific for each species), and they were found to be the results of geomorphologic, climatic, and genetic factors. We found similarities between investigated species and some taxa from literature with respect to terpene composition, possibly due to hybridization and phylogenetic relations. Obtained results are also important regarding to chemotaxonomy, biogeography, phylogeny, and evolution of these taxa.

  9. Nitrogen addition shifts the microbial community in the rhizosphere of Pinus tabuliformis in Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Fenglian; Xue, Sha; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition profoundly alters the soil microbial communities and will thus affect nutrient cycles. The effects of N availability on microbial community, however, are not clear. We used PLFA analysis to evaluate the effects of a gradient of N addition (0, 2.8, 5.6, 11.2, and 22.4 g N m-2 y-1) for three years on the rhizospheric microbial community of Pinus tabuliformis seedlings. The main factors influencing the community were quantified using structural equation modelling and redundancy analysis. At the microbial-community level, N addition increased the total phospholipid fatty acids content by increasing the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and root biomass. Increases in soil microbial biomass carbon and N, however, was attributed to the increased DOC, N content and decreased pH. At the microbial-groups level, Fungal, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF), gram-positive bacterial (GP) abundances and the GP:GN ratio first increased and then decreased with N addition. Nitrogen addition increased the abundances of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes mainly by increasing the DOC content and decreasing root biomass. Additionally, the decrease of pH and ammonium N caused by N addition increased the fungal abundances and reduced actinomycete abundances, respectively. Nitrogen addition shifted the rhizospheric microbial community mainly by altering the DOC content and root biomass. The current rate of N deposition (2.5 g N m-2 y-1) benefits plant growth and increases the abundances of fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, GP, actinomycetes and the GP:GN ratio.

  10. Linking carbon and water relations to drought-induced mortality in Pinus flexilis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Mitton, Jeffry

    2015-07-01

    Survival of tree seedlings at high elevations has been shown to be limited by thermal constraints on carbon balance, but it is unknown if carbon relations also limit seedling survival at lower elevations, where water relations may be more important. We measured and modeled carbon fluxes and water relations in first-year Pinus flexilis seedlings in garden plots just beyond the warm edge of their natural range, and compared these with dry-mass gain and survival across two summers. We hypothesized that mortality in these seedlings would be associated with declines in water relations, more so than with carbon-balance limitations. Rather than gradual declines in survivorship across growing seasons, we observed sharp, large-scale mortality episodes that occurred once volumetric soil-moisture content dropped below 10%. By this point, seedling water potentials had decreased below -5 MPa, seedling hydraulic conductivity had decreased by 90% and seedling hydraulic resistance had increased by >900%. Additionally, non-structural carbohydrates accumulated in aboveground tissues at the end of both summers, suggesting impairments in phloem-transport from needles to roots. This resulted in low carbohydrate concentrations in roots, which likely impaired root growth and water uptake at the time of critically low soil moisture. While photosynthesis and respiration on a leaf area basis remained high until critical hydraulic thresholds were exceeded, modeled seedling gross primary productivity declined steadily throughout the summers. At the time of mortality, modeled productivity was insufficient to support seedling biomass-gain rates, metabolism and secondary costs. Thus the large-scale mortality events that we observed near the end of each summer were most directly linked with acute, episodic declines in plant hydraulic function that were linked with important changes in whole-seedling carbon relations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  11. Linking carbon and water limitations to drought-induced mortality of Pinus flexilis seedlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Mitton, Jeffry

    2015-01-01

    Survival of tree seedlings at high elevations has been shown to be limited by thermal constraints on carbon balance, but it is unknown if carbon relations also limit seedling survival at lower elevations, where water relations may be more important. We measured and modeled carbon fluxes and water relations in first-year Pinus flexilis seedlings in garden plots just beyond the warm edge of their natural range, and compared these with dry-mass gain and survival across two summers. We hypothesized that mortality in these seedlings would be associated with declines in water relations, more so than with carbon-balance limitations. Rather than gradual declines in survivorship across growing seasons, we observed sharp, large-scale mortality episodes that occurred once volumetric soil-moisture content dropped below 10%. By this point, seedling water potentials had decreased below −5 MPa, seedling hydraulic conductivity had decreased by 90% and seedling hydraulic resistance had increased by >900%. Additionally, non-structural carbohydrates accumulated in aboveground tissues at the end of both summers, suggesting impairments in phloem-transport from needles to roots. This resulted in low carbohydrate concentrations in roots, which likely impaired root growth and water uptake at the time of critically low soil moisture. While photosynthesis and respiration on a leaf area basis remained high until critical hydraulic thresholds were exceeded, modeled seedling gross primary productivity declined steadily throughout the summers. At the time of mortality, modeled productivity was insufficient to support seedling biomass-gain rates, metabolism and secondary costs. Thus the large-scale mortality events that we observed near the end of each summer were most directly linked with acute, episodic declines in plant hydraulic function that were linked with important changes in whole-seedling carbon relations.

  12. Defoliation negatively affects plant growth and the ectomycorrhizal community of Pinus pinaster in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pestaña, Montserrat; Santolamazza-Carbone, Serena

    2011-03-01

    In this work, by artificially reproducing severe (75%) and moderate (25%) defoliation on maritime pines Pinus pinaster in NW Spain, we investigated, under natural conditions, the consequences of foliage loss on reproduction, abundance, diversity and richness of the fungal symbionts growing belowground and aboveground. The effect of defoliation on tree growth was also assessed. Mature needles were clipped during April 2007 and 2008. Root samples were collected in June-July 2007 and 2008. Collection of sporocarps was performed weekly from April 2007 to April 2009. Taxonomic identity of ectomycorrhizal fungi was assessed by using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA through the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, subsequent direct sequencing and BLAST search. Ectomycorrhizal colonization was significantly reduced (from 54 to 42%) in 2008 by 75% defoliation, accompanied with a decline in species richness and diversity. On the other hand, sporocarp abundance, richness and diversity were not affected by foliage loss. Some ECM fungal symbionts, which are assumed to have a higher carbon cost according to the morphotypes structure, were reduced due to severe (75%) defoliation. Furthermore, 75% foliage loss consistently depressed tree growth, which in turn affected the ectomycorrhizal growth pattern. Defoliation impact on ECM symbionts largely depends on the percentage of foliage removal and on the number of defoliation bouts. Severe defoliation (75%) in the short term (2 years) changed the composition of the ECM community likely because root biomass would be adjusted to lower levels in parallel with the depletion of the aboveground plant biomass, which probably promoted the competition among mycorrhizal types for host resources. The persistence of fungal biomass in mycorrhizal roots would be crucial for nutrient up-take and recovery from defoliation stress of the host plants.

  13. Nitrogen addition shifts the microbial community in the rhizosphere of Pinus tabuliformis in Northwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Fenglian; Xue, Sha; Wang, Guoliang; Zhang, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition profoundly alters the soil microbial communities and will thus affect nutrient cycles. The effects of N availability on microbial community, however, are not clear. We used PLFA analysis to evaluate the effects of a gradient of N addition (0, 2.8, 5.6, 11.2, and 22.4 g N m-2 y-1) for three years on the rhizospheric microbial community of Pinus tabuliformis seedlings. The main factors influencing the community were quantified using structural equation modelling and redundancy analysis. At the microbial-community level, N addition increased the total phospholipid fatty acids content by increasing the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and root biomass. Increases in soil microbial biomass carbon and N, however, was attributed to the increased DOC, N content and decreased pH. At the microbial-groups level, Fungal, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF), gram-positive bacterial (GP) abundances and the GP:GN ratio first increased and then decreased with N addition. Nitrogen addition increased the abundances of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes mainly by increasing the DOC content and decreasing root biomass. Additionally, the decrease of pH and ammonium N caused by N addition increased the fungal abundances and reduced actinomycete abundances, respectively. Nitrogen addition shifted the rhizospheric microbial community mainly by altering the DOC content and root biomass. The current rate of N deposition (2.5 g N m-2 y-1) benefits plant growth and increases the abundances of fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, GP, actinomycetes and the GP:GN ratio. PMID:28234932

  14. Seasonal variations in red pine (Pinus resinosa) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) foliar physio-chemistry and their potential influence on stand-scale wildland fire behavior

    Treesearch

    Matt Jolly; John Hintz; Rodman L. Linn; Rachael C. Kropp; Elliot T. Conrad; Russell A. Parsons; Judith Winterkamp

    2016-01-01

    The 'Spring Dip' in conifer live foliar moisture content (LFMC) has been well documented but the actual drivers of these variations have not been fully investigated. Here we span this knowledge gap by measuring LFMC, foliar chemistry, foliar density and foliar flammability on new and old foliage for an entire year from both Pinus resinosa (red pine) and Pinus...

  15. A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii and extent of linkage disequilibrium in two genotype-phenotype discovery populations of Pinua taeda

    Treesearch

    Jared W. Westbrook; Vikram E. Chhatre; Le-Shin Wu; Srikar Chamala; Leandro Gomide Neves; Patricio Munoz; Pedro J. Martinez-Garcia; David B. Neale; Matias Kirst; Keithanne Mockaitis; C. Dana Nelson; Gary F. Peter; John M. Davis; Craig S. Echt

    2015-01-01

    A consensus genetic map for Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) and Pinus elliottii (slash pine) was constructed by merging three previously published P. taeda maps with a map from a pseudo-backcross between P. elliottii and P. taeda. The consensus map positioned 3856 markers via...

  16. Influence of seedbed, light environment, and elevated night temperature on growth and carbon allocation in pitch pine (Pinus rigida) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Day; Jessica L. Schedlbauer; William H. Livingston; Michael S. Greenwood; Alan S. White; John C. Brissette

    2005-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) are two autecologically similar species that occupy generally disjunct ranges in eastern North America. Jack pine is boreal in distribution, while pitch pine occurs at temperate latitudes. The two species co-occur in a small number of stands along a 'tension...

  17. Fungal communities influence root exudation rates in pine seedlings.

    PubMed

    Meier, Ina C; Avis, Peter G; Phillips, Richard P

    2013-03-01

    Root exudates are hypothesized to play a central role in belowground food webs, nutrient turnover, and soil C dynamics in forests, but little is known about the extent to which root-associated microbial communities influence exudation rates in trees. We used a novel experimental technique to inoculate loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings with indigenous forest fungi to examine how diverse fungal communities influence exudation. Surface-sterilized seeds were sown in intact, unsieved soil cores for 14 weeks to promote root colonization by fungi. After 14 weeks, we transferred seedlings and root-associated fungi into cuvettes and measured exudate accumulation in trap solutions. Both the abundance and identity of root-associated fungi influenced exudation. Exudation rates were greatest in root systems least colonized by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and most colonized by putative pathogenic and saprotrophic fungi. However, the ECM community composition was not a strong determinant of exudation rates. These results suggest that environmental conditions that influence the degree to which tree roots are colonized by pathogenic and saprotrophic vs. mutualistic fungi are likely to mediate fluxes of labile C in forest soils, with consequences for soil biogeochemistry and ecosystem processes. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Two differentially regulated phosphate transporters from the symbiotic fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum and phosphorus acquisition by ectomycorrhizal Pinus pinaster.

    PubMed

    Tatry, Marie-Violaine; El Kassis, Elie; Lambilliotte, Raphaël; Corratgé, Claire; van Aarle, Ingrid; Amenc, Laurie K; Alary, Rémi; Zimmermann, Sabine; Sentenac, Hervé; Plassard, Claude

    2009-03-01

    Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis markedly improves plant phosphate uptake, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this benefit are still poorly understood. We identified two ESTs in a cDNA library prepared from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum with significant similarities to phosphate transporters from the endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme and from non-mycorrhizal fungi. The full-length cDNAs corresponding to these two ESTs complemented a yeast phosphate transport mutant (Deltapho84). Measurements of (33)P-phosphate influx into yeast expressing either cDNA demonstrated that the encoded proteins, named HcPT1 and HcPT2, were able to mediate Pi:H(+) symport with different affinities for Pi (K(m) values of 55 and 4 mum, respectively). Real-time RT-PCR showed that Pi starvation increased the levels of HcPT1 transcripts in H. cylindrosporum hyphae grown in pure culture. Transcript levels of HcPT2 were less dependent on Pi availability. The two transporters were expressed in H. cylindrosporum associated with its natural host plant, Pinus pinaster, grown under low or high P conditions. The presence of ectomycorrhizae increased net Pi uptake rates into intact Pinus pinaster roots at low or high soil P levels. The expression patterns of HcPT1 and HcPT2 indicate that the two fungal phosphate transporters may be involved in uptake of phosphate from the soil solution under the two soil P availability conditions used.

  19. Seedling root targets

    Treesearch

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  20. Needle morphological evidence of the homoploid hybrid origin of Pinus densata based on analysis of artificial hybrids and the putative parents, Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Fangqian; Mao, Jian-Feng; Meng, Jingxiang; Dai, Jianfeng; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Hao; Xing, Zhen; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analyses indicate that Pinus densata is a natural homoploid hybrid originating from Pinus tabuliformis and Pinus yunnanensis. Needle morphological and anatomical features show relative species stability and can be used to identify coniferous species. Comparative analyses of these needle characteristics and phenotypic differences between the artificial hybrids, P. densata, and parental species can be used to determine the genetic and phenotypic evolutionary consequences of natural hybridization. Twelve artificial hybrid families, the two parental species, and P. densata were seeded in a high-altitude habitat in Linzhi, Tibet. The needles of artificial hybrids and the three pine species were collected, and 24 needle morphological and anatomical traits were analyzed. Based on these results, variations in 10 needle traits among artificial hybrid families and 22 traits among species and artificial hybrids were predicted and found to be under moderate genetic control. Nineteen needle traits in artificial hybrids were similar to those in P. densata and between the two parental species, P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis. The ratio of plants with three needle clusters in artificial hybrids was 22.92%, which was very similar to P. densata. The eight needle traits (needle length, the mean number of stomata in sections 2 mm in length of the convex and flat sides of the needle, mean stomatal density, mesophyll/vascular bundle area ratio, mesophyll/resin canal area ratio, mesophyll/(resin canals and vascular bundles) area ratio, vascular bundle/resin canal area ratio) relative to physiological adaptability were similar to the artificial hybrids and P. densata. The similar needle features between the artificial hybrids and P. densata could be used to verify the homoploid hybrid origin of P. densata and helps to better understand of the hybridization roles in adaptation and speciation in plants. PMID:24963383