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Sample records for piper auritum kunth

  1. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of Piper auritum and Porophyllum ruderale.

    PubMed

    Conde-Hernández, Lilia A; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Á

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from fresh and dried samples of Mexican pepperleaf (Piper auritum Kunth) and "papalo" (Porophyllum ruderale) were obtained using a stirring or an ultrasound extraction system with five types of solvents (water, 50:50% v/v ethanol:water, 70:30% v/v ethanol:water, 85:15% v/v ethanol:1.5N HCl, and ethanol). Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated with the phenol Folin Ciocalteu reagent and the ABTS method, respectively. Total phenolic compounds (PC), trolox (T), and ascorbic acid (AA), in the two herbs, were in the range of 6.79-68.03mg of galic acid (GA)/g dry solids (d.s.), 4.88-64.99mg of T/gd.s., and 5.31-49.84mgAA/gd.s., respectively. Extracts from fresh "papalo", using ultrasound as the extraction system, had the highest amount of total phenolic compounds. The fresh pepperleaf extract, obtained using ultrasound as the extraction method contained the highest amount of antioxidant activity.

  2. Antifungal activity of Piper diospyrifolium Kunth (Piperaceae) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Silvia Cristina Heredia; de Paulo, Luis Fernando; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Souza, Amanda; Young, Maria Cláudia Marx; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

    2011-01-01

    In vitro activity of the essential oil from Piper diospyrifolium leaves was tested using disk diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay showed significant potencial antifungal activity: the oil was effective against several clinical fungal strains. The majority compounds in the essential oil were identified as sesquiterpenoids by GC-MS and GC-FID techniques. PMID:24031717

  3. Effect of the hexane extract of Piper auritum on insulin release from β-cell and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Perez

    2012-01-01

    Background: The large-leafed perennial plant Piper auritum known as Hoja Santa, is used for its leaves that because of their spicy aromatic scent and flavor have an important presence in Mexican cuisine, and in many regions, this plant is known for its therapeutic properties. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we investigated the effect of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from Piper auritum on cell culture system and the effect in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats treated by 28 days on the physiological, metabolic parameters and oxidative stress. Results: The hexane extract of P. auritum (HS) treatment significantly reduced the intake of both food, water and body weight loss as well as levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides and increase HDL-cholesterol. After 4-week administration of HS antioxidant enzyme as SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx in pancreas were determined. These enzyme increased significantly compared with those of the diabetic rats control and normal animals. For all estimated, the results of HS treated groups leading to a restoration of the defense mechanism. The treatment also improves pancreatic TBARS–reactive substance level and serum NO and iNOS. To determine the insulin releasing activity, after extract treatment the serum and pancreatic sections were processed for examination of insulin-releasing activity using an immunocytochemistry kit. The results showed that administration of the hexane extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited a significant increase in serum and pancreas tissue insulin. Administration of streptozotocin decreased the insulin secretory activity in comparison with intact rats, but treatment with the HS extract increased significantly the activity of the beta cells in comparison with the diabetic control rats. The extract decreased serum glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and increased insulin release from the beta cells of the pancreas. In cultured RIN-5F cells, we examined whether

  4. Cytotoxic mechanism of Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth essential oil and its major compound nerolidol.

    PubMed

    Sperotto, A R M; Moura, D J; Péres, V F; Damasceno, F C; Caramão, E B; Henriques, J A P; Saffi, J

    2013-07-01

    Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth is used in popular medicine as anti-inflamatory and against liver disorders. One of the most studied components of the plant is the essential oil for which chemical analysis revealed (E)-nerolidol as major compound. Recently, we have shown that P. gaudichaudianum essential oil possesses strong cytotoxic effects in mammalian V79 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model study. Treatment of the XV185-14c and N123 strains with essential oil and nerolidol led to cytotoxicity but did not induce mutagenicity. Our results revealed an important role of base excision repair (BER) as the ntg1, ntg2, apn1 and apn2 mutants showed pronounced sensitivity to essential oil and nerolidol. In the absence of superoxide dismutase (in sod1Δ mutant strain) sensitivity to the essential oil and nerolidol increased indicating that this oil and nerolidol are generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS production was confirmed by DCF-DA probing assay in Sod-deficient strains. From this, we conclude that the observed cytotoxicity to P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol is mainly related to ROS and DNA single strand breaks generated by the presence of oxidative lesions.

  5. Cytotoxic mechanism of Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth essential oil and its major compound nerolidol.

    PubMed

    Sperotto, A R M; Moura, D J; Péres, V F; Damasceno, F C; Caramão, E B; Henriques, J A P; Saffi, J

    2013-07-01

    Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth is used in popular medicine as anti-inflamatory and against liver disorders. One of the most studied components of the plant is the essential oil for which chemical analysis revealed (E)-nerolidol as major compound. Recently, we have shown that P. gaudichaudianum essential oil possesses strong cytotoxic effects in mammalian V79 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model study. Treatment of the XV185-14c and N123 strains with essential oil and nerolidol led to cytotoxicity but did not induce mutagenicity. Our results revealed an important role of base excision repair (BER) as the ntg1, ntg2, apn1 and apn2 mutants showed pronounced sensitivity to essential oil and nerolidol. In the absence of superoxide dismutase (in sod1Δ mutant strain) sensitivity to the essential oil and nerolidol increased indicating that this oil and nerolidol are generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS production was confirmed by DCF-DA probing assay in Sod-deficient strains. From this, we conclude that the observed cytotoxicity to P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol is mainly related to ROS and DNA single strand breaks generated by the presence of oxidative lesions. PMID:23523831

  6. Evaluation of the antioxidant and anti-glication effects of the hexane extract from Piper auritum leaves in vitro and beneficial activity on oxidative stress and advanced glycation end-product-mediated renal injury in streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Perez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha; Flores Cotera, Luis B; Gonzalez, Adriana Maria Neira

    2012-10-09

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of hexane extracts from leaves of Piper auritum (HS). Eight complementary in vitro test methods were used, including inhibition of DPPH· radicals, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, ion-chelating, ABTS, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, β-carotene bleaching and peroxy radical scavenging. The results indicated that HS possesses high antioxidant activity. To add to these finding we tested the effect against oxidative stress in liver, pancreas and kidney in diabetic rats. Low levels of SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in diabetic rats were reverted to near normal values after treatment with HS. These results suggest that P. auritum prevents oxidative stress, acting as a suppressor of liver cell damage. Given the link between glycation and oxidation, we proposed that HS might possess significant in vitro antiglycation activity. Our data confirmed the inhibitory effect of HS on bovine serum albumin, serum glycosylated protein, glycation of LDL, and glycation hemoglobin. The effect of HS on diabetic renal damage was investigated using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of HS at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days significantly reduced advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) formation, elevated renal glucose and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels in the kidneys of diabetic rats. This implies that HS would alleviate the oxidative stress under diabetes through the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings indicate that oxidative stress is increased in the diabetic rat kidney and that HS can prevent renal damage associated with diabetes by attenuating the oxidative stress.

  7. Alkaloids from Piper sarmentosum and Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Ee, G C L; Lim, C M; Lim, C K; Rahmani, M; Shaari, K; Bong, C F J

    2009-01-01

    Detailed chemical studies on the roots of Piper sarmentosum and Piper nigrum have resulted in several alkaloids. The roots of P. sarmentosum gave a new aromatic compound, 1-nitrosoimino-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzene (1). Piper nigrum roots gave pellitorine (2), (E)-1-[3',4'-(methylenedioxy)cinnamoyl]piperidine (3), 2,4-tetradecadienoic acid isobutyl amide (4), piperine (5), sylvamide (6), cepharadione A (7), piperolactam D (8) and paprazine (9). Structural elucidation of these compounds was achieved through NMR and MS techniques. Cytotoxic activity screening of the plant extracts indicated some activity.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Blue Eared Pheasant, Crossoptilon auritum (Galliformes: Phasianidae).

    PubMed

    Ren, Qiongqiong; Li, Xifeng; Yuan, Jian; Chen, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Weiwei; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Ping; Kan, Xianzhao

    2016-01-01

    The circular mitochondrial genome of Crossoptilon auritum is 16,687 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a putative control region. All of the genes encoded on the H-strand, except for one PCG (nad6) and eight tRNA genes (tRNA(Gln), tRNA (Ala), tRNA (Asn), tRNA(Cys), tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(Ser)((UCN)), tRNA(Pro), and tRNA(Glu)), as found in many other birds' mitochondrial genomes. All of these PCGs are initiated with ATG, except for cox1 and nad5, which began with GTG, while stopped by four types of stop codons. All tRNA genes have the potential to fold into typical clover-leaf structure. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genus Crossoptilon was the sister of the genus Lophura.

  9. New sesquiterpene lactones from Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Usuga, Nora Del Socorro; Malafronte, Nicola; Cotugno, Roberta; De Leo, Marinella; Osorio, Edison; De Tommasi, Nunziatina

    2016-09-01

    Eleven sesquiterpene lactones, including three new natural products (1-3), were isolated from the n-butanolic extract of Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth. aerial parts. The structure of all isolated compounds was elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MS analyses. All compounds were tested for their antiproliferative activity on HeLa, Jurkat, and U937 cell lines. Compound 3, 2,3-dehydropsilostachyn C, showed cytotoxic activity with different potency in all cell lines. By means of flow cytometric studies, compound 3 was demonstrated to induce in Jurkat cells a G2/M cell cycle block, while in U937 elicited both cytostatic and cytotoxic responses. PMID:27491754

  10. Antifungal compounds from Piper species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piper is a big genus of the plant family Piperaceae, with more than 700 species widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Some species are used in folk medicine as analgesics, antiseptics, insecticides, and antimicrobials or for the treatment of toothache, haemorrhoid...

  11. PIPER: Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazear, Justin; Ade, P.; Benford, D. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J. L.; Eimer, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Halpern, M.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Irwin, K.; Jhabvala, C.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A. J.; Mirel, P.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J.; Switzer, E.; Tucker, C. E.; Weston, A.; Wollack, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (PIPER) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment searching for large-angular scale B-mode polarization to constrain Inflation in the early universe. The Inflationary Big Bang theory predicts that the epoch of inflation will result in a background of gravitational waves. These gravitational waves imprinted their unique B-mode signature on the CMB polarization, two features of which are a peak at ell ~ 80 and a "bump" below ell ~ 10 in the B-mode angular power spectrum. The ell ~ 80 "recombination" peak is the first peak caused by gravitational waves imprinting tensor (B-mode) perturbations onto the CMB spectrum during recombination. Gravitational waves at larger scales have not yet entered the horizon and may not contribute, and at smaller scales have decayed away by other interactions, giving rise to a peak at horizon scale. The ell ~ 10 "reionization" bump is caused by a similar mechanism as the recombination peak, where gravitational waves imprint B-mode perturbations into the spectrum, now at larger horizon scales. PIPER will target the reionization bump while keeping enough angular resolution to measure the recombination peak, with sensitivity down to tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.007. A series of flights alternating between north and south will produce nearly full-sky temperature and polarization maps and measure the low-ell spectra. 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers each with 20 arcmin beamwidth, distributed into 4 rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 150 mK will provide small-scale resolution and sensitivity. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, each with a front-end variable-delay polarization modulator rapidly modulating either the Q or U Stokes parameters to provide polarization sensitivity and mitigate systematic errors. To achieve background-limited sensitivity, the entire instrument is enclosed in an open bucket dewar maintained at 1.5 K. PIPER

  12. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David

    2010-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne polarimeter that will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background to search for evidence for inflation. PIPER will observe more than half of the sky in four frequency bands from 200 to 600 GHz with a beam size of 21 arcminutes at the lowest frequency. PIPER simultaneously measures all four Stokes parameters using four co-aligned 32 by 40 element planar bolometer arrays. We give an instrument overview and report on the current status of the instrument.

  13. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in selected Piper species.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, J; Rani, P

    2003-02-01

    Piper species, commonly used in diet and traditional medicine were assessed for their antioxidant potential. Catalase activity was predominated in Piper longum, followed by Piper cubeba, green pepper, Piper brachystachyum and Piper nigrum. P. nigrum was richest in glutathione peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, green pepper was richest in peroxidase and vitamin C while vitamin E was more in P. longum and P. nigrum. P. brachystachyum and P. longum were rich sources of vitamin A. All the Piper species had GSH content of around 1 to 2 nM/g tissue. The antioxidant components of Piper species constitute a very efficient system in scavenging a wide variety of reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant potential of Piper species was further confirmed by their ability to curtail in vitro lipid peroxidation by around 30-50% with concomitant increase in GSH content.

  14. 77 FR 45979 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation... Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) PA-28,...

  15. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIPER combines cold (1.5 K) optics, 5120 bolometric detectors, and rapid polarization modulation using VPM grids to achieve both high sensitivity and excellent control of systematic errors. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V parameters at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz (wavelengths 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns) covering 85% of the sky. We describe the PIPER instrument and discuss the current status and expected science returns from the mission.

  16. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2010-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a ba1loon-borne instrument designed to search for the faint signature of inflation in the polarized component of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). PIPER will measure the CMB polarization at 4 frequencies (l per flight) using a pair of cryogenic telescopes, one for measuring each of Stokes Q and U in the instrument frame. Each telescope receives both linear orthogonal polarizations in two 32 by 40 element planar arrays that utilize Transition-Edge Sensors (TES). The first element in each telescope is a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) that fully modulates the Stokes parameter to which the telescope is sensitive.

  17. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazear, Justin Scott; Ade, Peter A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Irwin, Kent; Jhabvala, Christine; Johnson, Bradley; Kogut, Alan; Lowe, Luke; McMahon, Jeff J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Switzer, Eric R.; Tucker, Carole E.; Weston, Amy; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (Piper) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter designed to search for evidence of inflation by measuring the large-angular scale CMB polarization signal. Bicep2 recently reported a detection of B-mode power corresponding to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.2 on approximately 2 degree scales. If the Bicep2 signal is caused by inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), then there should be a corresponding increase in B-mode power on angular scales larger than 18 degrees. Piper is currently the only suborbital instrument capable of fully testing and extending the Bicep2 results by measuring the B-mode power spectrum on angular scales theta ? = approximately 0.6 deg to 90 deg, covering both the reionization bump and recombination peak, with sensitivity to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to r = 0.007, and four frequency bands to distinguish foregrounds. Piper will accomplish this by mapping 85% of the sky in four frequency bands (200, 270, 350, 600 GHz) over a series of 8 conventional balloon flights from the northern and southern hemispheres. The instrument has background-limited sensitivity provided by fully cryogenic (1.5 K) optics focusing the sky signal onto four 32×40-pixel arrays of time-domain multiplexed Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers held at 140 milli-Kelvin. Polarization sensitivity and systematic control are provided by front-end Variabledelay Polarization Modulators (VPMs), which rapidly modulate only the polarized sky signal at 3 Hz and allow Piper to instantaneously measure the full Stokes vector (I,Q,U,0V) for each pointing. We describe the Piper instrument and progress towards its first flight.

  18. BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC, WITH CORE BOX CLOSED. WILLIAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC, WITH CORE BOX CLOSED. WILLIAM SEAL STACKS CORES IN FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  19. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne experiment designed to search for the polarized imprint of gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. The discovery of such a signal would provide direct evidence for inflation, and its characterization would provide a means to explore energy scales orders of magnitude larger than any conceivable particle accelerator. PIPER will consist of two cryogenic telescopes-one for each of the Q and U Stokes parameters. Each will use a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) as its first element. This architecture is designed to minimize both T->B and E->B systematics. The detectors will be four 32x40 arrays of BUG detectors, utilizing transition-edge sensors and time-domain multiplexing. Each flight will observe approximately 25% of the sky at a single frequency. Additional flights will increase the frequency coverage.

  20. 77 FR 14316 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... proposed AD. ] Discussion On May 27, 1980, AD 80-11-06, amendment 39-3776 (45 FR 35309), was published in... issued AD 80-11-06 (45 FR 35309, May 27, 1980), we have become aware that the aircraft data plate on some... applicability. The requirements in AD 80-11-06 (45 FR 35309, May 27, 1980), match those in Piper...

  1. 76 FR 18033 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... R1, Amendment 39-11747 (65 FR 33745, May 25, 2000). That AD applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc... in the Federal Register on December 30, 2010 (75 FR 82329). That NPRM proposed to continue to require... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...

  2. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary; Irwin, Kent; Jackson, Michael L.; Jah, Muzariatu A.; Jethava, Nikhil; Jhabvala, Christine; Kogut, Alan J.; Lowe, Luke; McCullagh, Nuala; Miller, Timothy; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer

    2010-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is it balloon-borne instrument designed to search for the faint signature of inflation in the polarized component of the cosmic microwave background (C-N-113). Each flight will be configured for a single frequency, but in order to aid in the removal of the polarized foreground signal due to Galactic dust, the filters will be changed between flights. In this way, the CMB polarization at a total of four different frequencies (200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz) will be, measured on large angular scales. PIPER consists of a pair of cryogenic telescopes, one for measuring each of Stokes Q and U in the instrument frame. Each telescope receives both linear orthogonal polarizations in two 32 x 40 element planar arrays that utilize Transition-Edge Sensors (TES). The first element in each telescope is a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) that fully modulates the linear Stokes parameter to which the telescope is sensitive. There are several advantages to this architecture. First, by modulating at the front of the optics, instrumental polarization is unmodulated and is therefore cleanly separated from source polarization. Second, by implementing this system with the appropriate symmetry, systematic effects can be further mitigated. In the PIPER design, many of the. systematics are manifest in the unmeasured linear Stokes parameter for each telescope and this can be separated from the desired signal. Finally, the modulation cycle never mixes the Q and U linear Stokes parameters, and thus residuals in the modulation do not twist the observed polarization vector. This is advantageous because measuring the angle of linear polarization is critical for separating the inflationary signal from other polarized components.

  3. Inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase by alkamides isolated from the fruits of Piper longum and Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Woong; Rho, Mun-Chual; Park, Hye Ran; Choi, Jung-Ho; Kang, Ji Yun; Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Koanhoi; Lee, Hyun Sun; Kim, Young Kook

    2006-12-27

    Pharmacological inhibition of acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) has emerged as a potential therapy for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Bioassay-guided isolation of CHCl3 extracts of the fruits of Piper longum and Piper nigum (Piperaceae), using an in vitro DGAT inhibitory assay, lead to isolation of a new alkamide named (2E,4Z,8E)-N-[9-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2,4,8-nonatrienoyl]piperidine (2), together with four known alkamides: retrofractamide C (1), pipernonaline (3), piperrolein B (4), and dehydropipernonaline (5). Compounds 2-5 inhibited DGAT with IC50 values of 29.8 (2), 37.2 (3), 20.1 (4), and 21.2 (5) microM, respectively, but the IC50 value for 1 was more than 900 microM. This finding indicates that compounds possessing piperidine groups (2-5) can be potential DGAT inhibitors.

  4. Alkamides from the fruits of Piper longum and Piper nigrum displaying potent cell adhesion inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Woong; Kim, Young Kook; Kim, Koanhoi; Lee, Hyun Sun; Choi, Jung Ho; Lee, Woo Song; Jun, Chang-Duk; Park, Jee Hun; Lee, Jeong Min; Rho, Mun-Chual

    2008-08-15

    Eight alkamides 1-8 were isolated by bioassay-guided isolation of EtOH extracts of the fruits of Piper longum and Piper nigum (Piperaceae). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis ((1)H, (13)C NMR, and ESI-MS) as follows: guineensine (1), retrofracamide C (2), (2E,4Z,8E)-N-[9-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2,4,8-nonatrienoyl]piperidine (3), pipernonaline (4), piperrolein B (5), piperchabamide D (6), pellitorin (7), and dehydropipernonaline (8). Their compounds 3-5, 7, and 8 inhibited potently the direct binding between sICAM-1 and LFA-1 of THP-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with IC(50) values of 10.7, 8.8, 13.4, 13.5, and 6.0 microg/mL, respectively.

  5. Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon- Natural Food Sources with Anti-Quorum Sensing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Li Ying; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants have anti-QS ability. Interestingly, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from P. betle showed the most potent anti-QS activity as judged by the bioassays. Since there is a variety of plants that serve as food sources in Malaysia that have yet to be tested for anti-QS activity, future work should focus on identification of these plants and isolation of the anti-QS compounds. PMID:23519352

  6. WILLIAM SEAL PLACING COMPLETED BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC CORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WILLIAM SEAL PLACING COMPLETED BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC CORE ON A SHORT CONVEYOR THAT TRANSPORTS IT TO WAITING STORAGE BOXES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Pharmacognostic Screening of Piper trichostachyon Fruits and its Comparative Analysis with Piper nigrum Using Chromatographic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Upadhya, Vinayak; Pai, Sandeep R.; Ankad, Gireesh M.; Hegde, Harsha V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Piper trichostachyon is a wild, endemic Piper species from Western Ghats of India. The folklore healers of Belagavi region use this plant, similar to Piper nigrum. Aims: The present study investigates the comparison between P. nigrum and P. trichostachyon using pharmacognostic parameters. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic evaluation was carried out in terms of morphological, microscopic characters, and phytochemical analysis using standard methods. Comparative physicochemical analysis between P. trichostachyon and P. nigrum was also carried out through estimation of micro-macro nutrients, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) investigation and using piperine as a marker compound for reversed phase-ultra flow liquid chromatographic (RP-UFLC) technique. Results: P. trichostachyon grows in the forests, and the fruits are morphologically similar to P. nigrum fruits, so the name in Kannada “Kaadu Kalu menasu” (wild/forest black pepper). The microscopy revealed the presence of stone cells, starch grains, oil cells and globules, beaker cells, and yellowish brown pigment layer, parenchymatous cells. The presence of alkaloids, oil, and tannins were observed in P. trichostachyon fruits. The HPTLC studies visibly indicated differences among two species with 12 peaks and varied banding pattern. RP-UFLC results showed less amount of piperine in P. trichostachyon (0.05 ± 0.002 mg/g) than in P. nigrum (16.14 ± 0.807 mg/g). Conclusion: The study reports on pharmacognostic parameters of P. trichostachyon for the 1st time and will be useful for the identification and authentication. The comparative HPTLC and RP-UFLC studies resolve the differentiation impasse among two species. However, further biological efficacy studies are required to establish its use in traditional medicine. SUMMARY Piper trichostachyon grows in the forests, and the fruits are morphologically similar to Piper nigrum fruitsThe microscopy of P. trichostachyon revealed the

  8. Piper nigrum and piperine: an update.

    PubMed

    Meghwal, Murlidhar; Goswami, T K

    2013-08-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a very widely used spice, known for its pungent constituent piperine. However, in addition to its culinary uses, pepper has important medicinal and preservative properties, and, more recently, piperine has been shown to have fundamental effects on p-glycoprotein and many enzyme systems, leading to biotransformative effects including chemoprevention, detoxification, and enhancement of the absorption and bioavailability of herbal and conventional drugs. Based on modern cell, animal, and human studies, piperine has been found to have immunomodulatory, anti-oxidant, anti-asthmatic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, and anti-amoebic properties. In this review, the chemical constituents, biological activities, effects of processing, and future potential of black pepper and piperine have been discussed thoroughly.

  9. HPLC determination of caffeine and theophylline in Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Cola spp. samples.

    PubMed

    Belliardo, F; Martelli, A; Valle, M G

    1985-05-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid-chromatographic method for the determination of caffeine and theophylline in commercial guarana samples (drug obtained from the seeds of Paulinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae of the Amazon Region) and in Cola spp. samples is described and discussed. The methodology developed is simple and rapid with a minimum of samples preparation required. A comparison of five different techniques for the extraction of caffeine and theophylline is discussed. Furthermore the quantitative determination of caffeine and theophylline in five samples of Brasilian guarana, in two samples of dietetic products containing guarana, in two samples of Cola extract and in three of Cola seed powder are reported.

  10. [Identification of some Piper crude drugs based on Fourier transform infrared spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Luo, Xue-Jun; Li, Pei-Fu; Song, Heng; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2014-09-01

    The common peak ratio and variant peak ratio were calculated by FTIR spectroscopy of seven medicinal plants of Piper. The dual index sequence of common peak ratio and variant peak ratio was established, which showed the sibship of the medicinal plants. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. Piper laetispicum (C. DC.) was greater than 77%, and the variant peak ratio was less than 30%. The results showed the near sibship between the three drugs. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper nigrum L. and Piper boehmeriae folium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense (C. DC.) was about 61% which showed the farther sibship. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi and Piper betle (Linn.) was only 44%, which showed the farthest sibship. Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its adulterants, such as Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand. -Mazz., Piper boehmeriaefolium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense C. DC. , Piper laetispicum C. DC., Piper nigrum L., could be identified by comparing their second order derivative IR spectrum of the samples. FTIR technique is a non-destructive analysis method which provides information of functional group, type and hydrogen bond without complex pretreatment procedures such as extraction and separatioin. FTIR method has some characteristics such as rapid and simple analysis procedure, good reproducibility, non-destructive testing, few amount of required sample and low cost and is environment-friendly. The method solved the problems of limit in resource of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, many fakes and difficulties in identification, and brought the security for the clinical medication. FTIR provides a new method for identification of Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its fakes and meets the requirement for comprehensive analy sis and global analysis of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:25532337

  11. [Identification of some Piper crude drugs based on Fourier transform infrared spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Luo, Xue-Jun; Li, Pei-Fu; Song, Heng; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2014-09-01

    The common peak ratio and variant peak ratio were calculated by FTIR spectroscopy of seven medicinal plants of Piper. The dual index sequence of common peak ratio and variant peak ratio was established, which showed the sibship of the medicinal plants. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. Piper laetispicum (C. DC.) was greater than 77%, and the variant peak ratio was less than 30%. The results showed the near sibship between the three drugs. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper nigrum L. and Piper boehmeriae folium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense (C. DC.) was about 61% which showed the farther sibship. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi and Piper betle (Linn.) was only 44%, which showed the farthest sibship. Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its adulterants, such as Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand. -Mazz., Piper boehmeriaefolium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense C. DC. , Piper laetispicum C. DC., Piper nigrum L., could be identified by comparing their second order derivative IR spectrum of the samples. FTIR technique is a non-destructive analysis method which provides information of functional group, type and hydrogen bond without complex pretreatment procedures such as extraction and separatioin. FTIR method has some characteristics such as rapid and simple analysis procedure, good reproducibility, non-destructive testing, few amount of required sample and low cost and is environment-friendly. The method solved the problems of limit in resource of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, many fakes and difficulties in identification, and brought the security for the clinical medication. FTIR provides a new method for identification of Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its fakes and meets the requirement for comprehensive analy sis and global analysis of traditional Chinese medicine.

  12. Identification and elimination of bacterial contamination during in vitro propagation of Guadua angustifolia Kunth

    PubMed Central

    Nadha, Harleen Kaur; Salwan, Richa; Kasana, Ramesh Chand; Anand, Manju; Sood, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Guadua angustifolia Kunth is a very important bamboo species with significant utility in pharmaceutical, paper, charcoal, and construction industries. Microbial contamination is a major problem encountered during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. Objective: This study has been designed to analyze the identity of contaminating bacteria and to develop the strategy to eliminate them during micropropagation of Guadua. Materials and Methods: We isolated and consequently analyzed partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to identify two contaminating bacteria as (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis. In addition, we also- performed antibiotic sensitivity testing on these bacterial isolates. Results: We identified kanamycin and streptomycin sulfate as potentially useful antibiotics in eliminating the contaminating bacteria. We grew shoots on multiplication medium containing BAP (2 mg/l) and adenine sulfate (10 mg/l) supplemented with kanamycin (10 μg/ml) for 10 days and transferred them to fresh medium without antibiotics and found that bacterial growth was inhibited. Moreover, we observed intensive formation of high-quality shoots. Streptomycin sulfate also inhibited bacterial growth but at higher concentration. We also demonstrated that shoots grown in streptomycin sulfate tended to be shorter and had yellow leaves. Conclusion: Thus, we have developed a novel strategy to identify and inhibit intriguing microbial contaminations of (1) Pantoea agglomerans and (2) Pantoea ananatis during establishment of in vitro cultures of Guadua. This would improve in vitro establishment of an important bamboo, Guadua angustifolia Kunth for large scale propagation. PMID:22701279

  13. Bioactivities of Piper aduncum L. and Piper obliquum Ruiz & Pavon (Piperaceae) essential oils from Eastern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Alessandra; Sacchetti, Gianni; Rossi, Damiano; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Andreotti, Elisa; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Maldonado, Maria E; Bruni, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Essential oils from aerial parts of Piper aduncum (Matico) and Piper obliquum (Anis del Oriente) of ecuadorian origin were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, (13)C NMR and their biological and pharmacological activities were assessed. Chemical composition proved to be unusually different from previous reports for safrole-rich P. obliquum (45.8%), while P. aduncum main constituent was dillapiol (45.9%). No genotoxic activity was found in the Ames/Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100) assay, either with or without S9 activation. Mutagen-protective properties, evaluated using sodium azide, 2-nitrofluorene and 2-aminoanthracene as mutagens/promutagens, was observed against promutagen 2-aminoanthracene, likely in consequence of microsomial deactivation. Antimicrobial assays have been performed on Gram+/Gram- bacteria, dermatophyte and phytopathogenic fungi and best results were provided by P. aduncum against fungal strains with complete inhibition at 500μg/ml. Preliminary analgesic and antithrombotic activities evidenced the absence of the former in hot plate and edema assays and a limited antiplatelet action against three different agonists (ADP, AA and U46619). Both oils have a very limited antioxidant capacity. PMID:21783920

  14. Genetic diversity analysis in Piper species (Piperaceae) using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sandeep; Skaria, Reby; Abdul Muneer, P M

    2010-09-01

    The genetic diversity of eight species of Piper (Piperaceae) viz., P. nigrum, P. longum, P. betle, P. chaba, P. argyrophyllum, P. trichostachyon, P. galeatum, and P. hymenophyllum from Kerala state, India were analyzed by Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Out of 22 10-mer RAPD primers screened, 11 were selected for comparative analysis of different species of Piper. High genetic variations were found among different Piper species studied. Among the total of 149 RAPD fragments amplified, 12 bands (8.05%) were found monomorphic in eight species. The remaining 137 fragments were found polymorphic (91.95%). Species-specific bands were found in all eight species studied. The average gene diversity or heterozygosity (H) was 0.33 across all the species, genetic distances ranged from 0.21 to 0.69. The results of this study will facilitate germplasm identification, management, and conservation. PMID:20383613

  15. Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, and Antipyretic Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn.

    PubMed

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Itharat, Arunporn; Lerdvuthisopon, Nusiri; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Khonsung, Parirat; Boonraeng, Supot; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2012-01-01

    Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn. are herbaceous plants in the Piperaceae family. The ethanol extract of P. interruptum and P. chaba inhibited ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. Both extracts reduced transudative and granuloma weights as well as body weight gain and thymus weight of the chronic inflammatory model using cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. Moreover, both extracts exhibited analgesic activity on both early phase and late phase of formalin test in mice and also showed antipyretic activity on yeast-induced hyperthermia in rats. PMID:22530143

  16. BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC ROTATING TO POSITION THE EMPTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC ROTATING TO POSITION THE EMPTY CORE BOX UNDER A FULL MAGAZINE AND THE FULL CORE BOX TO AN OPEN POSITION TO ALLOW CORE REMOVAL. WILLIAM SEAL STACK CORES IN FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  17. 78 FR 54561 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... effective September 5, 2013. The effective date for AD 2013-10-04 (78 FR 35110, June 12, 2013) remains July... INFORMATION: Airworthiness Directive 2013-10-04 (78 FR 35110, June 12, 2013), currently requires a detailed...-17457; AD 2013-10-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes...

  18. 78 FR 56150 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... final rule is effective September 12, 2013. The effective date for AD 2013-13-01 (78 FR 41277, July 10... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Airworthiness Directive 2013-13-01, Amendment 39-17489 (78 FR 41277, July 10, 2013...-018-AD; Amendment 39-17489; AD 2013-13-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft,...

  19. 77 FR 31169 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... (45 FR 35309, May 27, 1980), and adding the following new AD: ] 2012-10-09 Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type... AD 80-11-06, amendment 39-3776 (45 FR 35309, May 27, 1980). That AD applies to the specified products. The NPRM published in the Federal Register on March 9, 2012 (77 FR 14316). The NPRM proposed to...

  20. An investigation of the vegetative anatomy of Piper sarmentosum, and a comparison with the anatomy of Piper betle (Piperaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (synonym, P. lolot C.DC.) is a southeast Asian medicinal plant valued for its medicinal and culinary uses. Hand-sections of the vegetative parts of P. sarmentosum were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Th...

  1. A background color scheme for piper plots to spatially visualize hydrochemical patterns.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Luk

    2014-01-01

    The combination of ternary diagrams of cations and anions with a central diamond graph make the Piper plot very useful in visualizing groundwater chemistry datasets. One of the major drawbacks is that it is hard to link spatial attributes of the dataset to the plot. In this study, we propose a background color scheme of the Piper plot so that spatial representations of these data can be colored according to their location in the Piper plot. The color scheme is chosen to have maximum resolution while still being perceptually uniform. The linking between Piper plot and maps through this color scheme allows the interpretation of the trends and processes deduced from the Piper plot in terms of the location in the aquifer, the geology, and the groundwater flow dynamics. The colored Piper plot is applied to a groundwater quality dataset of the Condamine Alluvium in Queensland, Australia.

  2. Anticancer Principles from Medicinal Piper (胡椒 Hú Jiāo) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    The ethnomedical uses of Piper (胡椒 Hú Jiāo) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles. PMID:24872928

  3. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Different Species of Piper from Panama.

    PubMed

    Santana, Ana I; Vila, Roser; Cañigueral, Salvador; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of leaf essential oils from 11 species of Piper from Panama was analyzed by a combination GC-FID and GC-MS procedures. Six of them had sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as major constituents, three were characterized by monoterpene hydrocarbons, one by a diterpene, and one by a phenylpropanoid, dillapiole. The main components identified in each species were: cembratrienol (25.4 %) in Piper augustum; β-pinene (26.6 %) in Piper corrugatum; α-pinene (19.4 %) in Piper curtispicum; trans-β-farnesene (63.7 %) in Piper darienense; p-cymene (43.9 %) in Piper grande; dillapiole (57.7 %) in Piper hispidum; linalool (14.5 %), α-phellandrene (13.8 %), and limonene (12.2 %) in Piper jacquemontianum; β-caryophyllene (45.2 %) in Piper longispicum; linalool (16.5 %), α-phellandrene (11.8 %), limonene (11.4 %), and p-cymene (9.0 %) in Piper multiplinervium; β-selinene (19.0 %), β-elemene (16.1 %), and α-selinene (15.5 %) in Piper reticulatum; and germacrene D (19.7 %) in Piper trigonum. The essential oils of P. hispidum and P. longispicum at a concentration of 250 µg/mL showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, while the oils from P. curtispicum, P. multiplinervium, P. reticulatum, and P. trigonum were inactive (LC100 ≥ 500 µg/mL). The essential oils of P. grande, P. jacquemontianum, and P. multiplinervium showed no significant antifungal activity (MIC > 250 µg/mL) against several yeasts and filamentous fungal strains.

  4. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Different Species of Piper from Panama.

    PubMed

    Santana, Ana I; Vila, Roser; Cañigueral, Salvador; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of leaf essential oils from 11 species of Piper from Panama was analyzed by a combination GC-FID and GC-MS procedures. Six of them had sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as major constituents, three were characterized by monoterpene hydrocarbons, one by a diterpene, and one by a phenylpropanoid, dillapiole. The main components identified in each species were: cembratrienol (25.4 %) in Piper augustum; β-pinene (26.6 %) in Piper corrugatum; α-pinene (19.4 %) in Piper curtispicum; trans-β-farnesene (63.7 %) in Piper darienense; p-cymene (43.9 %) in Piper grande; dillapiole (57.7 %) in Piper hispidum; linalool (14.5 %), α-phellandrene (13.8 %), and limonene (12.2 %) in Piper jacquemontianum; β-caryophyllene (45.2 %) in Piper longispicum; linalool (16.5 %), α-phellandrene (11.8 %), limonene (11.4 %), and p-cymene (9.0 %) in Piper multiplinervium; β-selinene (19.0 %), β-elemene (16.1 %), and α-selinene (15.5 %) in Piper reticulatum; and germacrene D (19.7 %) in Piper trigonum. The essential oils of P. hispidum and P. longispicum at a concentration of 250 µg/mL showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, while the oils from P. curtispicum, P. multiplinervium, P. reticulatum, and P. trigonum were inactive (LC100 ≥ 500 µg/mL). The essential oils of P. grande, P. jacquemontianum, and P. multiplinervium showed no significant antifungal activity (MIC > 250 µg/mL) against several yeasts and filamentous fungal strains. PMID:27286333

  5. Origin of the subepidermal tissue in Piper L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, A T; Simão, E; Silva, L; Torres, G A

    2015-05-01

    Studies on the anatomy of Piper leaves demonstrate the presence of a subepidermal tissue distinct from the adjacent epidermis, which cells show thin walls and hyaline contents. Some authors consider such cells a hypodermal tissue, while others refer to them as components of a multiple epidermis. In this study, the nature of this subepidermal tissue was investigated through the analysis of leaf ontogeny in three Piper species. The analysis showed that the referred tissue originates from the ground meristem and, thus, should be considered a hypodermis. The studied species suggests that the role of the hypodermis would be to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from excess light, regulating the intensity of light reaching the chlorophyll parenchyma. PMID:26132020

  6. Potential antiamoebic property of the roots of Piper longum Linn.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Sheela; Lakshmi, V

    2002-11-01

    In an earlier study we reported the effect of ethanol extracts of Piper longum fruit against caecal amoebiasis in rats. A follow-up study to determine whether the roots possess similar antiamoebic activity was carried out. The ethanolic extract of roots was amoebicidal at 1,000 microg/mL in vitro and cured 88% of caecal amoebiasis cases, suggesting that both the root and fruit of P. longum possess antiamoebic activity to approximately the same extent.

  7. Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon--natural food sources with anti-quorum sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li Ying; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-03-20

    Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants have anti-QS ability. Interestingly, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from P. betle showed the most potent anti-QS activity as judged by the bioassays. Since there is a variety of plants that serve as food sources in Malaysia that have yet to be tested for anti-QS activity, future work should focus on identification of these plants and isolation of the anti-QS compounds.

  8. Chemical studies on curuba (Passiflora mollissima (Kunth) L. H. Bailey) fruit flavour.

    PubMed

    Conde-Martínez, Natalia; Sinuco, Diana Cristina; Osorio, Coralia

    2014-08-15

    The odour-active volatiles of curuba fruit (Passiflora mollissima (Kunth) L. H. Bailey) were isolated by solvent assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GC-MS analyses identified linalool, hexyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, and butyl acetate as key aroma compounds of this fruit. Other odorants relevant because of their contribution to the overall aroma were: 2-methylpropyl acetate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. Sulphur compounds, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate and methional, were reported here for first time as odour-active volatiles in curuba. By HPLC-ESI-MS analyses of glycosidic mixtures and GC-MS analyses of volatiles released enzymatically with a glucosidase, (Z)-3-hexenyl β-D-glucopyranoside and linalyl β-D-glucopyranoside were identified as aroma precursors in P. mollissima fruit. Thermal treatment of the glycosidic mixture at native pH of fruit gave furanoid cis- and trans-linalool oxides, as well as, α-terpineol, compounds that exhibit flowery odour notes. Biogenic relationships among odour-active volatiles and their glycosidic precursors were also proposed. PMID:24679791

  9. Salinity induced anatomical and morphological changes in Chloris gayana Kunth roots.

    PubMed

    Céccoli, Gabriel; Ramos, Julio C; Ortega, Leandro I; Acosta, Juan M; Perreta, Mariel G

    2011-04-01

    Chloris gayana Kunth is a grass species valuable as forage which was introduced into Argentina to be used as pasture in saline soils of subtropical and warm-temperate zones, given its good adaptability to drought, salinity and mild freezing. However, its tolerance varies according to the cultivar. In tetraploid cultivars, important reductions in yield have been observed. Here, a study of the variations produced on the root and stem system by salinity at different NaCl concentrations (0, 150 and 250 mM) was performed in the Boma cultivar, with the aim of determining the anatomical and morphological alterations produced by the salt excess. Plants cultivated with the highest level of salinity showed, in the whole, significant differences in the measured variables. A diminution in absolute values of the variables and a major reduction in vascular tissue dimensions were observed, which suggests that the lack of tolerance to salt stress could be related to a deficient adaptation to absorb and transport water and nutrients from the roots. PMID:21667667

  10. Evaluation of particle resuspension in young children's breathing zone using stationary and robotic (PIPER) aerosol samplers

    PubMed Central

    Sagona, Jessica A.; Shalat, Stuart L; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2015-01-01

    Development of asthma in young children may be associated with high exposure to particulate matter (PM). However, typical stationary samplers may not represent the personal exposure of children ages 3 and younger since they may not detect particles resuspended from the floor as children play, thus reducing our ability to correlate exposure and disease etiology. To address this, an autonomous robot, the Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER) sampler, was developed to simulate the movements of children as they play on the floor. PIPER and a stationary sampler took simultaneous measurements of particle number concentration in six size channels using an optical particle counter and inhalable PM on filters in 65 homes in New Jersey, USA. To study particle resuspension, for each sampler we calculated the ratio of particle concentration measured while PIPER was moving to the average concentration of particles measured during a reference period when PIPER remained still. For all investigated particle sizes, higher particle resuspension was observed by PIPER compared to the stationary sampler. In 71% of carpeted homes a more significant (at the α = 0.05 level) resuspension of particles larger than 2.5 μm was observed by PIPER compared to the stationary sampler. Typically, particles larger than 2.5 μm were resuspended more efficiently than smaller particles, over both carpeted and bare floors. Additionally, in carpeted homes estimations of PM10 mass from the particle number concentrations measured on PIPER while it was moving were on average a factor of 1.54 higher compared to reference period when PIPER was not moving. For comparison, the stationary sampler measured an increase of PM2.5 mass by a factor of only 1.08 when PIPER was moving compared to a reference period. This demonstrates that PIPER is able to resuspend particles through movement, and provide a better characterization of the resuspended particles than stationary samplers. Accurate

  11. Piper kelleyi, a hotspot of ecological interactions and a new species from Ecuador and Peru

    PubMed Central

    Tepe, Eric. J.; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Genoveva; Glassmire, Andrea E.; Dyer, Lee A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe Piper kelleyi sp. nov., a new species from the eastern Andes of Ecuador and Peru, named in honor of Dr. Walter Almond Kelley. Piper kelleyi is a member of the Macrostachys clade of the genus Piper and supports a rich community of generalist and specialist herbivores, their predators and parasitoids, as well as commensalistic earwigs, and mutualistic ants. This new species was recognized as part of an ecological study of phytochemically mediated relationships between plants, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Compared to over 100 other Piper species surveyed, Piper kelleyi supports the largest community of specialist herbivores and parasitoids observed to date. PMID:24596490

  12. Piper kelleyi, a hotspot of ecological interactions and a new species from Ecuador and Peru.

    PubMed

    Tepe, Eric J; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Genoveva; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dyer, Lee A

    2014-01-01

    We describe Piper kelleyi sp. nov., a new species from the eastern Andes of Ecuador and Peru, named in honor of Dr. Walter Almond Kelley. Piper kelleyi is a member of the Macrostachys clade of the genus Piper and supports a rich community of generalist and specialist herbivores, their predators and parasitoids, as well as commensalistic earwigs, and mutualistic ants. This new species was recognized as part of an ecological study of phytochemically mediated relationships between plants, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Compared to over 100 other Piper species surveyed, Piper kelleyi supports the largest community of specialist herbivores and parasitoids observed to date.

  13. Phytochemicals from Tradescantia albiflora Kunth Extracts Reduce Serum Uric Acid Levels in Oxonate-induced Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Ling; Sheu, Shi-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Dar; Chuang, Ya-Ling; Tseng, Han-Chun; Hwang, Tzann-Shun; Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tradescantia albiflora (TA) Kunth (Commelinaceae) has been used for treating gout and hyperuricemia as folklore remedies in Taiwan. Therefore, it is worthwhile to study the effect of TA extracts on lowering uric acid activity. The hypouricemic effects of TA extracts on potassium oxonate (PO)-induced acute hyperuricemia were investigated for the first time. Materials and Methods: All treatments at the same volume (1 ml) were orally administered to the abdominal cavity of PO-induced hyperuricemic rats. One milliliter of TA extract in n-hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH), and water fractions has 0.28, 0.21, 0.28, and 1.03 mg TA, respectively; and the plasma uric acid (PUA) level was measured for a consecutive 4 h after administration. Results: All four fractions' extracts derived from TA were observed to significantly reduce PUA compared with the PO group. The EA-soluble fraction (TA-EA) exhibited the best xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity. Following column chromatography, 12 phytochemicals were isolated and identified from the EA fraction. The IC50 values of isolated phytochemicals indicated that bracteanolide A (AR11) showed the remarkable XO inhibitory effect (IC50 value of 76.4 μg/ml). These findings showed that the in vivo hypouricemic effect in hyperuricemic rats was consistent with in vitro XO inhibitory activity, indicating that TA extracts and derived phytochemicals could be potential candidates as hypouricemic agents. SUMMARY Tradescantia albiflora extracts possess in vivo hypouricemic action in hyperuricemic ratsT. albiflora extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase (XO)Butenolide may play an important role in XO inhibitionThe extract bracteanolide A was demonstrated potent XO inhibitory activity in vitro. Abbreviations used: TA: Tradescantia albiflora, PO: potassium oxonate, HE: n-hexane, EA: ethyl acetate, BuOH: n-butanol, PUA: plasma uric acid, XO: xanthine oxidase, MeOH: methanol, IP

  14. Antibacterial constituents from the berries of Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S Venkat; Srinivas, Pullela V; Praveen, B; Kishore, K Hara; Raju, B China; Murthy, U Suryanarayana; Rao, J Madhusudana

    2004-11-01

    Piper nigrum finds an extensive application in antibacterial preparations belonging to Ayurvedic system of medicine. A bioguided extraction and fractionation of the petroleum ether extract of the berries of P. nigrum afforded 2E, 4E, 8Z-N-isobutyleicosatrienamide (1), pellitorine (2), trachyone (3), pergumidiene (4) and isopiperolein B (5). Pergumidiene and trachyone are isolated for the first time from P. nigrum. All the isolated compounds were active against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sphaericus, and Staphylococcus aureus amongst Gram + ve bacteria, and Klebsiella aerogenes and Chromobacterium violaceum among Gram -ve bacterial strains.

  15. Antiherbivore prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from Piper kelleyi.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Christopher S; Leonard, Michael D; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dodson, Craig D; Richards, Lora A; Kato, Massuo J; Dyer, Lee A

    2014-01-24

    The known prenylated benzoic acid derivative 3-geranyl-4-hydroxy-5-(3″,3″-dimethylallyl)benzoic acid (1) and two new chromane natural products were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Piper kelleyi Tepe (Piperaceae), a midcanopy tropical shrub that grows in lower montane rain forests in Ecuador and Peru. Structure determination using 1D and 2D NMR analysis led to the structure of the chromene 2 and to the reassignment of the structure of cumanensic acid as 4, an isomeric chromene previously isolated from Piper gaudichaudianum. The structure and relative configuration of new chromane 3 was determined using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and was found to be racemic by ECD spectropolarimetry. The biological activity of 1-3 was evaluated against a lab colony of the generalist caterpillar Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae), and low concentrations of 2 and 3 were found to significantly reduce fitness. Further consideration of the biosynthetic relationship of the three compounds led to the proposal that 1 is converted to 2 via an oxidative process, whereas 3 is produced through hetero-[4+2] dimerization of a quinone methide derived from the chromene 2.

  16. Volatile Constituents of Three Piper Species from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hieua, Le D; Hoic, Tran M; Thangda, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of three Piper plants grown in Vietnam are reported. The analysis was achieved by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaf oil of Piper majusculum Blume were β-caryophyllene (20.7%), germacrene D (18.6%) and β-elemene (11.3%). The quantitatively significant compounds of the volatile oils of P. harmandii C. DC were sabinene (leaves, 14.5%; stems, 16.2%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.0%; stems, 29.40%) and benzyl salicylate (leaves, 14.1%; stems, 24.3%). Also, α-cadinol (17.0%) was identified in large proportion in the leaf oil. However, sabinene (leaves, 17.9%; stems, 13.5%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.5%; stems, 32.5%) and β-eudesmol (leaves, 13.8%; stems, 8.4%) were the main constituents of P. brevicaule C. DC. This is the first report on the volatile constituents of both P. harmandii and P. brevicaule. PMID:26749846

  17. Antiherbivore prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from Piper kelleyi.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Christopher S; Leonard, Michael D; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dodson, Craig D; Richards, Lora A; Kato, Massuo J; Dyer, Lee A

    2014-01-24

    The known prenylated benzoic acid derivative 3-geranyl-4-hydroxy-5-(3″,3″-dimethylallyl)benzoic acid (1) and two new chromane natural products were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Piper kelleyi Tepe (Piperaceae), a midcanopy tropical shrub that grows in lower montane rain forests in Ecuador and Peru. Structure determination using 1D and 2D NMR analysis led to the structure of the chromene 2 and to the reassignment of the structure of cumanensic acid as 4, an isomeric chromene previously isolated from Piper gaudichaudianum. The structure and relative configuration of new chromane 3 was determined using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and was found to be racemic by ECD spectropolarimetry. The biological activity of 1-3 was evaluated against a lab colony of the generalist caterpillar Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae), and low concentrations of 2 and 3 were found to significantly reduce fitness. Further consideration of the biosynthetic relationship of the three compounds led to the proposal that 1 is converted to 2 via an oxidative process, whereas 3 is produced through hetero-[4+2] dimerization of a quinone methide derived from the chromene 2. PMID:24422717

  18. Complete 1H and 13C NMR assignments of two phytosterols from roots of Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kun; Li, Wei; Koike, Kazuo; Pei, Yuping; Chen, Yingjie; Nikaido, Tamotsu

    2004-03-01

    Using modern NMR techniques, including DQF-COSY, NOESY, HETCOR and HMBC, the full assignments of all 1H and 13C chemical shifts were made for stigmastane-3,6-dione and stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione, isolated from the roots of Piper nigrum (Piperaceae). Their stereochemistry was resolved by a combination of 2D NOESY data and analysis of coupling constants. The two compounds were isolated from the genus Piper for the first time.

  19. Amides and neolignans from the aerial parts of Piper bonii.

    PubMed

    Ding, Duo-Duo; Wang, Yue-Hu; Chen, Ya-Hui; Mei, Ren-Qiang; Yang, Jun; Luo, Ji-Feng; Li, Yan; Long, Chun-Lin; Kong, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Six amides, piperbonamides A-F, three neolignans piperbonins A-C, and 11 known compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper bonii (Piperaceae). The structures of piperbonamides A-F and piperbonins A-C were elucidated based on the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and MS data. Piperbonin A, (+)-trans-acuminatin, (+)-cis-acuminatin, (+)-kadsurenone, and pipernonaline showed weak activity against platelet aggregation with IC50 values of 118.2, 108.5, 90.02, 107.3, and 116.3 μM, respectively, as compared with the positive control, tirofiban, with an IC50 value of 5.24 μM. Piperbonamides A-F were inactive against five tumor cell lines at concentrations up to 40 μM. PMID:27452451

  20. Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Arambewela, L. S. R.; Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Kumaratunga, K. G; Dissanayake, D. S; Ratnasooriya, W. D.; Kumarasingha, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka. PMID:22279373

  1. Anticholinesterases and antioxidant alkamides from Piper nigrum fruits.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yanbei; Zhong, Yujiao; Du, Hongjian; Luo, Wei; Wen, Yaya; Li, Qin; Zhu, Chao; Li, Yanfang

    2016-09-01

    The anticholinesterase and antioxidant effects of five different extracts of Piper nigrum were evaluated. Twenty-one known alkamides were isolated from active ethyl acetate extract and investigated for their cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effects. Among them, piperine (2), piperettine (5) and piperettyline (20) exhibited dual inhibition against AChE and BChE, and feruperine (18) was the most potent selective inhibitor of BChE. Molecular docking simulation was performed to get insight into the binding interactions of the ligands and enzymes. In addition, N-trans-feruloyltyramine (3) contributed to the strongest DPPH radical-scavenging activity. The self-induced Aβ aggregation inhibition of 2, 5 and 18 was further evaluated. Results indicated that some alkamides could be multifunctional lead candidates for Alzheimer's disease therapy.

  2. Anticholinesterases and antioxidant alkamides from Piper nigrum fruits.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yanbei; Zhong, Yujiao; Du, Hongjian; Luo, Wei; Wen, Yaya; Li, Qin; Zhu, Chao; Li, Yanfang

    2016-09-01

    The anticholinesterase and antioxidant effects of five different extracts of Piper nigrum were evaluated. Twenty-one known alkamides were isolated from active ethyl acetate extract and investigated for their cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effects. Among them, piperine (2), piperettine (5) and piperettyline (20) exhibited dual inhibition against AChE and BChE, and feruperine (18) was the most potent selective inhibitor of BChE. Molecular docking simulation was performed to get insight into the binding interactions of the ligands and enzymes. In addition, N-trans-feruloyltyramine (3) contributed to the strongest DPPH radical-scavenging activity. The self-induced Aβ aggregation inhibition of 2, 5 and 18 was further evaluated. Results indicated that some alkamides could be multifunctional lead candidates for Alzheimer's disease therapy. PMID:26407107

  3. Testosterone 5alpha-reductase inhibitory active constituents of Piper nigrum leaf.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Noriko; Tokunaga, Masashi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2007-12-01

    Previously we reported that Piper nigrum leaf extract showed a potent stimulation effect on melanogenesis and that (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2) were isolated as active constituents. As a part of our continuous studies on Piper species for the development of cosmetic hair-care agents, testosterone 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts obtained from several different parts of six Piper species, namely Piper nigrum, P. methysticum, P. betle, P. kadsura, P. longum, and P. cubeba, were examined. Among them, the extracts of P. nigrum leaf, P. nigrum fruit and P. cubeba fruit showed potent inhibitory activity. Activity-guided fractionation of P. nigrum leaf extract led to the isolation of 1 and 2. Fruits of P. cubeba contain 1 as a major lignan, thus inhibitory activity of the fruit may be attributable to 1. As a result of further assay on other known constituents of the cited Piper species, it was found that piperine, a major alkaloid amide of P. nigrum fruit, showed potent inhibitory activity, thus a part of the inhibitory activity of P. nigrum fruit may depend on piperine. The 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activities of 1 and piperine were found for the first time. In addition, the P. nigrum leaf extract showed in vivo anti-androgenic activity using the hair regrowth assay in testosterone sensitive male C57Black/6CrSlc strain mice.

  4. Nutrient and antinutrient composition of three varieties of Piper species.

    PubMed

    Isong, E U; Essien, I B

    1996-02-01

    The proximate composition of three varieties of Piper guineense (Odusa-Ibibio/Efik) viz. 'Uyat Odusa' (cultivated and peppery), 'Eting-keni Ikot' (wild forest variety) and 'Eting-keni mben inyang' (wild, riverine variety), were determined using available standard methods. Also determined were mineral, antinutrient and ascorbate levels. The cultivated pepperic variety had the highest content of crude protein and moisture (18.9% and 97% respectively) while the wild, riverine variety had the highest content of ether extract, carbohydrate and calories (7.79%, 63.38% and 398 cals respectively). The cultivated variety had appreciable amounts of phosphorus (1.12 mg/100 g), potassium (1.2 mg/100 g), sodium (0.24 mg/100 g), zinc (0.18 mg/100 g), and copper (0.18 mg/100 g) while the forest variety contained more of calcium (12.38 mg/100 g), magnesium (1.21 mg/100 g) and iron (0.85 mg/100 g). The wild riverine variety appeared to have the least mineral content but had the highest ascorbate level of 173.4 mg/100 g. Of four antinutrients assayed, the cultivated pepperic one had the least quantities while the forest variety was highest in hydrocyanic acid (85.8 mg/100 g) and glucosinolates (0.20 mg/100 g). The wild riverine variety had the highest level of total oxalate (165.0 mg/100 g). These quantities are however far below documented toxic levels. PMID:8811726

  5. Histamine release inhibitory activity of Piper nigrum leaf.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Noriko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Inaba, Kazunori; Itoh, Kimihisa; Tokunaga, Masashi; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2008-10-01

    Oral administration of a methanolic extract of Piper nigrum leaf (PN-ext, 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg) showed a potent dose-dependent inhibition of dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced cutaneous reaction at 1 h [immediate phase response (IPR)] after and 24 h [late phase response (LPR)] after DNFB challenge in mice which were passively sensitized with anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody. Ear swelling inhibitory effect of PN-ext (50, 200 and 500 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) on very late phase response (vLPR) in the model mice was significant but weaker than that on IPR. Oral administration of PN-ext (50, 200 and 500 mg/kg for 7 d) inhibited picryl chloride (PC)-induced ear swelling in PC sensitized mice. PN-ext exhibited in vitro inhibitory effect on compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Two lignans of PN-ext, (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2), were identified as major active principles having histamine release inhibitory activity.

  6. Piper sarmentosum: a new hope for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Suhaimi, Farihah; Ahmad, Fairus; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Mohamad, Norazlina; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major global health problem. Osteoporosis is characterized by the loss of bone mass and strength which leads to an increased risk of fracture. Glucocorticoid treatment is the leading cause of secondary osteoporosis. Glucocorticoid action in bone depends upon the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme (11β-HSD1). The oestrogen deficient state causes osteoporosis due to enhancement of osteoclastogenesis by oxidative stress which leads to increased bone resorption. Piper sarmentosum (Daun Kaduk) is commonly used in the local cuisine of South East Asia. It is also traditionally used to treat many diseases such as inflammation, dermatitis and joint pain. Studies have revealed antioxidant properties through its flavonoids compound naringenin which acts as a superoxide scavenger that may help in the endogenous antioxidant defence system to protect bone against osteoporosis. Recent studies found that Ps extract has the ability to inhibit the expression and activity of 11β-HSD1 in adipose tissue and bone which restored bone structure and strength. It also accelerates fracture healing in the oestrogen deficient state through its antioxidant properties. The cost of conventional treatment is high and together with the adverse effects it leads to noncompliance. Treatment modalities with herbal medicine, less side effects and is cheaper need to be explored.This review focused on the therapeutic effect of Ps extract on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats and its protective effects against glucocorticoid induced osteoporotic rats. PMID:24107234

  7. Piper sarmentosum: a new hope for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Suhaimi, Farihah; Ahmad, Fairus; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Mohamad, Norazlina; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major global health problem. Osteoporosis is characterized by the loss of bone mass and strength which leads to an increased risk of fracture. Glucocorticoid treatment is the leading cause of secondary osteoporosis. Glucocorticoid action in bone depends upon the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme (11β-HSD1). The oestrogen deficient state causes osteoporosis due to enhancement of osteoclastogenesis by oxidative stress which leads to increased bone resorption. Piper sarmentosum (Daun Kaduk) is commonly used in the local cuisine of South East Asia. It is also traditionally used to treat many diseases such as inflammation, dermatitis and joint pain. Studies have revealed antioxidant properties through its flavonoids compound naringenin which acts as a superoxide scavenger that may help in the endogenous antioxidant defence system to protect bone against osteoporosis. Recent studies found that Ps extract has the ability to inhibit the expression and activity of 11β-HSD1 in adipose tissue and bone which restored bone structure and strength. It also accelerates fracture healing in the oestrogen deficient state through its antioxidant properties. The cost of conventional treatment is high and together with the adverse effects it leads to noncompliance. Treatment modalities with herbal medicine, less side effects and is cheaper need to be explored.This review focused on the therapeutic effect of Ps extract on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats and its protective effects against glucocorticoid induced osteoporotic rats.

  8. New free radical scavenging neolignans from fruits of Piper attenuatum

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, S. Divya; Siva, Bandi; Poornima, B.; Kumar, D. Anand; Tiwari, Ashok K.; Ramesh, U.; Babu, K. Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to study and identify free radicals scavenging and antihyperglycemic principles in fruit of Piper attenuatum. Materials and Methods: Bioassay guided identification of extracts possessing potent free radical scavenging activity, and isolation of compounds was done. Chloroform extract of P. attenuatum possessing potent radical scavenging activity was also evaluated for antihyperglycemic activity following oral glucose tolerance test in rats. Results: Nine neolignans namely, denudatin B (1), iso-4’, 5’-dimethoxy-3, 4-methylenedioxy-2’-oxo-Δ3’,5’,8’-8.1’-lignan (2), lancifolin D (3), denudatin A (4), wallichinin (5), piperenone (6), lancifolin C (7), 2-oxo-piperol B (8), piperkadsin A (9) and a crotepoxide (10) was identified in Chloroform extract of P. attenuatum. Neolignans (1-9) displayed potent 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical and piperkadsin A (9) also displayed 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Analysis of structure-activity relationship revealed that presence of furan ring and methoxy groups is an important criterion to influence 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging potentials. Chloroform extract of P. attenuatum fruit could not display antihyperglycemic activity following oral glucose tolerance test in rats. Conclusion: Neolignans present in P. attenuatum fruits are potent free radical scavengers and this is the first report identifying these compounds and activities in this fruit. PMID:25829760

  9. Contemporary Pacific and Western perspectives on `awa (Piper methysticum) toxicology.

    PubMed

    Showman, Angelique F; Baker, Jonathan D; Linares, Christina; Naeole, Chrystie K; Borris, Robert; Johnston, Edward; Konanui, Jerry; Turner, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, a National Science Foundation project in Hawai`i assembled a collaboration of Pacific indigenous scientists, Hawaiian cultural practitioners and scientists trained in Western pharmacology. The objective of the collaborative project was to study Kava, a culturally significant Pacific beverage, and to address and ultimately transcend, long-standing barriers to communication and collaboration between these groups. Kava is a product of the `awa plant (Piper methysticum) that has been used ceremonially and medicinally throughout the history of Pacific Island cultures, and is now in widespread recreational and nutraceutical use in the US. This project, culminating in 2015, has enriched the participants, led to published work that integrates cultural and Western pharmacologic perspectives and established a paradigm for collaboration. This review paper integrates cultural and Western perspectives on efficacy, toxicity and the future cultural and commercial significance of `awa in the Pacific. Here we present a detailed review of traditional and non-traditional kava usage, medicinal efficacy and potential toxicological concerns. Recent mechanistic data on physiological action and potential pathological reactions are evaluated and interpreted.

  10. Phytotoxicity of sarmentine isolated from long pepper (Piper longum) fruit.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huazhang; Morgan, Christy M; Asolkar, Ratnakar N; Koivunen, Marja E; Marrone, Pamela G

    2010-09-22

    Discovery of novel natural herbicides has become crucial to overcome increasing weed resistance and environmental issues. In this article, we describe the finding that a methanol extract of dry long pepper (Piper longum L.) fruits is phytotoxic to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings. The bioassay-guided fractionation and purification of the crude extract led to isolation of sarmentine (1), a known compound, as the active principle. Phytotoxicity of 1 was examined with a variety of seedlings of field crops and weeds. Results indicated that 1 was a contact herbicide and possessed broad-spectrum herbicidal activity. Moreover, a series of sarmentine analogues were then synthesized to study the structure-activity relationship (SAR). SAR studies suggested that phytotoxicity of sarmentine and its analogues was specific due to chemical structures, i.e., the analogues of the acid moiety of 1 were active, but the amine and its analogues were inactive; the ester analogues and amide analogues with a primary amine of 1 were also inactive. In addition, quantification of 1 from different resources of the dry P. longum fruits using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed a wide variation, ranging from almost zero to 0.57%. This study suggests that 1 has potential as an active lead molecule for synthesized herbicides as well as for bioherbicides derived from natural resources. PMID:20839888

  11. The developmental basis of an evolutionary diversification of female gametophyte structure in Piper and Piperaceae

    PubMed Central

    Madrid, Eric N.; Friedman, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Fritillaria-type female gametophyte development is a complex, yet homoplasious developmental pattern that is interesting from both evolutionary and developmental perspectives. Piper (Piperaceae) was chosen for this study of Fritillaria-type female gametophyte development because Piperales represent a ‘hotspot’ of female gametophyte developmental evolution and have been the subject of several recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. This wealth of phylogenetic and descriptive data make Piper an excellent candidate for inferring the evolutionary developmental basis for the origin of Fritillaria-type female gametophytes. Methods Developing ovules of Piper peltatum were taken from greenhouse collections, embedded in glycol methacrylate, and serially sectioned. Light microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy were combined to produce three-dimensional computer reconstructions of developing female gametophytes. The ploidies of the developing embryos and endosperms were calculated using microspectrofluorometry. Key Results The data describe female gametophyte development in Piper with highly detailed three-dimensional models, and document two previously unknown arrangements of megaspore nuclei during early development. Also collected were microspectrofluorometric data that indicate that Fritillaria-type female gametophyte development in Piper results in pentaploid endosperm. Conclusions The three-dimensional models resolve previous ambiguities in developmental interpretations of Fritillaria-type female gametophytes in Piper. The newly discovered arrangements of megaspore nuclei that are described allow for the construction of explicit hypotheses of female gametophyte developmental evolution within Piperaceae, and more broadly throughout Piperales. These detailed hypotheses indicate that the common ancestor of Piperaceae minus Verhuellia had a Drusa-type female gametophyte, and that evolutionary transitions to derived tetrasporic female

  12. Optimization of the bamboo guadua angustifolia kunth in the elaboration of glued laminated elements for constructive use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, G. A.; Cruz, R. A.; Chávez, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Bamboo is considered one of the best timber resources in the world because for its mechanical properties and high sustainability; this research aims to improve the mechanical properties of the laminated glued bamboo Guadua Angustifolia Kunth (GAK) for use as structural elements, starting from de very manufacture process; this is important because it is possible to observe variations in the flexural strength and the elastic modulus in GAK samples taken from different heights and thickness of the culm. In order to analyze the influence of these final mechanical properties variations in the laminated, the height of the culm where samples are extracted (cepa, basa and sobrebasa) it is taken as a variable from where different types of laminated were manufactured, seeking to make optimal the configuration based in the transversal section area and the material strength. Three assemblies were designed varying the overlap of the adhesion lines and it concluded that the highest strength average values were obtained in the laminated composites manufactured with samples taken from the bottom of the culm (basa), which is possible because in these elements there are less adhesion lines than the other ones (middle, top and mixed) or the better matching of themselves.

  13. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PERESKIA BLEO (KUNTH) DC. (CACTACEAE) FRUIT ENDOCARP CRUDE AND FRACTIONATED EXTRACTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    PubMed

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2014-11-01

    The use of insecticides can cause adverse effects in vector control, a plant bio-insecticide is an advantageous substitute. Currently, the promising mosquito larvicidal activity from plant extracts has been reported worldwide, including Thailand. In this study, the endocarp of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. fruit was extracted with distilled water and ethanol. Crudes and fractionated groups of the extracts were evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. At 48 hours of exposure, it was found that the activities of the extracts were higher than 24-hour's. The ethanolic extracts showed stronger activities than the aqueous ones, indicating the lower LC50 values of both crude and fractionated group extracts. The most toxic activity was found in a fractionated group of the ethanolic extract, E-Gr3, with significantly lowest LC50 values of 707.94 and 223.12 ppm for 24- and 48-hour detection times, respectively. The bioassay results indicated the larvicidal property against the Ae. aegypti mosquito of the P. bleo plant extracts. A safety for non-target organisms or an action on other mosquito vectors of this plant, should be further investigated. PMID:26466415

  14. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PERESKIA BLEO (KUNTH) DC. (CACTACEAE) FRUIT ENDOCARP CRUDE AND FRACTIONATED EXTRACTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    PubMed

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2014-11-01

    The use of insecticides can cause adverse effects in vector control, a plant bio-insecticide is an advantageous substitute. Currently, the promising mosquito larvicidal activity from plant extracts has been reported worldwide, including Thailand. In this study, the endocarp of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. fruit was extracted with distilled water and ethanol. Crudes and fractionated groups of the extracts were evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. At 48 hours of exposure, it was found that the activities of the extracts were higher than 24-hour's. The ethanolic extracts showed stronger activities than the aqueous ones, indicating the lower LC50 values of both crude and fractionated group extracts. The most toxic activity was found in a fractionated group of the ethanolic extract, E-Gr3, with significantly lowest LC50 values of 707.94 and 223.12 ppm for 24- and 48-hour detection times, respectively. The bioassay results indicated the larvicidal property against the Ae. aegypti mosquito of the P. bleo plant extracts. A safety for non-target organisms or an action on other mosquito vectors of this plant, should be further investigated.

  15. Central Antinociceptive and Mechanism of Action of Pereskia bleo Kunth Leaves Crude Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Guilhon, Carolina Carvalho; Abdul Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Boylan, Fabio; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2015-01-01

    Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) is a plant commonly used in popular medicine in Malaysia. In this work, we evaluate the antinociceptive effect of P. bleo leaf extracts and isolated compounds in central antinociceptive model. Ethanol extract (E), hexane (H), ethyl acetate (EA), or butanol (B) fractions (30, 50, or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), sitosterol (from hexane) and vitexin (from ethyl acetate), were administered to mice. Antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate and capsaicin- or glutamate-induced licking models. Morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as reference drug. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.), atropine (1 mg/kg, i.p.), and L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 3 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 30 min earlier (100 mg/kg, p.o.) in order to evaluate the mechanism of the antinociceptive action. Higher dose of B developed an effect significantly superior to morphine-treated group. Naloxone prevented the antinociceptive effect of all fractions. L-NAME demonstrated effect against E, EA, and B. In all fractions, sitosterol and vitexin reduced the licking time after capsaicin injection. Glutamate-induced licking response was blocked by H, EA, and B. Our results indicate that Pereskia bleo fractions, sitosterol and vitexin, possessed a central antinociceptive effect. Part of this effect is mediated by opioid receptors and nitrergic pathway. PMID:26273315

  16. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activity of Amazonian (Ecuador) Caryodendron orinocense Karst. and Bactris gasipaes Kunth seed oils.

    PubMed

    Radice, Matteo; Viafara, Derwin; Neill, David; Asanza, Mercedes; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra; Maietti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, data concerning the composition of Caryodendron orinocense Karst. (Euphorbiaceae) and Bactris gasipaes Kunth (Arecaceae) seed oils are lacking. In light of this fact, in this paper fatty acids and unsaponifiable fraction composition have been determined using GC-MS, HPLC-DAD (Diode Array Detector), NMR approaches and possible future applications have been preliminary investigated through estimation of antioxidant activity, performed with DPPH test. For C. orinocense linoleic acid (85.59%) was the main component, lauric (33.29%) and myristic (27.76%) acids were instead the most abundant in B. gasipaes. C. orinocense unsaponifiable fraction (8.06%) evidenced a remarkable content of β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, squalene and vitamin E (816 ppm). B. gasipaes revealed instead β-sitosterol and squalene as main constituents of unsaponifiable matter (3.01%). Antioxidant capacity evidenced the best performance of C. orinocense seed oil. These preliminary results could be interesting to suggest the improvement of the population's incomes from Amazonian basin. In particular the knowledge of chemical composition of C. orinocense and B. gasipaes oils could be helpful to divulge and valorize these autochthones plants.

  17. Determination and evaluation of the metals and metalloids in the Chapeu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Uenderson Araujo; dos Santos, Ivanice Ferreira; dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; dos Santos, Debora Correia; da Costa, Grenivel Mota

    2013-09-01

    The Chapeu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli) is a native plant from Brazil, which has been mainly used in medicinal application being a potent antirheumatic and diuretic, in the production of soft drinks, and also in the ornamentation of aquariums. In this paper, the metals and metalloids for the leaves of chapeu-de-couro collected in the Paraguacu River from the city Cachoeira, Bahia State, Brazil, was determined and evaluated using multivariate analysis. The samples were digested using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of apple leaves, furnished by National Institute of Standard and Technology. The study involved 15 samples of the Paraguacu River. The results expressed as milligrams of element per kilogram of sample demonstrated that the concentration ranges varied: 1.39-5.27 for chromium, 44.85-165.39 for manganese, 0.55-0.84 for arsenic, 0.01-3.94 for antimony, and 0.18-0.31 for lead. The principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis evidenced that the concentrations of the metals and metalloids varied according with the variations in the water of the Paraguacu. PMID:23852813

  18. Lifting the Curse of the Roman: Quintus Horatius Flaccus Meets the Pied Piper of Hamelin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, William

    There are many similarities between Robert Browning's "The Pied Piper of Hamelin" and Lewis Carroll's "Alice in Wonderland" that are seldom noted by literary critics. Both works were begun for the amusement of specific children, both employ a strange subterranean journey as a central device, and both are works of nonsense insofar as nonsense is…

  19. 5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 145 mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bolometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

  20. 5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil S.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Stiehl, gregory M.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization o[ the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 128mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bo|ometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

  1. Use of a Robotic Sampler (PIPER) for Evaluation of Particulate Matter Exposure and Eczema in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lokesh; Mainelis, Gediminas; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Shalat, Stuart L

    2016-02-19

    While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority of their time indoors, relatively little research has focused on correlated non-respiratory conditions. This study examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM) exposures in preschool age children and major correlates of asthma, such as wheeze and eczema. Air sampling was carried out using a robotic (PIPER) child-sampling surrogate. This study enrolled 128 participants, 57 male and 71 female children. Ages ranged from 3 to 58 months with the mean age of 29.3 months. A comparison of subjects with and without eczema showed a difference in the natural log (ln) of PM collected from the PIPER air sampling (p = 0.049). PIPER's sampling observed an association between the ln PM concentrations and eczema, but not an association with wheezing history in pre-school children. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the role of the microenvironment in mediating atopic dermatitis, which is one of the predictors of persistent asthma. Our findings also support the use of PIPER in its ability to model and sample the microenvironment of young children.

  2. Hydroxychavicol: a potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor obtained from the leaves of betel, Piper betle.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Nakao, Kikuyo; Hirata, Noriko; Namba, Kensuke; Nomi, Takao; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Moriyama, Kenzo; Shintani, Takahiro; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-07-01

    The screening of Piperaceous plants for xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity revealed that the extract of the leaves of Piper betle possesses potent activity. Activity-guided purification led us to obtain hydroxychavicol as an active principle. Hydroxychavicol is a more potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor than allopurinol, which is clinically used for the treatment of hyperuricemia.

  3. BEARDSLEY AND PIPER (B&P) CORE BLOWING MACHINE. VIRGINIA BLAKELY MANUALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEARDSLEY AND PIPER (B&P) CORE BLOWING MACHINE. VIRGINIA BLAKELY MANUALLY FILLING SAND MAGAZINE THAT WILL ROTATE WITH THE CORE BOX, FILLING IT UNDER PRESSURE SIMILAR TO THE CORE MACHINE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  4. A new natural product and insecticidal amides from seeds of Piper nigrum Linn.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Gulzar, Tahsin; Begum, Sabira; Afshan, Farhana; Sultana, Razia

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the petroleum ether soluble and insoluble fraction of ethanol extract of dried ground seeds of Piper nigrum resulted in the isolation and structure elucidation of 1 new and 11 known compounds which include 3 hitherto unreported constituents, namely, cinnamylideneacetone, 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylpropiophenone and 2-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxypropiophenone from this plant.

  5. Antispermatogenic and antifertility effects of fruits of Piper nigrum L. in mice.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Raghav Kumar; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2009-09-01

    Effect of oral administration (25 and 100 mg/kg body wt/day, for 20 and 90 days) of fruit powder of Piper nigrum L. on the male reproductive organs of mice, Parkes strain, was investigated. Various reproductive end points such as organs weight, histopathology, sperm parameters, sialic acid and fructose contents, and fertility indices were assessed. Histologically, testes in treated mice, except in those treated with 100 mg of dose for 90 days, showed non-uniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules, as both affected and normal tubules were observed in the same section. In mice treated with 100 mg dose for 90 days, degenerative changes were observed in all the tubules. Affected seminiferous tubules showed intraepithelial vacuolation, loosening of germinal epithelium, occurrence of giant cells, and mixing of spermatids of different stages of spermatogenesis; in severe cases, the tubules were lined by mainly a layer of Sertoli cells. Percentage of affected tubules in testes of Piper-treated mice was dose-and duration-related. Further, Piper nigrum treatment for 20 days did not cause appreciable alterations in histological appearance of the epididymis, while the treatment for 90 days caused detectable alterations in the duct. The treatment also had adverse effects on sperm parameters, levels of sialic acid and fructose, and on litter size. Fifty six days after cessation of treatment, the alterations induced in the reproductive organs recovered to control levels, though the litter size in females impregnated by Piper-treated males remained significantly decreased compared to controls.

  6. Potential use of Piper nigrum ethanol extract against pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Simas, Naomi Kato; Lima, Elisangela da Costa; Kuster, Ricardo Machado; Lage, Celso Luiz Salgueiro; de Oliveira Filho, Alfredo Martins

    2007-01-01

    Fractionation of Piper nigrum ethanol extract, biomonitored by assays on pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti larvae yielded isolation of the larvicidal amides piperolein-A and piperine. Comparing LC50 values, the ethanol extract (0.98 ppm) was the most toxic, followed by piperolein-A (1.46 ppm) and piperine (1.53 ppm).

  7. Piper and Vismia species from Colombian Amazonia differentially affect cell proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lizcano, Leandro J; Siles, Maite; Trepiana, Jenifer; Hernández, M Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest to identify plant-derived natural products with antitumor activities. In this work, we have studied the effects of aqueous leaf extracts from Amazonian Vismia and Piper species on human hepatocarcinoma cell toxicity. Results showed that, depending on the cell type, the plants displayed differential effects; thus, Vismia baccifera induced the selective killing of HepG2, while increasing cell growth of PLC-PRF and SK-HEP-1. In contrast, these two last cell lines were sensitive to the toxicity by Piper krukoffii and Piper putumayoense, while the Piperaceae did not affect HepG2 growth. All the extracts induced cytotoxicity to rat hepatoma McA-RH7777, but were innocuous (V. baccifera at concentrations < 75 µg/mL) or even protected cells from basal death (P. putumayoense) in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. In every case, cytotoxicity was accompanied by an intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results provide evidence for the anticancer activities of the studied plants on specific cell lines and suggest that cell killing could be mediated by ROS, thus involving mechanisms independent of the plants free radical scavenging activities. Results also support the use of these extracts of the Vismia and Piper genera with opposite effects as a model system to study the mechanisms of the antitumoral activity against different types of hepatocarcinoma. PMID:25558904

  8. Benzoic acid derivatives from Piper species and their fungitoxic activity against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum.

    PubMed

    Lago, João Henrique G; Ramos, Clécio Sousa; Casanova, Diego Campos C; Morandim, Andreia de A; Bergamo, Debora Cristina B; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S; Furlan, Maysa; Guimarães, Elsie F; Young, Maria Claudia M; Kato, Massuo J

    2004-11-01

    Piper crassinervium, P. aduncum, P. hostmannianum, and P. gaudichaudianum contain the new benzoic acid derivatives crassinervic acid (1), aduncumene (8), hostmaniane (18), and gaudichaudianic acid (20), respectively, as major secondary metabolites. Additionally, 19 known compounds such as benzoic acids, chromenes, and flavonoids were isolated and identified. The antifungal activity of these compounds was evaluated by bioautographic TLC assay against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum.

  9. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-(2E,4E)-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in ...

  10. Use of a Robotic Sampler (PIPER) for Evaluation of Particulate Matter Exposure and Eczema in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lokesh; Mainelis, Gediminas; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Shalat, Stuart L

    2016-02-01

    While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority of their time indoors, relatively little research has focused on correlated non-respiratory conditions. This study examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM) exposures in preschool age children and major correlates of asthma, such as wheeze and eczema. Air sampling was carried out using a robotic (PIPER) child-sampling surrogate. This study enrolled 128 participants, 57 male and 71 female children. Ages ranged from 3 to 58 months with the mean age of 29.3 months. A comparison of subjects with and without eczema showed a difference in the natural log (ln) of PM collected from the PIPER air sampling (p = 0.049). PIPER's sampling observed an association between the ln PM concentrations and eczema, but not an association with wheezing history in pre-school children. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the role of the microenvironment in mediating atopic dermatitis, which is one of the predictors of persistent asthma. Our findings also support the use of PIPER in its ability to model and sample the microenvironment of young children. PMID:26907317

  11. Chemical composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb Vaught from the Venezuelan Andes.

    PubMed

    Mora, Flor D; Araque, María; Rojas, Luis B; Ramirez, Rosslyn; Silva, Bladimiro; Usubillaga, Alfredo

    2009-07-01

    Chemical constituents of the essential oil from the leaves of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb Vaught var. mollis collected in January 2008 at Tuñame, Trujillo State, Venezuela, were separated and identified by GC-MS analysis. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and thirteen components (98.5% of the sample) were identified by comparison with the Wiley GC-MS library data base. The two major components were pulegone (55.2%) and trans-menthone (31.5%). The essential oil showed a significant inhibitory effect against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, especially Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi (4 microg/mL).

  12. Improved Exposure Characterization with Robotic (PIPER) Sampling and Association with Children's Respiratory Symptoms, Asthma and Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Ramagopal, Maya; Wang, Zuocheng; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Stambler, Adam A; Emoekpere, Osiloke H.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Shalat, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives Particulate matter (PM) and its constituents are recognized risk factors for the development of respiratory symptoms and illness in children. Most measurements of exposure have relied upon stationary indoor monitors (SIMs), overlooking the role of resuspended PM. To improve exposure characterization to resuspended aerosol particulate matter a recently developed methodology has been employed. The goal of this study is to characterize the resuspendable fraction of house dust and early childhood exposures to PM and its constituents in the child's home and compare conventional SIM and the Pre-toddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER), an innovative mobile sampler. The study seeks to demonstrate that PIPER provides a more relevant estimate of exposure from inhalable particulate through improved correlation with respiratory symptoms in young children. Methods Seventy-five households with children between 3-59 months of age were recruited from clinics in central New Jersey. Demographic information and a health questionnaire based upon that used by the International Study of Allergies and Asthma in Childhood (ISAAC) and household data were collected. Household exposures to inhalable PM (PM100) and endotoxin were determined with simultaneous SIM and mobile (PIPER) sampling. Results Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. History of wheeze [’recent’ (<1 year) and ’ever’], cough, asthma, and eczema were evaluated. Multivariate analysis models included PM100 and endotoxin levels by tertiles of exposure. Risk of asthma for the highest tertile of PM100, as measured by PIPER (Odds Ratio = 4.2; 95% Confidence Interval 0.7 – 24.0) was compared to measurements by SIM (Odds Ratio = 0.7; 95% Confidence Interval 0.2 – 2.6). Conclusions Measurement of PM and its constituents with PIPER are more strongly associated with asthma, eczema and wheeze than measurements using SIMs. Application of this methodology may provide

  13. Efficacy of Piper (Piperaceae) extracts for control of common home and garden insect pests.

    PubMed

    Scott, I M; Jensen, H; Nicol, R; Lesage, L; Bradbury, R; Sánchez-Vindas, P; Poveda, L; Arnason, J T; Philogène, B J R

    2004-08-01

    Extracts from three species of the plant family Piperaceae, Piper nigrum [L.], Piper guineense [Schum & Thonn, and Piper tuberculatum [Jacq.], were tested for efficacy against insects from five orders. All three species contain isobutyl amides, plant secondary compounds that act as neurotoxins in insects. These materials are considered safe to mammals because Piper spp. were used for centuries for spice and medicinal purposes. When 24-h P. nigrum LC50 values were compared between common insect pests from eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, the most sensitive species in order of increasing lethal concentration were eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (F.) < European pine sawfly larvae, Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy) < spindle ermine moth larvae, Yponomeuta cagnagella [Hübner] < viburnum leaf beetle larvae, Pyrrhalta viburni [Paykull] < stripped cucumber beetle adults, Acalymma vittatum (F.) < Colorado potato beetle adults, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) < Japanese beetle adults, Popillia japonica [Newman] < hairy chinch bug, Blissus leucopterus hirtis [Montandon]. The life stage tested was the point at which each species causes the greatest amount of damage to the host plant and the point at which most gardeners would likely choose to treat with a conventional synthetic insecticide. Greenhouse trials revealed that the pepper formulations also had a repellent activity, thus protecting plant leaves from 1) herbivory (lily leaf beetle, Lilioceris lilii [Scopoli], adults and larvae and stripped cucumber beetle adults) and 2) oviposition [European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)]. Combinations with other botanical extracts were additive at best in toxicity and repellent trials. Nontarget toxicity to beneficial invertebrates is a possibility because the P. nigrum LC50 for beneficial ladybird beetles was 0.2%. P. nigrum extracts can provide a reasonable level of control against lepidopteran and European pine sawfly larvae and also will

  14. Kinetics of moisture loss and oil uptake during deep fat frying of Gethi (Dioscorea kamoonensis Kunth) strips.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, S S; Ravi, N; Negi, P S; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-11-01

    Investigation was carried out to study kinetics of moisture loss, oil uptake and tristimulus colour during deep fat frying of Gethi (Dioscorea kamoonensis kunth) strips. Deep fat frying of Gethi strips of size 6 × 6 × 40 mm was carried out in a laboratory scale fryer at different temperatures ranging from 120 to 180 °C. The investigation showed that the moisture loss and oil uptake followed the first order kinetics equation (r > 0.95, p < 0.05). The kinetic coefficients for moisture loss and oil uptake increased significantly (p < 0.05) with temperature from 0.166 to 0.889 min(-1) and 0.139 to 0.430 min(-1) respectively. The temperature dependency of rate constants for moisture loss and oil uptake values was described using Arrhenius equation (r > 0.99, p < 0.01). The activation energies for moisture loss and oil uptake were found to be 41.53 KJ/mol and 27.12 KJ/mol respectively. The hunter colour parameters were significantly affected by frying temperature and frying time. The hunter lightness (L) value increased with respect to frying time initially, followed by decline and same trend was observed at higher temperatures of frying with elevated rate, whereas hunter redness (a) value increased significantly (p < 0.01) with time as well as temperature of frying and obeyed zero order rate equation. The temperature dependency kinetic coefficients of Hunter (a) value were described by Arrhenius equation and the energy of activation for change in hunter redness was found to be 42.41 KJ/mol (r > 0.99, p < 0.01). The other hunter colour parameters such as chroma, hue angle and total colour difference were markedly affected by frying temperature as well as frying time.

  15. Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth) effects on LDL oxidation in elderly people: an in vitro and in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous experimental investigations have suggested that guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, supplied by EMBRAPA Oriental) consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of cardiovascular metabolic diseases and has positive effects on lipid metabolism, mainly related to low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. As LDL oxidation is an important initial event in the development of atherosclerosis, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies to observe the potential effects of guaraná on LDL and serum oxidation. Methods The in vivo protocol was performed using blood samples from 42 healthy elderly subjects who habitually ingested guaraná (GI) or never ingested guaraná (NG). The formation of conjugated dienes (CDs) was analyzed from serum samples. The in vitro protocols were performed using LDL obtained from 3 healthy, non-fasted, normolipidemic voluntary donors who did not habitually ingest guaraná in their diets. The LDL samples were exposed to 5 different guaraná concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 μg/mL). Results GI subjects demonstrated lower LDL oxidation than did NG subjects (reduction of 27%, p < 0.0014), independent of other variables. In the GI group the total polyphenols was positively associated with LDL levels. Also, guaraná demonstrated a high antioxidant activity in vitro, mainly at concentrations of 1 and 5 μg/mL, demonstrated by suppression of CDs and TBARS productions, tryptophan destruction and high TRAP activity. Conclusions Guaraná, similar to other foods rich in caffeine and catechins such as green tea, has some effect on LDL oxidation that could partially explain the protective effects of this food in cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:23391102

  16. HybPiper: Extracting coding sequence and introns for phylogenetics from high-throughput sequencing reads using target enrichment1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew G.; Gardner, Elliot M.; Liu, Yang; Medina, Rafael; Goffinet, Bernard; Shaw, A. Jonathan; Zerega, Nyree J. C.; Wickett, Norman J.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Using sequence data generated via target enrichment for phylogenetics requires reassembly of high-throughput sequence reads into loci, presenting a number of bioinformatics challenges. We developed HybPiper as a user-friendly platform for assembly of gene regions, extraction of exon and intron sequences, and identification of paralogous gene copies. We test HybPiper using baits designed to target 333 phylogenetic markers and 125 genes of functional significance in Artocarpus (Moraceae). Methods and Results: HybPiper implements parallel execution of sequence assembly in three phases: read mapping, contig assembly, and target sequence extraction. The pipeline was able to recover nearly complete gene sequences for all genes in 22 species of Artocarpus. HybPiper also recovered more than 500 bp of nontargeted intron sequence in over half of the phylogenetic markers and identified paralogous gene copies in Artocarpus. Conclusions: HybPiper was designed for Linux and Mac OS X and is freely available at https://github.com/mossmatters/HybPiper. PMID:27437175

  17. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  18. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  19. Protocols for Improvement of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Utilizing Biotechnological Tools.

    PubMed

    Nirmal Babu, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Yamuna, G; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Black pepper, Piper nigrum L., the "King of spices" is the most widely used spice growing in the South-Western region of India. The humid tropical evergreen forest bordering the Malabar Coast (Western Ghats is one of the hot spot areas of plant bio-diversity on earth) is its center of origin and diversity. However, the crop faces constraints like rampant fungal and viral diseases, lack of disease free planting material, hence biotechnological tools can be utilized to address these problems and strides have been made successfully. The standardization of micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, in vitro conservation, protoplast isolation, and genetic transformation protocols are described here. The protocols could be utilized to achieve similar goals in the related species of Piper too.

  20. Influence of temperature on symptom expression, detection of host factors in virus infected Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, P; Bhat, A I; Krishnamurthy, K S; Anandaraj, M

    2016-05-01

    Expression of symptoms in black pepper plants (Piper nigrum) infected with Piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV) vary depending on the season, being high during summer months. Here, we explored the influence of temperature on symptom expression in PYMoV infected P. nigrum. Our controlled environment study revealed increase in virus titer, total proteins, IAA and reducing sugars when exposed to temperature stress. There was change in the 2-D separated protein before and after exposure. The 2-D proteomics LC-MS identified host and viral proteins suggesting virus-host interaction during symptom expression. The analysis as well as detection of host biochemical compounds may help in understanding the detailed mechanisms underlying the viral replication and damage to the crop, and thereby plan management strategies.

  1. Protocols for Improvement of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Utilizing Biotechnological Tools.

    PubMed

    Nirmal Babu, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Yamuna, G; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Black pepper, Piper nigrum L., the "King of spices" is the most widely used spice growing in the South-Western region of India. The humid tropical evergreen forest bordering the Malabar Coast (Western Ghats is one of the hot spot areas of plant bio-diversity on earth) is its center of origin and diversity. However, the crop faces constraints like rampant fungal and viral diseases, lack of disease free planting material, hence biotechnological tools can be utilized to address these problems and strides have been made successfully. The standardization of micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, in vitro conservation, protoplast isolation, and genetic transformation protocols are described here. The protocols could be utilized to achieve similar goals in the related species of Piper too. PMID:27108331

  2. Influence of temperature on symptom expression, detection of host factors in virus infected Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, P; Bhat, A I; Krishnamurthy, K S; Anandaraj, M

    2016-05-01

    Expression of symptoms in black pepper plants (Piper nigrum) infected with Piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV) vary depending on the season, being high during summer months. Here, we explored the influence of temperature on symptom expression in PYMoV infected P. nigrum. Our controlled environment study revealed increase in virus titer, total proteins, IAA and reducing sugars when exposed to temperature stress. There was change in the 2-D separated protein before and after exposure. The 2-D proteomics LC-MS identified host and viral proteins suggesting virus-host interaction during symptom expression. The analysis as well as detection of host biochemical compounds may help in understanding the detailed mechanisms underlying the viral replication and damage to the crop, and thereby plan management strategies. PMID:27319055

  3. Color, phenolics, and antioxidant activity of blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth.), blueberry (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth.), and apple wines from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Jacqueline; Marín-Arroyo, María-Remedios; Noriega-Domínguez, María-José; Navarro, Montserrat; Arozarena, Iñigo

    2013-07-01

    Seventy wines were produced in Ecuador under different processing conditions with local fruits: Andean blackberries (Rubus glaucus Benth.) and blueberries (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth.) and Golden Reinette apples. Wines were evaluated for antioxidant activity (AA) using the radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) method, total phenolic content (TPC) using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, total monomeric anthocyanins (TMAs) using the pH differential test, and color parameters using VIS-spectrophotometry. For blackberry wines, ellagitannins and anthocyanins were also analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). Apples wines (n = 40) had the lowest TPC (608 ± 86 mg/L) and AA (2.1 ± 0.3 mM Trolox). Blueberry wines (n = 12) had high TPC (1086 ± 194 mg/L) and moderate AA (5.4 ± 0.8 mM) but very low TMA (8 ± 3 mg/L), with a color evolved toward yellow and blue shades. Blackberry wines (n = 10) had the highest TPC (1265 ± 91 mg/L) and AA (12 ± 1 mM). Ellagitannins were the major phenolics (1172 ± 115 mg/L) and correlated well with AA (r = 0.88). Within anthocyanins (TMA 73 ± 16 mg/L), cyanidin-3-rutinoside (62%) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (15%) were predominant. Wines obtained by cofermentation of apples and blackberries (n = 8) showed intermediate characteristics (TPC 999 ± 83 mg/L, AA 6.2 ± 0.7 mM, TMA 35 ± 22 mg/L) between the blackberry and blueberry wines. The results suggest that the Andean berries, particularly R. glaucus, are suitable raw materials to produce wines with an in vitro antioxidant capacity that is comparable to red grape wines.

  4. Antiamoebic activity of Piper longum fruits against Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, S; Prasad, B N; Lakshmi, V

    1996-03-01

    The fruits of Piper longum used in traditional remedies against intestinal distress have been tested for their efficacy against experimental caecal amoebiasis of rats. The ethanolic extract, hexane fraction, n-butanol soluble fraction exerted in vitro amoebicidal action at 1000 micrograms/mL and the chloroform fraction at 500 micrograms/mL. The ethanolic extract and piperine, a pure compound, from this plant material cured 90% and 40% of rats with caecal amoebiasis, respectively.

  5. Essential oil composition of Piper guineense and its antimicrobial activity. Another chemotype from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyedeji, O A; Adeniyi, B A; Ajayi, O; König, W A

    2005-04-01

    The analysis of the essential oil of Piper guineense from Nigeria presents a new chemotype of constituents different from earlier reports with the absence of the usual myristicin. Ishwarane, a common constituent of Aristolochia indica and Bixa orellana, was also isolated from the essential oil of the fruit. The essential oil inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCH 655 strain at 5 mg/mL on which standard antibiotic drugs were ineffective. PMID:16041738

  6. Scanning Electron Microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175

    PubMed Central

    RAHIM, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; THURAIRAJAH, Nalina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. Objectives: In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and on partially purified cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. Material and Methods S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1); with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1)]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract) was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. Results It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (p<0.001). S. mutans adhering to 100 µm2 glass surfaces (with/without sucrose) exhibited reduced cell surface area, fluffy extracellular appearance and cell population in the presence of the Piper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL-1 corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL-1 of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. Conclusion The SEM analysis confirmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are involved. PMID

  7. Use of a Robotic Sampler (PIPER) for Evaluation of Particulate Matter Exposure and Eczema in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Lokesh; Mainelis, Gediminas; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Shalat, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority of their time indoors, relatively little research has focused on correlated non-respiratory conditions. This study examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM) exposures in preschool age children and major correlates of asthma, such as wheeze and eczema. Air sampling was carried out using a robotic (PIPER) child-sampling surrogate. This study enrolled 128 participants, 57 male and 71 female children. Ages ranged from 3 to 58 months with the mean age of 29.3 months. A comparison of subjects with and without eczema showed a difference in the natural log (ln) of PM collected from the PIPER air sampling (p = 0.049). PIPER’s sampling observed an association between the ln PM concentrations and eczema, but not an association with wheezing history in pre-school children. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the role of the microenvironment in mediating atopic dermatitis, which is one of the predictors of persistent asthma. Our findings also support the use of PIPER in its ability to model and sample the microenvironment of young children. PMID:26907317

  8. Chemical and biological analyses of the essential oils and main constituents of Piper species.

    PubMed

    Moura do Carmo, Dominique F; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; Machado, Gérzia M C; Leon, Leonor Laura; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de Andrade

    2012-02-13

    The essential oils obtained from leaves of Piper duckei and Piper demeraranum by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main constituents found in P. demeraranum oil were limonene (19.3%) and β-elemene (33.1%) and in P. duckei oil the major components found were germacrene D (14.7%) and trans-caryophyllene (27.1%). P. demeraranum and P. duckei oils exhibited biological activity, with IC(50) values between 15 to 76 μg mL(-1) against two Leishmania species, P. duckei oil being the most active. The cytotoxicity of the essential oils on mice peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant, compared with the toxicity of pentamidine. The main mono- and sesquiterpene, limonene (IC(50) = 278 μM) and caryophyllene (IC(50) = 96 μM), were tested against the strains of Leishmania amazonensis, and the IC(50) values of these compounds were lower than those found for the essential oils of the Piper species. The HET-CAM test was used to evaluate the irritation potential of these oils as topical products, showing that these oils can be used as auxiliary medication in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with less side effects and lower costs.

  9. Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

    2008-02-01

    Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation.

  10. Diversity of endophytic fungal community associated with Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Orlandelli, R C; Alberto, R N; Rubin Filho, C J; Pamphile, J A

    2012-05-22

    Tropical and subtropical plants are rich in endophytic community diversity. Endophytes, mainly fungi and bacteria, inhabit the healthy plant tissues without causing any damage to the hosts. These fungi can be useful for biological control of pathogens and plant growth promotion. Some plants of the genus Piper are hosts of endophytic microorganisms; however, there is little information about endophytes on Piper hispidum, a medicinal shrub used as an insecticide, astringent, diuretic, stimulant, liver treatment, and for stopping hemorrhages. We isolated the fungal endophyte community associated with P. hispidum leaves from plants in a Brazilian forest remnant. The endophytic diversity was examined based on sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. A high colonization frequency was obtained, as expected for tropical angiosperms. Isolated endophytes were divided into 66 morphogroups, demonstrating considerable diversity. We identified 21 isolates, belonging to 11 genera (Alternaria, Bipolaris, Colletotrichum, Glomerella, Guignardia, Lasiodiplodia, Marasmius, Phlebia, Phoma, Phomopsis, and Schizophyllum); one isolate was identified only to the order level (Diaporthales). Bipolaris was the most frequent genus among the identified endophytes. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the molecular identification of some isolates to genus level while for others it was confirmed at the species level.

  11. Piperine production by endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Chithra, S; Jasim, B; Sachidanandan, P; Jyothis, M; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2014-03-15

    Many endophytic fungi have been reported with the biosynthetic potential to produce same or similar metabolites present in host plants. The adaptations that might have acquired by these fungi as a result of the long-term association with their host plants can be the possible basis of their biosynthetic potential. The bioactive compounds originated from endophytes are currently explored for their potential applications in pharmaceutical, agriculture and food industries. Piper nigrum, a plant of the Piperaceae is very remarkable because of the presence of the alkaloid piperine. Piperine has been reported to have broad bioactive properties ranging from antimicrobial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative to anticancer activities. Interestingly, piperine also plays a vital role in increasing the bioavailability of many drugs which again is a promising property. The current study was carried out to identify piperine producing endophytic fungus from Piper nigrum L. By screening various endophytic fungi, the isolate which was identified as member of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was found to have the ability to form piperine and was confirmed by HPLC and LCMS. Considering the broad bioactive potential of piperine, the piperine producing fungi identified in the study can expect to have much industrial potential.

  12. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of essential oils of Piper septuplinervium and P. subtomentosum (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Ávila Murilloa, Mónica Constanza; Cuca Suareza, Luis Enrique; Cerón Salamanca, Jairo Alonso

    2014-10-01

    Essential oils of Piper subtomentosum (leaves and inflorescences) and Piper septuplinervium (aerial parts) were analyzed by GC-MS; sixty-three compounds were determined, representing 92.0%, 86.9 %, and 91.8 % of the total relative oil composition of the leaves, inflorescences, and aerial parts, respectively. The most abundant component in the aerial parts and inflorescence oils was α-pinene (27.3%, 21.0%, respectively), and δ-cadinene was the main component of the leaf oil. Insecticidal activity of the essential oils were determined on the Spodoptera frugiperda second instar larvae; the essential oil from the aerial parts of P. septuplinervium was the most active against insect pests (LC50= 9.4 μL/L of air). Statistical analysis by direct Pearson correlation showed that the insecticidal activity of the essential oils was primarily due to camphene and α- and β-pinene. The effect of the oils on the insect life cycle was also evaluated, and in some cases, a delay in growth and inhibition of the oviposition in the females were observed.

  13. Biogenic Preparation of Gold Nanostructures Reduced from Piper longum Leaf Broth and Their Electrochemical Studies.

    PubMed

    Mallikarjuna, K; Narasimha, G; John Sushma, N; Dillip, G R; Subba Reddy, B V; Sreedhar, B; Deva Prasad Raju, B

    2015-02-01

    Exploitation of green chemical procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles by biological process has received great attention in the field of nanotechnology. To demonstrate a biogenic method that involves the reduction of aqueous gold ions by the extract of Piper longum leaves leading to the formation of different morphological gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The formation of gold nano-structures has been characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicates the AuNPs are highly crystalline nature with the face-centered cubic (111), (200), (220) and (311) facets, respectively. The AuNPs have different sizes and morphologies that are identified by TEM studies. The involvement of water soluble bio-molecules such as carboxylic acids, flavonoids, proteins and terpenoids were identified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectrum. The responsible mechanism of improving acidic nature and the process of encapsulation of gold nanoparticles by Piper longum extract was discussed. Additionally, we have demonstrated the modified carbon paste electrode using gold nanoparticles by means of cyclic voltammetry in a solution of 1 M KCI and 1 mM [Fe(CN)6]3-/4-. The analysis of cyclic voltammetry shows electronic transmission rate between modified Au-CPE and Bare-CPE electrode increased. PMID:26353644

  14. Piper rhythm in the activation of the gastrocnemius medialis during running.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Lisa M; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Kugler, Patrick; Nigg, Benno M

    2011-02-01

    The presence of temporal rhythmicity in electromyographic (EMG) signals at frequencies of 35-60 Hz was initially noted by Piper (1907). This modulation and synchronization of motor unit activity is generally accepted to represent a centrally generated coding of motor commands. The purpose of this study was to resolve and quantify the Piper rhythm in the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle during running. EMG was recorded from the GM of 14 female runners during 1-h treadmill runs. The average wavelet transform was computed for EMG from series of steps taken at 2 min intervals throughout the run. The total intensity across three wavelets (center frequencies: 170, 218 and 271 Hz) was computed and a histogram indicating the incidence peaks in this signal was generated for each subject. In order to rule out effects of the analysis process, the process was repeated using simulated EMG data. Autocorrelations of the histograms were used to extract the frequency of the peaks resulting in rhythmicity at 25-55 Hz. The ability to measure superimposed rhythmicity in EMG signals during dynamic tasks allows investigation of the role of aspects of central drive during movement. In particular, the changes in central control during dynamic activities can be examined with this approach.

  15. Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

    2008-02-01

    Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation. PMID:17482221

  16. Does Oral Ingestion of Piper sarmentosum Cause Toxicity in Experimental Animals?

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Zaiton; Megat Mohd Nordin, Nor Anita; Othman, Faizah

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportion in Malaysia and worldwide. Scientific studies have shown that herbal plant Piper sarmentosum exhibits an antidiabetic property. Despite the extensive usage and studies of this herb as alternative medicine, there is paucity of the literature on the safety information of this plant. Thus, the present study aimed to observe the subacute toxic effects of Piper sarmentosum aqueous extract (PSAE) on the haematological profile, liver, and kidney in rats. The extract was administered by oral gavage to 6 male and female Sprague Dawley rats in daily dose of 50 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg for 28 consecutive days. The control group received normal saline. General behavior of the rats, adverse effects, and mortality were observed for 28 days. The haematological and biochemical parameters were determined at baseline and after the treatment. PSAE did not show abnormality on the body weight and gross observation of internal organs. The haematological, biochemical and histopathological profiles showed minimal changes and variation within normal clinical range except for significant increase in serum potassium level that suggests the need of regular monitoring. Nevertheless, these findings suggested that PSAE up to 2000 mg/kg/day did not show subacute toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:24228062

  17. Diversity of endophytic fungal community associated with Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Orlandelli, R C; Alberto, R N; Rubin Filho, C J; Pamphile, J A

    2012-01-01

    Tropical and subtropical plants are rich in endophytic community diversity. Endophytes, mainly fungi and bacteria, inhabit the healthy plant tissues without causing any damage to the hosts. These fungi can be useful for biological control of pathogens and plant growth promotion. Some plants of the genus Piper are hosts of endophytic microorganisms; however, there is little information about endophytes on Piper hispidum, a medicinal shrub used as an insecticide, astringent, diuretic, stimulant, liver treatment, and for stopping hemorrhages. We isolated the fungal endophyte community associated with P. hispidum leaves from plants in a Brazilian forest remnant. The endophytic diversity was examined based on sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. A high colonization frequency was obtained, as expected for tropical angiosperms. Isolated endophytes were divided into 66 morphogroups, demonstrating considerable diversity. We identified 21 isolates, belonging to 11 genera (Alternaria, Bipolaris, Colletotrichum, Glomerella, Guignardia, Lasiodiplodia, Marasmius, Phlebia, Phoma, Phomopsis, and Schizophyllum); one isolate was identified only to the order level (Diaporthales). Bipolaris was the most frequent genus among the identified endophytes. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the molecular identification of some isolates to genus level while for others it was confirmed at the species level. PMID:22653631

  18. "A New Kind of Rule": The Subversive Narrator in "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" and "The Pied Piper of Hamelin."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, William

    1986-01-01

    Compares "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" to "The Pied Piper of Hamelin," noting that both: (1) were begun for the amusement of specific children; (2) use a subterranean journey as a device; (3) are critical of social authority; and (4) have problematic endings. (SRT)

  19. Development, Characterization, and Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Abutilon indicum and Piper longum Phytosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sonam; Sahu, Alakh Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidences from ethnopharmacological practices have shown that combination of Abutilon indicum and Piper longum are traditionally used to treat symptoms of the liver disorder. The hypothesis is phytosomes of a combination of both crude drug extract will be more effective and safe as hepatoprotective agent. Aim: Present work is aimed at development and characterization of phytosomes containing ethanolic extract of both drugs to meet the need for better effectiveness and safety. Materials and Methods: Phytosomes were formulated by using Indena's patented process. Characterization involved following parameters: Particle size determination, percentage yield, entrapment efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high performance thin liquid chromatography. Liver damage was induced in adult Charles foster rats (150 ± 10 g) with CCl4 in olive oil (1:1 v/v, i.p) 1 ml/kg once daily for 7 days. LIV 52 (1 ml/kg per oral [p.o]), ethanolic extract of A. indicum and P. longum combination (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg p.o) and phytosomes (100 mg/kg p.o.) was given 3 days prior to CCl4 administration. Estimation of liver marker enzymes and histopathological studies were done. Result was analyzed by using (analysis of variance) followed by Student-Newman–Keuls test. Result: Combined extract has shown hepatoprotective activity but phytosomal formulation has more potent hepatoprotective effect on CCl4 induced liver toxicity at very low dose comparative to a higher dose of combined extract. Conclusion: Novel approach for herbal drug delivery is more prominent than conventional which improves bioavailability of polar extract and also patient compliance. SUMMARY Standardised ethanolic extract of leaves of abutilon indicum and piper longum fruits by microwave assisted extraction was used for phytosomal complex formation and phytosomal complex was characterised by various parameters and finally the

  20. Histological Changes in the Fracture Callus Following the Administration of Water Extract of Piper Sarmentosum (Daun Kadok) in Estrogen-Deficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Estai, Mohamed Abdalla; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Das, Srijit; Ali, Aishah Mohd; Suhaimi, Farihah Hj

    2011-01-01

    Background: The fracture healing is impaired in osteoporosis. Piper sarmentosum is a plant, which contains potent antioxidant, naringenin that may enhance fracture healing. The present histological study aimed to determine the effects of water extract of Piper sarmentosum on the late phase of fracture healing in estrogen-deficient rats. Methods: Twenty four female Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 gm) were obtained. Six rats underwent sham operation and the rest were ovariectomized. Six weeks post-ovariectomy all the rats were fractured at the mid-diaphysis of the right femur and a K-wire was inserted for internal fixation. The sham group was given vehicle (normal saline) and the ovariectomized group was randomly subdivided into three groups: (i) ovariectomized-control group supplemented with vehicle; (ii) ovariectomized+estrogen replacement therapy group treated with estrogen (100 µg/kg/day) and (iii) ovariectomized+Piper sarmentosum group treated with Piper sarmentosum water extract (125 mg/kg). Following six weeks of treatment, the rats were sacrificed and the right femora were harvested for histological assessment of fracture callus. Results: The ovariectomized-control group showed a significant delay in fracture healing compared to the sham, ovariectomized-estrogen replacement therapy and ovariectomized-Piper sarmentosum groups. The median callus score for the ovariectomized-Piper sarmentosum group was 4.50 (range, 4-5), which was significantly higher than the median callus score 3.50 (range, 3-4) for the ovariectomized-control group (P=0.019). However, there was no significant (P>0.05) difference in the callus score among the sham, ovariectomized-estrogen replacement therapy and ovariectomized-Piper sarmentosum groups groups. Conclusion: Treatment with water extract of Piper sarmentosum proved beneficial in the fracture healing in estrogen-deficient rats. PMID:23115413

  1. Rapid detection of Piper yellow mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus infecting black pepper (Piper nigrum) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    PubMed

    Bhat, A I; Siljo, A; Deeshma, K P

    2013-10-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Piper yellow mottle virus and the reverse transcription (RT) LAMP assay for Cucumber mosaic virus each consisted of a set of five primers designed against the conserved sequences in the viral genome. Both RNA and DNA isolated from black pepper were used as a template for the assay. The results were assessed visually by checking turbidity, green fluorescence and pellet formation in the reaction tube and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected both viruses in infected plants whereas no cross-reactions were recorded with healthy plants. Optimum conditions for successful amplification were determined in terms of the concentrations of magnesium sulphate and betaine, temperature, and duration. The detection limit for both LAMP and RT-LAMP was up to 100 times that for conventional PCR and up to one-hundredth of that for real-time PCR. The optimal conditions arrived at were validated by testing field samples of infected vines of three species from different regions.

  2. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  3. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  4. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  5. A piperidine amide extracted from Piper longum L. fruit shows activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Guei; Lee, Hee-Kwon; Kim, Moo-Key; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2002-06-19

    Mosquito larvicidal activity of Piper longum fruit-derived materials against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti was examined. A crude methanol extract of P. longum fruits was found to be active against the larvae, and the hexane fraction of the methanol extract showed a strong larvicidal activity of 100% mortality. The biologically active component of P. longum fruits was characterized as pipernonaline by spectroscopic analyses. The LC(50) value of pipernonaline was 0.25 mg/L. The toxicity of pipernonaline is comparable to that of pirimiphos-methyl as a mosquito larvicide. In tests with available components derived from P. longum, no activity was observed with piperettine, piperine, or piperlongumine.

  6. Gene expression profiles of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to an insecticidal extract of Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helen R; Scott, Ian M; Sims, Steve; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John Thor

    2006-02-22

    Black pepper, Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae), has insecticidal properties and could potentially be utilized as an alternative to synthetic insecticides. Piperine extracted from P. nigrum has a biphasic effect upon cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity with an initial suppression followed by induction. In this study, an ethyl acetate extract of P. nigrum seeds was tested for insecticidal activity toward adult Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster. The effect of this same P. nigrum extract upon differential gene expression in D. melanogaster was investigated using cDNA microarray analysis of 7380 genes. Treatment of D. melanogaster with P. nigrum extract led to a greater than 2-fold upregulation of transcription of the cytochrome P450 phase I metabolism genes Cyp 6a8, Cyp 9b2, and Cyp 12d1 as well as the glutathione-S-transferase phase II metabolism gene Gst-S1. These data suggests a complex effect of P. nigrum upon toxin metabolism.

  7. Analysis of the blackening of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100°C than at 90 and 80°C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100°C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study.

  8. A rapid method for isolation of piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum Linn.

    PubMed

    Kanaki, Niranjan; Dave, Mansi; Padh, Harish; Rajani, Mandapati

    2008-07-01

    A simple, rapid and efficient method has been developed for the isolation of piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum. The method involves extraction of the fruit powder with glacial acetic acid, from which piperine is partitioned into chloroform and subsequently crystallized. The identity of the compound was confirmed by its melting point, comparison of UV, IR, and mass spectral data with those from a reference standard, and co-chromatography with the reference standard using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The purity of the compound was ascertained by TLC, by recording UV absorption spectra at the start, middle, and end positions of the spot on the plate, and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  9. Protective effects of Piper nigrum and Vinca rosea in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kaleem, M; Sheema; Sarmad, H; Bano, B

    2005-01-01

    In the present study aqueous extract of Piper nigrum seeds and Vinca rosea flowers were administered orally to alloxan induced diabetic rats once a day for 4 weeks. These treatments lead to significant lowering of blood sugar level and reduction in serum lipids. The levels of antioxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione peroxidase decreased in alloxan induced diabetic rats however these levels returned to normal in insulin, P. nigrum and V. rosea treated rats. There was no significant difference in superoxide dismutase activity in all groups compared to controls. Lipid peroxidation levels were significantly higher in diabetic rats and it was slightly increased in insulin, P. nigrum and V. rosea treated rats as compared to control rat. These results suggest that oxidative stress plays a key role in diabetes, and treatment with P. nigrum and V. rosea are useful in controlling not only the glucose and lipid levels but these components may also be helpful in strengthening the antioxidants potential.

  10. Piper betle-mediated synthesis, characterization, antibacterial and rat splenocyte cytotoxic effects of copper oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Praburaman, Loganathan; Jang, Jum-Suk; Muthusamy, Govarthanan; Arumugam, Sengottaiyan; Manoharan, Koildhasan; Cho, Kwang-Min; Min, Cho; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Byung-Taek, Oh

    2016-09-01

    The study reports a simple, inexpensive, and eco-friendly synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) using Piper betle leaf extract. Formation of CuONPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy at 280 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the CuONPs were spherical, with an average size of 50-100 nm. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) peak was observed approximately at 1 and 8 keV. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicated that the particles were crystalline in nature. CuONPs effectively inhibited the growth of phytopathogens Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas axonopodis. The cytotoxic effect of the synthesized CuONPs was analyzed using rat splenocytes. The cell viability was decreased to 94% at 300 μg/mL. PMID:26148178

  11. Astronauts Stefanyshyn-Piper, Lindsey and Currie greet First Lady Hillary Clinton at the Skid Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton is greeted by Astronauts (from left) Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, Steven W. Lindsey, and Nancy Jane Currie upon Mrs. Clinton's arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station. She and her daughter, Chelsea (far right) are here to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS- 93, scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  12. Astronauts Stefanyshyn-Piper, Lindsey and Currie greet First Lady Hillary Clinton at the Skid Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton is greeted by Astronaut Nancy Jane Currie upon Mrs. Clinton's arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Waiting at left are Astronauts Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper and Steven W. Lindsey. Mrs. Clinton and her daughter, Chelsea (far right) are here to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93, scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five- day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X- ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  13. ACAT inhibition of alkamides identified in the fruits of Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Rho, Mun-Chual; Lee, Seung Woong; Park, Hye Ran; Choi, Jung-Ho; Kang, Ji Yun; Kim, Koanhoi; Lee, Hyun Sun; Kim, Young Kook

    2007-03-01

    In this study, via a bioactivity-guided fractionation of MeOH extracts of the fruits of Piper nigrum, alkamide (5) and five previously-identified alkamides were isolated. Their structures were elucidated via spectroscopic analysis ((1)H, (13)C NMR and ESI-MS), as follows: retrofractamide A (1), pipercide (2), piperchabamide D (3), pellitorin (4), dehydroretrofractamide C (5) and dehydropipernonaline (6). The IC(50) values determined for the compounds were 24.5 (1), 3.7 (2), 13.5 (3), 40.5 (4), 60 (5) and 90 microM (6), according to the results of an ACAT enzyme assay system using rat liver microsomes. These compounds all inhibited cholesterol esterification in HepG2 cells.

  14. Isolation and characterization of nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in Piper solmsianum (piperaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Nídia C.; Lima, Paula F.; Priolli, Regina H. G.; Kato, Massuo J.; Colombo, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Nine microsatellite (simple sequence repeat [SSR]) loci were characterized for natural populations of Piper solmsianum, a potential source of bioactive secondary metabolites, and analyzed to assess the levels of genetic diversity in this species. • Methods and Results: Based on an enriched library using the oligonucleotides (CT)8 and (GT)8, a total of 19 pairs of SSR primers were designed and nine of them were highly polymorphic after screening of 37 specimens from two populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to six while the observed heterozygosity for polymorphic loci ranged from 0.000 to 0.875. • Conclusions: The SSR regions characterized were informative, and the genetic markers will be useful to assess the genetic diversity and gene flow in populations of P. solmsianum. PMID:25202616

  15. Trade-offs in antiherbivore defenses in Piper cenocladum: ant mutualists versus plant secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Dyer, L A; Dodson, C D; Beihoffer, J; Letourneau, D K

    2001-03-01

    Ant-plant mutualisms may provide indirect evidence for costs of antiherbivore defenses when plants demonstrate trade-offs between allocating resources and energy into ant attractants versus chemical defenses. We tested the hypothesis that ecological trade-offs in defenses are present in Piper cenocladum. This plant possesses two distinct defenses: food bodies that attract predatory ants that destroy herbivore eggs and amides that deter herbivores. Previous studies have demonstrated that the food bodies in P. cenocladum are an effective defense because the ants deter herbivory by specialist herbivores. Amides in other Piper species have been shown to have toxic qualities, but we tested the additional hypothesis that these amides have an actual defensive function in P. cenocladum. To test for ecological trade-offs between the two putative defenses, fragments of P. cenocladum were examined for the presence of amides both when the plant was producing food bodies and when it was not producing food bodies. Plants with active ant colonies had redundant defenses, producing food bodies and high levels of amides at the same time, but we detected a trade-off in that they had significantly lower levels of amides than did plants with no ants. To test for the defensive value of P. cenocladum amides, we used an ant bioassay and we examined herbivory results from previous experiments with plants that had variable levels of amides. These tests demonstrated that amides are deterrent to omnivorous ants, leaf cutting ants, and orthopterans. In contrast, the resident Pheidole bicornis ants are effective at deterring herbivory by specialist herbivores that oviposit eggs on the plant but not at deterring herbivory by nonresident omnivores. We concluded that although both amides and food body production appear to be costly, redundancy in defenses is necessary to avoid damage by a complex suit of herbivores.

  16. Molecular characterization of the endophytic fungal community associated with Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) (Pontederiaceae) native to the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, T T; Orlandelli, R C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2015-05-11

    Endophytic fungi live in the interior of healthy plants without causing them any damage. These fungi are of biotechnological interest; they may be used in the biological control of pests and plant diseases, and in the pharmaceutical industry. The aquatic macrophytes Eichhornia azurea (Kunth) and Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) belong to the Pontederiaceae family. The first is a fixed-floating species and the second is a free-floating species that is known for its phytoremediation potential. The fungal endophytes associated with the leaves of E. azurea and E. crassipes, native to the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil, were isolated. The sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA was performed and the nucleotide sequences obtained were compared with those available in the GenBank database for the molecular identification of the isolates. The construction of phylogenetic trees was performed using the MEGA5 software. The results showed that high colonization frequencies were obtained from the 610 foliar fragments sampled from each plant: 87.86% for E. azurea and 88.85% for E. crassipes. At the genus level, it was possible to identify 19 fungal endophytes belonging to the genera Alternaria, Bipolaris, Cercospora, Diaporthe, Gibberella, Pestalotiopsis, Plectosphaerella, Phoma, and Saccharicola. Two other endophytes were identified at the species level (Microsphaeropsis arundinis). Genera Bipolaris, Cercospora, Microsphaeropsis, and Phoma were found as endophytes in the two macrophytes and the other genera were host-specific, being isolated from only one macrophyte, proving that there is a small difference in the endophytic diversity of the two Eichhornia species analyzed.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Choisya ternata Kunth Essential Oil, Ternanthranin, and Its Two Synthetic Analogs (Methyl and Propyl N-Methylanthranilates)

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Miltojević, Ana B.; Radulović, Niko S.; Abdul-Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Boylan, Fabio; Fernandes, Patrícia Dias

    2015-01-01

    Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) is native to North America where it is popularly known as “Mexican orange”. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin—ISOAN) and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate – MAN and PAN) were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO) obtained from C. ternata leaves (3–100 mg/kg, p.o.), ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1–30 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o.), were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β). ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses) when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA). None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:25807367

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of Choisya ternata Kunth essential oil, ternanthranin, and its two synthetic analogs (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilates).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Miltojević, Ana B; Radulović, Niko S; Abdul-Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Boylan, Fabio; Fernandes, Patrícia Dias

    2015-01-01

    Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) is native to North America where it is popularly known as "Mexican orange". In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin-ISOAN) and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate--MAN and PAN) were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO) obtained from C. ternata leaves (3-100 mg/kg, p.o.), ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1-30 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o.), were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β). ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses) when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA). None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:25807367

  19. Development and in-home testing of the Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER Mk IV) sampler.

    PubMed

    Shalat, Stuart L; Stambler, Adam A; Wang, Zuocheng; Mainelis, Gediminas; Emoekpere, Osiloke H; Hernandez, Marta; Lioy, Paul J; Black, Kathleen

    2011-04-01

    Exposure and dose estimation are essential to understanding the etiology of environmentally linked childhood diseases. The behavior of resuspended particulate matter (PM) suggests that stationary measurements may underestimate household exposures in young children (ages 6-36 months). Because of the size and weight of the sampling equipment, use of personal samplers in this age group is either difficult or impossible. The Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER Mk IV) sampler has been developed to provide a surrogate method to ascertain personal exposures to PM for this age group. As part of a study of childhood asthma, 55 homes in central New Jersey were tested. Simultaneous sampling for inhalable PM using stationary (110 cm height) and PIPER mobile sampler were carried out. In homes with bare floors (N=21), the absolute difference was 3.9 μg/m3 (SE=3.01; p=0.217) and relative difference (PIPER/Stationary) was 1.12 (linearized SE=0.11). On carpets (N=34), the absolute difference was 54.1 μg/m3 (SE=13.50; p=0.0003), and the relative difference was 2.30 (linearized SE=0.34). The results confirm the importance of understanding the personal dust cloud caused by children's activity in a room, particularly when rugs or carpets are present.

  20. Antifungal activity and computational study of constituents from Piper divaricatum essential oil against Fusarium infection in black pepper.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Silva, José Rogério A; Nascimento, Soelange B; da Luz, Shirlley F M; Meireles, Erisléia N; Alves, Cláudio N; Ramos, Alessandra R; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2014-11-04

    Fusarium disease causes considerable losses in the cultivation of Piper nigrum, the black pepper used in the culinary world. Brazil was the largest producer of black pepper, but in recent years has lost this hegemony, with a significant reduction in its production, due to the ravages produced by the Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, the fungus which causes this disease. Scientific research seeks new alternatives for the control and the existence of other Piper species in the Brazilian Amazon, resistant to disease, are being considered in this context. The main constituents of the oil of Piper divaricatum are methyleugenol (75.0%) and eugenol (10.0%). The oil and these two main constituents were tested individually at concentrations of 0.25 to 2.5 mg/mL against F. solani f. sp. piperis, exhibiting strong antifungal index, from 18.0% to 100.0%. The 3D structure of the β-glucosidase from Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, obtained by homology modeling, was used for molecular docking and molecular electrostatic potential calculations in order to determine the binding energy of the natural substrates glucose, methyleugenol and eugenol. The results showed that β-glucosidase (Asp45, Arg113, Lys146, Tyr193, Asp225, Trp226 and Leu99) residues play an important role in the interactions that occur between the protein-substrate and the engenol and methyleugenol inhibitors, justifying the antifungal action of these two phenylpropenes against Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis.

  1. Antifungal activity and computational study of constituents from Piper divaricatum essential oil against Fusarium infection in black pepper.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Silva, José Rogério A; Nascimento, Soelange B; da Luz, Shirlley F M; Meireles, Erisléia N; Alves, Cláudio N; Ramos, Alessandra R; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium disease causes considerable losses in the cultivation of Piper nigrum, the black pepper used in the culinary world. Brazil was the largest producer of black pepper, but in recent years has lost this hegemony, with a significant reduction in its production, due to the ravages produced by the Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, the fungus which causes this disease. Scientific research seeks new alternatives for the control and the existence of other Piper species in the Brazilian Amazon, resistant to disease, are being considered in this context. The main constituents of the oil of Piper divaricatum are methyleugenol (75.0%) and eugenol (10.0%). The oil and these two main constituents were tested individually at concentrations of 0.25 to 2.5 mg/mL against F. solani f. sp. piperis, exhibiting strong antifungal index, from 18.0% to 100.0%. The 3D structure of the β-glucosidase from Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, obtained by homology modeling, was used for molecular docking and molecular electrostatic potential calculations in order to determine the binding energy of the natural substrates glucose, methyleugenol and eugenol. The results showed that β-glucosidase (Asp45, Arg113, Lys146, Tyr193, Asp225, Trp226 and Leu99) residues play an important role in the interactions that occur between the protein-substrate and the engenol and methyleugenol inhibitors, justifying the antifungal action of these two phenylpropenes against Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis. PMID:25375334

  2. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p<0.01) zone of inhibitions against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus [(6.77±0.25) mm] and Gram negative Escherichia coli [(8.53±0.25) mm], Salmonella typhi [(5.20±0.26) mm], Shigella dysenteriae [(11.20±0.26) mm] compared to positive control Azithromycin (ranging from 20.10±0.17 to 25.20±0.35 mm) while no zone inhibitory activity was found for both the extract and the standard drug against Gram positive Bacillus cereus. The extract also showed potent anthelmintic activity requiring less time for paralysis and death compared to the standard drug albendazole (10 mg/ml). At concentrations 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/ml, leaves extract showed paralysis at mean time of 9.83±0.60, 8.50±0.29, 6.60±0.17, 6.20±0.44 and 4.16±0.60; death at 11.33±0.88, 9.67±0.33, 7.83±0.17, 7.16±0.60 and 5.16±0.72 minutes, respectively. Whereas the standard drug showed paralysis and death at 19.33±0.71 and 51.00±0.23 minutes respectively. The extract confirmed the higher concentration of phenolic contents (124.42±0.14 mg of GAE /g of extract) when screened for total phenolic compounds. Conclusion: As results confirmed potential antibacterial and anthelmintic activities of Piper betel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

  3. Intrinsic anticarcinogenic effects of Piper sarmentosum ethanolic extract on a human hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Wan Omar, Wan Haifa Haryani; Zainal Ariffin, Zaidah; Safian, Muhd Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya

    2009-01-01

    Background Piper sarmentosum, locally known as kaduk is belonging to the family of Piperaceae. It is our interest to evaluate their effect on human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) for the potential of anticarcinogenic activity. Results The anticarcinogenic activity of an ethanolic extract from Piper sarmentosum in HepG2 and non-malignant Chang's liver cell lines has been previously determined using (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assays, where the IC50 value was used as a parameter for cytotoxicity. The ethanolic extract that showed anticarcinogenic properties in HepG2 cells had an IC50 of 12.5 μg mL-1, while IC50 values in the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line were greater than 30 μg mL-1. Apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells were observed using an inverted microscope and showed chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies following May-Grunwald-Giemsa's staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells in the overall population (apoptotic index) showed a continuously significant increase (p < 0.05) in 12.5 μg mL-1 ethanolic extract-treated cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours compared to controls (untreated cells). Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with 10, 12 and 14 μg mL-1 of ethanolic extracts caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells. Molecular analysis of DNA fragmentation was used to examine intrinsic apoptosis induced by the ethanolic extracts. These results showed a typical intrinsic apoptotic characterisation, which included fragmentation of nuclear DNA in ethanolic extract-treated HepG2 cells. However, the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line produced no DNA fragmentation. In addition, the DNA genome was similarly intact for both the untreated non-malignant Chang's liver and HepG2 cell lines. Conclusion Therefore, our results suggest that the ethanolic extract from P. sarmentosum induced anticarcinogenic activity through an intrinsic apoptosis

  4. Antimicrobial effects of Piper hispidum extract, fractions and chalcones against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Costa, G M; Endo, E H; Cortez, D A G; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2016-09-01

    Three chalcones, 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-tetramethoxychalcone, and 3,2'-dihydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, were isolated from the leaves of Piper hispidum in a bioguided fractionation of crude extract. The antimicrobial activity of crude extract of P. hispidum leaves was determined against bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. Fractions and chalcones were tested against C. albicans and S. aureus. The checkerboard assay was performed to assess synergic interactions between extract and antifungal drugs, and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay was used to evaluate anti-biofilm effects of extract. The extract was active against yeasts, S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC values between 15.6 and 62.5μg/mL. Synergistic effects of extract associated with fluconazole and nystatin were observed against C. albicans, with fractional inhibitory concentration indices of 0.37 and 0.24, respectively. The extract was also effective against C. albicans and S. aureus biofilm cells at concentrations of 62.5 and 200μg/mL, respectively. Thus, P. hispidum may be a possible source of bioactive substances with antimicrobial properties. PMID:27499460

  5. Composition and biological activities of the essential oil of Piper corcovadensis (Miq.) C. DC (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcelo Felipe Rodrigues; Bezerra-Silva, Patrícia Cristina; de Lira, Camila Soledade; de Lima Albuquerque, Bheatriz Nunes; Agra Neto, Afonso Cordeiro; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Maciel, Jefferson Rodrigues; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz

    2016-06-01

    Essential oil from fresh leaves of the shrub Piper corcovadensis (Miq.) C. DC was obtained in 0.21% (w/w) yield by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger type apparatus. Thirty-one components, accounting for 96.61% of the leaf oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (30.62%), terpinolene (17.44%), trans -caryophyllene (6.27%), α-pinene (5.92%), δ-cadinene (4.92%), and Limonene (4.46%). Bioassays against larvae of the Dengue mosquito (Aedes aegypti) revealed that leaf oil (LC50 = 30.52 ppm), terpinolene (LC50 = 31.16 ppm), and pure 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (LC50 = 22.1 ppm) possessed larvicidal activities and are able to interfere with the activity of proteases from L4 gut enzymes. Additionally, the essential oil exhibited a strong oviposition deterrent activity at 50 and 5 ppm. This paper constitutes the first report of biological activities associated with the essential oil of leaves of P. corcovadensis.

  6. Studies on the neuroprotective role of Piper longum in C6 glioma induced rats.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Umadevi; Poongavanam, Sharmila; Vanisree, A J

    2010-10-01

    Many naturally occurring substances of plant origin ingested in human diet, exhibit anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects. One of the active phytochemical which shows the active anticarcinogenic role is Piper longum Linn. (Pl). Pl is widely used in ayurvedic industry due to its property in healing some of the bodily ailments. Despite being known for the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic effects, its relation to brain and its tumour development is still scarce. Hence, the experimental glioma model was developed in rats using C6 glioma cells and the effect of Pl was evaluated in the brain tissue of experimental group of rats. From the study, the glioma induced animals showed an increased level of lipid peroxides (LPO), tissue marker enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), 5'nucleotidase (5'ND) and acetylcholine esterase (AChE). But Pl treatment (20 mg/kg body weight) significantly attenuated these alterations thereby showing potent anticancer effect in glioma induced rats. In addition, the anticarcinogenic effect of Pl was confirmed by microscopic analysis and the restoration of increased lipids and protein bound carbohydrates (PBCs) in the brain tissue of glioma induced rats. Hence our results implicate a major role for Pl in preventing the cancer development in the experimental glioma model. PMID:19730792

  7. Shelter-building behavior and natural history of two pyralid caterpillars feeding on Piper stipulaceum.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-03-15

    Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae) . A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species.

  8. Composition and biological activities of the essential oil of Piper corcovadensis (Miq.) C. DC (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcelo Felipe Rodrigues; Bezerra-Silva, Patrícia Cristina; de Lira, Camila Soledade; de Lima Albuquerque, Bheatriz Nunes; Agra Neto, Afonso Cordeiro; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Maciel, Jefferson Rodrigues; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz

    2016-06-01

    Essential oil from fresh leaves of the shrub Piper corcovadensis (Miq.) C. DC was obtained in 0.21% (w/w) yield by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger type apparatus. Thirty-one components, accounting for 96.61% of the leaf oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (30.62%), terpinolene (17.44%), trans -caryophyllene (6.27%), α-pinene (5.92%), δ-cadinene (4.92%), and Limonene (4.46%). Bioassays against larvae of the Dengue mosquito (Aedes aegypti) revealed that leaf oil (LC50 = 30.52 ppm), terpinolene (LC50 = 31.16 ppm), and pure 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (LC50 = 22.1 ppm) possessed larvicidal activities and are able to interfere with the activity of proteases from L4 gut enzymes. Additionally, the essential oil exhibited a strong oviposition deterrent activity at 50 and 5 ppm. This paper constitutes the first report of biological activities associated with the essential oil of leaves of P. corcovadensis. PMID:26993082

  9. Cytotoxic non-aromatic B-ring flavanones from Piper carniconnectivum C. DC.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Giovana C; Batista, João M; Franchi, Gilberto C; Nowill, Alexandre E; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Vilcachagua, Janaina D; Favaro, Denize C; Furlan, Maysa; Guimarães, Elsie F; Jeffrey, Christopher S; Kato, Massuo J

    2014-01-01

    The EtOAc extract from the leaves of Piper carniconnectivum C. DC. was subjected to chromatographic separation to afford two non-aromatic B-ring flavanone compounds: 5-hydroxy-2-(1'-hydroxy-4'-oxo-cyclohex-2'-en-1'-yl)-6,7-dimethoxy-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one (1) and 5-hydroxy-2-(1',2'-dihydroxy-4'-oxo-cyclohexyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one (2). The absolute configuration of (+)-1 was unambiguously determined as 2S,1'R by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy and comparison to simulated spectra that were calculated using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). This methodology allowed the assignment of the absolute configuration of (+)-2 also as 2S,1'R, except for the stereogenic center at C-2', which was assigned as R because of the evidence drawn from high resolution NMR experiments. The cytotoxic activity of both compounds and 3 (hydrogenated B-ring derivative of 1) was evaluated on twelve human leukemia cell lines, and the IC50 values (<10 μM) indicated the activity of 1 against seven cell lines.

  10. [Potential allelopathic effects of Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium].

    PubMed

    Yan, Guijun; Zhu, Chaohua; Luo, Yanping; Yang, Ye; Wei, Jinju

    2006-09-01

    With Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium as the donators, this paper studied their potential allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of Zea mays, Glycine max, Cucurbita moschata, Arachis hypogaea, Raphanus sativus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stylosanthes guianensis. The results showed that the aqueous extracts of these donators could inhibit the germination and growth of Z. mays, G. max, C. moschata, E. crus-galli and D. sanguinalis at high concentration, but stimulate them at low concentration. In rhizosphere soil of P. nigrum and M. indica, the germination and growth of Z. mays L was stimulated, while A. hypogaea was inhibited. The aqueous extracts of the donators were extracted by ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively, and the inhibitory activity of both aqueous and n-butanol fractions from P. nigrum and M. indica on Z. mays, R. sativus and S. guianensis was stronger than that of ethyl acetate fraction, indicating that P. nigrum and M. indica contained the allelochemicals with high polarity.

  11. Structural and sensory characterization of key pungent and tingling compounds from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Henze, Andrea; Frank, Oliver; Glabasnia, Anneke; Rupp, Mathias; Büning, Kirsten; Orlikowski, Diana; Bader, Matthias; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-03-21

    To gain a more comprehensive knowledge on whether, besides the well-known piperine, other compounds are responsible for the pungent and tingling oral impression imparted by black pepper, an ethanol extract prepared from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) was screened for its key sensory-active nonvolatiles by application of taste dilution analysis (TDA). Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impact, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments as well as synthesis, led to the structure determination of 25 key pungent and tingling phytochemicals, among which the eight amides 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13Z-trienyl)piperidine, 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13Z-trienyl)pyrrolidine, (2E,4E,13Z)-N-isobutyl-octadeca-2,4,13-trienamide, 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,12Z-trienoyl)-pyrrolidine, 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,15Z-trienyl)piperidine, 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,15Z-trienyl)pyrrolidine, (2E,4E,15Z)-N-isobutyl-eicosa-2,4,15-trienamide, and 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,14Z-trienoyl)-pyrrolidine were not yet reported in literature. Sensory studies by means of a modified half-tongue test revealed recognition thresholds ranging from 3.0 to 1150.2 nmol/cm² for pungency and from 520.6 to 2162.1 nmol/cm² for the tingling orosensation depending on their chemical structure.

  12. Chemistry and in vitro antioxidant activity of volatile oil and oleoresins of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Bandana; Singh, Gurdip; De Heluani, Carola S; De Lampasona, M P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2009-06-24

    Essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol and ethyl acetate) of Piper nigrum were extracted by using Clevenger and Soxhlet apparatus, respectively. GC-MS analysis of pepper essential oil showed the presence of 54 components representing about 96.6% of the total weight. beta-Caryophylline (29.9%) was found as the major component along with limonene (13.2%), beta-pinene (7.9%), sabinene (5.9%), and several other minor components. The major component of both ethanol and ethyl acetate oleoresins was found to contain piperine (63.9 and 39.0%), with many other components in lesser amounts. The antioxidant activities of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, p-anisidine, and thiobarbituric acid. Both the oil and oleoresins showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) but lower than that of propyl gallate (PG). In addition, their inhibitory action by FTC method, scavenging capacity by DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical), and reducing power were also determined, proving the strong antioxidant capacity of both the essential oil and oleoresins of pepper.

  13. Aedes aegypti larvicide from the ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum black peppercorns.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Viviene S; Alvero, Rita Grace; Villaseñor, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    Due to unavailability of a vaccine and a specific cure to dengue, the focus nowadays is to develop an effective vector control method against the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. This study aims to determine the larvicidal fractions from Piper nigrum ethanolic extracts (PnPcmE) and to elucidate the identity of the bioactive compounds that comprise these larvicidal fractions. Larvicidal assay was performed by subjecting 3rd to 4th A. aegypti instar larvae to PnPcmE of P. nigrum. The PnPcmE exhibited potential larvicidal activity having an LC50 of 7.1246 ± 0.1304 ppm (mean ± Std error). Normal phase vacuum liquid chromatography of the PnPcmE was employed which resulted in five fractions, two of which showed larvicidal activity. The most active of the PnPcmE fractions is PnPcmE-1A, with an LC50 and LC90 of 1.7101 ± 0.0491 ppm and 3.7078 ppm, respectively. Subsequent purification of PnPcmE-1A allowed the identification of the larvicidal compound as oleic acid.

  14. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) seeds.

    PubMed

    Gülçin, Ilhami

    2005-11-01

    Water and ethanol crude extracts from black pepper (Piper nigrum) were investigated for their antioxidant and radical scavenging activities in six different assay, namely, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. Both water extract (WEBP) and ethanol extract (EEBP) of black pepper exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. The 75 microg/ml concentration of WEBP and EEBP showed 95.5% and 93.3% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. On the other hand, at the same concentration, standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol exhibited 92.1%, 95.0%, and 70.4% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. Also, total phenolic content in both WEBP and EEBP were determined as gallic acid equivalents. The total phenolics content of water and ethanol extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and 54.3 and 42.8 microg gallic acid equivalent of phenols was detected in 1 mg WEBP and EEBP.

  15. Amides from Piper nigrum L. with dissimilar effects on melanocyte proliferation in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhixiu; Liao, Yonghong; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Hider, Robert C; Soumyanath, Amala

    2007-04-01

    Melanocyte proliferation stimulants are of interest as potential treatments for the depigmentary skin disorder, vitiligo. Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) fruit (black pepper) water extract and its main alkaloid, piperine (1), promote melanocyte proliferation in-vitro. A crude chloroform extract of P. nigrum containing piperine was more stimulatory than an equivalent concentration of the pure compound, suggesting the presence of other active components. Piperine (1), guineensine (2), pipericide (3), N-feruloyltyramine (4) and N-isobutyl-2E, 4E-dodecadienamide (5) were isolated from the chloroform extract. Their activity was compared with piperine and with commercial piperlongumine (6) and safrole (7), and synthetically prepared piperettine (8), piperlonguminine (9) and 1-(3, 4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-decane (10). Compounds 6-10 either occur in P. nigrum or are structurally related. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9 stimulated melanocyte proliferation, whereas 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10 did not. Comparison of structures suggests that the methylenedioxyphenyl function is essential for melanocyte stimulatory activity. Only those compounds also possessing an amide group were active, although the amino component of the amide group and chain linking it to the methylenedioxyphenyl group can vary. P. nigrum, therefore, contains several amides with the ability to stimulate melanocyte proliferation. This finding supports the traditional use of P. nigrum extracts in vitiligo and provides new lead compounds for drug development for this disease.

  16. High-frequency plant regeneration through cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Nair, R Ramakrishnan; Dutta Gupta, S

    2006-01-01

    A high-frequency plantlet regeneration protocol was developed for black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) through cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis. Secondary embryos formed from the radicular end of the primary somatic embryos which were originally derived from micropylar tissues of germinating seeds on growth regulator-free SH medium in the absence of light. The process of secondary embryogenesis continued in a cyclic manner from the root pole of newly formed embryos resulting in clumps of somatic embryos. Strength of the medium and sucrose concentration influenced the process of secondary embryogenesis and fresh weight of somatic embryo clumps. Full-strength SH medium supplemented with 1.5% sucrose produced significantly higher fresh weight and numbers of secondary somatic embryos while 3.0 and 4.5% sucrose in the medium favored further development of proliferated embryos into plantlets. Ontogeny of secondary embryos was established by histological analysis. Secondary embryogenic potential was influenced by the developmental stage of the explanted somatic embryo and stages up to "torpedo" were more suitable. A single-flask system was standardized for proliferation, maturation, germination and conversion of secondary somatic embryos in suspension cultures. The system of cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis in black pepper described here represents a permanent source of embryogenic material that can be used for genetic manipulations of this crop species.

  17. Bioactivity-guided isolation of laevicarpin, an antitrypanosomal and anticryptococcal lactam from Piper laevicarpu (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    da Silva A Maciel, Dayany; Freitas, Viviane P; Conserva, Geanne A Alves; Alexandre, Tatiana R; Purisco, Sonia U; Tempone, Andre G; Melhem, Márcia Souza C; Kato, Massuo J; Guimarães, Elsie F; Lago, João Henrique G

    2016-06-01

    Crude CH2Cl2 extract from leaves of Piper laevicarpu (Piperaceae) displayed antitrypanosomal activity against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (Y strain) and antimicrobial potential against Cryptococcus gattii (strain-type WM 178). Bioactivity-guided fractionation of crude extract afforded one new natural bioactive lactam derivative, named laevicarpin. The structure of isolated compound, which displayed a very rare ring system, was elucidated based on NMR, IR and MS spectral analysis. Using MTT assay, the trypomastigotes of T. cruzi demonstrated susceptibility to laevicarpin displaying IC50 value of 14.7μg/mL (49.6μM), about 10-fold more potent than the standard drug benznidazole. The mammalian cytotoxicity of laevicarpin was verified against murine fibroblasts (NCTC cells) and demonstrated a CC50 value of 100.3μg/mL (337.7μM-SI=7). When tested against Cryptococcus gattii, laevicarpin showed an IC50 value of 2.3μg/mL (7.9μM) and a MIC value of 7.4μg/mL (25μM). Based in the obtained results, laevicarpin could be used as a scaffold for future drug design studies against the Chagas disease and anti-cryptococosis agents. PMID:27083380

  18. Learning from the Piper Alpha accident: A postmortem analysis of technical and organizational factors

    SciTech Connect

    Pate-Cornell, M.E. )

    1993-04-01

    The accident that occurred on board the offshore platform Piper Alpha in July 1988 killed 167 people and cost billions of dollars in property damage. It was caused by a massive fire, which was not the result of an unpredictable act of God' but of an accumulation of errors and questionable decisions. Most of them were rooted in the organization, its structure, procedures, and culture. This paper analyzes the accident scenario using the risk analysis framework, determines which human decision and actions influenced the occurrence of the basic events, and then identifies the organizational roots of these decisions and actions. These organizational factors are generalizable to other industries and engineering systems. They include flaws in the design guidelines and design practices (e.g., tight physical couplings or insufficient redundancies), misguided priorities in the management of the tradeoff between productivity and safety, mistakes in the management of the personnel on board, and errors of judgement in the process by which financial pressures are applied on the production sector (i.e., the oil companies' definition of profit centers) resulting in deficiencies in inspection and maintenance operations. This analytical approach allows identification of risk management measures that go beyond the purely technical (e.g., add redundancies to a safety system) and also include improvements of management practices. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Chemical study and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of essential oil of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gisele L; Cardoso, Sheila K; Lara, Célio R; Vieira, Thallyta M; Guimarães, Elsie F; Figueiredo, Lourdes S; Martins, Ernane R; Moreira, Davyson L; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2013-01-01

    Piper aduncum L. is used in folk medicine to treat respiratory and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the essential oil from leaves of P. aduncum collected in the Brazilian Cerrado, North of Minas Gerais, as well as to evaluate the larvicidal activity of this oil and of its major constituent. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry that allowed characterizing 23 compounds (monoterpenes: 90.4%; sesquiterpenes: 7.0%). The major component was 1,8-cineole (53.9%). This oil showed to be very different from those obtained from the same species. Larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of the essential oil and 1,8-cineole. The mortality rate of 100% was obtained after 24 h of treatment with the oil at concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ppm. After 48 h of treatment, the mortality rate was 80% and 50% for concentrations of 250 and 100 ppm, respectively. The LC₅₀ obtained after 24h was estimated in 289.9 ppm and after 48 h was 134.1 ppm. The major compound 1,8-cineole showed no larvicidal activity. PMID:24270836

  20. Study of the glow curve structure of the minerals separated from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, S.; Ruiz Gurrola, B.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Tufiño, A.; Furetta, C.; Favalli, A.; Brown, F.

    2011-04-01

    The inorganic mineral fraction extracted from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) has been analysed using a thermoluminescence (TL) method, investigating the glow curve structure, including an evaluation of the kinetic parameters. Different grain sizes, i.e. 10, 74, and 149 μm, were selected from commercial black pepper. The X-ray diffraction of the inorganic fraction shows that quartz is the main mineral present in it. The samples were exposed to 1-25 kGy doses by gamma rays of 60Co in order to analyse the thermally stimulated luminescence response as a function of the delivered dose. The glow curves show a complex structure for different grain sizes of the pepper mineral samples. The fading of the TL signal at room temperature was obtained after irradiation, and it was observed that the maximum peaks of the glow curves shift towards higher values of the temperature when the elapsed time from irradiation increases. It seems that the fading characteristic may be related to a continuous trap distribution responsible for the complex structure of the glow curve. Similar glow curves structure behaviour was found under ultraviolet irradiation of the samples. The activation energy and the frequency factor were determined from the glow curves of different grain sizes using a deconvolution programme because of the evident complexity of the structure.

  1. Chemical compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils of Piper caninum Blume.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan; Ahmad, Farediah; Yen, Khong Heng; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the fresh leaves and stems oils of Piper caninum were investigated. A total of forty eight constituents were identified in the leaves (77.9%) and stems (87.0%) oil which were characterized by high proportions of phenylpropanoid, safrole with 17.1% for leaves and 25.5% for stems oil. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic content. Stems oil showed the highest inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation (114.9 ± 0.9%), compared to BHT (95.5 ± 0.5%), while leaves oil showed significant total phenolic content (27.4 ± 0.5 mg GA/g) equivalent to gallic acid. However, the essential oils showed weak activity towards DPPH free-radical scavenging. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity revealed that both oils exhibited strong activity against all bacteria strains with MIC values in the range 62.5 to 250 μg/mL, but weak activity against fungal strains. These findings suggest that the essential oils can be used as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for therapeutic, nutraceutical industries and food manufactures.

  2. Protective Effect of Piper aduncum Capsule on DMBA-induced Breast Cancer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Acevedo, J; Chávez-Asmat, RJ; Anampa-Guzmán, A; Donaires, R; Ráez-Gonzáles, José

    2015-01-01

    The possible protective effect of Piper aduncum capsule on DMBA (dimethylbenz[α]anthracene)-induced breast cancer in rats was assessed by monitoring the tumor and lung metastases incidence and recording hematological and biochemical parameters and frequency of micronuclei. Mammary carcinogenesis was induced in 36 female Holtzman rats by providing a single subcutaneous injection of DMBA. Oral administration of P. aduncum capsule lowered adenocarcinoma and lymph node metastases incidence. Pulmonary metastasis was significantly lowered (P < 0.05). Hematological indicators showed that the triglyceride level was significantly lowered (P < 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was significantly increased (P < 0.01). Also, P. aduncum capsule significantly lowered the C reactive protein (CRP) level (P < 0.01) and malondialdehyde level (P < 0.05). There was a significant decrease in the frequency of DMBA-induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (P < 0.01). Considering the antitumorigenic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antigenotoxic properties of P. aduncum capsule, we conclude that it has a protective effect on DMBA-induced breast cancer in rats. PMID:26157333

  3. Bioassay-guided Isolation of Constituents of Piper sarmentosum Using a Mitochondrial Transmembrane Potential Assay

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Li; Matthew, Susan; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Ninh, Tran Ngoc; Chai, Heebyung; de Blanco, Esperanza J. Carcache; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Swanson, Steven M.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation was conducted on a chloroform-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Piper sarmentosum collected in Vietnam, monitored by a mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) assay using HT-29 human colon cancer cells. This led to the isolation of four new C-benzylated dihydroflavones, sarmentosumins A-D (1-4), as well as 14 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. Among these compounds, 1-4 as well as five known C-benzylated dihydroflavones (5-9), and pipercallosine, a piperamide (11), were found to induce apoptosis in HT-29 cells by moderately reducing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), with ED50 values ranging from 1.6 to 13.6 μM. Furthermore, 7-methoxydichamanetin (8) and pinocembrin (10) exhibited proteasome inhibitory activities in a human 20S proteasome bioassay with IC50 values of 3.45 ± 0.18 μM and 2.87 ± 0.26 μM, respectively. This is the first time that C-benzylated dihydroflavones have been reported to demonstrate an apoptotic effect associated with disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. PMID:21973101

  4. Shelter-Building Behavior and Natural History of Two Pyralid Caterpillars Feeding on Piper stipulaceum

    PubMed Central

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae). A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species. PMID:25373186

  5. A clinical trial of Pippali (Piper longum Linn.) with special reference to Abheshaja.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Megha; Vyas, Hitesh; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar

    2010-10-01

    The classification of Dravya has been undertaken in many ways, but according to the medicinal value, they are mainly divided into two - Bheshaja and Abheshaja. No study has been documented on Abheshaja to date as per the scholar's knowledge. Therefore, the present study was carried out to understand the concept of Abheshaja by a practical study. The drug Pippali (Piper Longum Linn.) has been contraindicated to be used for a longer duration. A clinical study was carried out on patients with Kaphaja Kasa, to evolve and assess if the drug acts as Abheshaja or not, and if yes, then under what circumstances. The patients of Kaphaja Kasa had been selected by the random sampling method. They were randomly divided into two groups - Group A and Group B. In Group A, test drug Pippali Churna was administered. Group B was a standard control group and Vasa Churna was given to this group. The dose of both the drugs was 4 g B.I.D. The result was assessed after three weeks of drug administration with the help of a specially prepared proforma. All the important hematological, biochemical, urine, and stool investigations were carried out. There was no adverse drug reaction (ADR) observed after the administration of Pippali in this particular study. PMID:22048536

  6. Pellitorine, a potential anti-cancer lead compound against HL6 and MCT-7 cell lines and microbial transformation of piperine from Piper Nigrum.

    PubMed

    Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Lim, Chyi Meei; Rahmani, Mawardi; Shaari, Khozirah; Bong, Choon Fah Joseph

    2010-04-05

    Pellitorine (1), which was isolated from the roots of Piper nigrum, showed strong cytotoxic activities against HL60 and MCT-7 cell lines. Microbial transformation of piperine (2) gave a new compound 5-[3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenyl]-pent-2-ene piperidine (3). Two other alkaloids were also found from Piper nigrum. They are (E)-1-[3',4'-(methylenedioxy)cinnamoyl]piperidine (4) and 2,4-tetradecadienoic acid isobutyl amide (5). These compounds were isolated using chromatographic methods and their structures were elucidated using MS, IR and NMR techniques.

  7. Analysis of amide compounds in different parts of Piper ovatum Vahl by high-performance liquid chromatographic

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniel R.; Brenzan, Mislaine A.; Kambara, Lauro M.; Cortez, Lucia E. R.; Cortez, Diógenes A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Piper ovatum (Piperaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammations and as an analgesic. Previous studies have showed important biological activities of the extracts and amides from P. ovatum leaves. Objective: In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of the amides in different parts of Piper ovatum. Materials and Methods: The analysis was carried out on a Metasil ODS column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5μm) at room temperature. HPLC conditions were as follows: acetonitrile (A), and water (B), 1.0% acetic acid. The gradient elution used was 0–30 min, 0-60% A; 30–40 min, 60% A. Flow rate used was 1.0mL/min, and detection at 280nm. Results: The validation using piperlonguminine, as the standard, demonstrated that the method shows linearity (linear correlation coefficient = 0.998), precision (relative standard deviation <5%) and accuracy (mean recovery = 103.78%) in the concentration range 31.25 – 500μg/mL. The limit of detection and quantification were 1.21 and 4.03μg/mL, respectively. This method allowed the identification and quantification of piperlonguminine and piperovatine in the hydroethanolic extracts of P. ovatum obtained from the leaves, stems and roots. All the extracts showed the same chromatographic profile. The leaves and roots contained the highest concentrations of piperlonguminine and the stems and leaves showed the most concentrations of piperovatine. Conclusion: This HPLC method is suitable for routine quantitative analysis of amides in extracts of Piper ovatum and phytopharmaceuticals containing this herb. PMID:24174818

  8. Cytotoxic Activity of Piper cubeba Extract in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Graidist, Potchanapond; Martla, Mananya; Sukpondma, Yaowapa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of a crude extract of Piper cubeba against normal and breast cancer cell lines. To prepare the extract, P. cubeba seeds were ground, soaked in methanol and dichloromethane and isolated by column chromatography. Fractions were tested for cytotoxicity effects on normal fibroblast (L929), normal breast (MCF-12A) and breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231). The most effective fraction was selected for DNA fragmentation assay to detect apoptotic activity. The results showed that the methanolic crude extract had a higher cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 than a dichloromethane crude extract. Then, the methanolic crude extract was separated into six fractions, designated A to F. Fraction C was highly active against breast cancer cell lines with an IC50 value less than 4 μg/mL. Therefore, Fraction C was further separated into seven fractions, CA to CG. The 1H-NMR profile showed that Fraction CE was long chain hydrocarbons. Moreover, Fraction CE demonstrated the highest activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 2.69 ± 0.09 μg/mL and lower cytotoxicity against normal fibroblast L929 cells with an IC50 value of 4.17 ± 0.77 μg/mL. Finally, DNA fragmentation with a ladder pattern characteristic of apoptosis was observed in MCF-7, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231 and L929 cells, but not in MCF-12A cells. PMID:25867951

  9. Effect of reverse photoperiod on in vitro regeneration and piperine production in Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Fazal, Hina; Khan, Mubarak Ali; Afridi, Muhammad Siddique

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel approach for in vitro regeneration of Piper nigrum L. has been applied in order to increase healthy biomass, phytochemicals and piperine production via reverse photoperiod (16hD/8hL). Leaf portions of the seed-derived plants were placed on an MS-medium fortified with different PGRs. Under 16hD/8hL, thidiazuron (TDZ; 4.0 mg L⁻¹) and BA (1.5 mg L⁻¹) was found to be the most effective (<90%) in callus induction. Two concentrations (1.5, 2.0 mg L⁻¹) of the IBA produced>80% shoots from callus cultures. Healthy shoots were transferred to rooting medium and higher percentage of rooting (<90%) was observed on IBA (1.5 mg L⁻¹). These in vitro tissues were subjected to amino acid analysis, spectrophotometry, and HPLC. ARG, SER, THR, and TYR were the most abundant components out of 17 amino acids. Higher amino acid production was observed under normal photoperiod (16hL/8hD) than under reverse photoperiod (16hD/8hL). The highest total phenolic content (TPC; 9.91 mg/g-DW) and flavonoid content (7.38 mg/g-DW) were observed in callus cultures incubated under 16hL/8hD than other tissues incubated under 16hD/8hL photoperiod. Higher DPPH and PoMo activities were observed in tissues incubated under 16hL/8hD photoperiod, while ABTS and Fe²⁺ chelating activities were found higher in tissues incubated under reverse photoperiod. Significant quantities of piperine content were observed in all tissues except callus cultures. These results suggest that reverse photoperiod is a promising approach for callus induction, phytochemicals and piperine production for commercial applications. PMID:24439548

  10. Suitable DNA Barcoding for Identification and Supervision of Piper kadsura in Chinese Medicine Markets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ning; Gu, Hong; Wei, Yulong; Zhu, Ning; Wang, Yanli; Zhang, Haiping; Zhu, Yue; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Chao; Sun, Aidong

    2016-01-01

    Piper kadsura is a vine-like medicinal plant which is widely used in clinical treatment. However, P. kadsura is often substituted by other materials in the markets, thereby causing health risks. In this study, 38 P. kadsura samples and eight sequences from GenBank, including a closely-related species and common adulterants were collected. This study aimed to identify an effective DNA barcode from four popular DNA loci for P. kadsura authentication. The success rates of PCR amplification, sequencing, and sequence acquisition of matK were 10.5%, 75%, and 7.9%, respectively; for rbcL they were 89.5%, 8.8%, and 7.9%, respectively; ITS2 rates were 86.8%, 3.0%, and 2.6%, respectively, while for psbA-trnH they were all 100%, which is much higher than for the other three loci. The sequences were aligned using Muscle, genetic distances were computed using MEGA 5.2.2, and barcoding gap was performed using TAXON DNA. Phylogenetic analysis showed that psbA-trnH could clearly distinguish P. kadsura from its closely related species and the common adulterant. psbA-trnH was then used to evaluate the fake proportions of P. kadsura. Results showed that 18.4% of P. kadsura samples were fake, indicating that adulterant species exist in the Chinese markets. Two-dimensional DNA barcoding imaging of P. kadsura was conducted, which was beneficial to the management of P. kadsura. We conclude that the psbA-trnH region is a powerful tool for P. kadsura identification and supervision in the current medicine markets. PMID:27626403

  11. Possible therapeutic uses of Salvia triloba and Piper nigrum in Alzheimer's disease-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; Salem, Ahmed M; Sabry, Gilane M; Husein, Ahmed A; Kotob, Soheir E

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of Salvia triloba L. and Piper nigrum extracts in ameliorating neuroinflammatory insults characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in an experimentally induced rat model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into Group 1 (n=10): normal healthy animals serving as the negative control group; Group 2 (n=60): the AD-induced group. After AD induction, animals in the AD-induced group were divided randomly and equally into 6 subgroups. The first subgroup served as AD control; the second one, which served as positive control, was treated orally with the conventional therapy for AD (rivastigmine) at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) daily for 3 months. The third and fourth subgroups were, respectively, treated orally with the S. triloba extract at a dose of 750 and 375 mg/kg b.w. daily for 3 months. The fifth and sixth subgroups were, respectively, treated orally with the P. nigrum extract at a dose of 187.5 and 93.75 mg/kg b.w. daily for 3 months. Levels of brain acetylcholine (Ach), serum and brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, C-reactive protein (CRP), total nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were estimated. The results showed that administration of AlCl3 resulted in a significant elevation in the levels of AchE activity, CRP, NF-κB, and MCP-1 accompanied with a significant depletion in the Ach level. Treatment of AD rats with each of the selected medicinal plant extracts caused marked improvement in the measured biochemical parameters. In conclusion, S. triloba and P. nigrum methanolic extracts have potent anti-inflammatory effects against neuroinflammation characterizing AD.

  12. Effect of reverse photoperiod on in vitro regeneration and piperine production in Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Fazal, Hina; Khan, Mubarak Ali; Afridi, Muhammad Siddique

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel approach for in vitro regeneration of Piper nigrum L. has been applied in order to increase healthy biomass, phytochemicals and piperine production via reverse photoperiod (16hD/8hL). Leaf portions of the seed-derived plants were placed on an MS-medium fortified with different PGRs. Under 16hD/8hL, thidiazuron (TDZ; 4.0 mg L⁻¹) and BA (1.5 mg L⁻¹) was found to be the most effective (<90%) in callus induction. Two concentrations (1.5, 2.0 mg L⁻¹) of the IBA produced>80% shoots from callus cultures. Healthy shoots were transferred to rooting medium and higher percentage of rooting (<90%) was observed on IBA (1.5 mg L⁻¹). These in vitro tissues were subjected to amino acid analysis, spectrophotometry, and HPLC. ARG, SER, THR, and TYR were the most abundant components out of 17 amino acids. Higher amino acid production was observed under normal photoperiod (16hL/8hD) than under reverse photoperiod (16hD/8hL). The highest total phenolic content (TPC; 9.91 mg/g-DW) and flavonoid content (7.38 mg/g-DW) were observed in callus cultures incubated under 16hL/8hD than other tissues incubated under 16hD/8hL photoperiod. Higher DPPH and PoMo activities were observed in tissues incubated under 16hL/8hD photoperiod, while ABTS and Fe²⁺ chelating activities were found higher in tissues incubated under reverse photoperiod. Significant quantities of piperine content were observed in all tissues except callus cultures. These results suggest that reverse photoperiod is a promising approach for callus induction, phytochemicals and piperine production for commercial applications.

  13. Growth and survival of Salmonella in ground black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Keller, Susanne E; VanDoren, Jane M; Grasso, Elizabeth M; Halik, Lindsay A

    2013-05-01

    A four serovar cocktail of Salmonella was inoculated into ground black pepper (Piper nigrum) at different water activity (aw) levels at a starting level of 4-5 log cfu/g and incubated at 25 and at 35 °C. At 35 °C and aw of 0.9886 ± 0.0006, the generation time in ground black pepper was 31 ± 3 min with a lag time of 4 ± 1 h. Growth at 25 °C had a longer lag, but generation time was not statistically different from growth at 35 °C. The aw threshold for growth was determined to be 0.9793 ± 0.0027 at 35 °C. To determine survival during storage conditions, ground black pepper was inoculated at approximately 8 log cfu/g and stored at 25 and 35 °C at high (97% RH) and ambient (≤40% RH) humidity. At high relative humidity, aw increased to approximately 0.8-0.9 after approximately 20 days at both temperatures and no Salmonella was detected after 100 and 45 days at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. Under ambient humidity, populations showed an initial decrease of 3-4 log cfu/g, then remained stable for over 8 months at 25 and 35 °C. Results of this study indicate Salmonella can readily grow at permissive aw in ground black pepper and may persist for an extended period of time under typical storage conditions.

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Polyaniline Coated Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Piper Betle Leaves Extract

    PubMed Central

    Mamun Or Rashida, Md.; Shafiul Islam, Md.; Azizul Haque, Md.; Arifur Rahman, Md.; Tanvir Hossain, Md.; Abdul Hamid, Md.

    2016-01-01

    Plants or natural resources have been found to be a good alternative method for nanoparticles synthesis. In this study, polyaniline coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from Piper betle leaves extract were investigated for their antibacterial activity. Silver nanoparticles were prepared from the reduction of silver nitrate and NaBH4 was used as reducing agent. Silver nanoparticles and extracts were mixed thoroughly and then coated by polyaniline. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Visual inspection, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques. Antibacterial activities of the synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. UV–Vis spectrum of reaction mixture showed strong absorption peak with centering at 400 nm. The FT-IR results imply that Ag-NPs were successfully synthesized and capped with bio-compounds present in P. betle. TEM image showed that Ag-NPs formed were well dispersed with a spherical structures and particle size ranging from 10 to 30 nm. The result revealed that Ag-Extract NPs showed 32.78±0.64 mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus, whereas norfloxacin (positive control) showed maximum 32.15±0.40 mm zone of inhibition for S. aureus. Again, maximum zone of inhibition 29.55±0.45 mm was found for S. typhi, 27.12±0.38 mm for E. coli and 21.95±0.45 mm for P. aeruginosa. The results obtained by this study can’t be directly extrapolated to human; so further studies should be undertaken to established the strong antimicrobial activity of Ag-Extract NPs for drug development program. PMID:27642330

  15. Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Arambewela, L. S. R.; Ratnasooriya, W. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. Objective: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE) of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Materials and Methods: Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw) of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a) effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b) acidity (total and free), (c) volume and (d) pH of the gastric juice. Results: Oral administration of HAE and CEE provided marked dose dependent (HAE: r2 = 0.97; CEE: r2 = 0.96) and significant (P ≤ 0.05) protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free) and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity. PMID:24812474

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Polyaniline Coated Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Piper Betle Leaves Extract.

    PubMed

    Mamun Or Rashida, Md; Shafiul Islam, Md; Azizul Haque, Md; Arifur Rahman, Md; Tanvir Hossain, Md; Abdul Hamid, Md

    2016-01-01

    Plants or natural resources have been found to be a good alternative method for nanoparticles synthesis. In this study, polyaniline coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from Piper betle leaves extract were investigated for their antibacterial activity. Silver nanoparticles were prepared from the reduction of silver nitrate and NaBH4 was used as reducing agent. Silver nanoparticles and extracts were mixed thoroughly and then coated by polyaniline. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Visual inspection, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques. Antibacterial activities of the synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. UV-Vis spectrum of reaction mixture showed strong absorption peak with centering at 400 nm. The FT-IR results imply that Ag-NPs were successfully synthesized and capped with bio-compounds present in P. betle. TEM image showed that Ag-NPs formed were well dispersed with a spherical structures and particle size ranging from 10 to 30 nm. The result revealed that Ag-Extract NPs showed 32.78±0.64 mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus, whereas norfloxacin (positive control) showed maximum 32.15±0.40 mm zone of inhibition for S. aureus. Again, maximum zone of inhibition 29.55±0.45 mm was found for S. typhi, 27.12±0.38 mm for E. coli and 21.95±0.45 mm for P. aeruginosa. The results obtained by this study can't be directly extrapolated to human; so further studies should be undertaken to established the strong antimicrobial activity of Ag-Extract NPs for drug development program. PMID:27642330

  17. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Badrul; Akter, Fahima; Parvin, Nahida; Sharmin Pia, Rashna; Akter, Sharmin; Chowdhury, Jesmin; Sifath-E-Jahan, Kazi; Haque, Ekramul

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL). Materials and Methods: MPBL was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model. Analgesic activity of MPBL was evaluated by hot plate, writhing, and formalin tests. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, peroxynitrate (ONOO) as well as inhibition of total ROS generation, and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MPBL. Results: The extract of MPBL, at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, produced a significant (p<0.05) increase in pain threshold in hot plate method whereas significantly (p<0.05) reduced the writhing caused by acetic acid and the number of licks induced by formalin in a dose-dependent manner. The same ranges of doses of MPBL caused significant (p<0.05) inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema after 4 h in a dose-dependent manner. In DPPH, ONOO-, and total ROS scavenging method, MPBL showed good antioxidant potentiality with the IC50 value of 16.33±1.02, 25.16±0.61 , and 41.72±0.48 µg/ml, respectively with a significant (p<0.05) good reducing power. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that MPBL has strong analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects, conforming the traditional use of this plant for inflammatory pain alleviation to its antioxidant potentiality. PMID:25050265

  18. Growth and survival of Salmonella in ground black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Keller, Susanne E; VanDoren, Jane M; Grasso, Elizabeth M; Halik, Lindsay A

    2013-05-01

    A four serovar cocktail of Salmonella was inoculated into ground black pepper (Piper nigrum) at different water activity (aw) levels at a starting level of 4-5 log cfu/g and incubated at 25 and at 35 °C. At 35 °C and aw of 0.9886 ± 0.0006, the generation time in ground black pepper was 31 ± 3 min with a lag time of 4 ± 1 h. Growth at 25 °C had a longer lag, but generation time was not statistically different from growth at 35 °C. The aw threshold for growth was determined to be 0.9793 ± 0.0027 at 35 °C. To determine survival during storage conditions, ground black pepper was inoculated at approximately 8 log cfu/g and stored at 25 and 35 °C at high (97% RH) and ambient (≤40% RH) humidity. At high relative humidity, aw increased to approximately 0.8-0.9 after approximately 20 days at both temperatures and no Salmonella was detected after 100 and 45 days at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. Under ambient humidity, populations showed an initial decrease of 3-4 log cfu/g, then remained stable for over 8 months at 25 and 35 °C. Results of this study indicate Salmonella can readily grow at permissive aw in ground black pepper and may persist for an extended period of time under typical storage conditions. PMID:23498196

  19. Antibacterial Activity of Polyaniline Coated Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Piper Betle Leaves Extract.

    PubMed

    Mamun Or Rashida, Md; Shafiul Islam, Md; Azizul Haque, Md; Arifur Rahman, Md; Tanvir Hossain, Md; Abdul Hamid, Md

    2016-01-01

    Plants or natural resources have been found to be a good alternative method for nanoparticles synthesis. In this study, polyaniline coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from Piper betle leaves extract were investigated for their antibacterial activity. Silver nanoparticles were prepared from the reduction of silver nitrate and NaBH4 was used as reducing agent. Silver nanoparticles and extracts were mixed thoroughly and then coated by polyaniline. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Visual inspection, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques. Antibacterial activities of the synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. UV-Vis spectrum of reaction mixture showed strong absorption peak with centering at 400 nm. The FT-IR results imply that Ag-NPs were successfully synthesized and capped with bio-compounds present in P. betle. TEM image showed that Ag-NPs formed were well dispersed with a spherical structures and particle size ranging from 10 to 30 nm. The result revealed that Ag-Extract NPs showed 32.78±0.64 mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus, whereas norfloxacin (positive control) showed maximum 32.15±0.40 mm zone of inhibition for S. aureus. Again, maximum zone of inhibition 29.55±0.45 mm was found for S. typhi, 27.12±0.38 mm for E. coli and 21.95±0.45 mm for P. aeruginosa. The results obtained by this study can't be directly extrapolated to human; so further studies should be undertaken to established the strong antimicrobial activity of Ag-Extract NPs for drug development program.

  20. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region. PMID:26214435

  1. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-07-06

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region.

  2. Identification and simultaneous quantification of five alkaloids in Piper longum L. by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) and UFLC-ESI-MS/MS and their application to Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Long; Luo, Rong; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Ba, Yin-Ying; Zheng, Li; Guo, Wei-Wei; Wu, Xia

    2015-06-15

    A simple, effective and suitable UFLC-ESI-MS/MS method was firstly developed to simultaneously determine five characteristic constituents (piperine, piperlonguminine, Δα,β-dihydropiperlonguminine, pellitorine and piperanine) of Piper longum L. The total alkaloids of P. longum L. was prepared. The alkaloid contents of Piper nigrum L. and P. longum L. were compared. The analysis was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring scan mode. The method showed a good specificity, linearity (R(2)>0.995), stability (RSD<2.53%), repeatability (RSD<2.58%), and recovery (90.0-103.5%). The limits of detection and limits of quantification of five alkaloids were in the range of 0.02-0.03 and 0.05-0.10 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 9.30% and 9.55%, respectively. The validation results confirmed that the method could simultaneously determine the target alkaloids in the sample. Furthermore, the identities of the alkaloids were verified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Compared with P. nigrum, P. longum had lower piperine content but was enriched in the other four alkaloids. PMID:25660876

  3. Identification and simultaneous quantification of five alkaloids in Piper longum L. by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) and UFLC-ESI-MS/MS and their application to Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Long; Luo, Rong; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Ba, Yin-Ying; Zheng, Li; Guo, Wei-Wei; Wu, Xia

    2015-06-15

    A simple, effective and suitable UFLC-ESI-MS/MS method was firstly developed to simultaneously determine five characteristic constituents (piperine, piperlonguminine, Δα,β-dihydropiperlonguminine, pellitorine and piperanine) of Piper longum L. The total alkaloids of P. longum L. was prepared. The alkaloid contents of Piper nigrum L. and P. longum L. were compared. The analysis was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring scan mode. The method showed a good specificity, linearity (R(2)>0.995), stability (RSD<2.53%), repeatability (RSD<2.58%), and recovery (90.0-103.5%). The limits of detection and limits of quantification of five alkaloids were in the range of 0.02-0.03 and 0.05-0.10 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 9.30% and 9.55%, respectively. The validation results confirmed that the method could simultaneously determine the target alkaloids in the sample. Furthermore, the identities of the alkaloids were verified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Compared with P. nigrum, P. longum had lower piperine content but was enriched in the other four alkaloids.

  4. Synthesis and biological evaluation of piperic acid amides as free radical scavengers and α-glucosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichi; Miyashiro, Takaki; Sugita, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of piperic acid amides (4-24, 29, 30) were synthesized and their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated. Among the synthesized compounds, the amides 11, 13 and 15, which contain o-methoxyphenol, catechol or 5-hydroxyindole moieties, showed potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity (11: EC50 140 µM; 13: EC50 28 µM; 15: EC50 20 µM). The amides 10, 18 and 23 showed higher inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase (10: IC50 21 µM; 18: IC50 21 µM; 23: IC50 12 µM). These data suggest that the hydrophobicity of the conjugated amines is an important determinant of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. In addition, the amides 13 and 15 showed both potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (13: IC50 46 µM; 15: IC50 46 µM). This is the first report identifying the DPPH free radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of piperic acid amides and suggests that these amides may serve as lead compounds for the development of novel α-glucosidase inhibitors with antioxidant activity.

  5. Post-test analysis of PIPER-ONE PO-IC-2 experiment by RELAP5/MOD3 codes

    SciTech Connect

    Bovalini, R.; D`Auria, F.; Galassi, G.M.; Mazzini, M.

    1996-11-01

    RELAP5/MOD3.1 was applied to the PO-IC-2 experiment performed in PIPER-ONE facility, which has been modified to reproduce typical isolation condenser thermal-hydraulic conditions. RELAP5 is a well known code widely used at the University of Pisa during the past seven years. RELAP5/MOD3.1 was the latest version of the code made available by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory at the time of the reported study. PIPER-ONE is an experimental facility simulating a General Electric BWR-6 with volume and height scaling ratios of 1/2,200 and 1./1, respectively. In the frame of the present activity a once-through heat exchanger immersed in a pool of ambient temperature water, installed approximately 10 m above the core, was utilized to reproduce qualitatively the phenomenologies expected for the Isolation Condenser in the simplified BWR (SBWR). The PO-IC-2 experiment is the flood up of the PO-SD-8 and has been designed to solve some of the problems encountered in the analysis of the PO-SD-8 experiment. A very wide analysis is presented hereafter including the use of different code versions.

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of piperic acid amides as free radical scavengers and α-glucosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichi; Miyashiro, Takaki; Sugita, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of piperic acid amides (4-24, 29, 30) were synthesized and their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated. Among the synthesized compounds, the amides 11, 13 and 15, which contain o-methoxyphenol, catechol or 5-hydroxyindole moieties, showed potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity (11: EC50 140 µM; 13: EC50 28 µM; 15: EC50 20 µM). The amides 10, 18 and 23 showed higher inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase (10: IC50 21 µM; 18: IC50 21 µM; 23: IC50 12 µM). These data suggest that the hydrophobicity of the conjugated amines is an important determinant of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. In addition, the amides 13 and 15 showed both potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (13: IC50 46 µM; 15: IC50 46 µM). This is the first report identifying the DPPH free radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of piperic acid amides and suggests that these amides may serve as lead compounds for the development of novel α-glucosidase inhibitors with antioxidant activity. PMID:25948326

  7. Construction of a cDNA library and preliminary analysis of expressed sequence tags in Piper hainanense.

    PubMed

    Fan, R; Ling, P; Hao, C Y; Li, F P; Huang, L F; Wu, B D; Wu, H S

    2015-01-01

    Black pepper is a perennial climbing vine. It is widely cultivated because its berries can be utilized not only as a spice in food but also for medicinal use. This study aimed to construct a standardized, high-quality cDNA library to facilitated identification of new Piper hainanense transcripts. For this, 262 unigenes were used to generate raw reads. The average length of these 262 unigenes was 774.8 bp. Of these, 94 genes (35.9%) were newly identified, according to the NCBI protein database. Thus, identification of new genes may broaden the molecular knowledge of P. hainanense on the basis of Clusters of Orthologous Groups and Gene Ontology categories. In addition, certain basic genes linked to physiological processes, which can contribute to disease resistance and thereby to the breeding of black pepper. A total of 26 unigenes were found to be SSR markers. Dinucleotide SSR was the main repeat motif, accounting for 61.54%, followed by trinucleotide SSR (23.07%). Eight primer pairs successfully amplified DNA fragments and detected significant amounts of polymorphism among twenty-one piper germplasm. These results present a novel sequence information of P. hainanense, which can serve as the foundation for further genetic research on this species. PMID:26505424

  8. In Vivo Antiplasmodial and Analgesic Effect of Crude Ethanol Extract of Piper guineense Leaf Extract in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kabiru, A. Y.; Ibikunle, G. F.; Innalegwu, D. A.; Bola, B. M.; Madaki, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Antiplasmodial and analgesic effects of crude ethanol extract of Piper guineense was investigated in mice. The antiplasmodial and analgesic efficacy of the extract was judged on its ability to reduce parasitemia and writhing, respectively, in mice. The antiplasmodial screening involved treating infected mice with 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight of extract while the positive control group was given standard artesunate drug. The analgesic test was carried out by administering 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight of extract to three groups of healthy mice, respectively, after induction of pain with 0.75% acetic acid. The positive control group was given aspirin drug. Parasitemia was reduced by 28.36%, 43.28%, and 62.69% in a dose-dependent pattern in the curative test which was significantly different (P < 0.05) from 96.03% of the standard drug. The reduction of writhing by mice given the extract was also dose-dependent (36.29, 45.43, and 59.07%). Aspirin drug was however more effective (86.36%). The extract was safe at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phlobatannins, terpenoids, and coumarins. Result obtained in this study demonstrated the efficacy of ethanol extract of Piper guineense as an antiplasmodial and analgesic agent. PMID:27446637

  9. Antihypercholesterolemic and Antioxidative Potential of an Extract of the Plant, Piper betle, and Its Active Constituent, Eugenol, in Triton WR-1339-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Experimental Rats

    PubMed Central

    Venkadeswaran, Karuppasamy; Muralidharan, Arumugam Ramachandran; Annadurai, Thangaraj; Ruban, Vasanthakumar Vasantha; Sundararajan, Mahalingam; Anandhi, Ramalingam; Thomas, Philip A.; Geraldine, Pitchairaj

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a dominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the putative antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidative properties of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle and of its active constituent, eugenol, were evaluated in experimental hypercholesterolemia induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Triton WR-1339 (300 mg/kg b.wt) in Wistar rats. Saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats revealed significantly higher mean blood/serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and of serum hepatic marker enzymes; in addition, significantly lower mean serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and significantly lower mean activities of enzymatic antioxidants and nonenzymatic antioxidants were noted in hepatic tissue samples from saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats, compared to controls. However, in hypercholesterolemic rats receiving the Piper betle extract (500 mg/kg b.wt) or eugenol (5 mg/kg b.wt) for seven days orally, all these parameters were significantly better than those in saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats. The hypercholesterolemia-ameliorating effect was better defined in eugenol-treated than in Piper betle extract-treated rats, being as effective as that of the standard lipid-lowering drug, lovastatin (10 mg/kg b.wt). These results suggest that eugenol, an active constituent of the Piper betle extract, possesses antihypercholesterolemic and other activities in experimental hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats. PMID:24523820

  10. 75 FR 43397 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... in the Federal Register on June 23, 2010 (75 FR 35619), and applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc..., the FAA issued AD 2010-13-07, Amendment 39-16338 (75 FR 35619, June 23, 2010), which applies to... Accordingly, the publication of June 23, 2010 (75 FR 35619), of Amendment 39-16338; AD 2010-13-07, which...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9530 - Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal. 721.9530 Section 721.9530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9530 Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester...) The chemical substance identified generically as bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl pi-per-idin-yl) ester of...

  12. The Effects of Piper Sarmentosum Water Extract on the Expression and Activity of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 in the Bones with Excessive Glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Suhana Mohd Ramli, Elvy; Nirwana Soelaiman, Ima; Othman, Faizah; Ahmad, Fairus; Nazrun Shuib, Ahmad; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Hj Suhaimi, Farihah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Long-term glucocorticoid therapy causes secondary osteoporosis leading to pathological fractures. Glucocorticoid action in bone is dependant upon the activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme (11β-HSD1). Piper sarmentosum is a local herb that possesses the ability to inhibit 11-βHSD1 enzyme activity. We aimed to determine the effects of Piper sarmentosum water extract on 11-βHSD1 expressions and activity in the bones of glucocorticoid-treated adrenalectomized rats. Methods: Forty male Sprague–Dawley rats (200-250 g) were used. Twenty-four animals were adrenalectomized and received intramuscular injection of dexamethasone (120 μg/kg/day). They were simultaneously administered with either Piper sarmentosum water extract (125 mg/kg/day), GCA (120 mg/kg/day) or distilled water as vehicle by oral gavage for two months. Eight animals were sham-operated and given vehicle daily, i.e. intramuscular olive oil and oral distilled water. Results: Following two months treatment, dexamethasone-treated adrenalectomized rats had significantly lower 11β-HSD1 dehydrogenase activity and higher 11β-HSD1 expression in the femoral bones compared to the sham-operated and baseline group. The rats supplemented with Piper sarmentosum water extract had significantly higher 11β-HSD1 dehydrogenase activity and lower 11β-HSD1 expression in the bones. Conclusion: The results showed that Piper sarmentosum water extract had the ability to prevent glucocorcoticoid excess in the bones of glucocorticoid-treated adrenalectomized rats through the local modulation of 11β-HSD1 expression and activity, and may be used as prophylaxis for osteoporosis in patients on long-term glucocorticoid treatment. PMID:23115429

  13. Piper nigrum: micropropagation, antioxidative enzyme activities, and chromatographic fingerprint analysis for quality control.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Rahman, Inayat ur; Fazal, Hina

    2013-04-01

    A reliable in vitro regeneration system for the economical and medicinally important Piper nigrum L. has been established. Callus and shoot regeneration was encouraged from leaf portions on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with varied concentrations of plant growth regulators. A higher callus production (90 %) was observed in explants incubated on MS medium incorporated with 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) along with 0.5 mg L(-1) gibberellic acid after 4 weeks of culture. Moreover, a callogenic response of 85 % was also recorded for 1.0 mg L(-1) BA in combination with 0.25 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.25 mg L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 0.5 mg L(-1) indole butyric acid (IBA) along with 0.25 mg L(-1) NAA and indole acetic acid. Subsequent sub-culturing of callus after 4 weeks of culture onto MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) thiodiazoran or 1.5 mg L(-1) IBA induced 100 % shoot response. Rooted plantlets were achieved on medium containing varied concentrations of auxins. The antioxidative enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)] revealed that significantly higher SOD was observed in regenerated plantlets than in other tissues. However, POD, CAT, and APX were higher in callus than in other tissues. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis protocol was established for quality control in different in vitro-regenerated tissues of P. nigrum L. During analysis, most of the common peaks represent the active principle "piperine." The chemical contents, especially piperine, showed variation from callus culture to whole plantlet regeneration. Based on the deviation in chromatographic peaks, the in vitro-regenerated plantlets exhibit a nearly similar piperine profile to acclimated plantlets. The in vitro regeneration system and HPLC fingerprint analysis established here brought a novel approach to the quality control of in vitro

  14. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Franck E.; Owens, Daniel K.; Watson, Susan B.; Asolkar, Ratnakar N.; Boddy, Louis G.

    2015-01-01

    Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-(2E,4E)-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in response between plants treated with sarmentine and herbicidal soaps such as pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid). However, little was known about the mechanism of action leading to the rapid desiccation of foliage treated by sarmentine. In cucumber cotyledon disc-assays, sarmentine induced rapid light-independent loss of membrane integrity at 100 μM or higher concentration, whereas 3 mM pelargonic acid was required for a similar effect. Sarmentine was between 10 and 30 times more active than pelargonic acid on wild mustard, velvetleaf, redroot pigweed and crabgrass. Additionally, the potency of 30 μM sarmentine was greatly stimulated by light, suggesting that this natural product may also interfere with photosynthetic processes. This was confirmed by observing a complete inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at that concentration. Sarmentine also acted as an inhibitor of photosystem II (PSII) on isolated thylakoid membranes by competing for the binding site of plastoquinone. This can be attributed in part to structural similarities between herbicides like sarmentine and diuron. While this mechanism of action accounts for the light stimulation of the activity of sarmentine, it does not account for its ability to destabilize membranes in darkness. In this respect, sarmentine has some structural similarity to crotonoyl-CoA, the substrate of enoyl-ACP reductase, a key enzyme in the early steps of fatty acid synthesis. Inhibitors of this enzyme, such as triclosan, cause rapid loss of membrane integrity in the dark. Sarmentine inhibited the activity of enoyl-ACP reductase, with an I50app of 18.3 μM. Therefore, the herbicidal activity of sarmentine appears to be a

  15. Aroma compound analysis of Piper nigrum and Piper guineense essential oils from Cameroon using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography, solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Ngassoum, Martin Benoit; Geissler, Margit

    2002-11-01

    The investigation of aroma compounds of the essential oils of dried fruits of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and black and white "Ashanti pepper" (Piper guineense) from Cameroon by means of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was carried out for the first time to identify the odorous target components responsible for the characteristic odor of these valuable spices and food flavoring products. By means of GC-flame ionization detection (FID) and GC-MS (using different polar columns) the main compounds (concentration >3.0%, calculated as area of GC-FID analysis using a non-polar fused-silica open tubular RSL-200 column) of the SPME headspace samples of P. nigrum (black) and P. guineense (black and white) were found to be: P. nigrum (black)--germacrene D (11.01%), limonene (10.26%), beta-pinene (10.02%), alpha-phellandrene (8.56%), beta-caryophyllene (7.29%), alpha-pinene (6.40%) and cis-beta-ocimene (3.19%); P. guineense (black)--beta-caryophyllene (57.59%), beta-elemene (5.10%), bicyclogermacrene (5.05%) and alpha-humulene (4.86%); and P. guineense (white)--beta-caryophyllene (51.75%), cis-beta-ocimene (6.61%), limonene (5.88%), beta-pinene (4.56%), linalool (3.97%) and alpha-humulene (3.29%). The most intense odor impressions of the essential oils of the various dried pepper fruits were given byprofessional perfumers as follows: P nigrum (black)--fine, pleasant black pepper note; P. guineense (black)--black pepper top-note; and P. guineense (white)--pleasant white pepper note. These analytical results for the SPME headspace samples of three different pepper species from Cameroon are in accordance with the olfactoric data of the corresponding essential oils. A GC-sniffing technique was used to correlate the single odor impression of the identified SPME headspace volatiles of the three investigated pepper samples with the following results: themain compounds such as beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D, limonene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene and alpha-humulene, as well as

  16. A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team is greeted by Stefanyshyn-Piper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team is greeted by NASA Astronaut Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper (left) upon her arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93. Liftoff is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  17. Insecticidal activity of isobutylamides derived from Piper nigrum against adult of two mosquito species, Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Piper nigrum fruit-derived piperidine alkaloid (piperine) and N-isobutylamide alkaloids (pellitorine, guineensine, pipercide and retrofractamide A) against female adults of Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti was examined. On the basis of 24-h LD(50) values, the compound most toxic to female C. pipiens pallens was pellitorine (0.4 µg/♀) followed by guineensine (1.9 µg/♀), retrofractamide A (2.4 µg/♀) and pipercide (3.2 µg/♀). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.03 µg/♀. Against female A. aegypti, the insecticidal activity was more pronounced in pellitorine (0.17 µg/♀) than in retrofractamide A (1.5 µg/♀), guineensine (1.7 µg/♀), and pipercide (2.0 µg/♀). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.0014 µg/♀.

  18. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India.

  19. Compound Specific Extraction of Camptothecin from Nothapodytes nimmoniana and Piperine from Piper nigrum Using Accelerated Solvent Extractor.

    PubMed

    Upadhya, Vinayak; Pai, Sandeep R; Sharma, Ajay K; Hegde, Harsha V; Kholkute, Sanjiva D; Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Effects of varying temperatures with constant pressure of solvent on extraction efficiency of two chemically different alkaloids were studied. Camptothecin (CPT) from stem of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Grah.) Mabb. and piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum L. were extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE). Three cycles of extraction for a particular sample cell at a given temperature assured complete extraction. CPT and piperine were determined and quantified by using a simple and efficient UFLC-PDA (245 and 343 nm) method. Temperature increased efficiency of extraction to yield higher amount of CPT, whereas temperature had diminutive effect on yield of piperine. Maximum yield for CPT was achieved at 80°C and for piperine at 40°C. Thus, the study determines compound specific extraction of CPT from N. nimmoniana and piperine from P. nigrum using ASE method. The present study indicates the use of this method for simple, fast, and accurate extraction of the compound of interest.

  20. LC-MS/MS based identification of piperine production by endophytic Mycosphaerella sp. PF13 from Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Chithra, S; Jasim, B; Anisha, C; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2014-05-01

    Piper nigrum is very remarkable for its medicinal properties due to the presence of metabolites like piperine. Emerging understanding on the biosynthetic potential of endophytic fungi suggests the possibility to have piperine producing fungi in P. nigrum. In the current study, endophytic fungi isolated from P. nigrum were screened for the presence of piperine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This resulted in the identification of a Mycosphaerella sp. with the ability to produce piperine extracellularly. The biosynthesis of piperine (C17H19NO3) by the endophytic fungal isolate was confirmed by the presence of m/z 286.1 (M + H(+)) in the LC-MS/MS analysis using positive mode ionization. This was further supported by the presence of specific fragment ions with masses 135, 143, 171 and 201 formed due to the fragmentation of piperine present in the fungal extract.

  1. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Piper abbreviatum, P. erecticaule and P. lanatum (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Wan Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi; Ahmad, Farediah; Yen, Khong Heng

    2014-12-01

    The study was designed to examine the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of three Piper species: Piper abbreviatum, P. erecticaule and P. lanatum, all from Malaysia. GC and GC/MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences between these oils. GC and GC-MS analysis of P. abbreviatum, P. erecticaule and P. lanatum oils resulted in the identification of 33, 35 and 39 components, representing 70.5%, 63.4% and 78.2% of the components, respectively. The major components of P. abbreviatum oil were spathulenol (11.2%), (E)-nerolidol (8.5%) and β-caryophyllene (7.8%), whereas P. erecticaule oil mainly contained β-caryophyllene (5.7%) and spathulenol (5.1%). Borneol (7.5%), β-caryophyllene (6.6%) and α-amorphene (5.6%) were the most abundant components in P. lanatum oil. Antimicrobial activity was carried out using disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution method against nine microorganisms. All of the essential oils displayed weak activity towards Gram-positive bacteria with MIC values in the range 250-500 μg/mL. P. erecticaule oil showed the best activity on Aspergillus niger (MIC 31.3 μg/mL), followed by P. lanatum oil (MIC 62.5 μg/mL). This study demonstrated that the essential oils have potential as antimicrobial agents and may be useful in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. PMID:25632488

  2. Inhibition and Larvicidal Activity of Phenylpropanoids from Piper sarmentosum on Acetylcholinesterase against Mosquito Vectors and Their Binding Mode of Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Hematpoor, Arshia; Liew, Sook Yee; Chong, Wei Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus are vectors of dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity, mechanism of action and the binding interaction of three active phenylpropanoids from Piper sarmentosum (Piperaceae) toward late 3rd or early 4th larvae of above vectors. A bioassay guided-fractionation on the hexane extract from the roots of Piper sarmentosum led to the isolation and identification of three active phenylpropanoids; asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3. The current study involved evaluation of the toxicity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of these compounds against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were highly potent against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae causing up to 100% mortality at ≤ 15 μg/mL concentration. The ovicidal activity of asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3 were evaluated through egg hatching. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed potent ovicidal activity. Ovicidal activity for both compounds was up to 95% at 25μg/mL. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed strong inhibition on acetylcholinesterase with relative IC50 values of 0.73 to 1.87 μg/mL respectively. These findings coupled with the high AChE inhibition may suggest that asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 are neuron toxic compounds toward Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Further computational docking with Autodock Vina elaborates the possible interaction of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 with three possible binding sites of AChE which includes catalytic triads (CAS: S238, E367, H480), the peripheral sites (PAS: E72, W271) and anionic binding site (W83). The binding affinity of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were relatively strong with asaricin 1 showed a higher binding affinity in the anionic pocket. PMID:27152416

  3. An experimental evaluation of the anti-atherogenic potential of the plant, Piper betle, and its active constitutent, eugenol, in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Venkadeswaran, Karuppasamy; Thomas, Philip A; Geraldine, Pitchairaj

    2016-05-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for systemic atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease. Lipoperoxidation-mediated oxidative damage is believed to contribute strongly to the progression of atherogenesis. In the current investigation, putative anti-atherogenic and antioxidative properties of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle and of its active constituent, eugenol, were sought in an experimental animal model of chronic hypercholesterolemia. Atherogenic diet-fed rats that received either Piper betle extract orally (500mg/kg b.wt) or eugenol orally (5mg/kg b.wt) for 15days (commencing 30days after the atherogenic diet had been started) exhibited the following variations in different parameters, when compared to atherogenic diet-fed rats that received only saline: (1) significantly lower mean levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol in both serum and hepatic tissue samples; (2) lower mean serum levels of aspartate amino-transferase, alanine amino-transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid-metabolizing enzymes (lipoprotein lipase, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase; (3) significantly lower mean levels of enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E) and significantly higher mean levels of malondialdehyde in haemolysate and hepatic tissue samples. Histopathological findings suggested a protective effect of the Piper betle extract and a more pronounced protective effect of eugenol on the hepatic and aortic tissues of atherogenic diet-fed (presumed atherosclerotic) rats. These results strongly suggest that the Piper betle extract and its active constituent, eugenol, exhibit anti-atherogenic effects which may be due to their anti-oxidative properties. PMID:27133067

  4. In situ biosynthesis of Ag, Au and bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC: green chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Tamuly, Chandan; Hazarika, Moushumi; Borah, Sarat Ch; Das, Manash R; Boruah, Manas P

    2013-02-01

    The synthesis of Ag, Au and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract is demonstrated here. The rapid formation of stable Ag and Au nanoparticles has been found using P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract in aqueous medium at normal atmospheric condition. Competitive reduction of Ag(+) and Au(3+) ions present simultaneously in solution during exposure to P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract leads to the synthesis of bimetallic Ag-Au nanoparticles in solution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the Ag nanoparticles predominantly form spherical in shape with the size range of 2.0±0.5-30.0±1.2 nm. In case of Au nanoparticles, the particles are spherical in shape along with few triangular, hexagonal and pentagonal shaped nanoparticles also observed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the nanoparticles were face centered cubic (fcc) in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanoparticles were capped with plant compounds. The chemical constituents, viz. catechin, gallic acid, courmaric acid and protocatechuic acid of the leaf extract were identified which may act as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agent. The expected reaction mechanism in the formation of Ag and Au nanoparticles is also reported. PMID:23107941

  5. Antimicrobial effects of Piper guineense 'Uziza' and Phyllantus amarus 'Ebe-benizo' on Candida albicans and Streptococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Okigbo, R N; Igwe, D I

    2007-12-01

    Two pathogens were employed, Streptococcus faecalis and Candida albicans for the study of the antimicrobial effects of Piper guineense and Phyllantus amarus using agar-well diffusion and disc-diffusion methods. Phytochemical screening of ethanol, cold and hot water extracts detected the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and phlobatannins. Antimicrobial effect of the plant extracts showed that the organic solvent and aqueous solvents of P. amarus were inhibitory to S. faecalis while the extracts of Phyllantus amarus were not inhibitory to Candida albicans. Agar-well determined Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values ranged between 3.125 mg/ml and 6.25 mg/ml while the disc diffusion determined MIC values ranged between 6.25 mg/ml and 25.0 mg/ml. The agar-well determined MIC values for the ethanolic P. amarus extracts (3.12 mg/ml) were lower than the corresponding disc-diffusion MIC determined values (6.25 mg/ml-25.00 mg/ml). Bacteriocidal and bacteriostatic effect varied with, solvent type of extract, concentration of the plant extract and the method of the test adopted. The active components of the plant have no antifungal effect on the tested yeast (Candida albicans). These findings are discussed in relation to plant chemicals as a means of disease control and also to the problem of microbial resistance to synthetic drugs. PMID:18088009

  6. Antioxidant efficacy of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine in rats with high fat diet induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, R S; Surya, D; Nalini, N

    2004-01-01

    The present study was aimed to explore the effect of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation, enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in rats fed a high-fat diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (95-115 g) were divided into 5 groups. They were fed standard pellet diet, high-fat diet (20% coconut oil, 2% cholesterol and 0.125% bile salts), high-fat diet plus black pepper (0.25 g or 0.5 g/kg body weight), high-fat diet plus piperine (0.02 g/kg body weight) for a period of 10 weeks. Significantly elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly lowered activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver, heart, kidney, intestine and aorta were observed in rats fed the high fat diet as compared to the control rats. Simultaneous supplementation with black pepper or piperine lowered TBARS and CD levels and maintained SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GSH levels to near those of control rats. The data indicate that supplementation with black pepper or the active principle of black pepper, piperine, can reduce high-fat diet induced oxidative stress to the cells.

  7. Protective effect of Piper betle leaf extract against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Milton Prabu, S.; Muthumani, M.; Shagirtha, K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the attenuative effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in the liver of rats. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) treated rats showed the protective efficacy against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. Oral administration of Cd (5 mg/kg BW) for four weeks to rats significantly (P > 0.05) elevated the level of serum hepatic markers such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (TBRNs), oxidative stress markers viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), protein carbonyls (PC) and conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly (P > 0.05) reduced the enzymatic antioxidants viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants Viz., reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulfhydryls (TSH), vitamin C and vitamin E in the liver. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) in Cd intoxicated rats, the altered biochemical indices and pathological changes were recovered significantly (P > 0.05) which showed ameliorative effect of PBE against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. From the above findings, we suggested that the pre-administration of P. betle leaf extract exhibited remarkable protective effects against cadmium-induced oxidative hepatic injury in rats. PMID:23961183

  8. Detection of flavokavins (A, B, C) in cultivars of kava (Piper methysticum) using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC).

    PubMed

    Lebot, V; Do, T K T; Legendre, L

    2014-05-15

    Kava (Piper methysticum) is used to prepare the traditional beverage of the Pacific islands. In Europe, kava has been suspected to cause hepatoxicity with flavokavin B (FKB) considered as a possible factor. The present study describes an HPTLC protocol for rapid screening of samples. The objectives are: to detect the presence of flavokavins in extracts and to compare the FKB levels in different cultivars. Overall, 172 samples originating from four cultivars groups (noble, medicinal, two-days and wichmannii), were analysed. Results indicate that the ratio FKB/kavalactones is much higher in two-days (0.39) and wichmannii (0.32) compared to nobles (0.09) and medicinal cultivars (0.10). For each group, the ratios flavokavins/kavalactones do not change significantly between roots, stumps or basal stems and among clones, indicating that they are genetically controlled. This protocol has good accuracy and is cost efficient for routine analysis. We discuss how it could be used for quality control.

  9. Biological activities of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) essential oils against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) was essential oils were investigated for repellent, insecticidal, antiovipositional, egg hatching, persistence of its insecticidal activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Essential oil vapours repelled bruchid adults significantly as oviposition was found reduced in choice oviposition assay. Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults. In fumigation toxicity assay, median lethal concentrations (LC50) were 0.34 and 0.27 microL cm(-3) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively, while in contact toxicity assay, LC50 were 0.90 and 0.66 microL cm(-2) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively. These two essential oils reduced oviposition in C. chinensis adults when treated with sublethal concentrations by fumigation and contact method. Oviposition inhibition was more pronounced when adults come in contact than in vapours. Both essential oils significantly reduced egg hatching rate when fumigated. Persistence in insecticidal efficiency of both essential oils decreased with time. P. cubeba showed less persistence than Z. officinale essential oil because no mortality was observed in C. chinensis adults after 36 h of treatment with P. cubeba and after 48 h of treatment of Z. officinale essential oil. Fumigation with these essential oils has no effect on the germination of the cowpea seeds. Findings of the study suggest that Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils can be useful as promising agent in insect pest management programme.

  10. In situ biosynthesis of Ag, Au and bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC: green chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Tamuly, Chandan; Hazarika, Moushumi; Borah, Sarat Ch; Das, Manash R; Boruah, Manas P

    2013-02-01

    The synthesis of Ag, Au and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract is demonstrated here. The rapid formation of stable Ag and Au nanoparticles has been found using P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract in aqueous medium at normal atmospheric condition. Competitive reduction of Ag(+) and Au(3+) ions present simultaneously in solution during exposure to P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract leads to the synthesis of bimetallic Ag-Au nanoparticles in solution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the Ag nanoparticles predominantly form spherical in shape with the size range of 2.0±0.5-30.0±1.2 nm. In case of Au nanoparticles, the particles are spherical in shape along with few triangular, hexagonal and pentagonal shaped nanoparticles also observed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the nanoparticles were face centered cubic (fcc) in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanoparticles were capped with plant compounds. The chemical constituents, viz. catechin, gallic acid, courmaric acid and protocatechuic acid of the leaf extract were identified which may act as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agent. The expected reaction mechanism in the formation of Ag and Au nanoparticles is also reported.

  11. Simultaneous determination of bioactive compounds in Piper nigrum L. and a species comparison study using HPLC-PDA.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vidadala Rama Subba; Raju, Sagi Satyanarayana; Sarma, Vanka Umamaheswara; Sabine, Fouriner; Babu, Kothapalli Hari; Babu, Katragadda Suresh; Rao, Janaswamy Madhusudana

    2011-08-01

    Piper nigrum L. is a traditional medicine widely used in India for illnesses such as constipation, diarrhoea, earache, gangrene, heart disease, hernia, hoarseness, indigestion, insect bites, insomnia, joint pain, liver problems, lung disease, oral abscesses, sunburn, tooth decay and toothaches. In this study, six bioactive compounds, namely piperine (1), pellitorine (2), guineensine (3), pipnoohine (4), trichostachine (5) and piperonal (6) were quantified in different extracts of P. nigrum L. and compared with those of P. longum L. and P. chaba Hunter. To evaluate the quality of P. nigrum, a simple, accurate and precise HPLC-PDA method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the above-mentioned six compounds. The separation was achieved by Phenomenex Luna RP C(18) column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm, Phenomenex Inc, CA, USA) with a binary gradient solvent system of water-acetonitrile, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and detected at 210, 232, 262 and 343 nm. All six calibration curves showed good linearity (R (2) > 0.9966). The method was reproducible with intra- and inter-day variations of less than 2% and 5%, respectively. The results demonstrated that this method is simple, reliable and suitable for the quality control of these plants.

  12. Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic and antileishmanial activities of extract and essential oil from leaves of Piper cernuum.

    PubMed

    Capello, Tabata M; Martins, Euder G A; de Farias, Camyla F; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Matsuo, Alisson L; Passero, Luiz Felipe D; Oliveira-Silva, Diogo; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João Henrique G

    2015-02-01

    Fractionation of the MeOH extract from leaves of Piper cernuum Vell. (Piperaceae) afforded six phenylpropanoid derivatives: 3',4'-dimethoxydihydrocinnamic acid (1), piplaroxide (2), methyl 4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxy cinnamate (3), 3',4',5'-trimethoxydihydrocinnamic acid (3), dihydropiplartine (5), and piplartine (6). The structures of isolated metabolites were characterized by NMR and MS spectral data analysis. The chemical composition of essential oil from the leaves was determined using GC/LREIMS followed by the determination of Kovats indexes. This procedure allowed the identification of nineteen terpenoids, with β-elemene (7), bicyclogermacrene (8), germacrene D (9), and (E)-caryophyllene (10) as the main compounds. Compounds 1 and 3-6 displayed no in vitro cytotoxicity against cancer cell lineages B16F10-Nex2, U87, HeLa, HL-60, HCT, and A2058 while 2 showed moderate activity against B16F10-Nex2 and HL-60 lines. Otherwise, compounds 7-10 displayed high cytotoxic activity. Evaluation against non-tumorigenic HFF cells indicated a reduced selectivity of compounds 7-10 to tumoral cells. No antileishmanial activity on macrophages infected with L. (L.) amnazonensis was found for the crude MeOH extract and compounds 1-6. The crude essential oil and compounds 7-10 reduced parasitism and eliminated the majority of infected and non-infected cells at 50 μg/mL. PMID:25920262

  13. Piper cubeba targets multiple aspects of the androgen-signalling pathway. A potential phytotherapy against prostate cancer growth?

    PubMed

    Yam, Jianying; Kreuter, Matthias; Drewe, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of prostate cancer (PC) in the Western world, there is a dearth of effective medication. Since the androgen-signalling pathway is very much involved in PC growth and development, we investigated the potential of Piper cubeba L. extract, P9605, in targeting multiple events simultaneously within this pathway. This may be more effective compared to an antiandrogen monotherapy. Our results indicated that P9605 inhibited proliferation in androgen-dependent LNCaP human prostate cancer cells by reducing DNA synthesis and inducing apoptosis. This antigrowth effect was less pronounced in androgen-independent PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. P9605 potently inhibited 5 alpha-reductase II activity, which is responsible for converting testosterone to its active form, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), in the prostate. It also acted as an antagonist at recombinant wild-type androgen receptors (AR). P9605 suppressed cell growth and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) secretion stimulated by physiological concentrations of DHT in LNCaP cells. Interestingly, it down-regulated AR levels. In conclusion, our findings suggest that P9605 may potentially retard the growth of androgen-dependent PC via several mechanisms.

  14. Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

    2014-01-15

    Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. was used as standard. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion test. Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high (p<0.01) levels of cross reactions between the PLE and piperine treated mice serum and the venom antigens. In double immunodiffusion test, a white band was observed between the two wells of antigen and antibodies for both the PLE-treated and piperine-treated mice serum. Thus it can be concluded that immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites. PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites.

  15. Effect of methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum leaves on neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Amran, Adel A.; Zakaria, Zaiton; Othman, Faizah; Das, Srijit; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Raj, Santhana; Nordin, Nor-Anita MM

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (P.s) on atherosclerosis. The first stage in atherosclerosis is the formation of foam cell. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the methanol extract of P.s on fatty streaks by calculating neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet. Thirty six male New Zealand white rabbits were divided equally into six groups: (i) C: control group fed normal rabbit chow; (ii) CH: cholesterol diet (1 % cholesterol); (iii) PM1: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (62.5 mg/kg); (iv) PM2: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (125 mg/kg); (v) PM3: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (250 mg/kg); (vi) SMV group fed 1 % cholesterol supplemented with Simvistatin drug (1.2 mg/kg). All animals were treated for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the rabbits were fasted and sacrificed and the aortic tissues were collected for histological studies to measure the area of the neointimal foam cell infiltration using software. The thickening of intima ratio of atherosclerosis and morphological changes by scanning electron microscope were measured. The results showed that the atherosclerotic group had significantly bigger area of fatty streak compared to the control group. The area of fatty streak in the abdominal aorta was significantly reduced in the treatment groups which were similar with the SMV group. Similarly, there was a reduction in the number of foam cell in the treatment groups compared to the atherosclerotic group as seen under scanning microscope. In conclusion, histological study demonstrated that the methanol extract of the P.s could reduce the neointimal foam cell infiltration in the lumen of the aorta and the atherosclerotic lesion. PMID:27366140

  16. Long lasting preventive effects of piperlongumine and a Piper longum extract against stress triggered pathologies in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Vaishali; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Majeed, Muhammed; Kumar, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare doxycycline (DOX) such as oral efficacies of piperlongumine (PL) and a Piper longum fruits extract (PLE) as stress resistance inducers. Materials and Methods: Efficacies of oral pretreatments with 5 mg/kg PL or PLE or of 50 mg/kg DOX for 10 consecutive days against stress resistance were compared. Mice in treated groups were subjected to a stress induced hyperthermia on the 1st, 5th, 7th, and 10thday. Treated mice were then subjected to tail suspension test on the 11thday. Alteration in body weights, core temperatures, and gastric ulcers triggered by occasional exposures to foot shocks were determined. Results: DOX like long-lasting protective effects of PL and PLE against gradual alterations in body weights, basal temperatures and transient hyperthermic responses triggered by foot shocks during the post-treatment days were observed. Altered responses of stressed mice in tail suspension test observed 1 day after the last foot-shock exposures and gastric ulcers and other pathologies quantified 1 day after the test were also suppressed in PL or PLE or DOX pretreated groups. Conclusion: PL and crude PLE are DOX like long-acting desensitizers of stress triggered co-morbidities. Reported observations add further experimental evidences justifying traditionally known medicinal uses of P. longum and other plants of the Piperaceae family, and reveal that PL is also another very long acting and orally active inducer of stress resistance. Efforts to confirm stress preventive potentials of low dose plant-derived products enriched in PL or piperine like amide alkaloids in volunteers and patients can be warranted. PMID:26649232

  17. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal; Wan Harun, Wan Himratul-Aznita; Abdul Razak, Fathilah; Musa, Md Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments: (i) in the absence of P. betle extract; and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg⋅mL−1; (iii) 3 mg⋅mL−1; and (iv) 6 mg⋅mL−1. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (µ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the µ-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P<0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.44×106 to 1.78×106 viable cell counts (CFU)⋅mL−1. SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity. PMID:24406634

  18. Piper sarmentosum as an antioxidant on oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by hydrogen peroxide*

    PubMed Central

    Hafizah, Abdul Hamid; Zaiton, Zakaria; Zulkhairi, Amom; Mohd Ilham, Adenan; Nor Anita, Megat Mohd Nordin; Zaleha, Abdullah Mahdy

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial cell death due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) may contribute to the initial endothelial injury, which promotes atherosclerotic lesion formation. Piper sarmentosum (PS), a natural product, has been shown to have an antioxidant property, which is hypothesized to inhibit production of ROS and prevent cell injury. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effects of PS on the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative cell damage in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this experiment, HUVECs were obtained by collagenase perfusion of the large vein in the umbilical cord and cultured in medium M200 supplemented with low serum growth supplementation (LSGS). HUVECs were treated with various concentrations of H2O2 (0–1000 µmol/L) and it was observed that 180 µmol/L H2O2 reduced cell viability by 50% as denoted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Using the above concentration as the positive control, the H2O2-induced HUVECs were concomitantly treated with various concentrations (100, 150, 250 and 300 µg/ml) of three different extracts (aqueous, methanol and hexane) of PS. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) levels showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in HUVECs compared to the negative control. However, PS extracts showed a protective effect on HUVECs from H2O2-induced cell apoptosis with a significant reduction in MDA, SOD, CAT and GPX levels (P<0.05). Furthermore, PS had exhibited ferric reducing antioxidant power with its high phenolic content. Hence, it was concluded that PS plays a beneficial role in reducing oxidative stress in H2O2-induced HUVECs. PMID:20443214

  19. Effect of different in vitro culture extracts of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on toxic metabolites-producing strains.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Fazal, Hina

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the effect of different in vitro cultures (callus, in vitro shoots) and commercially available peppercorn extract was investigated for its activity against toxic metabolite-producing strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans). These in vitro cultures were extracted with ethanol, hexane, and chloroform, and the antipathogenic activity was determined by well-diffusion method. Hexane extract of callus showed 22 mm zone of inhibition against B. cereus, 23 mm against S. aureus, while regenerated shoots and seeds have shown 24.3 and 26 mm zones of inhibition. The ethanolic extracts of regenerated Piper shoots have shown 25 mm activity against S. aureus, 21 mm against B. cereus, and 16 mm in the case of C. albicans in comparison with standard antibiotics. Peppercorn extracts in chloroform and ethanol had shown activities against B. cereus (23.6 mm) and B. subtilis (23.5 mm). During in vitro organogenesis and morphogenesis, cells and tissues produced a comparable phytochemicals profile like mother plant. Morphogenesis is critically controlled by the application of exogenous plant-growth regulators. Such addition alters the hormonal transduction pathways, and cells under in vitro conditions regenerate tissues, which are dependant on the physiological state of cells, and finally enhance the production of secondary metabolites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to compare the antimicrobial potential of in vitro regenerated tissues and peppercorn with standard antibiotics. In conclusion, most of the extracts showed pronounced activities against all the pathogenic microbes. This is a preliminary work, and the minimum inhibitory concentration values needs to be further explored. Regenerated tissues of P. nigrum are a good source of biologically active metabolites for antimicrobial activities, and callus culture presented itself as

  20. Antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted by supercritical CO₂ extraction and hydro-distillation.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Hossein; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid Bin; Solati, Zeinab

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted using the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) technique. Response surface methodology was applied using a three-factor central composite design to evaluate the effects of three independent extraction variables: pressure of 15-30 MPa, temperature of 40-50 °C and dynamic extraction time of 40-80 min. The DPPH radical scavenging method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The results showed that the best antioxidant activity was achieved at 30 MPa, 40 °C and 40 min. The extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The main components extracted using SC-CO₂ extraction in optimum conditions were β-caryophyllene (25.38 ± 0.62%), limonene (15.64 ± 0.15%), sabinene (13.63 ± 0.21%), 3-carene (9.34 ± 0.04%), β-pinene (7.27 ± 0.05%), and α-pinene (4.25 ± 0.06%). The essential oil obtained through this technique was compared with the essential oil obtained using hydro-distillation. For the essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation, the most abundant compounds were β-caryophyllene (18.64 ± 0.84%), limonene (14.95 ± 0.13%), sabinene (13.19 ± 0.17%), 3-carene (8.56 ± 0.11%), β-pinene (9.71 ± 0.12%), and α-pinene (7.96 ± 0.14%). Radical scavenging activity of the extracts obtained by SC-CO₂ and hydro-distillation showed an EC₅₀ of 103.28 and 316.27 µg mL(-1) respectively.

  1. Studies on the effects of phosphine on Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in culture medium and in black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Castro, M F P M; Rezende, A C B; Benato, E A; Valentini, S R T; Furlani, R P Z; Tfouni, S A V

    2011-04-01

    The effect of phosphine on Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis inoculated in culture medium and in black pepper grains (Piper nigrum), as well as on the reduction of the microbial load of the dried and moisturized product, was verified. The postfumigation effect was verified in inoculated samples with 0.92 and 0.97 water activity (a(w)) exposed to 6 g/m(3) phosphine for 72 h, dried to 0.67 a(w), and stored for 24, 48, and 72 h. No decreases were observed in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in culture medium when fumigant concentrations up to 6 g/m(3) were applied for 48 h at 35°C. However, the colonies showed reductions in size and atypical coloration as the phosphine concentration increased. No reduction in Salmonella counts occurred on the inoculated dried samples after fumigation. On the other hand, when phosphine at concentrations of 6 g/m(3) was applied on moisturized black pepper for 72 h, decreases in Salmonella counts of around 80% were observed. The counts of total aerobic mesophilic bacterium populations of the dried and moisturized black pepper were not affected by the fumigant treatment. The results of the postfumigation studies indicated that Salmonella Enteritidis was absent in the fumigated grains after drying and storage for 72 h, indicating a promising application for this technique. It was concluded that for Salmonella Enteritidis control, phosphine fumigation could be applied to black pepper grains before drying and the producers should rigidly follow good agricultural practices, mainly during the drying process, in order to avoid product recontamination. Additional work is needed to confirm the findings with more Salmonella serotypes and strains.

  2. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal; Wan Harun, Wan Himratul-Aznita; Abdul Razak, Fathilah; Musa, Md Yusoff

    2014-03-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments: (i) in the absence of P. betle extract; and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg⋅mL(-1); (iii) 3 mg⋅mL(-1); and (iv) 6 mg⋅mL(-1). The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (µ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the µ-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P<0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.44×10(6) to 1.78×10(6) viable cell counts (CFU)⋅mL(-1). SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity.

  3. Chemopreventive and Antilipidperoxidative Efficacy of Piper longum (Linn.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, Namasivayam; Manoharan, Shanmugam; Balakrishnan, Subramanian; Rajmani Ramachandran, Cinnamanoor; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan

    Aim of the present study was to find out the chemopreventive efficacy of Piper longum, a plant having diverse medicinal properties, in 7,12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced oral carcinogenesis. The mechanistic pathway for its chemopreventive potential was analysed by measuring lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in DMBA induced oral cancer. DMBA painting in hamster buccal pouch three times per week for 14 weeks resulted in well developed, well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Elevated lipid peroxidation and decline in antioxidants were noticed in tumor bearing hamsters as compared to control animals. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of Piper longum dried fruits (PLEFet) on alternate days to DMBA painting significantly prevented the tumor incidence, volume and burden and restored the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in DMBA painted hamsters. Our results indicate that the dried fruits of P. longum has suppressing effects on cell proliferation, which is probably due to its antilipid peroxidative and antioxidative potential during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.

  4. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Drimys, Liriodendron, andPiper: Implications for the phylogeny of magnoliids and the evolution ofGC content

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengqiu, C.; Penaflor, C.; Kuehl, J.V.; Leebens-Mack, J.; Carlson, J.; dePamphilis, C.W.; Boore, J.L.; Jansen, R.K.

    2006-06-01

    The magnoliids represent the largest basal angiosperm clade with four orders, 19 families and 8,500 species. Although several recent angiosperm molecular phylogenies have supported the monophyly of magnoliids and suggested relationships among the orders, the limited number of genes examined resulted in only weak support, and these issues remain controversial. Furthermore, considerable incongruence has resulted in phylogenies supporting three different sets of relationships among magnoliids and the two large angiosperm clades, monocots and eudicots. This is one of the most important remaining issues concerning relationships among basal angiosperms. We sequenced the chloroplast genomes of three magnoliids, Drimys (Canellales), Liriodendron (Magnoliales), and Piper (Piperales), and used these data in combination with 32 other completed angiosperm chloroplast genomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among magnoliids. The Drimys and Piper chloroplast genomes are nearly identical in size at 160,606 and 160,624 bp, respectively. The genomes include a pair of inverted repeats of 26,649 bp (Drimys) and 27,039 (Piper), separated by a small single copy region of 18,621 (Drimys) and 18,878 (Piper) and a large single copy region of 88,685 bp (Drimys) and 87,666 bp (Piper). The gene order of both taxa is nearly identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including Calycanthus, the other published magnoliid genome. Comparisons of angiosperm chloroplast genomes indicate that GC content is not uniformly distributed across the genome. Overall GC content ranges from 34-39%, and coding regions have a substantially higher GC content than non-coding regions (both intergenic spacers and introns). Among protein-coding genes, GC content varies by codon position with 1st codon > 2nd codon > 3rd codon, and it varies by functional group with photosynthetic genes having the highest percentage and NADH genes the lowest. Across the genome, GC content is highest in

  5. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 μg/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells

  6. Transcriptome- Assisted Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Reveals Novel Insights into Piper nigrum-Phytophthora capsici Phytopathosystem.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Chidambareswaren; Krishnan, Anu; Saraswathy, Gayathri G; Surendran, Arun; Jaleel, Abdul; Sakuntala, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), a tropical spice crop of global acclaim, is susceptible to Phytophthora capsici, an oomycete pathogen which causes the highly destructive foot rot disease. A systematic understanding of this phytopathosystem has not been possible owing to lack of genome or proteome information. In this study, we explain an integrated transcriptome-assisted label-free quantitative proteomics pipeline to study the basal immune components of black pepper when challenged with P. capsici. We report a global identification of 532 novel leaf proteins from black pepper, of which 518 proteins were functionally annotated using BLAST2GO tool. A label-free quantitation of the protein datasets revealed 194 proteins common to diseased and control protein datasets of which 22 proteins showed significant up-regulation and 134 showed significant down-regulation. Ninety-three proteins were identified exclusively on P. capsici infected leaf tissues and 245 were expressed only in mock (control) infected samples. In-depth analysis of our data gives novel insights into the regulatory pathways of black pepper which are compromised during the infection. Differential down-regulation was observed in a number of critical pathways like carbon fixation in photosynthetic organism, cyano-amino acid metabolism, fructose, and mannose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The proteomics results were validated with real-time qRT-PCR analysis. We were also able to identify the complete coding sequences for all the proteins of which few selected genes were cloned and sequence characterized for further confirmation. Our study is the first report of a quantitative proteomics dataset in black pepper which provides convincing evidence on the effectiveness of a transcriptome-based label-free proteomics approach for elucidating the host response to biotic stress in a non-model spice crop like P. nigrum, for which genome information is unavailable. Our dataset

  7. Transcriptome- Assisted Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Reveals Novel Insights into Piper nigrum—Phytophthora capsici Phytopathosystem

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Chidambareswaren; Krishnan, Anu; Saraswathy, Gayathri G.; Surendran, Arun; Jaleel, Abdul; Sakuntala, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), a tropical spice crop of global acclaim, is susceptible to Phytophthora capsici, an oomycete pathogen which causes the highly destructive foot rot disease. A systematic understanding of this phytopathosystem has not been possible owing to lack of genome or proteome information. In this study, we explain an integrated transcriptome-assisted label-free quantitative proteomics pipeline to study the basal immune components of black pepper when challenged with P. capsici. We report a global identification of 532 novel leaf proteins from black pepper, of which 518 proteins were functionally annotated using BLAST2GO tool. A label-free quantitation of the protein datasets revealed 194 proteins common to diseased and control protein datasets of which 22 proteins showed significant up-regulation and 134 showed significant down-regulation. Ninety-three proteins were identified exclusively on P. capsici infected leaf tissues and 245 were expressed only in mock (control) infected samples. In-depth analysis of our data gives novel insights into the regulatory pathways of black pepper which are compromised during the infection. Differential down-regulation was observed in a number of critical pathways like carbon fixation in photosynthetic organism, cyano-amino acid metabolism, fructose, and mannose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The proteomics results were validated with real-time qRT-PCR analysis. We were also able to identify the complete coding sequences for all the proteins of which few selected genes were cloned and sequence characterized for further confirmation. Our study is the first report of a quantitative proteomics dataset in black pepper which provides convincing evidence on the effectiveness of a transcriptome-based label-free proteomics approach for elucidating the host response to biotic stress in a non-model spice crop like P. nigrum, for which genome information is unavailable. Our dataset

  8. Transcriptome- Assisted Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Reveals Novel Insights into Piper nigrum-Phytophthora capsici Phytopathosystem.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Chidambareswaren; Krishnan, Anu; Saraswathy, Gayathri G; Surendran, Arun; Jaleel, Abdul; Sakuntala, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), a tropical spice crop of global acclaim, is susceptible to Phytophthora capsici, an oomycete pathogen which causes the highly destructive foot rot disease. A systematic understanding of this phytopathosystem has not been possible owing to lack of genome or proteome information. In this study, we explain an integrated transcriptome-assisted label-free quantitative proteomics pipeline to study the basal immune components of black pepper when challenged with P. capsici. We report a global identification of 532 novel leaf proteins from black pepper, of which 518 proteins were functionally annotated using BLAST2GO tool. A label-free quantitation of the protein datasets revealed 194 proteins common to diseased and control protein datasets of which 22 proteins showed significant up-regulation and 134 showed significant down-regulation. Ninety-three proteins were identified exclusively on P. capsici infected leaf tissues and 245 were expressed only in mock (control) infected samples. In-depth analysis of our data gives novel insights into the regulatory pathways of black pepper which are compromised during the infection. Differential down-regulation was observed in a number of critical pathways like carbon fixation in photosynthetic organism, cyano-amino acid metabolism, fructose, and mannose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The proteomics results were validated with real-time qRT-PCR analysis. We were also able to identify the complete coding sequences for all the proteins of which few selected genes were cloned and sequence characterized for further confirmation. Our study is the first report of a quantitative proteomics dataset in black pepper which provides convincing evidence on the effectiveness of a transcriptome-based label-free proteomics approach for elucidating the host response to biotic stress in a non-model spice crop like P. nigrum, for which genome information is unavailable. Our dataset

  9. The Piper Fatigue Scale-12 (PFS-12): Psychometric Findings and Item Reduction in a Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Bryce B.; Stover, Angela M.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Bernstein, Leslie; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Piper, Barbara F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Brief, valid measures of fatigue, a prevalent and distressing cancer symptom, are needed for use in research. This study’s primary aim was to create a shortened version of the revised Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS-R) based on data from a diverse cohort of breast cancer survivors. A secondary aim was to determine whether the PFS captured multiple distinct aspects of fatigue (a multidimensional model) or a single overall fatigue factor (a unidimensional model). Methods Breast cancer survivors (n=799; stages in situ through IIIa; ages 29–86 yrs) were recruited through 3 SEER registries (New Mexico, Western Washington, and Los Angeles, CA) as part of the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) study. Fatigue was measured approximately 3 years post-diagnosis using the 22-item PFS-R that has 4 subscales (Behavior, Affect, Sensory, and Cognition). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare unidimensional and multidimensional models. Six criteria were used to make item selections to shorten the PFS-R: scale’s content validity, items’ relationship with fatigue, content redundancy, differential item functioning by race and/or education, scale reliability, and literacy demand. Results Factor analyses supported the original 4-factor structure. There was also evidence from the bi-factor model for a dominant underlying fatigue factor. Six items tested positive for differential item functioning between African-American and Caucasian survivors. Four additional items either showed poor association, local dependence, or content validity concerns. After removing these 10 items, the reliability of the PFS-12 subscales ranged from 0.87–0.89, compared to 0.90–0.94 prior to item removal. Conclusion The newly developed PFS-12 can be used to assess fatigue in African-American and Caucasian breast cancer survivors and reduces response burden without compromising reliability or validity. This is the first study to determine PFS literacy demand and to compare PFS

  10. Chemical analysis and antioxidant activity of the essential oils of three Piperaceae species growing in the central region of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Elisa Jorge; Saucedo-Hernández, Yanelis; Vander Heyden, Yvan; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Monteagudo, Urbano; Bravo, Luis; Medinilla, Mildred; de Armas, Yuriam; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2013-09-01

    The present study describes the phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of the essential oils of three Piperaceae species collected in the central region of Cuba. The essential oils of Piper aduncum, P. auritum and P. umbellatum leaves, obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of P. aduncum oil were piperitone (34%), camphor (17.1%), camphene (10.9%), 1,8-cineol (8.7%) and viridiflorol (7.4%), whereas that of P. auritum and P. umbellatum was safrole (71.8 and 26.4%, respectively). The antioxidant properties of the essential oils were also evaluated using several assays for radical scavenging ability (DPPH test and reducing power) and inhibition of lipid oxidation (ferric thiocyanate method and evaluation against Cucurbita seed oil by peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and p-anisidine methods). P. auritum showed the strongest antioxidant activity among the Piper species investigated, but lower than those of butylated hydroxyanisol and propyl gallate. PMID:24273877

  11. Camphene isolated from essential oil of Piper cernuum (Piperaceae) induces intrinsic apoptosis in melanoma cells and displays antitumor activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Girola, Natalia; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Farias, Camyla F; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Ferreira, Adilson K; Teixeira, Sarah F; Capello, Tabata M; Martins, Euder G A; Matsuo, Alisson L; Travassos, Luiz R; Lago, João H G

    2015-11-27

    Natural monoterpenes were isolated from the essential oil of Piper cernuum Vell. (Piperaceae) leaves. The crude oil and the individual monoterpenes were tested for cytotoxicity in human tumor cell lineages and B16F10-Nex2 murine melanoma cells. In the present work we demonstrate the activity of camphene against different cancer cells, with its mechanism of action being investigated in vitro and in vivo in murine melanoma. Camphene induced apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway in melanoma cells mainly by causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, with release of Ca(2+) together with HmgB1 and calreticulin, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and up regulation of caspase-3 activity. Importantly, camphene exerted antitumor activity in vivo by inhibiting subcutaneous tumor growth of highly aggressive melanoma cells in a syngeneic model, suggesting a promising role of this compound in cancer therapy. PMID:26471302

  12. Effect of orally administered betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile production in rats.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, M S; Platel, K; Saraswathi, G; Srinivasan, K

    1995-10-01

    The influence of two varieties of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) namely, the pungent Mysore and non-pungent Ambadi, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion in experimental rats. The betel leaves were administered orally at two doses which were either comparable to human consumption level or 5 times this. The results indicated that while these betel leaves do not influence bile secretion and composition, they have a significant stimulatory influence on pancreatic lipase activity. Besides, the Ambadi variety of betel leaf has a positive stimulatory influence on intestinal digestive enzymes, especially lipase, amylase and disaccharidases. A slight lowering in the activity of these intestinal enzymes was seen when Mysore variety of betel leaf was administered, and this variety also had a negative effect on pancreatic amylase. Further, both the betel leaf varieties have shown decreasing influence on pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin activities. PMID:8575807

  13. Effect of orally administered betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile production in rats.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, M S; Platel, K; Saraswathi, G; Srinivasan, K

    1995-10-01

    The influence of two varieties of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) namely, the pungent Mysore and non-pungent Ambadi, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion in experimental rats. The betel leaves were administered orally at two doses which were either comparable to human consumption level or 5 times this. The results indicated that while these betel leaves do not influence bile secretion and composition, they have a significant stimulatory influence on pancreatic lipase activity. Besides, the Ambadi variety of betel leaf has a positive stimulatory influence on intestinal digestive enzymes, especially lipase, amylase and disaccharidases. A slight lowering in the activity of these intestinal enzymes was seen when Mysore variety of betel leaf was administered, and this variety also had a negative effect on pancreatic amylase. Further, both the betel leaf varieties have shown decreasing influence on pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin activities.

  14. Effect of aqueous extracts of Mentha arvensis (mint) and Piper betle (betel) on growth and citrinin production from toxigenic Penicillium citrinum.

    PubMed

    Panda, Pragyanshree; Aiko, Visenuo; Mehta, Alka

    2015-06-01

    Due to growing concern of consumers about chemical residues in food products, the demand for safe and natural food is increasing greatly. The use of natural additives such as spices and herbal oil as seasoning agents for their antimicrobial activity has been extensively investigated. This paper discusses the efficacy of the aqueous extract of mint (Mentha arvensis) and betel (Piper betle) on the mycelial growth and citrinin production of Penicillium citrinum. The present investigation revealed that mint extract inhibited citrinin production up to 73 % without inhibiting the mycelium growth. The citrinin production decreased with increase in the concentration of mint extract as observed from the data obtained from High pressure liquid chromatography. The samples also showed reduced cytotoxicity on HeLa cells. On the other hand betel extract resulted in stimulatory effect on citrinin production and mycelial growth. The study showed that mint extract has the potential to be used safely for restraining citrinin contamination.

  15. The effect of a synergistic concentration of a Piper nigrum extract used in conjunction with pyrethrum upon gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jensen, H R; Scott, I M; Sims, S R; Trudeau, V L; Arnason, J T

    2006-06-01

    An ethyl acetate extract of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) peppercorns was tested as a synergist for the botanical insecticide pyrethrum. A high synergist ratio of 11.6 against Drosophila melanogaster was obtained for the combination of pyrethrum supplemented with P. nigrum. The effect of this combination was investigated using cDNA microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in D. melanogaster. Treatment of D. melanogaster with pyrethrum alone resulted in a large number of differentially expressed genes, principally associated with stress responses. Seven genes were identified as being commonly expressed in D. melanogaster treated with at least two of the following treatments: P. nigrum, pyrethrum or P. nigrum plus pyrethrum. These are likely implicated in Drosophila defence responses to toxins.

  16. Hydrogeochemical analysis of volcanic and geothermal fluids in the Andes from Ecuador using hydrochemical plots (Stiff, Piper and Schoeller-Berkaloff diagrams)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera-Villacrés, D.; Hidalgo, A.; Guevara-García, P.; Vivero, M. T.; Delgado-Rodríguez, V.

    2016-08-01

    The formation of several sources of hot springs in the Andes from Ecuador was the result of intense volcanic activity due to the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate under the South American continental plate. The aims of this study include the presentation of chemical analysis in graphical form in order to describe the hidrogeochemistry water geothermal origins, their chemical classification and their relationship to the complex geology of Ecuador using different hydro chemical plots such as Stiff's polygonal diagram, Piper's trilinear diagram and Schoeller-Berkaloff's logarithmic vertical columns diagram. Geothermal waters can be divided into two groups. The first group was associated with an extinct volcanic activity produced in the Cenozoic and were qualified based on the type of water Na+-Cl-, while the second group was associated with young Quaternary volcanic activity, and the types of water were Mg2+- HCO3 -, Na+-HCO3 -, Na+-SO4 2-,Mg2+-SO4 2-.

  17. Potential control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) with Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) extracts demonstrated by chromosomal biomarkers and toxic effects on interphase nuclei.

    PubMed

    Rafael, M S; Hereira-Rojas, W J; Roper, J J; Nunomura, S M; Tadei, W P

    2008-01-01

    Dillapiol, a phenylpropanoid isolate from essential oils of leaves of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), has insecticidal, fungicidal and antimicrobial activities. The insecticidal activity of dillapiol was tested in vivo on the larvae and pupae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue. Specifically, the effect of dillapiol on the formation of micronuclei and chromosome aberrations was analyzed. Dillapiol treatments comprised two concentrations of 200 and 400 micro dissolved in well water, and a pure well water control used to rear four generations of mosquitoes. Micronuclei occurred in mitotic diploid and tetraploid chromosomes of larvae; nuclear abnormalities also occurred in interphase, metaphase, telophase, and single nucleus cells of pupae. Mortality, oviposition, chromosome breakage, and anaphase bridges were significantly greater in the extract treatments than in controls. The genotoxic effects of dillapiol described here suggest that this natural product may be a useful alternative for the control of A. aegypti. PMID:18767246

  18. Leishmanicidal Activity of Piper nigrum Bioactive Fractions is Interceded via Apoptosis In Vitro and Substantiated by Th1 Immunostimulatory Potential In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Garima; Islamuddin, Mohammad; Want, Muzamil Y.; Ozbak, Hani A.; Hemeg, Hassan A.; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening protozoal infection chiefly impinging the rural and poor population in the tropical and sub-tropical countries. The deadly affliction is rapidly expanding after its association with AIDS, swiftly defying its status of a neglected disease. Despite successful formulation of vaccine against canine leishmaniasis, no licensed vaccine is yet available for human VL, chemotherapy is in appalling state, and the development of new candidate drugs has been painfully slow. In face of lack of proper incentives, immunostimulatory plant preparations owing antileishmanial efficacy bear potential to rejuvenate awful antileishmanial chemotherapy. We have earlier reported profound leishmanicidal activity of Piper nigrum hexane (PNH) seeds and P. nigrum ethanolic (PNE) fractions derived from P. nigrum seeds against Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes. In the present study, we illustrate that the remarkable anti-promastigote activity exhibited by PNH and PNE is mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, arrest in sub G0/G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species. Further, P. nigrum bioactive fractions rendered significant protection to L. donovani infected BALB/c mice in comparison to piperine, a known compound present in Piper species. The substantial therapeutic potential of PNH and PNE was accompanied by elicitation of cell-mediated immune response. The bioactive fractions elevated the secretion of Th1 (INF-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) cytokines and declined IL-4 and IL-10. PNH and PNE enhanced the production of IgG2a, upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, augmented splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell population, induced strong lymphoproliferative and DTH responses and partially stimulated NO production. PNH and PNE were devoid of any hepatic or renal toxicity. These encouraging findings merit further

  19. Leishmanicidal Activity of Piper nigrum Bioactive Fractions is Interceded via Apoptosis In Vitro and Substantiated by Th1 Immunostimulatory Potential In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Garima; Islamuddin, Mohammad; Want, Muzamil Y; Ozbak, Hani A; Hemeg, Hassan A; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening protozoal infection chiefly impinging the rural and poor population in the tropical and sub-tropical countries. The deadly affliction is rapidly expanding after its association with AIDS, swiftly defying its status of a neglected disease. Despite successful formulation of vaccine against canine leishmaniasis, no licensed vaccine is yet available for human VL, chemotherapy is in appalling state, and the development of new candidate drugs has been painfully slow. In face of lack of proper incentives, immunostimulatory plant preparations owing antileishmanial efficacy bear potential to rejuvenate awful antileishmanial chemotherapy. We have earlier reported profound leishmanicidal activity of Piper nigrum hexane (PNH) seeds and P. nigrum ethanolic (PNE) fractions derived from P. nigrum seeds against Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes. In the present study, we illustrate that the remarkable anti-promastigote activity exhibited by PNH and PNE is mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, arrest in sub G0/G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species. Further, P. nigrum bioactive fractions rendered significant protection to L. donovani infected BALB/c mice in comparison to piperine, a known compound present in Piper species. The substantial therapeutic potential of PNH and PNE was accompanied by elicitation of cell-mediated immune response. The bioactive fractions elevated the secretion of Th1 (INF-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) cytokines and declined IL-4 and IL-10. PNH and PNE enhanced the production of IgG2a, upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, augmented splenic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell population, induced strong lymphoproliferative and DTH responses and partially stimulated NO production. PNH and PNE were devoid of any hepatic or renal toxicity. These encouraging findings merit

  20. Leishmanicidal Activity of Piper nigrum Bioactive Fractions is Interceded via Apoptosis In Vitro and Substantiated by Th1 Immunostimulatory Potential In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Garima; Islamuddin, Mohammad; Want, Muzamil Y; Ozbak, Hani A; Hemeg, Hassan A; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening protozoal infection chiefly impinging the rural and poor population in the tropical and sub-tropical countries. The deadly affliction is rapidly expanding after its association with AIDS, swiftly defying its status of a neglected disease. Despite successful formulation of vaccine against canine leishmaniasis, no licensed vaccine is yet available for human VL, chemotherapy is in appalling state, and the development of new candidate drugs has been painfully slow. In face of lack of proper incentives, immunostimulatory plant preparations owing antileishmanial efficacy bear potential to rejuvenate awful antileishmanial chemotherapy. We have earlier reported profound leishmanicidal activity of Piper nigrum hexane (PNH) seeds and P. nigrum ethanolic (PNE) fractions derived from P. nigrum seeds against Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes. In the present study, we illustrate that the remarkable anti-promastigote activity exhibited by PNH and PNE is mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, arrest in sub G0/G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species. Further, P. nigrum bioactive fractions rendered significant protection to L. donovani infected BALB/c mice in comparison to piperine, a known compound present in Piper species. The substantial therapeutic potential of PNH and PNE was accompanied by elicitation of cell-mediated immune response. The bioactive fractions elevated the secretion of Th1 (INF-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) cytokines and declined IL-4 and IL-10. PNH and PNE enhanced the production of IgG2a, upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, augmented splenic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell population, induced strong lymphoproliferative and DTH responses and partially stimulated NO production. PNH and PNE were devoid of any hepatic or renal toxicity. These encouraging findings merit

  1. Preparative isolation and purification of amides from the fruits of Piper longum L. by upright counter-current chromatography and reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shihua; Sun, Cuirong; Pei, Saifeng; Lu, Yanbin; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2004-06-25

    A versatile counter-current chromatography (CCC) with upright type-J multilayer coil planet centrifuge, named upright CCC, was applied to the isolation and purification of amides from Piper longum L., which is widely used as an anodyne and a treatment for stomach disease in China. After the saponification by KOH of the ethanol extracts solution of 15 kg of crude drug "Piper Longi Fructus", the fruits of P. longum L., the solution was extracted with light petroleum and 500 g of red crude oil was obtained. Using 2.5 g of red crude oil as sample, the preparative upright CCC with a two-phase system composed of light petroleum (bp 60-90 degrees C)-ethyl acetate-tetrachloromethane-methanol-water (1:1:8:6:1, v/v) was successfully performed, which yielded nine fractions. Then these fractions were further purified by use of reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with a glass column of 500 x 10 mm i.d. packed with reversed-phase silica gel. As a result, nine target amides with over 95% purity, i.e., 50 mg of (2E,4E)-N-isobutyl-eicosa-2,4-dienamide, 150 mg of (2E,4E,14Z)-N-isobutyl-eicosa-2,4,14-trienamide, 110 mg of (2E,4E,12Z)-N-isobutyl-ocatadeca-2,4,12-trienamide, 50 mg of guineensine, 60 mg of pipernonaline, 75 mg of pellitorine, 63 mg of piperine, 45 mg of piperanine, and 40 mg of piperlonguminine were isolated, respectively. Structures of all compounds were identified by electrospray ionization MS, electron impact ionization MS, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra.

  2. Who Pays the Piper?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gussow, Joan Dye

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of the food industry's role in educating children on nutrition raises the question of how objective this instruction is, and whether the industry should be engaged in nutrition education at all. (JD)

  3. Down-regulation of osmotin (PR5) gene by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) leads to susceptibility of resistant Piper colubrinum Link. to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian.

    PubMed

    Anu, K; Jessymol, K K; Chidambareswaren, M; Gayathri, G S; Manjula, S

    2015-06-01

    Piper colubrinum Link., a distant relative of Piper nigrum L., is immune to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian that causes 'quick wilt' in cultivated black pepper (P. nigrum). The osmotin, PR5 gene homologue, earlier identified from P. colubrinum, showed significant overexpression in response to pathogen and defense signalling molecules. The present study focuses on the functional validation of P. colubrinum osmotin (PcOSM) by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) using Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV)-based vector. P. colubrinum plants maintained under controlled growth conditions in a growth chamber were infiltrated with Agrobacterium carrying TRV empty vector (control) and TRV vector carrying PcOSM. Three weeks post infiltration, viral movement was confirmed in newly emerged leaves of infiltrated plants by RT-PCR using TRV RNA1 and TRV RNA2 primers. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of PcOSM gene in TRV-PcOSM infiltrated plant compared with the control plants. The control and silenced plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici which demonstrated that knock-down of PcOSM in P. colubrinum leads to increased fungal mycelial growth in silenced plants compared to control plants, which was accompanied by decreased accumulation of H2O2 as indicated by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that Piper colubrinum osmotin gene is required for resisting P. capsici infection and has possible role in hypersensitive cell death response and oxidative burst signaling during infection. PMID:26155671

  4. Down-regulation of osmotin (PR5) gene by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) leads to susceptibility of resistant Piper colubrinum Link. to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian.

    PubMed

    Anu, K; Jessymol, K K; Chidambareswaren, M; Gayathri, G S; Manjula, S

    2015-06-01

    Piper colubrinum Link., a distant relative of Piper nigrum L., is immune to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian that causes 'quick wilt' in cultivated black pepper (P. nigrum). The osmotin, PR5 gene homologue, earlier identified from P. colubrinum, showed significant overexpression in response to pathogen and defense signalling molecules. The present study focuses on the functional validation of P. colubrinum osmotin (PcOSM) by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) using Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV)-based vector. P. colubrinum plants maintained under controlled growth conditions in a growth chamber were infiltrated with Agrobacterium carrying TRV empty vector (control) and TRV vector carrying PcOSM. Three weeks post infiltration, viral movement was confirmed in newly emerged leaves of infiltrated plants by RT-PCR using TRV RNA1 and TRV RNA2 primers. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of PcOSM gene in TRV-PcOSM infiltrated plant compared with the control plants. The control and silenced plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici which demonstrated that knock-down of PcOSM in P. colubrinum leads to increased fungal mycelial growth in silenced plants compared to control plants, which was accompanied by decreased accumulation of H2O2 as indicated by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that Piper colubrinum osmotin gene is required for resisting P. capsici infection and has possible role in hypersensitive cell death response and oxidative burst signaling during infection.

  5. Evaluation of Wound Closure Activity of Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum Extracts on Scratched Monolayer of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ab Rahman, Mas Rizal; Mohd Bakri, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum are common Asian traditional medicines to treat minor wounds. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro wound healing properties of aqueous extracts of these plants using human gingival fibroblast (HGF) monolayer as study model. DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated and effect on HGF proliferation was determined. Their effect on HGF's function to synthesize collagen was indicated by the level of hydroxyproline produced and effect on wound healing activity was assessed using an in vitro scratch assay. The influence of the extracts on expression of bFGF and TGF-β was also determined. Results revealed all four extracts to exhibit low free radical scavenging activity. The extract from N. sativa (NSSE) compared to the others showed favourable enhancement of HGF proliferation with EC50 of 22.67 ± 3.06 µg/mL (P < 0.05) with accelerated wound closure activity despite its nonsignificant effect on collagen synthesis. In addition to the elevated level of bFGF by up to 15% at 100 µg/mL of NSSE, a slightly better effect was observed on the expression of TGF-β. NSSE thus showed that promising wound healing properties and data obtained may contribute towards validation of its traditional use for the healing of oral wounds. PMID:25371695

  6. Effect of Piper betle and Brucea javanica on the Differential Expression of Hyphal Wall Protein (HWP1) in Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) Species

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Nur Alyaa; Jamaludin, Nor Hazwani; Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the HWP1 gene in non-Candida albicans Candida species and the differential expression of HWP1 following treatment with Piper betle and Brucea javanica aqueous extracts. All candidal suspensions were standardized to 1 × 106 cells/mL. The suspension was incubated overnight at 37 °C (C. parapsilosis, 35°C). Candidal cells were treated with each respective extract at 1, 3, and 6 mg/mL for 24 h. The total RNA was extracted and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was carried out with a specific primer of HWP1. HWP1 mRNAs were only detected in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. Exposing the cells to the aqueous extracts has affected the expression of HWP1 transcripts. C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis have demonstrated different intensity of mRNA. Compared to P. betle, B. javanica demonstrated a higher suppression on the transcript levels of HWP1 in all samples. HWP1 was not detected in C. albicans following the treatment of B. javanica at 1 mg/mL. In contrast, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis were shown to have HWP1 regulation. However, the expression levels were reduced upon the addition of higher concentration of B. javanica extract. P. betle and B. javanica have potential to be developed as oral health product. PMID:23853657

  7. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids PMT1 and PMT2 isolated from Piper montealegreanum Yuncker (Piperaceae) in mice.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Alves, Harley da Silva; Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Santos, Mariana da Silva; Melo, Gabriela Muniz de Albuquerque; Campesatto, Eliane Aparecida; Chaves, Maria Célia de Oliveira; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we identified the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of two flavonoids (PMT1 and PMT2) from Piper montealegreanum. The antinociceptive effect was evaluated using the classical tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot plate test. PMT1 and PMT2 (0.1, 1, 30 and 100 μmol/kg, i.p.) reduced the writhings, with an ID50 of 0.58 and 0.44 μmol/kg, respectively. Moreover, these flavonoids (100 μmol/kg, i.p.) inhibited paw-licking time in the neurogenic phase of the formalin test, but only PMT2 was active in the inflammatory phase. However, PMT1 and PMT2 (100 μmol/kg, i.p.) did not increase the latency time of the animals in the hot plate. In order to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of these flavonoids, capsaicin-induced ear oedema was carried out. Both flavonoids (100 μmol/kg, i.p.) were active in this model. These results suggest that PMT1 and PMT2 have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

  8. Development of a novel cup cake with unique properties of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) for sustainable entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arnab; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-08-01

    Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is a root climber with deep green heart shaped leaves. It belongs to the Piperaceae family. There is a huge wastage of the leaves during glut season and it can be reduced by various means including extraction of medicinal essential oil which can be considered as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) materials. Therefore, attempts were made to develop a novel cup cake by incorporating essential oil of betel leaf. The textural properties of the cakes were measured by texture analyzer instrument; whereas the organoleptic properties were adjudged by human preferences using sensory tables containing 9-point hedonic scale. Price estimation was done considering all costs and charges. Finally, all parameters of the developed cake were compared with different cup cakes available in the market for ascertaining consumer acceptability of the newly developed product in terms of quality and market price. Results revealed that the Novel cup cake developed with 0.005 % (v/w) essential oil of betel leaf occupied the 1st place among the four developed novel cup cakes. However, it occupied 4th place among the nine cup cakes in the overall preference list prepared based on the textural and organoleptic qualities, though its market price was calculated to be comparable to all the leading cupcakes available in the market. This indicates that manufacturing of novel cup cake with essential oil of betel leaf would be a profitable and self-sustaining entrepreneurship. PMID:26243908

  9. Safety assessment of Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. essential oil, its antifungal, antiaflatoxin, antioxidant activity and efficacy as antimicrobial in preservation of Piper nigrum L. fruits.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Priyanka; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Dubey, N K

    2012-02-01

    The investigation deals with antifungal, antiaflatoxin and antioxidant efficacy of Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. essential oil (EO), its two major constituents and their comparison with five commonly used organic acid preservatives. The chemical profile of EO, characterized through GC and GC-MS analysis, revealed linalool (56.10%) and methyl cinnamate (19.73%) as major components. The EO, linalool and methyl cinnamate completely inhibited the growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus (LHP-10) as well as aflatoxin B(1) secretion at different concentrations. Methyl cinnamate was found to be more efficacious than EO, linalool and five organic acid preservatives, showing antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy at a low concentration (0.6 μl/ml) and the nature of its toxicity was fungicidal. However, EO showed strong antioxidant activity with an IC(50) value at 5.6 μl/ml. Moreover, EO was found to have negligible mammalian toxicity as its LD(50) value, determined through oral administration on mice, was calculated to be 6124μl/kg body weight during safety profile assessment. During in vivo investigation on fruit systems, the Zanthoxylum EO, when tested as fumigant, provided 66.27% and 86.33% protection respectively at 1.25 μl/ml and 2.5 μl/ml against fungi infesting Piper nigrum L. fruits demonstrating its practical efficacy as a plant based antimicrobial for post harvest application.

  10. Methanolic extract of Piper nigrum fruits improves memory impairment by decreasing brain oxidative stress in amyloid beta(1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hritcu, Lucian; Noumedem, Jaurès A; Cioanca, Oana; Hancianu, Monica; Kuete, Victor; Mihasan, Marius

    2014-04-01

    The present study analyzed the possible memory-enhancing and antioxidant proprieties of the methanolic extract of Piper nigrum L. fruits (50 and 100 mg/kg, orally, for 21 days) in amyloid beta(1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease. The memory-enhancing effects of the plant extract were studied by means of in vivo (Y-maze and radial arm-maze tasks) approaches. Also, the antioxidant activity in the hippocampus was assessed using superoxide dismutase-, catalase-, glutathione peroxidase-specific activities and the total content of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl levels. The amyloid beta(1-42)-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease of spontaneous alternations percentage within Y-maze task and increase of working memory and reference memory errors within radial arm-maze task. Administration of the plant extract significantly improved memory performance and exhibited antioxidant potential. Our results suggest that the plant extract ameliorates amyloid beta(1-42)-induced spatial memory impairment by attenuation of the oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus.

  11. Piper nigrum leaf and stem assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of its antibacterial activity against agricultural plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Paulkumar, Kanniah; Gnanajobitha, Gnanadhas; Vanaja, Mahendran; Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of biological materials in synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the hottest topics in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the present investigation, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using the leaf and stem extract of Piper nigrum. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The observation of the peak at 460 nm in the UV-vis spectra for leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Further, XRD analysis has been carried out to confirm the crystalline nature of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The TEM images show that the leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles were within the size of about 7-50 nm and 9-30 nm, respectively. The FTIR analysis was performed to identify the possible functional groups involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further, the antibacterial activity of the green-synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined against agricultural plant pathogens. The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles is a beneficial application in the field of agricultural nanotechnology.

  12. Inhibitory effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) extracts and compounds on human tumor cell proliferation, cyclooxygenase enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunbao; Yadev, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-08-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) and hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) are widely used in traditional medicines. Although hot Capsicum spp. extracts and its active principles, capsaicinoids, have been linked with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities, whether black pepper and its active principle exhibit similar activities is not known. In this study, we have evaluated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from black pepper by using proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB, COX-1 and -2 enzymes, human tumor cell proliferation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The capsaicinoids, the alkylamides, isolated from the hot pepper Scotch Bonnet were also used to compare the bioactivities of alkylamides and piperine from black pepper. All compounds derived from black pepper suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation, but alkyl amides, compound 4 from black pepper and 5 from hot pepper, were most effective. The human cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activities of piperine and alklyl amides in Capsicum and black pepper were dose dependant. The inhibitory concentrations 50% (IC50) of the alklylamides were in the range 13-200 microg/mL. The extracts of black pepper at 200 microg/mL and its compounds at 25 microg/mL inhibited LPO by 45-85%, COX enzymes by 31-80% and cancer cells proliferation by 3.5-86.8%. Overall, these results suggest that black pepper and its constituents like hot pepper, exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activities.

  13. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by derivatives of piperine, an alkaloid from the pepper plant Piper nigrum, for possible use in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Baghdadi, Osamah B; Prater, Natalie I; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J; Geldenhuys, Werner J

    2012-12-01

    A series of compounds related to piperine and antiepilepsirine was screened in a monoamine oxidase A and B assay. Piperine is an alkaloid from the source plant of both black and white pepper grains, Piper nigrum. Piperine has been shown to have a wide range of activity, including MAO inhibitory activity. The z-factor for the screening assay was found to be greater than 0.8 for both assays. Notably, the compounds tested were selective towards MAO-B, with the most potent compound having an IC(50) of 498 nM. To estimate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, we used a PAMPA assay, which suggested that the compounds are likely to penetrate the BBB. A fluorescent bovine serum albumin (BSA) high-throughput screening (HTS) binding assay showed an affinity of 8 μM for piperine, with more modest binding for other test compounds. Taken together, the data described here may be useful in gaining insight towards the design of selective MAO-B inhibitory compounds devoid of MAO-A activity.

  14. Piperine, a piperidine alkaloid from Piper nigrum re-sensitizes P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP dependent multidrug resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Sen; Lei, Yu; Jia, Yingjie; Li, Na; Wink, Michael; Ma, Yonggang

    2011-12-15

    Over-expression of P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP in tumor cells is one of the important mechanisms leading to multidrug resistance (MDR), which impairs the efficacy of chemotherapy. P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP are ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters, which can expel a variety of lipophilic anti-cancer drugs and protect tumor cells. During a screening of MDR reversal agents among alkaloids of various structural types, a piperidine alkaloid, piperine (a main piperidine alkaloid in Piper nigurm) was identified as an inhibitor. Piperine can potentiate the cytotoxicity of anti-cancer drugs in resistant sublines, such as MCF-7/DOX and A-549/DDP, which were derived from MCF-7 and A-549 cell lines. At a concentration of 50 μM piperine could reverse the resistance to doxorubicin 32.16 and 14.14 folds, respectively. It also re-sensitized cells to mitoxantrone 6.98 folds. In addition, long-term treatment of cells by piperine inhibits transcription of the corresponding ABC transporter genes. These results suggest that piperine can reverse MDR by multiple mechanisms and it may be a promising lead compound for future studies.

  15. The effect of Piper aduncum Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) essential oil as aerosol spray against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse.

    PubMed

    Misni, Norashiqin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Sulaiman, Sallehudin

    2011-08-01

    The bioefficacy of Piper aduncum L. essential oil formulated in aerosol cans was evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in a simulated room. The aerosol spray test was based on the Malaysian test standard for aerosol (MS 1221:1991UDC 632.982.2 modified from WHO 2009 methodology) and examined the knockdown effect within 20 minutes of exposure. Mortality rate after 24 hour of holding period was also determined. A commercial aerosol spray (0.09% prallethrin 0.05% d-phenothrin) was also tested as a comparison. Our results showed that the knockdown effect of the commercial aerosol spray and P. aduncum essential oil spray (8% and 10% concentrations) was significantly higher in Ae. albopictus adult females, when compared with that of Ae. aegypti adult females (P<0.05). There was a significant difference in knockdown between commercial aerosol spray and essential oil spray for both Aedes spp. (P<0.05). The essential oil induced significantly higher mortality in Ae. aegypti (80%) than in Ae. albopictus (71.6%) (P<0.05). The commercial aerosol spray caused 97.7% and 86.5% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus respectively (P<0.05). Based on these data, P. aduncum essential oil has the potential to be used as an aerosol spray against Aedes spp. PMID:22041743

  16. Bioactivity of Piper hispidinervum (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) oils, with or without formulated Bta on the biology and immunology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Breda, M O; Alves, T J S; Cunha, F M; Teixeira, A A C; Dutra, K A; Navarro, D M A F

    2014-02-01

    The combination of essential oils and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner may represent an interesting control strategy. Thus, the study tested the following hypothesis: the combination of long pepper oil (Piper hispidinervum L.) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) oils in two concentrations with Xentari WG (Bta) yields a more effective control of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affecting biological and reproductive parameters and leading to changes in the levels of phenoloxidase and nitric oxide in the hemolymph of the pest. The results demonstrate that only long pepper oil, at the highest concentration with Xentari WG (Bta), promotes reduced larval survival. However, both oils with or without the insecticide interfere in the biology and humoral immunity of S.frugiperda. All treatments caused a decrease in the amount of eggs, except for the clove oil at both concentrations without Bta. Therefore, the use of these oils is a promising alternative for the integrated management of S. frugiperda; however, its association with Bta demonstrated no significant increase in their efficiency.

  17. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Piper cubeba Extract in the Amelioration of CCl4-Induced Liver Injuries and Oxidative Damage in the Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    AlSaid, Mansour; Mothana, Ramzi; Raish, Mohammad; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Al-Yahya, Mohammed; Ahmad, Ajaz; Al-Dosari, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed

    2015-01-01

    Background. Liver diseases still represent a major health burden worldwide. Moreover, medicinal plants have gained popularity in the treatment of several diseases including liver. Thus, the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Piper cubeba fruits in the amelioration of CCl4-induced liver injuries and oxidative damage in the rodent model. Methods. Hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like SGOT, SGPT, γ-GGT, ALP, total bilirubin, LDH, and total protein. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities as LPO, NP-SH, and CAT were measured in rat liver as well as mRNA expression of cytokines such as TNFα, IL-6, and IL-10 and stress related genes iNOS and HO-1 were determined by RT-PCR. The extent of liver damage was also analyzed through histopathological observations. Results. Treatment with PCEE significantly and dose dependently prevented drug induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, PCEE significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defense antioxidant enzymes NP-SH and CAT towards normal levels. The administration of PCEE significantly downregulated the CCl4-induced proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6 mRNA expression in dose dependent manner, while it upregulated the IL-10 and induced hepatoprotective effect by downregulating mRNA expression of iNOS and HO-1 gene. PMID:25654097

  18. Bioactivity of Piper hispidinervum (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) oils, with or without formulated Bta on the biology and immunology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Breda, M O; Alves, T J S; Cunha, F M; Teixeira, A A C; Dutra, K A; Navarro, D M A F

    2014-02-01

    The combination of essential oils and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner may represent an interesting control strategy. Thus, the study tested the following hypothesis: the combination of long pepper oil (Piper hispidinervum L.) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) oils in two concentrations with Xentari WG (Bta) yields a more effective control of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affecting biological and reproductive parameters and leading to changes in the levels of phenoloxidase and nitric oxide in the hemolymph of the pest. The results demonstrate that only long pepper oil, at the highest concentration with Xentari WG (Bta), promotes reduced larval survival. However, both oils with or without the insecticide interfere in the biology and humoral immunity of S.frugiperda. All treatments caused a decrease in the amount of eggs, except for the clove oil at both concentrations without Bta. Therefore, the use of these oils is a promising alternative for the integrated management of S. frugiperda; however, its association with Bta demonstrated no significant increase in their efficiency. PMID:24665696

  19. Piper betle leaf extract enhances the cytotoxicity effect of 5-fluorouracil in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 colon cancer cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Pek Leng; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Then, Sue Mian; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Pin, Kar Yong; Looi, Mee Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The combination effect of Piper betle (PB) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in enhancing the cytotoxic potential of 5-FU in inhibiting the growth of colon cancer cells was investigated. Methods: HT29 and HCT116 cells were subjected to 5-FU or PB treatment. 5-FU and PB were then combined and their effects on both cell lines were observed after 24 h of treatment. PB-5-FU interaction was elucidated by isobologram analysis. Apoptosis features of the treated cells were revealed by annexin V/PI stain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to exclude any possible chemical interaction between the compounds. Results: In the presence of PB extract, the cytotoxicity of 5-FU was observed at a lower dose (IC50 12.5 μmol/L) and a shorter time (24 h) in both cell lines. Both cell lines treated with 5-FU or PB alone induced a greater apoptosis effect compared with the combination treatment. Isobologram analysis indicated that PB and 5-FU interacted synergistically and antagonistically in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 cells, respectively. Conclusions: In the presence of PB, a lower dosage of 5-FU is required to achieve the maximum drug effect in inhibiting the growth of HT29 cells. However, PB did not significantly reduce 5-FU dosage in HCT116 cells. Our result showed that this interaction may not solely contribute to the apoptosis pathway. PMID:25091987

  20. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of an alkaloid fraction from Piper longum L. using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuiyong; Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-05-10

    In a previous research, an alkaloid fraction and 18 alkaloid compounds were prepared from Piper longum L. by series of purification process. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative analysis method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS) was developed to evaluate the alkaloid fraction. Qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was firstly completed by UHPLC-DAD method and 18 amide alkaloid compounds were identified. A further qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was accomplished by UHPLC-MS/MS method. Another 25 amide alkaloids were identified according to their characteristic ions and neutral losses. At last, a quantitative method for the alkaloid fraction was established using four marker compounds including piperine, pipernonatine, guineensine and N-isobutyl-2E,4E-octadecadienamide. After the validation of this method, the contents of above four marker compounds in the alkaloid fraction were 57.5mg/g, 65.6mg/g, 17.7mg/g and 23.9mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the relative response factors of other three compounds to piperine were calculated. A comparative study between external standard quantification and relative response factor quantification proved no remarkable difference. UHPLC-DAD-MS method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the characterization of the alkaloid fraction from P. longum L. and the result proved that the quality of alkaloid fraction was efficiently improved after appropriate purification.

  1. Mechanism-based inhibition of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) by alkamides of Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Subehan; Usia, Tepy; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2006-05-01

    Nineteen alkamides isolated from Piper nigrum L. were tested for their mechanism-based inhibition on human liver microsomal dextromethorphan O-demethylation activity, a prototype marker for cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). All compounds increased their inhibitory activity with increasing preincubation time. Among them, 15 and 17 showed more than 50 % decrease of the CYP2D6 residual activity after 20 min preincubation. Further investigations on 15 and 17 showed that the characteristic time- and concentration-dependent inhibition, which required a catalytic step with NADPH, was not protected by nucleophiles, and was decreased by the presence of a competitive inhibitor. The kinetic parameters for inactivation (kinact and KI) were 0.028 min-1 and 0.23 microM for 15 and 0.064 min-1 and 0.71 microM for 17, respectively, which were stronger than the known mechanism-based inhibitor, paroxetine (a positive control). Thus, 15 and 17 are potent mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP2D6.

  2. Comparative analysis of genetic variation in kava (Piper methysticum) assessed by SSR and DArT reveals zygotic foundation and clonal diversification.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Henri; Mournet, Pierre; Malapa, Roger; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Chaïr, Hana; Lebot, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Kava (Piper methysticum) is a major cash crop in the Pacific. The aim of this study was to assess genetic variation among 103 accessions of kava using SSRs and DArTs. Genetic structure was determined using clustering analyses (WPGMA) and principal coordinate analyses (PCA). Thirteen SSR primers and 75 DArT markers were found polymorphic, and the two types of markers generated similar clustering patterns. Genetic distances ranged from 0 to 0.65 with an average of 0.24 using SSRs and from 0 to 0.64 with an average of 0.24 using DArT. Eleven genotypes were identified with SSR while 28 genotypes were identified with DArT markers. By combining the two sets of markers, a total of only 30 distinct genotypes were observed. In the Vanuatu archipelago, noble cultivars originating from different islands clustered together within a very narrow genetic base despite their diversity of morphotypes. SSR and DArT fingerprints allowed the identification of kava cultivars unsuitable for consumption, so called two-days, and clearly differentiated the wild types classified as P. methysticum var. wichmannii from the cultivars as var. methysticum. Molecular data reveals that all noble cultivars evolved by the predominance of clonal selection. Although they are represented by clearly distinct morphotypes, these cultivars are genetically vulnerable and their potential to adapt to forthcoming changes is limited. These newly developed markers provide high resolution and will be useful for kava diversity analyses and quality assessment.

  3. Development of a novel cup cake with unique properties of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) for sustainable entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arnab; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-08-01

    Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is a root climber with deep green heart shaped leaves. It belongs to the Piperaceae family. There is a huge wastage of the leaves during glut season and it can be reduced by various means including extraction of medicinal essential oil which can be considered as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) materials. Therefore, attempts were made to develop a novel cup cake by incorporating essential oil of betel leaf. The textural properties of the cakes were measured by texture analyzer instrument; whereas the organoleptic properties were adjudged by human preferences using sensory tables containing 9-point hedonic scale. Price estimation was done considering all costs and charges. Finally, all parameters of the developed cake were compared with different cup cakes available in the market for ascertaining consumer acceptability of the newly developed product in terms of quality and market price. Results revealed that the Novel cup cake developed with 0.005 % (v/w) essential oil of betel leaf occupied the 1st place among the four developed novel cup cakes. However, it occupied 4th place among the nine cup cakes in the overall preference list prepared based on the textural and organoleptic qualities, though its market price was calculated to be comparable to all the leading cupcakes available in the market. This indicates that manufacturing of novel cup cake with essential oil of betel leaf would be a profitable and self-sustaining entrepreneurship.

  4. Piper nigrum Leaf and Stem Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Its Antibacterial Activity Against Agricultural Plant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Paulkumar, Kanniah; Gnanajobitha, Gnanadhas; Vanaja, Mahendran; Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of biological materials in synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the hottest topics in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the present investigation, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using the leaf and stem extract of Piper nigrum. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The observation of the peak at 460 nm in the UV-vis spectra for leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Further, XRD analysis has been carried out to confirm the crystalline nature of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The TEM images show that the leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles were within the size of about 7–50 nm and 9–30 nm, respectively. The FTIR analysis was performed to identify the possible functional groups involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further, the antibacterial activity of the green-synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined against agricultural plant pathogens. The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles is a beneficial application in the field of agricultural nanotechnology. PMID:24558336

  5. Determination of six kavalactones in dietary supplements and selected functional foods containing Piper methysticum by isocratic liquid chromatography with internal standard.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lihong; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Ang, Catharina Y W; Dinovi, Michael; Mattia, Antonia

    2005-01-01

    Kava (Piper methysticum) dietary products have been sold worldwide for treatment of nervous anxiety, tension, and restlessness. Recent reports showed potential association of kava usage and liver injuries. This study was conducted to develop simple and reliable methodologies for the extraction and determination of 6 major kavalactones: (+)-methysticin, (+)-dihydromethysticin, (+)-kavain, (+)-dihydrokavain, yangonin, and desmethoxyyangonin. Ultrasonic extraction techniques and isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) were optimized for different types of samples, including capsules containing kava root extract or root powder, raw root material, tea bags, and snack bar. A suitable internal standard, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, was used for LC calibration. Kavalactones were completely separated in 30 min using a Luna C18-2 column at 60 degrees C with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 2-propanol-acetonitrile-water-acetic acid (16 + 16 + 68 + 0.1, v/v/v/v). Within-laboratory, intraday, and interday method variation (% relative standard deviation) for most samples extracted by methanol or methanol-water mixture were <5%. Lower levels of kavalactone contents and higher variations were observed for tea bags from water extraction or infusion as compared to methanol extraction. Labeling information of tea bags based on methanol extraction could be misleading to consumers. Analytical recoveries of snack bar fortified at 10 and 20 microg/g were >84% with RSD values <8%. Methods developed in this study offer a simple and reproducible means for analysis of kavalactones in various matrixes of dietary products. PMID:15759721

  6. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. Results In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. Conclusion P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs. PMID:23948056

  7. Modelling the effect of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) on germination, growth, and apparent lag time of Penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic media.

    PubMed

    Basak, Suradeep; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-12-23

    The current study aimed at characterizing the chemical components of betel leaf (Piper betle L. var. Tamluk Mitha) essential oil (BLEO) and modelling its effect on growth of Penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic medium. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis of BLEO revealed the presence of different bioactive phenolic compounds in significant amounts. Among 46 different components identified, chavibetol (22.0%), estragole (15.8%), β-cubebene (13.6%), chavicol (11.8%), and caryophyllene (11.3%) were found to be the major compounds of BLEO. A disc diffusion and disc volatilization method were used to evaluate antifungal activity of the oil against a selected food spoilage mould. The logistic model was used to study the kinetics of spore germination. Prediction and validation of antifungal effect of BLEO was performed on semi-synthetic medium (apple juice agar) using predictive microbiological tools. The Baranyi and Roberts model was used to estimate maximum growth rate (μmax in mm/day) and apparent lag time (λ in days) of the mould. Secondary modelling was performed using a re-parameterized Monod-type equation based on cardinal values to study the effect of different BLEO concentration on estimated growth parameters. Emax (minimum concentration of oil at which mould growth was inhibited) and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration of BLEO at which lag time is infinite) value of BLEO against P. expansum was estimated to be 0.56 and 0.74 μl/ml, respectively, which was found to be similar on potato dextrose agar (PDA) as well as apple juice agar (AJA) medium. The correlation between estimated growth parameters of the mould on both the media was obtained with satisfactory statistical indices (R(2) and RMSE). This study revealed inhibitory efficacy of BLEO on spore germination, mycelial growth and apparent lag time of P. expansum in a dose-dependent manner. Hence, BLEO has potential to be used as a natural food preservative.

  8. Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry of Antimicrobial Leaf Extracts from Philippine Piper betle L. against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Valle, Demetrio L; Puzon, Juliana Janet M; Cabrera, Esperanza C; Rivera, Windell L

    2016-01-01

    This study isolated and identified the antimicrobial compounds of Philippine Piper betle L. leaf ethanol extracts by thin layer chromatography- (TLC-) bioautography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Initially, TLC separation of the leaf ethanol extracts provided a maximum of eight compounds with R f values of 0.92, 0.86, 0.76, 0.53, 0.40, 0.25, 0.13, and 0.013, best visualized when inspected under UV 366 nm. Agar-overlay bioautography of the isolated compounds demonstrated two spots with R f values of 0.86 and 0.13 showing inhibitory activities against two Gram-positive multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, namely, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. The compound with an R f value of 0.86 also possessed inhibitory activity against Gram-negative MDR bacteria, namely, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae-Klebsiella pneumoniae and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii. GC-MS was performed to identify the semivolatile and volatile compounds present in the leaf ethanol extracts. Six compounds were identified, four of which are new compounds that have not been mentioned in the medical literature. The chemical compounds isolated include ethyl diazoacetate, tris(trifluoromethyl)phosphine, heptafluorobutyrate, 3-fluoro-2-propynenitrite, 4-(2-propenyl)phenol, and eugenol. The results of this study could lead to the development of novel therapeutic agents capable of dealing with specific diseases that either have weakened reaction or are currently not responsive to existing drugs. PMID:27478476

  9. Pro-apoptotic effect of the landrace Bangla Mahoba of Piper betle on Leishmania donovani may be due to the high content of eugenol.

    PubMed

    Misra, Pragya; Kumar, Awanish; Khare, Prashant; Gupta, Swati; Kumar, Nikhil; Dube, Anuradha

    2009-08-01

    In the absence of effective and safe treatment for visceral leishmaniasis or Kala-azar - a devastating parasitic disease caused by Leishmania donovani - the search for anti-leishmanial agents from natural resources in common use is imperative. Recently, the comparative in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts from two landraces of Piper betle - P. betle landrace Bangla Mahoba (PB-BM) and P. betle landrace Kapoori Vellaikodi (PB-KV) - has been reported. Here, the putative pathway responsible for death induced by the effective extract of PB-BM methanolic extract in promastigotes, as well as the intracellular amastigote form of L. donovani, was assessed using various biochemical approaches. It was found that PB-BM was capable of selectively inhibiting both stages of Leishmania parasites by accelerating apoptotic events by generation of reactive oxygen species targeting the mitochondria without any cytotoxicity towards macrophages. The study was extended to determine the presence or absence of activity of the methanolic extract of PB-BM and PB-KV on the basis of differences in essential oil composition present in the extract assessed by GC and MS. The essential oil from PB-BM was found to be rich in eugenol compared with that from PB-KV. The anti-leishmanial efficacy of PB-BM methanolic extract mediated through apoptosis is probably due to the higher content of eugenol in the active landrace. This observation emphasizes the need to extend studies related to traditional medicines from bioactive plants below the species level to the gender/landrace level for better efficacy and reproducibility.

  10. [Chemical composition of essential oils from leaves of Helicteres guazumifolia (Sterculiaceae), Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae), Scoparia dulcis (Arecaceae) and Solanum subinerme (Solanaceae) from Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ordaz, Gabriel; D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Moreno, Shailili

    2011-06-01

    Essential oils, biosynthesized and accumulated in aromatic plants, have a wide range of applications in the pharmaceutical health, cosmetics, food and agricultural industry. This study aimed to analyze the secondary metabolites in some plant species in order to contribute to their chemotaxonomy. Leaves from Helicteres guazumifolia, Piper tuberculatum, Scoparia dulcis and Solanum subinerme were collected and their essential oils were obtained by means of hydro-distillation. The oil fraction was analyzed and identified by GC/MS. The extraction yields were of 0.004, 0.032, 0.016 and 0.005%, and the oil constituents of 88.00, 89.80, 87.50 and 89.47%, respectively. The principal oils found were: non-terpenoids volatile secondary metabolites (30.28%) in H. guazumifolia; sesquiterpenoids (20.82 and 26.09%) and oxigen derivated (52.19 and 25.18%) in P. tuberculatum and S. dulcis; and oxigen diterpenoids (39.67%) in S. subinerme. The diisobuthylphtalate (13.11%) in H. guazumifolia, (-)-spathulenol (11.37%) in P. tuberculatum and trans-phytol (8.29 and 36.00%) in S. dulcis and S. subinerme, were the principal constituents in their respective essential oils. The diisooctylphtalate were the essential oil common to all species, but the volatile compounds such as trans-pinane, L-linalool, beta-ionone, isophytol, neophytadiene, trans-phytol, dibutylphtalate and methyl hexadecanoate, were only detected in three of these essences. This suggests that these plants may require similar secondary metabolites for their ecological interactions, possibly due to common environmental factors.

  11. Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry of Antimicrobial Leaf Extracts from Philippine Piper betle L. against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Demetrio L.; Puzon, Juliana Janet M.; Cabrera, Esperanza C.

    2016-01-01

    This study isolated and identified the antimicrobial compounds of Philippine Piper betle L. leaf ethanol extracts by thin layer chromatography- (TLC-) bioautography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Initially, TLC separation of the leaf ethanol extracts provided a maximum of eight compounds with Rf values of 0.92, 0.86, 0.76, 0.53, 0.40, 0.25, 0.13, and 0.013, best visualized when inspected under UV 366 nm. Agar-overlay bioautography of the isolated compounds demonstrated two spots with Rf values of 0.86 and 0.13 showing inhibitory activities against two Gram-positive multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, namely, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. The compound with an Rf value of 0.86 also possessed inhibitory activity against Gram-negative MDR bacteria, namely, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae-Klebsiella pneumoniae and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii. GC-MS was performed to identify the semivolatile and volatile compounds present in the leaf ethanol extracts. Six compounds were identified, four of which are new compounds that have not been mentioned in the medical literature. The chemical compounds isolated include ethyl diazoacetate, tris(trifluoromethyl)phosphine, heptafluorobutyrate, 3-fluoro-2-propynenitrite, 4-(2-propenyl)phenol, and eugenol. The results of this study could lead to the development of novel therapeutic agents capable of dealing with specific diseases that either have weakened reaction or are currently not responsive to existing drugs. PMID:27478476

  12. Physiological and biochemical effects of botanical extract from Piper nigrum Linn (Piperaceae) against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Lija-Escaline, Jalasteen; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Edwin, Edward Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    The leaves of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) were evaluated for chemical constituents and mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti. GC and GC-MS analyses revealed that the crude extracts contain 16 compounds. Thymol (20.77%) and ç-elemene (10.42%) were identified as the major constituents followed by cyclohexene, 4-ethenyl-4-methyl-3-(1-methylethenyl)-1-(1 methylethyl)-, (3R-trans) (7.58%), 4,6-octadienoic acid, 2-acetyl-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (6.98), 2(3H)-furanone, 3,4-bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl) dihydro-, (3R-trans) (6.95%), 1-naphthalenol, 1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-, [1R-(1à,4á,4aá,8aá)]-(Cedreanol) (5.30%), trans-2-undecen-1-ol (4.48%), phytol (4.22%), 1,6-cyclodecadiene, 1-methyl-5-methylene-8-(1-methylethyl)-,[s-(E,E)] (3.78%) and 2,6-dimethyl-3,5,7-octatriene-2-ol, Z,Z (2.39%). Larval mortality was observed after 3 h of exposure period. The crude extract showed remarkable larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 34.97). The larvae of Ae. aegypti exposed to the P. nigrum, significantly reduced the activities of α- and β-carboxylesterases and superdioxide. Further, P. nigrum extract was severely affecting the mosquito gut cellular organelles. Based on the results, the chemical constituents of crude extracts of P. nigrum can be considered as a new source of larvicide for the control of Ae. aegypti.

  13. Physiological and biochemical effects of botanical extract from Piper nigrum Linn (Piperaceae) against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Lija-Escaline, Jalasteen; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Edwin, Edward Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    The leaves of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) were evaluated for chemical constituents and mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti. GC and GC-MS analyses revealed that the crude extracts contain 16 compounds. Thymol (20.77%) and ç-elemene (10.42%) were identified as the major constituents followed by cyclohexene, 4-ethenyl-4-methyl-3-(1-methylethenyl)-1-(1 methylethyl)-, (3R-trans) (7.58%), 4,6-octadienoic acid, 2-acetyl-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (6.98), 2(3H)-furanone, 3,4-bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl) dihydro-, (3R-trans) (6.95%), 1-naphthalenol, 1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-, [1R-(1à,4á,4aá,8aá)]-(Cedreanol) (5.30%), trans-2-undecen-1-ol (4.48%), phytol (4.22%), 1,6-cyclodecadiene, 1-methyl-5-methylene-8-(1-methylethyl)-,[s-(E,E)] (3.78%) and 2,6-dimethyl-3,5,7-octatriene-2-ol, Z,Z (2.39%). Larval mortality was observed after 3 h of exposure period. The crude extract showed remarkable larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 34.97). The larvae of Ae. aegypti exposed to the P. nigrum, significantly reduced the activities of α- and β-carboxylesterases and superdioxide. Further, P. nigrum extract was severely affecting the mosquito gut cellular organelles. Based on the results, the chemical constituents of crude extracts of P. nigrum can be considered as a new source of larvicide for the control of Ae. aegypti. PMID:26277727

  14. Anticancer and Cancer Prevention Effects of Piperine-Free Piper nigrum Extract on N-nitrosomethylurea-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sriwiriyajan, Somchai; Tedasen, Aman; Lailerd, Narissara; Boonyaphiphat, Pleumjit; Nitiruangjarat, Anupong; Deng, Yan; Graidist, Potchanapond

    2016-01-01

    Piper nigrum (P. nigrum) is commonly used in traditional medicine. This current study aimed to investigate the anticancer and cancer preventive activity of a piperine-free P. nigrum extract (PFPE) against breast cancer cells and N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats. The cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of action were investigated in breast cancer cells using the MTT assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. An acute toxicity study was conducted according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guideline. Female Sprague-Dawley rats with NMU-induced mammary tumors were used in preventive and anticancer studies. The results showed that PFPE inhibited the growth of luminal-like breast cancer cells more so than the basal-like ones by induction of apoptosis. In addition, PFPE exhibited greater selectivity against breast cancer cells than colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and neuroblastoma cells. In an acute toxicity study, a single oral administration of PFPE at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight resulted in no mortality and morbidity during a 14-day observation period. For the cancer preventive study, the incidence of tumor-bearing rats was 10% to 20% in rats treated with PFPE. For the anticancer activity study, the growth rate of tumors in the presence of PFPE-treated groups was much slower when compared with the control and vehicle groups. The extract itself caused no changes to the biochemical and hematologic parameters when compared with the control and vehicle groups. In conclusion, PFPE had a low toxicity and a potent antitumor effect on mammary tumorigenesis in rats. PMID:26511488

  15. Developmental response of Spodoptera litura Fab. to treatments of crude volatile oil from Piper betle L. and evaluation of toxicity to earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae Kinb.

    PubMed

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Sakthi-Bhagavathy, Muthiah; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    Evaluations of biological effects of (Pb-CVO) the crude volatile oil of Piper betle leaves on the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura were conducted. Pb-CVO was subjected to GC-MS analysis and twenty vital compounds were isolated from the betel leaf oil. Pb-CVO was tested at four different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) against S. litura. The treated insects exhibited dose depended mortality. The mortality rate was significantly higher at the 1.0 and 1.5% Pb-CVO. The LC50 (Lethal concentration) were observed at 0.48% Pb-CVO. Larval and pupal durations increased in all treatment concentrations (0.25, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%) whereas, pupal weight decreased compared to control. Adult longevity of S. litura was reduced in all treatments but predominantly in the 0.4 and 0.5% Pb-CVO. Correspondingly, mean fecundity rate was reduced at all concentrations compared to control. Histological studies of larvae mid-gut profiles of S. litura were severely damaged in 1.0 and 1.5% and showed abnormalities in mid-gut cells with 0.25 and 0.5% Pb-CVO treatments. Earthworm toxicity illustrated that 0.1% of chemical insecticides (monocrotophos and cypermethrin) varied widely in their contact toxicities compared to 0.5 and 1.0% Pb-CVO and control in both contact filter paper and artificial soil test. These findings suggest that twenty essential compounds of betel leaf oil were significant inhibitors of the development and caused behavioral changes of S. litura. Treatment with betel leaf oil at these concentrations had no adverse effect on earthworm populations. PMID:27135695

  16. Anticancer and Cancer Prevention Effects of Piperine-Free Piper nigrum Extract on N-nitrosomethylurea-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sriwiriyajan, Somchai; Tedasen, Aman; Lailerd, Narissara; Boonyaphiphat, Pleumjit; Nitiruangjarat, Anupong; Deng, Yan; Graidist, Potchanapond

    2016-01-01

    Piper nigrum (P. nigrum) is commonly used in traditional medicine. This current study aimed to investigate the anticancer and cancer preventive activity of a piperine-free P. nigrum extract (PFPE) against breast cancer cells and N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats. The cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of action were investigated in breast cancer cells using the MTT assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. An acute toxicity study was conducted according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guideline. Female Sprague-Dawley rats with NMU-induced mammary tumors were used in preventive and anticancer studies. The results showed that PFPE inhibited the growth of luminal-like breast cancer cells more so than the basal-like ones by induction of apoptosis. In addition, PFPE exhibited greater selectivity against breast cancer cells than colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and neuroblastoma cells. In an acute toxicity study, a single oral administration of PFPE at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight resulted in no mortality and morbidity during a 14-day observation period. For the cancer preventive study, the incidence of tumor-bearing rats was 10% to 20% in rats treated with PFPE. For the anticancer activity study, the growth rate of tumors in the presence of PFPE-treated groups was much slower when compared with the control and vehicle groups. The extract itself caused no changes to the biochemical and hematologic parameters when compared with the control and vehicle groups. In conclusion, PFPE had a low toxicity and a potent antitumor effect on mammary tumorigenesis in rats.

  17. [Effects of Piper longum L. on chills in Japanese young women: time-dependent changes in skin surface temperature and its recovery rate following the exposure to mild cold stress].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Noriko; Nishihara, Chie; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yasunaga; Takagaki, Ryoji; Miyakoshi, Masazumi; Mizutani, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    Chills can lead to problems such as insomnia, mental fatigue, and unstable emotions. Increasing evidence shows that young women, as well as menopausal women, suffer from chills. The present study investigated the effect of Piper longum L. on chills in young women. Participants with (n = 16) and without (n = 16) chills were sampled randomly from female university students using reported discriminative criteria (Yamada et al, 2007). Each participant was randomly assigned to low- (15 mg) and high-dose (30 mg) P. longum groups. We determined the severity of complaints related to chills, physical parameters (body mass index, body fat ratio, and blood pressure), the peripheral circulation dynamics using a laser tissue blood flow-meter, and the skin surface temperature in the fingers using a thermograph. Mild cold stress was applied 10 min after taking a capsule containing P. longum or a dextrin placebo. Then, a thermograph was recorded every minute for 11 min. Piper longum significantly facilitated the recovery of skin surface temperature at either low or high dosages in participants with chills. In subjects without chills, neither high- nor low-dosage of P. longum had an effect. Our findings have important implications for the utility of P. longum in women with chills.

  18. [Effects of Piper longum L. on chills in Japanese young women: time-dependent changes in skin surface temperature and its recovery rate following the exposure to mild cold stress].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Noriko; Nishihara, Chie; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yasunaga; Takagaki, Ryoji; Miyakoshi, Masazumi; Mizutani, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    Chills can lead to problems such as insomnia, mental fatigue, and unstable emotions. Increasing evidence shows that young women, as well as menopausal women, suffer from chills. The present study investigated the effect of Piper longum L. on chills in young women. Participants with (n = 16) and without (n = 16) chills were sampled randomly from female university students using reported discriminative criteria (Yamada et al, 2007). Each participant was randomly assigned to low- (15 mg) and high-dose (30 mg) P. longum groups. We determined the severity of complaints related to chills, physical parameters (body mass index, body fat ratio, and blood pressure), the peripheral circulation dynamics using a laser tissue blood flow-meter, and the skin surface temperature in the fingers using a thermograph. Mild cold stress was applied 10 min after taking a capsule containing P. longum or a dextrin placebo. Then, a thermograph was recorded every minute for 11 min. Piper longum significantly facilitated the recovery of skin surface temperature at either low or high dosages in participants with chills. In subjects without chills, neither high- nor low-dosage of P. longum had an effect. Our findings have important implications for the utility of P. longum in women with chills. PMID:19326811

  19. Anti-aging effects of Piper cambodianum P. Fourn. extract on normal human dermal fibroblast cells and a wound-healing model in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunji; Hong, Youngeun; Kwon, So Hee; Park, Jongsun; Park, Jisoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging of skin is associated with environmental factors such as ultraviolet rays, air pollution, gravity, and genetic factors, all of which can lead to wrinkling of skin. Previous reports suggest that the wound repair is impaired by the aging process and strategies to manipulate the age-related wound healing are necessary in order to stimulate repair. Objective Several traditional plant extracts are well-known for their properties of skin protection and care. Piper cambodianum P. Fourn. (PPF), a member of Piperacecae, is a plant found in Vietnam that might have therapeutic properties. Therefore, the effects of PPF stem and leaf extract on aging process were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Methods PPF extract dissolved in methanol was investigated using Western blotting, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and cell wound-healing assays. We assessed the anti-aging effect of PPF in mouse using the wound-healing assay. The results were analyzed by Student’s unpaired t-test; *P<0.05 and **P<0.01 were considered to indicate significant and highly significant values, respectively, compared with corresponding controls. Results PPF treatment demonstrated in vitro and in vivo anti-aging activity. Western blot analysis of PPF-treated normal human dermal fibroblast cells showed a dose-dependent increase in the expression of extracellular matrix genes such as collagen and elastin, but decreased expression of the aging gene matrix metalloproteinase-3. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that PPF-treated cells displayed dose-dependent increase in messenger RNA expression levels of collagen, elastin, and hyaluronan synthase-2 and decreased expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 aging gene. PPF treatment led to decreased production of reactive oxygen species in cells subjected to ultraviolet irradiation. Furthermore, PPF extract showed positive wound-healing effects in mice. Conclusion This study

  20. Mycotoxin production and predictive modelling kinetics on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus isolates in whole black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L).

    PubMed

    Yogendrarajah, Pratheeba; Vermeulen, An; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Mavromichali, Evangelia; De Saeger, Sarah; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devlieghere, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The growth and mycotoxin production of three Aspergillus flavus isolates and an Aspergillus parasiticus isolate were studied in whole black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L.) using a full factorial design with seven water activity (aw) (0.826-0.984) levels and three temperatures (22, 30 and 37°C). Growth rates and lag phases were estimated using linear regression. Diverse secondary models were assessed for their ability to describe the radial growth rate as a function of individual and combined effect of aw and temperature. Optimum radial growth rate ranged from 0.75±0.04 to 2.65±0.02mm/day for A. flavus and 1.77±0.10 to 2.50±0.10mm/day for A. parasiticus based on the Rosso cardinal estimations. Despite the growth failure of some isolates at marginal conditions, all the studied models showed good performance to predict the growth rates. Validation of the models was performed on independently derived data. The bias factors (0.73-1.03), accuracy factors (0.97-1.36) and root mean square error (0.050-0.278) show that the examined models are conservative predictors of the colony growth rate of both fungal species in black peppers. The Rosso cardinal model can be recommended to describe the individual aw effect while the extended Gibson model was the best model for describing the combined effect of aw and temperature on the growth rate of both fungal species in peppercorns. Temperature optimum ranged from 30 to 33°C, while aw optimum was 0.87-0.92 as estimated by multi-factorial cardinal model for both species. The estimated minimum temperature and aw for A. flavus and A. parasiticus for growth were 11-16°C and 0.73-0.76, respectively, hence, achieving these conditions should be considered during storage to prevent the growth of these mycotoxigenic fungal species in black peppercorns. Following the growth study, production of mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, sterigmatocystin and O-methyl sterigmatocystin (OMST)) was quantified using LC-MS/MS. Very small

  1. Modelling the effect of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) on germination, growth, and apparent lag time of Penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic media.

    PubMed

    Basak, Suradeep; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-12-23

    The current study aimed at characterizing the chemical components of betel leaf (Piper betle L. var. Tamluk Mitha) essential oil (BLEO) and modelling its effect on growth of Penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic medium. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis of BLEO revealed the presence of different bioactive phenolic compounds in significant amounts. Among 46 different components identified, chavibetol (22.0%), estragole (15.8%), β-cubebene (13.6%), chavicol (11.8%), and caryophyllene (11.3%) were found to be the major compounds of BLEO. A disc diffusion and disc volatilization method were used to evaluate antifungal activity of the oil against a selected food spoilage mould. The logistic model was used to study the kinetics of spore germination. Prediction and validation of antifungal effect of BLEO was performed on semi-synthetic medium (apple juice agar) using predictive microbiological tools. The Baranyi and Roberts model was used to estimate maximum growth rate (μmax in mm/day) and apparent lag time (λ in days) of the mould. Secondary modelling was performed using a re-parameterized Monod-type equation based on cardinal values to study the effect of different BLEO concentration on estimated growth parameters. Emax (minimum concentration of oil at which mould growth was inhibited) and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration of BLEO at which lag time is infinite) value of BLEO against P. expansum was estimated to be 0.56 and 0.74 μl/ml, respectively, which was found to be similar on potato dextrose agar (PDA) as well as apple juice agar (AJA) medium. The correlation between estimated growth parameters of the mould on both the media was obtained with satisfactory statistical indices (R(2) and RMSE). This study revealed inhibitory efficacy of BLEO on spore germination, mycelial growth and apparent lag time of P. expansum in a dose-dependent manner. Hence, BLEO has potential to be used as a natural food preservative. PMID:26439423

  2. Mycotoxin production and predictive modelling kinetics on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus isolates in whole black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L).

    PubMed

    Yogendrarajah, Pratheeba; Vermeulen, An; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Mavromichali, Evangelia; De Saeger, Sarah; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devlieghere, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The growth and mycotoxin production of three Aspergillus flavus isolates and an Aspergillus parasiticus isolate were studied in whole black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L.) using a full factorial design with seven water activity (aw) (0.826-0.984) levels and three temperatures (22, 30 and 37°C). Growth rates and lag phases were estimated using linear regression. Diverse secondary models were assessed for their ability to describe the radial growth rate as a function of individual and combined effect of aw and temperature. Optimum radial growth rate ranged from 0.75±0.04 to 2.65±0.02mm/day for A. flavus and 1.77±0.10 to 2.50±0.10mm/day for A. parasiticus based on the Rosso cardinal estimations. Despite the growth failure of some isolates at marginal conditions, all the studied models showed good performance to predict the growth rates. Validation of the models was performed on independently derived data. The bias factors (0.73-1.03), accuracy factors (0.97-1.36) and root mean square error (0.050-0.278) show that the examined models are conservative predictors of the colony growth rate of both fungal species in black peppers. The Rosso cardinal model can be recommended to describe the individual aw effect while the extended Gibson model was the best model for describing the combined effect of aw and temperature on the growth rate of both fungal species in peppercorns. Temperature optimum ranged from 30 to 33°C, while aw optimum was 0.87-0.92 as estimated by multi-factorial cardinal model for both species. The estimated minimum temperature and aw for A. flavus and A. parasiticus for growth were 11-16°C and 0.73-0.76, respectively, hence, achieving these conditions should be considered during storage to prevent the growth of these mycotoxigenic fungal species in black peppercorns. Following the growth study, production of mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, sterigmatocystin and O-methyl sterigmatocystin (OMST)) was quantified using LC-MS/MS. Very small

  3. Is TV a Pied Piper?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dorothy H.

    1974-01-01

    Explores the possible influences of commercial and educational television on young children's imaginative play, intellectual development and behavior. Commercialism, learning readiness, television's unique mode of communication, and the child's sensory experiences while viewing are considered from the standpoint of developmental needs. (SDH)

  4. Plastic surgery and burns disasters. What impact do major civilian disasters have upon medicine? Bradford City Football Club stadium fire, 1985, King's Cross Underground fire, 1987, Piper Alpha offshore oil rig disaster, 1988.

    PubMed

    Vaghela, Kalpesh R

    2009-06-01

    Major disasters involving multiple casualties are neither new nor infrequent. Such events have important implications for medicine and can provide crucial lessons for the future. However, while the medical aspects of war have received considerable attention, rather less is known about civilian disasters. To redress this imbalance, this article reviews three major British disasters of the 1980s where serious burns injury was a significant feature of the human casualty: the Bradford City Football Club fire of 1985, the King's Cross Underground fire of 1987 and the Piper Alpha oil rig disaster of 1988. Four related themes are used to examine in detail the ways in which these events impacted on medicine: plastics and reconstructive surgery, clinical psychology, disaster management and long-term structural change. Drawing on articles in specialist burns and psychiatric journals, together with the personal communications and recollections of surgeons and psychiatrists involved, it is revealed that while ground-breaking advances are a relative rarity in medicine, numerous small but significant lessons did emerge from these events, although often in subtle and highly specialised fields of medicine.

  5. Biocontrol of collar rot disease of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii by using rhizosphere-competent Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI-N6 and P. fluorescens NBRI-N.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anand; Mehta, Sangeeta; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2003-08-01

    Collar rot disease of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii is difficult to control by conventional means by use of chemicals; therefore, use of biocontrol agents is desirable. In the present study, 186 bacterial strains of different morphological types were screened for their biocontrol activity against S. rolfsii under in vitro conditions. Two strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI-N6 and P. fluorescens NBRI-N, were selected for further studies because of their ability to inhibit the mycelial growth of the pathogen significantly. Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (Rif) derivatives of P. fluorescens NBRI-N6 and P. fluorescens NBRI-N showing growth rate and membrane protein composition comparable to the wild type were selected to facilitate their monitoring in the rhizosphere. Field trials demonstrated that strain P. fluorescens NBRI-N6 was better than P. fluorescens NBRI-N in increasing the yield of betelvine significantly, whereas a consortium of the two strains controlled the disease more than either of the strains. The screening method should prove useful in identifying rhizosphere bacteria with the greatest potential for controlling diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. PMID:14506865

  6. German Kava Ban Lifted by Court: The Alleged Hepatotoxicity of Kava (Piper methysticum) as a Case of Ill-Defined Herbal Drug Identity, Lacking Quality Control, and Misguided Regulatory Politics.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Kenny; Schmidt, Mathias; Nahrstedt, Adolf

    2015-12-01

    Kava, the rhizome and roots of Piper methysticum, are one of the most important social pillars of Melanesian societies. They have been used for more than 1000 years in social gatherings for the preparation of beverages with relaxing effects. During the colonial period, extract preparations found their way into Western medicinal systems, with experience especially concerning the treatment of situational anxiety dating back more than 100 years. It therefore came as a surprise when the safety of kava was suddenly questioned based on the observation of a series of case reports of liver toxicity in 1999 and 2000. These case reports ultimately led to a ban of kava products in Europe - a ban that has been contested because of the poor evidence of risks related to kava. Only recently, two German administrative courts decided that the decision of the regulatory authority to ban kava as a measure to ensure consumer safety was inappropriate and even associated with an increased risk due to the higher risk inherent to the therapeutic alternatives. This ruling can be considered as final for at least the German market, as no further appeal has been pursued by the regulatory authorities. However, in order to prevent further misunderstandings, especially in other markets, the current situation calls for a comprehensive presentation of the cardinal facts and misconceptions concerning kava and related drug quality issues.

  7. Antidermatophytic Activity of Mikania micrantha Kunth: An Invasive Weed

    PubMed Central

    Jyothilakshmi, Madhavankutty; Jyothis, Mathew; Latha, Mukalel Sankunni

    2015-01-01

    Context: The incidence of dermatophytosis has risen dramatically in recent years. Limited availability of side-effect free drugs has led to a search for new antidermatophytic agents. Objective: The objective was to investigate antidermatophytic activity and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (protease inhibition assay) of whole plant (aerial parts only) of Mikania micrantha. Materials and Methods: The dried and powdered aerial parts of M. micrantha were extracted separately with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antidermatophytic activity was determined by agar tube dilution method against Epidermophyton floccosum var. nigricans, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum. The activities of various parts of the plant – flowers, leaves and stem were separately analyzed using their ethyl acetate extract. Fungicidal efficacy and trypsin inhibiting activity of the whole plant, flowers and leaves were also analyzed using the ethyl acetate extracts. Statistical Analysis Used: For trypsin inhibition assay results are expressed as mean ± standard division. For antidermatophytic assay, the significance of the difference between control and test was analyzed statistically using Fisher's exact test. Results: Ethyl acetate extract of M. micrantha exhibited excellent antidermatophytic activity, followed by petroleum ether and methanolic extracts. Ethyl acetate extracts of whole plant, flowers, leaves and stem completely inhibited the growth of dermatophytes at the tested concentration of 2 mg/mL. Furthermore, ethyl acetate extracts of whole plant, leaves and flowers were fungicidal, and the percentages of trypsin inhibition exhibited were 33.73 ± 0.306, 39.0 ± 0.505 and 35.53 ± 0.503, respectively. Conclusions: Since M. micrantha possesses antidermatophytic as well as anti-inflammatory activities, the plant is an excellent candidate for the development of new medicaments against dermatophytoses in traditional as well as modern medicine. PMID:26109783

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Composition of Senecio salignus Kunth

    PubMed Central

    Pérez González, Cuauhtemoc; Serrano Vega, Roberto; González-Chávez, Marco; Zavala Sánchez, Miguel Angel; Pérez Gutiérrez, Salud

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Senecio salignus. This medicinal plant is often used in Mexico for the treatment of fever and rheumatism. Chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant were tested on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA-) induced edema in mice ears. The methanol extract of the plant inhibited edema by 36 ± 4.4% compared with the control, while the chloroform extract exhibited an even greater level of inhibition (64.1%). The chloroform extract was then fractionated, and the composition of the active fraction was determined by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of this fraction was then tested on TPA-induced ear edema in mice, and we found that the active fraction could inhibit edema by 46.9%. The anti-inflammatory effect of the fraction was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats at doses of 100 mg/kg; a 58.9 ± 2.8% reduction of the edema was observed 4 h after administration of carrageenan, and the effect was maintained for 5 h. PMID:23691512

  9. Allozyme variation in spineless Pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isozyme variation was studied in 161 accessions of pineapple including four species of Ananas and one of Pseudananas. Six enzyme systems (ADH, GPI, PGM, SKDH, TPI, UGPP) involving seven putative loci revealed 35 electromorphs . Considerable variation exists within and between species of Ananas. Sixt...

  10. Anti-Advanced Glycation End-product and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Plants from the Yucatecan Flora

    PubMed Central

    Dzib-Guerra, Wendy del C.; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Derbré, Séverine; Blanchard, Patricia; Richomme, Pascal; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    scavenging activities.Significant activity against vesperlysine and pentosidine-like AGE was detected in the root extract of Cassia fistula and the leaf extract of Piper auritum.Traditional preparations and the ethanolic extracts of Ehretia tinifolia, Manilkara zapota, Ocimum campechianum and Piper auritum showed significant activity in the DPPH reduction assay.Results suggest that the metabolites responsible for the detected radical-scavenging activity are different to those involved in inhibiting AGE formation. Abbreviations Used: AGE: Advanced glycation end-product; DPPH: 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; DM: Diabetes mellitus; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; BSA: Bovine serum albumin; EtOH: Ethanol; EtOAc: Ethyl acetate; ANOVA: Analysis of variance; BA: Brosimum alicastrum; BS: Bunchosia swartziana; CF: Cassia fistula; CN: Cocos nucifera; ET: Ehretia tinifolia; MZ: Manilkara zapota; OC: Ocimum campechianum; PA: Piper auritum; RM: Rhizophora mangle; L: Leaves; S: Stems; R: Roots; T: traditional preparation; I: Inflorescences; W: Water PMID:27695268

  11. Anti-Advanced Glycation End-product and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Plants from the Yucatecan Flora

    PubMed Central

    Dzib-Guerra, Wendy del C.; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; García-Sosa, Karlina; Derbré, Séverine; Blanchard, Patricia; Richomme, Pascal; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    scavenging activities.Significant activity against vesperlysine and pentosidine-like AGE was detected in the root extract of Cassia fistula and the leaf extract of Piper auritum.Traditional preparations and the ethanolic extracts of Ehretia tinifolia, Manilkara zapota, Ocimum campechianum and Piper auritum showed significant activity in the DPPH reduction assay.Results suggest that the metabolites responsible for the detected radical-scavenging activity are different to those involved in inhibiting AGE formation. Abbreviations Used: AGE: Advanced glycation end-product; DPPH: 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; DM: Diabetes mellitus; ROS: Reactive oxygen species; BSA: Bovine serum albumin; EtOH: Ethanol; EtOAc: Ethyl acetate; ANOVA: Analysis of variance; BA: Brosimum alicastrum; BS: Bunchosia swartziana; CF: Cassia fistula; CN: Cocos nucifera; ET: Ehretia tinifolia; MZ: Manilkara zapota; OC: Ocimum campechianum; PA: Piper auritum; RM: Rhizophora mangle; L: Leaves; S: Stems; R: Roots; T: traditional preparation; I: Inflorescences; W: Water

  12. Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol, Ethanol and Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Philippine Piper betle L. on Clinical Isolates of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria with Transferable Multiple Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Valle, Demetrio L; Cabrera, Esperanza C; Puzon, Juliana Janet M; Rivera, Windell L

    2016-01-01

    Piper betle L. has traditionally been used in alternative medicine in different countries for various therapeutic purposes, including as an anti-infective agent. However, studies reported in the literature are mainly on its activities on drug susceptible bacterial strains. This study determined the antimicrobial activities of its ethanol, methanol, and supercritical CO2 extracts on clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant bacteria which have been identified by the Infectious Disease Society of America as among the currently more challenging strains in clinical management. Assay methods included the standard disc diffusion method and the broth microdilution method for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the extracts for the test microorganisms. This study revealed the bactericidal activities of all the P. betle leaf crude extracts on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, with minimum bactericidal concentrations that ranged from 19μg/ml to 1250 μg/ml. The extracts proved to be more potent against the Gram positive MRSA and VRE than for the Gram negative test bacteria. VRE isolates were more susceptible to all the extracts than the MRSA isolates. Generally, the ethanol extracts proved to be more potent than the methanol extracts and supercritical CO2 extracts as shown by their lower MICs for both the Gram positive and Gram negative MDRs. MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the highest concentration (100 μg/ml) of P. betle ethanol extract tested was not toxic to normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn). Data from the study firmly established P. betle as an alternative source of anti-infectives against multiple drug resistant bacteria. PMID

  13. Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol, Ethanol and Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Philippine Piper betle L. on Clinical Isolates of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria with Transferable Multiple Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Valle, Demetrio L; Cabrera, Esperanza C; Puzon, Juliana Janet M; Rivera, Windell L

    2016-01-01

    Piper betle L. has traditionally been used in alternative medicine in different countries for various therapeutic purposes, including as an anti-infective agent. However, studies reported in the literature are mainly on its activities on drug susceptible bacterial strains. This study determined the antimicrobial activities of its ethanol, methanol, and supercritical CO2 extracts on clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant bacteria which have been identified by the Infectious Disease Society of America as among the currently more challenging strains in clinical management. Assay methods included the standard disc diffusion method and the broth microdilution method for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the extracts for the test microorganisms. This study revealed the bactericidal activities of all the P. betle leaf crude extracts on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, with minimum bactericidal concentrations that ranged from 19μg/ml to 1250 μg/ml. The extracts proved to be more potent against the Gram positive MRSA and VRE than for the Gram negative test bacteria. VRE isolates were more susceptible to all the extracts than the MRSA isolates. Generally, the ethanol extracts proved to be more potent than the methanol extracts and supercritical CO2 extracts as shown by their lower MICs for both the Gram positive and Gram negative MDRs. MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the highest concentration (100 μg/ml) of P. betle ethanol extract tested was not toxic to normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn). Data from the study firmly established P. betle as an alternative source of anti-infectives against multiple drug resistant bacteria.

  14. Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol, Ethanol and Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Philippine Piper betle L. on Clinical Isolates of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria with Transferable Multiple Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Demetrio L.; Cabrera, Esperanza C.; Puzon, Juliana Janet M.; Rivera, Windell L.

    2016-01-01

    Piper betle L. has traditionally been used in alternative medicine in different countries for various therapeutic purposes, including as an anti-infective agent. However, studies reported in the literature are mainly on its activities on drug susceptible bacterial strains. This study determined the antimicrobial activities of its ethanol, methanol, and supercritical CO2 extracts on clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant bacteria which have been identified by the Infectious Disease Society of America as among the currently more challenging strains in clinical management. Assay methods included the standard disc diffusion method and the broth microdilution method for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the extracts for the test microorganisms. This study revealed the bactericidal activities of all the P. betle leaf crude extracts on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, with minimum bactericidal concentrations that ranged from 19μg/ml to 1250 μg/ml. The extracts proved to be more potent against the Gram positive MRSA and VRE than for the Gram negative test bacteria. VRE isolates were more susceptible to all the extracts than the MRSA isolates. Generally, the ethanol extracts proved to be more potent than the methanol extracts and supercritical CO2 extracts as shown by their lower MICs for both the Gram positive and Gram negative MDRs. MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the highest concentration (100 μg/ml) of P. betle ethanol extract tested was not toxic to normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn). Data from the study firmly established P. betle as an alternative source of anti-infectives against multiple drug resistant bacteria. PMID

  15. Effects of black pepper (piper nigrum), turmeric powder (curcuma longa) and coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elkhair, R; Ahmed, H A; Selim, S

    2014-06-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens.

  16. Effects of Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum), Turmeric Powder (Curcuma Longa) and Coriander Seeds (Coriandrum Sativum) and Their Combinations as Feed Additives on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Some Blood Parameters and Humoral Immune Response of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Elkhair, R.; Ahmed, H. A.; Selim, S.

    2014-01-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001) compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05) were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05). Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05) compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001) at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens. PMID:25050023

  17. 75 FR 82329 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... proposed AD. Discussion On May 17, 2000, we issued AD 99-15-04 R1, Amendment 39-11747 (65 FR 33745, May 25... and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska.... 39.13 by removing airworthiness directive (AD) 99-15-04 R1, Amendment 39-11747 (65 FR 33745, May...

  18. Chromosome identification and karyotype analysis of Podophyllum hexandrum Roxb. ex Kunth using FISH.

    PubMed

    Nag, Akshay; Rajkumar, Subramani

    2011-07-01

    Podophyllum hexandrum is an important high altitude medicinal plant from Himalaya. Somatic chromosomes of this species were studied to delineate and physical mapping of repetitive rDNA sites to provide landmarks in chromosome identification. The karyotype formula of this species was found to be 6m + 2sm + 2st + 2t with secondary constriction in the chromosome 1 and 7. The FISH analysis of rDNA sites showed 4 sites for 18S rDNA and 2 sites for 5S rDNA. The chromosome number 1, 2, 5 and 6 can be identified based on 18S rDNA sites in their short arm and chromosome 1 and 2 can be identified by 5S rDNA site in the centromere region. The estimated genome size of this plant is 16.07 pg (1C).

  19. Micropropagation, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of extracts of Verbena litoralis Kunth (Verbenaceae).

    PubMed

    Braga, Virgínia F; Mendes, Giselle C; Oliveira, Raphael T R; Soares, Carla Q G; Resende, Cristiano F; Pinto, Leandro C; Santana, Reinaldo de; Viccini, Lyderson F; Raposo, Nádia R B; Peixoto, Paulo H P

    2012-03-01

    This work describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for Verbena litoralis and the study of the antinociceptive and antioxidant activities in extracts of this species. For the establishment in vitro, surface-sterilization procedures and PVPP showed high efficiency in fungal-bacterial contamination and phenol oxidation controls. Nodal segments cultivation in MS medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (7.5 µM)/α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA; 0.005 µM) induced multiple shoots. Elongated shoots were rooted with IAA (0.2 µM). Acclimatization rates were elevated and the plants showed the typical features of this species. The hexanic fraction (HF) of powdered leaves presented a radical scavenging activity with IC(50) = 169.3 µg mL(-1). HF showed a non-dose dependent analgesic activity in the writhing test; its antinociceptive activity in the hot plate test was restricted to 500 mg kg(-1), which is the highest dose. The results of this study showed the potential of tissue culture on conservation and large scale multiplication and confirmed the traditional folk medicine use of V. litoralis.

  20. The effect of the size of particles on mineralization of Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth) Lye.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, I; Cunha-Santino, M B

    2006-05-01

    Assays were carried out to evaluate effects of detritus size on the mineralization of an aquatic macrophyte, the Oxycaryum cubense. Samples of plant and water were collected from an oxbow lake, the Infernão lagoon (21 degrees 35' S and 47 degrees 51' W) located at Mogi Guaçu river floodplain. The plants were taken to the laboratory, washed under tap water, dried (50 degrees C) and fractioned into six groups according to their size, viz. 100, 10, 1.13, 0.78, 0.61 and 0.25 mm. Decomposition chambers were prepared by adding 1.0 g of plant fragments to 4.1 L of water lagoon. In sequence, the incubations were aerated and the concentrations of dissolved oxygen, the pH, the electric conductivity and the temperature were monitored for 120 days. The occurrence of anaerobic processes was avoided by reoxygenating the solutions. The experimental results were fitted to a first order kinetic model and the consumption of dissolved oxygen from mineralization processes was obtained. The physical process of fragmentation of O. cubense detritus is unlikely to promote the consumption of higher quantities of dissolved oxygen in mineralization processes meaning that fragmentation should not interfere in the balance of DO in this aquatic system, however fragmentation processes favored the acidification and increased the liberation of dissolved ions from the Infernão lagoon. PMID:16906296

  1. The effect of particle size on the leaching of Scirpus cubensis Poepp & Kunth.

    PubMed

    Bianchini Júnior, I; Antonio, R M

    2003-05-01

    An investigation was made on the effects of detritus particle size on leaching rates in organic matter, and the associated environmental changes caused by detritus re-cycling in an oxbow lake (Lagoa do Infernão). Experiments were conducted during the decay of an aquatic macrophyte specie, S. cubensis, which in turn led to the formation of colored compounds. The S. cubensis were collected from the Lagoa do Infernão and taken to the laboratory where they were washed, dried, and fractionated using a sieve pedological set. The detritus was classified into six groups according to size, viz. 100, 10, 1.13, 0.78, 0.61, and 0.25 mm. Overall, the fragmentation process tended to increase the detritus fraction to be dissolved and to decrease the leaching rates owing to the possible dissolution of refracting matter. Fragmentation also caused the amount of colored compounds to increase and appeared to favor dissolved electrolyte release. Finally, in Lagoa do Infernão fragmentation is probably mediated by the metabolic action of benthic communities. PMID:14509841

  2. Antimicrobial and seasonal evaluation of the carvacrol-chemotype oil from Lippia origanoides kunth.

    PubMed

    Sarrazin, Sandra Layse F; da Silva, Leomara Andrade; de Assunção, Ana Paula F; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Calao, Victor Y P; da Silva, Rodrigo; Stashenko, Elena E; Maia, José Guilherme S; Mourão, Rosa Helena V

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of seasonal variation on the yield and composition of essential oil of Lippia origanoides occurring in the Middle Rio Amazonas, Brazil, and the impact on its antimicrobial potential. The average oil yield was 1.7% ± 0.2% in the rainy season and 1.6% ± 0.3% in the dry season. Some correlations with climatic parameters were observed. The major components were carvacrol (rainy, 43.5% ± 1.9%; dry, 41.4% ± 2.04%), thymol (rainy, 10.7% ± 1.1%; dry, 10.6% ± 0.9%), p-cymene (rainy, 9.8% ± 0.7%; dry, 10.0% ± 1.4%) and p-methoxythymol (rainy, 9.6% ± 0.8%; dry, 10.4% ± 1.4%). It was found that the antibacterial activity of L. origanoides against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was little influenced by the changes in oil composition due to seasonal variation. Against S. aureus, the oil Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value was 1.25 μL/mL over ten months. Against E. coli, the oil MIC values ranged from 0.15 μL/mL to 0.31 μL/mL in different months of the year. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) value was 2.5 μL/mL against S. aureus and 1.25 μL/mL against E. coli. The results suggest that the antimicrobial activity identified in the oil remain unchanged for the full year, allowing its medicinal use without any risk of loss or absence of the active principles of the plant. PMID:25625681

  3. Acute toxicity, antiedematogenic activity, and chemical constituents of Palicourea rigida Kunth.

    PubMed

    Alves, Vanessa G; da Rosa, Elisa A; de Arruda, Laura L M; Rocha, Bruno A; Bersani Amado, Ciomar A; Santin, Silvana M O; Pomini, Armando M; da Silva, Cleuza C

    2016-03-01

    The phytochemical study of the leaves, roots, and flowers of Palicourea rigida led to the isolation of the triterpenes betulinic acid (1) and lupeol (2), the diterpene phytol (3), and the iridoid glycosides sweroside (4) and secoxyloganin (5). These compounds were identified using NMR 1H and 13C and comparing the spectra with published data. We studied the antiedematogenic activity of crude extracts from the organs, and of different fractions, in mice and found that the n-hexane fraction of the leaf extract significantly inhibited the ear edema resulting from croton oil administration. The crude extract from leaves was not acutely toxic to the mice. PMID:26927220

  4. Endophytic fungi community associated with the dicotyledonous plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae) in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Luiz Henrique; Almeida Vieira, Mariana de Lourdes; Santiago, Iara Furtado; Rosa, Carlos Augusto

    2010-07-01

    This work describes the distribution and diversity of fungal endophytes associated with leaves of Colobanthus quitensis, a dicotyledonous plant that lives in Antarctica. A total of 188 fungal isolates were obtained from six different sites located across a 25.5-km transect through Admiralty Bay, at King George Island. The ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal gene was sequenced and the endophytic fungi were identified as species belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Cadophora, Davidiella, Entrophospora, Fusarium, Geomyces, Gyoerffyella, Microdochium, Mycocentrospora, and Phaeosphaeria. Davidiella tassiana was the prevalent species with 20.2% abundance. The endophytic fungal community showed low richness and high dominance indexes. Eleven endophytic taxa (58%) were fungi able to produce melanin in their hyphae, which may confer resistance against freezing temperatures and high rates of UV radiation and may increase their fitness in the extreme conditions of the Antarctic environment. In addition, phytopathogenic and decomposer species associated with healthy leaves of C. quitensis were found. The results obtained in this work show that C. quitensis is an interesting reservoir of saprobic and pathogenic fungal species, and could be a community model for further ecological and evolutionary studies, as well as studies of the adaptation mechanisms these microorganisms have to the extreme conditions in Antarctica. PMID:20455944

  5. Micropropagation, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of extracts of Verbena litoralis Kunth (Verbenaceae).

    PubMed

    Braga, Virgínia F; Mendes, Giselle C; Oliveira, Raphael T R; Soares, Carla Q G; Resende, Cristiano F; Pinto, Leandro C; Santana, Reinaldo de; Viccini, Lyderson F; Raposo, Nádia R B; Peixoto, Paulo H P

    2012-03-01

    This work describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for Verbena litoralis and the study of the antinociceptive and antioxidant activities in extracts of this species. For the establishment in vitro, surface-sterilization procedures and PVPP showed high efficiency in fungal-bacterial contamination and phenol oxidation controls. Nodal segments cultivation in MS medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (7.5 µM)/α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA; 0.005 µM) induced multiple shoots. Elongated shoots were rooted with IAA (0.2 µM). Acclimatization rates were elevated and the plants showed the typical features of this species. The hexanic fraction (HF) of powdered leaves presented a radical scavenging activity with IC(50) = 169.3 µg mL(-1). HF showed a non-dose dependent analgesic activity in the writhing test; its antinociceptive activity in the hot plate test was restricted to 500 mg kg(-1), which is the highest dose. The results of this study showed the potential of tissue culture on conservation and large scale multiplication and confirmed the traditional folk medicine use of V. litoralis. PMID:22441603

  6. [Microscopic examination of Guaraná powder--Paullinia cupana Kunth].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, A T

    1999-01-01

    Guaraná is a product from the seeds of the Amazonian liana Paullinia cupana that is also cultivated since a couple of years. It is rich in caffeine and serves in Brasil for the production of stimulants, soft drinks, and sweets. In the drug scene it is sometimes trafficked as natural stimulant or drug surrogate. Microscopic examination shows the presence of starch and tannins and provides a simple, quick and cheap method to distinguish guaraná from drugs of abuse.

  7. Photodynamic antimicrobial effects of bis-indole alkaloid indigo from Indigofera truxillensis Kunth (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Andreazza, Nathalia Luiza; de Lourenço, Caroline C; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Atvars, Teresa Dib Zambon; Salvador, Marcos José

    2015-05-01

    Multidrug-resistant microbial infections represent an exponentially growing problem affecting communities worldwide. Photodynamic therapy is a promising treatment based on the combination of light, oxygen, and a photosensitizer that leads to reactive oxygen species production, such as superoxide (type I mechanism) and singlet oxygen (type II mechanism) that cause massive oxidative damage and consequently the host cell death. Indigofera genus has gained considerable interest due its mutagenic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic activity. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crude extracts, alkaloidal fraction, and isolated substance derived from Indigofera truxillensis in photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy on the viability of bacteria and yeast and evaluation of mechanisms involved. Our results showed that all samples resulted in microbial photoactivation in subinhibitory concentration, with indigo alkaloid presenting a predominant photodynamic action through type I mechanism. The use of CaCl2 and MgCl2 as cell permeabilizing additives also increased gram-negative bacteria susceptibility to indigo.

  8. Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Ramos Ruiz, A; De la Torre, R A; Alonso, N; Villaescusa, A; Betancourt, J; Vizoso, A

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae): Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha x piperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae); Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae); Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae); Piper auritum HBK. (Piperaceae); Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardeaceae) and Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). A plate incorporation assay with Aspergillus nidulans was employed, allowing detection of somatic segregation as a result of mitotic crossing-over, chromosome malsegregation or clastogenic effects. Aspergillus nidulans D-30, a well-marked strain carrying four recessive mutations for conidial color in heterozygosity, which permitted the direct visual detection of segregants, was used throughout this study. As a result, only in the aqueous extract of one of the plants screened (Momordica charantia) a statistical significant increase in the frequency of segregant sectors per colony was observed, and consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated. PMID:8771452

  9. Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Ramos Ruiz, A; De la Torre, R A; Alonso, N; Villaescusa, A; Betancourt, J; Vizoso, A

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae): Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha x piperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae); Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae); Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae); Piper auritum HBK. (Piperaceae); Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardeaceae) and Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). A plate incorporation assay with Aspergillus nidulans was employed, allowing detection of somatic segregation as a result of mitotic crossing-over, chromosome malsegregation or clastogenic effects. Aspergillus nidulans D-30, a well-marked strain carrying four recessive mutations for conidial color in heterozygosity, which permitted the direct visual detection of segregants, was used throughout this study. As a result, only in the aqueous extract of one of the plants screened (Momordica charantia) a statistical significant increase in the frequency of segregant sectors per colony was observed, and consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated.

  10. Who's Gonna Pay the Piper for Free Online Databases?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Discusses new pricing models for some online services and considers the possibilities for the traditional online database market. Topics include multimedia music databases, including copyright implications; other retail-oriented databases; and paying for free databases with advertising. (LRW)

  11. 78 FR 49221 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... proposed AD. Discussion On December 16, 1999, we issued AD 99-26-19, Amendment 39-11479 (64 FR 72524... airplanes were inadvertently omitted from the applicability of AD 99-01-05, Amendment 39-10972 (63 FR 72132... FR 29965, May 25, 1993), which previously included J-2 series airplanes in the Applicability...

  12. 77 FR 42455 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... airplane's wing root, is not at a high risk of an inadvertent in-flight engine shutdown and loss of flight... operators Relocate the magneto switch from the 3.5 work-hours x $85 $125 $422.50 $124,637.50 port side... and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in...

  13. 78 FR 51121 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... 71-21-08, Amendment 39-1312 (36 FR 19572, October 8, 1971) currently requires replacement of the fuel... proposed AD. Discussion On September 29, 1971, we issued AD 71-21-08, Amendment 39-1312 (36 FR 19572..., Amendment 39-1312 (36 FR 19572, October 8, 1971), a safety event in 2011 caused the loss of a Model PA-...

  14. 78 FR 41277 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not... inspection may be delegated to an appropriately certified mechanic. (2) Flights must be limited to...

  15. Rehydration characteristics of dehydrated West African pepper (Piper guineense) leaves.

    PubMed

    Okpala, Laura C; Ekechi, Constance A

    2014-11-01

    The rehydration characteristics of dehydrated West African pepper leaves were investigated at hydration temperatures of 28, 60, 70, and 80°C. Four treatments were given to the leaves: blanched and sun dried, unblanched and sun dried, blanched and shade dried, and unblanched and shade dried. The hydration process of the dehydrated leaves was adequately described by the Peleg's equation. As the hydration temperature increased from 28 to 70°C, there was a significant decrease in the Peleg's constant K 1, while for most of the leaves the Peleg's constant K 2 varied with temperature. Rehydration ratio values ranged from 3.75 in blanched shade dried leaves to 4.26 in unblanched sun dried leaves with the unblanched leaves generally exhibiting higher ratios than the blanched leaves.

  16. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, Andrea; Maurizi, Emanuela; Barbero, Francesca; Sala, Marco; Fattorini, Simone; Balletto, Emilio; Bonelli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus) are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen). Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants. PMID:26154266

  17. 78 FR 76040 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... this AD as of February 14, 2000 (64 FR 72524, December 28, 1999). ADDRESSES: For service information... (NPRM) to amend 14 CFR part 39 to revise AD 99-26-19, Amendment 39-11479 (64 FR 72524, December 28, 1999... Register on August 13, 2013 (78 FR 49221). The NPRM proposed to retain all requirements of AD...

  18. Herbicidal and Fungicidal Activities of Lactones in Kava (Piper methysticum).

    PubMed

    Xuan, T D; Elzaawely, A A; Fukuta, M; Tawata, S

    2006-02-01

    This is the first report showing that kava lactones are plant and plant fungus growth inhibitors. Aqueous extract of kava roots showed high allelopathic potential and strongly suppressed germination and growth of lettuce, radish, barnyardgrass, and monochoria. Nine kava lactones were detected using GC-MS including desmethoxyyagonin, kavain, 7,8-dihydrokavain, hydroxykavain, yagonin, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxyyagonin, methysticin, dihydromethysticin, and 11-hydroxy-12-methoxydihydrokavain. Quantities of desmethoxyyagonin, kavain, 7,8-dihydrokavain, yagonin, methysticin, and dihydromethysticin detected were 4.3, 6.9, 18.6, 5.7, 1.4, and 5.4 mg/g of dry weight, respectively. These six major lactones in kava roots showed great herbicidal and antifungal activities. Growth of lettuce and barnyardgrass were significantly inhibited at 1-10 ppm, and four plant fungi including Colletotrichum gloeosporides, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, and Trichoderma viride were significantly inhibited at 10-50 ppm. The biological activities of kava lactones were characterized by different double-bond linkage patterns in positions 5,6 and 7,8. The findings of this study suggest that kava lactones may be useful for the development of bioactive herbicides and fungicides.

  19. Paying the piper: the crisis in chronic care.

    PubMed

    Goforth, L

    2000-01-01

    The current article reviews the broad outlines of the crisis in chronic care with emphasis on Southern California, a region where the powerful forces buffeting health and long term care have reached gale force intensity. The article argues that a partial solution to the crisis lies in flexible local partnerships among patients, families, providers, and payers focused on helping the chronically ill cope with the tasks of daily life. Such partnerships would emphasize supportive care, prevention, family preservation, assistive devices, and family income supplementation through facilitation of productive work, aspects of chronic care neglected by current financing and service delivery practices. A case example, the Southern California-based Partners in Care Foundation's Family Care Network, illustrates these essential components of a revitalized, responsive chronic care system. PMID:11211318

  20. 78 FR 7642 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... FR 45979). That NPRM proposed to require inspections of the stabilator control system and replacement... assembly failures that may lead to failure of the horizontal stabilator control system and could result in loss of pitch control. This AD requires inspections of the stabilator control system and replacement...

  1. 77 FR 57534 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... occurred due to exhaust system failures upstream of aircraft turbochargers and between recurring detailed... the possibility of an inflight powerplant fire due to an exhaust system failure. DATES: We must... system failures downstream from turbochargers. We issued that AD to prevent the possibility of...

  2. 76 FR 60367 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... AD as of July 24, 2009 (74 FR 29118, June 19, 2009). ADDRESSES: For service information identified in... 14 CFR part 39 to revise AD 2009-13-06, amendment 39-15944 (74 FR 29118, June 19, 2009). That AD applies to the specified products. The NPRM published in the Federal Register on May 20, 2011 (76 FR...

  3. 78 FR 35110 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to amend 14 CFR part 39 to supersede AD 82-16-05 R1, amendment 39-5278 (51 FR 11707, April... September 18, 2012 (77 FR 57534). The NPRM included a detailed inspection that involved disassembling the v... part surfaces and tight cracks corrode faster than open surfaces.) The AD, 2000-01-16 (65 FR...

  4. 77 FR 56993 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... models in the original NPRM (76 FR 36395, June 22, 2011). However, we disagree with excluding aircraft... published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2011 (76 FR 36395). That NPRM proposed to require replacement... FR 36395, June 22, 2011) Due to Adequacy of External Inspections Phil Ciholas requested we...

  5. 78 FR 26556 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... specified products. That NPRM published in the Federal Register on July 19, 2012 (77 FR 42455). That NPRM..., rotary-style switches. Because of the comments received on the NPRM (77 FR 42455, July 19, 2012), the FAA... the concerns identified by the public during the NPRM (77 FR 42455, July 19, 2012) comment...

  6. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC.

    PubMed

    Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI) and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds. PMID:24987426

  7. Phytochemical diversity of the essential oils of Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) populations along an Edapho-climatic gradient.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Irabién, Luz María; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Acosta-Arriola, Violeta; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; Díaz-Vera, Luciana; Dzib, Gabriel R; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) is an important aromatic plant, mainly used as flavoring and usually harvested from non-cultivated populations. Mexican oregano essential oil showed important variation in the essential-oil yield and composition. The composition of the essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from 14 wild populations of L. graveolens growing along an edaphoclimatic gradient was evaluated. Characterization of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses allowed the identification of 70 components, which accounted for 89-99% of the total oil composition. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses divided the essential oils into three distinct groups with contrasting oil compositions, viz., two phenolic chemotypes, with either carvacrol (C) or thymol (T) as dominant compounds (contents >75% of the total oil composition), and a non-phenolic chemotype (S) dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes. While Chemotype C was associated with semi-arid climate and shallower and rockier soils, Chemotype T was found for plants growing under less arid conditions and in deeper soils. The plants showing Chemotype S were more abundant in subhumid climate. High-oil-yield individuals (>3%) were identified, which additionally presented high percentages of either carvacrol or thymol; these individuals are of interest, as they could be used as parental material for scientific and commercial breeding programs. PMID:25044587

  8. Phytochemical diversity of the essential oils of Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) populations along an Edapho-climatic gradient.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Irabién, Luz María; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Acosta-Arriola, Violeta; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; Díaz-Vera, Luciana; Dzib, Gabriel R; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) is an important aromatic plant, mainly used as flavoring and usually harvested from non-cultivated populations. Mexican oregano essential oil showed important variation in the essential-oil yield and composition. The composition of the essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from 14 wild populations of L. graveolens growing along an edaphoclimatic gradient was evaluated. Characterization of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses allowed the identification of 70 components, which accounted for 89-99% of the total oil composition. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses divided the essential oils into three distinct groups with contrasting oil compositions, viz., two phenolic chemotypes, with either carvacrol (C) or thymol (T) as dominant compounds (contents >75% of the total oil composition), and a non-phenolic chemotype (S) dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes. While Chemotype C was associated with semi-arid climate and shallower and rockier soils, Chemotype T was found for plants growing under less arid conditions and in deeper soils. The plants showing Chemotype S were more abundant in subhumid climate. High-oil-yield individuals (>3%) were identified, which additionally presented high percentages of either carvacrol or thymol; these individuals are of interest, as they could be used as parental material for scientific and commercial breeding programs.

  9. Survival and ultrastructural features of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes, Kunth) somatic embryos submitted to cryopreservation through vitrification.

    PubMed

    Heringer, Angelo Schuabb; Steinmacher, Douglas André; Schmidt, Éder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2013-10-01

    Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae), also known as peach palm, was domesticated by Amazonian Indians and is cultivated for its fruit and heart-of-palm, a vegetable grown in the tree's inner core. Currently, the conservation of this species relies on in situ conditions and field gene banks. Complementary conservation strategies, such as those based on in vitro techniques, are indicated in such cases. To establish an appropriate cryopreservation protocol, this study aimed to evaluate the ultrastructural features of B. gasipaes embryogenic cultures submitted to vitrification and subsequent cryogenic temperatures. Accordingly, somatic embryo clusters were submitted to Plant Vitrification Solution 3 (PVS3). In general, cells submitted to PVS3 had viable cell characteristics associated with apparently many mitochondria, prominent nucleus, and preserved cell walls. Cells not incubated in PVS3 did not survive after the cryogenic process in liquid nitrogen. The best incubation time for the vitrification technique was 240 min, resulting in a survival rate of 37 %. In these cases, several features were indicative of quite active cell metabolism, including intact nuclei and preserved cell walls, an apparently many of mitochondria and lipid bodies, and the presence of many starch granules and condensed chromatin. Moreover, ultrastructure analysis revealed that overall cellular structures had been preserved after cryogenic treatment, thus validating the use of vitrification in conjunction with cryopreservation of peach palm elite genotypes, as well as wild genotypes, which carry a rich pool of genes that must be conserved. PMID:23636432

  10. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chay-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI) and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds. PMID:24987426

  11. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC.

    PubMed

    Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI) and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds.

  12. Molluscicidal activity of Piper cubeba Linn., Piper longum Linn. and Tribulus terrestris Linn. and their combinations against snail Indoplanorbis exustus Desh.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Jitendra K; Singh, D K

    2009-08-01

    The toxic effect of dried berries powder of P. cubeba, dried fruit powder of P. longum and T. terrestris singly as well as in combination [binary (1:1) and tertiary (1:1:1)] were studied against snail L. exustus. Toxicity of these plant products were time and concentration dependent. Ethanol extracts of these plants were more effective than that of other organic solvents. 96 h LC50 value of column purified fraction of T. terrestris against I. exustus was 9.57 mg/l, where as 96 h LC50 values of column purified fractions of P. longum and P. cubeba were 11.57 mg/l and 10.93 mg/l, respectively. Binary (1:1) combination of P. cubeba (PC) + P. longum (PL) (41.78 mg/l) was more effective than P. cubeba (PC) + T. terrestris (TT) (42.17 mg/l) and P. longum (PL) + T. terrestris (TT) (55.84 mg/l) respectively; while tertiary (1:1:1) combinations of P. cubeba (PC) + T. terrestris (TT) + T. foenum-graecum (TF) (10.67 mg/l) was more effective than rest of the combinations. These plants can be used as potent source of molluscicides against the snail I. exustus.

  13. 75 FR 81417 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model PA-28-161 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... equipped with Thielert Aircraft Engine GmbH (TAE) Engine Model TAE-125-01 installed per Supplemental Type..., 2011. ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Thielert Aircraft Engines... Thielert Aircraft Engine GmbH (TAE) Engine Model TAE-125-01 installed per Supplemental Type...

  14. He who pays the piper: foundations, the medical profession, and medical education reform.

    PubMed

    Brown, E R

    1980-01-01

    The development of modern medical education was shaped by the medical profession's own reform strategies and by material and ideological support from the corporate class. This article examines how the Rockefeller medical philanthropies, the largest single source of funds for medical education reform from 1910 through the 1930s, forced the adoption of a specific reform--full-time clinical faculty--to make medicine serve the needs of capitalist society rather than the interests of the medical profession. Memorandums and letters from archival files demonstrate that foundation leaders believed the full-time plan would separate medical schools from the grip of practitioner-dominated medical societies, bringing all medical faculty under the control of foundations and university boards of trustees. This policy was to be a first step in rationalizing medical care and distributing the technical benefits and social-control functions of medicine to all segments of the population. The author traces the development of the full-time plan, its adoption as foundation policy, and the struggle over its implementation.

  15. A Focus on Cryogenic Engineering for the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosas, Rogelio; Weston, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenic engineering involves design and modification of equipment that is used under boiling point of nitrogen which is 77 K. The focus of this paper will be on the design of hardware for cryogenic use and a retrofit that was done to the main laboratory cryostat used to test flight components for the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer balloon-borne mission. Data from prior tests showed that there was a superfluid helium leak and a total disassemble of the cryostat was conducted in order to localize and fix the leak. To improve efficiency new fill tubes and clamps with modifications were added to the helium tank. Upon removal of the tank, corrosion was found on the flange face that connects to the helium cold plate and therefore had to be fully replaced and copper plated to prevent future corrosion. Indium seals were also replaced for the four fill tubes, a helium level sensor, and the nitrogen and helium tanks. Four additional shielded twisted pairs of cryogenic wire and a wire harness for the Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) were added. Finally, there was also design work done for multiple pieces that went inside the cryostat and a separate probe used to test the SQUIDs. Upon successful completion of the cryostat upgrade, tests were run to check the effectiveness and stability of the upgrades. The post-retrofit tests showed minor leaks were still present and due to this, superfluidity has still not been attained. As such there could still be a possibility of a superfluid leak appearing in the future. Regardless, the copper plating on the helium tank has elongated the need to service it by three to five years.

  16. Antifungal and proteolytic activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Piper hispidum Sw.

    PubMed

    Orlandelli, Ravely Casarotti; de Almeida, Tiago Tognolli; Alberto, Raiani Nascimento; Polonio, Julio Cesar; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Pamphile, João Alencar

    2015-06-01

    Endophytes are being considered for use in biological control, and the enzymes they secrete might facilitate their initial colonization of internal plant tissues and direct interactions with microbial pathogens. Microbial proteases are also biotechnologically important products employed in bioremediation processes, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical, photographic and food industries. In the present study, we evaluated antagonism and competitive interactions between 98 fungal endophytes and Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum sp., Phyllosticta citricarpa and Moniliophthora perniciosa. We also examined the proteolytic activities of endophytes grown in liquid medium and conducted cup plate assays. The results showed that certain strains in the assemblage of P. hispidum endophytes are important sources of antifungal properties, primarily Lasiodiplodia theobromae JF766989, which reduced phytopathogen growth by approximately 54 to 65%. We detected 28 endophytes producing enzymatic halos of up to 16.40 mm in diameter. The results obtained in the present study highlight the proteolytic activity of the endophytes Phoma herbarum JF766995 and Schizophyllum commune JF766994, which presented the highest enzymatic halo diameters under at least one culture condition tested. The increased activities of certain isolates in the presence of rice or soy flour as a substrate (with halos up to 17.67 mm in diameter) suggests that these endophytes have the potential to produce enzymes using agricultural wastes.

  17. Key Microbiota Identification Using Functional Gene Analysis during Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Peeling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chuanbiao; Liu, Sixin; Li, Congfa

    2016-01-01

    Pepper pericarp microbiota plays an important role in the pepper peeling process for the production of white pepper. We collected pepper samples at different peeling time points from Hainan Province, China, and used a metagenomic approach to identify changes in the pericarp microbiota based on functional gene analysis. UniFrac distance-based principal coordinates analysis revealed significant changes in the pericarp microbiota structure during peeling, which were attributed to increases in bacteria from the genera Selenomonas and Prevotella. We identified 28 core operational taxonomic units at each time point, mainly belonging to Selenomonas, Prevotella, Megasphaera, Anaerovibrio, and Clostridium genera. The results were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. At the functional level, we observed significant increases in microbial features related to acetyl xylan esterase and pectinesterase for pericarp degradation during peeling. These findings offer a new insight into biodegradation for pepper peeling and will promote the development of the white pepper industry. PMID:27768750

  18. 75 FR 61655 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model PA-28-161 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... the AMOC applies, notify your appropriate principal inspector (PI) in the FAA Flight Standards District Office (FSDO), or lacking a PI, your local FSDO. Related Information (h) To get copies of...

  19. Antifungal and proteolytic activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Piper hispidum Sw

    PubMed Central

    Orlandelli, Ravely Casarotti; de Almeida, Tiago Tognolli; Alberto, Raiani Nascimento; Polonio, Julio Cesar; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Pamphile, João Alencar

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes are being considered for use in biological control, and the enzymes they secrete might facilitate their initial colonization of internal plant tissues and direct interactions with microbial pathogens. Microbial proteases are also biotechnologically important products employed in bioremediation processes, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical, photographic and food industries. In the present study, we evaluated antagonism and competitive interactions between 98 fungal endophytes and Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum sp., Phyllosticta citricarpa and Moniliophthora perniciosa. We also examined the proteolytic activities of endophytes grown in liquid medium and conducted cup plate assays. The results showed that certain strains in the assemblage of P. hispidum endophytes are important sources of antifungal properties, primarily Lasiodiplodia theobromae JF766989, which reduced phytopathogen growth by approximately 54 to 65%. We detected 28 endophytes producing enzymatic halos of up to 16.40 mm in diameter. The results obtained in the present study highlight the proteolytic activity of the endophytes Phoma herbarum JF766995 and Schizophyllum commune JF766994, which presented the highest enzymatic halo diameters under at least one culture condition tested. The increased activities of certain isolates in the presence of rice or soy flour as a substrate (with halos up to 17.67 mm in diameter) suggests that these endophytes have the potential to produce enzymes using agricultural wastes. PMID:26273250

  20. Physicochemical and microbiological qualities of steamed and irradiated ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Waje, Catherine K; Kim, Hyun-Ku; Kim, Kyong-Su; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2008-06-25

    The effects of steam and irradiation treatments on the physicochemical properties (moisture content, pH, extractable yield, reducing sugar, soluble pigment, antioxidant activity, piperine, Hunter's color, and sensory attributes) and microbiological quality (total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and yeasts and molds) of ground black pepper stored at refrigerated and room temperatures for 6 months were compared and evaluated. Irradiation resulted in a higher microbial reduction in pepper, with minimal effects on the proximate composition, functional components, color, and sensory attributes of the spice. Steamed peppers appeared darker, and a considerable decrease in the piperine content was observed after treatment and storage. This study illustrates that irradiation is a better decontamination method than steam treatment in eliminating microorganisms without apparently affecting the quality of the powdered spice. Storage at 4 degrees C enhanced the microbial quality and minimized the loss of piperine content in ground black peppers.

  1. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Fruit Transcriptome in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Hu, Lisong; Hao, Chaoyun; Fan, Rui; Wu, Baoduo; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong

    2015-01-01

    Black pepper is one of the most popular and oldest spices in the world and valued for its pungent constituent alkaloids. Pinerine is the main bioactive compound in pepper alkaloids, which perform unique physiological functions. However, the mechanisms of piperine synthesis are poorly understood. This study is the first to describe the fruit transcriptome of black pepper by sequencing on Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 56,281,710 raw reads were obtained and assembled. From these raw reads, 44,061 unigenes with an average length of 1,345 nt were generated. During functional annotation, 40,537 unigenes were annotated in Gene Ontology categories, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, Swiss-Prot database, and Nucleotide Collection (NR/NT) database. In addition, 8,196 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. In a detailed analysis of the transcriptome, housekeeping genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction internal control, polymorphic SSRs, and lysine/ornithine metabolism-related genes were identified. These results validated the availability of our database. Our study could provide useful data for further research on piperine synthesis in black pepper.

  2. Screening of antagonistic bacteria for biological control of nursery wilt of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Anith, K N; Radhakrishnan, N V; Manomohandas, T P

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial antagonists of Phytophthora capsici were isolated from underground shoot portions of rooted cuttings of black pepper. Initially isolates were screened by dual culture on potato dextrose agar and carrot agar. Further, a screening was done on black pepper shoots for supression of lesion caused by the pathogen. Most of the antagonists showed varying levels of antagonism in the dual culture and the shoot assay. Isolate PN-026, showing the highest suppression of lesion development in the shoot assay was found to be the most efficient antagonist in reducing Phytophthora capsici induced nursery wilt of black pepper. This screening involving the host, pathogen, and the antagonist, performed on black pepper shoot (the planting material for this vegetatively propagated crop), could be used as a rapid and reliable method for the isolation of efficient bacterial antagonists of P. capsici.

  3. Paying the piper and calling the tune: accountability in the human services.

    PubMed

    Elkin, R

    1985-01-01

    The author reexamines the issue of accountability from the perspective of administrative implications for human service organizations, both voluntary and governmental. Financial and non-financial measures of organizational activity are explored, along with a series of political and pragmatic considerations, from the viewpoint of human service organization managers. Reviewed are the implications of accountability expectations within the areas of planning and budgeting, obtaining funds, allocating resources, record keeping, monitoring and evaluating, reporting, and auditing.

  4. Paying the pipers: Mitigating the impact of anticoagulant rodenticides on predators and scavengers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, John E.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shore, Richard F.; van den Brink, Nico W.

    2016-01-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides, mainly second-generation forms, or SGARs, dominate the global market for rodent control. Introduced in the 1970s to counter genetic resistance in rodent populations to first-generation compounds such as warfarin, SGARs are extremely toxic and highly effective killers. However, their tendency to persist and accumulate in the body has led to the widespread contamination of terrestrial predators and scavengers. Commercial chemicals that are classified by regulators as persistent, bio-accumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals and that are widely used with potential environmental release, such as dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been removed from commerce. However, despite consistently failing ecological risk assessments, SGARs remain in use because of the demand for effective rodent-control options and the lack of safe and humane alternatives. Although new risk-mitigation measures for rodenticides are now in effect in some countries, the contamination and poisoning of nontarget wildlife are expected to continue. Here, we suggest options to further attenuate this problem.

  5. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of piperic acid triazolyl derivatives as potent anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Ali, Yakub; Alam, Mohammad Sarwar; Hamid, Hinna; Husain, Asif; Bano, Sameena; Dhulap, Abhijeet; Kharbanda, Chetna; Nazreen, Syed; Haider, Saqlain

    2015-03-01

    Nineteen novel piperine based triazoles have been synthesized using click chemistry approach and were tested for in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. The most active compounds were evaluated for in vitro TNF-α expression. Compounds 3g and 3f were found to show significant in vivo inhibition of inflammation, 80.40% and 76.71%, respectively after 5 h in comparison to piperine (54.72%) and the standard drug indomethacin (77.02%) without causing any damage to the stomach. Compounds 3g and 3f suppressed TNF-α level by 73.73% and 70.64%, respectively and protein expression of COX-2, NF-κB and TNF-α more than indomethacin. Moreover, the compound 3g was found to show significant analgesic activity of 54.09% which was comparable with the indomethacin (57.43%). PMID:25596479

  6. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Fruit Transcriptome in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Hu, Lisong; Hao, Chaoyun; Fan, Rui; Wu, Baoduo; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong

    2015-01-01

    Black pepper is one of the most popular and oldest spices in the world and valued for its pungent constituent alkaloids. Pinerine is the main bioactive compound in pepper alkaloids, which perform unique physiological functions. However, the mechanisms of piperine synthesis are poorly understood. This study is the first to describe the fruit transcriptome of black pepper by sequencing on Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 56,281,710 raw reads were obtained and assembled. From these raw reads, 44,061 unigenes with an average length of 1,345 nt were generated. During functional annotation, 40,537 unigenes were annotated in Gene Ontology categories, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, Swiss-Prot database, and Nucleotide Collection (NR/NT) database. In addition, 8,196 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. In a detailed analysis of the transcriptome, housekeeping genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction internal control, polymorphic SSRs, and lysine/ornithine metabolism-related genes were identified. These results validated the availability of our database. Our study could provide useful data for further research on piperine synthesis in black pepper. PMID:26121657

  7. Paying the Piper: ARL Libraries Respond to Skyrocketing Journal Subscription Prices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Richard M.; Barr, Nancy E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a survey that examined the effects of increasing serial subscription costs on American and Canadian research libraries. Strategies adopted by libraries are described, including faculty and campus involvement, retrenchment, long range planning, and shared resources. Relationships with publishers and the possible impact of electronic…

  8. The Handicapped Children's Protection Act of 1986: time to pay the piper?

    PubMed

    Yell, M L; Espin, C A

    1990-02-01

    The Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA), Public Law 94-142, provides for a free, appropriate public education for handicapped children, as well as due process procedures. However, the EAHCA does not directly address relief available to parents who successfully allege inappropriate actions by school. In this article, we examine case law that has provided three primary types of relief (injunctive relief, tuition reimbursement, and attorneys' fees) in special education lawsuits. The Supreme Court's decision in Smith v. Robinson, (1984) which removed attorneys' fees for action under the EAHCA, is analyzed. The congressional reaction to Smith v. Robinson and the Handicapped Children's Protection Act of 1986, Public Law 99-372, is described, and case law relying on that act is examined.

  9. Paying the Piper: Federal Funds and State Interests. A Proposal for Governing NAEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Denis P.

    The need for an appropriate governance structure of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and a governance proposal are discussed. NAEP provides time series data on student achievement within certain academic areas by age and geographic region. Its main purpose is informational, rather than diagnostic. Several objectives are…

  10. Measuring the Chemical and Cytotoxic Variability of Commercially Available Kava (Piper methysticum G. Forster)

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Amanda C.; Johnston, Ed; Xing, Chengguo; Hegeman, Adrian D.

    2014-01-01

    Formerly used world-wide as a popular botanical medicine to reduce anxiety, reports of hepatotoxicity linked to consuming kava extracts in the late 1990s have resulted in global restrictions on kava use and have hindered kava-related research. Despite its presence on the United States Food and Drug Administration consumer advisory list for the past decade, export data from kava producing countries implies that US kava imports, which are not publicly reported, are both increasing and of a fairly high volume. We have measured the variability in extract chemical composition and cytotoxicity towards human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cancer cells of 25 commercially available kava products. Results reveal a high level of variation in chemical content and cytotoxicity of currently available kava products. As public interest and use of kava products continues to increase in the United States, efforts to characterize products and expedite research of this potentially useful botanical medicine are necessary. PMID:25365244

  11. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle’s Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Di Giulio, Andrea; Maurizi, Emanuela; Barbero, Francesca; Sala, Marco; Fattorini, Simone; Balletto, Emilio; Bonelli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants’ activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus) are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can “speak” three different “languages”, each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen). Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants. PMID:26154266

  12. Antispasmodic effect of Piper nigrum fruit hot water extract on rat ileum.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Mohammad Kazem Gharib; Yahyavi, Hoda

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of black pepper fruit hot water extract (BPE) on rat ileum contractility and the mechanism(s) of its action. The extract was prepared by adding black pepper powder to boiling distilled water followed by evaporated the solvent. Ileum was dissected from male adult rat (Wistar) and in Tyrode solution the tissue contractions were recorded by an isotonic transducer under 1 g tension. The cumulative concentrations of the BPE (0.0625-1 mg mL(-1)) reduced the ileum contractions induced by KCl (60 mM) or carbachol (10 microM) concentration dependently (p<0.001). In Ca2+-free Tyrode solution with high potassium (60 mM), BPE, (0.0625-1 mg mL(-1)) attenuated the contractions induced by cumulative concentrations of CaCl2 (0.225-2.7 mM) concentration dependently (ANOVA, p<0.05). The incubation of the tissue preparation (20 or 30 min) with L-NAME (100 microM), naloxone (1 microM) or propranolol (1 microM) did not reduce the extract antispasmodic effect on KCl-induced ileum contraction. The extract spasmolytic effect was attenuated neither by glibenclamide (10 microM) nor by tetraethylammonium (1 mM). Present results suggest that the spasmolytic effect of the extract on rat ileum was possibly mediated via Ca2+ influx.

  13. [Essential oil analysis and trace element study of the roots of Piper nigrum L].

    PubMed

    Ao, P; Hu, S; Zhao, A

    1998-01-01

    Pepper roots contain 0.39% of essential oil. By GC-MS method, 44 peaks and 22 compounds were obtained and identified. The major component was trans-caryophyllene. The trace metal content analysis showed that the heavy metals were under the safety level.

  14. The Pied Piper of Jazz: Does Jazz Belong at School? Wynton Marsalis Thinks So.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Sol

    2001-01-01

    Composer and classical/jazz musician Wynton Marsalis believes that jazz (of all art forms) requires the most democratic skills-such as manners and ability to negotiate with others. Jazz at Lincoln Center is launching a jazz curriculum in fall 2001 that will help kids realize who they are and how to act. (MLH)

  15. 76 FR 29176 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-23, PA-31, and PA-42 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... from AD 2009-13-06, Amendment 39-15944 (74 FR 29118). The door opening in flight could significantly... proposed AD. Discussion On June 12, 2009, we issued AD 2009-13-06, Amendment 39-15944 (74 FR 29118), for... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...

  16. Effect of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and kava kava (Piper methysticum) supplementation on digoxin pharmacokinetics in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gurley, Bill J.; Swain, Ashley; Barone, Gary W.; Williams, D. Keith; Breen, Philip; Yates, C. Ryan; Stuart, Leslie B.; Hubbard, Martha A.; Tong, Yudong; Cheboyina, Sreekhar

    2007-01-01

    Phytochemical-mediated modulation of p-glycoprotein (P-gp) and other drug transporters may give rise to many herb-drug interactions. Serial plasma concentration-time profiles of the P-gp substrate, digoxin, were used to determine whether supplementation with goldenseal or kava kava modified P-gp activity in vivo. Twenty healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized goldenseal (3210 mg daily) or kava kava (1227 mg daily) supplement for 14 days, followed by a 30-day washout period. Subjects were also randomized to receive rifampin (600 mg daily, 7 days) and clarithromycin (1000 mg daily, 7 days) as positive controls for P-gp induction and inhibition, respectively. Digoxin (Lanoxin®, 0.5 mg) was administered orally before and at the end of each supplementation and control period. Serial digoxin plasma concentrations were obtained over 24 hours and analyzed by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Comparisons of AUC(0–3), AUC(0–24), Cmax,, CL/F, and elimination half-life were used to assess the effects of goldenseal, kava kava, rifampin, and clarithromycin on digoxin pharmacokinetics. Rifampin produced significant reductions (p<0.01) in AUC(0–3), AUC(0–24), CL/F, T1/2, and Cmax, while clarithromycin increased these parameters significantly (p<0.01). With the exception of goldenseal’s effect on Cmax (14% increase), no statistically significant effects on digoxin pharmacokinetics were observed following supplementation with either goldenseal or kava kava. When compared to rifampin and clarithromycin, supplementation with these specific formulations of goldenseal or kava kava did not appear to affect digoxin pharmacokinetics, suggesting that these supplements are not potent modulators of P-gp in vivo. PMID:16221754

  17. Antifungal and proteolytic activities of endophytic fungi isolated from Piper hispidum Sw.

    PubMed

    Orlandelli, Ravely Casarotti; de Almeida, Tiago Tognolli; Alberto, Raiani Nascimento; Polonio, Julio Cesar; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Pamphile, João Alencar

    2015-06-01

    Endophytes are being considered for use in biological control, and the enzymes they secrete might facilitate their initial colonization of internal plant tissues and direct interactions with microbial pathogens. Microbial proteases are also biotechnologically important products employed in bioremediation processes, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical, photographic and food industries. In the present study, we evaluated antagonism and competitive interactions between 98 fungal endophytes and Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum sp., Phyllosticta citricarpa and Moniliophthora perniciosa. We also examined the proteolytic activities of endophytes grown in liquid medium and conducted cup plate assays. The results showed that certain strains in the assemblage of P. hispidum endophytes are important sources of antifungal properties, primarily Lasiodiplodia theobromae JF766989, which reduced phytopathogen growth by approximately 54 to 65%. We detected 28 endophytes producing enzymatic halos of up to 16.40 mm in diameter. The results obtained in the present study highlight the proteolytic activity of the endophytes Phoma herbarum JF766995 and Schizophyllum commune JF766994, which presented the highest enzymatic halo diameters under at least one culture condition tested. The increased activities of certain isolates in the presence of rice or soy flour as a substrate (with halos up to 17.67 mm in diameter) suggests that these endophytes have the potential to produce enzymes using agricultural wastes. PMID:26273250

  18. Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Tognolini, M; Barocelli, E; Ballabeni, V; Bruni, R; Bianchi, A; Chiavarini, M; Impicciatore, M

    2006-02-23

    Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Zingiber officinaie L.) were screened in guinea pig and rat plasma in order to assess antiplatelet activity and inhibition of clot retraction. The oils were chemically analysed and a relationship between components and ability to affect hemostasis was evidenced. O. quixos, F. vulgaris, and A. dracunculus showed the highest antiplatelet activity against ADP, Arachidonic Acid and the Thromboxane A2 agonist U46619 (IC50, 4-132 microg ml(-1)), and a good ability to destabilize clot retraction (IC50, 19-180 microg ml(-1)). For these oils a significant correlation between antiplatelet potency and phenylpropanoids content (54-86%) was evidenced thus suggesting a key role for this moiety in the prevention of clot formation. These findings provide the rationale to take in account the antiplatelet activity in the pharmacological screening of natural products containing phenylpropanoids.

  19. Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Tognolini, M; Barocelli, E; Ballabeni, V; Bruni, R; Bianchi, A; Chiavarini, M; Impicciatore, M

    2006-02-23

    Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Zingiber officinaie L.) were screened in guinea pig and rat plasma in order to assess antiplatelet activity and inhibition of clot retraction. The oils were chemically analysed and a relationship between components and ability to affect hemostasis was evidenced. O. quixos, F. vulgaris, and A. dracunculus showed the highest antiplatelet activity against ADP, Arachidonic Acid and the Thromboxane A2 agonist U46619 (IC50, 4-132 microg ml(-1)), and a good ability to destabilize clot retraction (IC50, 19-180 microg ml(-1)). For these oils a significant correlation between antiplatelet potency and phenylpropanoids content (54-86%) was evidenced thus suggesting a key role for this moiety in the prevention of clot formation. These findings provide the rationale to take in account the antiplatelet activity in the pharmacological screening of natural products containing phenylpropanoids. PMID:16274702

  20. Antifungal and phytotoxic activity of essential oil from root of Senecio amplexicaulis Kunth. (Asteraceae) growing wild in high altitude-Himalayan region.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajendra; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Singh, Pratap; Kumar, Naresh; Prakash Sati, Om; Sati, Nitin

    2016-08-01

    This work was aimed to evaluate the essential oil from root of medicinally important plant Senecio amplexicaulis for chemical composition, antifungal and phytotoxic activity. The chemical composition analysed by GC/GC-MS showed the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons in high percentage with marker compounds as α-phellandrene (48.57%), o-cymene (16.80%) and β-ocimene (7.61%). The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against five phytopathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium debaryanum and Fusarium oxysporum. The oil demonstrated remarkable phytotoxic activity in tested concentration and significant reduction in seed germination percentage of Phalaris minor and Triticum aestivum at higher concentrations. The roots essential oil showed high yield for one of its marker compound (α-phellandrene) which makes it important natural source of this compound.

  1. THE CONSUMPTION OF RED PUPUNHA (BACTRIS GASIPAES KUNTH) INCREASES HDL CHOLESTEROL AND REDUCES WEIGHT GAIN OF LACTATING AND POST-LACTATING WISTAR RATS

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, R. Piccolotto; Lemos, J.R. Gonzaga; de Aquino Sales, R. Souza; Martins, M. Gassen; Nascimento, C.H.; Bayona, M.; Marcon, J.L.; Monteiro, J. Barros

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The lactating and post-lactating periods are marked by large metabolic change. Production of milk is 60% lipid dependent. We reported in a recent scientific meeting that Red pupunha palm tree fruit increases HDL cholesterol in lactating rats. This study evaluated if consumption of Red Pupunha by adult female rats has a beneficial impact on the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult rats. Objective Evaluate if consumption of red pupunha has a beneficial effect in the lipid metabolism of lacting and post-lacting adult Wistar rats. Research Methods Four groups including two for control; (1) control adult lactating rats, (2) control adults post-lactating rats; and two experimental groups; (3) pupunha adults lactating rats and (4) pupunha adult post-lactating rats were evaluated and compared regarding: weight gain, food consumption, plasma total protein, glucose, total lipid, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean difference and its 95% confidence intervals were used for group comparisons. Group comparisons were evaluated by using analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). The statistical significance of the pairwise differences among groups was assessed by using the two-sided Tukey test. Results There were no important differences in food consumption, plasma glucose, total lipids and triglycerides among groups. The red pupunha lactating group gain less weight showing lower body mass index (BMI) than controls (p < 0.05). Total cholesterol was lower in red pupunha lactating than in controls but not in the red pupunha post-lactating group as compared to controls. Triglycerides were lower in the post-lactating red pupunha group as compared to the control group (p = 0.039) but not for the lactating groups. Red pupunha lactating and post-lactating groups had higher HDL-cholesterol than their corresponding control groups (p ≤ 0.01). Conclusion Original findings include the beneficial effect of red pupunha in post-lactating rats increasing the HDL-cholesterol and lowering the BMI. Red pupunha was confirmed to increase HDL-cholesterol in lactating rats. These results suggest that red pupunha is a healthy fruit to be consumed during lactating and post-lactating periods as it is related to better lipid profile and less body weight gain. PMID:25580386

  2. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Silva, C V; Henry, R

    2013-02-01

    Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009), the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea) should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa) divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition. PMID:23644797

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Changes in Antioxidant Properties of Leaf and Stem Extracts from Vitex mollis Kunth during In Vitro Digestion.

    PubMed

    Morales-Del-Rio, Juan Alfredo; Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio; Robles-García, Miguel Angel; Aguilar, Jose Antonio; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia; Guerrero-Medina, Pedro Javier; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J; Wong-Corral, Francisco J; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette

    2015-01-01

    Vitex mollis is used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of some ailments. However, there are no studies on what happens to the anti-inflammatory activity or antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex mollis during the digestion process; hence, this is the aim of this work. Methanolic, acetonic, and hexanic extracts were obtained from both parts of the plant. Extract yields and anti-inflammatory activity (elastase inhibition) were measured. Additionally, changes in antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS) and total phenols content of plant extracts before and after in vitro digestion were determined. The highest elastase inhibition to prevent inflammation was presented by hexanic extracts (leaf = 94.63% and stem = 98.30%). On the other hand, the major extract yield (16.14%), antioxidant properties (ABTS = 98.51% and DPPH = 94.47% of inhibition), and total phenols (33.70 mg GAE/g of dried sample) were showed by leaf methanolic extract. Finally, leaf and stem methanolic extracts presented an antioxidant activity increase of 35.25% and 27.22%, respectively, in comparison to their initial values after in vitro digestion process. All samples showed a decrease in total phenols at the end of the digestion. These results could be the basis to search for new therapeutic agents from Vitex mollis.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Changes in Antioxidant Properties of Leaf and Stem Extracts from Vitex mollis Kunth during In Vitro Digestion

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Del-Rio, Juan Alfredo; Gutiérrez-Lomelí, Melesio; Robles-García, Miguel Angel; Aguilar, Jose Antonio; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia; Guerrero-Medina, Pedro Javier; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J.; Wong-Corral, Francisco J.; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette

    2015-01-01

    Vitex mollis is used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of some ailments. However, there are no studies on what happens to the anti-inflammatory activity or antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex mollis during the digestion process; hence, this is the aim of this work. Methanolic, acetonic, and hexanic extracts were obtained from both parts of the plant. Extract yields and anti-inflammatory activity (elastase inhibition) were measured. Additionally, changes in antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS) and total phenols content of plant extracts before and after in vitro digestion were determined. The highest elastase inhibition to prevent inflammation was presented by hexanic extracts (leaf = 94.63% and stem = 98.30%). On the other hand, the major extract yield (16.14%), antioxidant properties (ABTS = 98.51% and DPPH = 94.47% of inhibition), and total phenols (33.70 mg GAE/g of dried sample) were showed by leaf methanolic extract. Finally, leaf and stem methanolic extracts presented an antioxidant activity increase of 35.25% and 27.22%, respectively, in comparison to their initial values after in vitro digestion process. All samples showed a decrease in total phenols at the end of the digestion. These results could be the basis to search for new therapeutic agents from Vitex mollis. PMID:26451153

  5. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Silva, C V; Henry, R

    2013-02-01

    Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009), the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea) should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa) divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.

  6. Antifungal and phytotoxic activity of essential oil from root of Senecio amplexicaulis Kunth. (Asteraceae) growing wild in high altitude-Himalayan region.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajendra; Ahluwalia, Vivek; Singh, Pratap; Kumar, Naresh; Prakash Sati, Om; Sati, Nitin

    2016-08-01

    This work was aimed to evaluate the essential oil from root of medicinally important plant Senecio amplexicaulis for chemical composition, antifungal and phytotoxic activity. The chemical composition analysed by GC/GC-MS showed the presence of monoterpene hydrocarbons in high percentage with marker compounds as α-phellandrene (48.57%), o-cymene (16.80%) and β-ocimene (7.61%). The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against five phytopathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium debaryanum and Fusarium oxysporum. The oil demonstrated remarkable phytotoxic activity in tested concentration and significant reduction in seed germination percentage of Phalaris minor and Triticum aestivum at higher concentrations. The roots essential oil showed high yield for one of its marker compound (α-phellandrene) which makes it important natural source of this compound. PMID:27498832

  7. [[Anti-leishmanial activity in plants from a Biological Reserve of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Chinchilla-Carmona, Misael; Valerio-Campos, Idalia; Sánchez-Porras, Ronald; Bagnarello-Madrigal, Vanessa; Martínez-Esquivel, Laura; González-Paniagua, Antonieta; Alpizar-Cordero, Javier; Cordero-Villalobos, Maribel; Rodríguez-Chaves, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Leishmaniosis is an important human disease very difficult to treat. For this reason, many researchers in the world have been look- ing for anti-leishmanial chemical components present in several plant species. In Costa Rica, since no studies have been done in this field, this work aimed at the search of active chemical components in local plants that may have an activity against Leishmania sp. A total of 67 plants were selected from the Alberto Manuel Brenes Biological Reserve (REBAMB). For these collected plants, fresh or dried hidroalcoholic extracts of root, stem, mature or young leaves, flowers, and immature or mature fruits, were prepared under conventional methods. All extracts were tested for their effect against a strain of Leishmania (OCR with known characteristics). Firstly, by presumptive tests, we selected only those with some activity, and then, more specific studies were done to determine the IC50 in μg/mL; a promising plant was considered only if at least one of its parts presented an IC50 < 100 μg/mL. Under this parameter, the following active plants were obtained and their lowest and highest IC50 obtained values presented (μg/mL): Bocconia frutescens (0.6 and 66.7), Clematis dioica (27.5 and 44.4), Cordia megalantha (80.0), Eugenia austin-smithi (90.6), Guarea bullata (98.8), Guateria tonduzii (44.4 and 66.3), Mikania holwayana (45.0 and 95.6), Nectandra membranacea (44.5 and 58.6), Neurolaena lobata (25.0 and 100.0), Persea povedae (76.9), Piper auritum (60.0), Rollinia pittieri (43.1), Solanum arboreum (25.8 and 72.5), Tetrorchidiumn eurphyllum (53.8 and 95.0), Witheringia solanacea (15.9 and 98.1) and Zanthoxylum juniperinum (23.4 and 97.5). Although the parasitic effect of fresh or dried extracts were almost similar, the fresh material slightly showed better results. That anti-parasitic effect occurred in one or more than four parts of the plant. Most of the active extracts did not produce lysis and aglutination which indicates a low

  8. Administering "Operation Pied Piper"--How the London County Council Prepared for the Evacuation of Its Schoolchildren 1938-1939

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Niko

    2010-01-01

    In September 1939, two days before declaring war on Germany, the British government evacuated over half a million children from London to supposedly safer areas in the country. Schoolchildren went there with their teachers and infants with their mothers. Immediately after the event (and ever since) the impact of the evacuation on the children--the…

  9. Efficacy of an herbal formulation LI10903F containing Dolichos biflorus and Piper betle extracts on weight management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A novel herbal formulation LI10903F, alternatively known as LOWAT was developed based on its ability to inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes model. The clinical efficacy and tolerability of LI10903F were evaluated in an eight-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in 50 human subjects with body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m2 (clinical trial registration number: ISRCTN37381706). Participants were randomly assigned to either a placebo or LI10903F group. Subjects in the LI10903F group received 300 mg of herbal formulation thrice daily, while subjects in the placebo group received 300 mg of placebo capsules thrice daily. All subjects were provided a standard diet (2,000 kcal daily) and participated in a moderate exercise of 30 min walk for five days a week. Additionally, the safety of this herbal formulation was evaluated by a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies in animals and cellular models. Results After eight weeks of supplementation, statistically significant net reductions in body weight (2.49 kg; p=0.00005) and BMI (0.96 kg/m2; p=0.00004) were observed in the LI10903F group versus placebo group. Additionally, significant increase in serum adiponectin concentration (p=0.0076) and significant decrease in serum ghrelin concentration (p=0.0066) were found in LI10903F group compared to placebo group. Adverse events were mild and were equally distributed between the two groups. Interestingly, LI10903F showed broad spectrum safety in a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies. Conclusions Results from the current research suggest that LI10903F or LOWAT is well-tolerated, safe and effective for weight management. PMID:23270333

  10. Different responses of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil microbial communities to consecutive Piper nigrum L. monoculture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhigang; Zu, Chao; Wang, Can; Yang, Jianfeng; Yu, Huan; Wu, Huasong

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganisms have important influences on plant growth and health. In this study, four black pepper fields consecutively monocultured for 12, 18, 28 and 38 years were selected for investigating the effect of planting age on rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil microbial communities and soil physicochemical properties. The results revealed that the relative abundance of the dominant bacterial phyla in rhizosphere soil increased considerably with long-term consecutive monoculture but decreased in non-rhizosphere soil with a significant decline in Firmicutes. For fungi, an increasing trend over time was observed in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, with the abundance of the pathogenic fungi Fusarium increasing significantly accompanied by a decrease in the bacteria Pseudomonas and Bacillus that is beneficial for black pepper. Consecutive monoculture, especially for 38 years, considerably decreased soil microbial diversity. Additionally, the rhizosphere soil pH and organic matter and available K contents decreased with increasing planting duration, though available N and P increased. All soil nutrient contents and microbial diversity indices were higher in rhizosphere soil compared to non-rhizosphere soil. The results suggest that long-term consecutive monoculture leads to variations in soil microbial community composition and physicochemical properties in both rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils, thus inhibiting the black pepper growth. PMID:27775000

  11. Paying the piper: additional considerations of the theoretical, ethical and moral basis of financial incentives for health behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Christine

    2014-02-01

    Lynagh, Sanson-Fisher and Bonevski's article entitled "What's good for the goose is good for the gander. Guiding principles for the use of financial incentives in health behaviour change" (Int J Behav Med 20:114-120, 2012) reviews evidence for the use of financial incentives for encouraging health behaviour change. Their discussion of the practical and moral issues involved is a timely contribution which will encourage consideration of the implications of such interventions. In this response to their paper, I suggest that there are also broader aspects that we must consider before developing principles for public policy intervention. First, we must include good theories that explain in a great deal more depth what we mean by health-related behaviours, and secondly, we need to understand the location of these behaviours in social life and within structural inequalities. To ignore these fundamental aspects of health is to risk increasing social injustice and worsening health inequalities, a facet of the morality of health promotion activities which is not touched upon by the Lynagh et al. paper.

  12. Effect of storage on the essential oil composition of Piper nigrum L. fruits of different ripening states.

    PubMed

    Orav, Anne; Stulova, Irina; Kailas, Tiiu; Müürisepp, Mati

    2004-05-01

    The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oil from black, green, and white pepper was determined by using a simultaneous distillation and extraction micromethod for oil isolation and gas chromatography (GC)/flame ionization detection (FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analysis techniques. The most abundant compounds in pepper oils were (E)-beta-caryophyllene (1.4-70.4%), limonene (2.9-38.4%), beta-pinene (0.7-25.6%), Delta-3-carene (1.7-19.0%), sabinene (0-12.2%), alpha-pinene (0.3-10.4%), eugenol (0.1-41.0%), terpinen-4-ol (0-13.2%), hedycaryol (0-9.1%), beta-eudesmol (0-9.7%), and caryophyllene oxide (0.1-7.2%). Green pepper corn obtained by a sublimation drying method gave more oil (12.1 mg/g) and a much higher content of monoterpenes (84.2%) in the oil than air-dried green pepper corn (0.8 mg/g and 26.8%, respectively). The oil from ground black pepper contained more monoterpenes and less sesquiterprnes and oxygenated terpenoids as compared to green and white pepper oils. After 1 year of storage of pepper samples in a glass vessel at room temperature, the amount of the oils isolated decreased, the content of terpenes decreased, and the amount of oxygenated terpenoids increased. Differently from other pepper samples, 1 year storage of green pepper corn raised the oil amount more than twice of both drying methods.

  13. Isolation and amplification of genomic DNA from recalcitrant dried berries of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)--a medicinal spice.

    PubMed

    Dhanya, K; Kizhakkayil, Jaleel; Syamkumar, S; Sasikumar, B

    2007-10-01

    Black pepper is an important medicinal spice traded internationally. The extraction of high quality genomic DNA for PCR amplification from dried black pepper is challenging because of the presence of the exceptionally large amount of oxidized polyphenolic compounds, polysaccharides and other secondary metabolites. Here we report a modified hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol by incorporating potassium acetate and a final PEG precipitation step to isolate PCR amplifiable genomic DNA from dried and powdered berries of black pepper. The protocol has trade implication as it will help in the PCR characterization of traded black peppers from different countries.

  14. The effect of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour quality of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Zeng, Fankui; Wang, Qinghuang; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Lehe; Gu, Fenglin

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we compared the effects of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour attributes of black, white, and green pepper. The flavour attributes were analysed using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) analysis. Cryogenic grinding resulted in minimal damage to the colour, flavour, and sensory attributes of the spices. Cryogenic grinding was also better than hammer milling at preserving the main potent aroma constituents, but the concentrations of the main aroma constituents were dramatically reduced after storing the samples at 4 °C for 6 months. Pattern matching performed by the e-nose further supported our sensory and instrumental findings. Overall, cryogenic grinding was superior to hammer milling for preserving the sensory properties and flavour attributes of pepper without significantly affecting its quality. However, we found that the flavour quality of ground pepper was reduced during storage.

  15. Educational Financing in Canada 1970-71 to 1984-85: Who Calls the Tune, Who Pays the Piper?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decore, Anne Marie; Pannu, Raj S.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in Canadian financing of education, and specifically in expenditure per student, for all educational levels in the last 15 years are examined through analysis of the proportions of national, provincial, and other support in relation to gross national product, total government expenditures, and enrollments. (MSE)

  16. Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Piper betle, Areca catechu, Uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Betel quid chewing is a popular habit in Southeast Asia. It is believed that chewing betel quid could reduce stress, strengthen teeth and maintain oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of each of the ingredients of betel quid and compared with betel quid itself (with and without calcium hydroxide). The correlation of their cytoprotective and antioxidant activities with phenolic content was also determined. Methods Five samples (betel leaf, areca nut, gambir, betel quid and betel quid containing calcium hydroxide) were extracted in deionized distilled water for 12 hours at 37°C. Antioxidant activities were evaluated for radical scavenging activity using DPPH assay, ferric reducing activity using FRAP assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity using FTC assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. Phenolic composition was analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Cytoprotective activity towards human gingival fibroblast cells was examined using MTT assay. Results Among the ingredients of betel quid, gambir demonstrated the highest antioxidant (DPPH - IC50 = 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/mL, FRAP - 5717.8 ± 537.6 μmol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 1142.5 ± 106.8 μg TAE/mg) and cytoprotective (100.1 ± 4.6%) activities. Betel quid when compared with betel quid containing calcium hydroxide has higher antioxidant (DPPH - IC50 =59.4 ± 4.4 μg/mL, FRAP - 1022.2 ± 235.7 μmol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 140.0 ± 22.3 μg TAE/mg), and cytoprotective (113.5 ± 15.9%) activities. However, all of the five samples showed good lipid peroxidation inhibition compared to vitamin E. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of quinic acid as the major compound of gambir and betel quid. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging (r = 0.972), reducing power (r = 0.981) and cytoprotective activity (r = 0.682). Conclusions The betel quid has higher TPC, and antioxidant and cytoprotective activities than betel quid with calcium hydroxide. The quinic acid in betel quid may play an important role in the oral health protection. PMID:24330738

  17. Paying the Piper: Productivity, Incentives, and Financing in U.S. Higher Education. The Economics of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Michael S.; And Others

    This volume contains 14 papers on productivity, incentives, and financing in U.S. higher education, issues of particular urgency in light of revenue shortfalls, expenditure pressures, and controversies that have shaken public confidence in higher education. Part 1 contains two background papers: "Introduction" (Michael S. McPherson, Morton O.…

  18. 75 FR 43809 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 56138). The NPRM proposed to detect and correct any incorrectly assembled control wheel... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034.... 6: Alternative Methods of Inspecting Neal Bachman, M. Hefter, and several other commenters...

  19. Transfer RNA Derived Small RNAs Targeting Defense Responsive Genes Are Induced during Phytophthora capsici Infection in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Asha, Srinivasan; Soniya, Eppurath V.

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs derived from transfer RNAs were recently assigned as potential gene regulatory candidates for various stress responses in eukaryotes. In this study, we report on the cloning and identification of tRNA derived small RNAs from black pepper plants in response to the infection of the quick wilt pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. 5′tRFs cloned from black pepper were validated as highly expressed during P. capsici infection. A high-throughput systematic analysis of the small RNAome (sRNAome) revealed the predominance of 5′tRFs in the infected leaf and root. The abundance of 5′tRFs in the sRNAome and the defense responsive genes as their potential targets indicated their regulatory role during stress response in black pepper. The 5′AlaCGC tRF mediated cleavage was experimentally mapped at the tRF binding sites on the mRNA targets of Non-expresser of pathogenesis related protein (NPR1), which was down-regulated during pathogen infection. Comparative sRNAome further demonstrated sequence conservation of 5′Ala tRFs across the angiosperm plant groups, and many important genes in the defense response were identified in silico as their potential targets. Our findings uncovered the diversity, differential expression and stress responsive functional role of tRNA-derived small RNAs during Phytophthora infection in black pepper. PMID:27313593

  20. Operation Pied Piper: a geographical reappraisal of the impact of wartime evacuation on scarlet fever and diphtheria rates in England and Wales, 1939-1945.

    PubMed

    Smallman-Raynor, M R; Cliff, A D

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines the geographical impact of the British Government's wartime evacuation scheme on notified rates of two common acute childhood diseases (scarlet fever and diphtheria) in the 1470 local government districts of England and Wales, 1939-1945. Drawing on the notifications of communicable diseases collated by the General Register Office (GRO), we establish pre-war (baseline) disease rates for the 1470 districts. For the war years, techniques of binary logistic regression analysis are used to assess the associations between (a) above-baseline ('raised') disease rates in evacuation, neutral and reception districts and (b) the major phases of the evacuation scheme. The analysis demonstrates that the evacuation was temporally associated with distinct national and regional effects on notified levels of disease activity. These effects were most pronounced in the early years of the dispersal (1939-1941) and corresponded with initial levels of evacuation-related population change at the regional and district scales.

  1. The Pied Piper of Neo Liberalism Calls the Tune in the Republic of Ireland: An Analysis of Education Policy Text from 2000-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmie, Geraldine Mooney

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the rhetoric of education policy text during the timeframe from 2000 to 2012 in the Republic of Ireland. The study was framed within two different discourses of the role of the teacher: one discourse regards the teacher as a professional within a dynamic system of democratic relations (Anyon, 2011; Apple, 2012;…

  2. Elish-Piper: Response to "Beyond the Common Core: Examining 20 Years of Literacy Priorities and Their Impact on Struggling Readers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elish-Piper, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    As Cassidy et al. (2016) outline in their article, the Common Core State Standards (CCSS; National Governors Association [NGA] Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers [CCSSO], 2010) have taken center stage in education, pushing other important topics and issues aside as teachers scramble to transform their teaching…

  3. 40 CFR 721.9530 - Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal. 721.9530 Section 721.9530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1...-clo-alkyl spir-o-ke-tal (PMN P-88-0083) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  4. In vitro investigation of the potential immunomodulatory and anti-cancer activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum).

    PubMed

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Carr, Ronald I

    2010-04-01

    Although the immunomodulatory effects of many herbs have been extensively studied, research related to possible immunomodulatory effects of various spices is relatively scarce. Here, the potential immunomodulatory effects of black pepper and cardamom are investigated. Our data show that black pepper and cardamom aqueous extracts significantly enhance splenocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent, synergistic fashion. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments reveal that black pepper and cardamom significantly enhance and suppress, respectively, T helper (Th)1 cytokine release by splenocytes. Conversely, Th2 cytokine release by splenocytes is significantly suppressed and enhanced by black pepper and cardamom, respectively. Experimental evidence suggests that black pepper and cardamom extracts exert pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively. Consistently, nitric oxide production by macrophages is significantly augmented and reduced by black pepper and cardamom, respectively. Remarkably, it is evident that black pepper and cardamom extracts significantly enhance the cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells, indicating their potential anti-cancer effects. Our findings strongly suggest that black pepper and cardamom exert immunomodulatory roles and antitumor activities, and hence they manifest themselves as natural agents that can promote the maintenance of a healthy immune system. We anticipate that black pepper and cardamom constituents can be used as potential therapeutic tools to regulate inflammatory responses and prevent/attenuate carcinogenesis.

  5. Characterization of odorants causing an atypical aroma in white pepper powder (Piper nigrum L.) based on quantitative measurements and orthonasal breakthrough thresholds.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Martin; Schieberle, Peter

    2005-07-27

    Application of the aroma extract dilution analysis on an extract of white pepper powder showing an intense fecal, cowshed-like off-flavor revealed 3-methylindole (fecal, swine-manure) and 4-methylphenol (fecal, horse-like) with the highest flavor dilution (FD) factors among the 22 odor-active compounds detected. In addition, high FD factors and/or undesirable odor qualities suggested 3-methylphenol (phenolic), butanoic acid (cheese-like), and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (cheese-like) as well as pentanoic acid and hexanoic acid (cheese-like odors) as contributors to the malodor. Although the intensities of the off-note were clearly different in 50 commercial samples of white pepper, quantitation of 3-methylindole and 3- and 4-methylphenol as well as of the five short-chain acids by means of stable isotope dilution assays showed similar concentrations in most of the samples. Storage of a freshly ground white pepper powder for up to 7 months revealed a significant decrease in the typical odor qualities of white pepper and an increase in the fecal odor note with storage time. Because the concentrations of the odorants mentioned above were not much changed during storage, possibly very volatile odorants, such as alpha-pinene, which are able to mask the malodor, are lost during storage of, in particular, pepper powders. On the basis of odor activity values, which were calculated using breakthrough thresholds, in particular, 3-methylindole, 4-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, and butanoic acid could be suggested as the main sources of the fecal off-flavor.

  6. Transfer RNA Derived Small RNAs Targeting Defense Responsive Genes Are Induced during Phytophthora capsici Infection in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Asha, Srinivasan; Soniya, Eppurath V

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs derived from transfer RNAs were recently assigned as potential gene regulatory candidates for various stress responses in eukaryotes. In this study, we report on the cloning and identification of tRNA derived small RNAs from black pepper plants in response to the infection of the quick wilt pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. 5'tRFs cloned from black pepper were validated as highly expressed during P. capsici infection. A high-throughput systematic analysis of the small RNAome (sRNAome) revealed the predominance of 5'tRFs in the infected leaf and root. The abundance of 5'tRFs in the sRNAome and the defense responsive genes as their potential targets indicated their regulatory role during stress response in black pepper. The 5'Ala(CGC) tRF mediated cleavage was experimentally mapped at the tRF binding sites on the mRNA targets of Non-expresser of pathogenesis related protein (NPR1), which was down-regulated during pathogen infection. Comparative sRNAome further demonstrated sequence conservation of 5'Ala tRFs across the angiosperm plant groups, and many important genes in the defense response were identified in silico as their potential targets. Our findings uncovered the diversity, differential expression and stress responsive functional role of tRNA-derived small RNAs during Phytophthora infection in black pepper.

  7. 75 FR 35619 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... (NPRM) on February 19, 2010 (75 FR 7407). The NPRM proposed to require replacing any spot-welded, V-band... and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact... release of high-temperature gases inside the engine compartment and possibly cause an in-flight fire....

  8. 75 FR 7407 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... caused us to issue the following ADs: AD 2004-23-17, Amendment 39-13872 (69 FR 67809, November 22, 2004... FR 34941, June 1, 2000), applicable to Commander Aircraft Company Model 114TC airplanes. A newer and... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and...

  9. Transfer RNA Derived Small RNAs Targeting Defense Responsive Genes Are Induced during Phytophthora capsici Infection in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Asha, Srinivasan; Soniya, Eppurath V

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs derived from transfer RNAs were recently assigned as potential gene regulatory candidates for various stress responses in eukaryotes. In this study, we report on the cloning and identification of tRNA derived small RNAs from black pepper plants in response to the infection of the quick wilt pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. 5'tRFs cloned from black pepper were validated as highly expressed during P. capsici infection. A high-throughput systematic analysis of the small RNAome (sRNAome) revealed the predominance of 5'tRFs in the infected leaf and root. The abundance of 5'tRFs in the sRNAome and the defense responsive genes as their potential targets indicated their regulatory role during stress response in black pepper. The 5'Ala(CGC) tRF mediated cleavage was experimentally mapped at the tRF binding sites on the mRNA targets of Non-expresser of pathogenesis related protein (NPR1), which was down-regulated during pathogen infection. Comparative sRNAome further demonstrated sequence conservation of 5'Ala tRFs across the angiosperm plant groups, and many important genes in the defense response were identified in silico as their potential targets. Our findings uncovered the diversity, differential expression and stress responsive functional role of tRNA-derived small RNAs during Phytophthora infection in black pepper. PMID:27313593

  10. Assessment of hygienic conditions of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the market in Sao Paulo City, by means of two methodologies for detecting the light filth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepper should to be collected, processed, and packed under optimum conditions to avoid the presence of foreign matter. The hygienic conditions of ground pepper marketted in São Paulo city were assessed in determining the presence of foreign matter by means of two extraction methodologies. This study...

  11. The Oil of Matico (Piper aduncum L.) an Alternative for the Control of Cacao Frosty Pod Rot (Moniliophthora roreri) in Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cacao production in many Latin American countries is significantly reduced by frosty pod rot disease (Moniliophthora roreri) and yield reductions are to the extent of over 90% in many cases. The strategies of control includes: phytosanitation, genetic resistance, chemical and biological control....

  12. 76 FR 36395 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-24, PA-24-250, and PA-24-260 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... FR 17371, April 26, 1976) are related to this AD action. For the attached torque tube, you may... stabilator horn assembly or repetitive inspection of the stabilator horn assembly for corrosion or...

  13. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytko...

  14. WILLIAM SEAL REJECTING AN INCOMPLETE OR IMPROPERLY SET BEARDSLEY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WILLIAM SEAL REJECTING AN INCOMPLETE OR IMPROPERLY SET BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC CORE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Short-term effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and Rosmarinus eriocalyx) on sustained attention and on energy and fatigue mood states in young adults with low energy.

    PubMed

    Lindheimer, Jacob B; Loy, Bryan D; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    The purpose was to test whether a single dose of black pepper or rosemary produced short-term enhancements in sustained attention, motivation to perform cognitive tasks, or feelings of mental energy and fatigue. Outcomes were measured in 40 young adults with below average feelings of energy before and twice after they orally consumed capsules containing either black pepper (2.0 g), rosemary (1.7 g), or a placebo (3.1 g rice flour). Sustained attention was measured using a 16-min dual task, in which, single-digit numbers were presented every second on a screen and the participant performed both a primary task [detection of three successive, different odd digits] and a secondary task [detection of the number 6]. Feelings of energy and fatigue were measured using the vigor and fatigue subscales of the Profile of Mood States and visual analog scales (VAS). Analysis of variance showed nonsignificant condition (spice versus placebo)×time (T1, T2, & T3) effects for motivation, measured with a VAS, and the intensity of energy and fatigue feelings. Unadjusted effect sizes revealed that rosemary induced small, transient reductions in false alarm errors (d=0.21) and mental fatigue (d=0.40) at isolated time periods. Time-varying analysis of covariance, controlling for motivation to perform cognitive tasks, showed no significant effects on the primary or secondary task outcomes of correct responses (hits), errors (false alarms, misses), speed of response (reaction time), and signal detection sensitivity. It is concluded that black pepper and rosemary, consumed in a capsule form, in the doses used and while wearing a nose clip to block olfactory effects, do not induce consistent short-term improvements in sustained attention, motivation to perform cognitive tasks, or feelings of mental energy and fatigue in young adults with low energy.

  16. Preliminary screening of five ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Morales, C; Gomez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar, A M; Cáceres, A

    2001-01-01

    We performed the Irwin test on some different extracts of the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens L., of the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., of the bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. and of the root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At a dosage of 1.25 g extract/100 g dried plant, the aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and G. sepium Jacq. Walp. showed higher activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis. catalepsy and strong hypothermia.

  17. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 April 2010 - 31 May 2010.

    PubMed

    Andree, K; Axtner, Jan; Bagley, M J; Barlow, E J; Beebee, T J C; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Bermingham, Eldredge; Boisselier-Dubayle, M C; Bozarth, Christine A; Brooks, Christopher P; Brown, R P; Catanese, Gaetano; Cavers, S; Ceron-Souza, Ivania; Chak, Solomon T C; Chan, M N; Charles-Dominique, P; Chen, C Y; Chen, J D; Chinchilla, Leah; DA Silva, D; Dafreville, S; Daunt, F; Delatte, H; Dorge, T; Duncan, N; Durand, J D; Duvernell, D; Estep, Matt; Fan, Sigang; Fattahi, R; Villela, Oscar Flores; Fong, Yokking; Fréville, H; Funes, Victoria; Gallardo-Escarate, C; Ganeshaiah, K N; Ghaffari, M R; Girod, C; Gomez-Moliner, B J; Gonzalez-Porter, Gracia P; Gosa, A; Govers, F; Guérin, F; Guindo, Diarah; Hailer, Frank; Haye, P A; Hoelmer, Kim A; Hofmann, S; Hong, Yan; Hu, Chaoqun; Huang, S W; Humeau, L; Infante, Carlos; Jackson, S A; Jacobsen, E; Jowkar, A; Kafi, M; Kermani, M J; Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Kyung Seok; Kim, Min-Young; Knibb, W; Koita, Ousmane A; Korpelainen, H; Lambourdiere, J; Lasso, Eloisa; Leblois, R; Lee, Hang; Lee, Seunghwan; Leung, F C C; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Li, Chunhong; Li, Y; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Lizana, M; Loughry, W J; Luo, Peng; Madeira, M J; Mahmoodi, P; Maldonado, Jesús E; Mardi, M; Mendes, O; Miehe, G; Muth, Peter; Nacci, D; Naveen Kumar, L; Ng, Wai-Chuen; Pailler, T; Parzies, Heiko K; Perez, Laura; Pfunder, M; Pietiläinen, M; Pirseyedi, S M; Porta, D; Porta, J; Porta, J M; Quilici, S; Rakotoarivelo, F P; Ramesha, B T; Ravikanth, G; Riéra, B; Risterucci, A M; Roberts, D A; Samadi, S; Sarasola-Puente, V; Sarrazin, E; Sarthou, C; Schmidt, Anke; Segovia, N I; Shen, K N; Simiand, C; Sman, Muhammad Hidayat Bin; Solhoy, T; Sommer, Simone; Sumangala, R C; Taubert, Ramona; Tejangkura, T; Telford, A; Testa, A; Tollon-Cordet, C; Tzeng, W N; Uma Shaanker, R; Van Der Lee, T A J; VAN Mourik, Thomas A; Vasudeva, R; Wai, T C; Wang, R L; Welch, Mark E; Weltzien, Eva; Whitehead, A; Woodard, Anastasia; Xia, Jianjun; Zeinolabedini, M; Zhang, Lvping

    2010-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 396 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Anthocidaris crassispina, Aphis glycines, Argyrosomus regius, Astrocaryum sciophilum, Dasypus novemcinctus, Delomys sublineatus, Dermatemys mawii, Fundulus heteroclitus, Homalaspis plana, Jumellea rossii, Khaya senegalensis, Mugil cephalus, Neoceratitis cyanescens, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, Phytophthora infestans, Piper cordulatum, Pterocarpus indicus, Rana dalmatina, Rosa pulverulenta, Saxifraga oppositifolia, Scomber colias, Semecarpus kathalekanensis, Stichopus monotuberculatus, Striga hermonthica, Tarentola boettgeri and Thermophis baileyi. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Aphis gossypii, Sooretamys angouya, Euryoryzomys russatus, Fundulus notatus, Fundulus olivaceus, Fundulus catenatus, Fundulus majalis, Jumellea fragrans, Jumellea triquetra Jumellea recta, Jumellea stenophylla, Liza richardsonii, Piper marginatum, Piper aequale, Piper darienensis, Piper dilatatum, Rana temporaria, Rana iberica, Rana pyrenaica, Semecarpus anacardium, Semecarpus auriculata, Semecarpus travancorica, Spondias acuminata, Holigarna grahamii, Holigarna beddomii, Mangifera indica, Anacardium occidentale, Tarentola delalandii, Tarentola caboverdianus and Thermophis zhaoermii. PMID:21565124

  18. 75 FR 78932 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ...--Zea mays L. subsp. mays'', ``Crambe--Crambe abyssinica R.E. Fr.'', ``Crotalaria, slenderleaf...) Steud.'', ``Hardinggrass--Phalaris stenoptera Hack.'', ``Hemp--Cannabis sativa L.'', ``Kudzu--Pueraria... gracilis ] (Kunth) Griffiths'', ``Hardinggrass--Phalaris aquatica L.'', ``Hemp-- Cannabis sativa L....

  19. Volatile compounds from Tagetes pusilla (Asteraceae) collected from the Venezuela Andes.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Diolimar; Rojas, Luis B; Rojas, Janne; Morales, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    The essential oil from the leaves of Tagetes pusilla Kunth (Asteraceae) collected from Mérida, Venezuela, was analyzed by GC/MS. A yield of 0.38% oil was obtained by hydrodistillation. Only two components, trans-anethole and 4-allylanisole were identified by comparison of their mass spectra with those in the Wiley GC-MS Library data base.

  20. NATURAL ENEMIES OF MIKANIA MICRANTHA IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mikania micrantha Kunth is native to Central and South America, and is considered to be one of the most serious invasive plants in Asia. It was discovered for the first time in North America in October 2009 near Homestead. To understand the impact of native natural enemies on Mikania micrantha, we ...

  1. THE RESPONSE OF THURBER'S NEEDLEGRASS TO FALL PRESCRIBED BURNING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thurber’s needlegrass (Achnatherum thurberianum (Piper) Barkworth) is an important component of many sagebrush communities in the Intermountain West. Prescribed fall burning is often implemented in sagebrush plant communities to mimic historic wildfires, improve wildlife habitat, and increase lives...

  2. WILLIAM SEAL USING A HAMMER TO LOOSEN A BEARDSLEY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WILLIAM SEAL USING A HAMMER TO LOOSEN A BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC CORE FROM ITS CORE BOX. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) reservoir sandstones in the Witch Ground Graben, U. K. North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, S.D. Ltd., Aberdeen ); Mantel, K.A. ); Morton, D.J. ); Riley, L.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Oil-bearing Late Jurassic Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian sandstones of the Sgiath and Piper formations are of major economic importance in the Witch Ground Graben. They form the reservoirs in Scott, which in 1993 will be the largest producing North Sea oil field to come on stream for more than a decade. Together with Scott, the Piper, Saltire, Tartan, Highlander, Petronella, Rob Roy, and Ivanhoe fields contained almost 2 Bbbl of recoverable reserves in these formations. The Sgiath and Piper represent two phases of Late Jurassic transgression and regression, initially represented by paralic deposited sand culminating in a wave-dominated delta sequence. The history of the Sgiath and Piper formations is reviewed and lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic correlations presented to illustrate the distribution of the reservoir sandstones.

  4. Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer: Status and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to detect the characteristic signature of gravity waves created during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. PIPER combines cold /I.G K\\ optics, 5120 bolometric detectors, and rapid polarization modulation using VPM grids to achieve both high sensitivity and excellent control of systematic errors. I will discuss the current status and plans for the PIPER instrument.

  5. Fruit secondary compounds mediate the retention time of seeds in the guts of Neotropical fruit bats.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Justin W; Whitehead, Susan R

    2015-02-01

    Plants often recruit frugivorous animals to transport their seeds; however, gut passage can have varying effects on plant fitness depending on the physical and chemical treatment of the seed, the distance seeds are transported, and the specific site of deposition. One way in which plants can mediate the effects of gut passage on fitness is by producing fruit secondary compounds that influence gut-retention time (GRT). Using frugivorous bats (Carollia perspicillata: Phyllostomidae) and Neotropical plants in the genus Piper, we compared GRT of seeds among five plant species (Piper colonense, Piper peltatum, Piper reticulatum, Piper sancti-felicis, and Piper silvivagum) and investigated the role of fruit amides (piperine, piplartine and whole fruit amide extracts from P. reticulatum) in mediating GRT. Our results showed interspecific differences in GRT; P. reticulatum seeds passed most slowly, while P. silvivagum and P. colonense seeds passed most rapidly. Piplartine and P. reticulatum amide extracts decreased GRT, while piperine had no effect. In addition, we examined the effects of GRT on seed germination success and speed in laboratory conditions. For germination success, the effects were species specific; germination success increased with GRT for P. peltatum but not for other species. GRT did not influence germination speed in any of the species examined. Plant secondary compounds have primarily been studied in the context of their defensive role against herbivores and pathogens, but may also play a key role in mediating seed dispersal interactions.

  6. Clarifying the Dioscorea buchananii Benth. species complex: a new potentially extinct subspecies for South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilkin, Paul; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Dioscorea buchananii complex is shown to comprise three species, one of which is divided into two subspecies, based on morphological data. Two species, Dioscorea rupicola Kunth and Dioscorea multiloba Kunth, are endemic or subendemic to South Africa and of widespread occurrence in KwaZulu Natal. They differ markedly from each other in inflorescence and floral morphology and appear to be ecologically differentiated. The third species, Dioscorea buchananii Benth., is primarily found in southeastern tropical Africa, but a small number of specimens collected in South Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries are placed in an endemic subspecies, Dioscorea buchananii subsp. undatiloba (Baker) Wilkin. The latter taxon is a high priority in terms of rediscovery and conservation. Keys, descriptions, supporting information and illustrations are provided and made available online through eMonocot biodiversity informatics tools. Three nomenclatural acts are undertaken: two names are placed in synonymy and a new combination made. PMID:25931973

  7. Neuropharmacological profile of ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Morales Cifuentes, C; Gómez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar del Fresno, A M; Morales, C; Paredes, M E; Cáceres, A

    2001-08-01

    We carried out the Irwin's test with some different extracts of the aerial parts of Thidax procumbens L., the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp., and root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At dosage of 1.25 g dried plant/kg weight aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. demonstrated the most activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis, catalepsy and strong hypothermia. These extracts of both plants were assayed for effects on CNS and they caused very significant reductions in spontaneous locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and rectal temperature and they increased the sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time.

  8. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-05-16

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp.

  9. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp. PMID:27395090

  10. Essential oil composition of Vismia macrophylla leaves (Guttiferae).

    PubMed

    Rojas, Janne; Buitrago, Alexis; Rojas, Luis; Morales, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil from Vismia macrophylla Kunth (Guttiferae) leaves, extracted by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC/MS. The oil obtained (yield 0.11%) contained twenty-eight compounds, which were identified from their retention indices and by comparison of their mass spectra with those in the Wiley GC-MS Library data base. The major components were beta-caryophyllene (20.1%), germacrene D (11.6%) and beta-elemene (7.0%).

  11. Effects of High Temperature and Water Stress on Seed Germination of the Invasive Species Mexican Sunflower.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Mexican sunflower is native to Mexico and Central America and was introduced into China early last century. Now it has widely naturalized and is exhibiting increasing invasiveness in South China. As this species often dominates bare ground, a habitat characterized by extreme fluctuation in temperature and water, it is reasonable to hypothesize that it has special adaptations to high temperature and water stress. Using laboratory experiments to simulate these stresses, this study investigated the response of Mexican sunflower seed germination to temperature and water stress, and compared these responses with those previously reported for another invasive, bamboo piper, which is confined to relatively cool and moist habitats in Xishuangbanna. As expected, Mexican sunflower seeds exhibited higher tolerance to these stresses than bamboo piper. Germination of Mexican sunflower seeds was highest at 15-30°C, but significant numbers of seeds germinated and formed seedlings at 10°C and 35°C, at which no bamboo piper seeds formed seedlings, indicating a wider temperature range for germination than the latter. Roughly half the seeds survived 240 h continuous heat treatment and up to 15 h daily periodical heat treatment at 40°C, while bamboo piper seeds were mostly killed by these treatments. About 20% of Mexican sunflower but no bamboo piper seeds germinated after heat treatment for 30 min at 80°C. Germination was completely inhibited in bamboo piper seeds at -0.6 mPa, while 20-60% of Mexican sunflower seeds germinated depending on PEG or NaCl as osmoticum. This higher tolerance in Mexican sunflower seeds accords with its stronger invasiveness in this area. This comparison between two plant invaders demonstrates that invasiveness is not an all-or-nothing situation, and that adaptation to local habitats is a critical determinant of successful invasiveness for an alien plant. PMID:26509675

  12. Sequence diversity among badnavirus isolates infecting black pepper and related species in India.

    PubMed

    Bhat, A I; Sasi, Shina; Revathy, K A; Deeshma, K P; Saji, K V

    2014-01-01

    The badnavirus, piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV) is known to infect black pepper (Piper nigrum), betelvine (P. betle) and Indian long pepper (P. longum) in India and other parts of the world. Occurrence of PYMoV or other badnaviruses in other species of Piper and its variability is not reported so far. We have analysed sequence variability in the conserved putative reverse transcriptase (RT)/ribonuclease H (RNase H) coding region of the virus using specific badnavirus primers from 13 virus isolates of black pepper collected from different cultivars and regions and one isolate each from 23 other species of Piper. Of these, four species failed to produce expected amplicon while amplicon from four other species showed more similarities to plant sequences than to badnaviruses. Of the remaining, isolates from black pepper, P. argyrophyllum, P. attenuatum, P. barberi, P. betle, P. colubrinum, P. galeatum, P. longum, P. ornatum, P. sarmentosum and P. trichostachyon showed an identity of >85 % at the nucleotide and >90 % at the amino acid level with PYMoV indicating that they are isolates of PYMoV. On the other hand high sequence variability of 21-43 % at nucleotide and 17-46 % at amino acid level compared to PYMoV was found among isolates infecting P. bababudani, P. chaba, P. peepuloides, P. mullesua and P. thomsonii suggesting the presence of new badnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses showed close clustering of all PYMoV isolates that were well separated from other known badnaviruses. This is the first report of occurrence of PYMoV in eight Piper spp and likely occurrence of four new species in five Piper spp. PMID:25674613

  13. Effects of High Temperature and Water Stress on Seed Germination of the Invasive Species Mexican Sunflower.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Mexican sunflower is native to Mexico and Central America and was introduced into China early last century. Now it has widely naturalized and is exhibiting increasing invasiveness in South China. As this species often dominates bare ground, a habitat characterized by extreme fluctuation in temperature and water, it is reasonable to hypothesize that it has special adaptations to high temperature and water stress. Using laboratory experiments to simulate these stresses, this study investigated the response of Mexican sunflower seed germination to temperature and water stress, and compared these responses with those previously reported for another invasive, bamboo piper, which is confined to relatively cool and moist habitats in Xishuangbanna. As expected, Mexican sunflower seeds exhibited higher tolerance to these stresses than bamboo piper. Germination of Mexican sunflower seeds was highest at 15-30°C, but significant numbers of seeds germinated and formed seedlings at 10°C and 35°C, at which no bamboo piper seeds formed seedlings, indicating a wider temperature range for germination than the latter. Roughly half the seeds survived 240 h continuous heat treatment and up to 15 h daily periodical heat treatment at 40°C, while bamboo piper seeds were mostly killed by these treatments. About 20% of Mexican sunflower but no bamboo piper seeds germinated after heat treatment for 30 min at 80°C. Germination was completely inhibited in bamboo piper seeds at -0.6 mPa, while 20-60% of Mexican sunflower seeds germinated depending on PEG or NaCl as osmoticum. This higher tolerance in Mexican sunflower seeds accords with its stronger invasiveness in this area. This comparison between two plant invaders demonstrates that invasiveness is not an all-or-nothing situation, and that adaptation to local habitats is a critical determinant of successful invasiveness for an alien plant.

  14. Effects of High Temperature and Water Stress on Seed Germination of the Invasive Species Mexican Sunflower

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Mexican sunflower is native to Mexico and Central America and was introduced into China early last century. Now it has widely naturalized and is exhibiting increasing invasiveness in South China. As this species often dominates bare ground, a habitat characterized by extreme fluctuation in temperature and water, it is reasonable to hypothesize that it has special adaptations to high temperature and water stress. Using laboratory experiments to simulate these stresses, this study investigated the response of Mexican sunflower seed germination to temperature and water stress, and compared these responses with those previously reported for another invasive, bamboo piper, which is confined to relatively cool and moist habitats in Xishuangbanna. As expected, Mexican sunflower seeds exhibited higher tolerance to these stresses than bamboo piper. Germination of Mexican sunflower seeds was highest at 15–30°C, but significant numbers of seeds germinated and formed seedlings at 10°C and 35°C, at which no bamboo piper seeds formed seedlings, indicating a wider temperature range for germination than the latter. Roughly half the seeds survived 240 h continuous heat treatment and up to 15 h daily periodical heat treatment at 40°C, while bamboo piper seeds were mostly killed by these treatments. About 20% of Mexican sunflower but no bamboo piper seeds germinated after heat treatment for 30 min at 80°C. Germination was completely inhibited in bamboo piper seeds at -0.6 mPa, while 20–60% of Mexican sunflower seeds germinated depending on PEG or NaCl as osmoticum. This higher tolerance in Mexican sunflower seeds accords with its stronger invasiveness in this area. This comparison between two plant invaders demonstrates that invasiveness is not an all-or-nothing situation, and that adaptation to local habitats is a critical determinant of successful invasiveness for an alien plant. PMID:26509675

  15. Use of a robotic sampling platform to assess young children's exposure to indoor bioaerosols

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zuocheng; Shalat, Stuart L.; Black, Kathleen; Lioy, Paul J.; Stambler, Adam A.; Emoekpere, Osiloke H.; Hernandez, Marta; Han, Taewon; Ramagopal, Maya; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2011-01-01

    Indoor exposures to allergens, mold spores and endotoxin have been suggested as etiological agents of asthma; therefore, accurate determination of those exposures, especially in young children (6–36 months), is important for understanding the development of asthma. Since use of personal sampling equipment in this population is difficult, and in children < 1 year of age impossible, we developed a personal sampling surrogate: the Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic sampler (PIPER) to better estimate their exposures. During sampling, PIPER simulates the activity patterns, speed of motion and the height of the breathing zones of young children, and mechanically resuspends the deposited dust just as a young child does during running and crawling. The concentrations of allergens, mold spores and endotoxin measured by PIPER were compared to those measured using traditional stationary air sampling in 75 homes in central New Jersey, US. Endotoxin was detected in all homes with median concentrations of 1.0 and 0.55 EU/m3 for PIPER and stationary sampler, respectively. The difference in median concentrations obtained using the two methods was statistically significant for homes with carpeted floors (p= 0.0001) in the heating season. For such homes, the average ratio of endotoxin concentration measured by PIPER and the stationary sampler was 2.96 (95% CI 2.29–3.63). Fungal spores were detected in all homes, with median fungal concentrations of 316 and 380 spores/m3 for PIPER and stationary sampler, respectively. For fungi, the difference between the two sampling methods was not statistically significant. For both sampling methods, the total airborne mold levels were statistically significantly higher in the non-heating season than in the heating season. Allergens were detected in ~15% of investigated homes. The data indicate that the traditional stationary air sampling methods may substantially underestimate personal exposures to endotoxin, especially

  16. First description of the early stage biology of the genus Mygona: the natural history of the satyrine butterfly, Mygona irmina in eastern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Greeney, Harold F; Dyer, Lee A; Pyrcz, Tomasz W

    2011-01-01

    The immature stages and natural history of Mygona irmina Doubleday (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae: Pronophilina) from northeastern Ecuadorian cloud forests are described based on 17 rearings. The dwarf bamboo, Chusquea c.f. scandens Kunth (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Eggs are laid singly on the bottom side of mature host plant leaves. Larvae take 102-109 days to mature from egg to adult. Adults are encountered most frequently on sunny days, flying rapidly over areas dominated by their food plant or feeding on the ground at mammal feces. Males are often encountered inside large forest gaps near patches of bamboo guarding perches in the mid-canopy. PMID:21521141

  17. First description of the early stage biology of the genus Mygona: the natural history of the satyrine butterfly, Mygona irmina in eastern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Greeney, Harold F; Dyer, Lee A; Pyrcz, Tomasz W

    2011-01-01

    The immature stages and natural history of Mygona irmina Doubleday (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae: Pronophilina) from northeastern Ecuadorian cloud forests are described based on 17 rearings. The dwarf bamboo, Chusquea c.f. scandens Kunth (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Eggs are laid singly on the bottom side of mature host plant leaves. Larvae take 102-109 days to mature from egg to adult. Adults are encountered most frequently on sunny days, flying rapidly over areas dominated by their food plant or feeding on the ground at mammal feces. Males are often encountered inside large forest gaps near patches of bamboo guarding perches in the mid-canopy.

  18. Karyotype analysis and visualization of 45S rRNA genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization in aroids (Araceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanan, Prabhu Shankar; Van Laere, Katrijn; Eeckhaut, Tom; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Van Bockstaele, Erik; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Karyotype analysis and FISH mapping using 45S rDNA sequences on 6 economically important plant species Anthurium andraeanum Linden ex André, 1877, Monstera deliciosa Liebmann, 1849, Philodendron scandens Koch & Sello, 1853, Spathiphyllum wallisii Regel, 1877, Syngonium auritum (Linnaeus, 1759) Schott, 1829 and Zantedeschia elliottiana (Knight, 1890) Engler, 1915 within the monocotyledonous family Araceae (aroids) were performed. Chromosome numbers varied between 2n=2x=24 and 2n=2x=60 and the chromosome length varied between 15.77 µm and 1.87 µm. No correlation between chromosome numbers and genome sizes was observed for the studied genera. The chromosome formulas contained only metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, except for Philodendron scandens in which also telocentric and subtelocentric chromosomes were observed. The highest degree of compaction was calculated for Spathiphyllum wallisii (66.49Mbp/µm). B-chromosome-like structures were observed in Anthurium andraeanum. Their measured size was 1.87 times smaller than the length of the shortest chromosome. After FISH experiments, two 45S rDNA sites were observed in 5 genera. Only in Zantedeschia elliottiana, 4 sites were seen. Our results showed clear cytogenetic differences among genera within Araceae, and are the first molecular cytogenetics report for these genera. These chromosome data and molecular cytogenetic information are useful in aroid breeding programmes, systematics and evolutionary studies. PMID:26140158

  19. Assessment of genetic diversity in Chinese eared pheasant using fluorescent-AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiujuan; Zhu, Yaohong; Liu, Panqi; Zhuge, Zengyu; Su, Guosheng; Wang, Jiufeng

    2010-10-01

    The eared pheasant consists of four species: white eared pheasant (Crossoptilon crossoptilon), Tibetan eared pheasant (Crossoptilon harmani), blue eared pheasant (Crossoptilon auritum), and brown eared pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum). These species are found only in China, and are also on the list of the world's threatened species. In this paper, 74 individuals from the four eared pheasant species were assessed for population genetic diversity by means of fluorescent-AFLP markers. A total of 429 AFLP peaks were amplified by 11 pairs of fluorescent EcoRI/TaqI primer combinations. Out of all markers, 329 AFLPs were polymorphic. Each primer combination produced in reactions from 19 to 72 fragments and the polymorphic peaks percentage ranged from 53.33% to 86.11% with an average of 74.36% polymorphic bands. Genetic distance between species and genetic diversity within species were evaluated using Jaccard's similarity coefficients (SC) and the corresponding dendrogram. It was found that there was a moderate genetic distance between the four species (SC=0.674-0.832). Brown eared pheasant was genetically closely related to blue eared pheasant (SC=0.832), while white eared pheasant was more closely related to Tibetan eared pheasant (SC=0.812). Genetic diversity was lower in brown eared pheasant (SC=0.913) and Tibetan eared pheasant (SC=0.903) than in white eared pheasant (SC=0.832) and blue eared pheasant (SC=0.853).

  20. Quaternary climate and environmental changes have shaped genetic differentiation in a Chinese pheasant endemic to the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Gu, Langyu; Liu, Yang; Que, Pinjia; Zhang, Zhengwang

    2013-04-01

    The geological complexity generated by the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and the resulting habitat heterogeneity have functioned together with climatic oscillations in the Quaternary to have a profound impact on the patterns of genetic diversity and demography of the fauna in this region. To understand the effect of the climatic and environmental shifts of the Quaternary on intraspecific genetic patterns and evolutionary history, we investigated the population genetic structure of the blue eared pheasant (Crossoptilon auritum), an endemic bird inhabiting the easternmost region of the plateau. Our phylogeographic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences and eight autosomal microsatellites reveals that the blue eared pheasant is subdivided into four distinct subpopulations: a central group (Huzhu and Taizi Mountains), a southern Zoige group, a southernmost Wanglang group and the northernmost Helan Mountain group. These groups are likely to have diverged in the Pleistocene, corresponding to geological changes and the interglacial-glacial climate oscillations that occurred at the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. These subpopulations thus represent major conservation units, especially for the isolated Helan subpopulation. Our findings provide evidence of population divergence driven by complex Quaternary climate and environmental changes and, once more, highlight the importance of phylogeographic studies for conservation endeavours.

  1. Documentation of a multiple-technique computer program for plotting major-ion composition of natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briel, L.I.

    1993-01-01

    A computer program was written to produce 6 different types of water-quality diagrams--Piper, Stiff, pie, X-Y, boxplot, and Piper 3-D--from the same file of input data. The Piper 3-D diagram is a new method that projects values from the surface of a Piper plot into a triangular prism to show how variations in chemical composition can be related to variations in other water-quality variables. This program is an analytical tool to aid in the interpretation of data. This program is interactive, and the user can select from a menu the type of diagram to be produced and a large number of individual features. Alternatively, these choices can be specified in the data file, which provides a batch mode for running the program. The program does not display water-quality diagrams directly; plots are written to a file. Four different plot- file formats are available: device-independent metafiles, Adobe PostScript graphics files, and two Hewlett-Packard graphics language formats (7475 and 7586). An ASCII data-table file is also produced to document the computed values. This program is written in Fortran '77 and uses graphics subroutines from either the PRIOR AGTK or the DISSPLA graphics library. The program has been implemented on Prime series 50 and Data General Aviion computers within the USGS; portability to other computing systems depends on the availability of the graphics library.

  2. How Might Educational Research into Children's Ideas about Light Be of Use to Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Mark; Riordan, John-Paul

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a synthesis of research evidence around teaching light to primary and secondary school pupils as part of the Institute of Physics Promoting and Interpreting Physics Education Research (PIPER) project. Conceptual change literature describes many of the difficulties young people can have understanding the phenomenon of light, and…

  3. Resistance to potato leaf roll virus multiplication in potato is under major gene control.

    PubMed

    Barker, H; Solomon-Blackburn, R M; McNicol, J W; Bradshaw, J E

    1994-08-01

    The concentration of potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), as measured by a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in the foliage of potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) of cv 'Maris Piper' with secondary infection was 2900 ng/g leaf, whereas in clones G7445(1) and G7032(5) it was 180 ng/g leaf and 120 ng/g leaf, respectively. To examine the genetic control of resistance to PLRV multiplication, reciprocal crosses were made between the susceptible cultivar 'Maris Piper' and the two resistant clones, and the three parents were selfed. Seedling progenies of these families were grown to generate tubers of individual genotypes (clones). Clonally propagated plants were graft-inoculated, and their daughter tubers were collected and used to grow plants with secondary infection in which PLRV concentration was estimated. The expression of resistance to PLRV multiplication had a bimodal distribution in progenies from crosses between 'Maris Piper' and either resistant clone, and also in progeny from selfing the resistant parents, with genotypes segregating into high and low virus titre groups. Only the progeny obtained from selfing 'Maris Piper' did not segregate, all genotypes being susceptible to PLRV multiplication. The pattern of segregation obtained from these progenies fits more closely with the genetical hypothesis that resistance to PLRV multiplication is controlled by two unlinked dominant complementary genes, both of which are required for resistance, than with the simpler hypothesis that resistance is conferred by a single dominant gene, as published previously.

  4. Chronicle of Higher Education. Volume 50, Number 7, May 21, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Chronicle of Higher Education" presents an abundant source of news and information for college and university faculty members and administrators. This May 21, 2004 issue of "Chronicle of Higher Education" includes the following articles: (1) "In New York, Unaccompanied" (Fogg, Piper); (2) "Why They Pirate: Study says Students aren't in it for the…

  5. OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S BESSEMER CORE ROOM SHOWING REDFORD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF SOUTHERN DUCTILE'S BESSEMER CORE ROOM SHOWING REDFORD, B&P, AND BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC MOLDING MACHINES. OUT OF VIEW TO THE LEFT, SOUTHERN DUCTILE MAINTAINS AN AUTOMATED LAEMPE COLD BOX CORE MAKING MACHINE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  6. Antiplatelet Activities of Newly Synthesized Derivatives of Piperlongumine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piperlongumine, a pyridine alkaloid isolated from Piper longum L., exhibited a potential inhibitory effect on washed rabbit platelet aggregation induced by collagen, arachidonic acid (AA) and platelet activating factor (PAF), without affecting that induced by thrombin. Piperlongumine was used as a ...

  7. Professional Notes: Reaching All Students via Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Music teachers are often the Pied Pipers of their schools, attracting the interest of students by the nature of the subject they teach. Their students who excel are often the best and brightest, since music reading and music production demand higher-level thinking skills, motor ability, and in the case of ensemble performance, social skills. As…

  8. The stratigraphy of Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) reservoir sandstones in the Witch Ground Graben, United Kingdom North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, S.D. ); Mantel, K.A. ); Morton, D.J. ); Riley, L.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Oil-bearing Upper Jurassic Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian sandstones of the Sgiath and Piper formations are of major economic importance in the Witch Ground Gaben, United Kingdom North Sea. They form the reservoirs in 14 fields that originally contained 2 billion bbl of oil reserves, including Scott Field, which in 1993 will be the largest producing United Kingdom North Sea oil field to come on stream in more than a decade. The Sgiath and Piper formations represent Late Jurassic transgressive and regressive phases that began with paralic deposition and culminated in a wave-dominated delta system. These phases preceded the major grabel rifting episode (late Kimmeridgian to early Ryazanian) and deposition of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, the principal source rock of the Witch Ground Graben oil fields. A threefold subdivision of the middle to upper Oxfordian Sgiath Formation is formally proposed, with Scott field well 15/21a-15 as the designated reference well. The basal Skene Member consists of thinly interbedded paralic carbonaceous shales, coals, and sandstones. This is overlain by transgressive marine shales of the Saltire Member. The upper-most Oxfordian Scott Member consists of shallow marine sandstones that prograded to the southwest. The contact of the Sgiath and Piper formations is a basinwide transgressive marine shale (I shale), which can act as an effective barrier to fluid communication between the Sgiath and Piper reservoir sandstones.

  9. Non-traditional Forages in a Managed Grazing System for Control of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Sheep: Preliminary Work

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project compared lambs grazing forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) with lambs grazing brown mid-rib forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) x sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense Piper) hybrid (BMR) to determine if anti-parasitic effects of chicory could be demonstrated. Lambs grazed these fo...

  10. 86. April 1967 DETAIL OF WINDOWS ON EAST ELEVATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. April 1967 DETAIL OF WINDOWS ON EAST ELEVATION OF BABY HOUSE SHOWING HAMMERED COPPER NURSERY RHYME INSERTS OF RED RIDING HOOD, TOM THE PIPER'S SON, AND JACK AND JILL - Mar-a-Lago, 1100 South Ocean Boulevard, Palm Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

  11. Do Smokers Know What We're Talking about? The Construct Validity of Nicotine Dependence Questionnaire Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether nicotine dependence self-report questionnaires can predict specific behaviors and symptoms at specific points in time. The present study used data from a randomized clinical trial (N = 608; M. E. Piper et al., 2007) to assess the construct validity of scales and items from 3 nicotine dependence measures: the…

  12. The Efficiency and Effectiveness of Teaching in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, David Warren, Ed.

    Twenty papers originally presented at a conference organized by London University on "Efficiency in Teaching Methods in Higher Education" are presented. After an introduction by David Warren Piper, the following papers are included: "Old Prejudices and New Management Tools" (Gerald Fowler); "Efficiency in Higher Education" (Leslie Wagner); "What…

  13. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar... Do. Costus root Saussurea lappa Clarke Cubeb Piper cubeba L. f Currant, black, buds and leaves Ribes... Guarana Paullinia cupana HBK Haw, black, bark Viburnum prunifolium L Hemlock needles and twigs...

  14. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar... Do. Costus root Saussurea lappa Clarke Cubeb Piper cubeba L. f Currant, black, buds and leaves Ribes... Guarana Paullinia cupana HBK Haw, black, bark Viburnum prunifolium L Hemlock needles and twigs...

  15. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar, white (aborvitae), leaves and... Clarke Cubeb Piper cubeba L. f Currant, black, buds and leaves Ribes nigrum L Damiana leaves Turnera... officinale L., G. santum L., Bulnesia sarmienti Lor Guarana Paullinia cupana HBK Haw, black, bark...

  16. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar... Do. Costus root Saussurea lappa Clarke Cubeb Piper cubeba L. f Currant, black, buds and leaves Ribes... Guarana Paullinia cupana HBK Haw, black, bark Viburnum prunifolium L Hemlock needles and twigs...

  17. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd Castor oil Ricinus communis L Catechu, black Acacia catechu Willd Cedar... Do. Costus root Saussurea lappa Clarke Cubeb Piper cubeba L. f Currant, black, buds and leaves Ribes... Guarana Paullinia cupana HBK Haw, black, bark Viburnum prunifolium L Hemlock needles and twigs...

  18. Derivatives form better lipoxygenase inhibitors than piperine: in vitro and in silico study.

    PubMed

    Tomy, Muringayil J; Sharanya, Chelankara S; Dileep, Kalarickal V; Prasanth, Shankar; Sabu, Abudulhameed; Sadasivan, Chittalakkottu; Haridas, Madathilkovilakathu

    2015-06-01

    Piperine is a secondary metabolite of black pepper. Its uses in medicine were already studied. However, its derivatives have not gained considerable attention. In the presented study, the Lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activity of piperine and its derivatives, piperonylic acid, piperic acid, and piperonal have been assessed and compared by enzyme kinetics, ITC and molecular modeling experiments. The presented investigations expressed that all the studied compounds inhibited LOX by binding at its active site. The IC(50) values of these compounds were deduced from the kinetics data and found to be 85.79, 43.065, 45.17, and 50.78 μm for piperine, piperonylic acid, piperic acid, and piperonal, respectively. The binding free energies obtained from ITC experiments were -7.47, -8.33, -8.09, and -7.86 kcal/mol for piperine, piperonylic acid, piperic acid, and piperonal, respectively. Similarly, the glide scores obtained for piperine, piperonylic acid, piperic acid, and piperonal were -7.28, -10.32, -10.72, and -9.57 kcal/mol, respectively. The results of ITC and molecular modeling experiments suggested that piperonylic acid and piperonal exhibit stronger binding at the active site than piperine does. From the presented studies, it could be concluded that derivatives of piperine may be of higher significance than piperine for certain medicinal applications, implicating (Ayurvedic) fermented herbal drugs with piperine in them. PMID:25327968

  19. Montana project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreibelbis, Ryland; Affens, David W.; Rais, Houra; Mansfield, Arthur W.

    1999-08-01

    A Piper Malibu aircraft crashed on April 11, 1998 near Kalispell, Montana. After more than a month of visual searching, the official search was suspended and the missing pilot's family turned to private resources and NASA to continue the search. This paper details the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Search and Rescue Mission's participation in the follow-on search effort.

  20. Derivatives form better lipoxygenase inhibitors than piperine: in vitro and in silico study.

    PubMed

    Tomy, Muringayil J; Sharanya, Chelankara S; Dileep, Kalarickal V; Prasanth, Shankar; Sabu, Abudulhameed; Sadasivan, Chittalakkottu; Haridas, Madathilkovilakathu

    2015-06-01

    Piperine is a secondary metabolite of black pepper. Its uses in medicine were already studied. However, its derivatives have not gained considerable attention. In the presented study, the Lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activity of piperine and its derivatives, piperonylic acid, piperic acid, and piperonal have been assessed and compared by enzyme kinetics, ITC and molecular modeling experiments. The presented investigations expressed that all the studied compounds inhibited LOX by binding at its active site. The IC(50) values of these compounds were deduced from the kinetics data and found to be 85.79, 43.065, 45.17, and 50.78 μm for piperine, piperonylic acid, piperic acid, and piperonal, respectively. The binding free energies obtained from ITC experiments were -7.47, -8.33, -8.09, and -7.86 kcal/mol for piperine, piperonylic acid, piperic acid, and piperonal, respectively. Similarly, the glide scores obtained for piperine, piperonylic acid, piperic acid, and piperonal were -7.28, -10.32, -10.72, and -9.57 kcal/mol, respectively. The results of ITC and molecular modeling experiments suggested that piperonylic acid and piperonal exhibit stronger binding at the active site than piperine does. From the presented studies, it could be concluded that derivatives of piperine may be of higher significance than piperine for certain medicinal applications, implicating (Ayurvedic) fermented herbal drugs with piperine in them.

  1. Can Ethics Be Taught? Perspectives, Challenges, and Approaches at Harvard Business School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Thomas R.; And Others

    This book describes in five chapters how the Harvard Business School has redeveloped its curriculum to place leadership, ethics, and corporate responsibility at the center of its mission. Chapter 1, "Rediscovery of Purpose: The Genesis of the Leadership, Ethics, and Corporate Responsibility Initiative," (Thomas R. Piper) describes the context for…

  2. When sex is not enough: ecological correlates of resprouting capacity in congeneric tropical forest shrubs.

    PubMed

    Lasso, Eloisa; Engelbrecht, Bettina M J; Dalling, James W

    2009-08-01

    In moist tropical forests resprouting may be an important component of life history, contributing to asexual reproduction through the clonal spread of individuals derived from shoot fragments. However, in contrast to other ecosystems where resprouting is common, the ecological correlates of resprouting capacity in tropical forests remain largely unexplored. In this study we characterized shade tolerance, resprouting capacity and sexual reproductive success of eight co-occurring Piper species from lowland forests of Panama. In field experiments we found that shade-tolerant Piper species had a higher capacity to regenerate from excised or pinned stem fragments than light-demanding species in both gap and understory light conditions. In contrast, shade-tolerant species had lower recruitment probabilities from seeds, as a consequence of lower initial seed viability, and lower seedling emergence rates. All Piper species needed gap conditions for successful seedling establishment. Of 8,000 seeds sown in the understory only 0.2% emerged. In gaps, seed germination of light-demanding species was between 10 and 50%, whereas for shade-tolerant species it was 0.5-9.8%. We propose that the capacity to reproduce asexually from resprouts could be adaptive for shade-tolerant species that are constantly exposed to damage from falling litter in the understory. Resprouting may allow Piper populations to persist and spread despite the high rate of pre-dispersal seed predation and low seed emergence rates. Across Piper species, we detected a trade-off between resprouting capacity and the annual viable seed production per plant but not with annual seed mass produced per plant. This suggests that species differences in sexual reproductive success may not necessarily result from differential resource allocation. Instead we suggest that low sexual reproductive success in the understory may in part reflect reduced genetic diversity in populations undergoing clonal growth, resulting in self

  3. Prairie grass establishment on calcareous reclaimed mine soil.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Mark; Cardina, John

    2011-01-01

    Reclaimed Appalachian surface mined lands have difficulty in sustaining native deciduous forest communities. Establishing prairie communities could increase ecosystem function; however, a native model system does not exist. We evaluated establishment of 15 North American prairie grasses as monocultures on reclaimed mine soil in southeast Ohio in four randomized complete blocks planted May 2005 and 2006. Population density was assessed 30 d after planting (30 DAP) and in October of the planting year (YR1) and second year following planting (YR2) and expressed as percentage of viable seeds sown (PVSS). Canopy cover of nonnative species reestablishing in the plots was measured in 2007. Eastern gamagrass ( L.) population was >50 PVSS in all censuses. Western wheatgrass [ (Rydb.) A. Löve] was initially 7 PVSS at 30 DAP, but increased to 154 PVSS by YR2 from rhizomes spreading into gaps. Big bluestem ( Vitman) was 7 PVSS at 30 DAP and 4 PVSS at YR2. Blue grama [ (Willd. ex Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths] and sideoats grama [ (Michx.) Torr.] did not survive past YR1. Gaps left from poor stand establishment were primarily recolonized by nonnative Kentucky bluegrass ( L.) in the 2005 planting and birdsfoot trefoil ( L.) in the 2006 planting, but was least in eastern gamagrass and tall dropseed [ (P. Beauv.) Kunth]. This research demonstrates the potential for increasing diversity and species richness on mine soil habitats with regionally native grasses that could increase functional quality through ecological resilience.

  4. Piperine reverses the effects of corticosterone on behavior and hippocampal BDNF expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qing-Qiu; Huang, Zhen; Zhong, Xiao-Ming; Xian, Yan-Fang; Ip, Siu-Po

    2014-07-01

    A mouse model of depression has been recently developed by exogenous corticosterone administration. The present study aimed to examine the antidepressant-like effect and the possible mechanisms of piperine, a major alkaloid of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.) and long pepper (Piper longum Linn.), in corticosterone-induced depression in mice. The results showed that 3-weeks corticosterone injections caused depression-like behavior in mice, as indicated by the significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test. Moreover, it was found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein and mRNA levels in the hippocampus were significantly decreased in corticosterone-treated mice. Treating the animals with piperine significantly suppressed behavioral and biochemical changes induced by corticosterone. The results suggest that piperine produces an antidepressant-like effect in corticosterone-treated mice, which is possibly mediated by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the hippocampus.

  5. Novel Piperine Derivatives with Antidiabetic Effect as PPAR-γ Agonists.

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, Chetna; Alam, Mohammad Sarwar; Hamid, Hinna; Javed, Kalim; Bano, Sameena; Ali, Yakub; Dhulap, Abhijeet; Alam, Perwez; Pasha, M A Qadar

    2016-09-01

    Piperine is an alkaloid responsible for the pungency of black pepper. In this study, piperine isolated from Piper nigrum L. was hydrolyzed under basic condition to obtain piperic acid and was used as precursor to carry out the synthesis of twenty piperine derivatives containing benzothiazole moiety. All the benzothiazole derivatives were evaluated for their antidiabetic potential by OGT test followed by assessment of active derivatives on STZ-induced diabetic model. It was observed that nine of twenty novel piperine analogues (5b, 6a-h), showed significantly higher antidiabetic activity in comparison with rosiglitazone (standard). Furthermore, these active derivatives were evaluated for their action as PPAR-γ agonists demonstrating their mechanism of action. The effects on body weight, lipid peroxidation, and hepatotoxicity after administration with active derivatives were also studied to further establish these derivatives as lead molecules for treatment of diabetes with lesser side-effects. PMID:27037532

  6. The plant alkaloid piperine as a potential inhibitor of ethidium bromide efflux in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Zhang, Jiyu; Guo, Na; Feng, Haihua; Li, Lei; Liang, Junchao; Sun, Kai; Wu, Xiuping; Wang, Xuelin; Liu, Mingyuan; Deng, Xuming; Yu, Lu

    2011-02-01

    Piperine, a major plant alkaloid found in black pepper (Piper nigrum) and long pepper (Piper longum), has shown potential for inhibiting the efflux pump (EP) of Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, a modulation assay showed that piperine could decrease the MIC of ethidium bromide (EtBr) twofold at 32 μg ml(-1) and fourfold at 64 μg ml(-1) against Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2) 155 ATCC 700084. A real-time, 96-well plate fluorometric method was employed to evaluate the EP inhibition ability of piperine in M. smegmatis. Reserpine, chlorpromazine, verapamil and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone were used as positive controls. Piperine significantly enhanced accumulation and decreased the efflux of EtBr in M. smegmatis, which suggests that it has the ability to inhibit mycobacterial EPs.

  7. Vignayadavii (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), a new species from Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Gaikwad, Sayajirao P; Gore, Ramchandra D; Randive, Sonali D; Garad, Krushnadeoray U

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Vigna Savi, subgenus Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc., Vignayadavii S.P. Gaikwad, R.D. Gore, S.D. Randive & K.U. Garad, sp. nov. is described and illustrated here. It is morphologically close to Vignadalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs in its underground obligate cleistogamous flowers on positively geotropic branches, hairy calyx, small corolla, linear style beak and dimorphic seeds with shiny seed coat. PMID:25589877

  8. INCREASED VOLUNTARY DRIVE IS ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN COMMON OSCILLATIONS FROM 13 TO 60 HZ OF INTERFERENCE BUT NOT RECTIFIED ELECTROMYOGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    NETO, OSMAR P.; BAWEJA, HARSIMRAN S.; CHRISTOU, EVANGELOS A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the capability of interference and rectified electromyography (EMG) to detect changes in the beta (13–30-HZ) and Piper (30–60-HZ) bands when voluntary force is increased. Twenty adults exerted a constant force abduction of the index finger at 15% and 50% of maximum. The common oscillations at various frequency bands (0–500 HZ) were estimated from the first dorsal interosseous muscle using cross wavelets of interference and rectified EMG. For the interference EMG signals, normalized power significantly (P < 0.01) increased with force in the beta (9.0 ± 0.9 vs. 15.5 ± 2.1%) and Piper (13.6 ± 0.9 vs. 21 ± 1.7%) bands. For rectified EMG signals, however, the beta and Piper bands remained unchanged (P > 0.4). Although rectified EMG is used in many clinical studies to identify changes in the oscillatory drive to the muscle, our findings suggest that only interference EMG can accurately capture the increase in oscillatory drive from 13 to 60 HZ with voluntary force. PMID:20589885

  9. Worker piping in honey bee swarms and its role in preparing for liftoff.

    PubMed

    Seeley, T D; Tautz, J

    2001-10-01

    Worker piping, previously reported only in hives, was observed in swarms as they prepared to liftoff to fly to a new home. Pipers are excited bees which scramble through the swarm cluster, pausing every second or so to emit a pipe. Each pipe consists of a sound pulse which lasts 0.82 +/- 0.43 s and rises in fundamental frequency from 100-200 Hz to 200-250 Hz. Many. if not all, of the pipers are nest-site scouts. The scouts pipe when it is time to stimulate the non-scouts to warm themselves to a flight-ready temperature (35 degrees C) in preparation for liftoff. The time-course of worker piping matches that of swarm warming, both start at a low level, about an hour before liftoff, and both build to a climax at liftoff. When we excluded pipers from bees hanging in the cool, outermost layer of a swarm cluster, we found that these bees did not warm up. The form of worker piping that we have studied in swarms differs from the form of worker piping that others have studied in hives. We call the two forms "wings-together piping" (in swarms) and "wings-apart piping" (in hives). PMID:11763965

  10. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Piperaceae extracts and nisin on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Suelen P; Anjos, Márcia Maria Dos; Carrara, Vanessa S; Delima, Juliana N; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício G; Nakamura, Tânia U; Nakamura, Celso V; de Abreu Filho, Benício A

    2013-11-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is a gram-positive aerobic bacterium. This bacterium resists pasteurization temperatures and low pH and is usually involved in the spoilage of juices and acidic drinks. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of nisin and the species Piper (Piperaceae) on A. acidoterrestris. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the broth microdilution method. The species Piper aduncum had the lowest MIC and an MBC of 15.6 μg/mL and was selected for fractionation. Six fractions were obtained, and the dichloromethane fraction (F.3) had the lowest MIC/MBC (7.81 μg/mL). The dichloromethane fraction was again fractionized, and a spectral analysis revealed that the compound was prenylated chromene (F.3.7). The checkerboard method demonstrated that the crude extract (CE) of P. aduncum plus nisin had a synergistic interaction (fractional inhibitory concentration [FIC] = 0.24). The bactericidal activity of (F.3.7) was confirmed by the time-kill curve. P. aduncum, nisin, and prenylated chromene exhibited strong antibacterial activity against the spores and vegetative cells of A. acidoterrestris. The results of this study suggest that extracts of the genus Piper may provide an alternative to the use of thermal processing for controlling A. spoilage.

  11. A First Report of Infestation by Pseudolynchia canariensis in a Herd of Pigeons in Shahrekord (Southwest of Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Pirali-Kheirabadi, Khodadad; Dehghani-Samani, Amir; Ahmadi-Baberi, Nader; Najafzadeh, Vida

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pigeons (Columba livia) have been kept as pet and reared for food in several countries including Iran. Ectoparasites are regarded as the basic causes of retardation in growth, lowered vitality and poor conditions of the birds. Pseudolynchia canariensis a hippoboscidae fly is one of the important ectoparasites of pigeons and is responsible for the transmission of pathogens to birds and humans same as pathogenic protozoan Haemoproteus columbae. Methods: A herd of domestic pigeons contained 50 pigeons in Shahrekord, southwest Iran was evaluated clinically infested by ectoparasites. Ectoparasites were removed. The samples were collected and then referred to the Laboratory of Parasitology of Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran. Results: Usin diagnostic key for diptera fly, these flies were find P. canariensis. This is a rare report of infestation of pigeons herd by P. canariensis in Iran. The infestation rate was 40% that rate of infestation in pipers was more than females and in females was more than males. Conclusion: The rate of infested pipers was more than adults that maybe the less potential of pipers in removing of ectoparasites is reason of this higher rate. PMID:27308301

  12. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Piperaceae extracts and nisin on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Suelen P; Anjos, Márcia Maria Dos; Carrara, Vanessa S; Delima, Juliana N; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício G; Nakamura, Tânia U; Nakamura, Celso V; de Abreu Filho, Benício A

    2013-11-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is a gram-positive aerobic bacterium. This bacterium resists pasteurization temperatures and low pH and is usually involved in the spoilage of juices and acidic drinks. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of nisin and the species Piper (Piperaceae) on A. acidoterrestris. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the broth microdilution method. The species Piper aduncum had the lowest MIC and an MBC of 15.6 μg/mL and was selected for fractionation. Six fractions were obtained, and the dichloromethane fraction (F.3) had the lowest MIC/MBC (7.81 μg/mL). The dichloromethane fraction was again fractionized, and a spectral analysis revealed that the compound was prenylated chromene (F.3.7). The checkerboard method demonstrated that the crude extract (CE) of P. aduncum plus nisin had a synergistic interaction (fractional inhibitory concentration [FIC] = 0.24). The bactericidal activity of (F.3.7) was confirmed by the time-kill curve. P. aduncum, nisin, and prenylated chromene exhibited strong antibacterial activity against the spores and vegetative cells of A. acidoterrestris. The results of this study suggest that extracts of the genus Piper may provide an alternative to the use of thermal processing for controlling A. spoilage. PMID:24138211

  13. Increased voluntary drive is associated with changes in common oscillations from 13 to 60 Hz of interference but not rectified electromyography.

    PubMed

    Neto, Osmar P; Baweja, Harsimran S; Christou, Evangelos A

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the capability of interference and rectified electromyography (EMG) to detect changes in the beta (13-30-HZ) and Piper (30-60-HZ) bands when voluntary force is increased. Twenty adults exerted a constant force abduction of the index finger at 15% and 50% of maximum. The common oscillations at various frequency bands (0-500 HZ) were estimated from the first dorsal interosseous muscle using cross wavelets of interference and rectified EMG. For the interference EMG signals, normalized power significantly (P < 0.01) increased with force in the beta (9.0 +/- 0.9 vs. 15.5 +/- 2.1%) and Piper (13.6 +/- 0.9 vs. 21 +/- 1.7%) bands. For rectified EMG signals, however, the beta and Piper bands remained unchanged (P > 0.4). Although rectified EMG is used in many clinical studies to identify changes in the oscillatory drive to the muscle, our findings suggest that only interference EMG can accurately capture the increase in oscillatory drive from 13 to 60 HZ with voluntary force.

  14. Experimental evaluation and simulation of volumetric shrinkage and warpage on polymeric composite reinforced with short natural fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Jonnathan D.; Fajardo, Jorge I.; Cuji, Alvaro R.; García, Jaime A.; Garzón, Luis E.; López, Luis M.

    2015-09-01

    A polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composite is developed by extrusion and injection molding process. The shrinkage and warpage of high-density polyethylene reinforced with short natural fibers of Guadua angustifolia Kunth are analyzed by experimental measurements and computer simulations. Autodesk Moldflow® and Solid Works® are employed to simulate both volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts at different configurations: 0 wt.%, 20 wt.%, 30 wt.% and 40 wt.% reinforcing on shrinkage and warpage behavior of polymer composite. Become evident the restrictive effect of reinforcing on the volumetric shrinkage and warpage of injected parts. The results indicate that volumetric shrinkage of natural composite is reduced up to 58% with fiber increasing, whereas the warpage shows a reduction form 79% to 86% with major fiber content. These results suggest that it is a highly beneficial use of natural fibers to improve the assembly properties of polymeric natural fiber-reinforced composites.

  15. TDZ pulsing evaluation on the in vitro morphogenesis of peach palm.

    PubMed

    Graner, Erika Mendes; Oberschelp, Gustavo Pedro Javier; Brondani, Gilvano Ebling; Batagin-Piotto, Katherine Derlene; de Almeida, Cristina Vieira; de Almeida, Marcílio

    2013-04-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.) cropping is an excellent alternative to native species exploitation; nevertheless, the problems with seed germination and conventional propagation justify the use of in vitro culturing. Aiming to asses TDZ pulsing effect on B. gasipaes morphogenesis, explants obtained from unarmed microplants were maintained in two treatments, half of them in MS free medium (without growth regulator) and the other half in MS with TDZ (0.36 μM). Both groups were transferred to growth regulator-free MS medium following 14 days of culture. After 84 days of culture, TDZ pulsing increased the growth and development of the shoots, restricted the growth and development of the roots, with no influence on adventitious bud induction or somatic embryogenesis. Furthermore, development of prickles, thickening of roots and chlorotic leaves were noted under TDZ pulsing. Leaf sheath histological analysis showed an epidermal origin and no vascularization of these prickles.

  16. Chemical composition of the essential oil of leaves and roots of Ottoa oenanthoides (Apiaceae) from Mérida, venezuela.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Janne; Buitrago, Alexis; Rojas, Luis B; Morales, Antonio; Baldovino, Shirley

    2010-07-01

    Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from leaves and roots of Ottoa oenanthoides Kunth (Apiaceae) were analyzed by GC/MS. The oils, obtained in yields of 0.10% and 0.66%, respectively, each contained four compounds, which were identified from their mass spectra and retention indices (RI). The major compound identified was 2-methoxy-8-methyl-1,4-naphthalindione (59.9% leaves, and 62.8%, roots), followed by 7-methoxy-1-naphthol (18.3% leaves and 17.3% roots), 2-naphthalenol (18.6% leaves and 15.0% roots), and 3-methoxy-2-naphthalenol (3.1% leaves and 2.1% roots). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that naphthalene derivatives have been reported for any species of the Apiaceae family.

  17. Ectomycorrhizas of Cortinarius helodes and Gyrodon monticola with Alnus acuminata from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Alejandra; Nouhra, Eduardo; Daniele, Graciela; Domínguez, Laura; McKay, Donaraye

    2005-01-01

    Field ectomycorrhizas of Cortinarius helodes Moser, Matheny & Daniele (sp. nov) and Gyrodon monticola Sing. on Alnus acuminata Kunth (Andean alder, aliso del cerro) are described based on morphological and anatomical features. Ectomycorrhizal roots were sampled beneath fruitbodies of C. helodes and G. monticola from two homogeneous A. acuminata forest sites located in Tucuman and Catamarca Provinces in Argentina. C. helodes ectomycorrhizas showed a thick white to beige mantle exuding a milky juice when injured, were bluish toward the apex, and had hyphal strands in the mantle. G. monticola ectomycorrhizas showed some conspicuous features like highly differentiated rhizomorphs, inflated brown cells on the mantle surface, and hyaline and brown emanating hyphae with dolipores. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer provided a distinctive profile for each of the collections of fruitbodies and the mycorrhizal morphotypes. PMID:14648309

  18. TDZ pulsing evaluation on the in vitro morphogenesis of peach palm.

    PubMed

    Graner, Erika Mendes; Oberschelp, Gustavo Pedro Javier; Brondani, Gilvano Ebling; Batagin-Piotto, Katherine Derlene; de Almeida, Cristina Vieira; de Almeida, Marcílio

    2013-04-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth.) cropping is an excellent alternative to native species exploitation; nevertheless, the problems with seed germination and conventional propagation justify the use of in vitro culturing. Aiming to asses TDZ pulsing effect on B. gasipaes morphogenesis, explants obtained from unarmed microplants were maintained in two treatments, half of them in MS free medium (without growth regulator) and the other half in MS with TDZ (0.36 μM). Both groups were transferred to growth regulator-free MS medium following 14 days of culture. After 84 days of culture, TDZ pulsing increased the growth and development of the shoots, restricted the growth and development of the roots, with no influence on adventitious bud induction or somatic embryogenesis. Furthermore, development of prickles, thickening of roots and chlorotic leaves were noted under TDZ pulsing. Leaf sheath histological analysis showed an epidermal origin and no vascularization of these prickles. PMID:24431497

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extracts of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates in mouse ears treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

    PubMed Central

    Rivero-Pérez, Nallely; Ayala-Martínez, Maricela; Zepeda-Bastida, Armando; Meneses-Mayo, Marcos; Ojeda-Ramírez, Deyanira

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the application of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates, enriched or not with medicinal herbs, as a source of anti-inflammatory compounds. Subjects and Methods: P. ostreatus was cultivated on five different substrates: Barley straw (BS) and BS combined 80:20 with medicinal herbs (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [BS/CA], Rosmarinus officinalis L. [BS/RO], Litsea glaucescens Kunth [BS/LG], and Tagetes lucida Cav. [BS/TL]). The anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of spent mushroom substrates (SMSs) (4 mg/ear) was studied using an acute inflammation model in the mouse ear induced with 2.5 μg/ear 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol13-acetate (TPA). Results: Groups treated with BS/CA, BS/RO, and BS/LG aqueous extracts exhibited the best anti-inflammatory activity (94.0% ± 5.5%, 92.9% ± 0.6%, and 90.4% ± 5.0% inhibition of auricular edema [IAO], respectively), and these effects were significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of the positive control indomethacin (0.5 mg/ear). BS/TL and BS were also able to reduce TPA-induced inflammation but to a lesser extent (70.0% ± 6.7% and 43.5% ± 6.6% IAO, respectively). Conclusions: Spent P. ostreatus substrate of BS possesses a slight anti-inflammatory effect. The addition of CA L. to mushroom substrate showed a slightly synergistic effect while RO L. had an additive effect. In addition, LG Kunth and TL Cav. enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of SMS. However, to determine whether there is a synergistic or additive effect, it is necessary to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of each medicinal herb. PMID:27127316

  20. Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Jhon J; Ochoa, Veronica J; Ocampo, Saul A; Muñoz, John F

    2006-01-01

    Background The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β hemolític, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli), and one yeast (Candida albicans). These plants are used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin. Methods Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 μg/ml), clindamycin (0.3 μg/ml) and nystatin (1.0 μg/ml) were used as positive controls. Results The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively) compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8g/ml). Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively) compared to nystatin (0.6 μg/ml). Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 μg/ml) than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 μg/ml). Conclusion This in vitro study corroborated the

  1. Identifying provenance-specific features of detrital heavy mineral assemblages in sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Andrew C.; Hallsworth, Claire

    1994-05-01

    The composition of heavy mineral assemblages in sandstones may be heavily influenced by processes operating during transport, deposition and diagenesis. As a consequence, conventional heavy mineral data may not be a reliable guide to the nature of sediment source material. Certain features of heavy mineral suites, however, are inherited directly from the source area without significant modification, such as the varietal characteristics of individual mineral species. This paper describes an alternative approach to varietal studies that concentrates on relative abundances of minerals that are stable during diagenesis and have similar hydraulic behaviour. Ratios of apatite to tourmaline, TiO 2 minerals to zircon, monazite to zircon, and chrome spinel to zircon provide a good reflection of the source rock characteristics, because they are comparatively immune to alteration during the sedimentary cycle. These ratios are described as index values (ATi, RZi, MZi and CZi, respectively). This approach avoids some of the practical problems associated with varietal studies, such as the need to make subjective decisions about mineral properties or to use advanced analytical techniques that may not be accessible to the analyst. It also makes use of more components of the heavy mineral suite and thus provides a more balanced view of provenance characteristics. The use of these ratios is illustrated with examples from Upper Jurassic sandstones in the Outer Moray Firth area of the UK continental shelf and Triassic sandstones from onshore and offshore UK. Heavy mineral indices, notably ATi and MZi, show marked variations in Upper Jurassic Piper sandstones of the Outer Moray Firth. Main Piper sandstones have lower ATi and MZi values compared with Supra Piper sandstones, indicating significant stratigraphic evolution of provenance. The UK Triassic shows major regional variations in a number of index values, including ATi, MZi and CZi, demonstrating that sediment was supplied from

  2. Jamu Gendong, a kind of traditional medicine in Indonesia: the microbial contamination of its raw materials and endproduct.

    PubMed

    Limyati, D A; Juniar, B L

    1998-12-01

    An examination on the microbiological quality of seven kinds of Jamu Gendong (JG) and their raw materials has been conducted according to the requirements of microbial contamination in traditional medicine, issued by the Department of Health of Indonesia in 1986. Samples of JG and their raw materials were taken from producers in three districts of Surabaya. The samples were subject to the following examinations: total plate count (TPC), MPN coliform, the enumeration of molds and yeasts, the presence or absence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Vibrio. Each time the JG samples were taken from different producers together with their raw materials. The results of this investigation showed that most of the JG samples were heavily contaminated with bacteria, yeasts and molds. For bacteria, taken from the TPC results, their numbers were ranging from 7.7 x 10(2) microorganisms/ml to too many to count (TMTC). For yeasts and molds the numbers showed variations from 0 microorganisms/ml to TMTC. Contamination with Coliform in 1 ml of JG were ranged from 0 to > 2.4 x 10(6) microorganisms. In most of the samples pathogenic Staphylococci, Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were not detected, so that a conclusion can be drawn that most of the contamination in JG are saprophytic, only a few pathogenic. The results also show that it is possible to have JG which fulfill the government's requirements. Similar results were obtained with the plant material constituents of JG such as rhizomes, leaves, herbs and fruits of Piper nigrum and Piper retrofractum, with the exception of Piper betle leaves and P. retrofractum fruits, both showing low contamination of Coliform bacteria. However, the fruits of Citrus aurantifolia and Morinda citrifolia were less contaminated, just like seeds of Oryza sativa, Parkia roxburghii, bulbs of Allium sativum and the pulp of Tamarindus indica. With these plant constituents of JG, it might be of interest to screen their antibacterial and antifungal

  3. Evaluation of Main Compositions of Water Chemistry Data By Graphical Methods, Edremit (Balikesir) Alluvial Aquifer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertekin, Can; Sedat Çetiner, Ziya

    2015-04-01

    This case study aims to characterize and compare hydrogeochemistry based on major ion composition belonging to the year of 1970's, 2007 and 2008 for Edremit alluvial aquifer system which lies on the northwestern coast of Anatolia. Graphical representations including Piper, Schoeller, Stiff and Durov diagrams are applied to ease a systematic interpretation of a wide range of well chemistry data sets. In Piper diagram, water types of the aquifer system are mainly dominated with calcium, carbonate-bicarbonate and sulphate ions. Water types of the site are separated as sulphate or carbonate-bicarbonate ion dominated zones for 1970's data. Comparing data of 1970's, 2007 and 2008 the newest data set is clustered into magnesium dominate zone. This is related to relatively deep groundwater chemistry affect probably resulting from long term groundwater withdrawal for irrigation in the aquifer system. The Schoeller diagram portrays differences of the data set of 1970's, 2007 and 2008 more clearly comparing the Piper diagram. In this diagram, higher portions of magnesium and sulphate composition of the well data belonging to the year of 2007 and 2008 are possibly related to deep routes of groundwater flow paths of the site and/or geothermal water mixing. In Durov diagram, the data set was projected to a rectangular shape and it was not immediately clear to differentiate ionic composition of the water. This is not coincidence because the fact that pH values do not change significantly over the years and its contribution is not substantial comparing to major ion chemistry. Finally, application of hydrogeochemical modeling as a further step was touched upon herein to further depict undergone processes and end-members in the whole aquifer system on Edremit Plain. Keywords: Edremit, groundwater, aquifer, hydrogeochemistry, facies

  4. Frugivory and the effects of ingestion by bats on the seed germination of three pioneering plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho-Ricardo, Maria C.; Uieda, Wilson; Fonseca, Renata Cristina B.; Rossi, Marcelo N.

    2014-02-01

    The dispersion and seedling establishment of pioneering plants can be favoured by the presence of frugivorous bats because the bats usually improve seed germination after ingestion. Although seed germinability is known to vary greatly after ingestion by different bats, the relative contribution of each bat species to seed germination within plant communities is poorly understood. In this study, we first determined the fauna of frugivorous bats in a semideciduous seasonal forest remnant in southern Brazil and subsequently identified the plant species of the seeds passed through their guts. Second, the germination performance (i.e., germination percentage and speed) of the seeds of three pioneering plants (Piper aduncum, Piper hispidinervum and Solanum granuloso-leprosum) ingested by the most abundant bats was compared with that of the non-ingested seeds (seeds collected from fruits). Additionally, the effects on seed germination of different bat species were compared. During one year, five species of frugivorous bats were caught, and the seeds of eleven identifiable plant species (not counting those of undetermined species) were found in their faeces. We found that the germination performance of the seeds of Piper species was significantly enhanced after ingestion by bats, whereas S. granuloso-leprosum seeds had neutral or reduced germinability when seeds in faeces were compared with pulp-removed seeds. Our results revealed that the bat species that were captured exerted different effects upon seed germination; such a disparity is expected to result in different rates of early establishment of these pioneer plants in tropical forests, most likely affecting forest composition and structure, particularly during the initial stages of succession.

  5. Evidence for exploitative competition: Comparative foraging behavior and roosting ecology of short-tailed fruit bats (Phyllostomidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonaccorso, F.J.; Winkelmann, J.R.; Shin, D.; Agrawal, C.I.; Aslami, N.; Bonney, C.; Hsu, A.; Jekielek, P.E.; Knox, A.K.; Kopach, S.J.; Jennings, T.D.; Lasky, J.R.; Menesale, S.A.; Richards, J.H.; Rutland, J.A.; Sessa, A.K.; Zhaurova, L.; Kunz, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chestnut short-tailed bats, Carollia castanea, and Seba's short-tailed bats, C. perspicillata (Phyllostomidae), were radio-tracked (N = 1593 positions) in lowland rain forest at Tiputini Biodiversity Station, Orellana Province, Ecuador. For 11 C. castanea, mean home range was 6.8 ?? 2.2 ha, mean core-use area was 1.7 ?? 0.8 ha, and mean long axis across home range was 438 ?? 106 m. For three C. perspicillata, mean home range was 5.5 ?? 1.7 ha, mean core-use area was 1.3 ?? 0.6 ha, and mean long axis was 493 ?? 172 m. Groups of less than five C. castanea occupied day-roosts in earthen cavities that undercut banks the Tiputini River. Carollia perspicillata used tree hollows and buildings as day-roosts. Interspecific and intraspecific overlap among short-tailed bats occurred in core-use areas associated with clumps of fruiting Piper hispidum (peppers) and Cecropia sciadophylla. Piper hispidum seeds were present in 80 percent of the fecal samples from C. castanea and 56 percent of samples from C. perspicillata. Carollia perspicillata handled pepper fruits significantly faster than C. castanea; however, C. castanea commenced foraging before C. perspicillata emerged from day-roosts. Evidence for exploitative competition between C. castanea and C. perspicillata is suggested by our observations that 95 percent of ripe P. hispidum fruits available at sunset disappear before sunrise (N = 74 marked fruits). Piper hispidum plants produced zero to 12 ripe infructescences per plant each night during peak production. Few ripe infructescences of P. hispidum were available during the dry season; however, ripe infructescences of C. sciadophylla, remained abundant. ?? 2007 The Author(s) Journal compilation ?? 2007 by The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.

  6. Short term hearing loss in general aviation operations, phase 1, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of light aircraft noise on six subjects during flight operations were investigated. The noise environment in the Piper Apache light aircraft was found to be capable of producing hearing threshold shifts. The following are the principal findings and conclusions: (1) Through most of the frequency range for which measurements were taken (500 to 6000 Hz), there was a regular progression showing increased loss of auditory acuity as a function of increased exposure time. (2) Extensive variability was found in the results among subjects, and in the measured loss at discrete frequencies for each subject. (3) The principal loss of hearing occurred at the low frequencies, around 500 Hz.

  7. Evaluation of Piloted Inputs for Onboard Frequency Response Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grauer, Jared A.; Martos, Borja

    2013-01-01

    Frequency response estimation results are presented using piloted inputs and a real-time estimation method recently developed for multisine inputs. A nonlinear simulation of the F-16 and a Piper Saratoga research aircraft were subjected to different piloted test inputs while the short period stabilator/elevator to pitch rate frequency response was estimated. Results show that the method can produce accurate results using wide-band piloted inputs instead of multisines. A new metric is introduced for evaluating which data points to include in the analysis and recommendations are provided for applying this method with piloted inputs.

  8. Antibacterial activity of alimentary plants against Staphylococcus aureus growth.

    PubMed

    Pérez, C; Anesini, C

    1994-01-01

    Alimentary plants were screened for antibacterial activity against a penicillin G resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-five samples of plant material corresponding to 21 species from 13 families were used. Both aqueous and ethanol extracts were obtained from them. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar-well diffusion method, using cephazolin as a standard antibiotic. Seventeen ethanol extracts were found active. Eugenia caryophyllata (clavo de olor*) flowers, Myristica fragans (nuez moscada*) seeds, Theobroma cacao (cacao*) seed bark, Triticum sp (trigo*) fruit, Zea mays (maíz*) fruit and Piper nigrum (pimienta*) ripe fruit produced some of the more active extracts (* = Argentine vulgar names).

  9. A facile and rapid method for the black pepper leaf mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and the antimicrobial study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Robin; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2014-10-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles is widely accepted due to the less toxicity in comparison with chemical methods. But there are certain drawbacks like slow formation of nanoparticles, difficulty to control particle size and shape make them less convenient. Here we report a novel cost-effective and eco-friendly method for the rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Piper nigrum. Our results suggest that this method can be used for obtaining silver nanoparticles with controllable size within a few minutes. The fabricated nanoparticles possessed excellent antibacterial property against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  10. Bactericidal activity of black pepper, bay leaf, aniseed and coriander against oral isolates.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Nazia Masood Ahmed; Tariq, Perween

    2006-07-01

    Present investigation focused on antibacterial potential of aqueous decoction of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L.), and coriander (Coriandum sativum L.) against 176 bacterial isolates belonging to 12 different genera of bacterial population isolated from oral cavity of 200 individuals. The disc diffusion technique was employed. Overall aqueous decoction of black pepper was the most bacterial-toxic exhibited 75% antibacterial activity as compared to aqueous decoction of bay leaf (53.4%) and aqueous decoction of aniseed (18.1%), at the concentration of 10 ml/disc. The aqueous decoction of coriander did not show any antibacterial effect against tested bacterial isolates.

  11. Variable-Delay Polarization Modulators for Cryogenic Millimeter-Wave Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, D. T.; Eimer, J. R.; Fixsen, D. J.; Hinderks, J.; Kogut, A. J.; Lazear, J.; Mirel, P.; Switzer, E.; Voellmer, G. M.; Wollack, E. J..

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design, construction, and initial validation of the variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) designed for the PIPER cosmic microwave background polarimeter. The VPM modulates between linear and circular polarization by introducing a variable phase delay between orthogonal linear polarizations. Each VPM has a diameter of 39 cm and is engineered to operate in a cryogenic environment (1.5 K). We describe the mechanical design and performance of the kinematic double-blade flexure and drive mechanism along with the construction of the high precision wire grid polarizers.

  12. Piperine: bioactivities and structural modifications.

    PubMed

    Qu, Huan; Lv, Min; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Piperine is a simple alkaloid isolated from the seeds of Piper nigrum. Piperine and its derivatives exhibited a wide range of biological properties such as antitumor activity, antioxidant activity, antiinflammatory activity, antimycobacterial activity, insecticidal activity, etc. Although five excellent reviews have recently been described by Srinivasan in 2007, Mao in 2011, Butt in 2013, and Meghwal in 2013, respectively, their topics were mainly focused on the biological effects. Therefore, in the present review, the progress in the structural modifications on the aliphatic chain and the amide moiety of piperine was reported. Meanwhile, the biological activities and structure-activity relationship of piperine and its derivatives were also described. PMID:25553428

  13. Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants.

    PubMed

    Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A

    2014-01-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial. PMID:25280022

  14. Flash chromatography on cartridges for the separation of plant extracts: rules for the selection of chromatographic conditions and comparison with medium pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weber, Petra; Hamburger, Matthias; Schafroth, Nina; Potterat, Olivier

    2011-03-01

    Empirical rules for the selection of chromatographic conditions on flash chromatography cartridges were developed, with an emphasis on gradient mode. These rules were then tested with separation of extracts from important medicinal plants including Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Piper nigrum and Salvia milthiorrhiza. Sepacore® cartridges enabled a good separation of compounds with a broad range of polarity, as typically found in plant extracts. The chromatographic resolution remained, however, lower than that achieved on classical columns packed with material of smaller particle size. For poorly soluble extracts, solid introduction gave better results than liquid injection.

  15. Comparative analysis of PA-31-350 Chieftain (N44LV) accident and NASA crash test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayduk, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A full scale, controlled crash test to simulate the crash of a Piper PA-31-350 Chieftain airplane is described. Comparisons were performed between the simulated crash and the actual crash in order to assess seat and floor behavior, and to estimate the acceleration levels experienced in the craft at the time of impact. Photographs, acceleration histories, and the tested airplane crash data is used to augment the accident information to better define the crash conditions. Measured impact parameters are presented along with flight path velocity and angle in relation to the impact surface.

  16. Deadlines set for new U. K. offshore safety rules

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-14

    This paper reports on new U.K. offshore safety regulations-inspired by Lord Cullen's 1990 report spawned by the 1987 Piper Alpha platform accident which will take effect May 31, 1993, for new installations. The U.K. Health and Safety Executive (HSE) said its proposed regulations, required for operators or owners to gain HSE approval for each fixed or mobile installation, was put before Parliament Nov. 27. That gives opposition parties 40 days to call for debate and possible amendment before the proposals become law.

  17. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor-binding antagonist activity of Malaysian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jantan, I; Rafi, I A A; Jalil, J

    2005-01-01

    Forty-nine methanol extracts of 37 species of Malaysian medicinal plants were investigated for their inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF) binding to rabbit platelets, using 3H-PAF as a ligand. Among them, the extracts of six Zingiberaceae species (Alpinia galanga Swartz., Boesenbergia pandurata Roxb., Curcuma ochorrhiza Val., C. aeruginosa Roxb., Zingiber officinale Rosc. and Z. zerumbet Koenig.), two Cinnamomum species (C. altissimum Kosterm. and C. pubescens Kochummen.), Goniothalamus malayanus Hook. f. Momordica charantia Linn. and Piper aduncum L. are potential sources of new PAF antagonists, as they showed significant inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging from 1.2 to 18.4 microg ml(-1).

  18. Use and valuation of native and introduced medicinal plant species in Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, Boyacá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant species contribute significantly to folk medicine in Colombia. However, few local studies have investigated whether species used are introduced or native and whether there is a difference in importance of native and introduced medicinal plant species. The aim of the present study was to describe the use of medicinal plants within two municipalities, Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, both in the department of Boyacá, Colombia and to assess the importance of native and introduced plants to healers, amateur healers and local people. As local healers including amateur healers have no history of introduced species our working hypotheses (H1-2) were that H1: native and introduced medicinal plant species are of equal importance and H2: healers and amateur healers do not differentiate in their preferences between native and introduced medicinal plant species. Methods Ten villages were included in the study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used including questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, in- depth interviews, and open talks. Voucher specimens were collected in home gardens and during field walks. For data analysis, we calculated use value indices and Jaccard index and tested for the above hypothesis using Spearman rank-correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney tests. Results Eighty medicinal plant species were described by locals as the most frequently used. Of these, 78 species were taxonomically identified, distributed within 41 families and 74 genera, which included 35 native species and 43 introduced. The highest valued families were: Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae. The species ranked highest according to their Use Values, in both municipalities, were Mentha suaveolens Ehrh., Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth, and Verbena littoralis Kunth. Introduced species were more important than native ones in Zetaquira, while there was no difference in importance in Campo Hermoso. While healers

  19. Morphometry and retention time as forcing functions to establishment and maintenance of aquatic macrophytes in a tropical reservoir.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Santino, M B; Fushita, A T; Peret, A C; Bianchini-Junior, I

    2016-05-01

    Macrophytes may constitute an important resource for several chemical, physical and biological processes within aquatic ecosystems. This study considers that in tropical reservoirs with low retention time and with low values of shoreline development (DL), the expansion and persistence of aquatic macrophytes are mainly reported to local conditions (e.g., hydrodynamic and wind exposure) rather than trophic status and depth of the euphotic zone. In this context, this study aimed at describing and comparing the incidence of aquatic macrophytes in a throughflowing, non-dendritic tropical reservoir. During February 2006 to November 2007, eight limnological surveys were performed quarterly within the Ourinhos Reservoir, and in the mouth areas of its tributaries. At the six sampling stations 30 variables were measured. The number of sites with plants varied between 21 and 38 and at the end of the 1st year the total richness was found. The sampling survey outcome the recognition of 18 species of aquatic macrophytes; Cyperaceae (2 genera and 1 species), Pontederiaceae (3 species) and Onarograceae (3 genera) were the families with higher diversity. Seven species (Typha domingensis Pers., Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdec, Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth, Eleocharis sp1, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth) Lye) always were present and were more frequent in the sites. The occurrence of emergent species predominated (45.9%), followed by submersed rooted (24.5%), free floating (19.5%), floating rooted (9.7%) and free submersed (0.3%). Although limnological variables and the distribution of macrophytes have discriminated the same sampling points, the stepwise multiple linear regressions did not pointed out strong correspondences (or coherence) among the most constant and distributed macrophyte species and the selected limnological variables, as well the trophic statuses. Seeing the low relationship among limnological

  20. Composition of betel specific chemicals in saliva during betel chewing for the identification of biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Franke, Adrian A; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J

    2015-06-01

    Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans, including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut ('BN'), nut + Piper betle leaf ('BL'), and betel quid ('BQ') consisting of nut + lime + tobacco + Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, dilution with formic acid followed by LCMS analysis. Baseline and chewing saliva levels were compared using t-tests and differences between groups were compared by ANOVA; p < 0.05 indicated significance. Predominant compounds in chewing material were guvacine, arecoline, guvacoline, arecaidine, chavibetol, and nicotine. In chewing saliva we found significant increases from baseline for guvacine (BN, BQ), arecoline (all groups), guvacoline (BN), arecaidine (all groups), nicotine (BQ), and chavibetol (BL, BQ), and significant differences between all groups for total areca-specific alkaloids, total tobacco-specific alkaloids and chavibetol. From this pilot study, we propose the following chemical patterns as biomarkers: areca alkaloids for BN use, areca alkaloids and chavibetol for BL use, and areca alkaloids plus chavibetol and tobacco-specific alkaloids for BQ use. PMID:25797484

  1. PA-30 Twin Comanche - NASA 808 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Dryden Flight Research Center's Piper PA-30 Twin Commanche, which helped validate the RPRV concept, descends to a remotely controlled landing on Rogers Dry Lake, unassisted by the onboard pilot. A Piper PA-30 Twin Commanche, known as NASA 808, was used at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center as a rugged workhorse in a variety of research projects associated with both general aviation and military projects. In the early 1970s, the PA-30, serial number 301498, was used to test a flight technique used to fly Remotely Piloted Research Vehicles (RPRV's). The technique was first tested with the cockpit windows of the light aircraft blacked out while the pilot flew the aircraft utilizing a television monitor which gave him a 'pilot's eye' view ahead of the aircraft. Later pilots flew the aircraft from a ground cockpit, a procedure used with all RPRV's. TV and two-way telemetry allow the pilot to be in constant control of the aircraft. The apparatus mounted over the cockpit is a special fish eye lens camera, used to obtain images that are transmitted to the ground based cockpit. This project paved the way for sophisticated, highly successful research programs involving high risk spin, stall, and flight control conditions, such as the HiMAT and the subscale F-15 remotely piloted vehicles. Over the years, NASA 808 has also been used for spin and stall research related to general aviation aircraft and also research to alleviate wake vortices behind large jetliners.

  2. An engineering critical assessment - A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, M.F.; Baker, N.J.; Shipley, T.D.; Nelson, S.G.

    1985-01-01

    In order to allow for the development of the North East Frigg and Odin Gas Fields, an uprating of the Frigg Field Transportation and Treatment system was required. This uprating involved work on the Frigg Field, the North Sea Platform, Manifold Compression Platform O1 (MCP01) and the shore terminal at St Fergus in Scotland. The subject matter of this paper relates to the work carried out on MCP 01. MCP 01, 110 miles offshore, is the centre of a gas collection system receiving gas from the Frigg, Piper and Tartan fields, and transporting this gas to the Total Oil Marine shore terminal at St Fergus. The Frigg gas comes to the MCP 01 by means of twin 32'' diameter pipelines of API 5LX-65 material and that from the Piper/Tartan fields via an 18'' diameter API 5LX-60 line. The gas is transported onshore via twin 32'' diameter sub sea lines of API 5LX-65 material. The maximum throughput of gas to St Fergus was in the region of 64 MCM/day and in order to carry the extra gas from the Norwegian sector it was required to install, on MCP 01, 2 x 28,000 MW compression sets. The installation of these compressors involved an upgrading of existing utilities and processing facilities, living accommodation and extra life saving appliances.

  3. Phytochemical diversity drives plant–insect community diversity

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Lora A.; Dyer, Lee A.; Forister, Matthew L.; Smilanich, Angela M.; Dodson, Craig D.; Leonard, Michael D.; Jeffrey, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    What are the ecological causes and consequences of variation in phytochemical diversity within and between plant taxa? Despite decades of natural products discovery by organic chemists and research by chemical ecologists, our understanding of phytochemically mediated ecological processes in natural communities has been restricted to studies of either broad classes of compounds or a small number of well-characterized molecules. Until now, no studies have assessed the ecological causes or consequences of rigorously quantified phytochemical diversity across taxa in natural systems. Consequently, hypotheses that attempt to explain variation in phytochemical diversity among plants remain largely untested. We use spectral data from crude plant extracts to characterize phytochemical diversity in a suite of co-occurring plants in the tropical genus Piper (Piperaceae). In combination with 20 years of data focused on Piper-associated insects, we find that phytochemical diversity has a direct and positive effect on the diversity of herbivores but also reduces overall herbivore damage. Elevated chemical diversity is associated with more specialized assemblages of herbivores, and the cascading positive effect of phytochemistry on herbivore enemies is stronger as herbivore diet breadth narrows. These results are consistent with traditional hypotheses that predict positive associations between plant chemical diversity, insect herbivore diversity, and trophic specialization. It is clear from these results that high phytochemical diversity not only enhances the diversity of plant-associated insects but also contributes to the ecological predominance of specialized insect herbivores. PMID:26283384

  4. Potential mechanisms of hypocholesterolaemic effect of Thai spices/dietary extracts.

    PubMed

    Duangjai, Acharaporn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

    2011-02-01

    Several Thai spices/dietary ingredients were previously shown to have hypocholesterolaemic effects. These studies were mostly conducted in animal models in which the mechanisms of action were not yet well-established. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the potential mechanism of hypocholesterolaemic action of 12 selected plants, namely Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Moringa oleifera Lam., Cucurbita moschata Duchesne, Ananas comosus (L.) Merr., Zingiber officinale, Morus alba L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Piper nigrum L., Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., Curcuma zedoaria Rose, Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. and Piper retrofractum Vahl., widely used as spices and ingredients in various types of Thai food. The extract of P. nigrum at 100 µg mL(-1) was found to be the most effective cholesterol uptake inhibitor whereas those of A. galanga and C. sinensis effectively inhibited pancreatic lipase activity with IC50 values of 8.99±3.41 and 12.36±1.23 µg mL(-1), respectively. The potency of extracts from H. sabdariffa, M. oleifera and C. moschata at 100 µg mL(-1) were found to be similar to 0.4 µg mL(-1) pravastatin in inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and possibly reduced cholesterol biosynthesis. This study also demonstrated that several of the tested plants possessed multiple sites of action that were possibly responsible for their cholesterol-lowering effect in the in vivo model. PMID:20623425

  5. Hydro-chemical assessment and groundwater recharge mechanism in the humid tropics: a case study.

    PubMed

    Hameed, A Shahul; Prasad, N B Narasimha

    2008-10-01

    The study related to assessment of various chemical constituents in the groundwater, their origin and suitability for human use has been carried out in the Chaliyar river basin of Kerala (India). Groundwater samples were collected from 27 open dug wells and 7 bore wells, and analyzed. Piper tri-linear classification was followed in segregating the data with respect to source of dissolved constituents in groundwater. Most of the wells fall within the no dominant ion zone in the piper diagram, indicating the equal distribution of alkalis and alkaline earths. High level of dissolved solids, with the presence of chloride and sulphate, was observed in a few wells in the coastal region, which may be due to the salinity intrusion from the sea. The groundwater quality was found fairly good and potable in the lateritic midland region, except for a few wells, which were having significant level of nitrate and/or chloride. An attempt has been made to understand the source of groundwater recharge in the basin using environmental tritium as a tracer. It has been observed that the groundwater is predominantly recharged through rainfall, as evidenced from the level of tritium close to that of local precipitation. PMID:19697760

  6. Suppression of Meloidogyne chitwoodi with Sudangrass Cultivars as Green Manure

    PubMed Central

    Mojtahedi, H.; Santo, G. S.; Ingham, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 1 reproduced on Piper sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), 332 (sudangrass hybrid), and P855F and P877F (sorghum-sudangrass hybrids), but failed to reproduce efficiently on Trudan 8, Trudex 9 (sudangrass hybrids), and Sordan 79, SS-222, and Bravo II (sorghum-sudangrass hybrids). Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 2 behaved similarly and reproduced more efficiently on Piper, P855F, and P877F than on Trudan 8, Trudex 9, or Sordan 79. The mean reproductive factor for M. chitwoodi races on the poorer hosts ranged from <0.1 to 0.9 under greenhouse and field conditions. Meloidogyne hapla failed to reproduce on any of the cultivars tested. In the laboratory, leaves of each cultivar chopped and incorporated as green manure reduced the M. chitwoodi population in infested soil more than unamended or wheat green manure treatments. Trudan 8, although limited to the zone of incorporation, protected this zone from colonization of upward migrating second stage juveniles (J2) for up to 6 weeks. Leaves of Trudan 8 but not roots were effective against M. chitwoodi, and J2 appeared to be more sensitive than egg masses. Trudan 8 and Sordan 79 as green manure reduced M. chitwoodi in bucket microplots under field conditions. PMID:19279773

  7. Screening of Venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter; Arsenak, Miriam; Abad, María Jesús; Fernández, Angel; Milano, Balentina; Gonto, Reina; Ruiz, Marie-Christine; Fraile, Silvia; Taylor, Sofía; Estrada, Omar; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2013-04-01

    There are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in Venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. Only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. In this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine B assay. Extracts from Clavija lancifolia, Hamelia patens, Piper san-vicentense, Physalis cordata, Jacaranda copaia, Heliotropium indicum, and Annona squamosa were the most cytotoxic, whereas other extracts from Calotropis gigantea, Hyptis dilatata, Chromolaena odorata, Siparuna guianensis, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, Protium heptaphyllum, and Piper arboreum showed the greatest cytostatic activity. These results confirm previous reports on the cytotoxic activities of the above-mentioned plants as well as prompting further studies on others such as C. lancifolia and H. dilatata that have not been so extensively studied.

  8. Effects of age, sex, prior experience, and intraspecific food variation on diet composition of a tropical folivore (Phasmetodea: Phasmatidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Sandlin, E.A.; Willig, M.R. )

    1993-06-01

    Recent attention in ecology has focused on factors that influence the foraging behavior of herbivores. We evaluated responses to different arrays of food plants exhibited by an abundant folivore within the tabonuco forest of Puerto Rico. Previous work indicates that the walkingstick Lamponius portoricensis Rehn forages on a limited array of plant species and selects habitats that contain high densities of Piper treleaseanum Britton Wilson. We designed three separate experiments to evaluate (1) if walkingsticks of different ages or of different sex have different food preferences, (2) if previous exposure to only one food type affects subsequent diet composition, and (3) if walkingsticks distinguish among leaves of different quality from the same plant. Four plants [Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Decne Planch, Piper hispidum Sw., P. treleaseanum, and Urera baccifera (L.) Gaud.] known to be forage for this insect were used in food choice experiments. Multi- variate analyses revealed that, at different ages, males and females exhibit different patterns of consumption. Likewise, preexposure to only one food influences subsequent diet differently depending upon preexposure regime and sex. In addition, preferences are shown for different qualities of leaves within single forage species. In particular, lower (older) leaves of P. treleaseanum are preferred, whereas leaves of D. arboreus and U. baccifera are eaten indiscriminately. These results are consistent with the contention that herbivores forage within nutritional constraints. In addition, walkingsticks distinguish between plant species, recognize differences in leaf quality associated with age or position, and modify their diet to reflect past experience.

  9. Olfaction in the fruit-eating bats Artibeus lituratus and Carollia perspicillata: an experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Parolin, Lays C; Mikich, Sandra B; Bianconi, Gledson V

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest that frugivorous bats search and select fruit mainly by olfaction so that they can be attracted by smell alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in captivity, the behavioural response (number of foraging attempts) of Artibeus lituratus and Carollia perspicillata offered essential oils extracted from ripe fruit of Ficus insipida (Moraceae) and Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) as well as intact fruit wrapped in gauze to attract bats with reduced visual stimuli. Based on previous reports, we hypothesized that A.lituratus would exhibit preference for Ficus fruits/oil while C. perspicillata would prefer Piper fruit/oil. Four arrangements of these attractants were tested in triplicate: P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida fruit, P.hispidum oil vs. F. insipida oil, P. hispidum oil vs. F. insipida fruit and P. hispidum fruit vs. F. insipida oil. As expected, in all tests, A. lituratus showed the highest number of foraging attempts in F. insipida while C. perspicillata in those of P. hispidum. Based on the number of foraging attempts both species exhibited a positive response to their favorite fruit genera, though the differences were not always statistically significant. The results confirm the importance of smell in fruit choice by these species. PMID:26536853

  10. Piperine ameliorates the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis by inhibiting the activation of mitogen activated protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Bae, Gi-Sang; Kim, Min-Sun; Jeong, Jinsu; Lee, Hye-Youn; Park, Kyoung-Chel; Koo, Bon Soon; Kim, Byung-Jin; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Lee, Seung Ho; Hwang, Sung-Yeon; Shin, Yong Kook; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2011-07-01

    Piperine is a phenolic component of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and long pepper (Piper longum), fruits used in traditional Asian medicine. Our previous study showed that piperine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses. In this study, we investigated whether piperine reduces the severity of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). Administration of piperine reduced histologic damage and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the pancreas and ameliorated many of the examined laboratory parameters, including the pancreatic weight (PW) to body weight (BW) ratio, as well as serum levels of amylase and lipase and trypsin activity. Furthermore, piperine pretreatment reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 during cerulein-induced AP. In accordance with in vivo results, piperine reduced cell death, amylase and lipase activity, and cytokine production in isolated cerulein-treated pancreatic acinar cells. In addition, piperine inhibited the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). These findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of piperine in cerulein-induced AP is mediated by inhibiting the activation of MAPKs. Thus, piperine may have a protective effect against AP.

  11. Targeting N-acyl-homoserine-lactones to mitigate membrane biofouling based on quorum sensing using a biofouling reducer.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Muhammad Faisal; Sakinah, Mimi; Singh, Lakhveer; Zularisam, A W

    2012-10-31

    Exploring novel biological anti-quorum sensing (QS) agents to control membrane biofouling is of great worth in order to allow sustainable performance of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment. In recent studies, QS inhibitors have provided evidence of alternative route to control membrane biofouling. This study investigated the role of Piper betle extract (PBE) as an anti-QS agent to mitigate membrane biofouling. Results demonstrated the occurrence of the N-acyl-homoserine-lactone (AHL) autoinducers (AIs), correlate QS activity and membrane biofouling mitigation. The AIs production in bioreactor was confirmed using an indicator strain Agrobacterium tumefaciens (NTL4) harboring plasmid pZLR4. Moreover, three different AHLs were found in biocake using thin layer chromatographic analysis. An increase in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and transmembrane pressure (TMP) was observed with AHL activity of the biocake during continuous MBR operation, which shows that membrane biofouling was in close relationship with QS activity. PBE was verified to mitigate membrane biofouling via inhibiting AIs production. SEM analysis further confirmed the effect of PBE on EPS and biofilm formation. These results exhibited that PBE could be a novel agent to target AIs for mitigation of membrane biofouling. Further work can be carried out to purify the active compound of Piper betle extract to target the QS to mitigate membrane biofouling.

  12. Herbal Insomnia Medications that Target GABAergic Systems: A Review of the Psychopharmacological Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuan; Dong, Jing-Wen; Zhao, Jiang-He; Tang, Li-Na; Zhang, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia is a common sleep disorder which is prevalent in women and the elderly. Current insomnia drugs mainly target the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, melatonin receptor, histamine receptor, orexin, and serotonin receptor. GABAA receptor modulators are ordinarily used to manage insomnia, but they are known to affect sleep maintenance, including residual effects, tolerance, and dependence. In an effort to discover new drugs that relieve insomnia symptoms while avoiding side effects, numerous studies focusing on the neurotransmitter GABA and herbal medicines have been conducted. Traditional herbal medicines, such as Piper methysticum and the seed of Zizyphus jujuba Mill var. spinosa, have been widely reported to improve sleep and other mental disorders. These herbal medicines have been applied for many years in folk medicine, and extracts of these medicines have been used to study their pharmacological actions and mechanisms. Although effective and relatively safe, natural plant products have some side effects, such as hepatotoxicity and skin reactions effects of Piper methysticum. In addition, there are insufficient evidences to certify the safety of most traditional herbal medicine. In this review, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding a variety of natural plant products that are commonly used to treat insomnia to facilitate future studies. PMID:24851093

  13. In the shadow of a pepper-centric historiography: Understanding the global diffusion of capsicums in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    PubMed

    Halikowski Smith, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Historians of the Eurasian spice trade focus on the fortunes of black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.), largely because the trading companies of the Dutch and English which they study also did. Capsicum peppers are, however, the world׳s most consumed spice, and their story needs to be told in parallel. The five species of capsicum peppers spread across the world in less than two hundred years following their discovery by Europeans in South and Central America and proved both hardier than Piper nigrum and able to reproduce spontaneously. While the taste was similar but more pungent than black pepper, capsicums provided an important vitamin C and bioflavanoid supplement to poorer people in southern and eastern Europe far from the precepts of good taste as dictated from Paris, and rapidly became a mainstay of tropical cuisine across the world. This contribution seeks both to trace and to understand that diffusion and its principal vectors from historical research amongst a plethora of primary source materials in European and Asian languages. Medical and dietetic reaction is presented from a wide range of contemporary texts. The work proceeds according to deductive reasoning and in comparison to the diffusion of black pepper consumption. It reveals the very different strategies of import substitution and commercial embargo undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish authorities, a somewhat later date of arrival in China than previously thought, and three different, competing lines of entry into an important area of later cultivation, namely Central Europe. PMID:25446579

  14. Hydrogeochemical Properties of Groundwater in Parts of Abakaliki City, Southeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odoh, B I; Utom, A U; Ezeh, H N; Egboka, B C E; Ezeh, V O

    2014-07-01

    This study is aimed at providing useful information about the hydrochemistry of some parts of Abakaliki city for proper understanding of the groundwater quality. Twelve representative groundwater samples from water boreholes/wells in the study area were analyzed for their hydrogeochemical properties: pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Turbidity, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), COD, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, SO4(2-), Cl-, NO3-, and CO3(2-). Aquifers in the study environment were located in the fractured shales of Abakaliki Formation. The composition of the major ions outlined the relationships between the aquifer chemistry. Strong positive correlations exist between EC-TDS, Na(+)-TDS, Mg(2+)-SO4(2+) and Ca(2+)-SO4(2+). Piper trilinear diagram has also been utilized in data interpretation and to classify the hydrogeochemical facies. Majority of the analyzed samples were characterized by the dominance of Ca2+, Mg2+, SO4(2-) and Cl- and the Piper trilinear diagram indicated two water types: Ca (Mg)-Cl and Ca-Mg-Na-Cl-SO4 water types. Na/Cl ratio ranging from 0.12 to 0.73 (all below 1.0) with a mean of 0.55 inferred fresh water existence. Results of this study generally showed that the analyzed groundwater samples pose no threat to human consumption, health and environment since the concentrations of the physico-chemical parameters were within the WHO standards.

  15. Review of Scientific Evidence of Medicinal Convoy Plants in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    PubMed

    Sadati, Seyede Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Ebadi, Nastaran; Yakhchali, Maryam; Dana, Azadeh Raees; Masoomi, Fatemeh; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Ramezany, Farid

    2016-01-01

    One concept used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) for multidrug therapy is that of the convoy drug (Mobadregh). According to TPM texts, convoy drugs are substances (or drugs), which facilitate the access of drugs or foods to the whole body or to specific organs. This study reviewed some convoy drugs presented in TPM, their biological effects, and their probable interactions with main drugs, considering the increased absorption through inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux function, bioavailability-enhancing effects, and decreased metabolism of the main drug using electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar in November and December, 2013. Recent studies have proven the beneficial effects of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) and camphor on the heart and brain, the cerebral therapeutic effects of Asarum europaeum (hazelwort), the hepatoprotective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory), and Apium graveolens (celery) seeds, and the diuretic effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon), and Cucumis melo (melon) seeds. The effects of vinegar in targeting the liver and brain have also been demonstrated. An evaluation of the results demonstrated that the suggested convoy drugs, including Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper longum (long pepper), red wine, Camellia sinensis (tea), hazelwort, Mentha longifolia (pennyroyal), Anethum graveolens (dill), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), cinnamon, and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) can increase the bioavailability of coadministered drugs by inhibition of P-gp or cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) or both of them. This evidence could be a good basis for the use of these agents as convoys in TPM.

  16. Antimutagenic effects of piperine on cyclophosphamide-induced chromosome aberrations in rat bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Wongpa, Sareeya; Himakoun, Lakana; Soontornchai, Sarisak; Temcharoen, Punya

    2007-01-01

    Piperine is a major pungent substance and active component of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.) and long pepper (Piper longum Linn.). Both plants are used worldwide as household spices and condiments. They are also used as important ingredients in folklore medicine in many Asian countries. Therefore, it is of interest to study antimutagenic effects of piperine. In this study, its influence on chromosomes was investigated in rat bone marrow cells. Male Wistar rats were orally administered piperine at the doses of 100, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight for 24 hours then challenged with cyclophosphamide at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight by intraperitoneal injection. Twenty-four hours thereafter, all animals were sacrificed and bone marrow samples were collected for chromosomal analysis. The results demonstrated that piperine at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight gave a statistically significant reduction in cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations. In conclusion, piperine may have antimutagenic potential. The underlying molecular mechanisms now require attention.

  17. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies on interaction of "Trikatu" with diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Lala, L G; D'Mello, P M; Naik, S R

    2004-04-01

    "Trikatu"-an Ayurvedic formulation comprising of a 1:1:1 ratio of dried fruits of Piper nigrum, Piper longum and dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale is widely used to enhance the bioavailability of drugs, like vasicine, indomethacin, etc. The enhanced biological response might lead to alteration of therapeutic regimens of commonly prescribed drugs. The present work was aimed to study the effect of concomitant administration of Trikatu on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of diclofenac sodium, a frequently prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, having a poor oral bioavailability (54 +/- 2%). The effect of Trikatu on the bioavailability profile of diclofenac sodium was studied in rabbits. It was observed that Trikatu significantly decreased the serum levels of diclofenac sodium. The pharmacodynamic study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Trikatu on the anti-inflammatory activity of diclofenac sodium using carragenin-induced rat paw edema model. It was observed that the mean percent edema inhibition shown by the combination of Trikatu and diclofenac was similar to that shown by Trikatu alone but significantly less than that shown by diclofenac alone. Thus, the experimental findings indicated that Trikatu pretreatment might decrease the bioavailability of certain drugs probably through a drug-herb interaction thereby adversely affecting the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs.

  18. In the shadow of a pepper-centric historiography: Understanding the global diffusion of capsicums in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    PubMed

    Halikowski Smith, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Historians of the Eurasian spice trade focus on the fortunes of black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.), largely because the trading companies of the Dutch and English which they study also did. Capsicum peppers are, however, the world׳s most consumed spice, and their story needs to be told in parallel. The five species of capsicum peppers spread across the world in less than two hundred years following their discovery by Europeans in South and Central America and proved both hardier than Piper nigrum and able to reproduce spontaneously. While the taste was similar but more pungent than black pepper, capsicums provided an important vitamin C and bioflavanoid supplement to poorer people in southern and eastern Europe far from the precepts of good taste as dictated from Paris, and rapidly became a mainstay of tropical cuisine across the world. This contribution seeks both to trace and to understand that diffusion and its principal vectors from historical research amongst a plethora of primary source materials in European and Asian languages. Medical and dietetic reaction is presented from a wide range of contemporary texts. The work proceeds according to deductive reasoning and in comparison to the diffusion of black pepper consumption. It reveals the very different strategies of import substitution and commercial embargo undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish authorities, a somewhat later date of arrival in China than previously thought, and three different, competing lines of entry into an important area of later cultivation, namely Central Europe.

  19. Structural and taxonomic components of habitat selection in the neotropical folivore Lamponius portoricensis (Phasmetodea: Phasmatidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Willig, M.R.; Sandlin, E.A. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson ); Gannon, M.R. )

    1993-06-01

    Lamponius portoricensis Rhen is a folivorous neotropical walkingstick that is a common light-gap inhabitant of the tabonuco forest in Puerto Rico. Little is known concerning the spatial distribution of this phasmatid or the manner in which it selects habitats. Based on multiple regression analysis of a suite of taxonomic and structural characteristics of understory flora, we determined that the density of walkingsticks was associated with patches that exhibit high apparency values for Piper treleaseanum Britton Wilson and Symplocos martinicensis Jacq., and low apparency values for Dryopteris deltoidea (Sw.) Kuntze. The total development of the understory regardless of taxonomic composition at 76 cm (2.5 ft) and 107 cm (3.5 ft) also contributes to high walkingstick density, based on correlative analyses. Moreover, nonparametric analysis suggests that L. portoricensis disproportionately occurs on P. treleaseanum (approximately twice as often as expected based on plant apparency). Despite these associations, only a third of the variation in walkingstick density is accounted for by this suite of floral characteristics. The low vagility of L. portoricensis may result in its having incomplete information about the abundance and distribution of forage plants, whereas patch-dynamic processes involving changes in quality of forage can confound the significance of apparency alone in predicting density. The production of aromatic attractants by Piper may act as the proximate cue affecting patch selection.

  20. Kilopixel backshort-under-grid arrays for the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhabvala, Christine A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Brekosky, Regis P.; Chang, Meng-Ping; Costen, Nicholas P.; Datesman, Aaron M.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Kogut, Alan J.; Lazear, Justin; Leong, Edward S.; Maher, Stephen F.; Miller, Timothy M.; Moseley, S. H.; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2014-07-01

    We have demonstrated a kilopixel, filled, infrared bolometer array for the balloon-borne Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER). The array consists of three individual components assembled into a single working unit: 1) a transition-edge-sensor bolometer array with background-limited sensitivity, 2) a quarter-wavelength backshort grid, and 3) an integrated Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) multiplexer (MUX) readout. The detector array is a filled, square-grid of suspended, one-micron thick silicon bolometers with superconducting sensors. The Backshort-Under-Grid (BUG) is a separately fabricated component serving as a backshort to each pixel in the array. The backshorts are positioned in the cavities created behind each detector by the back-etched well. The spacing of the backshort beneath the detector grid can be set from ~30-300_microns by independently adjusting process parameters during fabrication. Kilopixel arrays are directly indium-bump-bonded to a 32x40 SQUID multiplexer circuit. The array architecture is suitable for a wide range of wavelengths and applications. Detector design specific to the PIPER instrument, fabrication overview, and assembly technologies will be discussed.