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Sample records for piper betle leaves

  1. Hydroxychavicol: a potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor obtained from the leaves of betel, Piper betle.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Nakao, Kikuyo; Hirata, Noriko; Namba, Kensuke; Nomi, Takao; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Moriyama, Kenzo; Shintani, Takahiro; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-07-01

    The screening of Piperaceous plants for xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity revealed that the extract of the leaves of Piper betle possesses potent activity. Activity-guided purification led us to obtain hydroxychavicol as an active principle. Hydroxychavicol is a more potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor than allopurinol, which is clinically used for the treatment of hyperuricemia.

  2. Scanning Electron Microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175

    PubMed Central

    RAHIM, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; THURAIRAJAH, Nalina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. Objectives: In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and on partially purified cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. Material and Methods S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1); with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1)]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract) was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. Results It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (p<0.001). S. mutans adhering to 100 µm2 glass surfaces (with/without sucrose) exhibited reduced cell surface area, fluffy extracellular appearance and cell population in the presence of the Piper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL-1 corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL-1 of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. Conclusion The SEM analysis confirmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are involved. PMID

  3. Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Arambewela, L. S. R.; Ratnasooriya, W. D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. Objective: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE) of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Materials and Methods: Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw) of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a) effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b) acidity (total and free), (c) volume and (d) pH of the gastric juice. Results: Oral administration of HAE and CEE provided marked dose dependent (HAE: r2 = 0.97; CEE: r2 = 0.96) and significant (P ≤ 0.05) protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free) and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity. PMID:24812474

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Polyaniline Coated Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Piper Betle Leaves Extract

    PubMed Central

    Mamun Or Rashida, Md.; Shafiul Islam, Md.; Azizul Haque, Md.; Arifur Rahman, Md.; Tanvir Hossain, Md.; Abdul Hamid, Md.

    2016-01-01

    Plants or natural resources have been found to be a good alternative method for nanoparticles synthesis. In this study, polyaniline coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from Piper betle leaves extract were investigated for their antibacterial activity. Silver nanoparticles were prepared from the reduction of silver nitrate and NaBH4 was used as reducing agent. Silver nanoparticles and extracts were mixed thoroughly and then coated by polyaniline. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Visual inspection, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques. Antibacterial activities of the synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. UV–Vis spectrum of reaction mixture showed strong absorption peak with centering at 400 nm. The FT-IR results imply that Ag-NPs were successfully synthesized and capped with bio-compounds present in P. betle. TEM image showed that Ag-NPs formed were well dispersed with a spherical structures and particle size ranging from 10 to 30 nm. The result revealed that Ag-Extract NPs showed 32.78±0.64 mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus, whereas norfloxacin (positive control) showed maximum 32.15±0.40 mm zone of inhibition for S. aureus. Again, maximum zone of inhibition 29.55±0.45 mm was found for S. typhi, 27.12±0.38 mm for E. coli and 21.95±0.45 mm for P. aeruginosa. The results obtained by this study can’t be directly extrapolated to human; so further studies should be undertaken to established the strong antimicrobial activity of Ag-Extract NPs for drug development program. PMID:27642330

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Polyaniline Coated Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Piper Betle Leaves Extract.

    PubMed

    Mamun Or Rashida, Md; Shafiul Islam, Md; Azizul Haque, Md; Arifur Rahman, Md; Tanvir Hossain, Md; Abdul Hamid, Md

    2016-01-01

    Plants or natural resources have been found to be a good alternative method for nanoparticles synthesis. In this study, polyaniline coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from Piper betle leaves extract were investigated for their antibacterial activity. Silver nanoparticles were prepared from the reduction of silver nitrate and NaBH4 was used as reducing agent. Silver nanoparticles and extracts were mixed thoroughly and then coated by polyaniline. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Visual inspection, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques. Antibacterial activities of the synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. UV-Vis spectrum of reaction mixture showed strong absorption peak with centering at 400 nm. The FT-IR results imply that Ag-NPs were successfully synthesized and capped with bio-compounds present in P. betle. TEM image showed that Ag-NPs formed were well dispersed with a spherical structures and particle size ranging from 10 to 30 nm. The result revealed that Ag-Extract NPs showed 32.78±0.64 mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus, whereas norfloxacin (positive control) showed maximum 32.15±0.40 mm zone of inhibition for S. aureus. Again, maximum zone of inhibition 29.55±0.45 mm was found for S. typhi, 27.12±0.38 mm for E. coli and 21.95±0.45 mm for P. aeruginosa. The results obtained by this study can't be directly extrapolated to human; so further studies should be undertaken to established the strong antimicrobial activity of Ag-Extract NPs for drug development program. PMID:27642330

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Polyaniline Coated Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Piper Betle Leaves Extract.

    PubMed

    Mamun Or Rashida, Md; Shafiul Islam, Md; Azizul Haque, Md; Arifur Rahman, Md; Tanvir Hossain, Md; Abdul Hamid, Md

    2016-01-01

    Plants or natural resources have been found to be a good alternative method for nanoparticles synthesis. In this study, polyaniline coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized from Piper betle leaves extract were investigated for their antibacterial activity. Silver nanoparticles were prepared from the reduction of silver nitrate and NaBH4 was used as reducing agent. Silver nanoparticles and extracts were mixed thoroughly and then coated by polyaniline. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by Visual inspection, Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV), Fourier transform infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques. Antibacterial activities of the synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhi ATCC 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. UV-Vis spectrum of reaction mixture showed strong absorption peak with centering at 400 nm. The FT-IR results imply that Ag-NPs were successfully synthesized and capped with bio-compounds present in P. betle. TEM image showed that Ag-NPs formed were well dispersed with a spherical structures and particle size ranging from 10 to 30 nm. The result revealed that Ag-Extract NPs showed 32.78±0.64 mm zone of inhibition against S. aureus, whereas norfloxacin (positive control) showed maximum 32.15±0.40 mm zone of inhibition for S. aureus. Again, maximum zone of inhibition 29.55±0.45 mm was found for S. typhi, 27.12±0.38 mm for E. coli and 21.95±0.45 mm for P. aeruginosa. The results obtained by this study can't be directly extrapolated to human; so further studies should be undertaken to established the strong antimicrobial activity of Ag-Extract NPs for drug development program.

  7. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Badrul; Akter, Fahima; Parvin, Nahida; Sharmin Pia, Rashna; Akter, Sharmin; Chowdhury, Jesmin; Sifath-E-Jahan, Kazi; Haque, Ekramul

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL). Materials and Methods: MPBL was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model. Analgesic activity of MPBL was evaluated by hot plate, writhing, and formalin tests. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, peroxynitrate (ONOO) as well as inhibition of total ROS generation, and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MPBL. Results: The extract of MPBL, at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, produced a significant (p<0.05) increase in pain threshold in hot plate method whereas significantly (p<0.05) reduced the writhing caused by acetic acid and the number of licks induced by formalin in a dose-dependent manner. The same ranges of doses of MPBL caused significant (p<0.05) inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema after 4 h in a dose-dependent manner. In DPPH, ONOO-, and total ROS scavenging method, MPBL showed good antioxidant potentiality with the IC50 value of 16.33±1.02, 25.16±0.61 , and 41.72±0.48 µg/ml, respectively with a significant (p<0.05) good reducing power. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that MPBL has strong analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects, conforming the traditional use of this plant for inflammatory pain alleviation to its antioxidant potentiality. PMID:25050265

  8. Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Arambewela, L. S. R.; Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Kumaratunga, K. G; Dissanayake, D. S; Ratnasooriya, W. D.; Kumarasingha, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka. PMID:22279373

  9. Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

    2008-02-01

    Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation.

  10. Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Trakranrungsie, N; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Khunkitti, W

    2008-02-01

    Crude ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves (Piperaceae), Alpinia galanga rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) and Allium ascalonicum bulbs (Liliaceae) were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophyte) and the yeast-like Candida albicans. A broth dilution method was employed to determine the inhibitory effect of the extracts and compared to those of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. All extracts suppressed the growth of the fungi in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the extracts tested, P. betle exhibited more effective antifungal properties with average IC(50) values ranging from 110.44 to 119.00 microg/ml. Subsequently, 10% Piper betle (Pb) cream was formulated, subjected to physical and microbial limit test and evaluated for antifungal effect. The disc diffusion assay revealed comparable zones of inhibition between discs of Pb cream containing 80 microg P. betle extract and 80 microg ketoconazole against tested fungi at 96 h after incubation. Thereafter, the inhibitory effect of Pb cream markedly decreased and completely lost effectiveness by day 7. In summary, the results supported the traditional wisdom of herbal remedy use and suggested a potential value-addition to agricultural products. It was suggested that the Pb cream has potential therapeutic value for treatment of dermatophytosis. However, clinical testing as well as improving the Pb cream formulation with greater efficacy and duration of action would be of interest and awaits further investigation. PMID:17482221

  11. Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon- Natural Food Sources with Anti-Quorum Sensing Properties

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Li Ying; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-01-01

    Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants have anti-QS ability. Interestingly, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from P. betle showed the most potent anti-QS activity as judged by the bioassays. Since there is a variety of plants that serve as food sources in Malaysia that have yet to be tested for anti-QS activity, future work should focus on identification of these plants and isolation of the anti-QS compounds. PMID:23519352

  12. Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon--natural food sources with anti-quorum sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li Ying; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2013-03-20

    Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants have anti-QS ability. Interestingly, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from P. betle showed the most potent anti-QS activity as judged by the bioassays. Since there is a variety of plants that serve as food sources in Malaysia that have yet to be tested for anti-QS activity, future work should focus on identification of these plants and isolation of the anti-QS compounds.

  13. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers.

  14. Psidium guajava and Piper betle leaf extracts prolong vase life of cut carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) flowers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Ahmad, S H; Lgu, K S

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. "Carola" and "Pallas Orange" carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a "germicide" (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  15. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  16. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 μg/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells

  17. Piper betle-mediated synthesis, characterization, antibacterial and rat splenocyte cytotoxic effects of copper oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Praburaman, Loganathan; Jang, Jum-Suk; Muthusamy, Govarthanan; Arumugam, Sengottaiyan; Manoharan, Koildhasan; Cho, Kwang-Min; Min, Cho; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Byung-Taek, Oh

    2016-09-01

    The study reports a simple, inexpensive, and eco-friendly synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) using Piper betle leaf extract. Formation of CuONPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy at 280 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the CuONPs were spherical, with an average size of 50-100 nm. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) peak was observed approximately at 1 and 8 keV. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicated that the particles were crystalline in nature. CuONPs effectively inhibited the growth of phytopathogens Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas axonopodis. The cytotoxic effect of the synthesized CuONPs was analyzed using rat splenocytes. The cell viability was decreased to 94% at 300 μg/mL. PMID:26148178

  18. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal; Wan Harun, Wan Himratul-Aznita; Abdul Razak, Fathilah; Musa, Md Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments: (i) in the absence of P. betle extract; and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg⋅mL−1; (iii) 3 mg⋅mL−1; and (iv) 6 mg⋅mL−1. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (µ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the µ-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P<0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.44×106 to 1.78×106 viable cell counts (CFU)⋅mL−1. SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity. PMID:24406634

  19. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal; Wan Harun, Wan Himratul-Aznita; Abdul Razak, Fathilah; Musa, Md Yusoff

    2014-03-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments: (i) in the absence of P. betle extract; and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg⋅mL(-1); (iii) 3 mg⋅mL(-1); and (iv) 6 mg⋅mL(-1). The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (µ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the µ-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P<0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.44×10(6) to 1.78×10(6) viable cell counts (CFU)⋅mL(-1). SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity.

  20. Effect of orally administered betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile production in rats.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, M S; Platel, K; Saraswathi, G; Srinivasan, K

    1995-10-01

    The influence of two varieties of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) namely, the pungent Mysore and non-pungent Ambadi, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion in experimental rats. The betel leaves were administered orally at two doses which were either comparable to human consumption level or 5 times this. The results indicated that while these betel leaves do not influence bile secretion and composition, they have a significant stimulatory influence on pancreatic lipase activity. Besides, the Ambadi variety of betel leaf has a positive stimulatory influence on intestinal digestive enzymes, especially lipase, amylase and disaccharidases. A slight lowering in the activity of these intestinal enzymes was seen when Mysore variety of betel leaf was administered, and this variety also had a negative effect on pancreatic amylase. Further, both the betel leaf varieties have shown decreasing influence on pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin activities. PMID:8575807

  1. Effect of orally administered betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile production in rats.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, M S; Platel, K; Saraswathi, G; Srinivasan, K

    1995-10-01

    The influence of two varieties of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) namely, the pungent Mysore and non-pungent Ambadi, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion in experimental rats. The betel leaves were administered orally at two doses which were either comparable to human consumption level or 5 times this. The results indicated that while these betel leaves do not influence bile secretion and composition, they have a significant stimulatory influence on pancreatic lipase activity. Besides, the Ambadi variety of betel leaf has a positive stimulatory influence on intestinal digestive enzymes, especially lipase, amylase and disaccharidases. A slight lowering in the activity of these intestinal enzymes was seen when Mysore variety of betel leaf was administered, and this variety also had a negative effect on pancreatic amylase. Further, both the betel leaf varieties have shown decreasing influence on pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin activities.

  2. Antihypercholesterolemic and Antioxidative Potential of an Extract of the Plant, Piper betle, and Its Active Constituent, Eugenol, in Triton WR-1339-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Experimental Rats

    PubMed Central

    Venkadeswaran, Karuppasamy; Muralidharan, Arumugam Ramachandran; Annadurai, Thangaraj; Ruban, Vasanthakumar Vasantha; Sundararajan, Mahalingam; Anandhi, Ramalingam; Thomas, Philip A.; Geraldine, Pitchairaj

    2014-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a dominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the putative antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidative properties of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle and of its active constituent, eugenol, were evaluated in experimental hypercholesterolemia induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of Triton WR-1339 (300 mg/kg b.wt) in Wistar rats. Saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats revealed significantly higher mean blood/serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and of serum hepatic marker enzymes; in addition, significantly lower mean serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and significantly lower mean activities of enzymatic antioxidants and nonenzymatic antioxidants were noted in hepatic tissue samples from saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats, compared to controls. However, in hypercholesterolemic rats receiving the Piper betle extract (500 mg/kg b.wt) or eugenol (5 mg/kg b.wt) for seven days orally, all these parameters were significantly better than those in saline-treated hypercholesterolemic rats. The hypercholesterolemia-ameliorating effect was better defined in eugenol-treated than in Piper betle extract-treated rats, being as effective as that of the standard lipid-lowering drug, lovastatin (10 mg/kg b.wt). These results suggest that eugenol, an active constituent of the Piper betle extract, possesses antihypercholesterolemic and other activities in experimental hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats. PMID:24523820

  3. Protective effect of Piper betle leaf extract against cadmium-induced oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Milton Prabu, S.; Muthumani, M.; Shagirtha, K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the attenuative effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative hepatic dysfunction in the liver of rats. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) treated rats showed the protective efficacy against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. Oral administration of Cd (5 mg/kg BW) for four weeks to rats significantly (P > 0.05) elevated the level of serum hepatic markers such as serum aspartate transaminase (AST), serum alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (TBRNs), oxidative stress markers viz., thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), protein carbonyls (PC) and conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly (P > 0.05) reduced the enzymatic antioxidants viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants Viz., reduced glutathione (GSH), total sulfhydryls (TSH), vitamin C and vitamin E in the liver. Pre-oral supplementation of PBE (200 mg/kg BW) in Cd intoxicated rats, the altered biochemical indices and pathological changes were recovered significantly (P > 0.05) which showed ameliorative effect of PBE against Cd induced hepatic oxidative stress. From the above findings, we suggested that the pre-administration of P. betle leaf extract exhibited remarkable protective effects against cadmium-induced oxidative hepatic injury in rats. PMID:23961183

  4. Development of a novel cup cake with unique properties of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) for sustainable entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arnab; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-08-01

    Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is a root climber with deep green heart shaped leaves. It belongs to the Piperaceae family. There is a huge wastage of the leaves during glut season and it can be reduced by various means including extraction of medicinal essential oil which can be considered as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) materials. Therefore, attempts were made to develop a novel cup cake by incorporating essential oil of betel leaf. The textural properties of the cakes were measured by texture analyzer instrument; whereas the organoleptic properties were adjudged by human preferences using sensory tables containing 9-point hedonic scale. Price estimation was done considering all costs and charges. Finally, all parameters of the developed cake were compared with different cup cakes available in the market for ascertaining consumer acceptability of the newly developed product in terms of quality and market price. Results revealed that the Novel cup cake developed with 0.005 % (v/w) essential oil of betel leaf occupied the 1st place among the four developed novel cup cakes. However, it occupied 4th place among the nine cup cakes in the overall preference list prepared based on the textural and organoleptic qualities, though its market price was calculated to be comparable to all the leading cupcakes available in the market. This indicates that manufacturing of novel cup cake with essential oil of betel leaf would be a profitable and self-sustaining entrepreneurship. PMID:26243908

  5. Development of a novel cup cake with unique properties of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) for sustainable entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arnab; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-08-01

    Betel vine (Piper betle L.) is a root climber with deep green heart shaped leaves. It belongs to the Piperaceae family. There is a huge wastage of the leaves during glut season and it can be reduced by various means including extraction of medicinal essential oil which can be considered as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) materials. Therefore, attempts were made to develop a novel cup cake by incorporating essential oil of betel leaf. The textural properties of the cakes were measured by texture analyzer instrument; whereas the organoleptic properties were adjudged by human preferences using sensory tables containing 9-point hedonic scale. Price estimation was done considering all costs and charges. Finally, all parameters of the developed cake were compared with different cup cakes available in the market for ascertaining consumer acceptability of the newly developed product in terms of quality and market price. Results revealed that the Novel cup cake developed with 0.005 % (v/w) essential oil of betel leaf occupied the 1st place among the four developed novel cup cakes. However, it occupied 4th place among the nine cup cakes in the overall preference list prepared based on the textural and organoleptic qualities, though its market price was calculated to be comparable to all the leading cupcakes available in the market. This indicates that manufacturing of novel cup cake with essential oil of betel leaf would be a profitable and self-sustaining entrepreneurship.

  6. Comparative effect of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction on antioxidant enzymes activity in cellular ageing of human diploid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) undergo a limited number of cellular divisions in culture and progressively reach a state of irreversible growth arrest, a process termed cellular ageing. Even though beneficial effects of Piper betle, Chlorella vulgaris and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) have been reported, ongoing studies in relation to ageing is of interest to determine possible protective effects that may reverse the effect of ageing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF in preventing cellular ageing of HDFs by determining the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz.; catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Different passages of HDFs were treated with P. betle, C. vulgaris and TRF for 24 h prior to enzymes activity determination. Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA β-gal) expression was assayed to validate cellular ageing. Results In cellular ageing of HDFs, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced, but SOD activity was heightened during pre-senescence. P. betle exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, catalase activities in all age groups, and SOD activity. TRF exhibited a strong antioxidant activity by reducing SA β-gal expression, and SOD activity in senescent HDFs. C. vulgaris extract managed to reduce SOD activity in senescent HDFs. Conclusion P. betle, C. vulgaris, and TRF have the potential as anti-ageing entities which compensated the role of antioxidant enzymes in cellular ageing of HDFs. PMID:23948056

  7. An experimental evaluation of the anti-atherogenic potential of the plant, Piper betle, and its active constitutent, eugenol, in rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Venkadeswaran, Karuppasamy; Thomas, Philip A; Geraldine, Pitchairaj

    2016-05-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for systemic atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease. Lipoperoxidation-mediated oxidative damage is believed to contribute strongly to the progression of atherogenesis. In the current investigation, putative anti-atherogenic and antioxidative properties of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle and of its active constituent, eugenol, were sought in an experimental animal model of chronic hypercholesterolemia. Atherogenic diet-fed rats that received either Piper betle extract orally (500mg/kg b.wt) or eugenol orally (5mg/kg b.wt) for 15days (commencing 30days after the atherogenic diet had been started) exhibited the following variations in different parameters, when compared to atherogenic diet-fed rats that received only saline: (1) significantly lower mean levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol in both serum and hepatic tissue samples; (2) lower mean serum levels of aspartate amino-transferase, alanine amino-transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid-metabolizing enzymes (lipoprotein lipase, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase; (3) significantly lower mean levels of enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamin C and vitamin E) and significantly higher mean levels of malondialdehyde in haemolysate and hepatic tissue samples. Histopathological findings suggested a protective effect of the Piper betle extract and a more pronounced protective effect of eugenol on the hepatic and aortic tissues of atherogenic diet-fed (presumed atherosclerotic) rats. These results strongly suggest that the Piper betle extract and its active constituent, eugenol, exhibit anti-atherogenic effects which may be due to their anti-oxidative properties. PMID:27133067

  8. An investigation of the vegetative anatomy of Piper sarmentosum, and a comparison with the anatomy of Piper betle (Piperaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (synonym, P. lolot C.DC.) is a southeast Asian medicinal plant valued for its medicinal and culinary uses. Hand-sections of the vegetative parts of P. sarmentosum were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Th...

  9. Developmental response of Spodoptera litura Fab. to treatments of crude volatile oil from Piper betle L. and evaluation of toxicity to earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae Kinb.

    PubMed

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Sakthi-Bhagavathy, Muthiah; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    Evaluations of biological effects of (Pb-CVO) the crude volatile oil of Piper betle leaves on the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura were conducted. Pb-CVO was subjected to GC-MS analysis and twenty vital compounds were isolated from the betel leaf oil. Pb-CVO was tested at four different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) against S. litura. The treated insects exhibited dose depended mortality. The mortality rate was significantly higher at the 1.0 and 1.5% Pb-CVO. The LC50 (Lethal concentration) were observed at 0.48% Pb-CVO. Larval and pupal durations increased in all treatment concentrations (0.25, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%) whereas, pupal weight decreased compared to control. Adult longevity of S. litura was reduced in all treatments but predominantly in the 0.4 and 0.5% Pb-CVO. Correspondingly, mean fecundity rate was reduced at all concentrations compared to control. Histological studies of larvae mid-gut profiles of S. litura were severely damaged in 1.0 and 1.5% and showed abnormalities in mid-gut cells with 0.25 and 0.5% Pb-CVO treatments. Earthworm toxicity illustrated that 0.1% of chemical insecticides (monocrotophos and cypermethrin) varied widely in their contact toxicities compared to 0.5 and 1.0% Pb-CVO and control in both contact filter paper and artificial soil test. These findings suggest that twenty essential compounds of betel leaf oil were significant inhibitors of the development and caused behavioral changes of S. litura. Treatment with betel leaf oil at these concentrations had no adverse effect on earthworm populations. PMID:27135695

  10. Effect of Piper betle and Brucea javanica on the Differential Expression of Hyphal Wall Protein (HWP1) in Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) Species

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Nur Alyaa; Jamaludin, Nor Hazwani; Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the HWP1 gene in non-Candida albicans Candida species and the differential expression of HWP1 following treatment with Piper betle and Brucea javanica aqueous extracts. All candidal suspensions were standardized to 1 × 106 cells/mL. The suspension was incubated overnight at 37 °C (C. parapsilosis, 35°C). Candidal cells were treated with each respective extract at 1, 3, and 6 mg/mL for 24 h. The total RNA was extracted and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was carried out with a specific primer of HWP1. HWP1 mRNAs were only detected in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. Exposing the cells to the aqueous extracts has affected the expression of HWP1 transcripts. C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis have demonstrated different intensity of mRNA. Compared to P. betle, B. javanica demonstrated a higher suppression on the transcript levels of HWP1 in all samples. HWP1 was not detected in C. albicans following the treatment of B. javanica at 1 mg/mL. In contrast, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis were shown to have HWP1 regulation. However, the expression levels were reduced upon the addition of higher concentration of B. javanica extract. P. betle and B. javanica have potential to be developed as oral health product. PMID:23853657

  11. Pro-apoptotic effect of the landrace Bangla Mahoba of Piper betle on Leishmania donovani may be due to the high content of eugenol.

    PubMed

    Misra, Pragya; Kumar, Awanish; Khare, Prashant; Gupta, Swati; Kumar, Nikhil; Dube, Anuradha

    2009-08-01

    In the absence of effective and safe treatment for visceral leishmaniasis or Kala-azar - a devastating parasitic disease caused by Leishmania donovani - the search for anti-leishmanial agents from natural resources in common use is imperative. Recently, the comparative in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts from two landraces of Piper betle - P. betle landrace Bangla Mahoba (PB-BM) and P. betle landrace Kapoori Vellaikodi (PB-KV) - has been reported. Here, the putative pathway responsible for death induced by the effective extract of PB-BM methanolic extract in promastigotes, as well as the intracellular amastigote form of L. donovani, was assessed using various biochemical approaches. It was found that PB-BM was capable of selectively inhibiting both stages of Leishmania parasites by accelerating apoptotic events by generation of reactive oxygen species targeting the mitochondria without any cytotoxicity towards macrophages. The study was extended to determine the presence or absence of activity of the methanolic extract of PB-BM and PB-KV on the basis of differences in essential oil composition present in the extract assessed by GC and MS. The essential oil from PB-BM was found to be rich in eugenol compared with that from PB-KV. The anti-leishmanial efficacy of PB-BM methanolic extract mediated through apoptosis is probably due to the higher content of eugenol in the active landrace. This observation emphasizes the need to extend studies related to traditional medicines from bioactive plants below the species level to the gender/landrace level for better efficacy and reproducibility.

  12. Effect of aqueous extracts of Mentha arvensis (mint) and Piper betle (betel) on growth and citrinin production from toxigenic Penicillium citrinum.

    PubMed

    Panda, Pragyanshree; Aiko, Visenuo; Mehta, Alka

    2015-06-01

    Due to growing concern of consumers about chemical residues in food products, the demand for safe and natural food is increasing greatly. The use of natural additives such as spices and herbal oil as seasoning agents for their antimicrobial activity has been extensively investigated. This paper discusses the efficacy of the aqueous extract of mint (Mentha arvensis) and betel (Piper betle) on the mycelial growth and citrinin production of Penicillium citrinum. The present investigation revealed that mint extract inhibited citrinin production up to 73 % without inhibiting the mycelium growth. The citrinin production decreased with increase in the concentration of mint extract as observed from the data obtained from High pressure liquid chromatography. The samples also showed reduced cytotoxicity on HeLa cells. On the other hand betel extract resulted in stimulatory effect on citrinin production and mycelial growth. The study showed that mint extract has the potential to be used safely for restraining citrinin contamination.

  13. Origin of the subepidermal tissue in Piper L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, A T; Simão, E; Silva, L; Torres, G A

    2015-05-01

    Studies on the anatomy of Piper leaves demonstrate the presence of a subepidermal tissue distinct from the adjacent epidermis, which cells show thin walls and hyaline contents. Some authors consider such cells a hypodermal tissue, while others refer to them as components of a multiple epidermis. In this study, the nature of this subepidermal tissue was investigated through the analysis of leaf ontogeny in three Piper species. The analysis showed that the referred tissue originates from the ground meristem and, thus, should be considered a hypodermis. The studied species suggests that the role of the hypodermis would be to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from excess light, regulating the intensity of light reaching the chlorophyll parenchyma. PMID:26132020

  14. Piper betle leaf extract enhances the cytotoxicity effect of 5-fluorouracil in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 colon cancer cells*

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Pek Leng; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Then, Sue Mian; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah; Pin, Kar Yong; Looi, Mee Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The combination effect of Piper betle (PB) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in enhancing the cytotoxic potential of 5-FU in inhibiting the growth of colon cancer cells was investigated. Methods: HT29 and HCT116 cells were subjected to 5-FU or PB treatment. 5-FU and PB were then combined and their effects on both cell lines were observed after 24 h of treatment. PB-5-FU interaction was elucidated by isobologram analysis. Apoptosis features of the treated cells were revealed by annexin V/PI stain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to exclude any possible chemical interaction between the compounds. Results: In the presence of PB extract, the cytotoxicity of 5-FU was observed at a lower dose (IC50 12.5 μmol/L) and a shorter time (24 h) in both cell lines. Both cell lines treated with 5-FU or PB alone induced a greater apoptosis effect compared with the combination treatment. Isobologram analysis indicated that PB and 5-FU interacted synergistically and antagonistically in inhibiting the growth of HT29 and HCT116 cells, respectively. Conclusions: In the presence of PB, a lower dosage of 5-FU is required to achieve the maximum drug effect in inhibiting the growth of HT29 cells. However, PB did not significantly reduce 5-FU dosage in HCT116 cells. Our result showed that this interaction may not solely contribute to the apoptosis pathway. PMID:25091987

  15. Modelling the effect of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) on germination, growth, and apparent lag time of Penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic media.

    PubMed

    Basak, Suradeep; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-12-23

    The current study aimed at characterizing the chemical components of betel leaf (Piper betle L. var. Tamluk Mitha) essential oil (BLEO) and modelling its effect on growth of Penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic medium. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis of BLEO revealed the presence of different bioactive phenolic compounds in significant amounts. Among 46 different components identified, chavibetol (22.0%), estragole (15.8%), β-cubebene (13.6%), chavicol (11.8%), and caryophyllene (11.3%) were found to be the major compounds of BLEO. A disc diffusion and disc volatilization method were used to evaluate antifungal activity of the oil against a selected food spoilage mould. The logistic model was used to study the kinetics of spore germination. Prediction and validation of antifungal effect of BLEO was performed on semi-synthetic medium (apple juice agar) using predictive microbiological tools. The Baranyi and Roberts model was used to estimate maximum growth rate (μmax in mm/day) and apparent lag time (λ in days) of the mould. Secondary modelling was performed using a re-parameterized Monod-type equation based on cardinal values to study the effect of different BLEO concentration on estimated growth parameters. Emax (minimum concentration of oil at which mould growth was inhibited) and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration of BLEO at which lag time is infinite) value of BLEO against P. expansum was estimated to be 0.56 and 0.74 μl/ml, respectively, which was found to be similar on potato dextrose agar (PDA) as well as apple juice agar (AJA) medium. The correlation between estimated growth parameters of the mould on both the media was obtained with satisfactory statistical indices (R(2) and RMSE). This study revealed inhibitory efficacy of BLEO on spore germination, mycelial growth and apparent lag time of P. expansum in a dose-dependent manner. Hence, BLEO has potential to be used as a natural food preservative.

  16. Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry of Antimicrobial Leaf Extracts from Philippine Piper betle L. against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Valle, Demetrio L; Puzon, Juliana Janet M; Cabrera, Esperanza C; Rivera, Windell L

    2016-01-01

    This study isolated and identified the antimicrobial compounds of Philippine Piper betle L. leaf ethanol extracts by thin layer chromatography- (TLC-) bioautography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Initially, TLC separation of the leaf ethanol extracts provided a maximum of eight compounds with R f values of 0.92, 0.86, 0.76, 0.53, 0.40, 0.25, 0.13, and 0.013, best visualized when inspected under UV 366 nm. Agar-overlay bioautography of the isolated compounds demonstrated two spots with R f values of 0.86 and 0.13 showing inhibitory activities against two Gram-positive multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, namely, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. The compound with an R f value of 0.86 also possessed inhibitory activity against Gram-negative MDR bacteria, namely, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae-Klebsiella pneumoniae and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii. GC-MS was performed to identify the semivolatile and volatile compounds present in the leaf ethanol extracts. Six compounds were identified, four of which are new compounds that have not been mentioned in the medical literature. The chemical compounds isolated include ethyl diazoacetate, tris(trifluoromethyl)phosphine, heptafluorobutyrate, 3-fluoro-2-propynenitrite, 4-(2-propenyl)phenol, and eugenol. The results of this study could lead to the development of novel therapeutic agents capable of dealing with specific diseases that either have weakened reaction or are currently not responsive to existing drugs. PMID:27478476

  17. Thin Layer Chromatography-Bioautography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry of Antimicrobial Leaf Extracts from Philippine Piper betle L. against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Demetrio L.; Puzon, Juliana Janet M.; Cabrera, Esperanza C.

    2016-01-01

    This study isolated and identified the antimicrobial compounds of Philippine Piper betle L. leaf ethanol extracts by thin layer chromatography- (TLC-) bioautography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Initially, TLC separation of the leaf ethanol extracts provided a maximum of eight compounds with Rf values of 0.92, 0.86, 0.76, 0.53, 0.40, 0.25, 0.13, and 0.013, best visualized when inspected under UV 366 nm. Agar-overlay bioautography of the isolated compounds demonstrated two spots with Rf values of 0.86 and 0.13 showing inhibitory activities against two Gram-positive multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, namely, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. The compound with an Rf value of 0.86 also possessed inhibitory activity against Gram-negative MDR bacteria, namely, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae-Klebsiella pneumoniae and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii. GC-MS was performed to identify the semivolatile and volatile compounds present in the leaf ethanol extracts. Six compounds were identified, four of which are new compounds that have not been mentioned in the medical literature. The chemical compounds isolated include ethyl diazoacetate, tris(trifluoromethyl)phosphine, heptafluorobutyrate, 3-fluoro-2-propynenitrite, 4-(2-propenyl)phenol, and eugenol. The results of this study could lead to the development of novel therapeutic agents capable of dealing with specific diseases that either have weakened reaction or are currently not responsive to existing drugs. PMID:27478476

  18. Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol, Ethanol and Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Philippine Piper betle L. on Clinical Isolates of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria with Transferable Multiple Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Valle, Demetrio L; Cabrera, Esperanza C; Puzon, Juliana Janet M; Rivera, Windell L

    2016-01-01

    Piper betle L. has traditionally been used in alternative medicine in different countries for various therapeutic purposes, including as an anti-infective agent. However, studies reported in the literature are mainly on its activities on drug susceptible bacterial strains. This study determined the antimicrobial activities of its ethanol, methanol, and supercritical CO2 extracts on clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant bacteria which have been identified by the Infectious Disease Society of America as among the currently more challenging strains in clinical management. Assay methods included the standard disc diffusion method and the broth microdilution method for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the extracts for the test microorganisms. This study revealed the bactericidal activities of all the P. betle leaf crude extracts on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, with minimum bactericidal concentrations that ranged from 19μg/ml to 1250 μg/ml. The extracts proved to be more potent against the Gram positive MRSA and VRE than for the Gram negative test bacteria. VRE isolates were more susceptible to all the extracts than the MRSA isolates. Generally, the ethanol extracts proved to be more potent than the methanol extracts and supercritical CO2 extracts as shown by their lower MICs for both the Gram positive and Gram negative MDRs. MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the highest concentration (100 μg/ml) of P. betle ethanol extract tested was not toxic to normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn). Data from the study firmly established P. betle as an alternative source of anti-infectives against multiple drug resistant bacteria. PMID

  19. Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol, Ethanol and Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Philippine Piper betle L. on Clinical Isolates of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria with Transferable Multiple Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Valle, Demetrio L; Cabrera, Esperanza C; Puzon, Juliana Janet M; Rivera, Windell L

    2016-01-01

    Piper betle L. has traditionally been used in alternative medicine in different countries for various therapeutic purposes, including as an anti-infective agent. However, studies reported in the literature are mainly on its activities on drug susceptible bacterial strains. This study determined the antimicrobial activities of its ethanol, methanol, and supercritical CO2 extracts on clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant bacteria which have been identified by the Infectious Disease Society of America as among the currently more challenging strains in clinical management. Assay methods included the standard disc diffusion method and the broth microdilution method for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the extracts for the test microorganisms. This study revealed the bactericidal activities of all the P. betle leaf crude extracts on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, with minimum bactericidal concentrations that ranged from 19μg/ml to 1250 μg/ml. The extracts proved to be more potent against the Gram positive MRSA and VRE than for the Gram negative test bacteria. VRE isolates were more susceptible to all the extracts than the MRSA isolates. Generally, the ethanol extracts proved to be more potent than the methanol extracts and supercritical CO2 extracts as shown by their lower MICs for both the Gram positive and Gram negative MDRs. MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the highest concentration (100 μg/ml) of P. betle ethanol extract tested was not toxic to normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn). Data from the study firmly established P. betle as an alternative source of anti-infectives against multiple drug resistant bacteria.

  20. Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol, Ethanol and Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Philippine Piper betle L. on Clinical Isolates of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria with Transferable Multiple Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Demetrio L.; Cabrera, Esperanza C.; Puzon, Juliana Janet M.; Rivera, Windell L.

    2016-01-01

    Piper betle L. has traditionally been used in alternative medicine in different countries for various therapeutic purposes, including as an anti-infective agent. However, studies reported in the literature are mainly on its activities on drug susceptible bacterial strains. This study determined the antimicrobial activities of its ethanol, methanol, and supercritical CO2 extracts on clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant bacteria which have been identified by the Infectious Disease Society of America as among the currently more challenging strains in clinical management. Assay methods included the standard disc diffusion method and the broth microdilution method for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the extracts for the test microorganisms. This study revealed the bactericidal activities of all the P. betle leaf crude extracts on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, with minimum bactericidal concentrations that ranged from 19μg/ml to 1250 μg/ml. The extracts proved to be more potent against the Gram positive MRSA and VRE than for the Gram negative test bacteria. VRE isolates were more susceptible to all the extracts than the MRSA isolates. Generally, the ethanol extracts proved to be more potent than the methanol extracts and supercritical CO2 extracts as shown by their lower MICs for both the Gram positive and Gram negative MDRs. MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the highest concentration (100 μg/ml) of P. betle ethanol extract tested was not toxic to normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn). Data from the study firmly established P. betle as an alternative source of anti-infectives against multiple drug resistant bacteria. PMID

  1. Modelling the effect of essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) on germination, growth, and apparent lag time of Penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic media.

    PubMed

    Basak, Suradeep; Guha, Proshanta

    2015-12-23

    The current study aimed at characterizing the chemical components of betel leaf (Piper betle L. var. Tamluk Mitha) essential oil (BLEO) and modelling its effect on growth of Penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic medium. Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis of BLEO revealed the presence of different bioactive phenolic compounds in significant amounts. Among 46 different components identified, chavibetol (22.0%), estragole (15.8%), β-cubebene (13.6%), chavicol (11.8%), and caryophyllene (11.3%) were found to be the major compounds of BLEO. A disc diffusion and disc volatilization method were used to evaluate antifungal activity of the oil against a selected food spoilage mould. The logistic model was used to study the kinetics of spore germination. Prediction and validation of antifungal effect of BLEO was performed on semi-synthetic medium (apple juice agar) using predictive microbiological tools. The Baranyi and Roberts model was used to estimate maximum growth rate (μmax in mm/day) and apparent lag time (λ in days) of the mould. Secondary modelling was performed using a re-parameterized Monod-type equation based on cardinal values to study the effect of different BLEO concentration on estimated growth parameters. Emax (minimum concentration of oil at which mould growth was inhibited) and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration of BLEO at which lag time is infinite) value of BLEO against P. expansum was estimated to be 0.56 and 0.74 μl/ml, respectively, which was found to be similar on potato dextrose agar (PDA) as well as apple juice agar (AJA) medium. The correlation between estimated growth parameters of the mould on both the media was obtained with satisfactory statistical indices (R(2) and RMSE). This study revealed inhibitory efficacy of BLEO on spore germination, mycelial growth and apparent lag time of P. expansum in a dose-dependent manner. Hence, BLEO has potential to be used as a natural food preservative. PMID:26439423

  2. Biocontrol of collar rot disease of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii by using rhizosphere-competent Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI-N6 and P. fluorescens NBRI-N.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anand; Mehta, Sangeeta; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2003-08-01

    Collar rot disease of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Sclerotium rolfsii is difficult to control by conventional means by use of chemicals; therefore, use of biocontrol agents is desirable. In the present study, 186 bacterial strains of different morphological types were screened for their biocontrol activity against S. rolfsii under in vitro conditions. Two strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens NBRI-N6 and P. fluorescens NBRI-N, were selected for further studies because of their ability to inhibit the mycelial growth of the pathogen significantly. Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (Rif) derivatives of P. fluorescens NBRI-N6 and P. fluorescens NBRI-N showing growth rate and membrane protein composition comparable to the wild type were selected to facilitate their monitoring in the rhizosphere. Field trials demonstrated that strain P. fluorescens NBRI-N6 was better than P. fluorescens NBRI-N in increasing the yield of betelvine significantly, whereas a consortium of the two strains controlled the disease more than either of the strains. The screening method should prove useful in identifying rhizosphere bacteria with the greatest potential for controlling diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. PMID:14506865

  3. Rehydration characteristics of dehydrated West African pepper (Piper guineense) leaves.

    PubMed

    Okpala, Laura C; Ekechi, Constance A

    2014-11-01

    The rehydration characteristics of dehydrated West African pepper leaves were investigated at hydration temperatures of 28, 60, 70, and 80°C. Four treatments were given to the leaves: blanched and sun dried, unblanched and sun dried, blanched and shade dried, and unblanched and shade dried. The hydration process of the dehydrated leaves was adequately described by the Peleg's equation. As the hydration temperature increased from 28 to 70°C, there was a significant decrease in the Peleg's constant K 1, while for most of the leaves the Peleg's constant K 2 varied with temperature. Rehydration ratio values ranged from 3.75 in blanched shade dried leaves to 4.26 in unblanched sun dried leaves with the unblanched leaves generally exhibiting higher ratios than the blanched leaves.

  4. Diversity of endophytic fungal community associated with Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Orlandelli, R C; Alberto, R N; Rubin Filho, C J; Pamphile, J A

    2012-05-22

    Tropical and subtropical plants are rich in endophytic community diversity. Endophytes, mainly fungi and bacteria, inhabit the healthy plant tissues without causing any damage to the hosts. These fungi can be useful for biological control of pathogens and plant growth promotion. Some plants of the genus Piper are hosts of endophytic microorganisms; however, there is little information about endophytes on Piper hispidum, a medicinal shrub used as an insecticide, astringent, diuretic, stimulant, liver treatment, and for stopping hemorrhages. We isolated the fungal endophyte community associated with P. hispidum leaves from plants in a Brazilian forest remnant. The endophytic diversity was examined based on sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. A high colonization frequency was obtained, as expected for tropical angiosperms. Isolated endophytes were divided into 66 morphogroups, demonstrating considerable diversity. We identified 21 isolates, belonging to 11 genera (Alternaria, Bipolaris, Colletotrichum, Glomerella, Guignardia, Lasiodiplodia, Marasmius, Phlebia, Phoma, Phomopsis, and Schizophyllum); one isolate was identified only to the order level (Diaporthales). Bipolaris was the most frequent genus among the identified endophytes. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the molecular identification of some isolates to genus level while for others it was confirmed at the species level.

  5. Diversity of endophytic fungal community associated with Piper hispidum (Piperaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Orlandelli, R C; Alberto, R N; Rubin Filho, C J; Pamphile, J A

    2012-01-01

    Tropical and subtropical plants are rich in endophytic community diversity. Endophytes, mainly fungi and bacteria, inhabit the healthy plant tissues without causing any damage to the hosts. These fungi can be useful for biological control of pathogens and plant growth promotion. Some plants of the genus Piper are hosts of endophytic microorganisms; however, there is little information about endophytes on Piper hispidum, a medicinal shrub used as an insecticide, astringent, diuretic, stimulant, liver treatment, and for stopping hemorrhages. We isolated the fungal endophyte community associated with P. hispidum leaves from plants in a Brazilian forest remnant. The endophytic diversity was examined based on sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. A high colonization frequency was obtained, as expected for tropical angiosperms. Isolated endophytes were divided into 66 morphogroups, demonstrating considerable diversity. We identified 21 isolates, belonging to 11 genera (Alternaria, Bipolaris, Colletotrichum, Glomerella, Guignardia, Lasiodiplodia, Marasmius, Phlebia, Phoma, Phomopsis, and Schizophyllum); one isolate was identified only to the order level (Diaporthales). Bipolaris was the most frequent genus among the identified endophytes. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the molecular identification of some isolates to genus level while for others it was confirmed at the species level. PMID:22653631

  6. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p<0.01) zone of inhibitions against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus [(6.77±0.25) mm] and Gram negative Escherichia coli [(8.53±0.25) mm], Salmonella typhi [(5.20±0.26) mm], Shigella dysenteriae [(11.20±0.26) mm] compared to positive control Azithromycin (ranging from 20.10±0.17 to 25.20±0.35 mm) while no zone inhibitory activity was found for both the extract and the standard drug against Gram positive Bacillus cereus. The extract also showed potent anthelmintic activity requiring less time for paralysis and death compared to the standard drug albendazole (10 mg/ml). At concentrations 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/ml, leaves extract showed paralysis at mean time of 9.83±0.60, 8.50±0.29, 6.60±0.17, 6.20±0.44 and 4.16±0.60; death at 11.33±0.88, 9.67±0.33, 7.83±0.17, 7.16±0.60 and 5.16±0.72 minutes, respectively. Whereas the standard drug showed paralysis and death at 19.33±0.71 and 51.00±0.23 minutes respectively. The extract confirmed the higher concentration of phenolic contents (124.42±0.14 mg of GAE /g of extract) when screened for total phenolic compounds. Conclusion: As results confirmed potential antibacterial and anthelmintic activities of Piper betel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

  7. Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic and antileishmanial activities of extract and essential oil from leaves of Piper cernuum.

    PubMed

    Capello, Tabata M; Martins, Euder G A; de Farias, Camyla F; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Matsuo, Alisson L; Passero, Luiz Felipe D; Oliveira-Silva, Diogo; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João Henrique G

    2015-02-01

    Fractionation of the MeOH extract from leaves of Piper cernuum Vell. (Piperaceae) afforded six phenylpropanoid derivatives: 3',4'-dimethoxydihydrocinnamic acid (1), piplaroxide (2), methyl 4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxy cinnamate (3), 3',4',5'-trimethoxydihydrocinnamic acid (3), dihydropiplartine (5), and piplartine (6). The structures of isolated metabolites were characterized by NMR and MS spectral data analysis. The chemical composition of essential oil from the leaves was determined using GC/LREIMS followed by the determination of Kovats indexes. This procedure allowed the identification of nineteen terpenoids, with β-elemene (7), bicyclogermacrene (8), germacrene D (9), and (E)-caryophyllene (10) as the main compounds. Compounds 1 and 3-6 displayed no in vitro cytotoxicity against cancer cell lineages B16F10-Nex2, U87, HeLa, HL-60, HCT, and A2058 while 2 showed moderate activity against B16F10-Nex2 and HL-60 lines. Otherwise, compounds 7-10 displayed high cytotoxic activity. Evaluation against non-tumorigenic HFF cells indicated a reduced selectivity of compounds 7-10 to tumoral cells. No antileishmanial activity on macrophages infected with L. (L.) amnazonensis was found for the crude MeOH extract and compounds 1-6. The crude essential oil and compounds 7-10 reduced parasitism and eliminated the majority of infected and non-infected cells at 50 μg/mL. PMID:25920262

  8. [Identification of some Piper crude drugs based on Fourier transform infrared spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Luo, Xue-Jun; Li, Pei-Fu; Song, Heng; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2014-09-01

    The common peak ratio and variant peak ratio were calculated by FTIR spectroscopy of seven medicinal plants of Piper. The dual index sequence of common peak ratio and variant peak ratio was established, which showed the sibship of the medicinal plants. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. Piper laetispicum (C. DC.) was greater than 77%, and the variant peak ratio was less than 30%. The results showed the near sibship between the three drugs. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper nigrum L. and Piper boehmeriae folium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense (C. DC.) was about 61% which showed the farther sibship. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi and Piper betle (Linn.) was only 44%, which showed the farthest sibship. Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its adulterants, such as Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand. -Mazz., Piper boehmeriaefolium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense C. DC. , Piper laetispicum C. DC., Piper nigrum L., could be identified by comparing their second order derivative IR spectrum of the samples. FTIR technique is a non-destructive analysis method which provides information of functional group, type and hydrogen bond without complex pretreatment procedures such as extraction and separatioin. FTIR method has some characteristics such as rapid and simple analysis procedure, good reproducibility, non-destructive testing, few amount of required sample and low cost and is environment-friendly. The method solved the problems of limit in resource of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, many fakes and difficulties in identification, and brought the security for the clinical medication. FTIR provides a new method for identification of Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its fakes and meets the requirement for comprehensive analy sis and global analysis of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:25532337

  9. [Identification of some Piper crude drugs based on Fourier transform infrared spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ye; Zhang, Qing-Wei; Luo, Xue-Jun; Li, Pei-Fu; Song, Heng; Zhang, Bo-Li

    2014-09-01

    The common peak ratio and variant peak ratio were calculated by FTIR spectroscopy of seven medicinal plants of Piper. The dual index sequence of common peak ratio and variant peak ratio was established, which showed the sibship of the medicinal plants. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand.-Mazz. Piper laetispicum (C. DC.) was greater than 77%, and the variant peak ratio was less than 30%. The results showed the near sibship between the three drugs. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, Piper nigrum L. and Piper boehmeriae folium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense (C. DC.) was about 61% which showed the farther sibship. The common peak ratio of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi and Piper betle (Linn.) was only 44%, which showed the farthest sibship. Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its adulterants, such as Piper wallichii (Miq.) Hand. -Mazz., Piper boehmeriaefolium Wall (Miq.) C. DC. Var. tonkinense C. DC. , Piper laetispicum C. DC., Piper nigrum L., could be identified by comparing their second order derivative IR spectrum of the samples. FTIR technique is a non-destructive analysis method which provides information of functional group, type and hydrogen bond without complex pretreatment procedures such as extraction and separatioin. FTIR method has some characteristics such as rapid and simple analysis procedure, good reproducibility, non-destructive testing, few amount of required sample and low cost and is environment-friendly. The method solved the problems of limit in resource of Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, many fakes and difficulties in identification, and brought the security for the clinical medication. FTIR provides a new method for identification of Piper kadsura (choisy) Ohwi and its fakes and meets the requirement for comprehensive analy sis and global analysis of traditional Chinese medicine.

  10. Genetic diversity analysis in Piper species (Piperaceae) using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sandeep; Skaria, Reby; Abdul Muneer, P M

    2010-09-01

    The genetic diversity of eight species of Piper (Piperaceae) viz., P. nigrum, P. longum, P. betle, P. chaba, P. argyrophyllum, P. trichostachyon, P. galeatum, and P. hymenophyllum from Kerala state, India were analyzed by Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Out of 22 10-mer RAPD primers screened, 11 were selected for comparative analysis of different species of Piper. High genetic variations were found among different Piper species studied. Among the total of 149 RAPD fragments amplified, 12 bands (8.05%) were found monomorphic in eight species. The remaining 137 fragments were found polymorphic (91.95%). Species-specific bands were found in all eight species studied. The average gene diversity or heterozygosity (H) was 0.33 across all the species, genetic distances ranged from 0.21 to 0.69. The results of this study will facilitate germplasm identification, management, and conservation. PMID:20383613

  11. Effect of methanolic extract of Piper sarmentosum leaves on neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Amran, Adel A.; Zakaria, Zaiton; Othman, Faizah; Das, Srijit; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Raj, Santhana; Nordin, Nor-Anita MM

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (P.s) on atherosclerosis. The first stage in atherosclerosis is the formation of foam cell. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the methanol extract of P.s on fatty streaks by calculating neointimal foam cell infiltration in rabbits fed with high cholesterol diet. Thirty six male New Zealand white rabbits were divided equally into six groups: (i) C: control group fed normal rabbit chow; (ii) CH: cholesterol diet (1 % cholesterol); (iii) PM1: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (62.5 mg/kg); (iv) PM2: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (125 mg/kg); (v) PM3: 1 % cholesterol with methanol extract of P.s (250 mg/kg); (vi) SMV group fed 1 % cholesterol supplemented with Simvistatin drug (1.2 mg/kg). All animals were treated for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the rabbits were fasted and sacrificed and the aortic tissues were collected for histological studies to measure the area of the neointimal foam cell infiltration using software. The thickening of intima ratio of atherosclerosis and morphological changes by scanning electron microscope were measured. The results showed that the atherosclerotic group had significantly bigger area of fatty streak compared to the control group. The area of fatty streak in the abdominal aorta was significantly reduced in the treatment groups which were similar with the SMV group. Similarly, there was a reduction in the number of foam cell in the treatment groups compared to the atherosclerotic group as seen under scanning microscope. In conclusion, histological study demonstrated that the methanol extract of the P.s could reduce the neointimal foam cell infiltration in the lumen of the aorta and the atherosclerotic lesion. PMID:27366140

  12. [Chemical composition of essential oils from leaves of Helicteres guazumifolia (Sterculiaceae), Piper tuberculatum (Piperaceae), Scoparia dulcis (Arecaceae) and Solanum subinerme (Solanaceae) from Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ordaz, Gabriel; D'Armas, Haydelba; Yáñez, Dayanis; Moreno, Shailili

    2011-06-01

    Essential oils, biosynthesized and accumulated in aromatic plants, have a wide range of applications in the pharmaceutical health, cosmetics, food and agricultural industry. This study aimed to analyze the secondary metabolites in some plant species in order to contribute to their chemotaxonomy. Leaves from Helicteres guazumifolia, Piper tuberculatum, Scoparia dulcis and Solanum subinerme were collected and their essential oils were obtained by means of hydro-distillation. The oil fraction was analyzed and identified by GC/MS. The extraction yields were of 0.004, 0.032, 0.016 and 0.005%, and the oil constituents of 88.00, 89.80, 87.50 and 89.47%, respectively. The principal oils found were: non-terpenoids volatile secondary metabolites (30.28%) in H. guazumifolia; sesquiterpenoids (20.82 and 26.09%) and oxigen derivated (52.19 and 25.18%) in P. tuberculatum and S. dulcis; and oxigen diterpenoids (39.67%) in S. subinerme. The diisobuthylphtalate (13.11%) in H. guazumifolia, (-)-spathulenol (11.37%) in P. tuberculatum and trans-phytol (8.29 and 36.00%) in S. dulcis and S. subinerme, were the principal constituents in their respective essential oils. The diisooctylphtalate were the essential oil common to all species, but the volatile compounds such as trans-pinane, L-linalool, beta-ionone, isophytol, neophytadiene, trans-phytol, dibutylphtalate and methyl hexadecanoate, were only detected in three of these essences. This suggests that these plants may require similar secondary metabolites for their ecological interactions, possibly due to common environmental factors.

  13. Shedding light on betL*: pPL2-lux mediated real-time analysis of betL* expression in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Keane, Shauna M; Culligan, Eamonn P; Hoffmann, Roland F; Gahan, Cormac G M; Hill, Colin; Snelling, William J; Sleator, Roy D

    2016-04-01

    We propose a mechanism of action for the betL* mutation which is based on DNA topology. Removing a single thymine residue from the betL σ(A) promoter's -10 and -35 spacer results in a 'twist'-mediated activation of transcription which accounts for the osmotolerance phenotype observed for strains expressing betL*. PMID:27212260

  14. Alkaloids from Piper sarmentosum and Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Ee, G C L; Lim, C M; Lim, C K; Rahmani, M; Shaari, K; Bong, C F J

    2009-01-01

    Detailed chemical studies on the roots of Piper sarmentosum and Piper nigrum have resulted in several alkaloids. The roots of P. sarmentosum gave a new aromatic compound, 1-nitrosoimino-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzene (1). Piper nigrum roots gave pellitorine (2), (E)-1-[3',4'-(methylenedioxy)cinnamoyl]piperidine (3), 2,4-tetradecadienoic acid isobutyl amide (4), piperine (5), sylvamide (6), cepharadione A (7), piperolactam D (8) and paprazine (9). Structural elucidation of these compounds was achieved through NMR and MS techniques. Cytotoxic activity screening of the plant extracts indicated some activity.

  15. Testosterone 5alpha-reductase inhibitory active constituents of Piper nigrum leaf.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Noriko; Tokunaga, Masashi; Naruto, Shunsuke; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2007-12-01

    Previously we reported that Piper nigrum leaf extract showed a potent stimulation effect on melanogenesis and that (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2) were isolated as active constituents. As a part of our continuous studies on Piper species for the development of cosmetic hair-care agents, testosterone 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts obtained from several different parts of six Piper species, namely Piper nigrum, P. methysticum, P. betle, P. kadsura, P. longum, and P. cubeba, were examined. Among them, the extracts of P. nigrum leaf, P. nigrum fruit and P. cubeba fruit showed potent inhibitory activity. Activity-guided fractionation of P. nigrum leaf extract led to the isolation of 1 and 2. Fruits of P. cubeba contain 1 as a major lignan, thus inhibitory activity of the fruit may be attributable to 1. As a result of further assay on other known constituents of the cited Piper species, it was found that piperine, a major alkaloid amide of P. nigrum fruit, showed potent inhibitory activity, thus a part of the inhibitory activity of P. nigrum fruit may depend on piperine. The 5alpha-reductase inhibitory activities of 1 and piperine were found for the first time. In addition, the P. nigrum leaf extract showed in vivo anti-androgenic activity using the hair regrowth assay in testosterone sensitive male C57Black/6CrSlc strain mice.

  16. Evaluation of the antioxidant and anti-glication effects of the hexane extract from Piper auritum leaves in vitro and beneficial activity on oxidative stress and advanced glycation end-product-mediated renal injury in streptozotocin-treated diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Perez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha; Flores Cotera, Luis B; Gonzalez, Adriana Maria Neira

    2012-10-09

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of hexane extracts from leaves of Piper auritum (HS). Eight complementary in vitro test methods were used, including inhibition of DPPH· radicals, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, ion-chelating, ABTS, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, β-carotene bleaching and peroxy radical scavenging. The results indicated that HS possesses high antioxidant activity. To add to these finding we tested the effect against oxidative stress in liver, pancreas and kidney in diabetic rats. Low levels of SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in diabetic rats were reverted to near normal values after treatment with HS. These results suggest that P. auritum prevents oxidative stress, acting as a suppressor of liver cell damage. Given the link between glycation and oxidation, we proposed that HS might possess significant in vitro antiglycation activity. Our data confirmed the inhibitory effect of HS on bovine serum albumin, serum glycosylated protein, glycation of LDL, and glycation hemoglobin. The effect of HS on diabetic renal damage was investigated using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of HS at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days significantly reduced advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) formation, elevated renal glucose and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels in the kidneys of diabetic rats. This implies that HS would alleviate the oxidative stress under diabetes through the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings indicate that oxidative stress is increased in the diabetic rat kidney and that HS can prevent renal damage associated with diabetes by attenuating the oxidative stress.

  17. Antifungal activity of Piper diospyrifolium Kunth (Piperaceae) essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Silvia Cristina Heredia; de Paulo, Luis Fernando; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Souza, Amanda; Young, Maria Cláudia Marx; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

    2011-01-01

    In vitro activity of the essential oil from Piper diospyrifolium leaves was tested using disk diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay showed significant potencial antifungal activity: the oil was effective against several clinical fungal strains. The majority compounds in the essential oil were identified as sesquiterpenoids by GC-MS and GC-FID techniques. PMID:24031717

  18. Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, the author presents a personal story, "Leaving," which highlights the problematic experience of opposing established practice. The tale tells of the difficulty faced by creative agency when confronted by a constraining structural hegemony. Specifically, it draws attention to the professionalization of academic life through a…

  19. Volatile Constituents of Three Piper Species from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hieua, Le D; Hoic, Tran M; Thangda, Tran D; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2015-11-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of three Piper plants grown in Vietnam are reported. The analysis was achieved by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaf oil of Piper majusculum Blume were β-caryophyllene (20.7%), germacrene D (18.6%) and β-elemene (11.3%). The quantitatively significant compounds of the volatile oils of P. harmandii C. DC were sabinene (leaves, 14.5%; stems, 16.2%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.0%; stems, 29.40%) and benzyl salicylate (leaves, 14.1%; stems, 24.3%). Also, α-cadinol (17.0%) was identified in large proportion in the leaf oil. However, sabinene (leaves, 17.9%; stems, 13.5%), benzyl benzoate (leaves, 20.5%; stems, 32.5%) and β-eudesmol (leaves, 13.8%; stems, 8.4%) were the main constituents of P. brevicaule C. DC. This is the first report on the volatile constituents of both P. harmandii and P. brevicaule. PMID:26749846

  20. Antifungal compounds from Piper species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piper is a big genus of the plant family Piperaceae, with more than 700 species widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Some species are used in folk medicine as analgesics, antiseptics, insecticides, and antimicrobials or for the treatment of toothache, haemorrhoid...

  1. Efficacy of an herbal formulation LI10903F containing Dolichos biflorus and Piper betle extracts on weight management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A novel herbal formulation LI10903F, alternatively known as LOWAT was developed based on its ability to inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes model. The clinical efficacy and tolerability of LI10903F were evaluated in an eight-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in 50 human subjects with body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m2 (clinical trial registration number: ISRCTN37381706). Participants were randomly assigned to either a placebo or LI10903F group. Subjects in the LI10903F group received 300 mg of herbal formulation thrice daily, while subjects in the placebo group received 300 mg of placebo capsules thrice daily. All subjects were provided a standard diet (2,000 kcal daily) and participated in a moderate exercise of 30 min walk for five days a week. Additionally, the safety of this herbal formulation was evaluated by a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies in animals and cellular models. Results After eight weeks of supplementation, statistically significant net reductions in body weight (2.49 kg; p=0.00005) and BMI (0.96 kg/m2; p=0.00004) were observed in the LI10903F group versus placebo group. Additionally, significant increase in serum adiponectin concentration (p=0.0076) and significant decrease in serum ghrelin concentration (p=0.0066) were found in LI10903F group compared to placebo group. Adverse events were mild and were equally distributed between the two groups. Interestingly, LI10903F showed broad spectrum safety in a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies. Conclusions Results from the current research suggest that LI10903F or LOWAT is well-tolerated, safe and effective for weight management. PMID:23270333

  2. Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Piper betle, Areca catechu, Uncaria gambir and betel quid with and without calcium hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Betel quid chewing is a popular habit in Southeast Asia. It is believed that chewing betel quid could reduce stress, strengthen teeth and maintain oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of each of the ingredients of betel quid and compared with betel quid itself (with and without calcium hydroxide). The correlation of their cytoprotective and antioxidant activities with phenolic content was also determined. Methods Five samples (betel leaf, areca nut, gambir, betel quid and betel quid containing calcium hydroxide) were extracted in deionized distilled water for 12 hours at 37°C. Antioxidant activities were evaluated for radical scavenging activity using DPPH assay, ferric reducing activity using FRAP assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity using FTC assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. Phenolic composition was analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Cytoprotective activity towards human gingival fibroblast cells was examined using MTT assay. Results Among the ingredients of betel quid, gambir demonstrated the highest antioxidant (DPPH - IC50 = 6.4 ± 0.8 μg/mL, FRAP - 5717.8 ± 537.6 μmol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 1142.5 ± 106.8 μg TAE/mg) and cytoprotective (100.1 ± 4.6%) activities. Betel quid when compared with betel quid containing calcium hydroxide has higher antioxidant (DPPH - IC50 =59.4 ± 4.4 μg/mL, FRAP - 1022.2 ± 235.7 μmol Fe(II)/mg), total phenolic content (TPC - 140.0 ± 22.3 μg TAE/mg), and cytoprotective (113.5 ± 15.9%) activities. However, all of the five samples showed good lipid peroxidation inhibition compared to vitamin E. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of quinic acid as the major compound of gambir and betel quid. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and radical scavenging (r = 0.972), reducing power (r = 0.981) and cytoprotective activity (r = 0.682). Conclusions The betel quid has higher TPC, and antioxidant and cytoprotective activities than betel quid with calcium hydroxide. The quinic acid in betel quid may play an important role in the oral health protection. PMID:24330738

  3. PIPER: Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazear, Justin; Ade, P.; Benford, D. J.; Bennett, C. L.; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J. L.; Eimer, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Halpern, M.; Hinderks, J.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Irwin, K.; Jhabvala, C.; Johnson, B.; Kogut, A. J.; Mirel, P.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J.; Switzer, E.; Tucker, C. E.; Weston, A.; Wollack, E.

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (PIPER) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiment searching for large-angular scale B-mode polarization to constrain Inflation in the early universe. The Inflationary Big Bang theory predicts that the epoch of inflation will result in a background of gravitational waves. These gravitational waves imprinted their unique B-mode signature on the CMB polarization, two features of which are a peak at ell ~ 80 and a "bump" below ell ~ 10 in the B-mode angular power spectrum. The ell ~ 80 "recombination" peak is the first peak caused by gravitational waves imprinting tensor (B-mode) perturbations onto the CMB spectrum during recombination. Gravitational waves at larger scales have not yet entered the horizon and may not contribute, and at smaller scales have decayed away by other interactions, giving rise to a peak at horizon scale. The ell ~ 10 "reionization" bump is caused by a similar mechanism as the recombination peak, where gravitational waves imprint B-mode perturbations into the spectrum, now at larger horizon scales. PIPER will target the reionization bump while keeping enough angular resolution to measure the recombination peak, with sensitivity down to tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.007. A series of flights alternating between north and south will produce nearly full-sky temperature and polarization maps and measure the low-ell spectra. 5120 transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers each with 20 arcmin beamwidth, distributed into 4 rectangular close-packed arrays maintained at 150 mK will provide small-scale resolution and sensitivity. PIPER consists of two co-aligned telescopes, each with a front-end variable-delay polarization modulator rapidly modulating either the Q or U Stokes parameters to provide polarization sensitivity and mitigate systematic errors. To achieve background-limited sensitivity, the entire instrument is enclosed in an open bucket dewar maintained at 1.5 K. PIPER

  4. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David

    2010-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne polarimeter that will measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background to search for evidence for inflation. PIPER will observe more than half of the sky in four frequency bands from 200 to 600 GHz with a beam size of 21 arcminutes at the lowest frequency. PIPER simultaneously measures all four Stokes parameters using four co-aligned 32 by 40 element planar bolometer arrays. We give an instrument overview and report on the current status of the instrument.

  5. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in selected Piper species.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, J; Rani, P

    2003-02-01

    Piper species, commonly used in diet and traditional medicine were assessed for their antioxidant potential. Catalase activity was predominated in Piper longum, followed by Piper cubeba, green pepper, Piper brachystachyum and Piper nigrum. P. nigrum was richest in glutathione peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, green pepper was richest in peroxidase and vitamin C while vitamin E was more in P. longum and P. nigrum. P. brachystachyum and P. longum were rich sources of vitamin A. All the Piper species had GSH content of around 1 to 2 nM/g tissue. The antioxidant components of Piper species constitute a very efficient system in scavenging a wide variety of reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant potential of Piper species was further confirmed by their ability to curtail in vitro lipid peroxidation by around 30-50% with concomitant increase in GSH content.

  6. Antiherbivore prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from Piper kelleyi.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Christopher S; Leonard, Michael D; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dodson, Craig D; Richards, Lora A; Kato, Massuo J; Dyer, Lee A

    2014-01-24

    The known prenylated benzoic acid derivative 3-geranyl-4-hydroxy-5-(3″,3″-dimethylallyl)benzoic acid (1) and two new chromane natural products were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Piper kelleyi Tepe (Piperaceae), a midcanopy tropical shrub that grows in lower montane rain forests in Ecuador and Peru. Structure determination using 1D and 2D NMR analysis led to the structure of the chromene 2 and to the reassignment of the structure of cumanensic acid as 4, an isomeric chromene previously isolated from Piper gaudichaudianum. The structure and relative configuration of new chromane 3 was determined using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and was found to be racemic by ECD spectropolarimetry. The biological activity of 1-3 was evaluated against a lab colony of the generalist caterpillar Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae), and low concentrations of 2 and 3 were found to significantly reduce fitness. Further consideration of the biosynthetic relationship of the three compounds led to the proposal that 1 is converted to 2 via an oxidative process, whereas 3 is produced through hetero-[4+2] dimerization of a quinone methide derived from the chromene 2.

  7. Antiherbivore prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from Piper kelleyi.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Christopher S; Leonard, Michael D; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dodson, Craig D; Richards, Lora A; Kato, Massuo J; Dyer, Lee A

    2014-01-24

    The known prenylated benzoic acid derivative 3-geranyl-4-hydroxy-5-(3″,3″-dimethylallyl)benzoic acid (1) and two new chromane natural products were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Piper kelleyi Tepe (Piperaceae), a midcanopy tropical shrub that grows in lower montane rain forests in Ecuador and Peru. Structure determination using 1D and 2D NMR analysis led to the structure of the chromene 2 and to the reassignment of the structure of cumanensic acid as 4, an isomeric chromene previously isolated from Piper gaudichaudianum. The structure and relative configuration of new chromane 3 was determined using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and was found to be racemic by ECD spectropolarimetry. The biological activity of 1-3 was evaluated against a lab colony of the generalist caterpillar Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae), and low concentrations of 2 and 3 were found to significantly reduce fitness. Further consideration of the biosynthetic relationship of the three compounds led to the proposal that 1 is converted to 2 via an oxidative process, whereas 3 is produced through hetero-[4+2] dimerization of a quinone methide derived from the chromene 2. PMID:24422717

  8. 77 FR 45979 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation... Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) PA-28,...

  9. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne instrument to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIPER combines cold (1.5 K) optics, 5120 bolometric detectors, and rapid polarization modulation using VPM grids to achieve both high sensitivity and excellent control of systematic errors. A series of flights alternating between northern and southern hemisphere launch sites will produce maps in Stokes I, Q, U, and V parameters at frequencies 200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz (wavelengths 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns) covering 85% of the sky. We describe the PIPER instrument and discuss the current status and expected science returns from the mission.

  10. Efficacy of Piper (Piperaceae) extracts for control of common home and garden insect pests.

    PubMed

    Scott, I M; Jensen, H; Nicol, R; Lesage, L; Bradbury, R; Sánchez-Vindas, P; Poveda, L; Arnason, J T; Philogène, B J R

    2004-08-01

    Extracts from three species of the plant family Piperaceae, Piper nigrum [L.], Piper guineense [Schum & Thonn, and Piper tuberculatum [Jacq.], were tested for efficacy against insects from five orders. All three species contain isobutyl amides, plant secondary compounds that act as neurotoxins in insects. These materials are considered safe to mammals because Piper spp. were used for centuries for spice and medicinal purposes. When 24-h P. nigrum LC50 values were compared between common insect pests from eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, the most sensitive species in order of increasing lethal concentration were eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (F.) < European pine sawfly larvae, Neodiprion sertifer (Geoffroy) < spindle ermine moth larvae, Yponomeuta cagnagella [Hübner] < viburnum leaf beetle larvae, Pyrrhalta viburni [Paykull] < stripped cucumber beetle adults, Acalymma vittatum (F.) < Colorado potato beetle adults, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) < Japanese beetle adults, Popillia japonica [Newman] < hairy chinch bug, Blissus leucopterus hirtis [Montandon]. The life stage tested was the point at which each species causes the greatest amount of damage to the host plant and the point at which most gardeners would likely choose to treat with a conventional synthetic insecticide. Greenhouse trials revealed that the pepper formulations also had a repellent activity, thus protecting plant leaves from 1) herbivory (lily leaf beetle, Lilioceris lilii [Scopoli], adults and larvae and stripped cucumber beetle adults) and 2) oviposition [European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)]. Combinations with other botanical extracts were additive at best in toxicity and repellent trials. Nontarget toxicity to beneficial invertebrates is a possibility because the P. nigrum LC50 for beneficial ladybird beetles was 0.2%. P. nigrum extracts can provide a reasonable level of control against lepidopteran and European pine sawfly larvae and also will

  11. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2010-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a ba1loon-borne instrument designed to search for the faint signature of inflation in the polarized component of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). PIPER will measure the CMB polarization at 4 frequencies (l per flight) using a pair of cryogenic telescopes, one for measuring each of Stokes Q and U in the instrument frame. Each telescope receives both linear orthogonal polarizations in two 32 by 40 element planar arrays that utilize Transition-Edge Sensors (TES). The first element in each telescope is a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) that fully modulates the Stokes parameter to which the telescope is sensitive.

  12. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazear, Justin Scott; Ade, Peter A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Irwin, Kent; Jhabvala, Christine; Johnson, Bradley; Kogut, Alan; Lowe, Luke; McMahon, Jeff J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Switzer, Eric R.; Tucker, Carole E.; Weston, Amy; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization ExploreR (Piper) is a balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter designed to search for evidence of inflation by measuring the large-angular scale CMB polarization signal. Bicep2 recently reported a detection of B-mode power corresponding to the tensor-to-scalar ratio r = 0.2 on approximately 2 degree scales. If the Bicep2 signal is caused by inflationary gravitational waves (IGWs), then there should be a corresponding increase in B-mode power on angular scales larger than 18 degrees. Piper is currently the only suborbital instrument capable of fully testing and extending the Bicep2 results by measuring the B-mode power spectrum on angular scales theta ? = approximately 0.6 deg to 90 deg, covering both the reionization bump and recombination peak, with sensitivity to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to r = 0.007, and four frequency bands to distinguish foregrounds. Piper will accomplish this by mapping 85% of the sky in four frequency bands (200, 270, 350, 600 GHz) over a series of 8 conventional balloon flights from the northern and southern hemispheres. The instrument has background-limited sensitivity provided by fully cryogenic (1.5 K) optics focusing the sky signal onto four 32×40-pixel arrays of time-domain multiplexed Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers held at 140 milli-Kelvin. Polarization sensitivity and systematic control are provided by front-end Variabledelay Polarization Modulators (VPMs), which rapidly modulate only the polarized sky signal at 3 Hz and allow Piper to instantaneously measure the full Stokes vector (I,Q,U,0V) for each pointing. We describe the Piper instrument and progress towards its first flight.

  13. BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC, WITH CORE BOX CLOSED. WILLIAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC, WITH CORE BOX CLOSED. WILLIAM SEAL STACKS CORES IN FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Chemical and biological analyses of the essential oils and main constituents of Piper species.

    PubMed

    Moura do Carmo, Dominique F; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; Machado, Gérzia M C; Leon, Leonor Laura; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de Andrade

    2012-02-13

    The essential oils obtained from leaves of Piper duckei and Piper demeraranum by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main constituents found in P. demeraranum oil were limonene (19.3%) and β-elemene (33.1%) and in P. duckei oil the major components found were germacrene D (14.7%) and trans-caryophyllene (27.1%). P. demeraranum and P. duckei oils exhibited biological activity, with IC(50) values between 15 to 76 μg mL(-1) against two Leishmania species, P. duckei oil being the most active. The cytotoxicity of the essential oils on mice peritoneal macrophage cells was insignificant, compared with the toxicity of pentamidine. The main mono- and sesquiterpene, limonene (IC(50) = 278 μM) and caryophyllene (IC(50) = 96 μM), were tested against the strains of Leishmania amazonensis, and the IC(50) values of these compounds were lower than those found for the essential oils of the Piper species. The HET-CAM test was used to evaluate the irritation potential of these oils as topical products, showing that these oils can be used as auxiliary medication in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with less side effects and lower costs.

  15. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne experiment designed to search for the polarized imprint of gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. The discovery of such a signal would provide direct evidence for inflation, and its characterization would provide a means to explore energy scales orders of magnitude larger than any conceivable particle accelerator. PIPER will consist of two cryogenic telescopes-one for each of the Q and U Stokes parameters. Each will use a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) as its first element. This architecture is designed to minimize both T->B and E->B systematics. The detectors will be four 32x40 arrays of BUG detectors, utilizing transition-edge sensors and time-domain multiplexing. Each flight will observe approximately 25% of the sky at a single frequency. Additional flights will increase the frequency coverage.

  16. 77 FR 14316 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... proposed AD. ] Discussion On May 27, 1980, AD 80-11-06, amendment 39-3776 (45 FR 35309), was published in... issued AD 80-11-06 (45 FR 35309, May 27, 1980), we have become aware that the aircraft data plate on some... applicability. The requirements in AD 80-11-06 (45 FR 35309, May 27, 1980), match those in Piper...

  17. 76 FR 18033 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... R1, Amendment 39-11747 (65 FR 33745, May 25, 2000). That AD applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc... in the Federal Register on December 30, 2010 (75 FR 82329). That NPRM proposed to continue to require... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...

  18. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Benford, Dominic J.; Bennett, Charles L.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Eimer, Joseph R.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinderks, James; Hinshaw, Gary; Irwin, Kent; Jackson, Michael L.; Jah, Muzariatu A.; Jethava, Nikhil; Jhabvala, Christine; Kogut, Alan J.; Lowe, Luke; McCullagh, Nuala; Miller, Timothy; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rodriguez, Samelys; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer

    2010-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is it balloon-borne instrument designed to search for the faint signature of inflation in the polarized component of the cosmic microwave background (C-N-113). Each flight will be configured for a single frequency, but in order to aid in the removal of the polarized foreground signal due to Galactic dust, the filters will be changed between flights. In this way, the CMB polarization at a total of four different frequencies (200, 270, 350, and 600 GHz) will be, measured on large angular scales. PIPER consists of a pair of cryogenic telescopes, one for measuring each of Stokes Q and U in the instrument frame. Each telescope receives both linear orthogonal polarizations in two 32 x 40 element planar arrays that utilize Transition-Edge Sensors (TES). The first element in each telescope is a variable-delay polarization modulator (VPM) that fully modulates the linear Stokes parameter to which the telescope is sensitive. There are several advantages to this architecture. First, by modulating at the front of the optics, instrumental polarization is unmodulated and is therefore cleanly separated from source polarization. Second, by implementing this system with the appropriate symmetry, systematic effects can be further mitigated. In the PIPER design, many of the. systematics are manifest in the unmeasured linear Stokes parameter for each telescope and this can be separated from the desired signal. Finally, the modulation cycle never mixes the Q and U linear Stokes parameters, and thus residuals in the modulation do not twist the observed polarization vector. This is advantageous because measuring the angle of linear polarization is critical for separating the inflationary signal from other polarized components.

  19. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of essential oils of Piper septuplinervium and P. subtomentosum (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Ávila Murilloa, Mónica Constanza; Cuca Suareza, Luis Enrique; Cerón Salamanca, Jairo Alonso

    2014-10-01

    Essential oils of Piper subtomentosum (leaves and inflorescences) and Piper septuplinervium (aerial parts) were analyzed by GC-MS; sixty-three compounds were determined, representing 92.0%, 86.9 %, and 91.8 % of the total relative oil composition of the leaves, inflorescences, and aerial parts, respectively. The most abundant component in the aerial parts and inflorescence oils was α-pinene (27.3%, 21.0%, respectively), and δ-cadinene was the main component of the leaf oil. Insecticidal activity of the essential oils were determined on the Spodoptera frugiperda second instar larvae; the essential oil from the aerial parts of P. septuplinervium was the most active against insect pests (LC50= 9.4 μL/L of air). Statistical analysis by direct Pearson correlation showed that the insecticidal activity of the essential oils was primarily due to camphene and α- and β-pinene. The effect of the oils on the insect life cycle was also evaluated, and in some cases, a delay in growth and inhibition of the oviposition in the females were observed.

  20. Inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase by alkamides isolated from the fruits of Piper longum and Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Woong; Rho, Mun-Chual; Park, Hye Ran; Choi, Jung-Ho; Kang, Ji Yun; Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Koanhoi; Lee, Hyun Sun; Kim, Young Kook

    2006-12-27

    Pharmacological inhibition of acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT, EC 2.3.1.20) has emerged as a potential therapy for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Bioassay-guided isolation of CHCl3 extracts of the fruits of Piper longum and Piper nigum (Piperaceae), using an in vitro DGAT inhibitory assay, lead to isolation of a new alkamide named (2E,4Z,8E)-N-[9-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2,4,8-nonatrienoyl]piperidine (2), together with four known alkamides: retrofractamide C (1), pipernonaline (3), piperrolein B (4), and dehydropipernonaline (5). Compounds 2-5 inhibited DGAT with IC50 values of 29.8 (2), 37.2 (3), 20.1 (4), and 21.2 (5) microM, respectively, but the IC50 value for 1 was more than 900 microM. This finding indicates that compounds possessing piperidine groups (2-5) can be potential DGAT inhibitors.

  1. Alkamides from the fruits of Piper longum and Piper nigrum displaying potent cell adhesion inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Woong; Kim, Young Kook; Kim, Koanhoi; Lee, Hyun Sun; Choi, Jung Ho; Lee, Woo Song; Jun, Chang-Duk; Park, Jee Hun; Lee, Jeong Min; Rho, Mun-Chual

    2008-08-15

    Eight alkamides 1-8 were isolated by bioassay-guided isolation of EtOH extracts of the fruits of Piper longum and Piper nigum (Piperaceae). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis ((1)H, (13)C NMR, and ESI-MS) as follows: guineensine (1), retrofracamide C (2), (2E,4Z,8E)-N-[9-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2,4,8-nonatrienoyl]piperidine (3), pipernonaline (4), piperrolein B (5), piperchabamide D (6), pellitorin (7), and dehydropipernonaline (8). Their compounds 3-5, 7, and 8 inhibited potently the direct binding between sICAM-1 and LFA-1 of THP-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with IC(50) values of 10.7, 8.8, 13.4, 13.5, and 6.0 microg/mL, respectively.

  2. WILLIAM SEAL PLACING COMPLETED BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC CORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WILLIAM SEAL PLACING COMPLETED BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC CORE ON A SHORT CONVEYOR THAT TRANSPORTS IT TO WAITING STORAGE BOXES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  3. Analysis of amide compounds in different parts of Piper ovatum Vahl by high-performance liquid chromatographic

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniel R.; Brenzan, Mislaine A.; Kambara, Lauro M.; Cortez, Lucia E. R.; Cortez, Diógenes A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Piper ovatum (Piperaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammations and as an analgesic. Previous studies have showed important biological activities of the extracts and amides from P. ovatum leaves. Objective: In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of the amides in different parts of Piper ovatum. Materials and Methods: The analysis was carried out on a Metasil ODS column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5μm) at room temperature. HPLC conditions were as follows: acetonitrile (A), and water (B), 1.0% acetic acid. The gradient elution used was 0–30 min, 0-60% A; 30–40 min, 60% A. Flow rate used was 1.0mL/min, and detection at 280nm. Results: The validation using piperlonguminine, as the standard, demonstrated that the method shows linearity (linear correlation coefficient = 0.998), precision (relative standard deviation <5%) and accuracy (mean recovery = 103.78%) in the concentration range 31.25 – 500μg/mL. The limit of detection and quantification were 1.21 and 4.03μg/mL, respectively. This method allowed the identification and quantification of piperlonguminine and piperovatine in the hydroethanolic extracts of P. ovatum obtained from the leaves, stems and roots. All the extracts showed the same chromatographic profile. The leaves and roots contained the highest concentrations of piperlonguminine and the stems and leaves showed the most concentrations of piperovatine. Conclusion: This HPLC method is suitable for routine quantitative analysis of amides in extracts of Piper ovatum and phytopharmaceuticals containing this herb. PMID:24174818

  4. Pharmacognostic Screening of Piper trichostachyon Fruits and its Comparative Analysis with Piper nigrum Using Chromatographic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Upadhya, Vinayak; Pai, Sandeep R.; Ankad, Gireesh M.; Hegde, Harsha V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Piper trichostachyon is a wild, endemic Piper species from Western Ghats of India. The folklore healers of Belagavi region use this plant, similar to Piper nigrum. Aims: The present study investigates the comparison between P. nigrum and P. trichostachyon using pharmacognostic parameters. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic evaluation was carried out in terms of morphological, microscopic characters, and phytochemical analysis using standard methods. Comparative physicochemical analysis between P. trichostachyon and P. nigrum was also carried out through estimation of micro-macro nutrients, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) investigation and using piperine as a marker compound for reversed phase-ultra flow liquid chromatographic (RP-UFLC) technique. Results: P. trichostachyon grows in the forests, and the fruits are morphologically similar to P. nigrum fruits, so the name in Kannada “Kaadu Kalu menasu” (wild/forest black pepper). The microscopy revealed the presence of stone cells, starch grains, oil cells and globules, beaker cells, and yellowish brown pigment layer, parenchymatous cells. The presence of alkaloids, oil, and tannins were observed in P. trichostachyon fruits. The HPTLC studies visibly indicated differences among two species with 12 peaks and varied banding pattern. RP-UFLC results showed less amount of piperine in P. trichostachyon (0.05 ± 0.002 mg/g) than in P. nigrum (16.14 ± 0.807 mg/g). Conclusion: The study reports on pharmacognostic parameters of P. trichostachyon for the 1st time and will be useful for the identification and authentication. The comparative HPTLC and RP-UFLC studies resolve the differentiation impasse among two species. However, further biological efficacy studies are required to establish its use in traditional medicine. SUMMARY Piper trichostachyon grows in the forests, and the fruits are morphologically similar to Piper nigrum fruitsThe microscopy of P. trichostachyon revealed the

  5. Piper nigrum and piperine: an update.

    PubMed

    Meghwal, Murlidhar; Goswami, T K

    2013-08-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a very widely used spice, known for its pungent constituent piperine. However, in addition to its culinary uses, pepper has important medicinal and preservative properties, and, more recently, piperine has been shown to have fundamental effects on p-glycoprotein and many enzyme systems, leading to biotransformative effects including chemoprevention, detoxification, and enhancement of the absorption and bioavailability of herbal and conventional drugs. Based on modern cell, animal, and human studies, piperine has been found to have immunomodulatory, anti-oxidant, anti-asthmatic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, and anti-amoebic properties. In this review, the chemical constituents, biological activities, effects of processing, and future potential of black pepper and piperine have been discussed thoroughly.

  6. Biogenic Preparation of Gold Nanostructures Reduced from Piper longum Leaf Broth and Their Electrochemical Studies.

    PubMed

    Mallikarjuna, K; Narasimha, G; John Sushma, N; Dillip, G R; Subba Reddy, B V; Sreedhar, B; Deva Prasad Raju, B

    2015-02-01

    Exploitation of green chemical procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles by biological process has received great attention in the field of nanotechnology. To demonstrate a biogenic method that involves the reduction of aqueous gold ions by the extract of Piper longum leaves leading to the formation of different morphological gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The formation of gold nano-structures has been characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicates the AuNPs are highly crystalline nature with the face-centered cubic (111), (200), (220) and (311) facets, respectively. The AuNPs have different sizes and morphologies that are identified by TEM studies. The involvement of water soluble bio-molecules such as carboxylic acids, flavonoids, proteins and terpenoids were identified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectrum. The responsible mechanism of improving acidic nature and the process of encapsulation of gold nanoparticles by Piper longum extract was discussed. Additionally, we have demonstrated the modified carbon paste electrode using gold nanoparticles by means of cyclic voltammetry in a solution of 1 M KCI and 1 mM [Fe(CN)6]3-/4-. The analysis of cyclic voltammetry shows electronic transmission rate between modified Au-CPE and Bare-CPE electrode increased. PMID:26353644

  7. Chemical compositions, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils of Piper caninum Blume.

    PubMed

    Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi Wan; Ahmad, Farediah; Yen, Khong Heng; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd

    2011-01-01

    Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the fresh leaves and stems oils of Piper caninum were investigated. A total of forty eight constituents were identified in the leaves (77.9%) and stems (87.0%) oil which were characterized by high proportions of phenylpropanoid, safrole with 17.1% for leaves and 25.5% for stems oil. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic content. Stems oil showed the highest inhibitory activity towards lipid peroxidation (114.9 ± 0.9%), compared to BHT (95.5 ± 0.5%), while leaves oil showed significant total phenolic content (27.4 ± 0.5 mg GA/g) equivalent to gallic acid. However, the essential oils showed weak activity towards DPPH free-radical scavenging. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity revealed that both oils exhibited strong activity against all bacteria strains with MIC values in the range 62.5 to 250 μg/mL, but weak activity against fungal strains. These findings suggest that the essential oils can be used as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for therapeutic, nutraceutical industries and food manufactures.

  8. Bioactivities of Piper aduncum L. and Piper obliquum Ruiz & Pavon (Piperaceae) essential oils from Eastern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Alessandra; Sacchetti, Gianni; Rossi, Damiano; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Andreotti, Elisa; Tognolini, Massimiliano; Maldonado, Maria E; Bruni, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Essential oils from aerial parts of Piper aduncum (Matico) and Piper obliquum (Anis del Oriente) of ecuadorian origin were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, (13)C NMR and their biological and pharmacological activities were assessed. Chemical composition proved to be unusually different from previous reports for safrole-rich P. obliquum (45.8%), while P. aduncum main constituent was dillapiol (45.9%). No genotoxic activity was found in the Ames/Salmonella typhimurium (TA98 and TA100) assay, either with or without S9 activation. Mutagen-protective properties, evaluated using sodium azide, 2-nitrofluorene and 2-aminoanthracene as mutagens/promutagens, was observed against promutagen 2-aminoanthracene, likely in consequence of microsomial deactivation. Antimicrobial assays have been performed on Gram+/Gram- bacteria, dermatophyte and phytopathogenic fungi and best results were provided by P. aduncum against fungal strains with complete inhibition at 500μg/ml. Preliminary analgesic and antithrombotic activities evidenced the absence of the former in hot plate and edema assays and a limited antiplatelet action against three different agonists (ADP, AA and U46619). Both oils have a very limited antioxidant capacity. PMID:21783920

  9. Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, and Antipyretic Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn.

    PubMed

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Itharat, Arunporn; Lerdvuthisopon, Nusiri; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Khonsung, Parirat; Boonraeng, Supot; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2012-01-01

    Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn. are herbaceous plants in the Piperaceae family. The ethanol extract of P. interruptum and P. chaba inhibited ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. Both extracts reduced transudative and granuloma weights as well as body weight gain and thymus weight of the chronic inflammatory model using cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. Moreover, both extracts exhibited analgesic activity on both early phase and late phase of formalin test in mice and also showed antipyretic activity on yeast-induced hyperthermia in rats. PMID:22530143

  10. BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC ROTATING TO POSITION THE EMPTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEARDSLEY AND PIPER ROTOMOLD CORMATIC ROTATING TO POSITION THE EMPTY CORE BOX UNDER A FULL MAGAZINE AND THE FULL CORE BOX TO AN OPEN POSITION TO ALLOW CORE REMOVAL. WILLIAM SEAL STACK CORES IN FOREGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  11. 78 FR 54561 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... effective September 5, 2013. The effective date for AD 2013-10-04 (78 FR 35110, June 12, 2013) remains July... INFORMATION: Airworthiness Directive 2013-10-04 (78 FR 35110, June 12, 2013), currently requires a detailed...-17457; AD 2013-10-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes...

  12. 78 FR 56150 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... final rule is effective September 12, 2013. The effective date for AD 2013-13-01 (78 FR 41277, July 10... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Airworthiness Directive 2013-13-01, Amendment 39-17489 (78 FR 41277, July 10, 2013...-018-AD; Amendment 39-17489; AD 2013-13-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft,...

  13. 77 FR 31169 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... (45 FR 35309, May 27, 1980), and adding the following new AD: ] 2012-10-09 Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type... AD 80-11-06, amendment 39-3776 (45 FR 35309, May 27, 1980). That AD applies to the specified products. The NPRM published in the Federal Register on March 9, 2012 (77 FR 14316). The NPRM proposed to...

  14. Development, Characterization, and Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Abutilon indicum and Piper longum Phytosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sonam; Sahu, Alakh Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidences from ethnopharmacological practices have shown that combination of Abutilon indicum and Piper longum are traditionally used to treat symptoms of the liver disorder. The hypothesis is phytosomes of a combination of both crude drug extract will be more effective and safe as hepatoprotective agent. Aim: Present work is aimed at development and characterization of phytosomes containing ethanolic extract of both drugs to meet the need for better effectiveness and safety. Materials and Methods: Phytosomes were formulated by using Indena's patented process. Characterization involved following parameters: Particle size determination, percentage yield, entrapment efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high performance thin liquid chromatography. Liver damage was induced in adult Charles foster rats (150 ± 10 g) with CCl4 in olive oil (1:1 v/v, i.p) 1 ml/kg once daily for 7 days. LIV 52 (1 ml/kg per oral [p.o]), ethanolic extract of A. indicum and P. longum combination (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg p.o) and phytosomes (100 mg/kg p.o.) was given 3 days prior to CCl4 administration. Estimation of liver marker enzymes and histopathological studies were done. Result was analyzed by using (analysis of variance) followed by Student-Newman–Keuls test. Result: Combined extract has shown hepatoprotective activity but phytosomal formulation has more potent hepatoprotective effect on CCl4 induced liver toxicity at very low dose comparative to a higher dose of combined extract. Conclusion: Novel approach for herbal drug delivery is more prominent than conventional which improves bioavailability of polar extract and also patient compliance. SUMMARY Standardised ethanolic extract of leaves of abutilon indicum and piper longum fruits by microwave assisted extraction was used for phytosomal complex formation and phytosomal complex was characterised by various parameters and finally the

  15. A background color scheme for piper plots to spatially visualize hydrochemical patterns.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Luk

    2014-01-01

    The combination of ternary diagrams of cations and anions with a central diamond graph make the Piper plot very useful in visualizing groundwater chemistry datasets. One of the major drawbacks is that it is hard to link spatial attributes of the dataset to the plot. In this study, we propose a background color scheme of the Piper plot so that spatial representations of these data can be colored according to their location in the Piper plot. The color scheme is chosen to have maximum resolution while still being perceptually uniform. The linking between Piper plot and maps through this color scheme allows the interpretation of the trends and processes deduced from the Piper plot in terms of the location in the aquifer, the geology, and the groundwater flow dynamics. The colored Piper plot is applied to a groundwater quality dataset of the Condamine Alluvium in Queensland, Australia.

  16. Anticancer Principles from Medicinal Piper (胡椒 Hú Jiāo) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    The ethnomedical uses of Piper (胡椒 Hú Jiāo) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles. PMID:24872928

  17. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Different Species of Piper from Panama.

    PubMed

    Santana, Ana I; Vila, Roser; Cañigueral, Salvador; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of leaf essential oils from 11 species of Piper from Panama was analyzed by a combination GC-FID and GC-MS procedures. Six of them had sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as major constituents, three were characterized by monoterpene hydrocarbons, one by a diterpene, and one by a phenylpropanoid, dillapiole. The main components identified in each species were: cembratrienol (25.4 %) in Piper augustum; β-pinene (26.6 %) in Piper corrugatum; α-pinene (19.4 %) in Piper curtispicum; trans-β-farnesene (63.7 %) in Piper darienense; p-cymene (43.9 %) in Piper grande; dillapiole (57.7 %) in Piper hispidum; linalool (14.5 %), α-phellandrene (13.8 %), and limonene (12.2 %) in Piper jacquemontianum; β-caryophyllene (45.2 %) in Piper longispicum; linalool (16.5 %), α-phellandrene (11.8 %), limonene (11.4 %), and p-cymene (9.0 %) in Piper multiplinervium; β-selinene (19.0 %), β-elemene (16.1 %), and α-selinene (15.5 %) in Piper reticulatum; and germacrene D (19.7 %) in Piper trigonum. The essential oils of P. hispidum and P. longispicum at a concentration of 250 µg/mL showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, while the oils from P. curtispicum, P. multiplinervium, P. reticulatum, and P. trigonum were inactive (LC100 ≥ 500 µg/mL). The essential oils of P. grande, P. jacquemontianum, and P. multiplinervium showed no significant antifungal activity (MIC > 250 µg/mL) against several yeasts and filamentous fungal strains.

  18. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Different Species of Piper from Panama.

    PubMed

    Santana, Ana I; Vila, Roser; Cañigueral, Salvador; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of leaf essential oils from 11 species of Piper from Panama was analyzed by a combination GC-FID and GC-MS procedures. Six of them had sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as major constituents, three were characterized by monoterpene hydrocarbons, one by a diterpene, and one by a phenylpropanoid, dillapiole. The main components identified in each species were: cembratrienol (25.4 %) in Piper augustum; β-pinene (26.6 %) in Piper corrugatum; α-pinene (19.4 %) in Piper curtispicum; trans-β-farnesene (63.7 %) in Piper darienense; p-cymene (43.9 %) in Piper grande; dillapiole (57.7 %) in Piper hispidum; linalool (14.5 %), α-phellandrene (13.8 %), and limonene (12.2 %) in Piper jacquemontianum; β-caryophyllene (45.2 %) in Piper longispicum; linalool (16.5 %), α-phellandrene (11.8 %), limonene (11.4 %), and p-cymene (9.0 %) in Piper multiplinervium; β-selinene (19.0 %), β-elemene (16.1 %), and α-selinene (15.5 %) in Piper reticulatum; and germacrene D (19.7 %) in Piper trigonum. The essential oils of P. hispidum and P. longispicum at a concentration of 250 µg/mL showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, while the oils from P. curtispicum, P. multiplinervium, P. reticulatum, and P. trigonum were inactive (LC100 ≥ 500 µg/mL). The essential oils of P. grande, P. jacquemontianum, and P. multiplinervium showed no significant antifungal activity (MIC > 250 µg/mL) against several yeasts and filamentous fungal strains. PMID:27286333

  19. Antimicrobial effects of Piper hispidum extract, fractions and chalcones against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Costa, G M; Endo, E H; Cortez, D A G; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2016-09-01

    Three chalcones, 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-tetramethoxychalcone, and 3,2'-dihydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, were isolated from the leaves of Piper hispidum in a bioguided fractionation of crude extract. The antimicrobial activity of crude extract of P. hispidum leaves was determined against bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. Fractions and chalcones were tested against C. albicans and S. aureus. The checkerboard assay was performed to assess synergic interactions between extract and antifungal drugs, and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay was used to evaluate anti-biofilm effects of extract. The extract was active against yeasts, S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC values between 15.6 and 62.5μg/mL. Synergistic effects of extract associated with fluconazole and nystatin were observed against C. albicans, with fractional inhibitory concentration indices of 0.37 and 0.24, respectively. The extract was also effective against C. albicans and S. aureus biofilm cells at concentrations of 62.5 and 200μg/mL, respectively. Thus, P. hispidum may be a possible source of bioactive substances with antimicrobial properties. PMID:27499460

  20. Composition and biological activities of the essential oil of Piper corcovadensis (Miq.) C. DC (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcelo Felipe Rodrigues; Bezerra-Silva, Patrícia Cristina; de Lira, Camila Soledade; de Lima Albuquerque, Bheatriz Nunes; Agra Neto, Afonso Cordeiro; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Maciel, Jefferson Rodrigues; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz

    2016-06-01

    Essential oil from fresh leaves of the shrub Piper corcovadensis (Miq.) C. DC was obtained in 0.21% (w/w) yield by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger type apparatus. Thirty-one components, accounting for 96.61% of the leaf oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (30.62%), terpinolene (17.44%), trans -caryophyllene (6.27%), α-pinene (5.92%), δ-cadinene (4.92%), and Limonene (4.46%). Bioassays against larvae of the Dengue mosquito (Aedes aegypti) revealed that leaf oil (LC50 = 30.52 ppm), terpinolene (LC50 = 31.16 ppm), and pure 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (LC50 = 22.1 ppm) possessed larvicidal activities and are able to interfere with the activity of proteases from L4 gut enzymes. Additionally, the essential oil exhibited a strong oviposition deterrent activity at 50 and 5 ppm. This paper constitutes the first report of biological activities associated with the essential oil of leaves of P. corcovadensis.

  1. Composition and biological activities of the essential oil of Piper corcovadensis (Miq.) C. DC (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcelo Felipe Rodrigues; Bezerra-Silva, Patrícia Cristina; de Lira, Camila Soledade; de Lima Albuquerque, Bheatriz Nunes; Agra Neto, Afonso Cordeiro; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Maciel, Jefferson Rodrigues; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz

    2016-06-01

    Essential oil from fresh leaves of the shrub Piper corcovadensis (Miq.) C. DC was obtained in 0.21% (w/w) yield by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger type apparatus. Thirty-one components, accounting for 96.61% of the leaf oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (30.62%), terpinolene (17.44%), trans -caryophyllene (6.27%), α-pinene (5.92%), δ-cadinene (4.92%), and Limonene (4.46%). Bioassays against larvae of the Dengue mosquito (Aedes aegypti) revealed that leaf oil (LC50 = 30.52 ppm), terpinolene (LC50 = 31.16 ppm), and pure 1-butyl-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene (LC50 = 22.1 ppm) possessed larvicidal activities and are able to interfere with the activity of proteases from L4 gut enzymes. Additionally, the essential oil exhibited a strong oviposition deterrent activity at 50 and 5 ppm. This paper constitutes the first report of biological activities associated with the essential oil of leaves of P. corcovadensis. PMID:26993082

  2. Potential antiamoebic property of the roots of Piper longum Linn.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Sheela; Lakshmi, V

    2002-11-01

    In an earlier study we reported the effect of ethanol extracts of Piper longum fruit against caecal amoebiasis in rats. A follow-up study to determine whether the roots possess similar antiamoebic activity was carried out. The ethanolic extract of roots was amoebicidal at 1,000 microg/mL in vitro and cured 88% of caecal amoebiasis cases, suggesting that both the root and fruit of P. longum possess antiamoebic activity to approximately the same extent.

  3. Evaluation of particle resuspension in young children's breathing zone using stationary and robotic (PIPER) aerosol samplers

    PubMed Central

    Sagona, Jessica A.; Shalat, Stuart L; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2015-01-01

    Development of asthma in young children may be associated with high exposure to particulate matter (PM). However, typical stationary samplers may not represent the personal exposure of children ages 3 and younger since they may not detect particles resuspended from the floor as children play, thus reducing our ability to correlate exposure and disease etiology. To address this, an autonomous robot, the Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER) sampler, was developed to simulate the movements of children as they play on the floor. PIPER and a stationary sampler took simultaneous measurements of particle number concentration in six size channels using an optical particle counter and inhalable PM on filters in 65 homes in New Jersey, USA. To study particle resuspension, for each sampler we calculated the ratio of particle concentration measured while PIPER was moving to the average concentration of particles measured during a reference period when PIPER remained still. For all investigated particle sizes, higher particle resuspension was observed by PIPER compared to the stationary sampler. In 71% of carpeted homes a more significant (at the α = 0.05 level) resuspension of particles larger than 2.5 μm was observed by PIPER compared to the stationary sampler. Typically, particles larger than 2.5 μm were resuspended more efficiently than smaller particles, over both carpeted and bare floors. Additionally, in carpeted homes estimations of PM10 mass from the particle number concentrations measured on PIPER while it was moving were on average a factor of 1.54 higher compared to reference period when PIPER was not moving. For comparison, the stationary sampler measured an increase of PM2.5 mass by a factor of only 1.08 when PIPER was moving compared to a reference period. This demonstrates that PIPER is able to resuspend particles through movement, and provide a better characterization of the resuspended particles than stationary samplers. Accurate

  4. Piper kelleyi, a hotspot of ecological interactions and a new species from Ecuador and Peru

    PubMed Central

    Tepe, Eric. J.; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Genoveva; Glassmire, Andrea E.; Dyer, Lee A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe Piper kelleyi sp. nov., a new species from the eastern Andes of Ecuador and Peru, named in honor of Dr. Walter Almond Kelley. Piper kelleyi is a member of the Macrostachys clade of the genus Piper and supports a rich community of generalist and specialist herbivores, their predators and parasitoids, as well as commensalistic earwigs, and mutualistic ants. This new species was recognized as part of an ecological study of phytochemically mediated relationships between plants, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Compared to over 100 other Piper species surveyed, Piper kelleyi supports the largest community of specialist herbivores and parasitoids observed to date. PMID:24596490

  5. Piper kelleyi, a hotspot of ecological interactions and a new species from Ecuador and Peru.

    PubMed

    Tepe, Eric J; Rodríguez-Castañeda, Genoveva; Glassmire, Andrea E; Dyer, Lee A

    2014-01-01

    We describe Piper kelleyi sp. nov., a new species from the eastern Andes of Ecuador and Peru, named in honor of Dr. Walter Almond Kelley. Piper kelleyi is a member of the Macrostachys clade of the genus Piper and supports a rich community of generalist and specialist herbivores, their predators and parasitoids, as well as commensalistic earwigs, and mutualistic ants. This new species was recognized as part of an ecological study of phytochemically mediated relationships between plants, herbivores, predators, and parasitoids. Compared to over 100 other Piper species surveyed, Piper kelleyi supports the largest community of specialist herbivores and parasitoids observed to date.

  6. Cytotoxic non-aromatic B-ring flavanones from Piper carniconnectivum C. DC.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Giovana C; Batista, João M; Franchi, Gilberto C; Nowill, Alexandre E; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Vilcachagua, Janaina D; Favaro, Denize C; Furlan, Maysa; Guimarães, Elsie F; Jeffrey, Christopher S; Kato, Massuo J

    2014-01-01

    The EtOAc extract from the leaves of Piper carniconnectivum C. DC. was subjected to chromatographic separation to afford two non-aromatic B-ring flavanone compounds: 5-hydroxy-2-(1'-hydroxy-4'-oxo-cyclohex-2'-en-1'-yl)-6,7-dimethoxy-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one (1) and 5-hydroxy-2-(1',2'-dihydroxy-4'-oxo-cyclohexyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-2,3-dihydro-4H-chromen-4-one (2). The absolute configuration of (+)-1 was unambiguously determined as 2S,1'R by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy and comparison to simulated spectra that were calculated using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). This methodology allowed the assignment of the absolute configuration of (+)-2 also as 2S,1'R, except for the stereogenic center at C-2', which was assigned as R because of the evidence drawn from high resolution NMR experiments. The cytotoxic activity of both compounds and 3 (hydrogenated B-ring derivative of 1) was evaluated on twelve human leukemia cell lines, and the IC50 values (<10 μM) indicated the activity of 1 against seven cell lines.

  7. Bioactivity-guided isolation of laevicarpin, an antitrypanosomal and anticryptococcal lactam from Piper laevicarpu (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    da Silva A Maciel, Dayany; Freitas, Viviane P; Conserva, Geanne A Alves; Alexandre, Tatiana R; Purisco, Sonia U; Tempone, Andre G; Melhem, Márcia Souza C; Kato, Massuo J; Guimarães, Elsie F; Lago, João Henrique G

    2016-06-01

    Crude CH2Cl2 extract from leaves of Piper laevicarpu (Piperaceae) displayed antitrypanosomal activity against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (Y strain) and antimicrobial potential against Cryptococcus gattii (strain-type WM 178). Bioactivity-guided fractionation of crude extract afforded one new natural bioactive lactam derivative, named laevicarpin. The structure of isolated compound, which displayed a very rare ring system, was elucidated based on NMR, IR and MS spectral analysis. Using MTT assay, the trypomastigotes of T. cruzi demonstrated susceptibility to laevicarpin displaying IC50 value of 14.7μg/mL (49.6μM), about 10-fold more potent than the standard drug benznidazole. The mammalian cytotoxicity of laevicarpin was verified against murine fibroblasts (NCTC cells) and demonstrated a CC50 value of 100.3μg/mL (337.7μM-SI=7). When tested against Cryptococcus gattii, laevicarpin showed an IC50 value of 2.3μg/mL (7.9μM) and a MIC value of 7.4μg/mL (25μM). Based in the obtained results, laevicarpin could be used as a scaffold for future drug design studies against the Chagas disease and anti-cryptococosis agents. PMID:27083380

  8. Chemical study and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of essential oil of Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gisele L; Cardoso, Sheila K; Lara, Célio R; Vieira, Thallyta M; Guimarães, Elsie F; Figueiredo, Lourdes S; Martins, Ernane R; Moreira, Davyson L; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2013-01-01

    Piper aduncum L. is used in folk medicine to treat respiratory and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the essential oil from leaves of P. aduncum collected in the Brazilian Cerrado, North of Minas Gerais, as well as to evaluate the larvicidal activity of this oil and of its major constituent. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry that allowed characterizing 23 compounds (monoterpenes: 90.4%; sesquiterpenes: 7.0%). The major component was 1,8-cineole (53.9%). This oil showed to be very different from those obtained from the same species. Larvae of A. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of the essential oil and 1,8-cineole. The mortality rate of 100% was obtained after 24 h of treatment with the oil at concentrations of 500 and 1,000 ppm. After 48 h of treatment, the mortality rate was 80% and 50% for concentrations of 250 and 100 ppm, respectively. The LC₅₀ obtained after 24h was estimated in 289.9 ppm and after 48 h was 134.1 ppm. The major compound 1,8-cineole showed no larvicidal activity. PMID:24270836

  9. Antibacterial constituents from the berries of Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S Venkat; Srinivas, Pullela V; Praveen, B; Kishore, K Hara; Raju, B China; Murthy, U Suryanarayana; Rao, J Madhusudana

    2004-11-01

    Piper nigrum finds an extensive application in antibacterial preparations belonging to Ayurvedic system of medicine. A bioguided extraction and fractionation of the petroleum ether extract of the berries of P. nigrum afforded 2E, 4E, 8Z-N-isobutyleicosatrienamide (1), pellitorine (2), trachyone (3), pergumidiene (4) and isopiperolein B (5). Pergumidiene and trachyone are isolated for the first time from P. nigrum. All the isolated compounds were active against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sphaericus, and Staphylococcus aureus amongst Gram + ve bacteria, and Klebsiella aerogenes and Chromobacterium violaceum among Gram -ve bacterial strains.

  10. Complete 1H and 13C NMR assignments of two phytosterols from roots of Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kun; Li, Wei; Koike, Kazuo; Pei, Yuping; Chen, Yingjie; Nikaido, Tamotsu

    2004-03-01

    Using modern NMR techniques, including DQF-COSY, NOESY, HETCOR and HMBC, the full assignments of all 1H and 13C chemical shifts were made for stigmastane-3,6-dione and stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione, isolated from the roots of Piper nigrum (Piperaceae). Their stereochemistry was resolved by a combination of 2D NOESY data and analysis of coupling constants. The two compounds were isolated from the genus Piper for the first time.

  11. Amides and neolignans from the aerial parts of Piper bonii.

    PubMed

    Ding, Duo-Duo; Wang, Yue-Hu; Chen, Ya-Hui; Mei, Ren-Qiang; Yang, Jun; Luo, Ji-Feng; Li, Yan; Long, Chun-Lin; Kong, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Six amides, piperbonamides A-F, three neolignans piperbonins A-C, and 11 known compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Piper bonii (Piperaceae). The structures of piperbonamides A-F and piperbonins A-C were elucidated based on the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and MS data. Piperbonin A, (+)-trans-acuminatin, (+)-cis-acuminatin, (+)-kadsurenone, and pipernonaline showed weak activity against platelet aggregation with IC50 values of 118.2, 108.5, 90.02, 107.3, and 116.3 μM, respectively, as compared with the positive control, tirofiban, with an IC50 value of 5.24 μM. Piperbonamides A-F were inactive against five tumor cell lines at concentrations up to 40 μM. PMID:27452451

  12. Anticholinesterases and antioxidant alkamides from Piper nigrum fruits.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yanbei; Zhong, Yujiao; Du, Hongjian; Luo, Wei; Wen, Yaya; Li, Qin; Zhu, Chao; Li, Yanfang

    2016-09-01

    The anticholinesterase and antioxidant effects of five different extracts of Piper nigrum were evaluated. Twenty-one known alkamides were isolated from active ethyl acetate extract and investigated for their cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effects. Among them, piperine (2), piperettine (5) and piperettyline (20) exhibited dual inhibition against AChE and BChE, and feruperine (18) was the most potent selective inhibitor of BChE. Molecular docking simulation was performed to get insight into the binding interactions of the ligands and enzymes. In addition, N-trans-feruloyltyramine (3) contributed to the strongest DPPH radical-scavenging activity. The self-induced Aβ aggregation inhibition of 2, 5 and 18 was further evaluated. Results indicated that some alkamides could be multifunctional lead candidates for Alzheimer's disease therapy.

  13. Anticholinesterases and antioxidant alkamides from Piper nigrum fruits.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yanbei; Zhong, Yujiao; Du, Hongjian; Luo, Wei; Wen, Yaya; Li, Qin; Zhu, Chao; Li, Yanfang

    2016-09-01

    The anticholinesterase and antioxidant effects of five different extracts of Piper nigrum were evaluated. Twenty-one known alkamides were isolated from active ethyl acetate extract and investigated for their cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effects. Among them, piperine (2), piperettine (5) and piperettyline (20) exhibited dual inhibition against AChE and BChE, and feruperine (18) was the most potent selective inhibitor of BChE. Molecular docking simulation was performed to get insight into the binding interactions of the ligands and enzymes. In addition, N-trans-feruloyltyramine (3) contributed to the strongest DPPH radical-scavenging activity. The self-induced Aβ aggregation inhibition of 2, 5 and 18 was further evaluated. Results indicated that some alkamides could be multifunctional lead candidates for Alzheimer's disease therapy. PMID:26407107

  14. Down-regulation of osmotin (PR5) gene by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) leads to susceptibility of resistant Piper colubrinum Link. to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian.

    PubMed

    Anu, K; Jessymol, K K; Chidambareswaren, M; Gayathri, G S; Manjula, S

    2015-06-01

    Piper colubrinum Link., a distant relative of Piper nigrum L., is immune to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian that causes 'quick wilt' in cultivated black pepper (P. nigrum). The osmotin, PR5 gene homologue, earlier identified from P. colubrinum, showed significant overexpression in response to pathogen and defense signalling molecules. The present study focuses on the functional validation of P. colubrinum osmotin (PcOSM) by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) using Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV)-based vector. P. colubrinum plants maintained under controlled growth conditions in a growth chamber were infiltrated with Agrobacterium carrying TRV empty vector (control) and TRV vector carrying PcOSM. Three weeks post infiltration, viral movement was confirmed in newly emerged leaves of infiltrated plants by RT-PCR using TRV RNA1 and TRV RNA2 primers. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of PcOSM gene in TRV-PcOSM infiltrated plant compared with the control plants. The control and silenced plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici which demonstrated that knock-down of PcOSM in P. colubrinum leads to increased fungal mycelial growth in silenced plants compared to control plants, which was accompanied by decreased accumulation of H2O2 as indicated by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that Piper colubrinum osmotin gene is required for resisting P. capsici infection and has possible role in hypersensitive cell death response and oxidative burst signaling during infection. PMID:26155671

  15. Down-regulation of osmotin (PR5) gene by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) leads to susceptibility of resistant Piper colubrinum Link. to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian.

    PubMed

    Anu, K; Jessymol, K K; Chidambareswaren, M; Gayathri, G S; Manjula, S

    2015-06-01

    Piper colubrinum Link., a distant relative of Piper nigrum L., is immune to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian that causes 'quick wilt' in cultivated black pepper (P. nigrum). The osmotin, PR5 gene homologue, earlier identified from P. colubrinum, showed significant overexpression in response to pathogen and defense signalling molecules. The present study focuses on the functional validation of P. colubrinum osmotin (PcOSM) by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) using Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV)-based vector. P. colubrinum plants maintained under controlled growth conditions in a growth chamber were infiltrated with Agrobacterium carrying TRV empty vector (control) and TRV vector carrying PcOSM. Three weeks post infiltration, viral movement was confirmed in newly emerged leaves of infiltrated plants by RT-PCR using TRV RNA1 and TRV RNA2 primers. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of PcOSM gene in TRV-PcOSM infiltrated plant compared with the control plants. The control and silenced plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici which demonstrated that knock-down of PcOSM in P. colubrinum leads to increased fungal mycelial growth in silenced plants compared to control plants, which was accompanied by decreased accumulation of H2O2 as indicated by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that Piper colubrinum osmotin gene is required for resisting P. capsici infection and has possible role in hypersensitive cell death response and oxidative burst signaling during infection.

  16. Camphene isolated from essential oil of Piper cernuum (Piperaceae) induces intrinsic apoptosis in melanoma cells and displays antitumor activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Girola, Natalia; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Farias, Camyla F; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Ferreira, Adilson K; Teixeira, Sarah F; Capello, Tabata M; Martins, Euder G A; Matsuo, Alisson L; Travassos, Luiz R; Lago, João H G

    2015-11-27

    Natural monoterpenes were isolated from the essential oil of Piper cernuum Vell. (Piperaceae) leaves. The crude oil and the individual monoterpenes were tested for cytotoxicity in human tumor cell lineages and B16F10-Nex2 murine melanoma cells. In the present work we demonstrate the activity of camphene against different cancer cells, with its mechanism of action being investigated in vitro and in vivo in murine melanoma. Camphene induced apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway in melanoma cells mainly by causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, with release of Ca(2+) together with HmgB1 and calreticulin, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and up regulation of caspase-3 activity. Importantly, camphene exerted antitumor activity in vivo by inhibiting subcutaneous tumor growth of highly aggressive melanoma cells in a syngeneic model, suggesting a promising role of this compound in cancer therapy. PMID:26471302

  17. Potential control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) with Piper aduncum L. (Piperaceae) extracts demonstrated by chromosomal biomarkers and toxic effects on interphase nuclei.

    PubMed

    Rafael, M S; Hereira-Rojas, W J; Roper, J J; Nunomura, S M; Tadei, W P

    2008-01-01

    Dillapiol, a phenylpropanoid isolate from essential oils of leaves of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), has insecticidal, fungicidal and antimicrobial activities. The insecticidal activity of dillapiol was tested in vivo on the larvae and pupae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue. Specifically, the effect of dillapiol on the formation of micronuclei and chromosome aberrations was analyzed. Dillapiol treatments comprised two concentrations of 200 and 400 micro dissolved in well water, and a pure well water control used to rear four generations of mosquitoes. Micronuclei occurred in mitotic diploid and tetraploid chromosomes of larvae; nuclear abnormalities also occurred in interphase, metaphase, telophase, and single nucleus cells of pupae. Mortality, oviposition, chromosome breakage, and anaphase bridges were significantly greater in the extract treatments than in controls. The genotoxic effects of dillapiol described here suggest that this natural product may be a useful alternative for the control of A. aegypti. PMID:18767246

  18. Nutrient and antinutrient composition of three varieties of Piper species.

    PubMed

    Isong, E U; Essien, I B

    1996-02-01

    The proximate composition of three varieties of Piper guineense (Odusa-Ibibio/Efik) viz. 'Uyat Odusa' (cultivated and peppery), 'Eting-keni Ikot' (wild forest variety) and 'Eting-keni mben inyang' (wild, riverine variety), were determined using available standard methods. Also determined were mineral, antinutrient and ascorbate levels. The cultivated pepperic variety had the highest content of crude protein and moisture (18.9% and 97% respectively) while the wild, riverine variety had the highest content of ether extract, carbohydrate and calories (7.79%, 63.38% and 398 cals respectively). The cultivated variety had appreciable amounts of phosphorus (1.12 mg/100 g), potassium (1.2 mg/100 g), sodium (0.24 mg/100 g), zinc (0.18 mg/100 g), and copper (0.18 mg/100 g) while the forest variety contained more of calcium (12.38 mg/100 g), magnesium (1.21 mg/100 g) and iron (0.85 mg/100 g). The wild riverine variety appeared to have the least mineral content but had the highest ascorbate level of 173.4 mg/100 g. Of four antinutrients assayed, the cultivated pepperic one had the least quantities while the forest variety was highest in hydrocyanic acid (85.8 mg/100 g) and glucosinolates (0.20 mg/100 g). The wild riverine variety had the highest level of total oxalate (165.0 mg/100 g). These quantities are however far below documented toxic levels. PMID:8811726

  19. Histamine release inhibitory activity of Piper nigrum leaf.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Noriko; Naruto, Shunsuke; Inaba, Kazunori; Itoh, Kimihisa; Tokunaga, Masashi; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2008-10-01

    Oral administration of a methanolic extract of Piper nigrum leaf (PN-ext, 50, 200 and 500 mg/kg) showed a potent dose-dependent inhibition of dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced cutaneous reaction at 1 h [immediate phase response (IPR)] after and 24 h [late phase response (LPR)] after DNFB challenge in mice which were passively sensitized with anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody. Ear swelling inhibitory effect of PN-ext (50, 200 and 500 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)) on very late phase response (vLPR) in the model mice was significant but weaker than that on IPR. Oral administration of PN-ext (50, 200 and 500 mg/kg for 7 d) inhibited picryl chloride (PC)-induced ear swelling in PC sensitized mice. PN-ext exhibited in vitro inhibitory effect on compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Two lignans of PN-ext, (-)-cubebin (1) and (-)-3,4-dimethoxy-3,4-desmethylenedioxycubebin (2), were identified as major active principles having histamine release inhibitory activity.

  20. Piper sarmentosum: a new hope for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Suhaimi, Farihah; Ahmad, Fairus; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Mohamad, Norazlina; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major global health problem. Osteoporosis is characterized by the loss of bone mass and strength which leads to an increased risk of fracture. Glucocorticoid treatment is the leading cause of secondary osteoporosis. Glucocorticoid action in bone depends upon the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme (11β-HSD1). The oestrogen deficient state causes osteoporosis due to enhancement of osteoclastogenesis by oxidative stress which leads to increased bone resorption. Piper sarmentosum (Daun Kaduk) is commonly used in the local cuisine of South East Asia. It is also traditionally used to treat many diseases such as inflammation, dermatitis and joint pain. Studies have revealed antioxidant properties through its flavonoids compound naringenin which acts as a superoxide scavenger that may help in the endogenous antioxidant defence system to protect bone against osteoporosis. Recent studies found that Ps extract has the ability to inhibit the expression and activity of 11β-HSD1 in adipose tissue and bone which restored bone structure and strength. It also accelerates fracture healing in the oestrogen deficient state through its antioxidant properties. The cost of conventional treatment is high and together with the adverse effects it leads to noncompliance. Treatment modalities with herbal medicine, less side effects and is cheaper need to be explored.This review focused on the therapeutic effect of Ps extract on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats and its protective effects against glucocorticoid induced osteoporotic rats. PMID:24107234

  1. Piper sarmentosum: a new hope for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Suhaimi, Farihah; Ahmad, Fairus; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Mohamad, Norazlina; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major global health problem. Osteoporosis is characterized by the loss of bone mass and strength which leads to an increased risk of fracture. Glucocorticoid treatment is the leading cause of secondary osteoporosis. Glucocorticoid action in bone depends upon the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme (11β-HSD1). The oestrogen deficient state causes osteoporosis due to enhancement of osteoclastogenesis by oxidative stress which leads to increased bone resorption. Piper sarmentosum (Daun Kaduk) is commonly used in the local cuisine of South East Asia. It is also traditionally used to treat many diseases such as inflammation, dermatitis and joint pain. Studies have revealed antioxidant properties through its flavonoids compound naringenin which acts as a superoxide scavenger that may help in the endogenous antioxidant defence system to protect bone against osteoporosis. Recent studies found that Ps extract has the ability to inhibit the expression and activity of 11β-HSD1 in adipose tissue and bone which restored bone structure and strength. It also accelerates fracture healing in the oestrogen deficient state through its antioxidant properties. The cost of conventional treatment is high and together with the adverse effects it leads to noncompliance. Treatment modalities with herbal medicine, less side effects and is cheaper need to be explored.This review focused on the therapeutic effect of Ps extract on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats and its protective effects against glucocorticoid induced osteoporotic rats.

  2. New free radical scavenging neolignans from fruits of Piper attenuatum

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, S. Divya; Siva, Bandi; Poornima, B.; Kumar, D. Anand; Tiwari, Ashok K.; Ramesh, U.; Babu, K. Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to study and identify free radicals scavenging and antihyperglycemic principles in fruit of Piper attenuatum. Materials and Methods: Bioassay guided identification of extracts possessing potent free radical scavenging activity, and isolation of compounds was done. Chloroform extract of P. attenuatum possessing potent radical scavenging activity was also evaluated for antihyperglycemic activity following oral glucose tolerance test in rats. Results: Nine neolignans namely, denudatin B (1), iso-4’, 5’-dimethoxy-3, 4-methylenedioxy-2’-oxo-Δ3’,5’,8’-8.1’-lignan (2), lancifolin D (3), denudatin A (4), wallichinin (5), piperenone (6), lancifolin C (7), 2-oxo-piperol B (8), piperkadsin A (9) and a crotepoxide (10) was identified in Chloroform extract of P. attenuatum. Neolignans (1-9) displayed potent 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical and piperkadsin A (9) also displayed 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Analysis of structure-activity relationship revealed that presence of furan ring and methoxy groups is an important criterion to influence 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging potentials. Chloroform extract of P. attenuatum fruit could not display antihyperglycemic activity following oral glucose tolerance test in rats. Conclusion: Neolignans present in P. attenuatum fruits are potent free radical scavengers and this is the first report identifying these compounds and activities in this fruit. PMID:25829760

  3. Contemporary Pacific and Western perspectives on `awa (Piper methysticum) toxicology.

    PubMed

    Showman, Angelique F; Baker, Jonathan D; Linares, Christina; Naeole, Chrystie K; Borris, Robert; Johnston, Edward; Konanui, Jerry; Turner, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, a National Science Foundation project in Hawai`i assembled a collaboration of Pacific indigenous scientists, Hawaiian cultural practitioners and scientists trained in Western pharmacology. The objective of the collaborative project was to study Kava, a culturally significant Pacific beverage, and to address and ultimately transcend, long-standing barriers to communication and collaboration between these groups. Kava is a product of the `awa plant (Piper methysticum) that has been used ceremonially and medicinally throughout the history of Pacific Island cultures, and is now in widespread recreational and nutraceutical use in the US. This project, culminating in 2015, has enriched the participants, led to published work that integrates cultural and Western pharmacologic perspectives and established a paradigm for collaboration. This review paper integrates cultural and Western perspectives on efficacy, toxicity and the future cultural and commercial significance of `awa in the Pacific. Here we present a detailed review of traditional and non-traditional kava usage, medicinal efficacy and potential toxicological concerns. Recent mechanistic data on physiological action and potential pathological reactions are evaluated and interpreted.

  4. Phytotoxicity of sarmentine isolated from long pepper (Piper longum) fruit.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huazhang; Morgan, Christy M; Asolkar, Ratnakar N; Koivunen, Marja E; Marrone, Pamela G

    2010-09-22

    Discovery of novel natural herbicides has become crucial to overcome increasing weed resistance and environmental issues. In this article, we describe the finding that a methanol extract of dry long pepper (Piper longum L.) fruits is phytotoxic to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings. The bioassay-guided fractionation and purification of the crude extract led to isolation of sarmentine (1), a known compound, as the active principle. Phytotoxicity of 1 was examined with a variety of seedlings of field crops and weeds. Results indicated that 1 was a contact herbicide and possessed broad-spectrum herbicidal activity. Moreover, a series of sarmentine analogues were then synthesized to study the structure-activity relationship (SAR). SAR studies suggested that phytotoxicity of sarmentine and its analogues was specific due to chemical structures, i.e., the analogues of the acid moiety of 1 were active, but the amine and its analogues were inactive; the ester analogues and amide analogues with a primary amine of 1 were also inactive. In addition, quantification of 1 from different resources of the dry P. longum fruits using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed a wide variation, ranging from almost zero to 0.57%. This study suggests that 1 has potential as an active lead molecule for synthesized herbicides as well as for bioherbicides derived from natural resources. PMID:20839888

  5. The developmental basis of an evolutionary diversification of female gametophyte structure in Piper and Piperaceae

    PubMed Central

    Madrid, Eric N.; Friedman, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Fritillaria-type female gametophyte development is a complex, yet homoplasious developmental pattern that is interesting from both evolutionary and developmental perspectives. Piper (Piperaceae) was chosen for this study of Fritillaria-type female gametophyte development because Piperales represent a ‘hotspot’ of female gametophyte developmental evolution and have been the subject of several recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. This wealth of phylogenetic and descriptive data make Piper an excellent candidate for inferring the evolutionary developmental basis for the origin of Fritillaria-type female gametophytes. Methods Developing ovules of Piper peltatum were taken from greenhouse collections, embedded in glycol methacrylate, and serially sectioned. Light microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy were combined to produce three-dimensional computer reconstructions of developing female gametophytes. The ploidies of the developing embryos and endosperms were calculated using microspectrofluorometry. Key Results The data describe female gametophyte development in Piper with highly detailed three-dimensional models, and document two previously unknown arrangements of megaspore nuclei during early development. Also collected were microspectrofluorometric data that indicate that Fritillaria-type female gametophyte development in Piper results in pentaploid endosperm. Conclusions The three-dimensional models resolve previous ambiguities in developmental interpretations of Fritillaria-type female gametophytes in Piper. The newly discovered arrangements of megaspore nuclei that are described allow for the construction of explicit hypotheses of female gametophyte developmental evolution within Piperaceae, and more broadly throughout Piperales. These detailed hypotheses indicate that the common ancestor of Piperaceae minus Verhuellia had a Drusa-type female gametophyte, and that evolutionary transitions to derived tetrasporic female

  6. Lifting the Curse of the Roman: Quintus Horatius Flaccus Meets the Pied Piper of Hamelin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, William

    There are many similarities between Robert Browning's "The Pied Piper of Hamelin" and Lewis Carroll's "Alice in Wonderland" that are seldom noted by literary critics. Both works were begun for the amusement of specific children, both employ a strange subterranean journey as a central device, and both are works of nonsense insofar as nonsense is…

  7. 5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 145 mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bolometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

  8. 5,120 Superconducting Bolometers for the PIPER Balloon-Borne CMB Polarization Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Chuss, David T.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Jethava, Nikhil S.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kogut, Alan J.; Miller, Timothy M.; Mirel, Paul; Moseley, S. Harvey; Rostem, Karwan; Sharp, Elmer H.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Stiehl, gregory M.; Voellmer, George M.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We are constructing the Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) to measure the polarization o[ the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and search for the imprint of gravity waves produced during an inflationary epoch in the early universe. The signal is faint and lies behind confusing foregrounds, both astrophysical and cosmological, and so many detectors are required to complete the measurement in a limited time. We will use four of our matured 1,280 pixel, high-filling-factor backshort-under-grid bolometer arrays for efficient operation at the PIPER CMB wavelengths. All four arrays observe at a common wavelength set by passband filters in the optical path. PIPER will fly four times to observe at wavelengths of 1500, 1100, 850, and 500 microns in order to separate CMB from foreground emission. The arrays employ leg-isolated superconducting transition edge sensor bolometers operated at 128mK; tuned resonant backshorts for efficient optical coupling; and a second-generation superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer readout. We describe the design, development, and performance of PIPER bo|ometer array technology to achieve background-limited sensitivity for a cryogenic balloon-borne telescope.

  9. Use of a Robotic Sampler (PIPER) for Evaluation of Particulate Matter Exposure and Eczema in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lokesh; Mainelis, Gediminas; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Shalat, Stuart L

    2016-02-19

    While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority of their time indoors, relatively little research has focused on correlated non-respiratory conditions. This study examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM) exposures in preschool age children and major correlates of asthma, such as wheeze and eczema. Air sampling was carried out using a robotic (PIPER) child-sampling surrogate. This study enrolled 128 participants, 57 male and 71 female children. Ages ranged from 3 to 58 months with the mean age of 29.3 months. A comparison of subjects with and without eczema showed a difference in the natural log (ln) of PM collected from the PIPER air sampling (p = 0.049). PIPER's sampling observed an association between the ln PM concentrations and eczema, but not an association with wheezing history in pre-school children. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the role of the microenvironment in mediating atopic dermatitis, which is one of the predictors of persistent asthma. Our findings also support the use of PIPER in its ability to model and sample the microenvironment of young children.

  10. BEARDSLEY AND PIPER (B&P) CORE BLOWING MACHINE. VIRGINIA BLAKELY MANUALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEARDSLEY AND PIPER (B&P) CORE BLOWING MACHINE. VIRGINIA BLAKELY MANUALLY FILLING SAND MAGAZINE THAT WILL ROTATE WITH THE CORE BOX, FILLING IT UNDER PRESSURE SIMILAR TO THE CORE MACHINE IN THE BACKGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  11. A new natural product and insecticidal amides from seeds of Piper nigrum Linn.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Gulzar, Tahsin; Begum, Sabira; Afshan, Farhana; Sultana, Razia

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the petroleum ether soluble and insoluble fraction of ethanol extract of dried ground seeds of Piper nigrum resulted in the isolation and structure elucidation of 1 new and 11 known compounds which include 3 hitherto unreported constituents, namely, cinnamylideneacetone, 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylpropiophenone and 2-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxypropiophenone from this plant.

  12. Antispermatogenic and antifertility effects of fruits of Piper nigrum L. in mice.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Raghav Kumar; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2009-09-01

    Effect of oral administration (25 and 100 mg/kg body wt/day, for 20 and 90 days) of fruit powder of Piper nigrum L. on the male reproductive organs of mice, Parkes strain, was investigated. Various reproductive end points such as organs weight, histopathology, sperm parameters, sialic acid and fructose contents, and fertility indices were assessed. Histologically, testes in treated mice, except in those treated with 100 mg of dose for 90 days, showed non-uniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules, as both affected and normal tubules were observed in the same section. In mice treated with 100 mg dose for 90 days, degenerative changes were observed in all the tubules. Affected seminiferous tubules showed intraepithelial vacuolation, loosening of germinal epithelium, occurrence of giant cells, and mixing of spermatids of different stages of spermatogenesis; in severe cases, the tubules were lined by mainly a layer of Sertoli cells. Percentage of affected tubules in testes of Piper-treated mice was dose-and duration-related. Further, Piper nigrum treatment for 20 days did not cause appreciable alterations in histological appearance of the epididymis, while the treatment for 90 days caused detectable alterations in the duct. The treatment also had adverse effects on sperm parameters, levels of sialic acid and fructose, and on litter size. Fifty six days after cessation of treatment, the alterations induced in the reproductive organs recovered to control levels, though the litter size in females impregnated by Piper-treated males remained significantly decreased compared to controls.

  13. Potential use of Piper nigrum ethanol extract against pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Simas, Naomi Kato; Lima, Elisangela da Costa; Kuster, Ricardo Machado; Lage, Celso Luiz Salgueiro; de Oliveira Filho, Alfredo Martins

    2007-01-01

    Fractionation of Piper nigrum ethanol extract, biomonitored by assays on pyrethroid-resistant Aedes aegypti larvae yielded isolation of the larvicidal amides piperolein-A and piperine. Comparing LC50 values, the ethanol extract (0.98 ppm) was the most toxic, followed by piperolein-A (1.46 ppm) and piperine (1.53 ppm).

  14. Piper and Vismia species from Colombian Amazonia differentially affect cell proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lizcano, Leandro J; Siles, Maite; Trepiana, Jenifer; Hernández, M Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest to identify plant-derived natural products with antitumor activities. In this work, we have studied the effects of aqueous leaf extracts from Amazonian Vismia and Piper species on human hepatocarcinoma cell toxicity. Results showed that, depending on the cell type, the plants displayed differential effects; thus, Vismia baccifera induced the selective killing of HepG2, while increasing cell growth of PLC-PRF and SK-HEP-1. In contrast, these two last cell lines were sensitive to the toxicity by Piper krukoffii and Piper putumayoense, while the Piperaceae did not affect HepG2 growth. All the extracts induced cytotoxicity to rat hepatoma McA-RH7777, but were innocuous (V. baccifera at concentrations < 75 µg/mL) or even protected cells from basal death (P. putumayoense) in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. In every case, cytotoxicity was accompanied by an intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These results provide evidence for the anticancer activities of the studied plants on specific cell lines and suggest that cell killing could be mediated by ROS, thus involving mechanisms independent of the plants free radical scavenging activities. Results also support the use of these extracts of the Vismia and Piper genera with opposite effects as a model system to study the mechanisms of the antitumoral activity against different types of hepatocarcinoma. PMID:25558904

  15. Benzoic acid derivatives from Piper species and their fungitoxic activity against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum.

    PubMed

    Lago, João Henrique G; Ramos, Clécio Sousa; Casanova, Diego Campos C; Morandim, Andreia de A; Bergamo, Debora Cristina B; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S; Furlan, Maysa; Guimarães, Elsie F; Young, Maria Claudia M; Kato, Massuo J

    2004-11-01

    Piper crassinervium, P. aduncum, P. hostmannianum, and P. gaudichaudianum contain the new benzoic acid derivatives crassinervic acid (1), aduncumene (8), hostmaniane (18), and gaudichaudianic acid (20), respectively, as major secondary metabolites. Additionally, 19 known compounds such as benzoic acids, chromenes, and flavonoids were isolated and identified. The antifungal activity of these compounds was evaluated by bioautographic TLC assay against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum.

  16. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-(2E,4E)-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in ...

  17. Use of a Robotic Sampler (PIPER) for Evaluation of Particulate Matter Exposure and Eczema in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Lokesh; Mainelis, Gediminas; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Shalat, Stuart L

    2016-02-01

    While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority of their time indoors, relatively little research has focused on correlated non-respiratory conditions. This study examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM) exposures in preschool age children and major correlates of asthma, such as wheeze and eczema. Air sampling was carried out using a robotic (PIPER) child-sampling surrogate. This study enrolled 128 participants, 57 male and 71 female children. Ages ranged from 3 to 58 months with the mean age of 29.3 months. A comparison of subjects with and without eczema showed a difference in the natural log (ln) of PM collected from the PIPER air sampling (p = 0.049). PIPER's sampling observed an association between the ln PM concentrations and eczema, but not an association with wheezing history in pre-school children. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the role of the microenvironment in mediating atopic dermatitis, which is one of the predictors of persistent asthma. Our findings also support the use of PIPER in its ability to model and sample the microenvironment of young children. PMID:26907317

  18. Improved Exposure Characterization with Robotic (PIPER) Sampling and Association with Children's Respiratory Symptoms, Asthma and Eczema

    PubMed Central

    Ramagopal, Maya; Wang, Zuocheng; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Stambler, Adam A; Emoekpere, Osiloke H.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Shalat, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives Particulate matter (PM) and its constituents are recognized risk factors for the development of respiratory symptoms and illness in children. Most measurements of exposure have relied upon stationary indoor monitors (SIMs), overlooking the role of resuspended PM. To improve exposure characterization to resuspended aerosol particulate matter a recently developed methodology has been employed. The goal of this study is to characterize the resuspendable fraction of house dust and early childhood exposures to PM and its constituents in the child's home and compare conventional SIM and the Pre-toddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER), an innovative mobile sampler. The study seeks to demonstrate that PIPER provides a more relevant estimate of exposure from inhalable particulate through improved correlation with respiratory symptoms in young children. Methods Seventy-five households with children between 3-59 months of age were recruited from clinics in central New Jersey. Demographic information and a health questionnaire based upon that used by the International Study of Allergies and Asthma in Childhood (ISAAC) and household data were collected. Household exposures to inhalable PM (PM100) and endotoxin were determined with simultaneous SIM and mobile (PIPER) sampling. Results Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. History of wheeze [’recent’ (<1 year) and ’ever’], cough, asthma, and eczema were evaluated. Multivariate analysis models included PM100 and endotoxin levels by tertiles of exposure. Risk of asthma for the highest tertile of PM100, as measured by PIPER (Odds Ratio = 4.2; 95% Confidence Interval 0.7 – 24.0) was compared to measurements by SIM (Odds Ratio = 0.7; 95% Confidence Interval 0.2 – 2.6). Conclusions Measurement of PM and its constituents with PIPER are more strongly associated with asthma, eczema and wheeze than measurements using SIMs. Application of this methodology may provide

  19. HybPiper: Extracting coding sequence and introns for phylogenetics from high-throughput sequencing reads using target enrichment1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew G.; Gardner, Elliot M.; Liu, Yang; Medina, Rafael; Goffinet, Bernard; Shaw, A. Jonathan; Zerega, Nyree J. C.; Wickett, Norman J.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Using sequence data generated via target enrichment for phylogenetics requires reassembly of high-throughput sequence reads into loci, presenting a number of bioinformatics challenges. We developed HybPiper as a user-friendly platform for assembly of gene regions, extraction of exon and intron sequences, and identification of paralogous gene copies. We test HybPiper using baits designed to target 333 phylogenetic markers and 125 genes of functional significance in Artocarpus (Moraceae). Methods and Results: HybPiper implements parallel execution of sequence assembly in three phases: read mapping, contig assembly, and target sequence extraction. The pipeline was able to recover nearly complete gene sequences for all genes in 22 species of Artocarpus. HybPiper also recovered more than 500 bp of nontargeted intron sequence in over half of the phylogenetic markers and identified paralogous gene copies in Artocarpus. Conclusions: HybPiper was designed for Linux and Mac OS X and is freely available at https://github.com/mossmatters/HybPiper. PMID:27437175

  20. To leave or not to leave.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James

    2016-06-22

    Lies, damned lies and Brexit statistics. It's not been a good month for anyone espousing evidence-based policy and politics after the chair of the Commons health committee switched from Leave to Remain, citing misuse of data by the Leave campaign. PMID:27332589

  1. Protocols for Improvement of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Utilizing Biotechnological Tools.

    PubMed

    Nirmal Babu, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Yamuna, G; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Black pepper, Piper nigrum L., the "King of spices" is the most widely used spice growing in the South-Western region of India. The humid tropical evergreen forest bordering the Malabar Coast (Western Ghats is one of the hot spot areas of plant bio-diversity on earth) is its center of origin and diversity. However, the crop faces constraints like rampant fungal and viral diseases, lack of disease free planting material, hence biotechnological tools can be utilized to address these problems and strides have been made successfully. The standardization of micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, in vitro conservation, protoplast isolation, and genetic transformation protocols are described here. The protocols could be utilized to achieve similar goals in the related species of Piper too.

  2. Influence of temperature on symptom expression, detection of host factors in virus infected Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, P; Bhat, A I; Krishnamurthy, K S; Anandaraj, M

    2016-05-01

    Expression of symptoms in black pepper plants (Piper nigrum) infected with Piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV) vary depending on the season, being high during summer months. Here, we explored the influence of temperature on symptom expression in PYMoV infected P. nigrum. Our controlled environment study revealed increase in virus titer, total proteins, IAA and reducing sugars when exposed to temperature stress. There was change in the 2-D separated protein before and after exposure. The 2-D proteomics LC-MS identified host and viral proteins suggesting virus-host interaction during symptom expression. The analysis as well as detection of host biochemical compounds may help in understanding the detailed mechanisms underlying the viral replication and damage to the crop, and thereby plan management strategies.

  3. Protocols for Improvement of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Utilizing Biotechnological Tools.

    PubMed

    Nirmal Babu, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Yamuna, G; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Black pepper, Piper nigrum L., the "King of spices" is the most widely used spice growing in the South-Western region of India. The humid tropical evergreen forest bordering the Malabar Coast (Western Ghats is one of the hot spot areas of plant bio-diversity on earth) is its center of origin and diversity. However, the crop faces constraints like rampant fungal and viral diseases, lack of disease free planting material, hence biotechnological tools can be utilized to address these problems and strides have been made successfully. The standardization of micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, in vitro conservation, protoplast isolation, and genetic transformation protocols are described here. The protocols could be utilized to achieve similar goals in the related species of Piper too. PMID:27108331

  4. Influence of temperature on symptom expression, detection of host factors in virus infected Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Umadevi, P; Bhat, A I; Krishnamurthy, K S; Anandaraj, M

    2016-05-01

    Expression of symptoms in black pepper plants (Piper nigrum) infected with Piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV) vary depending on the season, being high during summer months. Here, we explored the influence of temperature on symptom expression in PYMoV infected P. nigrum. Our controlled environment study revealed increase in virus titer, total proteins, IAA and reducing sugars when exposed to temperature stress. There was change in the 2-D separated protein before and after exposure. The 2-D proteomics LC-MS identified host and viral proteins suggesting virus-host interaction during symptom expression. The analysis as well as detection of host biochemical compounds may help in understanding the detailed mechanisms underlying the viral replication and damage to the crop, and thereby plan management strategies. PMID:27319055

  5. Antiamoebic activity of Piper longum fruits against Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, S; Prasad, B N; Lakshmi, V

    1996-03-01

    The fruits of Piper longum used in traditional remedies against intestinal distress have been tested for their efficacy against experimental caecal amoebiasis of rats. The ethanolic extract, hexane fraction, n-butanol soluble fraction exerted in vitro amoebicidal action at 1000 micrograms/mL and the chloroform fraction at 500 micrograms/mL. The ethanolic extract and piperine, a pure compound, from this plant material cured 90% and 40% of rats with caecal amoebiasis, respectively.

  6. Essential oil composition of Piper guineense and its antimicrobial activity. Another chemotype from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyedeji, O A; Adeniyi, B A; Ajayi, O; König, W A

    2005-04-01

    The analysis of the essential oil of Piper guineense from Nigeria presents a new chemotype of constituents different from earlier reports with the absence of the usual myristicin. Ishwarane, a common constituent of Aristolochia indica and Bixa orellana, was also isolated from the essential oil of the fruit. The essential oil inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa UCH 655 strain at 5 mg/mL on which standard antibiotic drugs were ineffective. PMID:16041738

  7. Use of a Robotic Sampler (PIPER) for Evaluation of Particulate Matter Exposure and Eczema in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Lokesh; Mainelis, Gediminas; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Shalat, Stuart L.

    2016-01-01

    While the association of eczema with asthma is well recognized, little research has focused on the potential role of inhalable exposures and eczema. While indoor air quality is important in the development of respiratory disease as children in the U.S. spend the majority of their time indoors, relatively little research has focused on correlated non-respiratory conditions. This study examined the relationship between particulate matter (PM) exposures in preschool age children and major correlates of asthma, such as wheeze and eczema. Air sampling was carried out using a robotic (PIPER) child-sampling surrogate. This study enrolled 128 participants, 57 male and 71 female children. Ages ranged from 3 to 58 months with the mean age of 29.3 months. A comparison of subjects with and without eczema showed a difference in the natural log (ln) of PM collected from the PIPER air sampling (p = 0.049). PIPER’s sampling observed an association between the ln PM concentrations and eczema, but not an association with wheezing history in pre-school children. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis of the role of the microenvironment in mediating atopic dermatitis, which is one of the predictors of persistent asthma. Our findings also support the use of PIPER in its ability to model and sample the microenvironment of young children. PMID:26907317

  8. Problematising Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Alistair; Leathwood, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Early school leaving has been identified as a key policy priority across Europe. In this article, we critically discuss the underpinning assumptions and rationale for this policy focus, challenging the association that is made between early school leaving, economic growth and employment. We suggest that ESL is important, not because it is…

  9. Effect of the hexane extract of Piper auritum on insulin release from β-cell and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Perez

    2012-01-01

    Background: The large-leafed perennial plant Piper auritum known as Hoja Santa, is used for its leaves that because of their spicy aromatic scent and flavor have an important presence in Mexican cuisine, and in many regions, this plant is known for its therapeutic properties. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we investigated the effect of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from Piper auritum on cell culture system and the effect in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats treated by 28 days on the physiological, metabolic parameters and oxidative stress. Results: The hexane extract of P. auritum (HS) treatment significantly reduced the intake of both food, water and body weight loss as well as levels of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, triglycerides and increase HDL-cholesterol. After 4-week administration of HS antioxidant enzyme as SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx in pancreas were determined. These enzyme increased significantly compared with those of the diabetic rats control and normal animals. For all estimated, the results of HS treated groups leading to a restoration of the defense mechanism. The treatment also improves pancreatic TBARS–reactive substance level and serum NO and iNOS. To determine the insulin releasing activity, after extract treatment the serum and pancreatic sections were processed for examination of insulin-releasing activity using an immunocytochemistry kit. The results showed that administration of the hexane extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) exhibited a significant increase in serum and pancreas tissue insulin. Administration of streptozotocin decreased the insulin secretory activity in comparison with intact rats, but treatment with the HS extract increased significantly the activity of the beta cells in comparison with the diabetic control rats. The extract decreased serum glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and increased insulin release from the beta cells of the pancreas. In cultured RIN-5F cells, we examined whether

  10. Piperine production by endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Chithra, S; Jasim, B; Sachidanandan, P; Jyothis, M; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2014-03-15

    Many endophytic fungi have been reported with the biosynthetic potential to produce same or similar metabolites present in host plants. The adaptations that might have acquired by these fungi as a result of the long-term association with their host plants can be the possible basis of their biosynthetic potential. The bioactive compounds originated from endophytes are currently explored for their potential applications in pharmaceutical, agriculture and food industries. Piper nigrum, a plant of the Piperaceae is very remarkable because of the presence of the alkaloid piperine. Piperine has been reported to have broad bioactive properties ranging from antimicrobial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative to anticancer activities. Interestingly, piperine also plays a vital role in increasing the bioavailability of many drugs which again is a promising property. The current study was carried out to identify piperine producing endophytic fungus from Piper nigrum L. By screening various endophytic fungi, the isolate which was identified as member of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was found to have the ability to form piperine and was confirmed by HPLC and LCMS. Considering the broad bioactive potential of piperine, the piperine producing fungi identified in the study can expect to have much industrial potential.

  11. Piper rhythm in the activation of the gastrocnemius medialis during running.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Lisa M; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Kugler, Patrick; Nigg, Benno M

    2011-02-01

    The presence of temporal rhythmicity in electromyographic (EMG) signals at frequencies of 35-60 Hz was initially noted by Piper (1907). This modulation and synchronization of motor unit activity is generally accepted to represent a centrally generated coding of motor commands. The purpose of this study was to resolve and quantify the Piper rhythm in the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle during running. EMG was recorded from the GM of 14 female runners during 1-h treadmill runs. The average wavelet transform was computed for EMG from series of steps taken at 2 min intervals throughout the run. The total intensity across three wavelets (center frequencies: 170, 218 and 271 Hz) was computed and a histogram indicating the incidence peaks in this signal was generated for each subject. In order to rule out effects of the analysis process, the process was repeated using simulated EMG data. Autocorrelations of the histograms were used to extract the frequency of the peaks resulting in rhythmicity at 25-55 Hz. The ability to measure superimposed rhythmicity in EMG signals during dynamic tasks allows investigation of the role of aspects of central drive during movement. In particular, the changes in central control during dynamic activities can be examined with this approach.

  12. Does Oral Ingestion of Piper sarmentosum Cause Toxicity in Experimental Animals?

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Zaiton; Megat Mohd Nordin, Nor Anita; Othman, Faizah

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportion in Malaysia and worldwide. Scientific studies have shown that herbal plant Piper sarmentosum exhibits an antidiabetic property. Despite the extensive usage and studies of this herb as alternative medicine, there is paucity of the literature on the safety information of this plant. Thus, the present study aimed to observe the subacute toxic effects of Piper sarmentosum aqueous extract (PSAE) on the haematological profile, liver, and kidney in rats. The extract was administered by oral gavage to 6 male and female Sprague Dawley rats in daily dose of 50 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg for 28 consecutive days. The control group received normal saline. General behavior of the rats, adverse effects, and mortality were observed for 28 days. The haematological and biochemical parameters were determined at baseline and after the treatment. PSAE did not show abnormality on the body weight and gross observation of internal organs. The haematological, biochemical and histopathological profiles showed minimal changes and variation within normal clinical range except for significant increase in serum potassium level that suggests the need of regular monitoring. Nevertheless, these findings suggested that PSAE up to 2000 mg/kg/day did not show subacute toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:24228062

  13. "A New Kind of Rule": The Subversive Narrator in "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" and "The Pied Piper of Hamelin."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, William

    1986-01-01

    Compares "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" to "The Pied Piper of Hamelin," noting that both: (1) were begun for the amusement of specific children; (2) use a subterranean journey as a device; (3) are critical of social authority; and (4) have problematic endings. (SRT)

  14. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  15. Histological Changes in the Fracture Callus Following the Administration of Water Extract of Piper Sarmentosum (Daun Kadok) in Estrogen-Deficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Estai, Mohamed Abdalla; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Das, Srijit; Ali, Aishah Mohd; Suhaimi, Farihah Hj

    2011-01-01

    Background: The fracture healing is impaired in osteoporosis. Piper sarmentosum is a plant, which contains potent antioxidant, naringenin that may enhance fracture healing. The present histological study aimed to determine the effects of water extract of Piper sarmentosum on the late phase of fracture healing in estrogen-deficient rats. Methods: Twenty four female Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 gm) were obtained. Six rats underwent sham operation and the rest were ovariectomized. Six weeks post-ovariectomy all the rats were fractured at the mid-diaphysis of the right femur and a K-wire was inserted for internal fixation. The sham group was given vehicle (normal saline) and the ovariectomized group was randomly subdivided into three groups: (i) ovariectomized-control group supplemented with vehicle; (ii) ovariectomized+estrogen replacement therapy group treated with estrogen (100 µg/kg/day) and (iii) ovariectomized+Piper sarmentosum group treated with Piper sarmentosum water extract (125 mg/kg). Following six weeks of treatment, the rats were sacrificed and the right femora were harvested for histological assessment of fracture callus. Results: The ovariectomized-control group showed a significant delay in fracture healing compared to the sham, ovariectomized-estrogen replacement therapy and ovariectomized-Piper sarmentosum groups. The median callus score for the ovariectomized-Piper sarmentosum group was 4.50 (range, 4-5), which was significantly higher than the median callus score 3.50 (range, 3-4) for the ovariectomized-control group (P=0.019). However, there was no significant (P>0.05) difference in the callus score among the sham, ovariectomized-estrogen replacement therapy and ovariectomized-Piper sarmentosum groups groups. Conclusion: Treatment with water extract of Piper sarmentosum proved beneficial in the fracture healing in estrogen-deficient rats. PMID:23115413

  16. Rapid detection of Piper yellow mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus infecting black pepper (Piper nigrum) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    PubMed

    Bhat, A I; Siljo, A; Deeshma, K P

    2013-10-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Piper yellow mottle virus and the reverse transcription (RT) LAMP assay for Cucumber mosaic virus each consisted of a set of five primers designed against the conserved sequences in the viral genome. Both RNA and DNA isolated from black pepper were used as a template for the assay. The results were assessed visually by checking turbidity, green fluorescence and pellet formation in the reaction tube and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected both viruses in infected plants whereas no cross-reactions were recorded with healthy plants. Optimum conditions for successful amplification were determined in terms of the concentrations of magnesium sulphate and betaine, temperature, and duration. The detection limit for both LAMP and RT-LAMP was up to 100 times that for conventional PCR and up to one-hundredth of that for real-time PCR. The optimal conditions arrived at were validated by testing field samples of infected vines of three species from different regions.

  17. A piperidine amide extracted from Piper longum L. fruit shows activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Young-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Guei; Lee, Hee-Kwon; Kim, Moo-Key; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2002-06-19

    Mosquito larvicidal activity of Piper longum fruit-derived materials against the fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti was examined. A crude methanol extract of P. longum fruits was found to be active against the larvae, and the hexane fraction of the methanol extract showed a strong larvicidal activity of 100% mortality. The biologically active component of P. longum fruits was characterized as pipernonaline by spectroscopic analyses. The LC(50) value of pipernonaline was 0.25 mg/L. The toxicity of pipernonaline is comparable to that of pirimiphos-methyl as a mosquito larvicide. In tests with available components derived from P. longum, no activity was observed with piperettine, piperine, or piperlongumine.

  18. Gene expression profiles of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to an insecticidal extract of Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helen R; Scott, Ian M; Sims, Steve; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John Thor

    2006-02-22

    Black pepper, Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae), has insecticidal properties and could potentially be utilized as an alternative to synthetic insecticides. Piperine extracted from P. nigrum has a biphasic effect upon cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity with an initial suppression followed by induction. In this study, an ethyl acetate extract of P. nigrum seeds was tested for insecticidal activity toward adult Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster. The effect of this same P. nigrum extract upon differential gene expression in D. melanogaster was investigated using cDNA microarray analysis of 7380 genes. Treatment of D. melanogaster with P. nigrum extract led to a greater than 2-fold upregulation of transcription of the cytochrome P450 phase I metabolism genes Cyp 6a8, Cyp 9b2, and Cyp 12d1 as well as the glutathione-S-transferase phase II metabolism gene Gst-S1. These data suggests a complex effect of P. nigrum upon toxin metabolism.

  19. Analysis of the blackening of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100°C than at 90 and 80°C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100°C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study.

  20. A rapid method for isolation of piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum Linn.

    PubMed

    Kanaki, Niranjan; Dave, Mansi; Padh, Harish; Rajani, Mandapati

    2008-07-01

    A simple, rapid and efficient method has been developed for the isolation of piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum. The method involves extraction of the fruit powder with glacial acetic acid, from which piperine is partitioned into chloroform and subsequently crystallized. The identity of the compound was confirmed by its melting point, comparison of UV, IR, and mass spectral data with those from a reference standard, and co-chromatography with the reference standard using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The purity of the compound was ascertained by TLC, by recording UV absorption spectra at the start, middle, and end positions of the spot on the plate, and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  1. Protective effects of Piper nigrum and Vinca rosea in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kaleem, M; Sheema; Sarmad, H; Bano, B

    2005-01-01

    In the present study aqueous extract of Piper nigrum seeds and Vinca rosea flowers were administered orally to alloxan induced diabetic rats once a day for 4 weeks. These treatments lead to significant lowering of blood sugar level and reduction in serum lipids. The levels of antioxidant enzymes, catalase and glutathione peroxidase decreased in alloxan induced diabetic rats however these levels returned to normal in insulin, P. nigrum and V. rosea treated rats. There was no significant difference in superoxide dismutase activity in all groups compared to controls. Lipid peroxidation levels were significantly higher in diabetic rats and it was slightly increased in insulin, P. nigrum and V. rosea treated rats as compared to control rat. These results suggest that oxidative stress plays a key role in diabetes, and treatment with P. nigrum and V. rosea are useful in controlling not only the glucose and lipid levels but these components may also be helpful in strengthening the antioxidants potential.

  2. Astronauts Stefanyshyn-Piper, Lindsey and Currie greet First Lady Hillary Clinton at the Skid Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton is greeted by Astronauts (from left) Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, Steven W. Lindsey, and Nancy Jane Currie upon Mrs. Clinton's arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station. She and her daughter, Chelsea (far right) are here to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS- 93, scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  3. Astronauts Stefanyshyn-Piper, Lindsey and Currie greet First Lady Hillary Clinton at the Skid Strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton is greeted by Astronaut Nancy Jane Currie upon Mrs. Clinton's arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station. Waiting at left are Astronauts Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper and Steven W. Lindsey. Mrs. Clinton and her daughter, Chelsea (far right) are here to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93, scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five- day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X- ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  4. ACAT inhibition of alkamides identified in the fruits of Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Rho, Mun-Chual; Lee, Seung Woong; Park, Hye Ran; Choi, Jung-Ho; Kang, Ji Yun; Kim, Koanhoi; Lee, Hyun Sun; Kim, Young Kook

    2007-03-01

    In this study, via a bioactivity-guided fractionation of MeOH extracts of the fruits of Piper nigrum, alkamide (5) and five previously-identified alkamides were isolated. Their structures were elucidated via spectroscopic analysis ((1)H, (13)C NMR and ESI-MS), as follows: retrofractamide A (1), pipercide (2), piperchabamide D (3), pellitorin (4), dehydroretrofractamide C (5) and dehydropipernonaline (6). The IC(50) values determined for the compounds were 24.5 (1), 3.7 (2), 13.5 (3), 40.5 (4), 60 (5) and 90 microM (6), according to the results of an ACAT enzyme assay system using rat liver microsomes. These compounds all inhibited cholesterol esterification in HepG2 cells.

  5. Isolation and characterization of nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in Piper solmsianum (piperaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Nídia C.; Lima, Paula F.; Priolli, Regina H. G.; Kato, Massuo J.; Colombo, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Nine microsatellite (simple sequence repeat [SSR]) loci were characterized for natural populations of Piper solmsianum, a potential source of bioactive secondary metabolites, and analyzed to assess the levels of genetic diversity in this species. • Methods and Results: Based on an enriched library using the oligonucleotides (CT)8 and (GT)8, a total of 19 pairs of SSR primers were designed and nine of them were highly polymorphic after screening of 37 specimens from two populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to six while the observed heterozygosity for polymorphic loci ranged from 0.000 to 0.875. • Conclusions: The SSR regions characterized were informative, and the genetic markers will be useful to assess the genetic diversity and gene flow in populations of P. solmsianum. PMID:25202616

  6. Trade-offs in antiherbivore defenses in Piper cenocladum: ant mutualists versus plant secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Dyer, L A; Dodson, C D; Beihoffer, J; Letourneau, D K

    2001-03-01

    Ant-plant mutualisms may provide indirect evidence for costs of antiherbivore defenses when plants demonstrate trade-offs between allocating resources and energy into ant attractants versus chemical defenses. We tested the hypothesis that ecological trade-offs in defenses are present in Piper cenocladum. This plant possesses two distinct defenses: food bodies that attract predatory ants that destroy herbivore eggs and amides that deter herbivores. Previous studies have demonstrated that the food bodies in P. cenocladum are an effective defense because the ants deter herbivory by specialist herbivores. Amides in other Piper species have been shown to have toxic qualities, but we tested the additional hypothesis that these amides have an actual defensive function in P. cenocladum. To test for ecological trade-offs between the two putative defenses, fragments of P. cenocladum were examined for the presence of amides both when the plant was producing food bodies and when it was not producing food bodies. Plants with active ant colonies had redundant defenses, producing food bodies and high levels of amides at the same time, but we detected a trade-off in that they had significantly lower levels of amides than did plants with no ants. To test for the defensive value of P. cenocladum amides, we used an ant bioassay and we examined herbivory results from previous experiments with plants that had variable levels of amides. These tests demonstrated that amides are deterrent to omnivorous ants, leaf cutting ants, and orthopterans. In contrast, the resident Pheidole bicornis ants are effective at deterring herbivory by specialist herbivores that oviposit eggs on the plant but not at deterring herbivory by nonresident omnivores. We concluded that although both amides and food body production appear to be costly, redundancy in defenses is necessary to avoid damage by a complex suit of herbivores.

  7. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the leaves (leaf blade) of the rhubarb plant. The stalk can be eaten. ... may include: Breathing difficulty Burning in the mouth Burning in the throat Coma Diarrhea Eye pain Kidney stones Nausea and vomiting Red-colored urine Seizures Stomach pain Weakness

  8. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  9. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  10. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2011-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed. PMID:21603074

  11. Physiological and biochemical effects of botanical extract from Piper nigrum Linn (Piperaceae) against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Lija-Escaline, Jalasteen; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Edwin, Edward Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    The leaves of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) were evaluated for chemical constituents and mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti. GC and GC-MS analyses revealed that the crude extracts contain 16 compounds. Thymol (20.77%) and ç-elemene (10.42%) were identified as the major constituents followed by cyclohexene, 4-ethenyl-4-methyl-3-(1-methylethenyl)-1-(1 methylethyl)-, (3R-trans) (7.58%), 4,6-octadienoic acid, 2-acetyl-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (6.98), 2(3H)-furanone, 3,4-bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl) dihydro-, (3R-trans) (6.95%), 1-naphthalenol, 1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-, [1R-(1à,4á,4aá,8aá)]-(Cedreanol) (5.30%), trans-2-undecen-1-ol (4.48%), phytol (4.22%), 1,6-cyclodecadiene, 1-methyl-5-methylene-8-(1-methylethyl)-,[s-(E,E)] (3.78%) and 2,6-dimethyl-3,5,7-octatriene-2-ol, Z,Z (2.39%). Larval mortality was observed after 3 h of exposure period. The crude extract showed remarkable larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 34.97). The larvae of Ae. aegypti exposed to the P. nigrum, significantly reduced the activities of α- and β-carboxylesterases and superdioxide. Further, P. nigrum extract was severely affecting the mosquito gut cellular organelles. Based on the results, the chemical constituents of crude extracts of P. nigrum can be considered as a new source of larvicide for the control of Ae. aegypti.

  12. Physiological and biochemical effects of botanical extract from Piper nigrum Linn (Piperaceae) against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Lija-Escaline, Jalasteen; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Edwin, Edward Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    The leaves of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) were evaluated for chemical constituents and mosquito larvicidal activity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti. GC and GC-MS analyses revealed that the crude extracts contain 16 compounds. Thymol (20.77%) and ç-elemene (10.42%) were identified as the major constituents followed by cyclohexene, 4-ethenyl-4-methyl-3-(1-methylethenyl)-1-(1 methylethyl)-, (3R-trans) (7.58%), 4,6-octadienoic acid, 2-acetyl-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (6.98), 2(3H)-furanone, 3,4-bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl) dihydro-, (3R-trans) (6.95%), 1-naphthalenol, 1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,6-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-, [1R-(1à,4á,4aá,8aá)]-(Cedreanol) (5.30%), trans-2-undecen-1-ol (4.48%), phytol (4.22%), 1,6-cyclodecadiene, 1-methyl-5-methylene-8-(1-methylethyl)-,[s-(E,E)] (3.78%) and 2,6-dimethyl-3,5,7-octatriene-2-ol, Z,Z (2.39%). Larval mortality was observed after 3 h of exposure period. The crude extract showed remarkable larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 34.97). The larvae of Ae. aegypti exposed to the P. nigrum, significantly reduced the activities of α- and β-carboxylesterases and superdioxide. Further, P. nigrum extract was severely affecting the mosquito gut cellular organelles. Based on the results, the chemical constituents of crude extracts of P. nigrum can be considered as a new source of larvicide for the control of Ae. aegypti. PMID:26277727

  13. Development and in-home testing of the Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER Mk IV) sampler.

    PubMed

    Shalat, Stuart L; Stambler, Adam A; Wang, Zuocheng; Mainelis, Gediminas; Emoekpere, Osiloke H; Hernandez, Marta; Lioy, Paul J; Black, Kathleen

    2011-04-01

    Exposure and dose estimation are essential to understanding the etiology of environmentally linked childhood diseases. The behavior of resuspended particulate matter (PM) suggests that stationary measurements may underestimate household exposures in young children (ages 6-36 months). Because of the size and weight of the sampling equipment, use of personal samplers in this age group is either difficult or impossible. The Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER Mk IV) sampler has been developed to provide a surrogate method to ascertain personal exposures to PM for this age group. As part of a study of childhood asthma, 55 homes in central New Jersey were tested. Simultaneous sampling for inhalable PM using stationary (110 cm height) and PIPER mobile sampler were carried out. In homes with bare floors (N=21), the absolute difference was 3.9 μg/m3 (SE=3.01; p=0.217) and relative difference (PIPER/Stationary) was 1.12 (linearized SE=0.11). On carpets (N=34), the absolute difference was 54.1 μg/m3 (SE=13.50; p=0.0003), and the relative difference was 2.30 (linearized SE=0.34). The results confirm the importance of understanding the personal dust cloud caused by children's activity in a room, particularly when rugs or carpets are present.

  14. Antifungal activity and computational study of constituents from Piper divaricatum essential oil against Fusarium infection in black pepper.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Silva, José Rogério A; Nascimento, Soelange B; da Luz, Shirlley F M; Meireles, Erisléia N; Alves, Cláudio N; Ramos, Alessandra R; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2014-11-04

    Fusarium disease causes considerable losses in the cultivation of Piper nigrum, the black pepper used in the culinary world. Brazil was the largest producer of black pepper, but in recent years has lost this hegemony, with a significant reduction in its production, due to the ravages produced by the Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, the fungus which causes this disease. Scientific research seeks new alternatives for the control and the existence of other Piper species in the Brazilian Amazon, resistant to disease, are being considered in this context. The main constituents of the oil of Piper divaricatum are methyleugenol (75.0%) and eugenol (10.0%). The oil and these two main constituents were tested individually at concentrations of 0.25 to 2.5 mg/mL against F. solani f. sp. piperis, exhibiting strong antifungal index, from 18.0% to 100.0%. The 3D structure of the β-glucosidase from Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, obtained by homology modeling, was used for molecular docking and molecular electrostatic potential calculations in order to determine the binding energy of the natural substrates glucose, methyleugenol and eugenol. The results showed that β-glucosidase (Asp45, Arg113, Lys146, Tyr193, Asp225, Trp226 and Leu99) residues play an important role in the interactions that occur between the protein-substrate and the engenol and methyleugenol inhibitors, justifying the antifungal action of these two phenylpropenes against Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis.

  15. Antifungal activity and computational study of constituents from Piper divaricatum essential oil against Fusarium infection in black pepper.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Silva, José Rogério A; Nascimento, Soelange B; da Luz, Shirlley F M; Meireles, Erisléia N; Alves, Cláudio N; Ramos, Alessandra R; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium disease causes considerable losses in the cultivation of Piper nigrum, the black pepper used in the culinary world. Brazil was the largest producer of black pepper, but in recent years has lost this hegemony, with a significant reduction in its production, due to the ravages produced by the Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, the fungus which causes this disease. Scientific research seeks new alternatives for the control and the existence of other Piper species in the Brazilian Amazon, resistant to disease, are being considered in this context. The main constituents of the oil of Piper divaricatum are methyleugenol (75.0%) and eugenol (10.0%). The oil and these two main constituents were tested individually at concentrations of 0.25 to 2.5 mg/mL against F. solani f. sp. piperis, exhibiting strong antifungal index, from 18.0% to 100.0%. The 3D structure of the β-glucosidase from Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, obtained by homology modeling, was used for molecular docking and molecular electrostatic potential calculations in order to determine the binding energy of the natural substrates glucose, methyleugenol and eugenol. The results showed that β-glucosidase (Asp45, Arg113, Lys146, Tyr193, Asp225, Trp226 and Leu99) residues play an important role in the interactions that occur between the protein-substrate and the engenol and methyleugenol inhibitors, justifying the antifungal action of these two phenylpropenes against Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis. PMID:25375334

  16. Massey to leave NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    National Science Foundation Director Walter E. Massey has been recommended for appointment to the position of senior vice president for academic affairs and provost for the entire University of California system. The recommendation, which was announced on January 27, came from UC President Jack W. Peltason and will be acted upon by UC's Board of Regents. Massey has accepted the position, and it is expected that he will leave NSF early in February.Massey said that he was honored to receive the nomination and had not planned to leave his current position. “It's such a fantastic opportunity to be part of the leadership of the greatest public university in the world.…It's an opportunity that I cannot pass up,” he commented. Massey was named to a 6-year term as NSF director by former President George Bush in March 1991.

  17. Intrinsic anticarcinogenic effects of Piper sarmentosum ethanolic extract on a human hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Wan Omar, Wan Haifa Haryani; Zainal Ariffin, Zaidah; Safian, Muhd Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya

    2009-01-01

    Background Piper sarmentosum, locally known as kaduk is belonging to the family of Piperaceae. It is our interest to evaluate their effect on human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) for the potential of anticarcinogenic activity. Results The anticarcinogenic activity of an ethanolic extract from Piper sarmentosum in HepG2 and non-malignant Chang's liver cell lines has been previously determined using (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assays, where the IC50 value was used as a parameter for cytotoxicity. The ethanolic extract that showed anticarcinogenic properties in HepG2 cells had an IC50 of 12.5 μg mL-1, while IC50 values in the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line were greater than 30 μg mL-1. Apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells were observed using an inverted microscope and showed chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies following May-Grunwald-Giemsa's staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells in the overall population (apoptotic index) showed a continuously significant increase (p < 0.05) in 12.5 μg mL-1 ethanolic extract-treated cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours compared to controls (untreated cells). Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with 10, 12 and 14 μg mL-1 of ethanolic extracts caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells. Molecular analysis of DNA fragmentation was used to examine intrinsic apoptosis induced by the ethanolic extracts. These results showed a typical intrinsic apoptotic characterisation, which included fragmentation of nuclear DNA in ethanolic extract-treated HepG2 cells. However, the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line produced no DNA fragmentation. In addition, the DNA genome was similarly intact for both the untreated non-malignant Chang's liver and HepG2 cell lines. Conclusion Therefore, our results suggest that the ethanolic extract from P. sarmentosum induced anticarcinogenic activity through an intrinsic apoptosis

  18. Freezing injury in potato leaves.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, N P; Weiser, C J

    1972-11-01

    Time-temperature profiles of freezing leaves from frost-resistant (Solanum acaule Bitt.) and frost-susceptible (Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. tuberosum Hawkes) types of potatoes did not reveal any major differences. The pattern of change in resistance of leaves to low voltage, low frequency current during freezing was different in the frost-resistant and susceptible leaves. In tissue sections from both types of leaves, cells freeze extracellularly at cooling velocities lower than 5 C per minute. Cells from leaves of resistant plants showed a higher osmotic pressure but not a higher water permeability than those from susceptible plants. The extent of injury caused by even very slow freezing was greater than that caused by equivalent isopiestic desiccation, particularly in susceptible leaves. The higher osmotic pressure in cells of leaves from resistant plants can account for the greater desiccation resistance but not for the frost resistance observed. PMID:16658217

  19. Studies on the neuroprotective role of Piper longum in C6 glioma induced rats.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Umadevi; Poongavanam, Sharmila; Vanisree, A J

    2010-10-01

    Many naturally occurring substances of plant origin ingested in human diet, exhibit anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects. One of the active phytochemical which shows the active anticarcinogenic role is Piper longum Linn. (Pl). Pl is widely used in ayurvedic industry due to its property in healing some of the bodily ailments. Despite being known for the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic effects, its relation to brain and its tumour development is still scarce. Hence, the experimental glioma model was developed in rats using C6 glioma cells and the effect of Pl was evaluated in the brain tissue of experimental group of rats. From the study, the glioma induced animals showed an increased level of lipid peroxides (LPO), tissue marker enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), 5'nucleotidase (5'ND) and acetylcholine esterase (AChE). But Pl treatment (20 mg/kg body weight) significantly attenuated these alterations thereby showing potent anticancer effect in glioma induced rats. In addition, the anticarcinogenic effect of Pl was confirmed by microscopic analysis and the restoration of increased lipids and protein bound carbohydrates (PBCs) in the brain tissue of glioma induced rats. Hence our results implicate a major role for Pl in preventing the cancer development in the experimental glioma model. PMID:19730792

  20. Shelter-building behavior and natural history of two pyralid caterpillars feeding on Piper stipulaceum.

    PubMed

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-03-15

    Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae) . A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species.

  1. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of Piper auritum and Porophyllum ruderale.

    PubMed

    Conde-Hernández, Lilia A; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Á

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from fresh and dried samples of Mexican pepperleaf (Piper auritum Kunth) and "papalo" (Porophyllum ruderale) were obtained using a stirring or an ultrasound extraction system with five types of solvents (water, 50:50% v/v ethanol:water, 70:30% v/v ethanol:water, 85:15% v/v ethanol:1.5N HCl, and ethanol). Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated with the phenol Folin Ciocalteu reagent and the ABTS method, respectively. Total phenolic compounds (PC), trolox (T), and ascorbic acid (AA), in the two herbs, were in the range of 6.79-68.03mg of galic acid (GA)/g dry solids (d.s.), 4.88-64.99mg of T/gd.s., and 5.31-49.84mgAA/gd.s., respectively. Extracts from fresh "papalo", using ultrasound as the extraction system, had the highest amount of total phenolic compounds. The fresh pepperleaf extract, obtained using ultrasound as the extraction method contained the highest amount of antioxidant activity.

  2. [Potential allelopathic effects of Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium].

    PubMed

    Yan, Guijun; Zhu, Chaohua; Luo, Yanping; Yang, Ye; Wei, Jinju

    2006-09-01

    With Piper nigrum, Mangifera indica and Clausena lansium as the donators, this paper studied their potential allelopathic effects on the germination and growth of Zea mays, Glycine max, Cucurbita moschata, Arachis hypogaea, Raphanus sativus, Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis and Stylosanthes guianensis. The results showed that the aqueous extracts of these donators could inhibit the germination and growth of Z. mays, G. max, C. moschata, E. crus-galli and D. sanguinalis at high concentration, but stimulate them at low concentration. In rhizosphere soil of P. nigrum and M. indica, the germination and growth of Z. mays L was stimulated, while A. hypogaea was inhibited. The aqueous extracts of the donators were extracted by ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively, and the inhibitory activity of both aqueous and n-butanol fractions from P. nigrum and M. indica on Z. mays, R. sativus and S. guianensis was stronger than that of ethyl acetate fraction, indicating that P. nigrum and M. indica contained the allelochemicals with high polarity.

  3. Structural and sensory characterization of key pungent and tingling compounds from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Henze, Andrea; Frank, Oliver; Glabasnia, Anneke; Rupp, Mathias; Büning, Kirsten; Orlikowski, Diana; Bader, Matthias; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-03-21

    To gain a more comprehensive knowledge on whether, besides the well-known piperine, other compounds are responsible for the pungent and tingling oral impression imparted by black pepper, an ethanol extract prepared from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) was screened for its key sensory-active nonvolatiles by application of taste dilution analysis (TDA). Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impact, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments as well as synthesis, led to the structure determination of 25 key pungent and tingling phytochemicals, among which the eight amides 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13Z-trienyl)piperidine, 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13Z-trienyl)pyrrolidine, (2E,4E,13Z)-N-isobutyl-octadeca-2,4,13-trienamide, 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,12Z-trienoyl)-pyrrolidine, 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,15Z-trienyl)piperidine, 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,15Z-trienyl)pyrrolidine, (2E,4E,15Z)-N-isobutyl-eicosa-2,4,15-trienamide, and 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,14Z-trienoyl)-pyrrolidine were not yet reported in literature. Sensory studies by means of a modified half-tongue test revealed recognition thresholds ranging from 3.0 to 1150.2 nmol/cm² for pungency and from 520.6 to 2162.1 nmol/cm² for the tingling orosensation depending on their chemical structure.

  4. Chemistry and in vitro antioxidant activity of volatile oil and oleoresins of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Bandana; Singh, Gurdip; De Heluani, Carola S; De Lampasona, M P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2009-06-24

    Essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol and ethyl acetate) of Piper nigrum were extracted by using Clevenger and Soxhlet apparatus, respectively. GC-MS analysis of pepper essential oil showed the presence of 54 components representing about 96.6% of the total weight. beta-Caryophylline (29.9%) was found as the major component along with limonene (13.2%), beta-pinene (7.9%), sabinene (5.9%), and several other minor components. The major component of both ethanol and ethyl acetate oleoresins was found to contain piperine (63.9 and 39.0%), with many other components in lesser amounts. The antioxidant activities of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, p-anisidine, and thiobarbituric acid. Both the oil and oleoresins showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) but lower than that of propyl gallate (PG). In addition, their inhibitory action by FTC method, scavenging capacity by DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical), and reducing power were also determined, proving the strong antioxidant capacity of both the essential oil and oleoresins of pepper.

  5. Aedes aegypti larvicide from the ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum black peppercorns.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Viviene S; Alvero, Rita Grace; Villaseñor, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    Due to unavailability of a vaccine and a specific cure to dengue, the focus nowadays is to develop an effective vector control method against the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. This study aims to determine the larvicidal fractions from Piper nigrum ethanolic extracts (PnPcmE) and to elucidate the identity of the bioactive compounds that comprise these larvicidal fractions. Larvicidal assay was performed by subjecting 3rd to 4th A. aegypti instar larvae to PnPcmE of P. nigrum. The PnPcmE exhibited potential larvicidal activity having an LC50 of 7.1246 ± 0.1304 ppm (mean ± Std error). Normal phase vacuum liquid chromatography of the PnPcmE was employed which resulted in five fractions, two of which showed larvicidal activity. The most active of the PnPcmE fractions is PnPcmE-1A, with an LC50 and LC90 of 1.7101 ± 0.0491 ppm and 3.7078 ppm, respectively. Subsequent purification of PnPcmE-1A allowed the identification of the larvicidal compound as oleic acid.

  6. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) seeds.

    PubMed

    Gülçin, Ilhami

    2005-11-01

    Water and ethanol crude extracts from black pepper (Piper nigrum) were investigated for their antioxidant and radical scavenging activities in six different assay, namely, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. Both water extract (WEBP) and ethanol extract (EEBP) of black pepper exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. The 75 microg/ml concentration of WEBP and EEBP showed 95.5% and 93.3% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. On the other hand, at the same concentration, standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol exhibited 92.1%, 95.0%, and 70.4% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. Also, total phenolic content in both WEBP and EEBP were determined as gallic acid equivalents. The total phenolics content of water and ethanol extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and 54.3 and 42.8 microg gallic acid equivalent of phenols was detected in 1 mg WEBP and EEBP.

  7. Amides from Piper nigrum L. with dissimilar effects on melanocyte proliferation in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhixiu; Liao, Yonghong; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Hider, Robert C; Soumyanath, Amala

    2007-04-01

    Melanocyte proliferation stimulants are of interest as potential treatments for the depigmentary skin disorder, vitiligo. Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) fruit (black pepper) water extract and its main alkaloid, piperine (1), promote melanocyte proliferation in-vitro. A crude chloroform extract of P. nigrum containing piperine was more stimulatory than an equivalent concentration of the pure compound, suggesting the presence of other active components. Piperine (1), guineensine (2), pipericide (3), N-feruloyltyramine (4) and N-isobutyl-2E, 4E-dodecadienamide (5) were isolated from the chloroform extract. Their activity was compared with piperine and with commercial piperlongumine (6) and safrole (7), and synthetically prepared piperettine (8), piperlonguminine (9) and 1-(3, 4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-decane (10). Compounds 6-10 either occur in P. nigrum or are structurally related. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9 stimulated melanocyte proliferation, whereas 4, 5, 6, 7 and 10 did not. Comparison of structures suggests that the methylenedioxyphenyl function is essential for melanocyte stimulatory activity. Only those compounds also possessing an amide group were active, although the amino component of the amide group and chain linking it to the methylenedioxyphenyl group can vary. P. nigrum, therefore, contains several amides with the ability to stimulate melanocyte proliferation. This finding supports the traditional use of P. nigrum extracts in vitiligo and provides new lead compounds for drug development for this disease.

  8. High-frequency plant regeneration through cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Nair, R Ramakrishnan; Dutta Gupta, S

    2006-01-01

    A high-frequency plantlet regeneration protocol was developed for black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) through cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis. Secondary embryos formed from the radicular end of the primary somatic embryos which were originally derived from micropylar tissues of germinating seeds on growth regulator-free SH medium in the absence of light. The process of secondary embryogenesis continued in a cyclic manner from the root pole of newly formed embryos resulting in clumps of somatic embryos. Strength of the medium and sucrose concentration influenced the process of secondary embryogenesis and fresh weight of somatic embryo clumps. Full-strength SH medium supplemented with 1.5% sucrose produced significantly higher fresh weight and numbers of secondary somatic embryos while 3.0 and 4.5% sucrose in the medium favored further development of proliferated embryos into plantlets. Ontogeny of secondary embryos was established by histological analysis. Secondary embryogenic potential was influenced by the developmental stage of the explanted somatic embryo and stages up to "torpedo" were more suitable. A single-flask system was standardized for proliferation, maturation, germination and conversion of secondary somatic embryos in suspension cultures. The system of cyclic secondary somatic embryogenesis in black pepper described here represents a permanent source of embryogenic material that can be used for genetic manipulations of this crop species.

  9. Learning from the Piper Alpha accident: A postmortem analysis of technical and organizational factors

    SciTech Connect

    Pate-Cornell, M.E. )

    1993-04-01

    The accident that occurred on board the offshore platform Piper Alpha in July 1988 killed 167 people and cost billions of dollars in property damage. It was caused by a massive fire, which was not the result of an unpredictable act of God' but of an accumulation of errors and questionable decisions. Most of them were rooted in the organization, its structure, procedures, and culture. This paper analyzes the accident scenario using the risk analysis framework, determines which human decision and actions influenced the occurrence of the basic events, and then identifies the organizational roots of these decisions and actions. These organizational factors are generalizable to other industries and engineering systems. They include flaws in the design guidelines and design practices (e.g., tight physical couplings or insufficient redundancies), misguided priorities in the management of the tradeoff between productivity and safety, mistakes in the management of the personnel on board, and errors of judgement in the process by which financial pressures are applied on the production sector (i.e., the oil companies' definition of profit centers) resulting in deficiencies in inspection and maintenance operations. This analytical approach allows identification of risk management measures that go beyond the purely technical (e.g., add redundancies to a safety system) and also include improvements of management practices. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Study of the glow curve structure of the minerals separated from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, S.; Ruiz Gurrola, B.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Tufiño, A.; Furetta, C.; Favalli, A.; Brown, F.

    2011-04-01

    The inorganic mineral fraction extracted from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) has been analysed using a thermoluminescence (TL) method, investigating the glow curve structure, including an evaluation of the kinetic parameters. Different grain sizes, i.e. 10, 74, and 149 μm, were selected from commercial black pepper. The X-ray diffraction of the inorganic fraction shows that quartz is the main mineral present in it. The samples were exposed to 1-25 kGy doses by gamma rays of 60Co in order to analyse the thermally stimulated luminescence response as a function of the delivered dose. The glow curves show a complex structure for different grain sizes of the pepper mineral samples. The fading of the TL signal at room temperature was obtained after irradiation, and it was observed that the maximum peaks of the glow curves shift towards higher values of the temperature when the elapsed time from irradiation increases. It seems that the fading characteristic may be related to a continuous trap distribution responsible for the complex structure of the glow curve. Similar glow curves structure behaviour was found under ultraviolet irradiation of the samples. The activation energy and the frequency factor were determined from the glow curves of different grain sizes using a deconvolution programme because of the evident complexity of the structure.

  11. Cytotoxic mechanism of Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth essential oil and its major compound nerolidol.

    PubMed

    Sperotto, A R M; Moura, D J; Péres, V F; Damasceno, F C; Caramão, E B; Henriques, J A P; Saffi, J

    2013-07-01

    Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth is used in popular medicine as anti-inflamatory and against liver disorders. One of the most studied components of the plant is the essential oil for which chemical analysis revealed (E)-nerolidol as major compound. Recently, we have shown that P. gaudichaudianum essential oil possesses strong cytotoxic effects in mammalian V79 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model study. Treatment of the XV185-14c and N123 strains with essential oil and nerolidol led to cytotoxicity but did not induce mutagenicity. Our results revealed an important role of base excision repair (BER) as the ntg1, ntg2, apn1 and apn2 mutants showed pronounced sensitivity to essential oil and nerolidol. In the absence of superoxide dismutase (in sod1Δ mutant strain) sensitivity to the essential oil and nerolidol increased indicating that this oil and nerolidol are generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS production was confirmed by DCF-DA probing assay in Sod-deficient strains. From this, we conclude that the observed cytotoxicity to P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol is mainly related to ROS and DNA single strand breaks generated by the presence of oxidative lesions.

  12. Protective Effect of Piper aduncum Capsule on DMBA-induced Breast Cancer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Acevedo, J; Chávez-Asmat, RJ; Anampa-Guzmán, A; Donaires, R; Ráez-Gonzáles, José

    2015-01-01

    The possible protective effect of Piper aduncum capsule on DMBA (dimethylbenz[α]anthracene)-induced breast cancer in rats was assessed by monitoring the tumor and lung metastases incidence and recording hematological and biochemical parameters and frequency of micronuclei. Mammary carcinogenesis was induced in 36 female Holtzman rats by providing a single subcutaneous injection of DMBA. Oral administration of P. aduncum capsule lowered adenocarcinoma and lymph node metastases incidence. Pulmonary metastasis was significantly lowered (P < 0.05). Hematological indicators showed that the triglyceride level was significantly lowered (P < 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level was significantly increased (P < 0.01). Also, P. aduncum capsule significantly lowered the C reactive protein (CRP) level (P < 0.01) and malondialdehyde level (P < 0.05). There was a significant decrease in the frequency of DMBA-induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (P < 0.01). Considering the antitumorigenic, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antigenotoxic properties of P. aduncum capsule, we conclude that it has a protective effect on DMBA-induced breast cancer in rats. PMID:26157333

  13. Bioassay-guided Isolation of Constituents of Piper sarmentosum Using a Mitochondrial Transmembrane Potential Assay

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Li; Matthew, Susan; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Ninh, Tran Ngoc; Chai, Heebyung; de Blanco, Esperanza J. Carcache; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Swanson, Steven M.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation was conducted on a chloroform-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Piper sarmentosum collected in Vietnam, monitored by a mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) assay using HT-29 human colon cancer cells. This led to the isolation of four new C-benzylated dihydroflavones, sarmentosumins A-D (1-4), as well as 14 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. Among these compounds, 1-4 as well as five known C-benzylated dihydroflavones (5-9), and pipercallosine, a piperamide (11), were found to induce apoptosis in HT-29 cells by moderately reducing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), with ED50 values ranging from 1.6 to 13.6 μM. Furthermore, 7-methoxydichamanetin (8) and pinocembrin (10) exhibited proteasome inhibitory activities in a human 20S proteasome bioassay with IC50 values of 3.45 ± 0.18 μM and 2.87 ± 0.26 μM, respectively. This is the first time that C-benzylated dihydroflavones have been reported to demonstrate an apoptotic effect associated with disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. PMID:21973101

  14. Shelter-Building Behavior and Natural History of Two Pyralid Caterpillars Feeding on Piper stipulaceum

    PubMed Central

    Abarca, Mariana; Boege, Karina; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Shelter-building behavior by caterpillars provides a mechanism of defense against predators, microenvironment enhancement, and in some cases nutritional benefits. This study provides a detailed description of the life cycle and shelter-building process of caterpillars, and identifies constraints and factors influencing this adaptive behavior in Lepidomys n. sp. near proclea Druce (Pyralidae: Chrysauginae), a tropical dry forest pyralid. Five macroscopic larval instars were detected during the life cycle, and activities performed during shelter-building were categorized and timed. Caterpillar predators were identified, and 20% of all collected larvae died due to attack by parasitoid wasps. Shelter-building behavior was found to be constrained by the ontogenetic stage of caterpillars and influenced by leaf size of the host plant, Piper stipulaceum Opiz (Piperales: Piperaceae). A similar pattern of shelter-building behavior exhibited by Tosale n. sp. near cuprealis larvae that coexisted in the same host plant is also described. Larvae of the second species were significantly less abundant than those of Lepidomys and hatched one month later in the rainy season, which could indicate some competitive interactions between these two pyralid species. PMID:25373186

  15. A clinical trial of Pippali (Piper longum Linn.) with special reference to Abheshaja.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Megha; Vyas, Hitesh; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar

    2010-10-01

    The classification of Dravya has been undertaken in many ways, but according to the medicinal value, they are mainly divided into two - Bheshaja and Abheshaja. No study has been documented on Abheshaja to date as per the scholar's knowledge. Therefore, the present study was carried out to understand the concept of Abheshaja by a practical study. The drug Pippali (Piper Longum Linn.) has been contraindicated to be used for a longer duration. A clinical study was carried out on patients with Kaphaja Kasa, to evolve and assess if the drug acts as Abheshaja or not, and if yes, then under what circumstances. The patients of Kaphaja Kasa had been selected by the random sampling method. They were randomly divided into two groups - Group A and Group B. In Group A, test drug Pippali Churna was administered. Group B was a standard control group and Vasa Churna was given to this group. The dose of both the drugs was 4 g B.I.D. The result was assessed after three weeks of drug administration with the help of a specially prepared proforma. All the important hematological, biochemical, urine, and stool investigations were carried out. There was no adverse drug reaction (ADR) observed after the administration of Pippali in this particular study. PMID:22048536

  16. Cytotoxic mechanism of Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth essential oil and its major compound nerolidol.

    PubMed

    Sperotto, A R M; Moura, D J; Péres, V F; Damasceno, F C; Caramão, E B; Henriques, J A P; Saffi, J

    2013-07-01

    Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth is used in popular medicine as anti-inflamatory and against liver disorders. One of the most studied components of the plant is the essential oil for which chemical analysis revealed (E)-nerolidol as major compound. Recently, we have shown that P. gaudichaudianum essential oil possesses strong cytotoxic effects in mammalian V79 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model study. Treatment of the XV185-14c and N123 strains with essential oil and nerolidol led to cytotoxicity but did not induce mutagenicity. Our results revealed an important role of base excision repair (BER) as the ntg1, ntg2, apn1 and apn2 mutants showed pronounced sensitivity to essential oil and nerolidol. In the absence of superoxide dismutase (in sod1Δ mutant strain) sensitivity to the essential oil and nerolidol increased indicating that this oil and nerolidol are generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS production was confirmed by DCF-DA probing assay in Sod-deficient strains. From this, we conclude that the observed cytotoxicity to P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol is mainly related to ROS and DNA single strand breaks generated by the presence of oxidative lesions. PMID:23523831

  17. Water isotopologues in leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Ogée, J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Cernusak, L. A.; Peylin, P.; Bariac, T.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf water isotope enrichment is a cornerstone of a variety of isotopic applications. It imprints on different substances such as atmospheric CO2, O2, and plant organic matter. But different applications use enrichment in different parts of the leaf and weighted by different fluxes. For example, leaf organic matter is determined by the assimilation-weighted average bulk water enrichment. Atmospheric CO2 and O2 are determined by the enrichment near the evaporating sites, either weighted by the one-way CO2 flux from the stomata to the atmosphere or by electron transport, resp. These applications of leaf water enrichment are used from the leaf level up to global scales. It is therefore essential to understand the time course of leaf water enrichment at both the evaporating sites and in the mesophyll but also to asses the suitability of simple models such as the Craig & Gordon (1965) steady-state prediction or the Dongmann et al. (1974) non-steady-state model. We describe here advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves in the non-steady state. We first show how this relates to earlier non-steady state bulk leaf water enrichment models. The adv.-diff. model compares very well with observations of bulk mesophyll water during the whole diel cycle. It compares well with the enrichment at the evaporative sites during the day but shows some deviations at night. It is clear that night-time stomatal conductance should be measured in the future. However, varying mesophyll water volume did not seem critical for a good prediction. In addition, observations of single diurnal cycles do not constrain the effective length in the mesophyll. Finally, we show when simpler models of leaf water enrichment are suitable for applications of leaf water isotopes once weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux. We then present a two-dimensional adv.-diff. description of leaf water enrichment along monocot leaves. The model reproduces well all published measurements along

  18. Pellitorine, a potential anti-cancer lead compound against HL6 and MCT-7 cell lines and microbial transformation of piperine from Piper Nigrum.

    PubMed

    Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Lim, Chyi Meei; Rahmani, Mawardi; Shaari, Khozirah; Bong, Choon Fah Joseph

    2010-04-05

    Pellitorine (1), which was isolated from the roots of Piper nigrum, showed strong cytotoxic activities against HL60 and MCT-7 cell lines. Microbial transformation of piperine (2) gave a new compound 5-[3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenyl]-pent-2-ene piperidine (3). Two other alkaloids were also found from Piper nigrum. They are (E)-1-[3',4'-(methylenedioxy)cinnamoyl]piperidine (4) and 2,4-tetradecadienoic acid isobutyl amide (5). These compounds were isolated using chromatographic methods and their structures were elucidated using MS, IR and NMR techniques.

  19. Cytotoxic Activity of Piper cubeba Extract in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Graidist, Potchanapond; Martla, Mananya; Sukpondma, Yaowapa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of a crude extract of Piper cubeba against normal and breast cancer cell lines. To prepare the extract, P. cubeba seeds were ground, soaked in methanol and dichloromethane and isolated by column chromatography. Fractions were tested for cytotoxicity effects on normal fibroblast (L929), normal breast (MCF-12A) and breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231). The most effective fraction was selected for DNA fragmentation assay to detect apoptotic activity. The results showed that the methanolic crude extract had a higher cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-468 and MCF-7 than a dichloromethane crude extract. Then, the methanolic crude extract was separated into six fractions, designated A to F. Fraction C was highly active against breast cancer cell lines with an IC50 value less than 4 μg/mL. Therefore, Fraction C was further separated into seven fractions, CA to CG. The 1H-NMR profile showed that Fraction CE was long chain hydrocarbons. Moreover, Fraction CE demonstrated the highest activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 2.69 ± 0.09 μg/mL and lower cytotoxicity against normal fibroblast L929 cells with an IC50 value of 4.17 ± 0.77 μg/mL. Finally, DNA fragmentation with a ladder pattern characteristic of apoptosis was observed in MCF-7, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231 and L929 cells, but not in MCF-12A cells. PMID:25867951

  20. Effect of reverse photoperiod on in vitro regeneration and piperine production in Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Fazal, Hina; Khan, Mubarak Ali; Afridi, Muhammad Siddique

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel approach for in vitro regeneration of Piper nigrum L. has been applied in order to increase healthy biomass, phytochemicals and piperine production via reverse photoperiod (16hD/8hL). Leaf portions of the seed-derived plants were placed on an MS-medium fortified with different PGRs. Under 16hD/8hL, thidiazuron (TDZ; 4.0 mg L⁻¹) and BA (1.5 mg L⁻¹) was found to be the most effective (<90%) in callus induction. Two concentrations (1.5, 2.0 mg L⁻¹) of the IBA produced>80% shoots from callus cultures. Healthy shoots were transferred to rooting medium and higher percentage of rooting (<90%) was observed on IBA (1.5 mg L⁻¹). These in vitro tissues were subjected to amino acid analysis, spectrophotometry, and HPLC. ARG, SER, THR, and TYR were the most abundant components out of 17 amino acids. Higher amino acid production was observed under normal photoperiod (16hL/8hD) than under reverse photoperiod (16hD/8hL). The highest total phenolic content (TPC; 9.91 mg/g-DW) and flavonoid content (7.38 mg/g-DW) were observed in callus cultures incubated under 16hL/8hD than other tissues incubated under 16hD/8hL photoperiod. Higher DPPH and PoMo activities were observed in tissues incubated under 16hL/8hD photoperiod, while ABTS and Fe²⁺ chelating activities were found higher in tissues incubated under reverse photoperiod. Significant quantities of piperine content were observed in all tissues except callus cultures. These results suggest that reverse photoperiod is a promising approach for callus induction, phytochemicals and piperine production for commercial applications. PMID:24439548

  1. Suitable DNA Barcoding for Identification and Supervision of Piper kadsura in Chinese Medicine Markets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ning; Gu, Hong; Wei, Yulong; Zhu, Ning; Wang, Yanli; Zhang, Haiping; Zhu, Yue; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Chao; Sun, Aidong

    2016-01-01

    Piper kadsura is a vine-like medicinal plant which is widely used in clinical treatment. However, P. kadsura is often substituted by other materials in the markets, thereby causing health risks. In this study, 38 P. kadsura samples and eight sequences from GenBank, including a closely-related species and common adulterants were collected. This study aimed to identify an effective DNA barcode from four popular DNA loci for P. kadsura authentication. The success rates of PCR amplification, sequencing, and sequence acquisition of matK were 10.5%, 75%, and 7.9%, respectively; for rbcL they were 89.5%, 8.8%, and 7.9%, respectively; ITS2 rates were 86.8%, 3.0%, and 2.6%, respectively, while for psbA-trnH they were all 100%, which is much higher than for the other three loci. The sequences were aligned using Muscle, genetic distances were computed using MEGA 5.2.2, and barcoding gap was performed using TAXON DNA. Phylogenetic analysis showed that psbA-trnH could clearly distinguish P. kadsura from its closely related species and the common adulterant. psbA-trnH was then used to evaluate the fake proportions of P. kadsura. Results showed that 18.4% of P. kadsura samples were fake, indicating that adulterant species exist in the Chinese markets. Two-dimensional DNA barcoding imaging of P. kadsura was conducted, which was beneficial to the management of P. kadsura. We conclude that the psbA-trnH region is a powerful tool for P. kadsura identification and supervision in the current medicine markets. PMID:27626403

  2. Possible therapeutic uses of Salvia triloba and Piper nigrum in Alzheimer's disease-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; Salem, Ahmed M; Sabry, Gilane M; Husein, Ahmed A; Kotob, Soheir E

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of Salvia triloba L. and Piper nigrum extracts in ameliorating neuroinflammatory insults characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in an experimentally induced rat model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into Group 1 (n=10): normal healthy animals serving as the negative control group; Group 2 (n=60): the AD-induced group. After AD induction, animals in the AD-induced group were divided randomly and equally into 6 subgroups. The first subgroup served as AD control; the second one, which served as positive control, was treated orally with the conventional therapy for AD (rivastigmine) at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) daily for 3 months. The third and fourth subgroups were, respectively, treated orally with the S. triloba extract at a dose of 750 and 375 mg/kg b.w. daily for 3 months. The fifth and sixth subgroups were, respectively, treated orally with the P. nigrum extract at a dose of 187.5 and 93.75 mg/kg b.w. daily for 3 months. Levels of brain acetylcholine (Ach), serum and brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, C-reactive protein (CRP), total nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were estimated. The results showed that administration of AlCl3 resulted in a significant elevation in the levels of AchE activity, CRP, NF-κB, and MCP-1 accompanied with a significant depletion in the Ach level. Treatment of AD rats with each of the selected medicinal plant extracts caused marked improvement in the measured biochemical parameters. In conclusion, S. triloba and P. nigrum methanolic extracts have potent anti-inflammatory effects against neuroinflammation characterizing AD.

  3. Effect of reverse photoperiod on in vitro regeneration and piperine production in Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Fazal, Hina; Khan, Mubarak Ali; Afridi, Muhammad Siddique

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel approach for in vitro regeneration of Piper nigrum L. has been applied in order to increase healthy biomass, phytochemicals and piperine production via reverse photoperiod (16hD/8hL). Leaf portions of the seed-derived plants were placed on an MS-medium fortified with different PGRs. Under 16hD/8hL, thidiazuron (TDZ; 4.0 mg L⁻¹) and BA (1.5 mg L⁻¹) was found to be the most effective (<90%) in callus induction. Two concentrations (1.5, 2.0 mg L⁻¹) of the IBA produced>80% shoots from callus cultures. Healthy shoots were transferred to rooting medium and higher percentage of rooting (<90%) was observed on IBA (1.5 mg L⁻¹). These in vitro tissues were subjected to amino acid analysis, spectrophotometry, and HPLC. ARG, SER, THR, and TYR were the most abundant components out of 17 amino acids. Higher amino acid production was observed under normal photoperiod (16hL/8hD) than under reverse photoperiod (16hD/8hL). The highest total phenolic content (TPC; 9.91 mg/g-DW) and flavonoid content (7.38 mg/g-DW) were observed in callus cultures incubated under 16hL/8hD than other tissues incubated under 16hD/8hL photoperiod. Higher DPPH and PoMo activities were observed in tissues incubated under 16hL/8hD photoperiod, while ABTS and Fe²⁺ chelating activities were found higher in tissues incubated under reverse photoperiod. Significant quantities of piperine content were observed in all tissues except callus cultures. These results suggest that reverse photoperiod is a promising approach for callus induction, phytochemicals and piperine production for commercial applications.

  4. Growth and survival of Salmonella in ground black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Keller, Susanne E; VanDoren, Jane M; Grasso, Elizabeth M; Halik, Lindsay A

    2013-05-01

    A four serovar cocktail of Salmonella was inoculated into ground black pepper (Piper nigrum) at different water activity (aw) levels at a starting level of 4-5 log cfu/g and incubated at 25 and at 35 °C. At 35 °C and aw of 0.9886 ± 0.0006, the generation time in ground black pepper was 31 ± 3 min with a lag time of 4 ± 1 h. Growth at 25 °C had a longer lag, but generation time was not statistically different from growth at 35 °C. The aw threshold for growth was determined to be 0.9793 ± 0.0027 at 35 °C. To determine survival during storage conditions, ground black pepper was inoculated at approximately 8 log cfu/g and stored at 25 and 35 °C at high (97% RH) and ambient (≤40% RH) humidity. At high relative humidity, aw increased to approximately 0.8-0.9 after approximately 20 days at both temperatures and no Salmonella was detected after 100 and 45 days at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. Under ambient humidity, populations showed an initial decrease of 3-4 log cfu/g, then remained stable for over 8 months at 25 and 35 °C. Results of this study indicate Salmonella can readily grow at permissive aw in ground black pepper and may persist for an extended period of time under typical storage conditions.

  5. Growth and survival of Salmonella in ground black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Keller, Susanne E; VanDoren, Jane M; Grasso, Elizabeth M; Halik, Lindsay A

    2013-05-01

    A four serovar cocktail of Salmonella was inoculated into ground black pepper (Piper nigrum) at different water activity (aw) levels at a starting level of 4-5 log cfu/g and incubated at 25 and at 35 °C. At 35 °C and aw of 0.9886 ± 0.0006, the generation time in ground black pepper was 31 ± 3 min with a lag time of 4 ± 1 h. Growth at 25 °C had a longer lag, but generation time was not statistically different from growth at 35 °C. The aw threshold for growth was determined to be 0.9793 ± 0.0027 at 35 °C. To determine survival during storage conditions, ground black pepper was inoculated at approximately 8 log cfu/g and stored at 25 and 35 °C at high (97% RH) and ambient (≤40% RH) humidity. At high relative humidity, aw increased to approximately 0.8-0.9 after approximately 20 days at both temperatures and no Salmonella was detected after 100 and 45 days at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. Under ambient humidity, populations showed an initial decrease of 3-4 log cfu/g, then remained stable for over 8 months at 25 and 35 °C. Results of this study indicate Salmonella can readily grow at permissive aw in ground black pepper and may persist for an extended period of time under typical storage conditions. PMID:23498196

  6. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region. PMID:26214435

  7. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-07-06

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region.

  8. Identification and simultaneous quantification of five alkaloids in Piper longum L. by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) and UFLC-ESI-MS/MS and their application to Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Long; Luo, Rong; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Ba, Yin-Ying; Zheng, Li; Guo, Wei-Wei; Wu, Xia

    2015-06-15

    A simple, effective and suitable UFLC-ESI-MS/MS method was firstly developed to simultaneously determine five characteristic constituents (piperine, piperlonguminine, Δα,β-dihydropiperlonguminine, pellitorine and piperanine) of Piper longum L. The total alkaloids of P. longum L. was prepared. The alkaloid contents of Piper nigrum L. and P. longum L. were compared. The analysis was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring scan mode. The method showed a good specificity, linearity (R(2)>0.995), stability (RSD<2.53%), repeatability (RSD<2.58%), and recovery (90.0-103.5%). The limits of detection and limits of quantification of five alkaloids were in the range of 0.02-0.03 and 0.05-0.10 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 9.30% and 9.55%, respectively. The validation results confirmed that the method could simultaneously determine the target alkaloids in the sample. Furthermore, the identities of the alkaloids were verified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Compared with P. nigrum, P. longum had lower piperine content but was enriched in the other four alkaloids. PMID:25660876

  9. Identification and simultaneous quantification of five alkaloids in Piper longum L. by HPLC-ESI-MS(n) and UFLC-ESI-MS/MS and their application to Piper nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Long; Luo, Rong; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Ba, Yin-Ying; Zheng, Li; Guo, Wei-Wei; Wu, Xia

    2015-06-15

    A simple, effective and suitable UFLC-ESI-MS/MS method was firstly developed to simultaneously determine five characteristic constituents (piperine, piperlonguminine, Δα,β-dihydropiperlonguminine, pellitorine and piperanine) of Piper longum L. The total alkaloids of P. longum L. was prepared. The alkaloid contents of Piper nigrum L. and P. longum L. were compared. The analysis was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring scan mode. The method showed a good specificity, linearity (R(2)>0.995), stability (RSD<2.53%), repeatability (RSD<2.58%), and recovery (90.0-103.5%). The limits of detection and limits of quantification of five alkaloids were in the range of 0.02-0.03 and 0.05-0.10 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 9.30% and 9.55%, respectively. The validation results confirmed that the method could simultaneously determine the target alkaloids in the sample. Furthermore, the identities of the alkaloids were verified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Compared with P. nigrum, P. longum had lower piperine content but was enriched in the other four alkaloids.

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of piperic acid amides as free radical scavengers and α-glucosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichi; Miyashiro, Takaki; Sugita, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of piperic acid amides (4-24, 29, 30) were synthesized and their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated. Among the synthesized compounds, the amides 11, 13 and 15, which contain o-methoxyphenol, catechol or 5-hydroxyindole moieties, showed potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity (11: EC50 140 µM; 13: EC50 28 µM; 15: EC50 20 µM). The amides 10, 18 and 23 showed higher inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase (10: IC50 21 µM; 18: IC50 21 µM; 23: IC50 12 µM). These data suggest that the hydrophobicity of the conjugated amines is an important determinant of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. In addition, the amides 13 and 15 showed both potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (13: IC50 46 µM; 15: IC50 46 µM). This is the first report identifying the DPPH free radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of piperic acid amides and suggests that these amides may serve as lead compounds for the development of novel α-glucosidase inhibitors with antioxidant activity.

  11. Post-test analysis of PIPER-ONE PO-IC-2 experiment by RELAP5/MOD3 codes

    SciTech Connect

    Bovalini, R.; D`Auria, F.; Galassi, G.M.; Mazzini, M.

    1996-11-01

    RELAP5/MOD3.1 was applied to the PO-IC-2 experiment performed in PIPER-ONE facility, which has been modified to reproduce typical isolation condenser thermal-hydraulic conditions. RELAP5 is a well known code widely used at the University of Pisa during the past seven years. RELAP5/MOD3.1 was the latest version of the code made available by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory at the time of the reported study. PIPER-ONE is an experimental facility simulating a General Electric BWR-6 with volume and height scaling ratios of 1/2,200 and 1./1, respectively. In the frame of the present activity a once-through heat exchanger immersed in a pool of ambient temperature water, installed approximately 10 m above the core, was utilized to reproduce qualitatively the phenomenologies expected for the Isolation Condenser in the simplified BWR (SBWR). The PO-IC-2 experiment is the flood up of the PO-SD-8 and has been designed to solve some of the problems encountered in the analysis of the PO-SD-8 experiment. A very wide analysis is presented hereafter including the use of different code versions.

  12. Synthesis and biological evaluation of piperic acid amides as free radical scavengers and α-glucosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichi; Miyashiro, Takaki; Sugita, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    A series of piperic acid amides (4-24, 29, 30) were synthesized and their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were evaluated. Among the synthesized compounds, the amides 11, 13 and 15, which contain o-methoxyphenol, catechol or 5-hydroxyindole moieties, showed potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity (11: EC50 140 µM; 13: EC50 28 µM; 15: EC50 20 µM). The amides 10, 18 and 23 showed higher inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase (10: IC50 21 µM; 18: IC50 21 µM; 23: IC50 12 µM). These data suggest that the hydrophobicity of the conjugated amines is an important determinant of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. In addition, the amides 13 and 15 showed both potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (13: IC50 46 µM; 15: IC50 46 µM). This is the first report identifying the DPPH free radical scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of piperic acid amides and suggests that these amides may serve as lead compounds for the development of novel α-glucosidase inhibitors with antioxidant activity. PMID:25948326

  13. Construction of a cDNA library and preliminary analysis of expressed sequence tags in Piper hainanense.

    PubMed

    Fan, R; Ling, P; Hao, C Y; Li, F P; Huang, L F; Wu, B D; Wu, H S

    2015-01-01

    Black pepper is a perennial climbing vine. It is widely cultivated because its berries can be utilized not only as a spice in food but also for medicinal use. This study aimed to construct a standardized, high-quality cDNA library to facilitated identification of new Piper hainanense transcripts. For this, 262 unigenes were used to generate raw reads. The average length of these 262 unigenes was 774.8 bp. Of these, 94 genes (35.9%) were newly identified, according to the NCBI protein database. Thus, identification of new genes may broaden the molecular knowledge of P. hainanense on the basis of Clusters of Orthologous Groups and Gene Ontology categories. In addition, certain basic genes linked to physiological processes, which can contribute to disease resistance and thereby to the breeding of black pepper. A total of 26 unigenes were found to be SSR markers. Dinucleotide SSR was the main repeat motif, accounting for 61.54%, followed by trinucleotide SSR (23.07%). Eight primer pairs successfully amplified DNA fragments and detected significant amounts of polymorphism among twenty-one piper germplasm. These results present a novel sequence information of P. hainanense, which can serve as the foundation for further genetic research on this species. PMID:26505424

  14. In Vivo Antiplasmodial and Analgesic Effect of Crude Ethanol Extract of Piper guineense Leaf Extract in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kabiru, A. Y.; Ibikunle, G. F.; Innalegwu, D. A.; Bola, B. M.; Madaki, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Antiplasmodial and analgesic effects of crude ethanol extract of Piper guineense was investigated in mice. The antiplasmodial and analgesic efficacy of the extract was judged on its ability to reduce parasitemia and writhing, respectively, in mice. The antiplasmodial screening involved treating infected mice with 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight of extract while the positive control group was given standard artesunate drug. The analgesic test was carried out by administering 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight of extract to three groups of healthy mice, respectively, after induction of pain with 0.75% acetic acid. The positive control group was given aspirin drug. Parasitemia was reduced by 28.36%, 43.28%, and 62.69% in a dose-dependent pattern in the curative test which was significantly different (P < 0.05) from 96.03% of the standard drug. The reduction of writhing by mice given the extract was also dose-dependent (36.29, 45.43, and 59.07%). Aspirin drug was however more effective (86.36%). The extract was safe at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phlobatannins, terpenoids, and coumarins. Result obtained in this study demonstrated the efficacy of ethanol extract of Piper guineense as an antiplasmodial and analgesic agent. PMID:27446637

  15. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  16. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  17. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  19. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  20. 75 FR 43397 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-32R-301T and PA-46-350P Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... in the Federal Register on June 23, 2010 (75 FR 35619), and applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc..., the FAA issued AD 2010-13-07, Amendment 39-16338 (75 FR 35619, June 23, 2010), which applies to... Accordingly, the publication of June 23, 2010 (75 FR 35619), of Amendment 39-16338; AD 2010-13-07, which...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9530 - Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) ester of cycloalkyl spir-o-ke-tal. 721.9530 Section 721.9530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9530 Bis(2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-piper-idinyl) ester...) The chemical substance identified generically as bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl pi-per-idin-yl) ester of...

  2. The Effects of Piper Sarmentosum Water Extract on the Expression and Activity of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 in the Bones with Excessive Glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Suhana Mohd Ramli, Elvy; Nirwana Soelaiman, Ima; Othman, Faizah; Ahmad, Fairus; Nazrun Shuib, Ahmad; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Hj Suhaimi, Farihah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Long-term glucocorticoid therapy causes secondary osteoporosis leading to pathological fractures. Glucocorticoid action in bone is dependant upon the activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme (11β-HSD1). Piper sarmentosum is a local herb that possesses the ability to inhibit 11-βHSD1 enzyme activity. We aimed to determine the effects of Piper sarmentosum water extract on 11-βHSD1 expressions and activity in the bones of glucocorticoid-treated adrenalectomized rats. Methods: Forty male Sprague–Dawley rats (200-250 g) were used. Twenty-four animals were adrenalectomized and received intramuscular injection of dexamethasone (120 μg/kg/day). They were simultaneously administered with either Piper sarmentosum water extract (125 mg/kg/day), GCA (120 mg/kg/day) or distilled water as vehicle by oral gavage for two months. Eight animals were sham-operated and given vehicle daily, i.e. intramuscular olive oil and oral distilled water. Results: Following two months treatment, dexamethasone-treated adrenalectomized rats had significantly lower 11β-HSD1 dehydrogenase activity and higher 11β-HSD1 expression in the femoral bones compared to the sham-operated and baseline group. The rats supplemented with Piper sarmentosum water extract had significantly higher 11β-HSD1 dehydrogenase activity and lower 11β-HSD1 expression in the bones. Conclusion: The results showed that Piper sarmentosum water extract had the ability to prevent glucocorcoticoid excess in the bones of glucocorticoid-treated adrenalectomized rats through the local modulation of 11β-HSD1 expression and activity, and may be used as prophylaxis for osteoporosis in patients on long-term glucocorticoid treatment. PMID:23115429

  3. Key Obama officials leave administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  4. Piper nigrum: micropropagation, antioxidative enzyme activities, and chromatographic fingerprint analysis for quality control.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Rahman, Inayat ur; Fazal, Hina

    2013-04-01

    A reliable in vitro regeneration system for the economical and medicinally important Piper nigrum L. has been established. Callus and shoot regeneration was encouraged from leaf portions on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with varied concentrations of plant growth regulators. A higher callus production (90 %) was observed in explants incubated on MS medium incorporated with 1.0 mg L(-1) 6-benzyladenine (BA) along with 0.5 mg L(-1) gibberellic acid after 4 weeks of culture. Moreover, a callogenic response of 85 % was also recorded for 1.0 mg L(-1) BA in combination with 0.25 mg L(-1) α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 0.25 mg L(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 0.5 mg L(-1) indole butyric acid (IBA) along with 0.25 mg L(-1) NAA and indole acetic acid. Subsequent sub-culturing of callus after 4 weeks of culture onto MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg L(-1) thiodiazoran or 1.5 mg L(-1) IBA induced 100 % shoot response. Rooted plantlets were achieved on medium containing varied concentrations of auxins. The antioxidative enzyme activities [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)] revealed that significantly higher SOD was observed in regenerated plantlets than in other tissues. However, POD, CAT, and APX were higher in callus than in other tissues. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint analysis protocol was established for quality control in different in vitro-regenerated tissues of P. nigrum L. During analysis, most of the common peaks represent the active principle "piperine." The chemical contents, especially piperine, showed variation from callus culture to whole plantlet regeneration. Based on the deviation in chromatographic peaks, the in vitro-regenerated plantlets exhibit a nearly similar piperine profile to acclimated plantlets. The in vitro regeneration system and HPLC fingerprint analysis established here brought a novel approach to the quality control of in vitro

  5. Sarmentine, a natural herbicide from Piper species with multiple herbicide mechanisms of action

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Franck E.; Owens, Daniel K.; Watson, Susan B.; Asolkar, Ratnakar N.; Boddy, Louis G.

    2015-01-01

    Sarmentine, 1-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-(2E,4E)-2,4-decadien-1-one, is a natural amide isolated from the fruits of Piper species. The compound has a number of interesting biological properties, including its broad-spectrum activity on weeds as a contact herbicide. Initial studies highlighted a similarity in response between plants treated with sarmentine and herbicidal soaps such as pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid). However, little was known about the mechanism of action leading to the rapid desiccation of foliage treated by sarmentine. In cucumber cotyledon disc-assays, sarmentine induced rapid light-independent loss of membrane integrity at 100 μM or higher concentration, whereas 3 mM pelargonic acid was required for a similar effect. Sarmentine was between 10 and 30 times more active than pelargonic acid on wild mustard, velvetleaf, redroot pigweed and crabgrass. Additionally, the potency of 30 μM sarmentine was greatly stimulated by light, suggesting that this natural product may also interfere with photosynthetic processes. This was confirmed by observing a complete inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport at that concentration. Sarmentine also acted as an inhibitor of photosystem II (PSII) on isolated thylakoid membranes by competing for the binding site of plastoquinone. This can be attributed in part to structural similarities between herbicides like sarmentine and diuron. While this mechanism of action accounts for the light stimulation of the activity of sarmentine, it does not account for its ability to destabilize membranes in darkness. In this respect, sarmentine has some structural similarity to crotonoyl-CoA, the substrate of enoyl-ACP reductase, a key enzyme in the early steps of fatty acid synthesis. Inhibitors of this enzyme, such as triclosan, cause rapid loss of membrane integrity in the dark. Sarmentine inhibited the activity of enoyl-ACP reductase, with an I50app of 18.3 μM. Therefore, the herbicidal activity of sarmentine appears to be a

  6. Aroma compound analysis of Piper nigrum and Piper guineense essential oils from Cameroon using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography, solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Jirovetz, Leopold; Buchbauer, Gerhard; Ngassoum, Martin Benoit; Geissler, Margit

    2002-11-01

    The investigation of aroma compounds of the essential oils of dried fruits of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and black and white "Ashanti pepper" (Piper guineense) from Cameroon by means of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was carried out for the first time to identify the odorous target components responsible for the characteristic odor of these valuable spices and food flavoring products. By means of GC-flame ionization detection (FID) and GC-MS (using different polar columns) the main compounds (concentration >3.0%, calculated as area of GC-FID analysis using a non-polar fused-silica open tubular RSL-200 column) of the SPME headspace samples of P. nigrum (black) and P. guineense (black and white) were found to be: P. nigrum (black)--germacrene D (11.01%), limonene (10.26%), beta-pinene (10.02%), alpha-phellandrene (8.56%), beta-caryophyllene (7.29%), alpha-pinene (6.40%) and cis-beta-ocimene (3.19%); P. guineense (black)--beta-caryophyllene (57.59%), beta-elemene (5.10%), bicyclogermacrene (5.05%) and alpha-humulene (4.86%); and P. guineense (white)--beta-caryophyllene (51.75%), cis-beta-ocimene (6.61%), limonene (5.88%), beta-pinene (4.56%), linalool (3.97%) and alpha-humulene (3.29%). The most intense odor impressions of the essential oils of the various dried pepper fruits were given byprofessional perfumers as follows: P nigrum (black)--fine, pleasant black pepper note; P. guineense (black)--black pepper top-note; and P. guineense (white)--pleasant white pepper note. These analytical results for the SPME headspace samples of three different pepper species from Cameroon are in accordance with the olfactoric data of the corresponding essential oils. A GC-sniffing technique was used to correlate the single odor impression of the identified SPME headspace volatiles of the three investigated pepper samples with the following results: themain compounds such as beta-caryophyllene, germacrene D, limonene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene and alpha-humulene, as well as

  7. A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team is greeted by Stefanyshyn-Piper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team is greeted by NASA Astronaut Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper (left) upon her arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93. Liftoff is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.

  8. Insecticidal activity of isobutylamides derived from Piper nigrum against adult of two mosquito species, Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Piper nigrum fruit-derived piperidine alkaloid (piperine) and N-isobutylamide alkaloids (pellitorine, guineensine, pipercide and retrofractamide A) against female adults of Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti was examined. On the basis of 24-h LD(50) values, the compound most toxic to female C. pipiens pallens was pellitorine (0.4 µg/♀) followed by guineensine (1.9 µg/♀), retrofractamide A (2.4 µg/♀) and pipercide (3.2 µg/♀). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.03 µg/♀. Against female A. aegypti, the insecticidal activity was more pronounced in pellitorine (0.17 µg/♀) than in retrofractamide A (1.5 µg/♀), guineensine (1.7 µg/♀), and pipercide (2.0 µg/♀). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.0014 µg/♀.

  9. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India.

  10. Compound Specific Extraction of Camptothecin from Nothapodytes nimmoniana and Piperine from Piper nigrum Using Accelerated Solvent Extractor.

    PubMed

    Upadhya, Vinayak; Pai, Sandeep R; Sharma, Ajay K; Hegde, Harsha V; Kholkute, Sanjiva D; Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Effects of varying temperatures with constant pressure of solvent on extraction efficiency of two chemically different alkaloids were studied. Camptothecin (CPT) from stem of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Grah.) Mabb. and piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum L. were extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE). Three cycles of extraction for a particular sample cell at a given temperature assured complete extraction. CPT and piperine were determined and quantified by using a simple and efficient UFLC-PDA (245 and 343 nm) method. Temperature increased efficiency of extraction to yield higher amount of CPT, whereas temperature had diminutive effect on yield of piperine. Maximum yield for CPT was achieved at 80°C and for piperine at 40°C. Thus, the study determines compound specific extraction of CPT from N. nimmoniana and piperine from P. nigrum using ASE method. The present study indicates the use of this method for simple, fast, and accurate extraction of the compound of interest.

  11. LC-MS/MS based identification of piperine production by endophytic Mycosphaerella sp. PF13 from Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Chithra, S; Jasim, B; Anisha, C; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2014-05-01

    Piper nigrum is very remarkable for its medicinal properties due to the presence of metabolites like piperine. Emerging understanding on the biosynthetic potential of endophytic fungi suggests the possibility to have piperine producing fungi in P. nigrum. In the current study, endophytic fungi isolated from P. nigrum were screened for the presence of piperine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This resulted in the identification of a Mycosphaerella sp. with the ability to produce piperine extracellularly. The biosynthesis of piperine (C17H19NO3) by the endophytic fungal isolate was confirmed by the presence of m/z 286.1 (M + H(+)) in the LC-MS/MS analysis using positive mode ionization. This was further supported by the presence of specific fragment ions with masses 135, 143, 171 and 201 formed due to the fragmentation of piperine present in the fungal extract.

  12. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Piper abbreviatum, P. erecticaule and P. lanatum (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Wan Salleh, Wan Mohd Nuzul Hakimi; Ahmad, Farediah; Yen, Khong Heng

    2014-12-01

    The study was designed to examine the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils extracted from the aerial parts of three Piper species: Piper abbreviatum, P. erecticaule and P. lanatum, all from Malaysia. GC and GC/MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences between these oils. GC and GC-MS analysis of P. abbreviatum, P. erecticaule and P. lanatum oils resulted in the identification of 33, 35 and 39 components, representing 70.5%, 63.4% and 78.2% of the components, respectively. The major components of P. abbreviatum oil were spathulenol (11.2%), (E)-nerolidol (8.5%) and β-caryophyllene (7.8%), whereas P. erecticaule oil mainly contained β-caryophyllene (5.7%) and spathulenol (5.1%). Borneol (7.5%), β-caryophyllene (6.6%) and α-amorphene (5.6%) were the most abundant components in P. lanatum oil. Antimicrobial activity was carried out using disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution method against nine microorganisms. All of the essential oils displayed weak activity towards Gram-positive bacteria with MIC values in the range 250-500 μg/mL. P. erecticaule oil showed the best activity on Aspergillus niger (MIC 31.3 μg/mL), followed by P. lanatum oil (MIC 62.5 μg/mL). This study demonstrated that the essential oils have potential as antimicrobial agents and may be useful in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. PMID:25632488

  13. Inhibition and Larvicidal Activity of Phenylpropanoids from Piper sarmentosum on Acetylcholinesterase against Mosquito Vectors and Their Binding Mode of Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Hematpoor, Arshia; Liew, Sook Yee; Chong, Wei Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus are vectors of dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity, mechanism of action and the binding interaction of three active phenylpropanoids from Piper sarmentosum (Piperaceae) toward late 3rd or early 4th larvae of above vectors. A bioassay guided-fractionation on the hexane extract from the roots of Piper sarmentosum led to the isolation and identification of three active phenylpropanoids; asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3. The current study involved evaluation of the toxicity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of these compounds against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were highly potent against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae causing up to 100% mortality at ≤ 15 μg/mL concentration. The ovicidal activity of asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3 were evaluated through egg hatching. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed potent ovicidal activity. Ovicidal activity for both compounds was up to 95% at 25μg/mL. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed strong inhibition on acetylcholinesterase with relative IC50 values of 0.73 to 1.87 μg/mL respectively. These findings coupled with the high AChE inhibition may suggest that asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 are neuron toxic compounds toward Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Further computational docking with Autodock Vina elaborates the possible interaction of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 with three possible binding sites of AChE which includes catalytic triads (CAS: S238, E367, H480), the peripheral sites (PAS: E72, W271) and anionic binding site (W83). The binding affinity of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were relatively strong with asaricin 1 showed a higher binding affinity in the anionic pocket. PMID:27152416

  14. BRDF model for new leaves on tea leaves and new leaves monitoring through BRDF monitoring with Web cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Kohei

    In order to monitor size of new leaves, BRDF model is created with Minnaert function based on Monte Carlo model. New leaves grow up on semi-parmanent old leaves, in general, for tea leaves. It is difficult to monitor size of new leaves by measuring spectral reflectance from nadir view only. BRDF would help to estimate size of new leaves. BRDF, meanwhile, can not be measured easely. BRDF model is needed for estimation of size of new leaves. Through theoretical and simulation studies, BRDF model is created. In order to estimate size of new leaves, the most significant observation angle as well as the most effective wavelength regions for spectral reflectance measurement are estimated through simulation and experiments. Visible and near infrared cameras monitoring tea fields from 45 degrees of zenith angle of observation allows monitor size of tea leaves so that the most appropriate time for pick tea leaves up can be determined.

  15. 75 FR 75363 - Absence and Leave; Sick Leave

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... regulations are in response to only a portion of OPM's proposed regulations (74 FR 43064) issued on August 26... covered servicemember undergoing medical treatment, recuperation, or therapy, for a serious injury or... regulations (75 FR 33491) amending the definition of family member for sick leave purposes to now...

  16. 75 FR 70845 - Absence and Leave; Qualifying Exigency Leave

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... NDAA legislation. DOL issued its final regulations on November 17, 2008, (73 FR 67934) to implement the... proposed FMLA regulations on August 26, 2009, (74 FR 43064, at http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2009/pdf/E9... leave may be found in the DOL proposed regulations published on February 11, 2008, at 73 FR 7876...

  17. Leaves: Elevated CO2 levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Burning fossil fuels and land use changes such as deforestation and urbanization have led to a dramatic rise in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. The highly dilute CO2 from the atmosphere enters plant leaves where it is concentr...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and... with the employee's right to submit an application to become a leave donor (or leave contributor,...

  19. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and... with the employee's right to submit an application to become a leave donor (or leave contributor,...

  20. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and... with the employee's right to submit an application to become a leave donor (or leave contributor,...

  1. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and... with the employee's right to submit an application to become a leave donor (or leave contributor,...

  2. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for......

  3. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for......

  4. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for......

  5. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for......

  6. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for......

  7. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants.

  8. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  9. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  10. Arsenic Sorption in Dried Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Gabriela C.; de Carvalho, Regina P.; Duarte, Grazielle; Santos, Mércia H.

    2005-10-01

    Biosorption is the retention of metal ions from aqueous solutions by biomasses. This phenomenon can be helpful in the design of alternative filters for the depollution of industrial and mining waste waters. The recovery of filtered metal ions can also be commercially interesting. Although many studies about the sorptive capacity of biomasses have been done for different metals, few have investigated sorption sites and mechanisms in these systems. We studied the retention of arsenic ions from aqueous solutions using dried lettuce leaves (L. sativa) as biomass. The toxic arsenic forms As(III) and As(V) are commonly found in mining waste waters. Early studies have shown that lettuce leaves have a good sorptive capacity for copper and iron ions, comparable to other sorbents such as activated carbon or ionic-exchange resins. Arsenic sorption by lettuce dried leaves was not found to be effective when in natura biomass was used. Sorptive capacity was improved and became comparable to the sorption of the other ions studied when the biomass was charged with Fe(III). The sorption mechanism of arsenic in Fe-charged biomass must be similar to the one proposed for As sorption by mineral clays, where As ions bind to Fe(III) atoms in the clay structure.

  11. Smoking Leaves Lasting Marks on DNA: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_161060.html Smoking Leaves Lasting Marks on DNA: Study Changes related to disease found in more ... cigarettes can leave a lasting imprint on human DNA, altering more than 7,000 genes in ways ...

  12. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For an... may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the Superintendent, for periods not...

  13. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For an... may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the Superintendent, for periods not...

  14. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For an... may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the Superintendent, for periods not...

  15. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For an... may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the Superintendent, for periods not...

  16. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For an... may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the Superintendent, for periods not...

  17. In situ biosynthesis of Ag, Au and bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC: green chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Tamuly, Chandan; Hazarika, Moushumi; Borah, Sarat Ch; Das, Manash R; Boruah, Manas P

    2013-02-01

    The synthesis of Ag, Au and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract is demonstrated here. The rapid formation of stable Ag and Au nanoparticles has been found using P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract in aqueous medium at normal atmospheric condition. Competitive reduction of Ag(+) and Au(3+) ions present simultaneously in solution during exposure to P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract leads to the synthesis of bimetallic Ag-Au nanoparticles in solution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the Ag nanoparticles predominantly form spherical in shape with the size range of 2.0±0.5-30.0±1.2 nm. In case of Au nanoparticles, the particles are spherical in shape along with few triangular, hexagonal and pentagonal shaped nanoparticles also observed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the nanoparticles were face centered cubic (fcc) in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanoparticles were capped with plant compounds. The chemical constituents, viz. catechin, gallic acid, courmaric acid and protocatechuic acid of the leaf extract were identified which may act as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agent. The expected reaction mechanism in the formation of Ag and Au nanoparticles is also reported. PMID:23107941

  18. Antimicrobial effects of Piper guineense 'Uziza' and Phyllantus amarus 'Ebe-benizo' on Candida albicans and Streptococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Okigbo, R N; Igwe, D I

    2007-12-01

    Two pathogens were employed, Streptococcus faecalis and Candida albicans for the study of the antimicrobial effects of Piper guineense and Phyllantus amarus using agar-well diffusion and disc-diffusion methods. Phytochemical screening of ethanol, cold and hot water extracts detected the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids and phlobatannins. Antimicrobial effect of the plant extracts showed that the organic solvent and aqueous solvents of P. amarus were inhibitory to S. faecalis while the extracts of Phyllantus amarus were not inhibitory to Candida albicans. Agar-well determined Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values ranged between 3.125 mg/ml and 6.25 mg/ml while the disc diffusion determined MIC values ranged between 6.25 mg/ml and 25.0 mg/ml. The agar-well determined MIC values for the ethanolic P. amarus extracts (3.12 mg/ml) were lower than the corresponding disc-diffusion MIC determined values (6.25 mg/ml-25.00 mg/ml). Bacteriocidal and bacteriostatic effect varied with, solvent type of extract, concentration of the plant extract and the method of the test adopted. The active components of the plant have no antifungal effect on the tested yeast (Candida albicans). These findings are discussed in relation to plant chemicals as a means of disease control and also to the problem of microbial resistance to synthetic drugs. PMID:18088009

  19. Antioxidant efficacy of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine in rats with high fat diet induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, R S; Surya, D; Nalini, N

    2004-01-01

    The present study was aimed to explore the effect of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation, enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in rats fed a high-fat diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (95-115 g) were divided into 5 groups. They were fed standard pellet diet, high-fat diet (20% coconut oil, 2% cholesterol and 0.125% bile salts), high-fat diet plus black pepper (0.25 g or 0.5 g/kg body weight), high-fat diet plus piperine (0.02 g/kg body weight) for a period of 10 weeks. Significantly elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and significantly lowered activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver, heart, kidney, intestine and aorta were observed in rats fed the high fat diet as compared to the control rats. Simultaneous supplementation with black pepper or piperine lowered TBARS and CD levels and maintained SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and GSH levels to near those of control rats. The data indicate that supplementation with black pepper or the active principle of black pepper, piperine, can reduce high-fat diet induced oxidative stress to the cells.

  20. Detection of flavokavins (A, B, C) in cultivars of kava (Piper methysticum) using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC).

    PubMed

    Lebot, V; Do, T K T; Legendre, L

    2014-05-15

    Kava (Piper methysticum) is used to prepare the traditional beverage of the Pacific islands. In Europe, kava has been suspected to cause hepatoxicity with flavokavin B (FKB) considered as a possible factor. The present study describes an HPTLC protocol for rapid screening of samples. The objectives are: to detect the presence of flavokavins in extracts and to compare the FKB levels in different cultivars. Overall, 172 samples originating from four cultivars groups (noble, medicinal, two-days and wichmannii), were analysed. Results indicate that the ratio FKB/kavalactones is much higher in two-days (0.39) and wichmannii (0.32) compared to nobles (0.09) and medicinal cultivars (0.10). For each group, the ratios flavokavins/kavalactones do not change significantly between roots, stumps or basal stems and among clones, indicating that they are genetically controlled. This protocol has good accuracy and is cost efficient for routine analysis. We discuss how it could be used for quality control.

  1. Biological activities of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) essential oils against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Mukesh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba (Piperaceae) was essential oils were investigated for repellent, insecticidal, antiovipositional, egg hatching, persistence of its insecticidal activities against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Essential oil vapours repelled bruchid adults significantly as oviposition was found reduced in choice oviposition assay. Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils caused both fumigant and contact toxicity in C. chinensis adults. In fumigation toxicity assay, median lethal concentrations (LC50) were 0.34 and 0.27 microL cm(-3) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively, while in contact toxicity assay, LC50 were 0.90 and 0.66 microL cm(-2) for Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils, respectively. These two essential oils reduced oviposition in C. chinensis adults when treated with sublethal concentrations by fumigation and contact method. Oviposition inhibition was more pronounced when adults come in contact than in vapours. Both essential oils significantly reduced egg hatching rate when fumigated. Persistence in insecticidal efficiency of both essential oils decreased with time. P. cubeba showed less persistence than Z. officinale essential oil because no mortality was observed in C. chinensis adults after 36 h of treatment with P. cubeba and after 48 h of treatment of Z. officinale essential oil. Fumigation with these essential oils has no effect on the germination of the cowpea seeds. Findings of the study suggest that Z. officinale and P. cubeba essential oils can be useful as promising agent in insect pest management programme.

  2. In situ biosynthesis of Ag, Au and bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC: green chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Tamuly, Chandan; Hazarika, Moushumi; Borah, Sarat Ch; Das, Manash R; Boruah, Manas P

    2013-02-01

    The synthesis of Ag, Au and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract is demonstrated here. The rapid formation of stable Ag and Au nanoparticles has been found using P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract in aqueous medium at normal atmospheric condition. Competitive reduction of Ag(+) and Au(3+) ions present simultaneously in solution during exposure to P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract leads to the synthesis of bimetallic Ag-Au nanoparticles in solution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the Ag nanoparticles predominantly form spherical in shape with the size range of 2.0±0.5-30.0±1.2 nm. In case of Au nanoparticles, the particles are spherical in shape along with few triangular, hexagonal and pentagonal shaped nanoparticles also observed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the nanoparticles were face centered cubic (fcc) in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanoparticles were capped with plant compounds. The chemical constituents, viz. catechin, gallic acid, courmaric acid and protocatechuic acid of the leaf extract were identified which may act as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agent. The expected reaction mechanism in the formation of Ag and Au nanoparticles is also reported.

  3. Simultaneous determination of bioactive compounds in Piper nigrum L. and a species comparison study using HPLC-PDA.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vidadala Rama Subba; Raju, Sagi Satyanarayana; Sarma, Vanka Umamaheswara; Sabine, Fouriner; Babu, Kothapalli Hari; Babu, Katragadda Suresh; Rao, Janaswamy Madhusudana

    2011-08-01

    Piper nigrum L. is a traditional medicine widely used in India for illnesses such as constipation, diarrhoea, earache, gangrene, heart disease, hernia, hoarseness, indigestion, insect bites, insomnia, joint pain, liver problems, lung disease, oral abscesses, sunburn, tooth decay and toothaches. In this study, six bioactive compounds, namely piperine (1), pellitorine (2), guineensine (3), pipnoohine (4), trichostachine (5) and piperonal (6) were quantified in different extracts of P. nigrum L. and compared with those of P. longum L. and P. chaba Hunter. To evaluate the quality of P. nigrum, a simple, accurate and precise HPLC-PDA method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the above-mentioned six compounds. The separation was achieved by Phenomenex Luna RP C(18) column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm, Phenomenex Inc, CA, USA) with a binary gradient solvent system of water-acetonitrile, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and detected at 210, 232, 262 and 343 nm. All six calibration curves showed good linearity (R (2) > 0.9966). The method was reproducible with intra- and inter-day variations of less than 2% and 5%, respectively. The results demonstrated that this method is simple, reliable and suitable for the quality control of these plants.

  4. Piper cubeba targets multiple aspects of the androgen-signalling pathway. A potential phytotherapy against prostate cancer growth?

    PubMed

    Yam, Jianying; Kreuter, Matthias; Drewe, Juergen

    2008-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of prostate cancer (PC) in the Western world, there is a dearth of effective medication. Since the androgen-signalling pathway is very much involved in PC growth and development, we investigated the potential of Piper cubeba L. extract, P9605, in targeting multiple events simultaneously within this pathway. This may be more effective compared to an antiandrogen monotherapy. Our results indicated that P9605 inhibited proliferation in androgen-dependent LNCaP human prostate cancer cells by reducing DNA synthesis and inducing apoptosis. This antigrowth effect was less pronounced in androgen-independent PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. P9605 potently inhibited 5 alpha-reductase II activity, which is responsible for converting testosterone to its active form, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), in the prostate. It also acted as an antagonist at recombinant wild-type androgen receptors (AR). P9605 suppressed cell growth and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) secretion stimulated by physiological concentrations of DHT in LNCaP cells. Interestingly, it down-regulated AR levels. In conclusion, our findings suggest that P9605 may potentially retard the growth of androgen-dependent PC via several mechanisms.

  5. Resource capture by single leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. 5 CFR 630.1013 - Participation in voluntary leave transfer and leave bank programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1013 Participation in voluntary leave transfer and leave bank programs. (a) If an agency or organizational subunit... this subpart; and (3) The agency or organizational subunit shall establish policies or...

  7. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement... organizational subunit covered by a voluntary leave bank program under this subpart and an agency or organizational subunit covered by a voluntary leave transfer program under subpart I of this part, the...

  8. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104...

  9. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104...

  10. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    PubMed

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention.

  11. Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, P A; Nipate, S S; Sonpetkar, J M; Salvi, N C; Waghmare, A B; Chaudhari, P D

    2014-01-15

    Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. and piperine. The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum (antivenom) manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. was used as standard. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and double immunodiffusion test. Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high (p<0.01) levels of cross reactions between the PLE and piperine treated mice serum and the venom antigens. In double immunodiffusion test, a white band was observed between the two wells of antigen and antibodies for both the PLE-treated and piperine-treated mice serum. Thus it can be concluded that immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum and piperine produced a high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites. PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites.

  12. Role of leaves in phototropism.

    PubMed

    Lam, S L; Leopold, A C

    1966-05-01

    Experiments with green seedlings of sunflower (Helianthus annuns L.) indicate the existence of a phototropic mechanism which involves the leaves or cotyledons, and which can produce an asymmetry of auxin content without the involvement of lateral auxin transport, the classic explanation of phototropism in etiolated seedlings. The basic lines of evidence for the leaf-mediated tropism are: 1) darkening of one cotyledon will cause curvature of the stem toward the lighted cotyledon: 2) the darkened cotyledon sustains an enhanced growth rate in the stem below it: 3) conversely, light suppresses the growth-stimulating effects of a single cotyledon: and 4) more diffusible auxin is obtained from the stem below darkened cotyledons than below lighted ones.

  13. The cardioprotective power of leaves

    PubMed Central

    Boncler, Magdalena; Watala, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Lack of physical activity, smoking and/or inappropriate diet can contribute to the increase of oxidative stress, in turn affecting the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Strong anti-oxidant properties of plant polyphenolic compounds might underlie their cardioprotective activity. This paper reviews recent findings on the anti-oxidant activity of plant leaf extracts and emphasizes their effects on blood platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells – the targets orchestrating the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. We also review the evidence linking supplementation with plant leaf extracts and the risk factors defining the metabolic syndrome. The data point to the importance of leaves as an alternative source of polyphenolic compounds in the human diet and their role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26322095

  14. Phenolics of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Manguro, Lawrence Onyango Arot; Lemmen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Five flavonol glycosides characterised as kaempferide 3-O-(2'',3''-diacetylglucoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrhamnoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrutinoside)-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-[beta-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside together with benzoic acid 4-O-beta-glucoside, benzoic acid 4-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-glucoside and benzaldehyde 4-O-beta-glucoside have been isolated from methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Also obtained from the same extract were known compounds, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol, syringic acid, gallic acid, rutin and quercetin 3-O-beta-glucoside. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods as well as comparison with data from known compounds.

  15. Phenolics of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Manguro, Lawrence Onyango Arot; Lemmen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Five flavonol glycosides characterised as kaempferide 3-O-(2'',3''-diacetylglucoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrhamnoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrutinoside)-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-[beta-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside together with benzoic acid 4-O-beta-glucoside, benzoic acid 4-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-glucoside and benzaldehyde 4-O-beta-glucoside have been isolated from methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Also obtained from the same extract were known compounds, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol, syringic acid, gallic acid, rutin and quercetin 3-O-beta-glucoside. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods as well as comparison with data from known compounds. PMID:17365690

  16. Long lasting preventive effects of piperlongumine and a Piper longum extract against stress triggered pathologies in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Vaishali; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Majeed, Muhammed; Kumar, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare doxycycline (DOX) such as oral efficacies of piperlongumine (PL) and a Piper longum fruits extract (PLE) as stress resistance inducers. Materials and Methods: Efficacies of oral pretreatments with 5 mg/kg PL or PLE or of 50 mg/kg DOX for 10 consecutive days against stress resistance were compared. Mice in treated groups were subjected to a stress induced hyperthermia on the 1st, 5th, 7th, and 10thday. Treated mice were then subjected to tail suspension test on the 11thday. Alteration in body weights, core temperatures, and gastric ulcers triggered by occasional exposures to foot shocks were determined. Results: DOX like long-lasting protective effects of PL and PLE against gradual alterations in body weights, basal temperatures and transient hyperthermic responses triggered by foot shocks during the post-treatment days were observed. Altered responses of stressed mice in tail suspension test observed 1 day after the last foot-shock exposures and gastric ulcers and other pathologies quantified 1 day after the test were also suppressed in PL or PLE or DOX pretreated groups. Conclusion: PL and crude PLE are DOX like long-acting desensitizers of stress triggered co-morbidities. Reported observations add further experimental evidences justifying traditionally known medicinal uses of P. longum and other plants of the Piperaceae family, and reveal that PL is also another very long acting and orally active inducer of stress resistance. Efforts to confirm stress preventive potentials of low dose plant-derived products enriched in PL or piperine like amide alkaloids in volunteers and patients can be warranted. PMID:26649232

  17. Piper sarmentosum as an antioxidant on oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by hydrogen peroxide*

    PubMed Central

    Hafizah, Abdul Hamid; Zaiton, Zakaria; Zulkhairi, Amom; Mohd Ilham, Adenan; Nor Anita, Megat Mohd Nordin; Zaleha, Abdullah Mahdy

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial cell death due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) may contribute to the initial endothelial injury, which promotes atherosclerotic lesion formation. Piper sarmentosum (PS), a natural product, has been shown to have an antioxidant property, which is hypothesized to inhibit production of ROS and prevent cell injury. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effects of PS on the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative cell damage in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this experiment, HUVECs were obtained by collagenase perfusion of the large vein in the umbilical cord and cultured in medium M200 supplemented with low serum growth supplementation (LSGS). HUVECs were treated with various concentrations of H2O2 (0–1000 µmol/L) and it was observed that 180 µmol/L H2O2 reduced cell viability by 50% as denoted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Using the above concentration as the positive control, the H2O2-induced HUVECs were concomitantly treated with various concentrations (100, 150, 250 and 300 µg/ml) of three different extracts (aqueous, methanol and hexane) of PS. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) levels showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in HUVECs compared to the negative control. However, PS extracts showed a protective effect on HUVECs from H2O2-induced cell apoptosis with a significant reduction in MDA, SOD, CAT and GPX levels (P<0.05). Furthermore, PS had exhibited ferric reducing antioxidant power with its high phenolic content. Hence, it was concluded that PS plays a beneficial role in reducing oxidative stress in H2O2-induced HUVECs. PMID:20443214

  18. Effect of different in vitro culture extracts of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on toxic metabolites-producing strains.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Fazal, Hina

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the effect of different in vitro cultures (callus, in vitro shoots) and commercially available peppercorn extract was investigated for its activity against toxic metabolite-producing strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans). These in vitro cultures were extracted with ethanol, hexane, and chloroform, and the antipathogenic activity was determined by well-diffusion method. Hexane extract of callus showed 22 mm zone of inhibition against B. cereus, 23 mm against S. aureus, while regenerated shoots and seeds have shown 24.3 and 26 mm zones of inhibition. The ethanolic extracts of regenerated Piper shoots have shown 25 mm activity against S. aureus, 21 mm against B. cereus, and 16 mm in the case of C. albicans in comparison with standard antibiotics. Peppercorn extracts in chloroform and ethanol had shown activities against B. cereus (23.6 mm) and B. subtilis (23.5 mm). During in vitro organogenesis and morphogenesis, cells and tissues produced a comparable phytochemicals profile like mother plant. Morphogenesis is critically controlled by the application of exogenous plant-growth regulators. Such addition alters the hormonal transduction pathways, and cells under in vitro conditions regenerate tissues, which are dependant on the physiological state of cells, and finally enhance the production of secondary metabolites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to compare the antimicrobial potential of in vitro regenerated tissues and peppercorn with standard antibiotics. In conclusion, most of the extracts showed pronounced activities against all the pathogenic microbes. This is a preliminary work, and the minimum inhibitory concentration values needs to be further explored. Regenerated tissues of P. nigrum are a good source of biologically active metabolites for antimicrobial activities, and callus culture presented itself as

  19. Antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted by supercritical CO₂ extraction and hydro-distillation.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Hossein; Abdul Manap, Mohd Yazid Bin; Solati, Zeinab

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum L. essential oil extracted using the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) technique. Response surface methodology was applied using a three-factor central composite design to evaluate the effects of three independent extraction variables: pressure of 15-30 MPa, temperature of 40-50 °C and dynamic extraction time of 40-80 min. The DPPH radical scavenging method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The results showed that the best antioxidant activity was achieved at 30 MPa, 40 °C and 40 min. The extracts were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The main components extracted using SC-CO₂ extraction in optimum conditions were β-caryophyllene (25.38 ± 0.62%), limonene (15.64 ± 0.15%), sabinene (13.63 ± 0.21%), 3-carene (9.34 ± 0.04%), β-pinene (7.27 ± 0.05%), and α-pinene (4.25 ± 0.06%). The essential oil obtained through this technique was compared with the essential oil obtained using hydro-distillation. For the essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation, the most abundant compounds were β-caryophyllene (18.64 ± 0.84%), limonene (14.95 ± 0.13%), sabinene (13.19 ± 0.17%), 3-carene (8.56 ± 0.11%), β-pinene (9.71 ± 0.12%), and α-pinene (7.96 ± 0.14%). Radical scavenging activity of the extracts obtained by SC-CO₂ and hydro-distillation showed an EC₅₀ of 103.28 and 316.27 µg mL(-1) respectively.

  20. Studies on the effects of phosphine on Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in culture medium and in black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    PubMed

    Castro, M F P M; Rezende, A C B; Benato, E A; Valentini, S R T; Furlani, R P Z; Tfouni, S A V

    2011-04-01

    The effect of phosphine on Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis inoculated in culture medium and in black pepper grains (Piper nigrum), as well as on the reduction of the microbial load of the dried and moisturized product, was verified. The postfumigation effect was verified in inoculated samples with 0.92 and 0.97 water activity (a(w)) exposed to 6 g/m(3) phosphine for 72 h, dried to 0.67 a(w), and stored for 24, 48, and 72 h. No decreases were observed in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in culture medium when fumigant concentrations up to 6 g/m(3) were applied for 48 h at 35°C. However, the colonies showed reductions in size and atypical coloration as the phosphine concentration increased. No reduction in Salmonella counts occurred on the inoculated dried samples after fumigation. On the other hand, when phosphine at concentrations of 6 g/m(3) was applied on moisturized black pepper for 72 h, decreases in Salmonella counts of around 80% were observed. The counts of total aerobic mesophilic bacterium populations of the dried and moisturized black pepper were not affected by the fumigant treatment. The results of the postfumigation studies indicated that Salmonella Enteritidis was absent in the fumigated grains after drying and storage for 72 h, indicating a promising application for this technique. It was concluded that for Salmonella Enteritidis control, phosphine fumigation could be applied to black pepper grains before drying and the producers should rigidly follow good agricultural practices, mainly during the drying process, in order to avoid product recontamination. Additional work is needed to confirm the findings with more Salmonella serotypes and strains.

  1. 5 CFR 630.703 - Computation of shore leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of shore leave. 630.703... AND LEAVE Shore Leave § 630.703 Computation of shore leave. (a) An employee earns shore leave at the rate of 1 day of shore leave for each 15 calendar days of absence on one or more extended voyages....

  2. Jamu Gendong, a kind of traditional medicine in Indonesia: the microbial contamination of its raw materials and endproduct.

    PubMed

    Limyati, D A; Juniar, B L

    1998-12-01

    An examination on the microbiological quality of seven kinds of Jamu Gendong (JG) and their raw materials has been conducted according to the requirements of microbial contamination in traditional medicine, issued by the Department of Health of Indonesia in 1986. Samples of JG and their raw materials were taken from producers in three districts of Surabaya. The samples were subject to the following examinations: total plate count (TPC), MPN coliform, the enumeration of molds and yeasts, the presence or absence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Vibrio. Each time the JG samples were taken from different producers together with their raw materials. The results of this investigation showed that most of the JG samples were heavily contaminated with bacteria, yeasts and molds. For bacteria, taken from the TPC results, their numbers were ranging from 7.7 x 10(2) microorganisms/ml to too many to count (TMTC). For yeasts and molds the numbers showed variations from 0 microorganisms/ml to TMTC. Contamination with Coliform in 1 ml of JG were ranged from 0 to > 2.4 x 10(6) microorganisms. In most of the samples pathogenic Staphylococci, Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were not detected, so that a conclusion can be drawn that most of the contamination in JG are saprophytic, only a few pathogenic. The results also show that it is possible to have JG which fulfill the government's requirements. Similar results were obtained with the plant material constituents of JG such as rhizomes, leaves, herbs and fruits of Piper nigrum and Piper retrofractum, with the exception of Piper betle leaves and P. retrofractum fruits, both showing low contamination of Coliform bacteria. However, the fruits of Citrus aurantifolia and Morinda citrifolia were less contaminated, just like seeds of Oryza sativa, Parkia roxburghii, bulbs of Allium sativum and the pulp of Tamarindus indica. With these plant constituents of JG, it might be of interest to screen their antibacterial and antifungal

  3. Ion exchanger from chemically modified banana leaves.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Samar H; Abd-Elkader, Amal H

    2013-07-25

    Cation exchangers from chemically modified banana leaves have been prepared. Banana leaves were treated with different molarities of KMnO4 and cross linked with epichlorohydrin and their effect on metal ion adsorption was investigated. Phosphorylation of chemically modified banana leaves was also studied. The metal ion uptake by these modified banana leaves was clarified. Effect of different varieties, e.g. activation of produced cation exchanger, concentration of metal ions was also investigated. Characterization of the prepared ion exchangers by using infrared and thermal analysis was also taken in consideration. PMID:23768590

  4. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability.

    PubMed

    Hill, Heather D

    2013-05-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  5. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  6. Chemopreventive and Antilipidperoxidative Efficacy of Piper longum (Linn.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, Namasivayam; Manoharan, Shanmugam; Balakrishnan, Subramanian; Rajmani Ramachandran, Cinnamanoor; Muralinaidu, Radhakrishnan

    Aim of the present study was to find out the chemopreventive efficacy of Piper longum, a plant having diverse medicinal properties, in 7,12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced oral carcinogenesis. The mechanistic pathway for its chemopreventive potential was analysed by measuring lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in DMBA induced oral cancer. DMBA painting in hamster buccal pouch three times per week for 14 weeks resulted in well developed, well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Elevated lipid peroxidation and decline in antioxidants were noticed in tumor bearing hamsters as compared to control animals. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of Piper longum dried fruits (PLEFet) on alternate days to DMBA painting significantly prevented the tumor incidence, volume and burden and restored the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in DMBA painted hamsters. Our results indicate that the dried fruits of P. longum has suppressing effects on cell proliferation, which is probably due to its antilipid peroxidative and antioxidative potential during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.

  7. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Drimys, Liriodendron, andPiper: Implications for the phylogeny of magnoliids and the evolution ofGC content

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengqiu, C.; Penaflor, C.; Kuehl, J.V.; Leebens-Mack, J.; Carlson, J.; dePamphilis, C.W.; Boore, J.L.; Jansen, R.K.

    2006-06-01

    The magnoliids represent the largest basal angiosperm clade with four orders, 19 families and 8,500 species. Although several recent angiosperm molecular phylogenies have supported the monophyly of magnoliids and suggested relationships among the orders, the limited number of genes examined resulted in only weak support, and these issues remain controversial. Furthermore, considerable incongruence has resulted in phylogenies supporting three different sets of relationships among magnoliids and the two large angiosperm clades, monocots and eudicots. This is one of the most important remaining issues concerning relationships among basal angiosperms. We sequenced the chloroplast genomes of three magnoliids, Drimys (Canellales), Liriodendron (Magnoliales), and Piper (Piperales), and used these data in combination with 32 other completed angiosperm chloroplast genomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among magnoliids. The Drimys and Piper chloroplast genomes are nearly identical in size at 160,606 and 160,624 bp, respectively. The genomes include a pair of inverted repeats of 26,649 bp (Drimys) and 27,039 (Piper), separated by a small single copy region of 18,621 (Drimys) and 18,878 (Piper) and a large single copy region of 88,685 bp (Drimys) and 87,666 bp (Piper). The gene order of both taxa is nearly identical to many other unrearranged angiosperm chloroplast genomes, including Calycanthus, the other published magnoliid genome. Comparisons of angiosperm chloroplast genomes indicate that GC content is not uniformly distributed across the genome. Overall GC content ranges from 34-39%, and coding regions have a substantially higher GC content than non-coding regions (both intergenic spacers and introns). Among protein-coding genes, GC content varies by codon position with 1st codon > 2nd codon > 3rd codon, and it varies by functional group with photosynthetic genes having the highest percentage and NADH genes the lowest. Across the genome, GC content is highest in

  8. Resilience and Young People Leaving Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mike

    2008-01-01

    How do we promote the resilience of young people leaving care? This article explores this question by bringing together research findings on the resilience of young people from disadvantaged family backgrounds with research studies on young people leaving care. These findings are applied to young people during their journey to adulthood: their…

  9. Developments in Educational Leave of Absence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    The document evaluates present international developments in the area of leave of absence during working hours for educational purposes. Part 1, Educational Leave of Absence: A Comparative Analysis, contains five chapters: (1) Towards a New Right to Education, discussing recurrent education, the world of work, the International Labor Organization,…

  10. A Feminist Perspective on Parental Leave Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways that three feminist theories--liberal feminism, cultural feminism, and feminist poststructuralism--might be used to craft parental leave policies. After examining each theory in detail, the article concludes by offering one example of an ideal parental leave policy that combines the best features of each theory to…

  11. Antioxidant activity of Arbutus unedo leaves.

    PubMed

    Pabuçcuoğlu, A; Kivçak, B; Baş, M; Mert, T

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity. PMID:12946724

  12. Patterns of ehtylene production in senescing leaves.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, N; Lieberman, M

    1979-11-01

    Changes in the patterns of ethylene production, chlorophyll content, and respiration were studied in relation to the senescence of intact leaves and leaf discs. The primary leaves of pinto bean, which abscise readily during natural senescence, and tobacco and sugar beet leaves, which do not abscise, were used. A decrease in the rate of ethylene production and respiration, during the slow phase of chlorophyll degradation, was observed in leaf-blade discs cut from mature leaves and aged in the dark. During rapid chlorophyll loss both ethylene production and respiration increased and then decreased. These climacteric-like patterns were shown by leaf discs of all three species. Discs taken from leaves that had been senescing on the plant also showed a climacteric-like rise in ethylene production but not in respiration, which decreased continuously with leaf age. Climacteric-like patterns in the rise of ethylene and respiration for leaf discs were also shown by the petioles of both bean and tobacco leaves. This indicates that the rise of ethylene and respiration is characteristic of the general process of senescence in leaves and is not restricted to the abscission process. In contrast to the ethylene-forming systems in climacteric fruits and many flowers, the one in leaves declines sharply in the early stages of senescence. The subsequent rise of ethylene production appears to be associated with the rapid phase of chlorophyll breakdown, and may indicate the final stage of the senescence process during which ethylene could be actively involved in inducing leaf abscission.

  13. When and Why Dropouts Leave High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across…

  14. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... illness, there must be a medical need for leave and it must be that such medical need can be best... illness, if required by the employer, addresses the medical necessity of intermittent leave or leave on a... condition or of a covered servicemember's serious injury or illness, or for recovery from treatment...

  15. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... illness, there must be a medical need for leave and it must be that such medical need can be best... illness, if required by the employer, addresses the medical necessity of intermittent leave or leave on a... condition or of a covered servicemember's serious injury or illness, or for recovery from treatment...

  16. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... illness, there must be a medical need for leave and it must be that such medical need can be best... illness, if required by the employer, addresses the medical necessity of intermittent leave or leave on a... condition or of a covered servicemember's serious injury or illness, or for recovery from treatment...

  17. Women's reasons for leaving abusive spouses.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Y C

    1991-01-01

    Research has focused on factors associated with leaving physically abusive relationships, yet little is known about what the woman thinks when she leaves. Fifty-one formerly battered women from rural and metropolitan areas in two midwestern states described 86 reasons for leaving a physically abusive relationship. During open-ended interviews, women who rated themselves as severely abused spontaneously emphasized leaving as a process. Content analysis resulted in reasons categorized as safety, dependency, and personal growth. Self-report retrospective data from a nonrandom sample limit generalizability of results; however, the awareness and reasoning of the women, coupled with their emphasis on leaving as process and personal growth, suggest the importance of education and support programs for abused women and women at risk for abuse.

  18. Changes in spectral properties of detached leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    If leaf senescence can be delayed for several days without significant changes in spectral properties, then samples of leaves at remote test sites could be prepared and shipped to laboratories to measure spectral properties. The changes in spectral properties of detached leaves were determined. Leaves from red birch and red pine were immersed in water or 0.001 M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of birch leaves were measured over the 400 to 1100 nm wavelength region with a spectroradiometer and integrating sphere. Pine needles were taped together and reflectance of the mat of needles was measured. Spectral properties changed less than 5% of initial values during the first week when leaves were stored at 5 C. Storage at 25 C promoted rapid senescence and large changes in spectral properties. BAP delayed, but did not stop, senescence at 25 C.

  19. Transcriptome- Assisted Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Reveals Novel Insights into Piper nigrum-Phytophthora capsici Phytopathosystem.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Chidambareswaren; Krishnan, Anu; Saraswathy, Gayathri G; Surendran, Arun; Jaleel, Abdul; Sakuntala, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), a tropical spice crop of global acclaim, is susceptible to Phytophthora capsici, an oomycete pathogen which causes the highly destructive foot rot disease. A systematic understanding of this phytopathosystem has not been possible owing to lack of genome or proteome information. In this study, we explain an integrated transcriptome-assisted label-free quantitative proteomics pipeline to study the basal immune components of black pepper when challenged with P. capsici. We report a global identification of 532 novel leaf proteins from black pepper, of which 518 proteins were functionally annotated using BLAST2GO tool. A label-free quantitation of the protein datasets revealed 194 proteins common to diseased and control protein datasets of which 22 proteins showed significant up-regulation and 134 showed significant down-regulation. Ninety-three proteins were identified exclusively on P. capsici infected leaf tissues and 245 were expressed only in mock (control) infected samples. In-depth analysis of our data gives novel insights into the regulatory pathways of black pepper which are compromised during the infection. Differential down-regulation was observed in a number of critical pathways like carbon fixation in photosynthetic organism, cyano-amino acid metabolism, fructose, and mannose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The proteomics results were validated with real-time qRT-PCR analysis. We were also able to identify the complete coding sequences for all the proteins of which few selected genes were cloned and sequence characterized for further confirmation. Our study is the first report of a quantitative proteomics dataset in black pepper which provides convincing evidence on the effectiveness of a transcriptome-based label-free proteomics approach for elucidating the host response to biotic stress in a non-model spice crop like P. nigrum, for which genome information is unavailable. Our dataset

  20. Transcriptome- Assisted Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Reveals Novel Insights into Piper nigrum—Phytophthora capsici Phytopathosystem

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, Chidambareswaren; Krishnan, Anu; Saraswathy, Gayathri G.; Surendran, Arun; Jaleel, Abdul; Sakuntala, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), a tropical spice crop of global acclaim, is susceptible to Phytophthora capsici, an oomycete pathogen which causes the highly destructive foot rot disease. A systematic understanding of this phytopathosystem has not been possible owing to lack of genome or proteome information. In this study, we explain an integrated transcriptome-assisted label-free quantitative proteomics pipeline to study the basal immune components of black pepper when challenged with P. capsici. We report a global identification of 532 novel leaf proteins from black pepper, of which 518 proteins were functionally annotated using BLAST2GO tool. A label-free quantitation of the protein datasets revealed 194 proteins common to diseased and control protein datasets of which 22 proteins showed significant up-regulation and 134 showed significant down-regulation. Ninety-three proteins were identified exclusively on P. capsici infected leaf tissues and 245 were expressed only in mock (control) infected samples. In-depth analysis of our data gives novel insights into the regulatory pathways of black pepper which are compromised during the infection. Differential down-regulation was observed in a number of critical pathways like carbon fixation in photosynthetic organism, cyano-amino acid metabolism, fructose, and mannose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The proteomics results were validated with real-time qRT-PCR analysis. We were also able to identify the complete coding sequences for all the proteins of which few selected genes were cloned and sequence characterized for further confirmation. Our study is the first report of a quantitative proteomics dataset in black pepper which provides convincing evidence on the effectiveness of a transcriptome-based label-free proteomics approach for elucidating the host response to biotic stress in a non-model spice crop like P. nigrum, for which genome information is unavailable. Our dataset

  1. Transcriptome- Assisted Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Reveals Novel Insights into Piper nigrum-Phytophthora capsici Phytopathosystem.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Chidambareswaren; Krishnan, Anu; Saraswathy, Gayathri G; Surendran, Arun; Jaleel, Abdul; Sakuntala, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), a tropical spice crop of global acclaim, is susceptible to Phytophthora capsici, an oomycete pathogen which causes the highly destructive foot rot disease. A systematic understanding of this phytopathosystem has not been possible owing to lack of genome or proteome information. In this study, we explain an integrated transcriptome-assisted label-free quantitative proteomics pipeline to study the basal immune components of black pepper when challenged with P. capsici. We report a global identification of 532 novel leaf proteins from black pepper, of which 518 proteins were functionally annotated using BLAST2GO tool. A label-free quantitation of the protein datasets revealed 194 proteins common to diseased and control protein datasets of which 22 proteins showed significant up-regulation and 134 showed significant down-regulation. Ninety-three proteins were identified exclusively on P. capsici infected leaf tissues and 245 were expressed only in mock (control) infected samples. In-depth analysis of our data gives novel insights into the regulatory pathways of black pepper which are compromised during the infection. Differential down-regulation was observed in a number of critical pathways like carbon fixation in photosynthetic organism, cyano-amino acid metabolism, fructose, and mannose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The proteomics results were validated with real-time qRT-PCR analysis. We were also able to identify the complete coding sequences for all the proteins of which few selected genes were cloned and sequence characterized for further confirmation. Our study is the first report of a quantitative proteomics dataset in black pepper which provides convincing evidence on the effectiveness of a transcriptome-based label-free proteomics approach for elucidating the host response to biotic stress in a non-model spice crop like P. nigrum, for which genome information is unavailable. Our dataset

  2. The Piper Fatigue Scale-12 (PFS-12): Psychometric Findings and Item Reduction in a Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Bryce B.; Stover, Angela M.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Bernstein, Leslie; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Piper, Barbara F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Brief, valid measures of fatigue, a prevalent and distressing cancer symptom, are needed for use in research. This study’s primary aim was to create a shortened version of the revised Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS-R) based on data from a diverse cohort of breast cancer survivors. A secondary aim was to determine whether the PFS captured multiple distinct aspects of fatigue (a multidimensional model) or a single overall fatigue factor (a unidimensional model). Methods Breast cancer survivors (n=799; stages in situ through IIIa; ages 29–86 yrs) were recruited through 3 SEER registries (New Mexico, Western Washington, and Los Angeles, CA) as part of the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) study. Fatigue was measured approximately 3 years post-diagnosis using the 22-item PFS-R that has 4 subscales (Behavior, Affect, Sensory, and Cognition). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare unidimensional and multidimensional models. Six criteria were used to make item selections to shorten the PFS-R: scale’s content validity, items’ relationship with fatigue, content redundancy, differential item functioning by race and/or education, scale reliability, and literacy demand. Results Factor analyses supported the original 4-factor structure. There was also evidence from the bi-factor model for a dominant underlying fatigue factor. Six items tested positive for differential item functioning between African-American and Caucasian survivors. Four additional items either showed poor association, local dependence, or content validity concerns. After removing these 10 items, the reliability of the PFS-12 subscales ranged from 0.87–0.89, compared to 0.90–0.94 prior to item removal. Conclusion The newly developed PFS-12 can be used to assess fatigue in African-American and Caucasian breast cancer survivors and reduces response burden without compromising reliability or validity. This is the first study to determine PFS literacy demand and to compare PFS

  3. Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

  4. 5 CFR 630.704 - Granting shore leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting shore leave. 630.704 Section 630... LEAVE Shore Leave § 630.704 Granting shore leave. (a) Authority. (1) An employee has an absolute right to use shore leave, subject to the right of the head of the agency to fix the time at which...

  5. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...' Compensation Programs under 20 CFR 10.202 and 10.310, and the annual leave was leave transferred under § 630... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred...

  6. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...' Compensation Programs under 20 CFR 10.202 and 10.310, and the annual leave was leave transferred under § 630... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred...

  7. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be...

  8. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825...' compensation absences and FMLA leave. (f) Section 7(o) of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) permits public... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave.......

  9. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825... between workers' compensation absences and FMLA leave. (f) Section 7(o) of the Fair Labor Standards Act... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 825.207......

  10. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825... between workers' compensation absences and FMLA leave. (f) Section 7(o) of the Fair Labor Standards Act... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 825.207......

  11. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825... between workers' compensation absences and FMLA leave. (f) Section 7(o) of the Fair Labor Standards Act... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 825.207......

  12. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825...' compensation absences and FMLA leave. (f) Section 7(o) of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) permits public... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave.......

  13. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave § 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of...

  14. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by § 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the...

  15. Phytochemical and antifungal activities of Uvaria. chamae leaves and roots, Spondias mombin leaves and bark and Combretum racemosum leaves.

    PubMed

    Okwuosa, O M T B; Chukwura, E I; Chukwuma, G O; Okwuosa, C N; Enweani, I B; Agbakoba, N R; Chukwuma, C M; Manafa, P O; Umedum, C U

    2012-12-01

    The effects of crude and dilutions of aqueous, methanolic and n-hexane extracts of Uvaria chamae (roots and leaves), Spondias mombin (leaves and bark) and Combretum racemosum (Leaves), on pathogenic candida albicans and aspergillus niger was studied. The aim was to contribute to the search for a cheaper, conventional cure for both fungi. Phytochemical analysis revealed varying degrees of alkaloids, glycosides, saponin, lipid and oil, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and acids. Agar diffusion method was used for anti fungal assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) used was 10 mg/ml of extract and dilutions of the non polar solvents of 10 (-1) and 10(-2) was used. Results showed that none of the plant parts was active against aspergillus niger. Combretum racemosum had no antifungal effect on tested organisms as well as the different dilutions. However crude methanolic extract of uvaria (roots and leaves), spondias ( bark and leaves ), and n-hexane extracts of uvaria (leaves and roots), produced anti candidal effects with diameters in this order 14.67 +/- 0.72mm, 10.67 +/- 0.52 mm, 11.00 +/- 0.47 mm, 15.00 +/- 0.47 mm, and 14.67 +/- 0.72 mm respectively. Some of the plant parts especially uvaria had zones of inhibition at a confidence limit comparable with control drug which is ketoconazole and it had inhibitory effects at a diameter of 20.06 +/- 0.40 mm. PMID:23678643

  16. The Chromatography of Leaves and Inks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of a simple process known as chromatography to separate and observe the color pigments in leaves, inks, and other materials. Provides some historical background and detailed procedures. (DDR)

  17. The effect of a synergistic concentration of a Piper nigrum extract used in conjunction with pyrethrum upon gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jensen, H R; Scott, I M; Sims, S R; Trudeau, V L; Arnason, J T

    2006-06-01

    An ethyl acetate extract of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) peppercorns was tested as a synergist for the botanical insecticide pyrethrum. A high synergist ratio of 11.6 against Drosophila melanogaster was obtained for the combination of pyrethrum supplemented with P. nigrum. The effect of this combination was investigated using cDNA microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in D. melanogaster. Treatment of D. melanogaster with pyrethrum alone resulted in a large number of differentially expressed genes, principally associated with stress responses. Seven genes were identified as being commonly expressed in D. melanogaster treated with at least two of the following treatments: P. nigrum, pyrethrum or P. nigrum plus pyrethrum. These are likely implicated in Drosophila defence responses to toxins.

  18. Hydrogeochemical analysis of volcanic and geothermal fluids in the Andes from Ecuador using hydrochemical plots (Stiff, Piper and Schoeller-Berkaloff diagrams)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera-Villacrés, D.; Hidalgo, A.; Guevara-García, P.; Vivero, M. T.; Delgado-Rodríguez, V.

    2016-08-01

    The formation of several sources of hot springs in the Andes from Ecuador was the result of intense volcanic activity due to the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate under the South American continental plate. The aims of this study include the presentation of chemical analysis in graphical form in order to describe the hidrogeochemistry water geothermal origins, their chemical classification and their relationship to the complex geology of Ecuador using different hydro chemical plots such as Stiff's polygonal diagram, Piper's trilinear diagram and Schoeller-Berkaloff's logarithmic vertical columns diagram. Geothermal waters can be divided into two groups. The first group was associated with an extinct volcanic activity produced in the Cenozoic and were qualified based on the type of water Na+-Cl-, while the second group was associated with young Quaternary volcanic activity, and the types of water were Mg2+- HCO3 -, Na+-HCO3 -, Na+-SO4 2-,Mg2+-SO4 2-.

  19. Leishmanicidal Activity of Piper nigrum Bioactive Fractions is Interceded via Apoptosis In Vitro and Substantiated by Th1 Immunostimulatory Potential In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chouhan, Garima; Islamuddin, Mohammad; Want, Muzamil Y.; Ozbak, Hani A.; Hemeg, Hassan A.; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening protozoal infection chiefly impinging the rural and poor population in the tropical and sub-tropical countries. The deadly affliction is rapidly expanding after its association with AIDS, swiftly defying its status of a neglected disease. Despite successful formulation of vaccine against canine leishmaniasis, no licensed vaccine is yet available for human VL, chemotherapy is in appalling state, and the development of new candidate drugs has been painfully slow. In face of lack of proper incentives, immunostimulatory plant preparations owing antileishmanial efficacy bear potential to rejuvenate awful antileishmanial chemotherapy. We have earlier reported profound leishmanicidal activity of Piper nigrum hexane (PNH) seeds and P. nigrum ethanolic (PNE) fractions derived from P. nigrum seeds against Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes. In the present study, we illustrate that the remarkable anti-promastigote activity exhibited by PNH and PNE is mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, arrest in sub G0/G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species. Further, P. nigrum bioactive fractions rendered significant protection to L. donovani infected BALB/c mice in comparison to piperine, a known compound present in Piper species. The substantial therapeutic potential of PNH and PNE was accompanied by elicitation of cell-mediated immune response. The bioactive fractions elevated the secretion of Th1 (INF-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) cytokines and declined IL-4 and IL-10. PNH and PNE enhanced the production of IgG2a, upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, augmented splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell population, induced strong lymphoproliferative and DTH responses and partially stimulated NO production. PNH and PNE were devoid of any hepatic or renal toxicity. These encouraging findings merit further

  20. Leishmanicidal Activity of Piper nigrum Bioactive Fractions is Interceded via Apoptosis In Vitro and Substantiated by Th1 Immunostimulatory Potential In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Garima; Islamuddin, Mohammad; Want, Muzamil Y; Ozbak, Hani A; Hemeg, Hassan A; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening protozoal infection chiefly impinging the rural and poor population in the tropical and sub-tropical countries. The deadly affliction is rapidly expanding after its association with AIDS, swiftly defying its status of a neglected disease. Despite successful formulation of vaccine against canine leishmaniasis, no licensed vaccine is yet available for human VL, chemotherapy is in appalling state, and the development of new candidate drugs has been painfully slow. In face of lack of proper incentives, immunostimulatory plant preparations owing antileishmanial efficacy bear potential to rejuvenate awful antileishmanial chemotherapy. We have earlier reported profound leishmanicidal activity of Piper nigrum hexane (PNH) seeds and P. nigrum ethanolic (PNE) fractions derived from P. nigrum seeds against Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes. In the present study, we illustrate that the remarkable anti-promastigote activity exhibited by PNH and PNE is mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, arrest in sub G0/G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species. Further, P. nigrum bioactive fractions rendered significant protection to L. donovani infected BALB/c mice in comparison to piperine, a known compound present in Piper species. The substantial therapeutic potential of PNH and PNE was accompanied by elicitation of cell-mediated immune response. The bioactive fractions elevated the secretion of Th1 (INF-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) cytokines and declined IL-4 and IL-10. PNH and PNE enhanced the production of IgG2a, upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, augmented splenic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell population, induced strong lymphoproliferative and DTH responses and partially stimulated NO production. PNH and PNE were devoid of any hepatic or renal toxicity. These encouraging findings merit

  1. Leishmanicidal Activity of Piper nigrum Bioactive Fractions is Interceded via Apoptosis In Vitro and Substantiated by Th1 Immunostimulatory Potential In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, Garima; Islamuddin, Mohammad; Want, Muzamil Y; Ozbak, Hani A; Hemeg, Hassan A; Sahal, Dinkar; Afrin, Farhat

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a life-threatening protozoal infection chiefly impinging the rural and poor population in the tropical and sub-tropical countries. The deadly affliction is rapidly expanding after its association with AIDS, swiftly defying its status of a neglected disease. Despite successful formulation of vaccine against canine leishmaniasis, no licensed vaccine is yet available for human VL, chemotherapy is in appalling state, and the development of new candidate drugs has been painfully slow. In face of lack of proper incentives, immunostimulatory plant preparations owing antileishmanial efficacy bear potential to rejuvenate awful antileishmanial chemotherapy. We have earlier reported profound leishmanicidal activity of Piper nigrum hexane (PNH) seeds and P. nigrum ethanolic (PNE) fractions derived from P. nigrum seeds against Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes. In the present study, we illustrate that the remarkable anti-promastigote activity exhibited by PNH and PNE is mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, arrest in sub G0/G1 phase, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and generation of reactive oxygen species. Further, P. nigrum bioactive fractions rendered significant protection to L. donovani infected BALB/c mice in comparison to piperine, a known compound present in Piper species. The substantial therapeutic potential of PNH and PNE was accompanied by elicitation of cell-mediated immune response. The bioactive fractions elevated the secretion of Th1 (INF-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) cytokines and declined IL-4 and IL-10. PNH and PNE enhanced the production of IgG2a, upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, augmented splenic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell population, induced strong lymphoproliferative and DTH responses and partially stimulated NO production. PNH and PNE were devoid of any hepatic or renal toxicity. These encouraging findings merit

  2. Preparative isolation and purification of amides from the fruits of Piper longum L. by upright counter-current chromatography and reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shihua; Sun, Cuirong; Pei, Saifeng; Lu, Yanbin; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2004-06-25

    A versatile counter-current chromatography (CCC) with upright type-J multilayer coil planet centrifuge, named upright CCC, was applied to the isolation and purification of amides from Piper longum L., which is widely used as an anodyne and a treatment for stomach disease in China. After the saponification by KOH of the ethanol extracts solution of 15 kg of crude drug "Piper Longi Fructus", the fruits of P. longum L., the solution was extracted with light petroleum and 500 g of red crude oil was obtained. Using 2.5 g of red crude oil as sample, the preparative upright CCC with a two-phase system composed of light petroleum (bp 60-90 degrees C)-ethyl acetate-tetrachloromethane-methanol-water (1:1:8:6:1, v/v) was successfully performed, which yielded nine fractions. Then these fractions were further purified by use of reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with a glass column of 500 x 10 mm i.d. packed with reversed-phase silica gel. As a result, nine target amides with over 95% purity, i.e., 50 mg of (2E,4E)-N-isobutyl-eicosa-2,4-dienamide, 150 mg of (2E,4E,14Z)-N-isobutyl-eicosa-2,4,14-trienamide, 110 mg of (2E,4E,12Z)-N-isobutyl-ocatadeca-2,4,12-trienamide, 50 mg of guineensine, 60 mg of pipernonaline, 75 mg of pellitorine, 63 mg of piperine, 45 mg of piperanine, and 40 mg of piperlonguminine were isolated, respectively. Structures of all compounds were identified by electrospray ionization MS, electron impact ionization MS, one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra.

  3. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables have a relatively high potential for Cd uptake and translocation, and are thus considered Cd accumulators. For this reason, leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.) plants, grown on different agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), subjected to different fertilisation treatments (unfertilisation, compost amendment and mineral fertilisation), were analysed for Cd concentrations. Moreover, to clarify if the highest concentrations found are linked to older and inedible or to younger and edible leaves, external and internal endive leaves were separately analysed. All the leafy vegetables analysed showed on average 2-fold higher Cd concentrations in leaves than in roots. Leaf Cd concentrations in both lettuce and endive plants significantly differed among fertilisation treatments, with values highest in the plants grown on mineral fertilised soils. Apart from the soil fertilisation treatments, however, Cd leaf concentrations were often higher (up to 4-fold) than the threshold deduced by the EU 420/2011 Regulation, although the plants grew on unpolluted soils. Anyway, external leaves of endive plants showed significantly higher concentrations than internal leaves (in some cases the values were 3-fold higher), partly reassuring on the consumption of the younger leaves. Moreover, this study points out two major drawbacks in the Italian and European regulatory frameworks: (1) metal concentration (as total and/or available fraction) limits in agricultural soils are lacking; (2) metal concentration thresholds (currently existing only for Cd and Pb in crops) reported in the EU 420/2011 Regulation, expressed on the fresh weight basis rather than on the dry weight basis, appear not suitable.

  4. Who Pays the Piper?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gussow, Joan Dye

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of the food industry's role in educating children on nutrition raises the question of how objective this instruction is, and whether the industry should be engaged in nutrition education at all. (JD)

  5. The extraction of characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves based on LCTF imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Peng-fei; Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to identify and classify horticultural crops rapidly, it is great importance of selecting effective characteristic wavebands from a large number of imaging data. Extracting effective characteristic wavebands can nearly represent holistic information of the research target from rich imaging spectral data, mainly used for rapid characteristic identification, cluster analysis and establishing database, especially in high spectral sensing to recognize targets for a long distance. The experiment chooses radish leaves and rice leaves as research samples so as to obtain spectral information from the surface of samples by interval of 5nm based on LCTF imaging; then, the standard deviation and correlation coefficient of the gray images are calculated for these two kinds of leaves; next, we calculate the value of waveband index according to standard deviation and correlation coefficient, and extract the effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves through the sorting of waveband index. By those, the experimental results show there are six ideal wavebands at 530nm, 550nm, 555nm, 715nm, 510nm and 565nm for radish leaves, 645nm, 675nm, 685nm, 670nm, 690nm and 660nm for rice leaves separately. Further, according to the principle of Euclidean distance, we also give an assessment of classification accuracy for these two samples by comparing characteristic wavebands with full wavebands, and the classification accuracy of radish leaves and rice leaves is 80.00% and 86.67% respectively. Therefore, choosing these wavebands can be used as effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves.

  6. Maize Leaves Turn Away from Neighbors1

    PubMed Central

    Maddonni, Gustavo Angel; Otegui, María Elena; Andrieu, Bruno; Chelle, Michael; Casal, Jorge J.

    2002-01-01

    In commercial crops, maize (Zea mays) plants are typically grown at a larger distance between rows (70 cm) than within the same row (16–23 cm). This rectangular arrangement creates a heterogeneous environment in which the plants receive higher red light (R) to far-red light (FR) ratios from the interrow spaces. In field crops, the hybrid Dekalb 696 (DK696) showed an increased proportion of leaves toward interrow spaces, whereas the experimental hybrid 980 (Exp980) retained random leaf orientation. Mirrors reflecting FR were placed close to isolated plants to simulate the presence of neighbors in the field. In addition, localized FR was applied to target leaves in a growth chamber. During their expansion, the leaves of DK696 turned away from the low R to FR ratio signals, whereas Exp980 leaves remained unaffected. On the contrary, tillering was reduced and plant height was increased by low R to FR ratios in Exp980 but not in DK696. Isolated plants preconditioned with low R/FR-simulating neighbors in a North-South row showed reduced mutual shading among leaves when the plants were actually grouped in North-South rows. These observations contradict the current view that phytochrome-mediated responses to low R/FR are a relic from wild conditions, detrimental for crop yield. PMID:12427985

  7. Parenthood and Leaving Home in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Curtin, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    With increases in nonmarital fertility, the sequencing of transitions in early adulthood has become even more complex. Once the primary transition out of the parental home, marriage was first replaced by nonfamily living and cohabitation; more recently, many young adults have become parents before entering a coresidential union. Studies of leaving home, however, have not examined the role of early parenthood. Using the Young Adult Study of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 4,674), we use logistic regression to analyze parenthood both as a correlate of leaving home and as a route from the home. We find that even in mid-adolescence, becoming a parent is linked with leaving home. Coming from a more affluent family is linked with leaving home via routes that do not involve children rather than those that do, and having a warm relationship with either a mother or a father retards leaving home, particularly to nonfamily living, but is not related to parental routes out of the home. PMID:25544790

  8. [Morphogenesis of proximal branch leaves in mosses].

    PubMed

    Ignatov, M S; Spirina, U N

    2012-01-01

    The formation of deeply dissected and compound leaves at the bases of branches, their homology between different groups of mosses, and probable factors responsible for their development are considered. Previous authors differ in the interpretation of such leaves and in most cases describe them as special morphological structures named pseudoparaphyllia. It is shown, however, that this term has been applied both to whole leaves and to separate leaf parts. Among the patterns of leaf formation deviating from the basic type, a special place belongs to the Hampeella variant, where deeply dissected and compound leaves are formed due to the delayed development of branch primordia. The families representing this variant occupy a basal position in the phylogenetic tree of pleurocarpous mosses. The Leucodon variant, where splitting of leaves into lobes is apparently explained by strong stem extension, is not specific for any definite phylogenetic group and manifests itself in different families. The Hypnum variant is also not associated with certain phylogenetic lineages, but it provides an example of more profound specialization.

  9. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  10. Decision to Leave Scale: Perceived Reasons to Stay in or Leave Violent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendy, Helen M.; Eggen, Doreen; Gustitus, Cheryl; McLeod, Kelli C.; Ng, Phillip

    2003-01-01

    The 30-item Decision to Leave Scale (DLS) was developed with 631 college women and 420 college women and women in shelters. Seven DLS subscales emerged for concerns in deciding to stay or leave: Fear of Loneliness, Child Care Needs, Financial Problems, Social Embarrassment, Poor Social Support, Fear of Harm, Hopes Things Change. Mean internal…

  11. Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids in the leaves of coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Liu, Wei; He, Xin; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Analytical methods for determining perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in leaves were developed to quantify a suite of analytes in both coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Sodium hydroxide-methanol and solid-phase extraction was selected as the extracting and cleanup strategy for PFAA analysis. Ten perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were monitored in 7 kinds of leaves grown in the urban areas of Dalian, China. The results show that coniferous tree leaves take up more PFAAs than broad-leaved tree leaves, with the highest amount of 150 ng/g in pine needles. Leaf PFCA levels were much higher than PFSAs level. Short carbon-chain PFCAs with 3 to 6 perfluorinated carbons account for approximately 40% to 80% of the total leaf PFAAs, where uptake decreased with increasing carbon chain length. Temporal observation of leaf PFAAs revealed no significant variation of concentrations in the leaves over a weekly interval and the absence of significant seasonal change in pine needles and sophora. The present study provides some evidence for the accumulation of PFAAs in leaves, which is valuable for understanding their environmental behavior and the development of alternative bioindicator.

  12. 5 CFR 630.208 - Reduction in leave credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reduction in leave credits. 630.208 Section 630.208 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Definitions and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.208 Reduction in leave credits. (a) When the number of hours in a...

  13. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Leave and holidays. 752... Leave and holidays. For use in all USAID cost-reimbursement contracts for technical or professional services. Leave and Holidays (OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The Contractor may grant to its...

  14. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Leave and holidays. 752... Leave and holidays. For use in all USAID cost-reimbursement contracts for technical or professional services. Leave and Holidays (OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The Contractor may grant to its...

  15. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the endorsement of the Mission) approves one of the following as an alternative: (i) Taking, during... contract. The use of home leave authorized under this clause shall not constitute a break in service for... leave at the completion of their duties under this contract. (c) Home leave. (1) Home leave is...

  16. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  17. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  18. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a... absence. The VR&E case manager may grant the child leaves of absence for periods during which the...

  19. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.200 Amount of... a family and medical leave statute. The State may require a single......

  20. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the......

  1. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.200 Amount of... the Act's leave requirements. (2) An exception to this required uniformity......

  2. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the......

  3. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the......

  4. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.200 Amount of... a family and medical leave statute. The State may require a single......

  5. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the......

  6. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the......

  7. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.200 Amount of... the Act's leave requirements. (2) An exception to this required uniformity......

  8. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.200 Amount of... a family and medical leave statute. The State may require a single......

  9. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  10. The geometry of unfolding tree leaves

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, H.; Kresling, B.; Vincent, J. F. V.

    1998-01-01

    Leaves of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) and beech (Fagus sylvaticus) were modelled to a first approximation as plane surfaces, with straight parallel folds, using numerical methods. In both species the lateral veins, when the leaves are outstretched, are angled at 30 to 50 degrees from the centre vein. A higher angle allows the leaf to be folded more compactly within the bud, but it takes longer to expand. This may allow the plant to optimize the timing of leaf deployment with ecological and physiological conditions.

  11. Mary Glover Lecture 2004: leaving a legacy.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Marlene

    2005-09-01

    Mary Glover was a Head Nurse at St. Paul's Hospital in Vancouver. She was killed in a plane crash more than 25 years ago. Yet, through this neuroscience nurse's passion for her specialty, we share in her legacy through the annual Mary Glover Lecture, which was established by her parents after her death. The first Mary Glover Lecturer was Pamela Mitchell, a well-known neuroscience nurse from the School of Nursing at the University of Washington. She is leaving a multifaceted legacy through her research on intracranial pressure and quality of care as well as her books and her mentorship. Jessie Young has left a legacy as the founder and first president of the Canadian Association of Neuroscience Nurses (CANN). CANN is leaving a legacy with many firsts among Canadian nursing specialty organizations. Leaving a legacy is not just about donating money or writing a famous book. For most of us, our legacy comes in the little everyday things of life. Ask yourself, what is the legacy that you are leaving as a neuroscience nurse and as an individual?

  12. Sun and Shade Leaves: Some Field Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomley, David

    1983-01-01

    Several simple experiments illustrating how the light regime affects the final form of dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis) are provided. These experiments, which can also be done with other plants, focus on differences in the anatomy, morphology, and physiology of sun and shade leaves. (JN)

  13. Practical Approaches for Teaching Leave No Trace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, Aram

    As participation in outdoor recreation grows, natural resources suffer a variety of environmental and social impacts. A minimum-impact back country educational program first developed during the 1970s, Leave No Trace (LNT), has been revitalized by the National Outdoor Leadership School, six federal agencies, and members of the outdoor products…

  14. Diterpenoids from Leaves of Rubus chingii.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jicheng; Huang, Yingzheng; Cui, Hangqing; Peng, Caiying; Liu, Jianqun; Huang, Huilian

    2016-03-01

    The leaves of Rubus chingii were examined for their phytochemical composition and anti-yeast activity. In the process, seven diterpenoids (compounds 1-7), including a new natural compound (14β, 16-epoxy-7-pimarene-3α, 15β-diol, 1), were isolated and elucidated. Compound 1 exhibited moderate anti-Candida activity.

  15. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  16. Sabbatical Leave: Who Gains and How Much?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Oranit B.; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kluger, Avraham N.; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls…

  17. The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in…

  18. Diterpenoids from Leaves of Rubus chingii.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jicheng; Huang, Yingzheng; Cui, Hangqing; Peng, Caiying; Liu, Jianqun; Huang, Huilian

    2016-03-01

    The leaves of Rubus chingii were examined for their phytochemical composition and anti-yeast activity. In the process, seven diterpenoids (compounds 1-7), including a new natural compound (14β, 16-epoxy-7-pimarene-3α, 15β-diol, 1), were isolated and elucidated. Compound 1 exhibited moderate anti-Candida activity. PMID:27169185

  19. Limonoids from the leaves of Cipadessa baccifera.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jing; Di, Ying-Tong; Fang, Xin; He, Hong-Pin; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yan; Li, Shun-Lin; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2010-08-27

    Eight new limonoids with four different structural frameworks, including gedunin (1, 2), havanensin (3, 4), mexicanolide (5, 6), and methyl angolensate types (7, 8), together with six known limonoids, were isolated from the leaves of Cipadessa baccifera. Compounds 2 and 5 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against the HL-60 cell line with an IC(50) value of 20 microM. PMID:20666364

  20. Industry Work Experience Leave for Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Don R.

    Working leaves for faculty in two-year diploma programs provide colleges with more experienced and current faculty, provide industry with new employees or consultants with fresh ideas, and present faculty with opportunities to use up-to-date technologies and methodologies and share those experiences with students. At the University College of the…

  1. Ecojustice in Science Education: Leaving the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vazquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at…

  2. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

  3. Investigations on heat resistance of spinach leaves.

    PubMed

    Santarius, K A; Müller, M

    1979-10-01

    Exposure of spinach plants to high temperature (35° C) increased the heat resistance of the leaves by about 3° C. This hardening process occurred within 4 to 6 h, whereas dehardening at 20°/15° C required 1 to 2 days. At 5° C dehardening did not take place. Hardening and dehardening occurred in both the dark and the light. The hardiness was tested by exposure of the leaves to heat stress and subsequent measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence induction and light-induced absorbance changes at 535 nm on the leaves and of the photosynthetic electron transport in thylakoids isolated after heat treatment. Heat-induced damage to both heat-hardened and non-hardened leaves seemed to consist primarily in a breakdown of the membrane potential of the thylakoids accompanied by partial inactivation of electron transport through photosystem II. The increase in heat resistance was not due to temperature-induced changes in lipid content and fatty acid composition of the thylakoids, and no conspicuous changes in the polypeptide composition of the membranes were observed. Prolonged heat treatment at 35° C up to 3 days significantly decreased the total lipid content and the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acids of membrane lipids without further increase in the thermostability of the leaves. Intact chloroplasts isolated from heat-hardened leaves retained increased heat resistance. When the stroma of the chloroplasts was removed, the thermostability of the thylakoids was decreased and was comparable to the heat resistance of chloroplast membranes obtained from non-hardened control plants. Compartmentation studies demonstrated that the content of soluble sugars within the chloroplasts and the whole leaf tissue decreased as heat hardiness increased. This indicated that in spinach leaves, sugars play no protective role in heat hardiness. The results suggest that changes in the ultrastructure of thylakoids in connection with a stabilizing effect of soluble non-sugar stroma

  4. Evaluation of Wound Closure Activity of Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum Extracts on Scratched Monolayer of Human Gingival Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ab Rahman, Mas Rizal; Mohd Bakri, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Nigella sativa, Melastoma malabathricum, Pluchea indica, and Piper sarmentosum are common Asian traditional medicines to treat minor wounds. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro wound healing properties of aqueous extracts of these plants using human gingival fibroblast (HGF) monolayer as study model. DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated and effect on HGF proliferation was determined. Their effect on HGF's function to synthesize collagen was indicated by the level of hydroxyproline produced and effect on wound healing activity was assessed using an in vitro scratch assay. The influence of the extracts on expression of bFGF and TGF-β was also determined. Results revealed all four extracts to exhibit low free radical scavenging activity. The extract from N. sativa (NSSE) compared to the others showed favourable enhancement of HGF proliferation with EC50 of 22.67 ± 3.06 µg/mL (P < 0.05) with accelerated wound closure activity despite its nonsignificant effect on collagen synthesis. In addition to the elevated level of bFGF by up to 15% at 100 µg/mL of NSSE, a slightly better effect was observed on the expression of TGF-β. NSSE thus showed that promising wound healing properties and data obtained may contribute towards validation of its traditional use for the healing of oral wounds. PMID:25371695

  5. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids PMT1 and PMT2 isolated from Piper montealegreanum Yuncker (Piperaceae) in mice.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Alves, Harley da Silva; Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Santos, Mariana da Silva; Melo, Gabriela Muniz de Albuquerque; Campesatto, Eliane Aparecida; Chaves, Maria Célia de Oliveira; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we identified the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of two flavonoids (PMT1 and PMT2) from Piper montealegreanum. The antinociceptive effect was evaluated using the classical tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot plate test. PMT1 and PMT2 (0.1, 1, 30 and 100 μmol/kg, i.p.) reduced the writhings, with an ID50 of 0.58 and 0.44 μmol/kg, respectively. Moreover, these flavonoids (100 μmol/kg, i.p.) inhibited paw-licking time in the neurogenic phase of the formalin test, but only PMT2 was active in the inflammatory phase. However, PMT1 and PMT2 (100 μmol/kg, i.p.) did not increase the latency time of the animals in the hot plate. In order to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of these flavonoids, capsaicin-induced ear oedema was carried out. Both flavonoids (100 μmol/kg, i.p.) were active in this model. These results suggest that PMT1 and PMT2 have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

  6. Safety assessment of Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. essential oil, its antifungal, antiaflatoxin, antioxidant activity and efficacy as antimicrobial in preservation of Piper nigrum L. fruits.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Priyanka; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Dubey, N K

    2012-02-01

    The investigation deals with antifungal, antiaflatoxin and antioxidant efficacy of Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. essential oil (EO), its two major constituents and their comparison with five commonly used organic acid preservatives. The chemical profile of EO, characterized through GC and GC-MS analysis, revealed linalool (56.10%) and methyl cinnamate (19.73%) as major components. The EO, linalool and methyl cinnamate completely inhibited the growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus (LHP-10) as well as aflatoxin B(1) secretion at different concentrations. Methyl cinnamate was found to be more efficacious than EO, linalool and five organic acid preservatives, showing antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy at a low concentration (0.6 μl/ml) and the nature of its toxicity was fungicidal. However, EO showed strong antioxidant activity with an IC(50) value at 5.6 μl/ml. Moreover, EO was found to have negligible mammalian toxicity as its LD(50) value, determined through oral administration on mice, was calculated to be 6124μl/kg body weight during safety profile assessment. During in vivo investigation on fruit systems, the Zanthoxylum EO, when tested as fumigant, provided 66.27% and 86.33% protection respectively at 1.25 μl/ml and 2.5 μl/ml against fungi infesting Piper nigrum L. fruits demonstrating its practical efficacy as a plant based antimicrobial for post harvest application.

  7. Methanolic extract of Piper nigrum fruits improves memory impairment by decreasing brain oxidative stress in amyloid beta(1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hritcu, Lucian; Noumedem, Jaurès A; Cioanca, Oana; Hancianu, Monica; Kuete, Victor; Mihasan, Marius

    2014-04-01

    The present study analyzed the possible memory-enhancing and antioxidant proprieties of the methanolic extract of Piper nigrum L. fruits (50 and 100 mg/kg, orally, for 21 days) in amyloid beta(1-42) rat model of Alzheimer's disease. The memory-enhancing effects of the plant extract were studied by means of in vivo (Y-maze and radial arm-maze tasks) approaches. Also, the antioxidant activity in the hippocampus was assessed using superoxide dismutase-, catalase-, glutathione peroxidase-specific activities and the total content of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, and protein carbonyl levels. The amyloid beta(1-42)-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease of spontaneous alternations percentage within Y-maze task and increase of working memory and reference memory errors within radial arm-maze task. Administration of the plant extract significantly improved memory performance and exhibited antioxidant potential. Our results suggest that the plant extract ameliorates amyloid beta(1-42)-induced spatial memory impairment by attenuation of the oxidative stress in the rat hippocampus.

  8. Piper nigrum leaf and stem assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and evaluation of its antibacterial activity against agricultural plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Paulkumar, Kanniah; Gnanajobitha, Gnanadhas; Vanaja, Mahendran; Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of biological materials in synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the hottest topics in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the present investigation, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using the leaf and stem extract of Piper nigrum. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The observation of the peak at 460 nm in the UV-vis spectra for leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Further, XRD analysis has been carried out to confirm the crystalline nature of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The TEM images show that the leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles were within the size of about 7-50 nm and 9-30 nm, respectively. The FTIR analysis was performed to identify the possible functional groups involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further, the antibacterial activity of the green-synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined against agricultural plant pathogens. The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles is a beneficial application in the field of agricultural nanotechnology.

  9. Inhibitory effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) extracts and compounds on human tumor cell proliferation, cyclooxygenase enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunbao; Yadev, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-08-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) and hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) are widely used in traditional medicines. Although hot Capsicum spp. extracts and its active principles, capsaicinoids, have been linked with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities, whether black pepper and its active principle exhibit similar activities is not known. In this study, we have evaluated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from black pepper by using proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB, COX-1 and -2 enzymes, human tumor cell proliferation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The capsaicinoids, the alkylamides, isolated from the hot pepper Scotch Bonnet were also used to compare the bioactivities of alkylamides and piperine from black pepper. All compounds derived from black pepper suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation, but alkyl amides, compound 4 from black pepper and 5 from hot pepper, were most effective. The human cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activities of piperine and alklyl amides in Capsicum and black pepper were dose dependant. The inhibitory concentrations 50% (IC50) of the alklylamides were in the range 13-200 microg/mL. The extracts of black pepper at 200 microg/mL and its compounds at 25 microg/mL inhibited LPO by 45-85%, COX enzymes by 31-80% and cancer cells proliferation by 3.5-86.8%. Overall, these results suggest that black pepper and its constituents like hot pepper, exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activities.

  10. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by derivatives of piperine, an alkaloid from the pepper plant Piper nigrum, for possible use in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Baghdadi, Osamah B; Prater, Natalie I; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J; Geldenhuys, Werner J

    2012-12-01

    A series of compounds related to piperine and antiepilepsirine was screened in a monoamine oxidase A and B assay. Piperine is an alkaloid from the source plant of both black and white pepper grains, Piper nigrum. Piperine has been shown to have a wide range of activity, including MAO inhibitory activity. The z-factor for the screening assay was found to be greater than 0.8 for both assays. Notably, the compounds tested were selective towards MAO-B, with the most potent compound having an IC(50) of 498 nM. To estimate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, we used a PAMPA assay, which suggested that the compounds are likely to penetrate the BBB. A fluorescent bovine serum albumin (BSA) high-throughput screening (HTS) binding assay showed an affinity of 8 μM for piperine, with more modest binding for other test compounds. Taken together, the data described here may be useful in gaining insight towards the design of selective MAO-B inhibitory compounds devoid of MAO-A activity.

  11. Piperine, a piperidine alkaloid from Piper nigrum re-sensitizes P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP dependent multidrug resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Sen; Lei, Yu; Jia, Yingjie; Li, Na; Wink, Michael; Ma, Yonggang

    2011-12-15

    Over-expression of P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP in tumor cells is one of the important mechanisms leading to multidrug resistance (MDR), which impairs the efficacy of chemotherapy. P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP are ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters, which can expel a variety of lipophilic anti-cancer drugs and protect tumor cells. During a screening of MDR reversal agents among alkaloids of various structural types, a piperidine alkaloid, piperine (a main piperidine alkaloid in Piper nigurm) was identified as an inhibitor. Piperine can potentiate the cytotoxicity of anti-cancer drugs in resistant sublines, such as MCF-7/DOX and A-549/DDP, which were derived from MCF-7 and A-549 cell lines. At a concentration of 50 μM piperine could reverse the resistance to doxorubicin 32.16 and 14.14 folds, respectively. It also re-sensitized cells to mitoxantrone 6.98 folds. In addition, long-term treatment of cells by piperine inhibits transcription of the corresponding ABC transporter genes. These results suggest that piperine can reverse MDR by multiple mechanisms and it may be a promising lead compound for future studies.

  12. The effect of Piper aduncum Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) essential oil as aerosol spray against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse.

    PubMed

    Misni, Norashiqin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Sulaiman, Sallehudin

    2011-08-01

    The bioefficacy of Piper aduncum L. essential oil formulated in aerosol cans was evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in a simulated room. The aerosol spray test was based on the Malaysian test standard for aerosol (MS 1221:1991UDC 632.982.2 modified from WHO 2009 methodology) and examined the knockdown effect within 20 minutes of exposure. Mortality rate after 24 hour of holding period was also determined. A commercial aerosol spray (0.09% prallethrin 0.05% d-phenothrin) was also tested as a comparison. Our results showed that the knockdown effect of the commercial aerosol spray and P. aduncum essential oil spray (8% and 10% concentrations) was significantly higher in Ae. albopictus adult females, when compared with that of Ae. aegypti adult females (P<0.05). There was a significant difference in knockdown between commercial aerosol spray and essential oil spray for both Aedes spp. (P<0.05). The essential oil induced significantly higher mortality in Ae. aegypti (80%) than in Ae. albopictus (71.6%) (P<0.05). The commercial aerosol spray caused 97.7% and 86.5% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus respectively (P<0.05). Based on these data, P. aduncum essential oil has the potential to be used as an aerosol spray against Aedes spp. PMID:22041743

  13. Bioactivity of Piper hispidinervum (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) oils, with or without formulated Bta on the biology and immunology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Breda, M O; Alves, T J S; Cunha, F M; Teixeira, A A C; Dutra, K A; Navarro, D M A F

    2014-02-01

    The combination of essential oils and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner may represent an interesting control strategy. Thus, the study tested the following hypothesis: the combination of long pepper oil (Piper hispidinervum L.) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) oils in two concentrations with Xentari WG (Bta) yields a more effective control of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affecting biological and reproductive parameters and leading to changes in the levels of phenoloxidase and nitric oxide in the hemolymph of the pest. The results demonstrate that only long pepper oil, at the highest concentration with Xentari WG (Bta), promotes reduced larval survival. However, both oils with or without the insecticide interfere in the biology and humoral immunity of S.frugiperda. All treatments caused a decrease in the amount of eggs, except for the clove oil at both concentrations without Bta. Therefore, the use of these oils is a promising alternative for the integrated management of S. frugiperda; however, its association with Bta demonstrated no significant increase in their efficiency.

  14. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Piper cubeba Extract in the Amelioration of CCl4-Induced Liver Injuries and Oxidative Damage in the Rodent Model

    PubMed Central

    AlSaid, Mansour; Mothana, Ramzi; Raish, Mohammad; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Al-Yahya, Mohammed; Ahmad, Ajaz; Al-Dosari, Mohammed; Rafatullah, Syed

    2015-01-01

    Background. Liver diseases still represent a major health burden worldwide. Moreover, medicinal plants have gained popularity in the treatment of several diseases including liver. Thus, the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Piper cubeba fruits in the amelioration of CCl4-induced liver injuries and oxidative damage in the rodent model. Methods. Hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like SGOT, SGPT, γ-GGT, ALP, total bilirubin, LDH, and total protein. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities as LPO, NP-SH, and CAT were measured in rat liver as well as mRNA expression of cytokines such as TNFα, IL-6, and IL-10 and stress related genes iNOS and HO-1 were determined by RT-PCR. The extent of liver damage was also analyzed through histopathological observations. Results. Treatment with PCEE significantly and dose dependently prevented drug induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, PCEE significantly reduced the lipid peroxidation in the liver tissue and restored activities of defense antioxidant enzymes NP-SH and CAT towards normal levels. The administration of PCEE significantly downregulated the CCl4-induced proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6 mRNA expression in dose dependent manner, while it upregulated the IL-10 and induced hepatoprotective effect by downregulating mRNA expression of iNOS and HO-1 gene. PMID:25654097

  15. Bioactivity of Piper hispidinervum (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) oils, with or without formulated Bta on the biology and immunology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Breda, M O; Alves, T J S; Cunha, F M; Teixeira, A A C; Dutra, K A; Navarro, D M A F

    2014-02-01

    The combination of essential oils and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner may represent an interesting control strategy. Thus, the study tested the following hypothesis: the combination of long pepper oil (Piper hispidinervum L.) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) oils in two concentrations with Xentari WG (Bta) yields a more effective control of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affecting biological and reproductive parameters and leading to changes in the levels of phenoloxidase and nitric oxide in the hemolymph of the pest. The results demonstrate that only long pepper oil, at the highest concentration with Xentari WG (Bta), promotes reduced larval survival. However, both oils with or without the insecticide interfere in the biology and humoral immunity of S.frugiperda. All treatments caused a decrease in the amount of eggs, except for the clove oil at both concentrations without Bta. Therefore, the use of these oils is a promising alternative for the integrated management of S. frugiperda; however, its association with Bta demonstrated no significant increase in their efficiency. PMID:24665696

  16. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of an alkaloid fraction from Piper longum L. using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuiyong; Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2015-05-10

    In a previous research, an alkaloid fraction and 18 alkaloid compounds were prepared from Piper longum L. by series of purification process. In this paper, a qualitative and quantitative analysis method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS) was developed to evaluate the alkaloid fraction. Qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was firstly completed by UHPLC-DAD method and 18 amide alkaloid compounds were identified. A further qualitative analysis of the alkaloid fraction was accomplished by UHPLC-MS/MS method. Another 25 amide alkaloids were identified according to their characteristic ions and neutral losses. At last, a quantitative method for the alkaloid fraction was established using four marker compounds including piperine, pipernonatine, guineensine and N-isobutyl-2E,4E-octadecadienamide. After the validation of this method, the contents of above four marker compounds in the alkaloid fraction were 57.5mg/g, 65.6mg/g, 17.7mg/g and 23.9mg/g, respectively. Moreover, the relative response factors of other three compounds to piperine were calculated. A comparative study between external standard quantification and relative response factor quantification proved no remarkable difference. UHPLC-DAD-MS method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for the characterization of the alkaloid fraction from P. longum L. and the result proved that the quality of alkaloid fraction was efficiently improved after appropriate purification.

  17. Mechanism-based inhibition of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) by alkamides of Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Subehan; Usia, Tepy; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2006-05-01

    Nineteen alkamides isolated from Piper nigrum L. were tested for their mechanism-based inhibition on human liver microsomal dextromethorphan O-demethylation activity, a prototype marker for cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). All compounds increased their inhibitory activity with increasing preincubation time. Among them, 15 and 17 showed more than 50 % decrease of the CYP2D6 residual activity after 20 min preincubation. Further investigations on 15 and 17 showed that the characteristic time- and concentration-dependent inhibition, which required a catalytic step with NADPH, was not protected by nucleophiles, and was decreased by the presence of a competitive inhibitor. The kinetic parameters for inactivation (kinact and KI) were 0.028 min-1 and 0.23 microM for 15 and 0.064 min-1 and 0.71 microM for 17, respectively, which were stronger than the known mechanism-based inhibitor, paroxetine (a positive control). Thus, 15 and 17 are potent mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP2D6.

  18. Comparative analysis of genetic variation in kava (Piper methysticum) assessed by SSR and DArT reveals zygotic foundation and clonal diversification.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Henri; Mournet, Pierre; Malapa, Roger; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Chaïr, Hana; Lebot, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Kava (Piper methysticum) is a major cash crop in the Pacific. The aim of this study was to assess genetic variation among 103 accessions of kava using SSRs and DArTs. Genetic structure was determined using clustering analyses (WPGMA) and principal coordinate analyses (PCA). Thirteen SSR primers and 75 DArT markers were found polymorphic, and the two types of markers generated similar clustering patterns. Genetic distances ranged from 0 to 0.65 with an average of 0.24 using SSRs and from 0 to 0.64 with an average of 0.24 using DArT. Eleven genotypes were identified with SSR while 28 genotypes were identified with DArT markers. By combining the two sets of markers, a total of only 30 distinct genotypes were observed. In the Vanuatu archipelago, noble cultivars originating from different islands clustered together within a very narrow genetic base despite their diversity of morphotypes. SSR and DArT fingerprints allowed the identification of kava cultivars unsuitable for consumption, so called two-days, and clearly differentiated the wild types classified as P. methysticum var. wichmannii from the cultivars as var. methysticum. Molecular data reveals that all noble cultivars evolved by the predominance of clonal selection. Although they are represented by clearly distinct morphotypes, these cultivars are genetically vulnerable and their potential to adapt to forthcoming changes is limited. These newly developed markers provide high resolution and will be useful for kava diversity analyses and quality assessment.

  19. Piper nigrum Leaf and Stem Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Its Antibacterial Activity Against Agricultural Plant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Paulkumar, Kanniah; Gnanajobitha, Gnanadhas; Vanaja, Mahendran; Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of biological materials in synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the hottest topics in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the present investigation, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using the leaf and stem extract of Piper nigrum. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The observation of the peak at 460 nm in the UV-vis spectra for leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Further, XRD analysis has been carried out to confirm the crystalline nature of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The TEM images show that the leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles were within the size of about 7–50 nm and 9–30 nm, respectively. The FTIR analysis was performed to identify the possible functional groups involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further, the antibacterial activity of the green-synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined against agricultural plant pathogens. The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles is a beneficial application in the field of agricultural nanotechnology. PMID:24558336

  20. Determination of six kavalactones in dietary supplements and selected functional foods containing Piper methysticum by isocratic liquid chromatography with internal standard.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lihong; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Ang, Catharina Y W; Dinovi, Michael; Mattia, Antonia

    2005-01-01

    Kava (Piper methysticum) dietary products have been sold worldwide for treatment of nervous anxiety, tension, and restlessness. Recent reports showed potential association of kava usage and liver injuries. This study was conducted to develop simple and reliable methodologies for the extraction and determination of 6 major kavalactones: (+)-methysticin, (+)-dihydromethysticin, (+)-kavain, (+)-dihydrokavain, yangonin, and desmethoxyyangonin. Ultrasonic extraction techniques and isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) were optimized for different types of samples, including capsules containing kava root extract or root powder, raw root material, tea bags, and snack bar. A suitable internal standard, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, was used for LC calibration. Kavalactones were completely separated in 30 min using a Luna C18-2 column at 60 degrees C with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 2-propanol-acetonitrile-water-acetic acid (16 + 16 + 68 + 0.1, v/v/v/v). Within-laboratory, intraday, and interday method variation (% relative standard deviation) for most samples extracted by methanol or methanol-water mixture were <5%. Lower levels of kavalactone contents and higher variations were observed for tea bags from water extraction or infusion as compared to methanol extraction. Labeling information of tea bags based on methanol extraction could be misleading to consumers. Analytical recoveries of snack bar fortified at 10 and 20 microg/g were >84% with RSD values <8%. Methods developed in this study offer a simple and reproducible means for analysis of kavalactones in various matrixes of dietary products. PMID:15759721

  1. Green leaves are the stuff of life.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Children, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and the elderly need to eat dark green leafy vegetables. These vegetables provide vitamin A which prevents night blindness and increases resistance to illness. The vitamin is also transferred to babies in breast milk; so mothers, in particular, need to consume these vegetables. Vitamin A is also contained in squash, sweet potatoes, carrots, mangoes, milk, eggs, and liver. Iron, which prevents tiredness and weakness, is found in meat, peas, beans, spinach, cassava leaves, and pumpkin leaves. Folic acid, which is necessary for healthy blood, is also found in dark green leafy vegetables. Pregnant women and the elderly especially need it. Protein is needed by all. Children need it for growth. Sources include meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. However, protein is also found in dark green leafy vegetables, which can be grown or foraged, when the aforementioned sources are in short supply. Cultivated vegetable sources of protein include spinach, leeks, and the leaves of okra, cassava, papaya, hot peppers, beets, taro, and sweet potatoes. Wild vegetable sources are also available; however, care must be taken concerning plants that are poisonous or bitter. Some may require special preparation before eating. Vitamins and minerals escape with cooking, so a lid should be used and the time allotted should be as short as possible. Cooking water may be used for stew or soup, except when the leaves are poisonous before they are cooked (An example of this is cassava.). Children should begin eating these vegetables as soon as they stop breastfeeding. The vegetables can be mashed, ground, sieved or pureed in order for the children to eat them.

  2. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  3. Morphology of leaves cuticle by fringe projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Amalia; Rayas Alvarez, J. A.; Cordero, Raúl; Balieiro R., Daniela

    2011-10-01

    The development of this work is important in the morphological study of plant parts, specifically in the study of the cuticle of fruits or leaves. The implemented optical technique for fringe projection can identify potential fracture zones which damage the presentation of the fruits impacting business as well as producing them. Specifically, we obtained information on the thickness of a cuticle corresponding to the abaxial surface of a leaf of apple (Malus domestica) of the variety Golden Delicious.

  4. Effects of Extracts from Thai Piperaceae Plants against Infection with Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Leesombun, Arpron; Boonmasawai, Sookruetai; Shimoda, Naomi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines and natural herb extracts are widely used as alternative treatments for various parasitic diseases, and such extracts may also have potential to decrease the side effects of the standard regimen drugs used to treat toxoplasmosis (sulfadiazine-pyrimethamine combination). We evaluated how effective the Thai piperaceae plants Piper betle, P. nigrum and P. sarmentosum are against Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro and in vivo. Individually, we extracted the piperaceae plants with ethanol, passed them through a rotary evaporator and then lyophilized them to obtain crude extracts for each one. The in vitro study indicated that the P. betle extract was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in HFF cells (IC50 on RH-GFP: 23.2 μg/mL, IC50 on PLK-GFP: 21.4 μg/mL). Furthermore, treatment of experimental mice with the P. betle extract for 7 days after infection with 1,000 tachyzoites of the T. gondii PLK strain increased their survival (survival rates: 100% in 400 mg/kg-treated, 83.3% in 100 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in 25 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in untreated mice). Furthermore, treatment with 400 mg/kg of the P. betle extract resulted in 100% mouse survival following infection with 100,000 tachyzoites. The present study shows that P. betle extract has the potential to act as a medical plant for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:27213575

  5. Effects of Extracts from Thai Piperaceae Plants against Infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Leesombun, Arpron; Boonmasawai, Sookruetai; Shimoda, Naomi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines and natural herb extracts are widely used as alternative treatments for various parasitic diseases, and such extracts may also have potential to decrease the side effects of the standard regimen drugs used to treat toxoplasmosis (sulfadiazine-pyrimethamine combination). We evaluated how effective the Thai piperaceae plants Piper betle, P. nigrum and P. sarmentosum are against Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro and in vivo. Individually, we extracted the piperaceae plants with ethanol, passed them through a rotary evaporator and then lyophilized them to obtain crude extracts for each one. The in vitro study indicated that the P. betle extract was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in HFF cells (IC50 on RH-GFP: 23.2 μg/mL, IC50 on PLK-GFP: 21.4 μg/mL). Furthermore, treatment of experimental mice with the P. betle extract for 7 days after infection with 1,000 tachyzoites of the T. gondii PLK strain increased their survival (survival rates: 100% in 400 mg/kg-treated, 83.3% in 100 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in 25 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in untreated mice). Furthermore, treatment with 400 mg/kg of the P. betle extract resulted in 100% mouse survival following infection with 100,000 tachyzoites. The present study shows that P. betle extract has the potential to act as a medical plant for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:27213575

  6. Learning to live with the Family and Medical Leave Act.

    PubMed

    White, J D

    1994-03-01

    Many issues surround the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. Employer concerns focus on eligibility, lost work hours, and the conditions of granting leave. Employees would like to know what their new rights are, how the Act affects their benefits, and what documentation they must present to demonstrate a need for leave. Both agency administrators and home care workers will find clarification here.

  7. 5 CFR 630.208 - Reduction in leave credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reduction in leave credits. 630.208... credits. (a) When the number of hours in a nonpay status in a full-time employee's leave year equals the number of basepay hours in a pay period, the agency shall reduce his credits for leave by an amount...

  8. 5 CFR 630.208 - Reduction in leave credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reduction in leave credits. 630.208... credits. (a) When the number of hours in a nonpay status in a full-time employee's leave year equals the number of basepay hours in a pay period, the agency shall reduce his credits for leave by an amount...

  9. Keep on growing: building and patterning leaves in the grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monocot leaves have unique features that arise early in their development. Maturing leaves protectively enclose younger leaves and the meristem, the pool of founder cells from which a leaf emerges. Through the maturation process, proximal sheath and distal blade tissues differentiate and are separat...

  10. Why Band Directors Leave: From the Mouths of Maestros

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheib, John W.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a survey conducted by the author asking music teachers why they leave their jobs. The author compiled an e-mail survey and sent it to instrumental music teachers who were making plans to leave their jobs for new positions or to leave the music education profession entirely. In order to widen the pool of…

  11. Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furbish, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

  12. An Update on the Family Medical Leave Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Massucci, Joseph D.

    1998-01-01

    There has been little litigation since the Family Medical Leave Act's inception in 1993. This article highlights FMLA's scope of coverage, leave requirements, notice and verification, special rules for employees and local education agencies, employment and leave entitlements, and enforcement. Employers violating the FMLA may have to reinstate and…

  13. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of the undertaking of the new appointment the regular employee, except for reasons beyond his/her... services. Leave and Holidays (OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The Contractor may grant to its employees... for its employees, but in no event shall such vacation leave be earned at a rate exceeding 26...

  14. Studies on some Pharmacognostic profiles of Cassia tora Linn. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Tapan Kumar; Mandal, Subhash C.; Saha, B.P.; Pal, M.

    2000-01-01

    The macroscopic character of the leaves, physical constant values, extractive values, behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents. Fluorescence characters under ultraviolet light after treatment wit different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Cassia tora Linn. (Family: Leguminosae) were studied to characterize some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical study on different tracts of the leaves were also performed. PMID:22556931

  15. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...' Compensation Programs under 20 CFR 10.202 and 10.310, and the annual leave was leave transferred under § 630... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630.911 Section 630.911 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...

  16. Iridoids from Spathodea campanulata P. Beauvais leaves.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Yaser G

    2009-06-01

    Three new and four known iridoids have been isolated from the leaves of Spathodea campanulata, the structures of the new compounds were determined as 6-O-trans-caffeoyl-decinnamoyl globularimin, 6-O-trans-caffeoyl-asystasioside E and 6-O-trans-caffeoyl-5,7-bisdeoxycynanchoside and provisionally named as spatheosides A (1), B (2) and C (3) respectively. The known iridoids were identified as verminoside (4), 6'-O-trans-caffeoyl-loganic acid (5), catalpol (6) and ajugol (7). The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by different spectroscopic methods.

  17. Isoflavone tetraglycosides from Sophora japonica Leaves.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuping; Yang, Ruolin; Duan, Jin-Ao; Shang, Erxin; Su, Shulan; Zhu, Min; Qian, Dawei

    2008-03-01

    Two new isoflavone tetraglycosides ( 1 and 2) and six known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Sophora japonica. The new glycosides are genistein 7- O-beta- d-glucopyranoside-4'- O-(6'''- O-alpha- l-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-sophoroside ( 1) and genistein 7- O-alpha- l-rhamnopyranoside-4'- O-(6'''- O-alpha- l-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-sophoroside ( 2). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were established primarily by NMR experiments and chemical methods, and they are the first reported naturally occurring isoflavone glycosides with four attached sugar residues. PMID:18047294

  18. Evolutionary biology. Chewed leaves reveal ancient relationship.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, E

    2000-07-14

    On page 291, researchers describe a new beetle fossil based not on traces of the insect skeleton but on the distinctive gouges the beetles left when they munched on 11 ginger leaves many millions of years ago. The chew marks of the newly described Cephaloleichnites strongi prove that leaf beetles underwent rapid evolution and diversification more than 65 million years ago, possibly taking advantage of (and perhaps influencing) the rapid diversification among flowering plants occurring at the same time. What's more, C. strongi represents the earliest known rolled-leaf beetle species, hundreds of which today still prefer just one of the ginger- and heliconia-like plants in the Zingiberales order.

  19. Labdane diterpenes from Leonurus japonicus leaves.

    PubMed

    Romero-González, Román R; Avila-Núñez, Jorge L; Aubert, Lianne; Alonso-Amelot, Miguel E

    2006-05-01

    Three labdane diterpenes 15,16-epoxy-6-hydroxylabda-5,8,13(16),14-tretraen-7-one (leojaponin), (9alpha,13S);15,16-diepoxy-7beta-hydroxylabd-14-en-6-one (13-epi-preleoheterin), and (9alpha,13R);15,16-diepoxy-6beta-hydroxylabd-14-en-7-one (iso-preleoheterin) were isolated from the leaves of Leonurus japonicus, in addition to the previously reported preleoheterin. The structure elucidations were made based on analysis of their spectroscopic data.

  20. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.310 Certification for leave taken to care... of the covered servicemember. For purposes of leave taken to care for a covered servicemember,...

  1. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.310 Certification for leave taken to care... of the covered servicemember. For purposes of leave taken to care for a covered servicemember,...

  2. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.310 Certification for leave taken to care... of the covered servicemember. For purposes of leave taken to care for a covered servicemember,...

  3. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.310 Certification for leave taken to care... of the covered servicemember. For purposes of leave taken to care for a covered servicemember,...

  4. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.310 Certification for leave taken to care... of the covered servicemember. For purposes of leave taken to care for a covered servicemember,...

  5. Anticancer and Cancer Prevention Effects of Piperine-Free Piper nigrum Extract on N-nitrosomethylurea-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sriwiriyajan, Somchai; Tedasen, Aman; Lailerd, Narissara; Boonyaphiphat, Pleumjit; Nitiruangjarat, Anupong; Deng, Yan; Graidist, Potchanapond

    2016-01-01

    Piper nigrum (P. nigrum) is commonly used in traditional medicine. This current study aimed to investigate the anticancer and cancer preventive activity of a piperine-free P. nigrum extract (PFPE) against breast cancer cells and N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats. The cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of action were investigated in breast cancer cells using the MTT assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. An acute toxicity study was conducted according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guideline. Female Sprague-Dawley rats with NMU-induced mammary tumors were used in preventive and anticancer studies. The results showed that PFPE inhibited the growth of luminal-like breast cancer cells more so than the basal-like ones by induction of apoptosis. In addition, PFPE exhibited greater selectivity against breast cancer cells than colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and neuroblastoma cells. In an acute toxicity study, a single oral administration of PFPE at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight resulted in no mortality and morbidity during a 14-day observation period. For the cancer preventive study, the incidence of tumor-bearing rats was 10% to 20% in rats treated with PFPE. For the anticancer activity study, the growth rate of tumors in the presence of PFPE-treated groups was much slower when compared with the control and vehicle groups. The extract itself caused no changes to the biochemical and hematologic parameters when compared with the control and vehicle groups. In conclusion, PFPE had a low toxicity and a potent antitumor effect on mammary tumorigenesis in rats. PMID:26511488

  6. Anticancer and Cancer Prevention Effects of Piperine-Free Piper nigrum Extract on N-nitrosomethylurea-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sriwiriyajan, Somchai; Tedasen, Aman; Lailerd, Narissara; Boonyaphiphat, Pleumjit; Nitiruangjarat, Anupong; Deng, Yan; Graidist, Potchanapond

    2016-01-01

    Piper nigrum (P. nigrum) is commonly used in traditional medicine. This current study aimed to investigate the anticancer and cancer preventive activity of a piperine-free P. nigrum extract (PFPE) against breast cancer cells and N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats. The cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of action were investigated in breast cancer cells using the MTT assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. An acute toxicity study was conducted according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development guideline. Female Sprague-Dawley rats with NMU-induced mammary tumors were used in preventive and anticancer studies. The results showed that PFPE inhibited the growth of luminal-like breast cancer cells more so than the basal-like ones by induction of apoptosis. In addition, PFPE exhibited greater selectivity against breast cancer cells than colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and neuroblastoma cells. In an acute toxicity study, a single oral administration of PFPE at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight resulted in no mortality and morbidity during a 14-day observation period. For the cancer preventive study, the incidence of tumor-bearing rats was 10% to 20% in rats treated with PFPE. For the anticancer activity study, the growth rate of tumors in the presence of PFPE-treated groups was much slower when compared with the control and vehicle groups. The extract itself caused no changes to the biochemical and hematologic parameters when compared with the control and vehicle groups. In conclusion, PFPE had a low toxicity and a potent antitumor effect on mammary tumorigenesis in rats.

  7. Antiamnesic potential of Murraya koenigii leaves.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Mani; Parle, Milind

    2009-03-01

    Murraya koenigii leaves commonly known as curry patta are added routinely to Indian gravy and vegetarian dishes as a favorite condiment. The effects of Murraya koenigii leaves (MKL) on cognitive functions, total serum cholesterol level and brain cholinesterase activity in young and aged mice fed orally with a diet containing 2%, 4% and 8% w/w of MKL for 30 days consecutively, were investigated. The memory scores were measured using various exteroceptive and interoceptive behavioral models. The MKL diets produced a significant dose-dependent improvement in the memory scores of young and aged mice and significantly reduced the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Also, brain cholinesterase activity and total cholesterol levels were reduced by the MKL diets. The underlying mechanism of action for the observed nootropic effect may be attributed to pro-cholinergic activity and a cholesterol lowering property. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to investigate specifically the therapeutic potential of MKL in the management of Alzheimer patients. PMID:18844259

  8. Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; Rosny, Gilles de

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

  9. Ecojustice in science education: leaving the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-06-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vázquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at large rather than focusing narrowly and exclusively on science education. Considering the metaphor of `leaving the classroom' I want to explore the tensions that can be experienced by science educators who do research focused on ecosocial justice. While it is not a new idea to suggest that there are gatekeepers in science education who try to maintain what counts in terms of impact in the classroom and what counts or not for the purposes of doing good work in science education, I anticipate highlighting the tensions that ecojustice educators may experience and why they can and should persevere with the incisive work that they are doing to conserve the prospects of future generations. Ecojustice no longer belongs constrained under the confines of environmental sciences or environmental education in science education. It is a separate and distinct field of study that should be generally accepted for the ways it brings clarity and conversation to ideas, curriculum studies, and thick descriptions of how people engage in eco-justice and ethics.

  10. Reconfiguration of broad leaves into cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Laura

    2013-11-01

    Flexible plants, fungi, and sessile animals are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up and reduce drag. This presentation will begin by examining how leaves roll up into drag reducing shapes in strong flow. The dynamics of the flow around the leaf of the wild ginger Hexastylis arifolia are described using particle image velocimetry. The flows around the leaves are compared with those of simplified sheets using 3D numerical simulations and physical models. For some reconfiguration shapes, large forces and oscillations due to strong vortex shedding are produced. In the actual leaf, a stable recirculation zone is formed within the wake of the reconfigured cone. In physical and numerical models that reconfigure into cones, a similar recirculation zone is observed with both rigid and flexible tethers. These results suggest that the three-dimensional cone structure in addition to flexibility is significant to both the reduction of vortex-induced vibrations and the forces experienced by the leaf.

  11. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... serious injury or illness, there must be a medical need for leave and it must be that such medical need... of a serious injury or illness, if required by the employer, addresses the medical necessity of... treatment of a serious health condition or of a covered servicemember's serious injury or illness, or...

  12. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... serious injury or illness, there must be a medical need for leave and it must be that such medical need... of a serious injury or illness, if required by the employer, addresses the medical necessity of... treatment of a serious health condition or of a covered servicemember's serious injury or illness, or...

  13. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers’ adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. Aim: This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. Methods: A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Results: Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20–25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9–33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. Conclusions: During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. PMID:27060594

  14. Attenuation of oxidative hemolysis of human red blood cells by the natural phenolic compound, allylpyrocatechol.

    PubMed

    Iyer, M K; Nayak, R; Colah, R; Chattopadhyay, S

    2013-09-01

    The protecting ability of the Piper betle leaves-derived phenol, allylpyrocatechol (APC) against AAPH-induced membrane damage of human red blood cells (RBCs) was investigated. Compared to control, AAPH (50 mM) treatment resulted in significant hemolysis (55%, p < 0.01), associated with increased malondialdehyde (MDA) (2.9-fold, p < 0.001) and methemoglobin (6.1-fold, p < 0.001) levels. The structural deformation due to membrane damage was confirmed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and Heinz bodies formation, while the cell permeability was evident from the K(+) efflux (28.7%, p < 0.05) and increased intracellular Na(+) concentration (8%, p < 0.05). The membrane damage, due to the reduction of the cholesterol/phospholipids ratio and depletion (p < 0.001) of ATP, 2,3-DPG by ˜44-54% and Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity (43.7%), indicated loss of RBC functionality. The adverse effects of AAPH on all these biochemical parameters and the resultant oxidative hemolysis of RBCs were significantly reduced by pretreating the cells with APC (7 μM) or α-tocopherol (50 μM) for 1 h, prior to incubation with AAPH.

  15. Modulation of Th1/Th2 cytokines and inflammatory mediators by hydroxychavicol in adjuvant induced arthritic tissues.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anjali; Bani, Sarang; Dutt, Prabhu; Suri, Krishna Avtar

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-arthritic activity of hydroxychavicol (HC) a major phenolic compound isolated from the aqueous extract leaves of plant Piper betle (Piperaceae). The compound showed significant lowering of pro-inflammatory (Th1) cytokine levels in arthritic paw tissue homogenate supernatant viz. IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha with maximum inhibition at higher dose levels of 2 and 4 mg/kg p.o. and enhanced the production of anti-inflammatory (Th2) cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 estimated by cytometric bead array immunoassay. Cytometric bead array uses the sensitivity of amplified fluorescence detection by flowcytometer to measure soluble analytes in a particle based immune assay. This assay can accurately quantitate five cytokines in a 50-microl sample volume. The T-helper (Th1) deviated cells produce detectable level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), interleukin-2 (IL-2), and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), while the Th2 deviated cells produce significant amount of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-5 (IL-5). HC at graded doses also significantly decreased the expression of IL-1beta, PGE(2), LTB(4), and nitric oxide levels showing significant inhibition of these parameters. Elevated levels of CD4(+) T cell specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in splenocytes of arthritic animals was also inhibited in treated animals. The oral LD(0) in both mice and rats was more than 1000 mg/kg.

  16. [Effects of Piper longum L. on chills in Japanese young women: time-dependent changes in skin surface temperature and its recovery rate following the exposure to mild cold stress].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Noriko; Nishihara, Chie; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yasunaga; Takagaki, Ryoji; Miyakoshi, Masazumi; Mizutani, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    Chills can lead to problems such as insomnia, mental fatigue, and unstable emotions. Increasing evidence shows that young women, as well as menopausal women, suffer from chills. The present study investigated the effect of Piper longum L. on chills in young women. Participants with (n = 16) and without (n = 16) chills were sampled randomly from female university students using reported discriminative criteria (Yamada et al, 2007). Each participant was randomly assigned to low- (15 mg) and high-dose (30 mg) P. longum groups. We determined the severity of complaints related to chills, physical parameters (body mass index, body fat ratio, and blood pressure), the peripheral circulation dynamics using a laser tissue blood flow-meter, and the skin surface temperature in the fingers using a thermograph. Mild cold stress was applied 10 min after taking a capsule containing P. longum or a dextrin placebo. Then, a thermograph was recorded every minute for 11 min. Piper longum significantly facilitated the recovery of skin surface temperature at either low or high dosages in participants with chills. In subjects without chills, neither high- nor low-dosage of P. longum had an effect. Our findings have important implications for the utility of P. longum in women with chills.

  17. [Effects of Piper longum L. on chills in Japanese young women: time-dependent changes in skin surface temperature and its recovery rate following the exposure to mild cold stress].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Noriko; Nishihara, Chie; Yoshimura, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yasunaga; Takagaki, Ryoji; Miyakoshi, Masazumi; Mizutani, Kenji

    2009-02-01

    Chills can lead to problems such as insomnia, mental fatigue, and unstable emotions. Increasing evidence shows that young women, as well as menopausal women, suffer from chills. The present study investigated the effect of Piper longum L. on chills in young women. Participants with (n = 16) and without (n = 16) chills were sampled randomly from female university students using reported discriminative criteria (Yamada et al, 2007). Each participant was randomly assigned to low- (15 mg) and high-dose (30 mg) P. longum groups. We determined the severity of complaints related to chills, physical parameters (body mass index, body fat ratio, and blood pressure), the peripheral circulation dynamics using a laser tissue blood flow-meter, and the skin surface temperature in the fingers using a thermograph. Mild cold stress was applied 10 min after taking a capsule containing P. longum or a dextrin placebo. Then, a thermograph was recorded every minute for 11 min. Piper longum significantly facilitated the recovery of skin surface temperature at either low or high dosages in participants with chills. In subjects without chills, neither high- nor low-dosage of P. longum had an effect. Our findings have important implications for the utility of P. longum in women with chills. PMID:19326811

  18. Role of Leaves in Phototropism 1

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Shue-Lock; Leopold, A. C.

    1966-01-01

    Experiments with green seedlings of sunflower (Helianthus annuns L.) indicate the existence of a phototropic mechanism which involves the leaves or cotyledons, and which can produce an asymmetry of auxin content without the involvement of lateral auxin transport, the classic explanation of phototropism in etiolated seedlings. The basic lines of evidence for the leaf-mediated tropism are: 1) darkening of one cotyledon will cause curvature of the stem toward the lighted cotyledon: 2) the darkened cotyledon sustains an enhanced growth rate in the stem below it: 3) conversely, light suppresses the growth-stimulating effects of a single cotyledon: and 4) more diffusible auxin is obtained from the stem below darkened cotyledons than below lighted ones. PMID:16656329

  19. Photosynthesis by sugar-cane leaves

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M. D.; Slack, C. R.

    1966-01-01

    1. Radioactive products in detached leaf segments were examined after periods of steady-state photosynthesis in 14CO2. 2. After exposure to 14CO2 for approx. 1sec. more than 93% of the fixed radioactivity was located in malate, aspartate and oxaloacetate. After longer periods large proportions of the radioactivity appeared in 3-phosphoglycerate, hexose monophosphates and sucrose. Similar results were obtained with leaves still attached to the plant. 3. Radioactivity appeared first in C-4 of the dicarboxylic acids and C-1 of 3-phosphoglycerate. The labelling pattern in hexoses was consistent with their formation from 3-phosphoglycerate. 4. The reaction giving rise to C4 dicarboxylic acid appears to be the only quantitatively significant carboxylation reaction. 5. Evidence is provided that the radioactivity incorporated into the C4 dicarboxylic acid pool is transferred to sugars via 3-phosphoglycerate. A scheme is proposed to account for these observations. PMID:5971771

  20. Leaving and entering a career in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, Shobhana; Tajima, Setsuko; Yoon, Jin-Hee

    2013-03-01

    Although a continuous research career is desirable for physicists, women often face situations that force them to interrupt their careers. Concerning the career-break problem, we discussed four issues. First, we analyzed the factors that force women to leave physics. Second, we discussed the effects of an interruption in a physics career. Should women continue to work as scientists without any break, at all costs? Or is it possible (and perhaps even better) to choose a more flexible career path? Third, we discussed the ways to retain women in physics. As an example, we focused on one of the most difficult problems: dual-career couples. Finally, we also discussed some possible ways in which one could support and facilitate women returning to a physics career after a break.

  1. Steroids from Dysoxylum grande (Meliaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Wah, Low Kok; Abas, Faridah; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Ito, Hideyuki; Ismail, Intan Safinar

    2013-02-01

    Seven new 23-oxo-cholestane derivatives named as grandol A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), E (5), F (6), and G (7) were isolated from Dysoxylum grande leaves alongside with a new 3,4-secodammar-4(28)-en-3-oic acid derivative (8). The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on the interpretation of spectroscopic data, and their relative configurations were established by NOESY 2D NMR data. All of the isolates were tested for anti-acetylcholinesterase activity using thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography with fast blue B salt. Only grandol A (1) and B (2) showed positive results, with clear discoloration at a concentration of 12.5 ppm. However, the obtained IC(50) values for grandol A and B, when using Ellman's method, were not significant (>200 μg/ml).

  2. Sabbatical leave: who gains and how much?

    PubMed

    Davidson, Oranit B; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B; Kluger, Avraham N; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewé, Pamela L; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E

    2010-09-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls completed measures of resource gain, resource loss, and well-being before, during, and after the sabbatical. Among the sabbatees, resource loss declined and resource gain and well-being rose during the sabbatical. The comparison group showed no change. Moderation analysis revealed that those who reported higher respite self-efficacy and greater control, were more detached, had a more positive sabbatical experience, and spent their sabbatical outside their home country enjoyed more enhanced well-being than others.

  3. Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, R; Nagini, S

    2005-03-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has attracted worldwide prominence in recent years, owing to its wide range of medicinal properties. Neem has been extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathic medicine and has become a cynosure of modern medicine. Neem elaborates a vast array of biologically active compounds that are chemically diverse and structurally complex. More than 140 compounds have been isolated from different parts of neem. All parts of the neem tree- leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, roots and bark have been used traditionally for the treatment of inflammation, infections, fever, skin diseases and dental disorders. The medicinal utilities have been described especially for neem leaf. Neem leaf and its constituents have been demonstrated to exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycaemic, antiulcer, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. This review summarises the wide range of pharmacological activities of neem leaf. PMID:15777222

  4. Volatile organic compounds from leaves litter.

    PubMed

    Isidorov, Valery; Jdanova, Maria

    2002-09-01

    Qualitative composition of volatile emissions of litter of five species of deciduous trees was investigated by GC-MS. The list of identified substances contains more than 70 organic compounds of various classes. It was established that the composition of components emitted by the litter into the gas phase greatly differs from that of essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from turned leaves collected from trees during fall. It is suggested that most compounds found in litter emissions are products of vital activity of microorganisms decomposing it. The reported data indicate that after the vegetative period is over the decomposition processes of litter are important seasonal sources of reactive organic compounds under the forest canopy.

  5. Adolescent home-leaving and the transition to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kabiru, Caroline; Beguy, Donatien; Kanyiva, Muindi; Jessor, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Home-leaving is considered an important marker of the transition to adulthood and is usually framed as an individual decision. We move beyond this limited assumption to examine a broader conceptualization that might better illuminate home-leaving among youth in impoverished circumstances. We adopt the Problem Behavior Theory-framework to investigate the association of home-leaving with behavioral and psychosocial variables and with other transitions. We use data on adolescents aged 14–22 years from a three-wave study conducted between 2007 and 2010. We used variable- and person-centered cross-sectional analyses, as well as predictive analysis of home-leaving by subsequent waves. Parental controls protection predicted home-leaving by subsequent waves. Overall, protective factors moderated the association of problem behavior involvement with leaving home in Nairobi’s slums. PMID:24089582

  6. Analysis of flavonoids from leaves of cultivated Lycium barbarum L.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing Z; Lu, Da Y; Wang, Y

    2009-09-01

    Leaves of Lycium barbarum are widely used as medicine vegetables and functional tea in China. The main flavonoids present in the leaves were separated and identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-(APCI) MS) and ultraviolet-visible spectra with shift additives. The predominant flavonoid was identified as rutin. Leaves are the rutin-rich parts (16.03-16.33 mg/g). In the wild and cultivated L. barbarum fruits, contents of rutin were determined very low (0.09-1.38 mg/g). The contents of total flavonoids (21.25 mg/g) of cultivated L. barbarum leaves were much higher than those in the wild L. barbarum leaves (17.86 mg/g), so cultivated barbarum leaves are a suitable source for medicine vegetables and functional tea.

  7. Disabled Veteran Leave and Other Miscellaneous Changes. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    The Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations to implement the Wounded Warriors Federal Leave Act of 2015, which establishes a separate new leave category, to be known as "disabled veteran leave," available during a 12-month period beginning on the first day of employment to be used by an employee who is a veteran with a service-connected disability rated at 30 percent or more for purposes of undergoing medical treatment for such disability. We are also rescinding two obsolete leave-related regulations. PMID:27529899

  8. Family medical leave as a resilience resource for family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Swanke, Jayme; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2009-01-01

    Case managers mobilize family networks to care for patients. Family medical leave can be a resource for case managers who seek to enhance resilience among family caregivers. The Family Medical Leave Act, passed in 1993, was the first U.S. policy to regulate employee leaves from work for family care purposes (29 CFR 825.102). This policy offers family caregivers increased flexibility and equality. Current and emerging policies also can reduce financial strain. The discussion examines how case managers can integrate family medical leave into best-practice models to support patients and family caregivers.

  9. Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

  10. Anti-aging effects of Piper cambodianum P. Fourn. extract on normal human dermal fibroblast cells and a wound-healing model in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunji; Hong, Youngeun; Kwon, So Hee; Park, Jongsun; Park, Jisoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging of skin is associated with environmental factors such as ultraviolet rays, air pollution, gravity, and genetic factors, all of which can lead to wrinkling of skin. Previous reports suggest that the wound repair is impaired by the aging process and strategies to manipulate the age-related wound healing are necessary in order to stimulate repair. Objective Several traditional plant extracts are well-known for their properties of skin protection and care. Piper cambodianum P. Fourn. (PPF), a member of Piperacecae, is a plant found in Vietnam that might have therapeutic properties. Therefore, the effects of PPF stem and leaf extract on aging process were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Methods PPF extract dissolved in methanol was investigated using Western blotting, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and cell wound-healing assays. We assessed the anti-aging effect of PPF in mouse using the wound-healing assay. The results were analyzed by Student’s unpaired t-test; *P<0.05 and **P<0.01 were considered to indicate significant and highly significant values, respectively, compared with corresponding controls. Results PPF treatment demonstrated in vitro and in vivo anti-aging activity. Western blot analysis of PPF-treated normal human dermal fibroblast cells showed a dose-dependent increase in the expression of extracellular matrix genes such as collagen and elastin, but decreased expression of the aging gene matrix metalloproteinase-3. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that PPF-treated cells displayed dose-dependent increase in messenger RNA expression levels of collagen, elastin, and hyaluronan synthase-2 and decreased expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 aging gene. PPF treatment led to decreased production of reactive oxygen species in cells subjected to ultraviolet irradiation. Furthermore, PPF extract showed positive wound-healing effects in mice. Conclusion This study

  11. Mycotoxin production and predictive modelling kinetics on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus isolates in whole black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L).

    PubMed

    Yogendrarajah, Pratheeba; Vermeulen, An; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Mavromichali, Evangelia; De Saeger, Sarah; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devlieghere, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The growth and mycotoxin production of three Aspergillus flavus isolates and an Aspergillus parasiticus isolate were studied in whole black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L.) using a full factorial design with seven water activity (aw) (0.826-0.984) levels and three temperatures (22, 30 and 37°C). Growth rates and lag phases were estimated using linear regression. Diverse secondary models were assessed for their ability to describe the radial growth rate as a function of individual and combined effect of aw and temperature. Optimum radial growth rate ranged from 0.75±0.04 to 2.65±0.02mm/day for A. flavus and 1.77±0.10 to 2.50±0.10mm/day for A. parasiticus based on the Rosso cardinal estimations. Despite the growth failure of some isolates at marginal conditions, all the studied models showed good performance to predict the growth rates. Validation of the models was performed on independently derived data. The bias factors (0.73-1.03), accuracy factors (0.97-1.36) and root mean square error (0.050-0.278) show that the examined models are conservative predictors of the colony growth rate of both fungal species in black peppers. The Rosso cardinal model can be recommended to describe the individual aw effect while the extended Gibson model was the best model for describing the combined effect of aw and temperature on the growth rate of both fungal species in peppercorns. Temperature optimum ranged from 30 to 33°C, while aw optimum was 0.87-0.92 as estimated by multi-factorial cardinal model for both species. The estimated minimum temperature and aw for A. flavus and A. parasiticus for growth were 11-16°C and 0.73-0.76, respectively, hence, achieving these conditions should be considered during storage to prevent the growth of these mycotoxigenic fungal species in black peppercorns. Following the growth study, production of mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, sterigmatocystin and O-methyl sterigmatocystin (OMST)) was quantified using LC-MS/MS. Very small

  12. Mycotoxin production and predictive modelling kinetics on the growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus isolates in whole black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L).

    PubMed

    Yogendrarajah, Pratheeba; Vermeulen, An; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Mavromichali, Evangelia; De Saeger, Sarah; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devlieghere, Frank

    2016-07-01

    The growth and mycotoxin production of three Aspergillus flavus isolates and an Aspergillus parasiticus isolate were studied in whole black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L.) using a full factorial design with seven water activity (aw) (0.826-0.984) levels and three temperatures (22, 30 and 37°C). Growth rates and lag phases were estimated using linear regression. Diverse secondary models were assessed for their ability to describe the radial growth rate as a function of individual and combined effect of aw and temperature. Optimum radial growth rate ranged from 0.75±0.04 to 2.65±0.02mm/day for A. flavus and 1.77±0.10 to 2.50±0.10mm/day for A. parasiticus based on the Rosso cardinal estimations. Despite the growth failure of some isolates at marginal conditions, all the studied models showed good performance to predict the growth rates. Validation of the models was performed on independently derived data. The bias factors (0.73-1.03), accuracy factors (0.97-1.36) and root mean square error (0.050-0.278) show that the examined models are conservative predictors of the colony growth rate of both fungal species in black peppers. The Rosso cardinal model can be recommended to describe the individual aw effect while the extended Gibson model was the best model for describing the combined effect of aw and temperature on the growth rate of both fungal species in peppercorns. Temperature optimum ranged from 30 to 33°C, while aw optimum was 0.87-0.92 as estimated by multi-factorial cardinal model for both species. The estimated minimum temperature and aw for A. flavus and A. parasiticus for growth were 11-16°C and 0.73-0.76, respectively, hence, achieving these conditions should be considered during storage to prevent the growth of these mycotoxigenic fungal species in black peppercorns. Following the growth study, production of mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, sterigmatocystin and O-methyl sterigmatocystin (OMST)) was quantified using LC-MS/MS. Very small

  13. Mitochondrial electron transport protects floating leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition: comparison with submerged leaves.

    PubMed

    Shabnam, Nisha; Sharmila, P; Sharma, Anuradha; Strasser, Reto J; Govindjee; Pardha-Saradhi, P

    2015-08-01

    Investigations were carried to unravel mechanism(s) for higher tolerance of floating over submerged leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition. Chloroplasts from floating leaves showed ~5- and ~6.4-fold higher Photosystem (PS) I (reduced dichlorophenol-indophenol → methyl viologen → O2) and PS II (H2O → parabenzoquine) activities over those from submerged leaves. The saturating rate (V max) of PS II activity of chloroplasts from floating and submerged leaves reached at ~600 and ~230 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Photosynthetic electron transport rate in floating leaves was over 5-fold higher than in submerged leaves. Further, floating leaves, as compared to submerged leaves, showed higher F v/F m (variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence, a reflection of PS II efficiency), as well as a higher potential to withstand photoinhibitory damage by high light (1,200 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Cells of floating leaves had not only higher mitochondria to chloroplast ratio, but also showed many mitochondria in close vicinity of chloroplasts. Electron transport (NADH → O2; succinate → O2) in isolated mitochondria of floating leaves was sensitive to both cyanide (CN(-)) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), whereas those in submerged leaves were sensitive to CN(-), but virtually insensitive to SHAM, revealing the presence of alternative oxidase in mitochondria of floating, but not of submerged, leaves. Further, the potential of floating leaves to withstand photoinhibitory damage was significantly reduced in the presence of CN(-) and SHAM, individually and in combination. Our experimental results establish that floating leaves possess better photosynthetic efficiency and capacity to withstand photoinhibition compared to submerged leaves; and mitochondria play a pivotal role in protecting photosynthetic machinery of floating leaves against photoinhibition, most likely by oxidation of NAD(P)H and

  14. Mitochondrial electron transport protects floating leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition: comparison with submerged leaves.

    PubMed

    Shabnam, Nisha; Sharmila, P; Sharma, Anuradha; Strasser, Reto J; Govindjee; Pardha-Saradhi, P

    2015-08-01

    Investigations were carried to unravel mechanism(s) for higher tolerance of floating over submerged leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition. Chloroplasts from floating leaves showed ~5- and ~6.4-fold higher Photosystem (PS) I (reduced dichlorophenol-indophenol → methyl viologen → O2) and PS II (H2O → parabenzoquine) activities over those from submerged leaves. The saturating rate (V max) of PS II activity of chloroplasts from floating and submerged leaves reached at ~600 and ~230 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Photosynthetic electron transport rate in floating leaves was over 5-fold higher than in submerged leaves. Further, floating leaves, as compared to submerged leaves, showed higher F v/F m (variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence, a reflection of PS II efficiency), as well as a higher potential to withstand photoinhibitory damage by high light (1,200 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Cells of floating leaves had not only higher mitochondria to chloroplast ratio, but also showed many mitochondria in close vicinity of chloroplasts. Electron transport (NADH → O2; succinate → O2) in isolated mitochondria of floating leaves was sensitive to both cyanide (CN(-)) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), whereas those in submerged leaves were sensitive to CN(-), but virtually insensitive to SHAM, revealing the presence of alternative oxidase in mitochondria of floating, but not of submerged, leaves. Further, the potential of floating leaves to withstand photoinhibitory damage was significantly reduced in the presence of CN(-) and SHAM, individually and in combination. Our experimental results establish that floating leaves possess better photosynthetic efficiency and capacity to withstand photoinhibition compared to submerged leaves; and mitochondria play a pivotal role in protecting photosynthetic machinery of floating leaves against photoinhibition, most likely by oxidation of NAD(P)H and

  15. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Andreas P.M.

    2008-04-25

    Transitory starch builds up in photosynthesizing leaves during the day and is then degraded each night. It has recently been shown through mutant analysis and genetically engineered plants that transitory starch is required for maximal rates of photosynthesis, especially in high carbon dioxide atmospheres. Understanding the pathway by which carbon is exported from chloroplasts at night is limited. Previous work has shown that starch conversion to sucrose at night involves maltose export from chloroplasts. This pathway for carbon export from chloroplasts normally does not occur during the day. The regulation of maltose formation, the transporters that allow export of maltose from the chloroplast, and the cytosolic reactions by which maltose is converted to sucrose remain obscure. Genomic and biochemical approaches are proposed here to address maltose metabolism and transport. The research will cover three areas (1) how are hydrolytic and phosphorylytic starch degradation regulated, (2) how is maltose exported from chloroplasts, and (3) how is maltose converted to sucrose in the cytosol? It is expected that this research will lead to new insights about photosynthesis at high carbon dioxide levels, how carbon is partitioned in plants, and how partitioning can be altered to adapt plants to human needs.

  16. The energetic characterization of pineapple crown leaves.

    PubMed

    Braga, R M; Queiroga, T S; Calixto, G Q; Almeida, H N; Melo, D M A; Melo, M A F; Freitas, J C O; Curbelo, F D S

    2015-12-01

    Energetic characterization of biomass allows for assessing its energy potential for application in different conversion processes into energy. The objective of this study is to physicochemically characterize pineapple crown leaves (PC) for their application in energy conversion processes. PC was characterized according to ASTM E871-82, E1755-01, and E873-82 for determination of moisture, ash, and volatile matter, respectively; the fixed carbon was calculated by difference. Higher heating value was determined by ASTM E711-87 and ash chemical composition was determined by XRF. The thermogravimetric and FTIR analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal decomposition and identify the main functional groups of biomass. PC has potential for application in thermochemical processes, showing high volatile matter (89.5%), bulk density (420.8 kg/m(3)), and higher heating value (18.9 MJ/kg). The results show its energy potential justifying application of this agricultural waste into energy conversion processes, implementing sustainability in the production, and reducing the environmental liabilities caused by its disposal. PMID:26233737

  17. Photosynthate Partitioning into Starch in Soybean Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Chatterton, N. Jerry; Silvius, John E.

    1979-01-01

    Photosynthesis, photosynthate partitioning into foliar starch, and translocation were investigated in soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Amsoy 71), grown under different photoperiods and photosynthetic periods to determine the controls of leaf starch accumulation. Starch accumulation rates in soybean leaves were inversely related to the length of the daily photosynthetic period under which the plants were grown. Photosynthetic period and not photoperiod per se appears to be the important factor. Plants grown in a 14-hour photosynthetic period partitioned approximately 60% of the daily foliar accumulation into starch whereas 7-hour plants partitioned about 90% of their daily foliar accumulation into starch. The difference in starch accumulation resulted from a change in photosynthate partitioning between starch and leaf residual dry weight. Residual dry weight is defined as leaf dry weight minus the weight of total nonstructural carbohydrates. Differences in photosynthate partitioning into starch were also associated with changes in photosynthetic and translocation rates, as well as with leaf and whole plant morphology. It is concluded that leaf starch accumulation is a programmed process and not simply the result of a limitation in translocation. PMID:16661047

  18. Phytotoxins from the leaves of Ruta graveolens.

    PubMed

    Hale, Amber L; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Oliva, Anna; Aliotta, Giovanni; Duke, Stephen O

    2004-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens (common rue) leaves led to the isolation of the furanocoumarins 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and the quinolone alkaloid graveoline as phytotoxic constituents. Graveoline and 8-MOP substantially inhibited growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content at 100 microM; this effect was not due to a direct effect on chlorophyll synthesis. Radical growth of L. sativa was inhibited by 10 microM 8-MOP. Graveoline inhibited growth of Lemna paucicostata (duckweed) at 100 microM. This is the first report of the phytotoxic activity of graveoline. Growth of Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) was inhibited by 5-MOP at 30 microM. All three compounds substantially reduced cell division in Allium cepa (onion) at or below 100 microM. None of the compounds caused significant cellular leakage of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) cotyledon disks at 100 microM. All three compounds inhibit plant growth, at least partially through inhibition of cell division.

  19. The energetic characterization of pineapple crown leaves.

    PubMed

    Braga, R M; Queiroga, T S; Calixto, G Q; Almeida, H N; Melo, D M A; Melo, M A F; Freitas, J C O; Curbelo, F D S

    2015-12-01

    Energetic characterization of biomass allows for assessing its energy potential for application in different conversion processes into energy. The objective of this study is to physicochemically characterize pineapple crown leaves (PC) for their application in energy conversion processes. PC was characterized according to ASTM E871-82, E1755-01, and E873-82 for determination of moisture, ash, and volatile matter, respectively; the fixed carbon was calculated by difference. Higher heating value was determined by ASTM E711-87 and ash chemical composition was determined by XRF. The thermogravimetric and FTIR analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal decomposition and identify the main functional groups of biomass. PC has potential for application in thermochemical processes, showing high volatile matter (89.5%), bulk density (420.8 kg/m(3)), and higher heating value (18.9 MJ/kg). The results show its energy potential justifying application of this agricultural waste into energy conversion processes, implementing sustainability in the production, and reducing the environmental liabilities caused by its disposal.

  20. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.12 Leave system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time...

  1. Early School-Leaving in Spain: Evolution, Intensity and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Macias, Enrique; Anton, Jose-Ignacio; Brana, Francisco-Javier; De Bustillo, Rafael Munoz

    2013-01-01

    Spain has one of the highest levels of early school leaving and educational failure of the European Union. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the anatomy of early school leaving in Spain and its characteristics. In order to do so, in the first part we discuss the measurement problems related with this concept and the evolution of drop-out…

  2. SOME PHARMACOGNOSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. LEAVES

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Saroj K.; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Saha, Kakali; Pal, M.; Saha, B.P

    1996-01-01

    The macroscopic character of the leaflets ash values extractive values by different solvent extractive behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents fluorescence characters by treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Maoringa oleifera lam (fam moringaceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters, chemical group test of different extracts of the leaves were also performed. PMID:22556759

  3. Optical Parameters of Leaves of 30 Plant Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Gausman, H. W.; Allen, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Optical parameters (absorption coefficient k, infinite reflectance R∞, scattering coefficient 8) are tabulated for seven wavelengths and analyzed for statistical differences for 30 plant species. The wavelengths are: 550 nm (green reflectance peak), 650 nm (chlorophyll absorption band), 850 nm (infrared reflectance plateau), 1450 nm (water absorption band), 1650 nm (reflectance peak following water absorption band at 1450 nm), 1950 nm (water absorption band), and 2200 nm (reflectance peak following water absorption band at 1950 nm). Thick, complex dorsiventral (bifacial mesophyll) leaves such as rubber plant, begonia, sedum, and privet had lower R∞ values than thinner, less complex dorsiventral leaves (i.e., soybean, peach, bean, rose) or essentially centric (undifferentiated mesophyll) sorghum and corn leaves. Infinite reflectance was negatively correlated with leaf thickness (−0.734**). Thick, complex dorsiventral leaves (crinum, oleander, privet, rubber plant, sedum) had higher (p 0.01) k values than thinner, less complex dorsiventral leaves (i.e., soybean, rose, peach) or essentially centric sorghum, sugarcane, and corn leaves. A coefficient of 0.718** was obtained for the correlation of k values with leaf thickness values. Complex dorsiventral oleander, orange, and crinum leaves had higher (p 0.01) 8 values than less complex dorsiventral (i.e., onion, begonia, banana) or centric leaves (i.e., corn and sugarcane). The scattering coefficient was not correlated with leaf thickness. PMID:16658499

  4. Leaves as composites of latent developmental and evolutionary shapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Across plants, leaves exhibit profound diversity in shape. As a single leaf expands, its shape is in constant flux. Additionally, plants may also produce leaves with different shapes at successive nodes. Because leaf shape can vary in many different ways, theoretically the effects of distinct proces...

  5. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 630.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE... table: Home Leave-Earning Table Months of service abroad Earning rate (days for each 12 months) 15 10 5... 10 5 (b) When an employee moves between different home leave-earning rates during a month of...

  6. Postharvest quarantine treatments for Diaphorina citri on infested curry leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate treatments that reduce survival and attachment of Diaphorina citri nymphs on infested curry leaves (Bergera koenigii). Decontamination of curry leaves infested with D. citri in relation to disinfectant (none or Pro-San), temperature (0, 40, and 50°C), and treatment...

  7. Why Do New Teachers Leave? How Could They Stay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simos, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article posits that some teachers leave the profession because they entered it with unrealistic expectations, and that the reality of multiple preparations, unpaid orientation sessions, and large student loads is overburdening.for new teachers. Many new teachers leave their positions because of the dissonance between their…

  8. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    PubMed

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results.

  9. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... educator who is reemployed within three years of separation. (3) School vacation. School term employees may... to an educator who is reemployed within three years of separation. (d) Leave for school term... authorized. (ii) Accumulated sick leave at the time of separation will be recredited to an educator who...

  10. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... educator who is reemployed within three years of separation. (3) School vacation. School term employees may... to an educator who is reemployed within three years of separation. (d) Leave for school term... authorized. (ii) Accumulated sick leave at the time of separation will be recredited to an educator who...

  11. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... educator who is reemployed within three years of separation. (3) School vacation. School term employees may... to an educator who is reemployed within three years of separation. (d) Leave for school term... authorized. (ii) Accumulated sick leave at the time of separation will be recredited to an educator who...

  12. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Fernanda R; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L C; Dias, Johny F; da Rosa, Darlan P; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

  13. Available starch pools in mature soybean leaves. [Glycine max

    SciTech Connect

    Highsmith, M.

    1987-04-01

    Soybeans, Glycine max, were grown in the greenhouse and in the field under conditions that varied CO/sub 2/ levels, irradiance, and photosynthetic period. Photosynthesis, sucrose export rate, starch accumulation, and starch mobilization were measured in mature leaves and compared to expansion of developing leaves two nodes above. Measurements were made daily over a twelve day period. Measured parameters in mature leaves varied daily with night expansion of the growing leaves. Starch accumulation and photosynthesis were affected by the environmental factors while sucrose export rate and starch mobilization were affected only if growth of the expanding leaves changed. The data indicated that influence of night expansion of developing leaves and influence of the environmental factors on photosynthesis caused two pools of starch to be formed in mature leaves. Concentration of each starch pool was calculated. The pool associated with night growth of expanding leaves was positively correlated with photosynthesis and sucrose export rate. The other pool, a storage, was negatively correlated with these parameters. Starch mobilization was comprised of starch from either pool, depending on the plant's environment or it was comprised of starch from both pools.

  14. Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social…

  15. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

  16. Footprints and Fingerprints in Cyberspace: The Trail You Leave Behind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dern, Daniel P.

    1997-01-01

    Online users leave traces that others can find and use. Provides an overview of where and how users leave traces and what users can do to protect their privacy. Discusses Internet accounts; special files ("signature,""plan,""project,""file,""finger,""whois," and "vacation"); online use; e-mail and Usenet; patterns and trends; Web footprints and…

  17. Report on a National Study of Parental Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheinberg, Randy; And Others

    Detailed are the research findings of a national study of parental leaves. Basic objectives of the study were to: (1) collect data that would provide a picture of current leave policies, practices, and attitudes at some of the nation's largest companies; (2) discover how policy translated into practice by gathering information about the…

  18. Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Semiz, Gürkan; Blande, James D

    2009-10-23

    According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches. PMID:19535364

  19. Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Semiz, Gürkan; Blande, James D

    2009-10-23

    According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches.

  20. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825.301 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act §...

  1. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825.301 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act §...

  2. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825.301 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act §...

  3. 77 FR 22519 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA). On February 15, 2012, the... Hour Division 29 CFR Part 825 RIN 1215-AB76 and RIN 1235-AA03 The Family and Medical Leave Act AGENCY... for Comment The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) proposes revisions to the Family and......

  4. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825.301 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act §...

  5. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825.301 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act §...

  6. Energy budgets and temperatures of nyctinastic leaves on freezing nights.

    PubMed

    Schwintzer, C R

    1971-08-01

    Temperatures of exposed horizontal and vertical soybean leaves (Glycine max [L.] Merr. var. Chippewa) were measured on calm, clear nights with temperatures near freezing. Average leaf-air temperature differences for 5 nights were -1.5 C and -1.0 C for horizontal and vertical leaves respectively. The horizontal leaves were cooler than the vertical leaves. The mean of all observed horizontal-vertical leaf temperature differences was -0.5 C with a maximum average for 1 night of -0.8 C, while maximum differences theoretically attainable in similar leaves were calculated to be -1.7 C. No differences were observed in the extent of frost damage in horizontal and vertical leaves. The apparent reduction in frost damage in vertical leaves observed by Charles Darwin was probably caused by his method of using corks to hold the horizontal leaves and not by leaf orientation. Theoretical considerations and the experimental results indicate that nyctinastic leaf movements probably do not provide significant protection from frost for any plants.

  7. Seasonal Variations of the Flavonoid Content from Ginkgo biloba Leaves.

    PubMed

    Lobstein, A; Rietsch-Jako, L; Haag-Berrurier, M; Anton, R

    1991-10-01

    An HPLC method for the separation and the quantitative determination of flavonol glycosides, acylflavonol glycosides, and biflavones in crude leaf extracts from GINKGO BILOBA is described. The results, expressed in percentage of rutine, kaempferol P-coumaroyl glucorhamnoside, and bilobetin showed a higher amount of acylflavonol glycosides in buds, of flavonol glycosides in spring leaves, and of biflavones in autumn leaves.

  8. Reasons that Orthodontic Faculty Teach and Consider Leaving Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:…

  9. Chicoric Acid Found in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves...

  10. Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

  11. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section 416.215 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Reasons Why You May Not Get Ssi Benefits for Which You Are Otherwise Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United...

  12. Gravitropism in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    PubMed

    Mano, Eriko; Horiguchi, Gorou; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2006-02-01

    In higher plants, stems and roots show negative and positive gravitropism, respectively. However, current knowledge on the graviresponse of leaves is lacking. In this study, we analyzed the positioning and movement of rosette leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana under light and dark conditions. We found that the radial positioning of rosette leaves was not affected by the direction of gravity under continuous white light. In contrast, when plants were shifted to darkness, the leaves moved upwards, suggesting negative gravitropism. Analysis of the phosphoglucomutase and shoot gravitropism 2-1 mutants revealed that the sedimenting amyloplasts in the leaf petiole are important for gravity perception, as is the case in stems and roots. In addition, our detailed physiological analyses revealed a unique feature of leaf movement after the shift to darkness, i.e. movement could be divided into negative gravitropism and nastic movement. The orientation of rosette leaves is ascribed to a combination of these movements.

  13. The health effects of leaving school in a bad economy.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the lasting health effects of leaving school in a bad economy. Three empirical patterns motivate this study: Leaving school in a bad economy has persistent and negative career effects, career and health outcomes are correlated, and fluctuations in contemporaneous economic conditions affect health in the short-run. I draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Age 40 Health Supplement. Members of my sample left school between 1976 and 1992. I find that men who left school when the school-leaving state unemployment rate was high have worse health at age 40 than otherwise similar men, while leaving school in a bad economy lowers depressive symptoms at age 40 among women. A 1 percentage point increase in the school-leaving state unemployment rate leads to a 0.5% to 18% reduction in the measured health outcomes among men and a 6% improvement in depressive symptoms among women.

  14. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Thomas D

    2012-05-03

    Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production.

  15. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Sharkey

    2010-01-28

    Final Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15565 Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves PI Thomas D. Sharkey University of Wisconsin-Madison Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of

  16. Paid Educational Leave and Self-Directed Learning: Implications for Legislation on the Learning Leave Scheme in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Cho Hyun; Jo, Sung Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to explore paid educational leave (PEL), self-directed learning (SDL) and the relationship between them; and to identify the implications for legislation on the learning leave scheme in South Korea. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research method of the study is a literature review. Articles were identified…

  17. A biochemical model of photosynthesis for mango leaves: evidence for the effect of fruit on photosynthetic capacity of nearby leaves.

    PubMed

    Urban, L; Le Roux, X; Sinoquet, H; Jaffuel, S; Jannoyer, M

    2003-04-01

    Variations in leaf nitrogen concentration per unit mass (Nm) and per unit area (Na), mass-to-area ratio (Ma), total nonstructural carbohydrates (Ta), and photosynthetic capacity (maximum carboxylation rate, electron transport capacity, rate of phosphate release in triose phosphate utilization and dark respiration rate) were studied within the digitized crowns of two 3-year-old mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) on La Réunion Island. Additional measurements of Nm, Na, Ma, Ta and photosynthetic capacities were performed on young, fully expanded leaves of 11-year-old mango trees. Leaves of similar gap fractions were taken far from and close to developing fruits. Unlike Nm, both Na and Ta were linearly correlated to gap fraction. Similar relationships were found for all leaves whatever their age and origin, except for Ta, for which we found a significant tree effect. Photosynthetic capacity was nonlinearly correlated to Na, and a unique relationship was obtained for all types of leaves. Photosynthetic acclimation to light was mainly driven by changes in Ma, but allocation of total leaf N between the different photosynthetic functions also played a substantial role in acclimation to the lowest irradiances. Leaves close to developing fruits exhibited a higher photosynthetic capacity than other leaves, but similar Ta. Our data suggest that Ta does not control photosynthetic capacity in mango leaves. We used the data to parameterize a biochemically based model of photosynthesis and an empirical stomatal conductance model, allowing accurate predictions of net photosynthesis of leaves in field-grown mango trees.

  18. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ankita; Dhiman, Naresh; Singh, Bhanu P.; Gathania, Arvind K.

    2014-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation.

  19. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose during steady-state /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited.

  20. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into tomato leaves through hydathodes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2013-01-01

    Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars "Florida Lanai", "Crown Jewel", "Ailsa Craig" and the transgenic line Sp5 of "Ailsa Craig" were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 10(9) or 10(7) CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar "Ailsa Craig" and decreased fastest on/in "Florida Lanai" leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants.

  1. Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, Łukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated. PMID:24939800

  2. Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, Łukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated.

  3. 5 CFR 630.908 - Limitations on donation of annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on donation of annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.908 Limitations on donation of annual... amount of annual leave he or she would be entitled to accrue during the leave year in which the...

  4. 5 CFR 630.908 - Limitations on donation of annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on donation of annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.908 Limitations on donation of annual... amount of annual leave he or she would be entitled to accrue during the leave year in which the...

  5. 29 CFR 825.126 - Leave because of a qualifying exigency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.126 Leave because of a qualifying exigency. (a) Eligible employees may take FMLA leave while the employee's... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leave because of a qualifying exigency.......

  6. 29 CFR 825.126 - Leave because of a qualifying exigency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.126 Leave because of a qualifying exigency. (a) Eligible employees may take FMLA leave while the employee's... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave because of a qualifying exigency.......

  7. 29 CFR 825.126 - Leave because of a qualifying exigency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.126 Leave because of a qualifying exigency. (a) Eligible employees may take FMLA leave while the employee's... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leave because of a qualifying exigency.......

  8. 29 CFR 825.126 - Leave because of a qualifying exigency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.126 Leave because of a qualifying exigency. (a) Eligible employees may take FMLA leave for a qualifying... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leave because of a qualifying exigency.......

  9. 29 CFR 825.126 - Leave because of a qualifying exigency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.126 Leave because of a qualifying exigency. (a) Eligible employees may take FMLA leave for a qualifying... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave because of a qualifying exigency.......

  10. 5 CFR 630.607 - Transfer and recredit of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer and recredit of home leave. 630... ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.607 Transfer and recredit of home leave. An employee is entitled to have his home leave account transferred or recredited to his account when he moves between agencies...

  11. Huygens space probe ready to leave Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    the Earth, before settling down to prolonged observations of Saturn and its rings and moons. European and American scientists are partners in all the experiments, both in the Orbiter and in the Huygens Probe. Farthest out for Europe Huygens will travel to a greater distance from the Sun than any previous ESA mission, out to the orbit of Saturn at 1400 million kilometres, or nearly ten times the Sun Earth distance. For comparison, the farthest ranging mission at present is Ulysses, orbiting over the poles of the Sun and out to the orbit of Jupiter, 800 million kilometres from the Sun. As no other mission planned or contemplated by ESA at present will go as far as Saturn, Huygens is likely to hold the European record for many years. HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace/ Dornier Satellitensysteme Gate 2, Building 5.1 Ludwig-B>lkow-Allee Ottobrunn (Munich) Programme: 10h00 Registration of press 10h15 Huygens video introduction 10h20 Welcoming addresses: Klaus Ensslin, President, Dornier Satellitensysteme Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA Michel Delaye, President, Aerospatiale Espace & Defense 10h30 NASA News and Cassini status Wesly T. Huntress, Associate Administrator of Space Science, NASA Richard Spehalski, Head of Cassini Project, NASA/JPL 10h40 The Huygens Project: Hamid Hassan, Head of the Huygens Project, ESA/ESTEC Hans-Joachim Hoffman, Head of the Huygens Project, Dornier Satellitensysteme Gerard Huttin, Head of the Huygens Project, Aerospatiale 11h00 The Huygens Scientific Programme: Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Huygens Project Scientist, ESA supported by European and American scientists. 11h15 The ESA Science programme, current and future missions Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA 11h25 Question and Answer session 11h55 Visit to the Huygens spacecraft (access inside the clean room limited to photographers and TV teams only). 12h45 Buffet lunch 14h00 End of activties HUYGENS READY TO

  12. Transcriptome Phase Distribution Analysis Reveals Diurnal Regulated Biological Processes and Key Pathways in Rice Flag Leaves and Seedling Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meina; Xing, Zhuo; Yang, Wenqiang; Chen, Guang; Guo, Han; Gong, Xiaojie; Du, Zhou; Zhang, Zhenhai; Hu, Xingming; Wang, Dong; Qian, Qian; Wang, Tai; Su, Zhen; Xue, Yongbiao

    2011-01-01

    Plant diurnal oscillation is a 24-hour period based variation. The correlation between diurnal genes and biological pathways was widely revealed by microarray analysis in different species. Rice (Oryza sativa) is the major food staple for about half of the world's population. The rice flag leaf is essential in providing photosynthates to the grain filling. However, there is still no comprehensive view about the diurnal transcriptome for rice leaves. In this study, we applied rice microarray to monitor the rhythmically expressed genes in rice seedling and flag leaves. We developed a new computational analysis approach and identified 6,266 (10.96%) diurnal probe sets in seedling leaves, 13,773 (24.08%) diurnal probe sets in flag leaves. About 65% of overall transcription factors were identified as flag leaf preferred. In seedling leaves, the peak of phase distribution was from 2:00am to 4:00am, whereas in flag leaves, the peak was from 8:00pm to 2:00am. The diurnal phase distribution analysis of gene ontology (GO) and cis-element enrichment indicated that, some important processes were waken by the light, such as photosynthesis and abiotic stimulus, while some genes related to the nuclear and ribosome involved processes were active mostly during the switch time of light to dark. The starch and sucrose metabolism pathway genes also showed diurnal phase. We conducted comparison analysis between Arabidopsis and rice leaf transcriptome throughout the diurnal cycle. In summary, our analysis approach is feasible for relatively unbiased identification of diurnal transcripts, efficiently detecting some special periodic patterns with non-sinusoidal periodic patterns. Compared to the rice flag leaves, the gene transcription levels of seedling leaves were relatively limited to the diurnal rhythm. Our comprehensive microarray analysis of seedling and flag leaves of rice provided an overview of the rice diurnal transcriptome and indicated some diurnal regulated biological

  13. Effect of microbial fermentation on caffeine content of tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Hu, Shuxia; Wan, Xiaochun; Pan, Caiyuan

    2005-09-01

    Caffeine is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. For safety concerns, natural caffeine is preferred over synthetic products despite of its high cost. To explore more economical methods of acquiring natural caffeine, we adopted a microbial fermentation technique to increase the caffeine content of tea leaves. Our studies showed that the caffeine content in tea leaves increased reasonably after treating leaves with microorganisms for a period of time (i.e. orthodox pile-fermentation), and the amount of caffeine content increase varied significantly between black and green teas (27.57% and 86.41%). These results suggested that the change of caffeine content in tea leaves during the pile-fermentation depended not only on the growth and reproduction of microorganisms, but also on the tea composition.

  14. Antioxidant properties of extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves in meatballs.

    PubMed

    Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Flaczyk, Ewa; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Kmiecik, Dominik

    2014-06-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of Ginkgo leaf extracts on the stability of lipids and cholesterol in pork meatballs over 21days of refrigerated storage. The antioxidants used were characterized by their antioxidant activity towards lipids and cholesterol. Extracts were prepared from green and yellow leaves from Ginkgo biloba L. trees. Water, acetone and ethanol were used as extractants. The extracts showed stabilizing effects on both lipid and cholesterol oxidation processes. The lipid oxidation process of pork meatballs was mostly inhibited by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the yellow leaves. Their antioxidant activity was higher than that of BHT. All the extracts had a stabilizing effect on cholesterol and most of them inhibited the formation of oxidized derivatives. The acetone and ethanol extracts of green leaves and the ethanol extract of yellow leaves inhibited the formation of cholesterol oxidation products formation most effectively.

  15. Changes in spectral properties of detached birch leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A study conducted in order to determine the rate of changes in spectral properties of detached leaves and to evaluate the effectiveness of low temperature and cytokinins for delaying the changes, is examined. For five minutes, leaves from red birch are immersed in water or 0.001 M BAP, and then stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Using a spectroradiometer and an integrating sphere, total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of the leaves are measured over the 400-1100 nm wavelength region. The results indicate that for leaves stored at 5 C for one week, the changes in the spectral properties are less than 5 percent of the initial values, whereas storage at 25 C promotes rapid senescence and large changes in the spectral properties. It is shown that low temperature is more effective than BAP in delaying senescence.

  16. IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air layer between bricks and concrete wall. Date: May 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1306 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Guajadial: an unusual meroterpenoid from guava leaves Psidium guajava.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Long; Hsieh, Kun-Lung; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2007-11-22

    Guajadial (1), a novel caryophyllene-based meroterpenoid, was isolated from the Leaves of Psidium guajava (guava). The structure and relative stereochemistry of guajadial (1) were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. A possible biosynthetic pathway for 1 was proposed.

  18. 31 CFR 29.332 - Unused sick leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.332 Unused sick leave. (a) For employees separated for retirement as of June... the applicable plan. (b) For employees separated for retirement after June 30, 1997, no unused...

  19. Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving the engine house. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  20. Morphogenesis of simple and compound leaves: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Efroni, Idan; Eshed, Yuval; Lifschitz, Eliezer

    2010-04-01

    The leaves of seed plants evolved from a primitive shoot system and are generated as determinate dorsiventral appendages at the flanks of radial indeterminate shoots. The remarkable variation of leaves has remained a constant source of fascination, and their developmental versatility has provided an advantageous platform to study genetic regulation of subtle, and sometimes transient, morphological changes. Here, we describe how eudicot plants recruited conserved shoot meristematic factors to regulate growth of the basic simple leaf blade and how subsets of these factors are subsequently re-employed to promote and maintain further organogenic potential. By comparing tractable genetic programs of species with different leaf types and evaluating the pros and cons of phylogenetic experimental procedures, we suggest that simple and compound leaves, and, by the same token, leaflets and serrations, are regulated by distinct ontogenetic programs. Finally, florigen, in its capacity as a general growth regulator, is presented as a new upper-tier systemic modulator in the patterning of compound leaves.