Sample records for piret kiristaja uudo

  1. Analytical solution of Luedeking-Piret equation for a batch fermentation obeying Monod growth kinetics.


    Garnier, Alain; Gaillet, Bruno


    Not so many fermentation mathematical models allow analytical solutions of batch process dynamics. The most widely used is the combination of the logistic microbial growth kinetics with Luedeking-Piret bioproduct synthesis relation. However, the logistic equation is principally based on formalistic similarities and only fits a limited range of fermentation types. In this article, we have developed an analytical solution for the combination of Monod growth kinetics with Luedeking-Piret relation, which can be identified by linear regression and used to simulate batch fermentation evolution. Two classical examples are used to show the quality of fit and the simplicity of the method proposed. A solution for the combination of Haldane substrate-limited growth model combined with Luedeking-Piret relation is also provided. These models could prove useful for the analysis of fermentation data in industry as well as academia.

  2. Computing and interpreting specific production rates in a chemostat in steady state according to the Luedeking-Piret model.


    Thierie, Jacques


    The Luedeking-Piret model is an empirical relationship which is very widely used in cell cultures to evaluate specific production rates of some products (metabolites or others). It constitutes a very common method of calculation as much in fundamental as in applied research and especially for designing and optimizing industrial processes in very varied fields. However, this model appears to be frequently deficient and has to be greatly adapted, practically, one might say, for each individual case. Obviously, this is a very great drawback, requiring a great deal of time spent on it and one that greatly lessens the 'universality' of the model. This work reveals that it is possible to give the initial Luedeking-Piret model a much more general scope. The used method revealed metabolic switches that have never been suspected until now. Confirmation of the method would certainly give a precious general tool both to optimize production processes and to increase understanding of some physiological states of cells in chemostat.

  3. Addressing the problem of interruptability in the construction of large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Roger A.; Morgenthaler, George W.


    Large scale space missions of the near future will depend upon successful multi-launch coordination and construction in the space environment. One of the main challenges is how to accomplish a valid global analysis of a construction project with the intent of improving safety, reducing overall mission cost, and total construction time. These three items are dependent on the interruptability of the project, which is the ability of the project to recover from unplanned interruptions; such as failure of the launch vehicle; sudden, on-orbit, crew illness; or damage from a space debris impact on the partially completed space structure. A new method for addressing and analyzing this type of problem is being developed. The method is called Program Interruptability and Risk Evaluation Technique, or PIRET. PIRET has been developed in order to model and analyze potential interruptability concerns of the construction of the U.S. Space Station Freedom (SSF), although PIRET is applicable to any complex, multi-launch structural assembly. This paper is a progress report on the continuing research of the NASA Center for Space Construction at the University of Colorado, Boulder into this area of space construction interruptability. The paper will define the problem of interruptability, will diagram the PIRET approach to space construction, will share results from a preliminary PIRET analysis of SSF, and will show that PIRET is a useful tool for modelling space construction interruptability.

  4. Kinetic model for microbial growth and desulphurisation with Enterobacter sp.


    Liu, Long; Guo, Zhiguo; Lu, Jianjiang; Xu, Xiaolin


    Biodesulphurisation was investigated by using Enterobacter sp. D4, which can selectively desulphurise and convert dibenzothiophene into 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP). The experimental values of growth, substrate consumption and product generation were obtained at 95 % confidence level of the fitted values using three models: Hinshelwood equation, Luedeking-Piret and Luedeking-Piret-like equations. The average error values between experimental values and fitted values were less than 10 %. These kinetic models describe all the experimental data with good statistical parameters. The production of 2-HBP in Enterobacter sp. was by "coupled growth".

  5. Plasmon-induced resonance energy transfer for solar energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangtian; Cushing, Scott K.; Meng, Fanke; Senty, Tess R.; Bristow, Alan D.; Wu, Nianqiang


    In Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), energy non-radiatively transfers from a blue-shifted emitter to a red-shifted absorber by dipole-dipole coupling. This study shows that plasmonics enables the opposite transfer direction, transferring the plasmonic energy towards the short-wavelength direction to induce charge separation in a semiconductor. Plasmon-induced resonance energy transfer (PIRET) differs from FRET because of the lack of a Stoke's shift, non-local absorption effects and a strong dependence on the plasmon's dephasing rate and dipole moment. PIRET non-radiatively transfers energy through an insulating spacer layer, which prevents interfacial charge recombination losses and dephasing of the plasmon from hot-electron transfer. The distance dependence of dipole-dipole coupling is mapped out for a range of detuning across the plasmon resonance. PIRET can efficiently harvest visible and near-infrared sunlight with energy below the semiconductor band edge to help overcome the constraints of band-edge energetics for single semiconductors in photoelectrochemical cells, photocatalysts and photovoltaics.

  6. Mathematical model of Chlorella minutissima UTEX2341 growth and lipid production under photoheterotrophic fermentation conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, JinShui; Rasa, Ehsan; Tantayotai, Prapakorn; Scow, Kate M.; Yuan, HongLi; Hristova, Krassimira R.


    To reduce the cost of algal biomass production, mathematical model was developed for the first time to describe microalgae growth, lipid production and glycerin consumption under photoheterotrophic conditions based on logistic, Luedeking–Piret and Luedeking–Piret-like equations. All experiments were conducted in a 2 L batch reactor without considering CO2 effect on algae’s growth and lipid production. Biomass and lipid production increased with glycerin as carbon source and were well described by the logistic and Luedeking–Piret equations respectively. Model predictions were in satisfactory agreement with measured data and the mode of lipid production was growth-associated. Sensitivity analysis was applied to examine the effects of certain important parameters on model performance. Results showed that S0, the initial concentration of glycerin, was the most significant factor for algae growth and lipid production. This model is applicable for prediction of other single cell algal species but model testing is recommended before scaling up the fermentation of process. PMID:21115343

  7. Minimizing Pollution in Cleaning and Degreasing Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology


    Chemical Engineering 230 Ross Hall L Auburn University AL 36849-5127 DTIC A US EPA/RREL .ELECTE B 26 W Martin Luther King Driv MAR 16 19940 Cincinnati...01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev 2-89) PiretCr~ed by ANSI Std M3-16 299-102 7. (continued) (2) US EPA/RREL 26 W Martin Luther King Drive Cincinnati...Laboratory (EPA/RREL), 26 W Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati OH 45268. This technical report summarizes work done between 14 February 1989 and 10

  8. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md


    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  9. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md


    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  10. [Effect of salicylic acid on cell growth and polysaccharide production in suspension cultures of protocorm-like bodies from Dendrobium huoshanense].


    Wang, Bo; Pan, Lihua; Luo, Jianping; Zha, Xueqiang


    Polysaccharides from Dendrobium huoshanense possess immunostimulating activity, antioxidant activity and anticataract activity. In order to produce the active polysaccharides from Dendrobium huoshanense through cell culture, we investigated the effects of salicylic acid on cell growth, accumulation of polysaccharides and utilization of carbon source in suspension cultures of protocorm-like bodies from Dendrobium huoshanense. Although salicylic acid slightly inhibited the cell growth, it was beneficial to the utilization of carbon source, thus leading to significant increase in the contents of polysaccharides. The highest polysaccharide production occurred on the medium supplied with 100 micromoI/L salicylic acid. After 18 days of culture the production of polysaccharides reached 3.129 g/L, which was 1.63 times that of the control. Further, we established the kinetic models describing cell growth, polysaccharide production and carbon source utilization based on Logistic equation, Luedeking-Piret equation and Luedeking-Piret-Like equation. The calculated values from the kinetic models showed a good fit to the experimental values, suggesting that salicylic acid could be an effective compound to enhance the production of active polysaccharides from protcorm-like bodies from Dendrobium huoshanense.

  11. Theoretical maximum efficiency of solar energy conversion in plasmonic metal-semiconductor heterojunctions.


    Cushing, Scott K; Bristow, Alan D; Wu, Nianqiang


    Plasmonics can enhance solar energy conversion in semiconductors by light trapping, hot electron transfer, and plasmon-induced resonance energy transfer (PIRET). The multifaceted response of the plasmon and multiple interaction pathways with the semiconductor makes optimization challenging, hindering design of efficient plasmonic architectures. Therefore, in this paper we use a density matrix model to capture the interplay between scattering, hot electrons, and dipole-dipole coupling through the plasmon's dephasing, including both the coherent and incoherent dynamics necessary for interactions on the plasmon's timescale. The model is extended to Shockley-Queisser limit calculations for both photovoltaics and solar-to-chemical conversion, revealing the optimal application of each enhancement mechanism based on plasmon energy, semiconductor energy, and plasmon dephasing. The results guide application of plasmonic solar-energy harvesting, showing which enhancement mechanism is most appropriate for a given semiconductor's weakness, and what nanostructures can achieve the maximum enhancement.

  12. Mechanistic Understanding of the Plasmonic Enhancement for Solar Water Splitting.


    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Tuo; Gong, Jinlong


    H2 generation by solar water splitting is one of the most promising solutions to meet the increasing energy demands of the fast developing society. However, the efficiency of solar-water-splitting systems is still too low for practical applications, which requires further enhancement via different strategies such as doping, construction of heterojunctions, morphology control, and optimization of the crystal structure. Recently, integration of plasmonic metals to semiconductor photocatalysts has been proved to be an effective way to improve their photocatalytic activities. Thus, in-depth understanding of the enhancement mechanisms is of great importance for better utilization of the plasmonic effect. This review describes the relevant mechanisms from three aspects, including: i) light absorption and scattering; ii) hot-electron injection and iii) plasmon-induced resonance energy transfer (PIRET). Perspectives are also proposed to trigger further innovative thinking on plasmonic-enhanced solar water splitting.

  13. Assessment of a process to degrade metal working fluids using Pseudomonas stutzeri CECT 930 and indigenous microbial consortia.


    Moscoso, F; Deive, F J; Villar, P; Pena, R; Herrero, L; Longo, M A; Sanromán, M A


    The development of a novel biological process to treat metal working fluids (MWFs)-containing effluents at bioreactor scale was pursued in this work. The bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri CECT 930 was investigated for the first time as an alternative agent for MWF degradation. An adequate medium design and mixing and aeration system, as well as an appropriate microorganism proved to be crucial for reaching high levels of degradation by P. stutzeri and by an indigenous consortium (about 70% and 50% of reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbon content in less than 2 wk, respectively). Additionally, as there is no information in literature trying to kinetically characterize an MWF-polluted effluent degradation process, all the experimental data were fitted to logistic and Luedeking and Piret models, that allowed to elucidate the growth-associated character of the biodegradation process.

  14. Modelling the Biphasic Growth and Product Formation by Enterococcus faecium CECT 410 in Realkalized Fed-Batch Fermentations in Whey

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Nelson Pérez; Fajardo, Paula; Fuciños, Clara; Amado, Isabel Rodríguez; Alonso, Elisa; Torrado, Ana; Pastrana, Lorenzo


    The influence of initial pH on growth and nutrient (total sugars, nitrogen, and phosphorous) consumption by Enterococcus faecium CECT 410 was studied during batch cultures in whey. With these data, two realkalized fed-batch fermentations were developed using different feeding substrates. The shift from homolactic to mixed acid fermentation, the biphasic kinetics observed for cell growth and nitrogen consumption and the increase in the concentrations of biomass and products (lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and butane-2,3-diol) were the most noteworthy observations of these cultures. Modelling the fed-batch growth of Ent. faecium with the Logistic and bi-Logistic models was not satisfactory. However, biomass production was best mathematically described with the use of a double Monod model, which was expressed in terms of biomass, product accumulation, and nitrogen utilization. Product formation was successfully modelled with a modified form of the Luedeking and Piret model developed in this study. PMID:20689729

  15. Efficient PAHs biodegradation by a bacterial consortium at flask and bioreactor scale.


    Moscoso, F; Teijiz, I; Deive, F J; Sanromán, M A


    In this work, the biodegradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as Phenanthrene (PHE), Pyrene (PYR) and Benzo[a]anthracene (BaA) has been investigated. A bacterial consortium consisting of two strains was used for the first time based on preliminary promising biodegradation data. They were tentatively identified as Staphylococcus warneri and Bacillus pumilus. Degradation values higher than 85% were obtained for each single PAH when operating at flask scale, whereas minimum levels of 90% of PAHs removal were obtained after just 3 days of cultivation at bioreactor scale. The operation in cometabolic conditions led to maximum levels about 75% and 100% at flask and bioreactor scale, respectively. All the experimental data were analyzed in the light of logistic and Luedeking and Piret type models, with the purpose to better characterize the biodegradation process by S. warneri and B. pumilus. Finally, the metabolic pathway followed to degrade each PAH was ascertained.

  16. Medium factor optimization and fermentation kinetics for phenazine-1-carboxylic acid production by Pseudomonas sp. M18G.


    He, Li; Xu, Yu-Quan; Zhang, Xue-Hong


    We investigated the production of biofungicide phenazine-1-carboxlic (PCA) by Pseudomonas sp. M18G, a gacA-deficient mutant of M18 for PCA high-production. Glucose was chosen as the optimal carbon source and soy peptone as the nitrogen source. A Plackett-Burman design revealed that glucose, soy peptone and NaCl were the most significant factors in PCA fermentation. Response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) models involving the significant factors were developed using common data. The prediction accuracy of ANN was slightly higher compared to RSM. The genetic algorithm (GA) was used to search the optimal input space of the trained ANN model and find the corresponding PCA yield. The optimum composition was found to be: glucose 34.3 g L(-1), soy peptone 43.2 g L(-1), NaCl 5.7 g L(-1), and the predictive maximum PCA yield reached 980.1 microg mL(-1). The optimized medium allowed PCA yield to be increased from 673.3 to 966.7 microg mL(-1) after verification experiment tests. Additionally, PCA fermentation kinetics was investigated. Kinetic models based on the modified Logistic and Luedeking-Piret equations were developed, providing a good description of temporal variations of biomass (X), product (P), and substrate (S) in PCA fermentation.

  17. Aeration effect on Spirulina platensis growth and γ-Linolenic acid production.


    Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy; Bokka, Chandra Sekhar; Ketineni, Chandrika; Rijal, Binod; Allu, Prasada Rao


    The influence of aeration on algal growth and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) production in a bubble column photobioreactor was investigated. Studies were performed in a 20-L reactor at different aeration rates (0.2- 2.5 vvm). Static, continuous, and periodic operation of air resulted in 41.9%, 88.4%, and 108% air saturation of dissolved oxygen, for which the corresponding values of GLA were 2.3, 6.5, and 7.5 mg·g(-1) dry cell weight, respectively. An increase in the aeration rate from 0.2 to 2.5 vvm enhanced both the specific growth rate and GLA content under periodic sparging in the bicarbonate medium. With a 6-fold increase in the aeration rate, the GLA content of the alga increased by 69.64% (5.6-9.5 mg· g(-1) dry cell weight). In addition, the total fatty acid (TFA) content in dry biomass increased from 2.22% to 4.41%, whereas the algae maintained a constant GLA to TFA ratio within the aeration rate tested. The dependence of GLA production on the aeration rate was explained by interrelating the GLA production rate with the specific growth rate using the Luedeking and Piret mixed growth model.

  18. Comparative study of growth responses and screening of inter-specific OTA production kinetics by A. carbonarius isolated from grapes

    PubMed Central

    Lappa, Iliada K.; Kizis, Dimosthenis; Natskoulis, Pantelis I.; Panagou, Efstathios Z.


    The aim of this work was to assess OchratoxinA (OTA) production of different Aspergillus carbonarius isolates, evaluate their growth profile through different growth measurements, and reveal any underlying correlation between them. Ten different isolates of A. carbonarius isolated from Greek vineyards located in different geographical regions were examined in vitro for their OTA production potential after an incubation period of up to 11 days. All fungal isolates grew on a synthetic grape juice medium (SGM) similar to grape composition at optimum conditions of temperature and water activity (25°C and 0.98 aw). Samples for OTA determination were removed at 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 days of growth and analyzed by HPLC. Based on OTA measurements the isolates were characterized by diverse OTA production ranging from 50 to 2000 ppb at day 11. The different fungal growth responses (colony diameter, colony area, biomass, biomass dry weight, and colony density) have been measured and correlated with toxin production by means of principal components analysis (PCA), confirming satisfactory correlation and explained over 99% of data variability. Leudeking-Piret model was also used to study OTA production with time, revealing a mixed-growth associated trend and pointing a fail-safe model with slightly better prediction through colony area. This approach contributes to the assessment of correlation between mycotoxin production and different methods of fungal growth determination in relation to time. PMID:26074896

  19. Nitrite inhibition of denitrification by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, J.S.; Julio, S.M.; Reis, M.A.M. |


    Using a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens as a model system nitrite inhibition of denitrification was studied. A mineral media with acetate and nitrate as sole electron donor and acceptor, respectively, was used. Results obtained in continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) operated at pH values between 6.6 and 7.8 showed that growth inhibition depended only on the nitrite undissociated fraction concentration (nitrous acid). A mathematical model to describe this dependence is put forward. The maximum nitrous acid concentration compatible with cell growth and denitrification activity was found to be 66 {mu}g N/L. Denitrification activity was partially associated with growth, as described by the Luedeking-Piret equation. However, when the freshly inoculated reactor was operated discontinuously, nitrite accumulation caused growth uncoupling from denitrification activity. The authors suggest that these results can be interpreted considering that (a) nitrous acid acts as a proton uncoupler; and (b) cultures continuously exposed to nitrous acid prevent the uncoupling effect but not the growth inhibition. Examination of the growth dependence on nitrite concentration at pH 7.0 showed that adapted cultures (growth on CSTR) are less sensitive to nitrous acid inhibition than the ones cultivated in batch.

  20. Simultaneous production of amylases and proteases by Bacillus subtilis in brewery wastes.


    Sánchez Blanco, Alina; Palacios Durive, Osmar; Batista Pérez, Sulema; Díaz Montes, Zoraida; Pérez Guerra, Nelson


    The simultaneous production of amylase (AA) and protease (PA) activity by Bacillus subtilis UO-01 in brewery wastes was studied by combining the response surface methodology with the kinetic study of the process. The optimum conditions (T=36.0°C and pH=6.8) for high biomass production (0.92g/L) were similar to the conditions (T=36.8°C and pH=6.6) for high AA synthesis (9.26EU/mL). However, the maximum PA level (9.77EU/mL) was obtained at pH 7.1 and 37.8°C. Under these conditions, a considerably high reduction (between 69.9 and 77.8%) of the initial chemical oxygen demand of the waste was achieved. In verification experiments under the optimized conditions for production of each enzyme, the AA and PA obtained after 15h of incubation were, respectively, 9.35 and 9.87EU/mL. By using the Luedeking and Piret model, both enzymes were classified as growth-associated metabolites. Protease production delay seemed to be related to the consumption of non-protein and protein nitrogen. These results indicate that the brewery waste could be successfully used for a high scale production of amylases and proteases at a low cost.

  1. Relationship between kinetics of growth and production of exo-electrons: Case study with Geobacter toluenoxydans.


    Szöllősi, Attila; Narr, László; Kovács, Attila G; Styevkó, Gabriella


    Kinetics of growth and product formation of G. toluenoxydans DSMZ 19350 strain were investigated using sodium-acetate as substrate and Fe(3+)-ions and fumarate as electron acceptor. Response surface method was adapted for evaluation of growth of bacteria. Results showed that maximum growth was detected in the case of 2.2 g/L substrate concentration. Application of higher substrate concentration (>2.5 g/L sodium acetate) significantly inhibits the bacterial growth. Luong's model was found to be the most suitable to determine kinetic parameters (μ(max) = 0.033 1/h, KS = 0.205 g/L) of growth of G.toluenoxydans strain, and the growth was completely inhibited at substrate concentration higher than 3.1 g/L. In the case of product formation the Haldane model was used and kinetic parameters are μ(Pmax) = 0.123 mg/h, K(PS)= 0.184 g/L. Correlation between microbial growth and product formation was observed using the Luedeking-Piret empirical method. Both factors (growth and number of cells) affected significantly iron(III)-reduction, thus the product formation. These results are important and open the possibility to design a continuous MFC setting operating with G. toluenoxydans as biocatalyst.

  2. Biohydrogen Production and Kinetic Modeling Using Sediment Microorganisms of Pichavaram Mangroves, India

    PubMed Central

    Mullai, P.; Sridevi, K.


    Mangrove sediments host rich assemblages of microorganisms, predominantly mixed bacterial cultures, which can be efficiently used for biohydrogen production through anaerobic dark fermentation. The influence of process parameters such as effect of initial glucose concentration, initial medium pH, and trace metal (Fe2+) concentration was investigated in this study. A maximum hydrogen yield of 2.34, 2.3, and 2.6 mol H2 mol−1 glucose, respectively, was obtained under the following set of optimal conditions: initial substrate concentration—10,000 mg L−1, initial pH—6.0, and ferrous sulphate concentration—100 mg L−1, respectively. The addition of trace metal to the medium (100 mg L−1 FeSO4·7H2O) enhanced the biohydrogen yield from 2.3 mol H2 mol−1 glucose to 2.6 mol H2 mol−1 glucose. Furthermore, the experimental data was subjected to kinetic analysis and the kinetic constants were estimated with the help of well-known kinetic models available in the literature, namely, Monod model, logistic model and Luedeking-Piret model. The model fitting was found to be in good agreement with the experimental observations, for all the models, with regression coefficient values >0.92. PMID:24319679

  3. [Piggery wastewater cultivating bioflocculant-producing flora B-737 and the fermentation characteristics].


    Pei, Rui-lin; Xin, Xin; Zhang, Xue-qiao; Zhou, Ying-qin; Yao, Li; Yang, Yi-jin


    Piggery wastewater was used as a cheap alternative medium for a bioflocculant-producing bacterial flora B-737. Effects of COD concent, addition of ammonium oxalate or phosphate on the cell growth and bioflocculant yield were investigated, and the fermentation kinetics was studied in the optimal culture media. The results showed that the piggery wastewater (COD was about 3000 mg x L(-1), TN was about 170 mg x L(-1)) had a suitable C/N ratio for the growth and fermentation of flora B-737, with addition of only 1.6 g x L(-1) K2HPO4 and 0.8 g x L(-1) KH2PO4, flora B-737 grew well and the bioflocculant yield reached 1.5 g x L(-1), in the meantime, the COD and TN of the wastewater was reduced by 61.9% and 53.6%, respectively. Not only was the medium cost reduced by over 90% , but it was a new way to recycle piggery wastewater. In addition, the dynamic models on cell growth and flocculants formation in the fermentation process of B-737 were established according to the equation of Logistic and Luedeking-Piret, respectively.

  4. Scale-up and kinetic modeling for bioethanol production.


    Imamoglu, Esra; Sukan, Fazilet Vardar


    Bioethanol was produced from acidic hydrolysate of rice hulls using recombinant Escherichia coli KO11. Two different issues (scale-up and kinetic modeling) were evaluated simultaneously and concomitantly for bioethanol production. During the step-wise scale-up process from 100 mL shaken flask to 10 L stirred-tank bioreactor, the constant Reynolds number and the constant impeller tip speed were evaluated as scale-up methodologies under laboratory conditions. It was determined that the volumetric bioethanol productivity was 88% higher in 10 L bioreactor in comparison to the value of 0.21 g L(-1) h(-1) in shaken flask. The modified Monod and Luedeking-Piret models provided an accurate approach for the modeling of the experimental data. Ethanol concentration reached the maximum level of 29.03 g/L, which was 5% higher than the value of model prediction in 10 L bioreactor. The findings of this research could contribute to the industrial scale productions especially from lignocellulosic raw materials.

  5. Aeration effect on Spirulina platensis growth and γ-Linolenic acid production

    PubMed Central

    Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy; Bokka, Chandra Sekhar; Ketineni, Chandrika; Rijal, Binod; Allu, Prasada Rao


    The influence of aeration on algal growth and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) production in a bubble column photobioreactor was investigated. Studies were performed in a 20-L reactor at different aeration rates (0.2– 2.5 vvm). Static, continuous, and periodic operation of air resulted in 41.9%, 88.4%, and 108% air saturation of dissolved oxygen, for which the corresponding values of GLA were 2.3, 6.5, and 7.5 mg·g-1 dry cell weight, respectively. An increase in the aeration rate from 0.2 to 2.5 vvm enhanced both the specific growth rate and GLA content under periodic sparging in the bicarbonate medium. With a 6-fold increase in the aeration rate, the GLA content of the alga increased by 69.64% (5.6–9.5 mg· g-1 dry cell weight). In addition, the total fatty acid (TFA) content in dry biomass increased from 2.22% to 4.41%, whereas the algae maintained a constant GLA to TFA ratio within the aeration rate tested. The dependence of GLA production on the aeration rate was explained by interrelating the GLA production rate with the specific growth rate using the Luedeking and Piret mixed growth model. PMID:24031799

  6. Viability of phenanthrene biodegradation by an isolated bacterial consortium: optimization and scale-up.


    Moscoso, F; Ferreira, L; Deive, F J; Morán, P; Sanromán, M A


    In the present work, biodegradation of phenanthrene by a bacterial consortium (LB2), isolated from lab-polluted soils has been investigated. The 16S rRNA gene-based molecular analysis revealed that the bacterial consortium LB2 consisted of two strains showing a very high homology with Staphylococcus warneri and Bacillus pumilus. The optimization of phenanthrene degradation by the consortium LB2, using a central composite face-centered design was carried out taking into account three important parameters such as temperature, pH, and phenanthrene concentration. Near complete phenanthrene degradation was reached by consortium LB2 at the optimal conditions (pH of 7.5 and 37.5 °C) in less than 48 h. Moreover, the efficiency of phenanthrene biodegradation was assessed by using logistic and Luedeking and Piret-type models. Finally, the process was implemented at bench-scale bioreactor and the main degradation routes were identified based on GC-MS data.

  7. Kinetic studies on batch cultivation of Trichoderma reesei and application to enhance cellulase production by fed-batch fermentation.


    Ma, Lijuan; Li, Chen; Yang, Zhenhua; Jia, Wendi; Zhang, Dongyuan; Chen, Shulin


    Reducing the production cost of cellulase as the key enzyme for cellulose hydrolysis to fermentable sugars remains a major challenge for biofuel production. Because of the complexity of cellulase production, kinetic modeling and mass balance calculation can be used as effective tools for process design and optimization. In this study, kinetic models for cell growth, substrate consumption and cellulase production in batch fermentation were developed, and then applied in fed-batch fermentation to enhance cellulase production. Inhibition effect of substrate was considered and a modified Luedeking-Piret model was developed for cellulase production and substrate consumption according to the growth characteristics of Trichoderma reesei. The model predictions fit well with the experimental data. Simulation results showed that higher initial substrate concentration led to decrease of cellulase production rate. Mass balance and kinetic simulation results were applied to determine the feeding strategy. Cellulase production and its corresponding productivity increased by 82.13% after employing the proper feeding strategy in fed-batch fermentation. This method combining mathematics and chemometrics by kinetic modeling and mass balance can not only improve cellulase fermentation process, but also help to better understand the cellulase fermentation process. The model development can also provide insight to other similar fermentation processes.

  8. Modeling of the pyruvate production with Escherichia coli in a fed-batch bioreactor.


    Zelić, B; Vasić-Racki, D; Wandrey, C; Takors, R


    A family of 10 competing, unstructured models has been developed to model cell growth, substrate consumption, and product formation of the pyruvate producing strain Escherichia coli YYC202 ldhA::Kan strain used in fed-batch processes. The strain is completely blocked in its ability to convert pyruvate into acetyl-CoA or acetate (using glucose as the carbon source) resulting in an acetate auxotrophy during growth in glucose minimal medium. Parameter estimation was carried out using data from fed-batch fermentation performed at constant glucose feed rates of q(VG)=10 mL h(-1). Acetate was fed according to the previously developed feeding strategy. While the model identification was realized by least-square fit, the model discrimination was based on the model selection criterion (MSC). The validation of model parameters was performed applying data from two different fed-batch experiments with glucose feed rate q(VG)=20 and 30 mL h(-1), respectively. Consequently, the most suitable model was identified that reflected the pyruvate and biomass curves adequately by considering a pyruvate inhibited growth (Jerusalimsky approach) and pyruvate inhibited product formation (described by modified Luedeking-Piret/Levenspiel term).

  9. Optimization, kinetics and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide produced from rhizosphere isolate, Pseudomonas fluorescens CrN6.


    Sirajunnisa, Abdul Razack; Vijayagopal, Velayutham; Sivaprakash, Bhaskar; Viruthagiri, Thangavelu; Surendhiran, Duraiarasan


    Pseudomonas fluorescens, isolated from rhizosphere soil, was exploited for the production of exopolysaccharide (EPS). A medium was constituted to enhance the yield of EPS. This study involved an agro waste as carbon substrate, rice bran, a replacement of glucose. Plackett-Burman statistical design was applied to evaluate the selected sixteen components from which, rice bran, peptone, NaCl and MnCl2 were found to be effective and significant on the fermentation process. To study the concentration of each component, central composite design was carried out and response surface plots indicated that the following concentrations significantly enhanced the production - rice bran 5.02%, peptone 0.35%, NaCl 0.51%, MnCl2 0.074%. Kinetic modeling was also performed to simulate the process parameters. Logistic model for microbial growth and Luedeking-Piret equation for product formation and substrate utilization were found to fit the experiment. The present investigation resulted in a maximum yield of 4.62g of EPS/L at 48h. High DPPH scavenging ability was a positive indication to use EPS as an antioxidant. The extracted polysaccharide could thus be ecofriendly due to its biodegradability and nontoxicity, and subjected to various industrial and pharmaceutical applications.

  10. [Construction and application of black-box model for glucoamylase production by Aspergillus niger].


    Li, Lianwei; Lu, Hongzhong; Xia, Jianye; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang


    Carbon-limited continuous culture was used to study the relationship between the growth of Aspergillus niger and the production of glucoamylase. The result showed that when the specific growth rate was lower than 0.068 h(-1), the production of glucoamylase was growth-associated, when the specific growth rate was higher than 0.068 h(-1), the production of glucoamylase was not growth-associated. Based on the result of continuous culture, the Monod dynamics model of glucose consumption of A. niger was constructed, Combining Herbert-Pirt equation of glucose and oxygen consumption with Luedeking-Piret equation of enzyme production, the black-box model of Aspergillus niger for enzyme production was established. The exponential fed-batch culture was designed to control the specific growth rate at 0.05 h(-1) by using this model and the highest yield for glucoamylase production by A. niger reached 0.127 g glucoamylase/g glucose. The black-box model constructed in this study successfully described the glucoamylase production by A. niger and the result of the model fitted the measured value well. The black-box model could guide the design and optimization of glucoamylase production by A. niger.

  11. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by Cupriavidus necator H16 from jatropha oil as carbon source.


    Batcha, Abeed Fatima Mohidin; Prasad, D M Reddy; Khan, Maksudur R; Abdullah, Hamidah


    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a biodegradable polymer that can be synthesized through bacterial fermentation. In this study, Cupriavidus necator H16 is used to synthesize PHB by using Jatropha oil as its sole carbon source. Different variables mainly jatropha oil and urea concentrations, and agitation rate were investigated to determine the optimum condition for microbial fermentation in batch culture. Based on the results, the highest cell dry weight and PHB concentrations of 20.1 and 15.5 g/L, respectively, were obtained when 20 g/L of jatropha oil was used. Ethanol was used as external stress factor and the addition of 1.5 % ethanol at 38 h had a positive effect with a high PHB yield of 0.987 g PHB/g jatropha oil. The kinetic studies for cell growth rate and PHB production were conducted and the data were fitted with Logistic and Leudeking–Piret models. The rate constants were evaluated and the theoretical values were in accordance with the experimental data obtained

  12. Kinetics of growth and caffeine demethylase production of Pseudomonas sp. in bioreactor.


    Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N; Santhosh, Devarai


    The effect of various initial caffeine concentrations on growth and caffeine demethylase production by Pseudomonas sp. was studied in bioreactor. At initial concentration of 6.5 g l(-1) caffeine, Pseudomonas sp. showed a maximum specific growth rate of 0.2 h(-1), maximum degradation rate of 1.1 g h(-1), and caffeine demethylase activity of 18,762 U g CDW(-1) (CDW: cell dry weight). Caffeine degradation rate was 25 times higher in bioreactor than in shake flask. For the first time, we show highest degradation of 75 g caffeine (initial concentration 20 g l(-1)) in 120 h, suggesting that the tested strain has potential for successful bioprocess for caffeine degradation. Growth kinetics showed substrate inhibition phenomenon. Various substrate inhibition models were fitted to the kinetic data, amongst which the double-exponential (R(2) = 0.94), Luong (R(2) = 0.92), and Yano and Koga 2 (R(2) = 0.94) models were found to be the best. The Luedeking-Piret model showed that caffeine demethylase production kinetics was growth related. This is the first report on production of high levels of caffeine demethylase in batch bioreactor with faster degradation rate and high tolerance to caffeine, hence clearly suggesting that Pseudomonas sp. used in this study is a potential biocatalyst for industrial decaffeination.

  13. Statistical optimization for enhanced yields of probiotic Bacillus coagulans and its phage resistant mutants followed by kinetic modelling of the process.


    Pandey, Kavita R; Joshi, Chetan; Vakil, Babu V


    Probiotics are microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits to the host. A leading pharmaceutical company producing Bacillus coagulans as a probiotic was facing the problem of recurring phage attacks. Two mutants viz. B. co PIII and B. co MIII that were isolated as phage resistant mutants after UV irradiation and MMS treatment of phage sensitive B. coagulans parental culture were characterized at functional and molecular level and were noted to have undergone interesting genetic changes. The non-specific genetic alterations induced by mutagenesis can also lead to alterations in cell performance. Hence, in the current study the parental strain and the two mutants were selected for shake flask optimization. Plackett-Burman design was used to select the significant culture variables affecting biomass production. Evolutionary operation method was applied for further optimization. The study showed wide variations in the nutritional requirements of phage resistant mutants, post exposure to mutagens. An increment of 150, 134 and 152 % was observed in the biomass productions of B. coagulans (parental type) and mutants PIII and MIII respectively, compared to the yield from one-factor-at-a-time technique. Using Logistic and modified Leudeking-Piret equations, biomass accumulation and substrate utilization efficiency of the bioprocess were determined. The experimental data was in agreement with the results predicted by statistical analysis and modelling. The developed model may be useful for controlling the growth and substrate consumption kinetics in large scale fermentation using B. coagulans.

  14. A New Temperature Control Shifting Strategy for Enhanced Triterpene Production by Ganoderma lucidum G0119 Based on Submerged Liquid Fermentation.


    Feng, Jie; Feng, Na; Zhang, Jing-Song; Yang, Yan; Jia, Wei; Lin, Chi-Chung


    Temperature control is a very important factor on triterpene productivity in submerged liquid fermentation. Temperature effects from 23 to 32 °C on triterpene production by Ganoderma lucidum G0119 were investigated in 6-L stirred fermentor. Logistic and Luedeking-Piret equations were used to estimate the mycelial growth and triterpene production kinetics by regression analysis. On that basis, a temperature-shifting fermentation control strategy was established. From 0 to 61 h, culturing was performed at 32 °C to get high specific mycelial growth rate. Between 62 and 127 h, the temperature was decreased stepwise from 31 to 30 °C to maintain high triterpene productivity. After 128 h, temperature was maintained at 29 °C to minimize triterpene production inhibition and sustain high productivity. Elevated triterpene level (0.269 g L(-1)), yield (0.0101 g g(-1)), and productivity (0.00207 g (L h)(-1)) were achieved representing 27.32, 13.94, and 37.11 % higher than submerged liquid fermentation at constant temperature of 29 °C, respectively, feasible for the industrial scale.

  15. Kinetic modeling and scale up of lipoic acid (LA) production from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a stirred tank bioreactor.


    Jayakar, Shilpa S; Singhal, Rekha S


    Scale up studies for production of lipoic acid (LA) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been reported in this paper for the first time. LA production in batch mode was carried out in a stirred tank bioreactor at varying agitation and aeration with maximum LA production of 512 mg/L obtained at 350 rpm and 25 % dissolved oxygen in batch culture conditions. Thus, LA production increased from 352 mg/L in shake flask to 512 mg/L in batch mode in a 5 L stirred tank bioreactor. Biomass production under these conditions was mathematically explained using logistic equation and data obtained for LA production and substrate utilization were successfully fitted using Luedeking-Piret and Mercier's models. The kinetic studies showed LA production to be growth associated. Further enhancement of LA production was carried out using fed-batch (variable volume) and semi-continuous modes of fermentation. Semi-continuous fermentation with three feeding cycles of sucrose effectively increased the production of LA from 512 to 725 mg/L.

  16. Plasmonic Enhancement Mechanisms in Solar Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, Scott K.

    possible: i) increasing light absorption in the semiconductor by light trapping through scattering, ii) transferring hot carriers from metal to semiconductor after light absorption in the metal, and iii) non-radiative excitation of interband transitions in the semiconductor by plasmon-induced resonant energy transfer (PIRET). The effects of the metal on charge transport and carrier recombination were also revealed. Next, it has been shown that the strength and balance of the three enhancement mechanisms is rooted in the plasmon's dephasing time, or how long it takes the collective electron oscillations to stop being collective. The importance of coherent effects in plasmonic enhancement is also shown. Based on these findings, a thermodynamic balance framework has been used to predict the theoretical maximum efficiency of solar energy conversion in plasmonic metal-semiconductor heterojunctions. These calculations have revealed how plasmonics is best used to address the different light absorption problems in semiconductors, and that not taking into account the plasmon's dephasing is the origin of low plasmonic enhancement Finally, to prove these guidelines, each of the three enhancement mechanisms has been translated into optimal device geometries, showing the plasmon's potential for solar energy harvesting. This dissertation identifies the three possible plasmonic enhancement mechanisms for the first time, discovering a new enhancement mechanism (PIRET) in the process. It has also been shown for the first time that the various plasmon-semiconductor interactions could be rooted in the plasmon's dephasing. This has allowed for the first maximum efficiency estimates which have combined all three enhancement mechanisms to be performed, and revealed that changes in the plasmon's dephasing leads to the disparity in reported plasmonic enhancements. These findings are combined to create optimal device design guidelines, which are proven by fabrication of several devices with top

  17. Extractive fermentation for enhanced production of thailandepsin A from Burkholderia thailandensis E264 using polyaromatic adsorbent resin Diaion HP-20.


    Liu, Bing; Hui, Junyuan; Cheng, Yi-Qiang; Zhang, Xuehong


    Thailandepsin A is natural product of Burkholderia thailandensis E264 with potent histone deacetylase inhibitory activities and promising anticancer activities. The titer of thailandepsin A is very low (less than 10 mg/l) from limited empirical fermentation. To facilitate preclinical evaluations and potentially clinical development of thailandepsin A, systematic optimization and extractive fermentation of thailandepsin A from B. thailandensis E264 culture in flasks were investigated in this pilot study. The main fermentation parameters--28°C, pH 7.0, inoculum ratio 1% (v/v), incubation duration 60 h, medium volume 26%, shaking speed 170 rpm, and chloroform as extracting solvent--were determined by single factor experiments. Polyaromatic adsorbent resin Diaion HP-20, when added at a concentration of 4% (w/v), was most effective to reduce feedback inhibition of thailandepsin A and to significantly increase the titer of target product. Central composite design was used to further optimize the fermentation medium for B. thailandensis E264. The optimized medium contains glucose 17.89 g/l, tryptone 34.98 g/l, potassium phosphate 24.84 g/l, and sodium citrate 0.01 g/l, which resulted in a large increase of the titer of thailandepsin A to 236.7 mg/l. Finally kinetic models based on the modified logistic and Luedeking-Piret equations were developed, delivering a good description of temporal variations of biomass, product, and substrate in the fermentation process, which could be used as references for developing large-scale fermentation.

  18. A kinetic model for product formation of microbial and mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, A.P.


    Growth of microbial and mammalian cells can be classified into substrate-limited and substrate-sufficient growth according to the relative availability of the substrate (carbon and energy source) and other nutrients. It has been observed for a number of microbial and mammalian cells that the consumption rate of substrate and energy (ATP) is generally higher under substrate-sufficient conditions than under substrate limitation. Accordingly, the product formation under substrate excess often exhibits different patterns from those under substrate limitation. In this study, the Luedeking-Piret kinetic model is extended to include a term describing the effect of residual substrate concentration. The applicability of the extended model is demonstrated with three microbial cultures for the production of primary metabolites and three hybridoma cell cultures for the production of ammonia and lactic acid over a wide range of substrate concentration. Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol by Klebsiella pneumoniae is a multiproduct fermentation process. At a neutral pH value, acetic acid, ethanol, and 1,3-propanediol are the main fermentation products. Formation of acetic acid and/or ethanol is necessary for the generation by K. pneumoniae. The aerobic growth of bacillus strain TS1 on methanol has been studied in methanol-limited and methanol-sufficient hemostat cultures. Under methanol-limited conditions there is no extracellular product formed. However, under methanol-sufficient conditions, particularly with nitrogen limitation, metabolites such as acetic acid and 2-oxoglutaric acid are excreted into the culture medium above a certain level of residual methanol concentration.

  19. Degradation of quinolizidine alkaloids of lupin by Rhizopus oligosporus.


    Ortega-David, Eduar; Rodríguez-Stouvenel, Aida


    Rhizopus oligosporus has proven beneficial in the detoxification of lupin seeds. The fermentation process is mainly affected by the initial pH in the medium. In the range of growth of mold, there are maximum enzymatic activities in pH of 3.5 and 5.5. Metabolism change occurs at these pH levels; therefore, we studied the growth, pH changes, dry matter intake, and alkaloid degradation within 48 h of fermentation. Cultures of lupin agar (LA) with pH of 3.5 and 5.5 were made in Petri dishes with lupin flour. Results showed pH directly affects the degradation of alkaloids and fungal growth. Detoxification levels achieved were 16.58 and 63.23 % in treatments LA 3.5 and LA 5.5, respectively. Fungal growth was 0.919 mg/cm(2) in LA 3.5 and 1.081 mg/cm(2) in LA 5.5. Maximum degradation rate in LA 5.5 was given between 16 and 20 h, which coincided with maximum fungal growth. Despite having similar dry matter intake in both treatments, a pH of 3.5 did not show the same degree of detoxification. The analysis with exponential, yield of growth, yield of dry matter intake and luedeking and piret equations, confirm the relation between intake and growth with detoxification. Dry matter intake equation predicts with R (2) of 0.94 the detoxification in LA 5.5. A pH of 5.5 is directly related with detoxification and fungal development.

  20. Modelling the growth kinetics of Kocuria marina DAGII as a function of single and binary substrate during batch production of β-Cryptoxanthin.


    Mitra, Ruchira; Chaudhuri, Surabhi; Dutta, Debjani


    In the present investigation, growth kinetics of Kocuria marina DAGII during batch production of β-Cryptoxanthin (β-CRX) was studied by considering the effect of glucose and maltose as a single and binary substrate. The importance of mixed substrate over single substrate has been emphasised in the present study. Different mathematical models namely, the Logistic model for cell growth, the Logistic mass balance equation for substrate consumption and the Luedeking-Piret model for β-CRX production were successfully implemented. Model-based analyses for the single substrate experiments suggested that the concentrations of glucose and maltose higher than 7.5 and 10.0 g/L, respectively, inhibited the growth and β-CRX production by K. marina DAGII. The Han and Levenspiel model and the Luong product inhibition model accurately described the cell growth in glucose and maltose substrate systems with a R (2) value of 0.9989 and 0.9998, respectively. The effect of glucose and maltose as binary substrate was further investigated. The binary substrate kinetics was well described using the sum-kinetics with interaction parameters model. The results of production kinetics revealed that the presence of binary substrate in the cultivation medium increased the biomass and β-CRX yield significantly. This study is a first time detailed investigation on kinetic behaviours of K. marina DAGII during β-CRX production. The parameters obtained in the study might be helpful for developing strategies for commercial production of β-CRX by K. marina DAGII.

  1. Fed-batch pediocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici NRRL B-5627 on whey.


    Pérez Guerra, Nelson; Bernárdez, Paula Fajardo; Agrasar, Ana Torrado; López Macías, Cristina; Castro, Lorenzo Pastrana


    Cell growth and pediocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici NRRL B-5627 on whey were compared by using batch fermentation and re-alkalized fed-batch fermentation. The batch fermentations were performed on DWG [DW (diluted whey) supplemented with 1% (w/v) glucose], DWYE [DW supplemented with 2% (w/v) yeast extract] and DWGYE (DW supplemented with 1% glucose plus 2% yeast extract) media. The fed-batch culture on DWYE medium was fed with a mixture of concentrated whey (48 g of total sugars/l) supplemented with 2% yeast extract and 400 g/l concentrated glucose. The re-alkalized fed-batch culture was characterized by higher biomass (6.57 g/l) and pediocin [517.6 BU (bacteriocin activity units)/ml] concentrations compared with the batch processes on MRS (de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe) broth (1.76 g/l and 493.2 BU/ml), DW (0.17 g/l and 57.7 BU/ml), DWG (0.14 g/l and 53.6 BU/ml), DWYE (1.43 g/l and 187.6 BU/ml) and DWGYE (1.28 g/l and 167.3 BU/ml) media. A mixed acid fermentation was observed during the growth of P. acidilactici NRRL B-5627 in the fed-batch culture on DWYE medium, and other products (acetic acid and ethanol) in addition to lactic acid accumulated in the medium. Mathematical models were set up to describe fed-batch production of biomass and pediocin by P. acidilactici. The models developed offer a better fit and a more realistic description of the experimental biomass and pediocin production data when compared with the logistic and Luedeking and Piret model.

  2. Using simple models to describe the kinetics of growth, glucose consumption, and monoclonal antibody formation in naive and infliximab producer CHO cells.


    López-Meza, Julián; Araíz-Hernández, Diana; Carrillo-Cocom, Leydi Maribel; López-Pacheco, Felipe; Rocha-Pizaña, María Del Refugio; Alvarez, Mario Moisés


    Despite their practical and commercial relevance, there are few reports on the kinetics of growth and production of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells-the most frequently used host for the industrial production of therapeutic proteins. We characterize the kinetics of cell growth, substrate consumption, and product formation in naive and monoclonal antibody (mAb) producing recombinant CHO cells. Culture experiments were performed in 125 mL shake flasks on commercial culture medium (CD Opti CHO™ Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) diluted to different glucose concentrations (1.2-4.8 g/L). The time evolution of cell, glucose, lactic acid concentration and monoclonal antibody concentrations was monitored on a daily basis for mAb-producing cultures and their naive counterparts. The time series were differentiated to calculate the corresponding kinetic rates (rx = d[X]/dt; rs = d[S]/dt; rp = d[mAb]/dt). Results showed that these cell lines could be modeled by Monod-like kinetics if a threshold substrate concentration value of [S]t = 0.58 g/L (for recombinant cells) and [S]t = 0.96 g/L (for naïve cells), below which growth is not observed, was considered. A set of values for μmax, and Ks was determined for naive and recombinant cell cultures cultured at 33 and 37 °C. The yield coefficient (Yx/s) was observed to be a function of substrate concentration, with values in the range of 0.27-1.08 × 10(7) cell/mL and 0.72-2.79 × 10(6) cells/mL for naive and recombinant cultures, respectively. The kinetics of mAb production can be described by a Luedeking-Piret model (d[mAb]/dt = αd[X]/dt + β[X]) with values of α = 7.65 × 10(-7) µg/cell and β = 7.68 × 10(-8) µg/cell/h for cultures conducted in batch-agitated flasks and batch and instrumented bioreactors operated in batch and fed-batch mode.

  3. [Kinetic models for the effect of temperature on batch glutathione fermentation by Candida utilis].


    Wei, Gong-Yuan; Li, Yin; Du, Guo-Cheng; Chen, Jian


    Glutathione (L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine), one of the major non-protein thiol compounds, is widely distributed in living cells and plays an important role in maintaining the normal redox environment of cells as an antioxidant. In the production of glutathione by fermentation, temperature is one of the most important environmental factors that affect the yield and the productivity of glutathione. Here the effect of temperature, varied from 24 degrees C to 32 degrees C, on the batch fermentation of glutathione in a 7 L stirred fermenter by Candida utilis WSH 02-08 was investigated. It was found that cell growth was hastened along with the increase of temperature. The maximum dry cell weight was achieved approximately 16 g/L under various temperatures, as soon as the glucose was exhausted. The effect of temperature on glutathione production was different from that on cell growth: the lower the temperature, the higher the glutathione production, i.e. the maximum glutathione concentration at 32 degrees C (235 mg/L) was only 75% and 64% of that at 30 degrees C and 26 degrees C, respectively. The maximum average specific growth rate (0.13 h(-1)) was achieved at 30 degrees C while the maximum glutathione concentration (366 mg x L(-1)) and the maximum intracellular glutathione content (2.3%) were obtained at 26 degrees C. Therefore, the optimum temperatures for cell growth and glutathione production are quite different in the batch fermentation. A modified Logistic equation was successfully applied to estimate the kinetics of cell growth. The maximum specific growth rate and the substrate inhibition constant, calculated from this equation, were both increased along with the temperature. In addition, the glutathione fermentation by C. utilis WSH 02-08 under various temperatures was proven to be a partial growth-associated process by estimating the process with the Luedeking-Piret equation. Based on the estimated parameon the estimated parameters, the effect of

  4. The uselessness of the Fast Gauss Transform for summing Gaussian radial basis function series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, John P.


    The Fast Gauss Transform is an algorithm for summing a series of Gaussians which is sometimes much faster than direct summation. Gaussian series in d dimensions are of the form ∑j=1N λjexp(-[α/h]2 ‖x-xj‖2) where the xj are the centers, h is the average separation between centers and α is the relative inverse width parameter. We show that the speed-up of the Fast Gauss Transform is bounded by a factor Ω(α). When α≪1, Ω can be large. However, when applied to Gaussian radial basis function interpolation, it is difficult to apply the Gaussian basis in this parameter range because the interpolation matrix is exponentially ill-conditioned: the condition number κ˜(1/2)exp{π2}/{4α2} for a uniform, one-dimensional grid, and larger still in two dimensions or when the grid is irregular. Furthermore, the Gaussian RBF interpolant is ill-conditioned for most series in the sense that the interpolant is the small difference of terms with exponentially large coefficients. Fornberg and Piret developed a "QR-basis" that ameliorates this difficulty for approximations on the surface of a sphere, but because the recombined basis functions are perturbed spherical harmonics, not Gaussians, the Fast Gauss Transform is no longer applicable. The solution of the interpolation matrix system by a preconditioned iteration is less sensitive to condition numbers than direct methods because iterations are self-correcting and also because the preconditioning reduces the spread of the eigenvalues. However, each iteration requires a matrix-vector multiply which is fast only if this operation can be performed by some species of Fast Summation. When α˜O(1), alas, we show that Ω is not large and the Fast Gauss Transform is not accelerative. Gaussian RBFs are unusual among RBF species through the absence of long-range interactions due to the exponential decay of the Gaussians with distance from their centers; many other RBF species do have long-range interactions, and it is well

  5. PREFACE: Nanosafe2010: International Conference on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentein, Carole; Schuster, Frédéric; Tardif, François