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Sample records for pisces gadiformes alimentada

  1. PISCES

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Water State Revolving Fund’s Performance and Innovation in the SRF Creating Environmental Success (PISCES) program allows state programs to gain national recognition for exceptional projects funded by the CWSRF.

  2. PISCES Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.

    1990-09-01

    This report discusses the following topics: PISCES-A facility; PISCES-B facility; PISCES-C facility; fast scanning probes; spectroscopic diagnostics; PISCES laboratory data acquisition system; SEM EDX facilities; vacuum outgassing facility; evaluation of bulk-boronized graphites; chemical sputtering of C-C composites; D-retention in redeposited carbon; TEXTOR-exposed graphite; oxygen plasma reactions with graphite; gaseous divertor simulation; experimental; proof of RF-limiter; H-mode transition by DC-biasing; edge-plasma physics experiments in the CCT-tokamak; and He-spectroscopy for edge-plasma diagnosis.

  3. PISCES 2 users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Terrence W.

    1987-01-01

    PISCES 2 is a programming environment and set of extensions to Fortran 77 for parallel programming. It is intended to provide a basis for writing programs for scientific and engineering applications on parallel computers in a way that is relatively independent of the particular details of the underlying computer architecture. This user's manual provides a complete description of the PISCES 2 system as it is currently implemented on the 20 processor Flexible FLEX/32 at NASA Langley Research Center.

  4. A review of early gadiform evolution and diversification: first record of a rattail fish skull (Gadiformes, Macrouridae) from the Eocene of Antarctica, with otoliths preserved in situ.

    PubMed

    Kriwet, Jürgen; Hecht, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Codfishes, the Gadiformes, are quite abundant in modern temperate and polar waters with a fossil record ranging back into the Palaeogene. The oldest records are from the Danian and Selandian of Europe and South Australia. The bipolar distribution early in their evolutionary history implies that their origin must have occurred quite early in the Palaeocene, or even in the Late Cretaceous with subsequent rapid diversification. By the Eocene, gadiforms were highly abundant and widespread. With the exception of gadiforms, no Eocene Antarctic teleostean group is present in the modern Antarctic fauna. Here, we review the early evolution and diversification of gadiforms in general and of macrouroids in particular. We also describe the undoubtedly oldest skeletal macrourid specimen with otoliths preserved in situ. It is the first definitive record of this group from the Eocene of Antarctica filling a gap in its stratigraphic distribution. The fossil record of gadiforms in general and macrouroids in particular indicates that the origin of both was in shallow shelf environments but with adaptations to deep-water settings early in their evolution. While gadoids seemingly originated in the earliest Palaeogene and rapidly experienced a first major radiation event in the eastern North Atlantic and/or North Sea Basin, macrouroids evolved in the Southern Ocean and migrated northwards into the South Atlantic before the establishment of the circum-Antarctic current and subsequent isolation of the Antarctic fish fauna. These two timely and regional separated adaptive radiation events in the Palaeogene gave rise to their modern taxonomic diversity and global distribution.

  5. Update on PISCES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Don; Hamm, Dustin; Kubena, Brian; Weaver, Jonathan K.

    2010-01-01

    An updated version of the Platform Independent Software Components for the Exploration of Space (PISCES) software library is available. A previous version was reported in Library for Developing Spacecraft-Mission-Planning Software (MSC-22983), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 7 (July 2001), page 52. To recapitulate: This software provides for Web-based, collaborative development of computer programs for planning trajectories and trajectory- related aspects of spacecraft-mission design. The library was built using state-of-the-art object-oriented concepts and software-development methodologies. The components of PISCES include Java-language application programs arranged in a hierarchy of classes that facilitates the reuse of the components. As its full name suggests, the PISCES library affords platform-independence: The Java language makes it possible to use the classes and application programs with a Java virtual machine, which is available in most Web-browser programs. Another advantage is expandability: Object orientation facilitates expansion of the library through creation of a new class. Improvements in the library since the previous version include development of orbital-maneuver- planning and rendezvous-launch-window application programs, enhancement of capabilities for propagation of orbits, and development of a desktop user interface.

  6. CWSRF 2017 PISCES Nomination Form

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Water State Revolving Fund’s Performance and Innovation in the SRF Creating Environmental Success (PISCES) program allows state programs to gain national recognition for exceptional projects funded by the CWSRF.

  7. Notes on Galápagos grenadiers (Pisces, Gadiformes, Macrouridae), with the description of a new species of Coryphaenoides.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, T; McCosker, J E

    2001-07-01

    Two unusual specimens of the grenadier genus Coryphaenoides were collected by the deep-submersible vehicle Johnson Sea-Link off the Galápagos. Unlike any other member of the genus, the snout in these specimens was rounded, non-protruding, naked anteriorly and ventrally, with no tubercular scales marking the terminal and lateral angles. They are herein described as Coryphaenoides gypsochilus. Additional specimens of grenadiers were procured by the Johnson Sea-Link, including the second and third specimens of Nezumia ventralis and the first record of Caelorinchus canus from these waters. Three species and one subspecies of Galápagos grenadiers are endemic.

  8. Successive Losses of Central Immune Genes Characterize the Gadiformes' Alternate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Solbakken, Monica H; Rise, Matthew L; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Jentoft, Sissel

    2016-12-31

    Great genetic variability among teleost immunomes, with gene losses and expansions of central adaptive and innate components, has been discovered through genome sequencing over the last few years. Here, we demonstrate that the innate Myxovirus resistance gene (Mx) is lost from the ancestor of Gadiformes and the closely related Stylephorus chordatus, thus predating the loss of Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (MHCII) in Gadiformes. Although the functional implication of Mx loss is still unknown, we demonstrate that this loss is one of several ancient events appearing in successive order throughout the evolution of teleost immunity. In particular, we find that the loss of Toll-like receptor 5 predates the loss of Mx involving the entire Paracanthopterygii lineage. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny, we show that loss of MHCII and Mx overlap with major paleoclimatic and geological events indicating that these genetic changes were adaptive responses to the changing environment at the time.

  9. [Features of lysozyme content in cods (order Gadiformes) and flatfish (order Pleuronectiformes)].

    PubMed

    Subbotkina, T A; Subbotkin, M F

    2013-01-01

    The content of lysozyme as an indicator of nonspecific immunity in kidney, liver, spleen, and blood serum in 8 fish species of the order Gadiformes and the order Pleuronectiformes was analyzed. The Gadiformes are characterized by a very low level of enzyme or the absence of its activity in individual organs and serum, regardless of the fish habitat location. The Pleuronectiformes demonstrated diversity in content and distribution of lysozyme in the body of various fish species. Two plaice species with the unique distribution inhabiting the Sea of Okhotsk were found. This feature is due, first, to the highest lysozyme content in serum of the previously studied fish; second, to the 2-3-fold excess of the enzyme content in serum as compared with the studied immunocompetent organs. The obtained results confirm the opinion about the existence of various related groups among fishes which essentially differ in the lysozyme role in nonspecific immunity.

  10. Characterization of mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes in gadiformes: sequence variations, secondary structural features, and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Bakke, Ingrid; Johansen, Steinar

    2002-10-01

    Secondary structure features of mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs (mt-rRNAs) of bony fishes were investigated by a DNA sequence alignment approach. The small subunit (SSU) and large subunit (LSU) mt-rRNA genes were found to contain several additional variable regions compared to their mammalian counterparts. Fish mt-LSU rRNA genes were found to be longer than the mammalians due to increased length of some of the variable regions. The 5' and 3' ends of Atlantic cod mt-rRNAs were precisely mapped. The 3' ends of mt-SSU rRNAs were found to be homogenous and mono-adenylated, whereas that of the mt-LSU rRNAs were heterogenous and oligo-adenylated. The 5' ends of mt-SSU rRNAs appeared to be heterogenous, corresponding to the presumed first and second positions of the gene. Sequences of the central domain and the D-domain of the mt-SSU and mt-LSU rRNA genes, respectively, were determined and characterized for 11 gadiform species (representing the families Gadidae, Lotidae, Ranicipitidae, Merlucciidae, Phycidae, and Macrouridae) and one Lophiidae species. Detailed secondary structure models of the RNA regions are presented for the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Roundnose grenadier (Coryphaeonides rupestris). Saturation plots revealed that DNA nucleotide positions corresponding to unpaired RNA regions become saturated with transitions at sequence divergence levels about 0.15. Phylogenetic analyses revealed some aspects of gadiform relationships. Gadidae was identified as the most derived of the gadiform families. Lotidae was found to be the family closest related to Gadidae, and Ranicipitidae was also recognized as a derived gadiform taxon.

  11. PISCES: An environment for parallel scientific computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The parallel implementation of scientific computing environment (PISCES) is a project to provide high-level programming environments for parallel MIMD computers. Pisces 1, the first of these environments, is a FORTRAN 77 based environment which runs under the UNIX operating system. The Pisces 1 user programs in Pisces FORTRAN, an extension of FORTRAN 77 for parallel processing. The major emphasis in the Pisces 1 design is in providing a carefully specified virtual machine that defines the run-time environment within which Pisces FORTRAN programs are executed. Each implementation then provides the same virtual machine, regardless of differences in the underlying architecture. The design is intended to be portable to a variety of architectures. Currently Pisces 1 is implemented on a network of Apollo workstations and on a DEC VAX uniprocessor via simulation of the task level parallelism. An implementation for the Flexible Computing Corp. FLEX/32 is under construction. An introduction to the Pisces 1 virtual computer and the FORTRAN 77 extensions is presented. An example of an algorithm for the iterative solution of a system of equations is given. The most notable features of the design are the provision for several granularities of parallelism in programs and the provision of a window mechanism for distributed access to large arrays of data.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships among families of Gadiformes (Teleostei, Paracanthopterygii) based on nuclear and mitochondrial data.

    PubMed

    Roa-Varón, Adela; Ortí, Guillermo

    2009-09-01

    Phylogenetic hypotheses among Gadiformes fishes at the suborder, family, and subfamily levels are controversial. To address this problem, we analyze nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences for the most extensive taxonomic sampling compiled to date, representing all of the recognized families and subfamilies in the order (except the monotypic family Lyconidae). Our study sampled 117 species from 46 genera, comprising around 20% of the species described for the order (more than 60% of all genera in the order) and produced 2740 bp of DNA sequence data for each species. Our analysis was successful in confirming the monophyly of Gadiformes and most of the proposed families for the order, but alternative hypotheses of sister-group relationships among families were poorly resolved. Our results are consistent with dividing Gadiformes into 12 families in three suborders, Muraenolepidoidei, Macrouroidei, and Gadoidei. Muraenolepidoidei contains the single family Muraenolepididae. The suborder Macrouroidei includes at least three families: Macrouridae, Macruronidae and Steindachneriidae. Macrouridae is deeply divided into two well-supported subfamilies: Macrourinae and Bathygadinae, suggesting that Bathygadinae may be ranked at the family level. The suborder Gadoidei includes the families: Merlucciidae, Melanonidae, Euclichthyidae, Gadidae, Ranicipitidae, and Bregmacerotidae. Additionally, Trachyrincinae could be ranked at family level including two subfamilies: Trachyrincinae and Macrouroidinae within Gadoidei. Further taxonomic sampling and sequencing efforts are needed in order to corroborate these relationships.

  13. PISCES: Developing New Design, Materials and Technologies for Sustained

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Larson, William E.; Duke, Mike; Schowengerdt, Frank

    2008-01-01

    PISCES, the Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems. This paper describes the PISCES development plans, particularly in the areas of In-Situ Resource Utilization, Robotics and Education and Outreach.

  14. PISCES: Developing New Design, Materials and Technologies for Sustained

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Larson, William E.; Duke, Mike; Schowengerdt, Frank

    2008-01-01

    PISCES, the Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems. This paper describes the PISCES development plans, particularly in the areas of In-Situ Resource Utilization, Robotics and Education and Outreach.

  15. Anatomy and histology of the brain and sense organs of the Antarctic eel cod Muraenolepis microps (Gadiformes; Muraenolepididae).

    PubMed

    Eastman, J T; Lannoo, M J

    2001-10-01

    Brain regions, cranial nerves, and sense organs in Muraenolepis microps, an Antarctic gadiform fish, were examined to determine which features could be attributed to a gadiform ancestry and which to habitation of Antarctic waters. We found that the central nervous system and sense organs are well developed, showing neither substantial regression nor hypertrophy. A detailed drawing of the brain and cranial nerves is provided. The rostral position of the olfactory bulbs and telencephalic size and lobation are common for the order. The optic tectum and corpus cerebelli are smaller than in most other gadiforms. The shape of the corpus cerebelli is not distinctive among gadiforms. The lateral line region is moderately well-developed, but not hypertrophied to the extent seen in deep-sea gadiforms. As is the case in gadids possessing barbels and elongated pelvic rays, Muraenolepis has well-developed facial lobes, although these are smaller and more laterally positioned. The vagal lobes are deeply placed in the rhombencephalon and project into the fourth ventricle. The brain of Muraenolepis resembles that of a phyletically derived gadoid, especially a phycid, more than it resembles the brain of a phyletically basal macrourid. Two histological features of the diencephalon of Muraenolepis appear to be unique among gadiforms: a well-organized thalamic central medial nucleus and subependymal expansions. Muraenolepis has a pure rod retina like many deep-sea species but lacks the superimposed layers of rod outer segments. The histology of the nonvisual sense organs, especially the olfactory and external taste systems, are well-developed in Muraenolepis but not hypertrophied. We relate our findings to what is known about neural morphology in other gadiforms and in phyletically distant notothenioids and liparids that are sympatric with Muraenolepis on the Antarctic shelf. The only feature that reflects an Antarctic existence is the diencephalic subependymal expansions, which

  16. New data on Lepidion schmidti (Gadiformes: Moridae) from the north-east Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Arronte, J C; Bañón, R; Quigley, D T G; Pis-Millán, J A; Heredia, J

    2011-12-01

    A new record of Lepidion schmidti (Gadiformes: Moridae) is reported from the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic Ocean). Lepidion schmidti is a rare and poorly known species, scarcely described in the ichthyological literature. Morphometric and meristic characteristics of the specimen are given. A compilation of the specimens caught in the north-east Atlantic Ocean was carried out and the current status of the species in Atlantic waters is discussed. Lepidion schmidti is characterized mainly by the presence of an inverted V-shaped patch of vomerine teeth and a V-shaped crest on the dorsal surface of the head with the apex anterior. The presence of supernumerary anal fin rays in this species is described for the first time. The results obtained confirm the presence of L. schmidti from the north-east Atlantic Ocean.

  17. A cladistic re-analysis of the Gadiformes (Teleostei, Paracanthopterygii) using three-item analysis.

    PubMed

    Grand, Anaïs; Zaragüeta Bagils, Rene; Vélez, Lina María Duque; Vélez, Lina María; Ung, Visotheary

    2014-12-02

    In the present paper, we describe LisBeth, a newly published phylogenetic program. LisBeth implements the cladistic three-item analysis for systematics and biogeography. We show how LisBeth handles character representation, character analysis, exact search functions, reconstruction of the intersection tree and other features, such as retention index, completeness index, character history and link with other programs such as PAUP*, version 4.0b10, TNT and Xper2. Using LisBeth, we reanalyze the phylogeny based on morphological characters of the order Gadiformes (Teleostei, Paracanthopterygii) published by Endo (2002) and compare our results. We also describe the generation of hypotheses of homology following Endo's guidelines versus 3ia representation schemes. We compare the topologies of all results and show the implications of the interpretation of character history.

  18. Planetary In Situ Capillary Electrophoresis System (PISCES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, P. A.; Stockton, A. M.; Mora, M. F.; Cable, M. L.; Bramall, N. E.; Jensen, E. C.; Jiao, H.; Lynch, E.; Mathies, R. A.

    2012-10-01

    We propose to develop PISCES, a 3-kg, 2W, flight-capable microfluidic lab-on-a-chip capillary electrophoresis analyzer capable of ingesting solid, liquid, or gas samples and performing a suite of chemical analyses with parts per trillion sensitivity.

  19. Pisces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Fishes; abbrev. Psc, gen. Piscium; area 889 sq. deg.) A northern zodiacal constellation which lies between Pegasus and Cetus, and culminates at midnight in late September. Its origin dates back to Babylonian times and it is said to represent Aphrodite, the goddess of love in Greek mythology, and her son Eros, who jumped into the Euphrates to escape from the multi-headed Typhon and were turned...

  20. Before the freeze: otoliths from the Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica, reveal dominance of gadiform fishes (Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzhans, Werner; Mörs, Thomas; Engelbrecht, Andrea; Reguero, Marcelo; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The first record of fossil teleostean otoliths from Antarctica is reported. The fossils were obtained from late Early Eocene shell beds of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island that represent the last temperate marine climate phase in Antarctica prior to the onset of cooling and subsequent glaciation during the late Eocene. A total of 17 otolith-based teleost taxa are recognized, with 10 being identifiable to species level containing nine new species and one new genus: Argentina antarctica sp. nov., Diaphus? marambionis sp. nov., Macruronus eastmani sp. nov., Coelorinchus balushkini sp. nov., Coelorinchus nordenskjoeldi sp. nov., Palimphemus seymourensis sp. nov., Hoplobrotula? antipoda sp. nov., Notoberyx cionei gen. et sp. nov. and Cepola anderssoni sp. nov. Macruronus eastmani sp. nov. is also known from the late Eocene of Southern Australia, and Tripterophycis immutatus Schwarzhans, widespread in the southern oceans during the Eocene, has been recorded from New Zealand, southern Australia, and now Antarctica. The otolith assemblage shows a typical composition of temperate fishes dominated by gadiforms, very similar at genus and family levels to associations known from middle Eocene strata of New Zealand and the late Eocene of southern Australia, but also to the temperate Northern Hemisphere associations from the Paleocene of Denmark. The Seymour Island fauna bridges a gap in the record of global temperate marine teleost faunas during the early Eocene climate maximum. The dominant gadiforms are interpreted as the main temperate faunal component, as in the Paleocene of Denmark. Here they are represented by the families Moridae, Merlucciidae (Macruroninae), Macrouridae and Gadidae. Nowadays Gadidae are a chiefly Northern Hemisphere temperate family. Moridae, Macruroninae and Macrouridae live today on the lower shelf to deep-water or mesopelagically with Macruroninae being restricted to the Southern Ocean. The extant endemic Antarctic gadiform family

  1. Before the freeze: otoliths from the Eocene of Seymour Island, Antarctica, reveal dominance of gadiform fishes (Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Schwarzhans, Werner; Mörs, Thomas; Engelbrecht, Andrea; Reguero, Marcelo; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The first record of fossil teleostean otoliths from Antarctica is reported. The fossils were obtained from late Early Eocene shell beds of the La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island that represent the last temperate marine climate phase in Antarctica prior to the onset of cooling and subsequent glaciation during the late Eocene. A total of 17 otolith-based teleost taxa are recognized, with 10 being identifiable to species level containing nine new species and one new genus: Argentina antarctica sp. nov., Diaphus? marambionis sp. nov., Macruronus eastmani sp. nov., Coelorinchus balushkini sp. nov., Coelorinchus nordenskjoeldi sp. nov., Palimphemus seymourensis sp. nov., Hoplobrotula? antipoda sp. nov., Notoberyx cionei gen. et sp. nov. and Cepola anderssoni sp. nov. Macruronus eastmani sp. nov. is also known from the late Eocene of Southern Australia, and Tripterophycis immutatus Schwarzhans, widespread in the southern oceans during the Eocene, has been recorded from New Zealand, southern Australia, and now Antarctica. The otolith assemblage shows a typical composition of temperate fishes dominated by gadiforms, very similar at genus and family levels to associations known from middle Eocene strata of New Zealand and the late Eocene of southern Australia, but also to the temperate Northern Hemisphere associations from the Paleocene of Denmark. The Seymour Island fauna bridges a gap in the record of global temperate marine teleost faunas during the early Eocene climate maximum. The dominant gadiforms are interpreted as the main temperate faunal component, as in the Paleocene of Denmark. Here they are represented by the families Moridae, Merlucciidae (Macruroninae), Macrouridae and Gadidae. Nowadays Gadidae are a chiefly Northern Hemisphere temperate family. Moridae, Macruroninae and Macrouridae live today on the lower shelf to deep-water or mesopelagically with Macruroninae being restricted to the Southern Ocean. The extant endemic Antarctic gadiform family

  2. PisCES: Pis(cine) Community Estimation Software

    EPA Science Inventory

    PisCES predicts a fish community for any NHD-Plus stream reach in the conterminous United States. PisCES utilizes HUC-based distributional information for over 1,000 nature and non-native species obtained from NatureServe, the USGS, and Peterson Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes o...

  3. PisCES: Pis(cine) Community Estimation Software

    EPA Science Inventory

    PisCES predicts a fish community for any NHD-Plus stream reach in the conterminous United States. PisCES utilizes HUC-based distributional information for over 1,000 nature and non-native species obtained from NatureServe, the USGS, and Peterson Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes o...

  4. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF THE PISCES OVERDENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmeier, Juna A.; Shectman, Stephen; Thompson, Ian B.; Preston, George W.; Simon, Joshua D.; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Gould, Andrew; Ivezic, Zeljko; Sesar, Branimir

    2009-11-10

    We present spectroscopic confirmation of the 'Pisces Overdensity', also known as 'Structure J', a photometric overdensity of RR Lyrae stars discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at an estimated photometric distance of approx85 kpc. We measure radial velocities for eight RR Lyrae stars within Pisces. We find that five of the eight stars have heliocentric radial velocities within a narrow range of -87 km s{sup -1} < v{sub r} < -67 km s{sup -1}, suggesting that the photometric overdensity is mainly due to a physically associated system, probably a dwarf galaxy or a disrupted galaxy. Two of the remaining three stars differ from one another by only 9 km s{sup -1}, but it would be premature to identify them as a second system.

  5. Endoparasite fauna of five Gadiformes fish species from the coast of Chile: host ecology versus phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Chávez, R A; González, M T; Oliva, M E; Valdivia, I M

    2012-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare, using multivariate analyses, the degree of similarity of the endoparasite fauna of five fish species belonging to the order Gadiformes: Merluccius gayi, Merluccius australis, Macruronus magellanicus (Gadoidei) and Micromesistius australis and Nezumia pulchella (Macrouroidei), from the southern and central Chilean coast, and to evaluate whether the composition of the endoparasite fauna was determined by phylogenetic or ecological relationships. We employed our database of Merluccius australis, M. magellanicus and Micromesistius australis, which was complemented with published information for M. magellanicus, Merluccius australis, Micromesistius australis, M. gayi and N. pulchella. A higher number of endoparasite species was recorded for Merluccius australis, Micromesistius australis and M. magellanicus, namely Anisakis sp. and Hepatoxylon trichiuri, which is the most prevalent parasite among these hosts. Aporocotyle wilhelmi and Hysterothylacium sp. were detected only in M. gayi, whereas Lepidapedon sp. was found exclusively in N. pulchella. These results suggest that fish ecology rather than host phylogeny was the most important factor for the determination of similarity in parasite composition. This result could be explained by the similar trophic patterns of hosts and by the predominance of generalist larval species among these fish parasite communities.

  6. Low genetic differentiation between two geographically separated populations of demersal gadiform fishes in the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Hirohiko; Hatanaka, Akimasa; Yamada, Syo-ichi; Yamazaki, Yuji; Kimura, Ikuo; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2011-01-01

    The distribution patterns of many fishes between the three continents (Africa, Australia, and South America) in the Southern Hemisphere have been uncovered to be influenced by mostly vicariance or historical dispersal. Although some demersal fishes with intercontinental distribution are suggested to be more influenced by current/recent dispersal, few genetic studies have been made for demersal fishes so far. To provide more information for such fishes, genetic divergence was analyzed for two pairs of gadiform species and subspecies distributed around Australasia and South America: the blue grenadier, Macruronus novaezelandiae (from New Zealand) and the Patagonian grenadier, M. magellanicus (from South America) as well as two subspecies of the southern blue whiting, Micromesistius australis pallidus (from New Zealand) and M. a. australis (from South America). The sequence analyses of two mitochondrial DNA regions showed no divergence between Australasian and South American populations of the grenadiers and the southern blue whiting. The microsatellite DNA analysis also indicated significant but very minimal genetic differentiation between the two geographic populations of each pair. These results imply rather recent separation of the two geographic populations. Current/recent dispersal may be an important common factor for determining the distribution of demersal fishes in the Southern Hemisphere. Nonetheless, low but significant genetic differentiation observed requires treating the two populations of the economically important grenadiers and southern blue whiting, respectively, as different stocks for proper resource management.

  7. HALO VELOCITY GROUPS IN THE PISCES OVERDENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Sesar, Branimir; Ivezic, Zeljko; Vivas, A. Katherina; Duffau, Sonia E-mail: zi@u.washington.ed E-mail: sonia.duffau@gmail.co

    2010-07-01

    We report spectroscopic observations of five faint (V {approx} 20) RR Lyrae stars associated with the Pisces overdensity conducted with the Gemini South Telescope. At a heliocentric and galactocentric distance of {approx}80 kpc, this is the most distant substructure in the Galactic halo known to date. We combined our observations with literature data and confirmed that the substructure is composed of two different kinematic groups. The main group contains eight stars and has (V{sub gsr}) = 50 km s{sup -1}, while the second group contains four stars at a velocity of (V{sub gsr}) = -52 km s{sup -1}, where V{sub gsr} is the radial velocity in the galactocentric standard of rest. The metallicity distribution of RR Lyrae stars in the Pisces overdensity is centered on [Fe/H] = -1.5 dex and has a width of 0.3 dex. The new data allowed us to establish that both groups are spatially extended making it very unlikely that they are bound systems, and are more likely to be debris of a tidally disrupted galaxy or galaxies. Due to small sky coverage, it is still unclear whether these groups have the same or different progenitors.

  8. PISCES: an integral field spectrograph technology demonstration for the WFIRST coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwain, Michael W.; Mandell, Avi M.; Gong, Qian; Llop-Sayson, Jorge; Brandt, Timothy; Chambers, Victor J.; Grammer, Bryan; Greeley, Bradford; Hilton, George; Perrin, Marshall D.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Demers, Richard; Tang, Hong; Cady, Eric

    2016-07-01

    We present the design, integration, and test of the Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) integral field spectrograph (IFS). The PISCES design meets the science requirements for the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Coronagraph Instrument (CGI). PISCES was integrated and tested in the integral field spectroscopy laboratory at NASA Goddard. In June 2016, PISCES was delivered to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) where it was integrated with the Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC) High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT). The SPC/PISCES configuration will demonstrate high contrast integral field spectroscopy as part of the WFIRST CGI technology development program.

  9. LiPISC: A Lightweight and Flexible Method for Privacy-Aware Intersection Set Computation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shiyong; Ren, Yi; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Privacy-aware intersection set computation (PISC) can be modeled as secure multi-party computation. The basic idea is to compute the intersection of input sets without leaking privacy. Furthermore, PISC should be sufficiently flexible to recommend approximate intersection items. In this paper, we reveal two previously unpublished attacks against PISC, which can be used to reveal and link one input set to another input set, resulting in privacy leakage. We coin these as Set Linkage Attack and Set Reveal Attack. We then present a lightweight and flexible PISC scheme (LiPISC) and prove its security (including against Set Linkage Attack and Set Reveal Attack). PMID:27326763

  10. PISCES: An Integral Field Spectrograph Technology Demonstration for the WFIRST Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElwain, Michael W.; Mandell, Avi M.; Gong, Qian; Llop-Sayson, Jorge; Brandt, Timothy; Chambers, Victor J.; Grammer, Bryan; Greeley, Bradford; Hilton, George; Perrin, Marshall D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present the design, integration, and test of the Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) integral field spectrograph (IFS). The PISCES design meets the science requirements for the Wide-Field Infra Red Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Coronagraph Instrument (CGI). PISCES was integrated and tested in the integral field spectroscopy laboratory at NASA Goddard. In June 2016, PISCES was delivered to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) where it was integrated with the Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC) High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT). The SPC/PISCES configuration will demonstrate high contrast integral field spectroscopy as part of the WFIRST CGI technology development program.

  11. The PISCES 2 parallel programming environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Terrence W.

    1987-01-01

    PISCES 2 is a programming environment for scientific and engineering computations on MIMD parallel computers. It is currently implemented on a flexible FLEX/32 at NASA Langley, a 20 processor machine with both shared and local memories. The environment provides an extended Fortran for applications programming, a configuration environment for setting up a run on the parallel machine, and a run-time environment for monitoring and controlling program execution. This paper describes the overall design of the system and its implementation on the FLEX/32. Emphasis is placed on several novel aspects of the design: the use of a carefully defined virtual machine, programmer control of the mapping of virtual machine to actual hardware, forces for medium-granularity parallelism, and windows for parallel distribution of data. Some preliminary measurements of storage use are included.

  12. Resolving the extended stellar haloes of nearby galaxies: the wide-field PISCeS survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crnojevic, Denija; Sand, David J.; Caldwell, Nelson; Guhathakurta, Puragra; McLeod, Brian A.; Seth, Anil; Simon, Joshua D.; Strader, Jay; Toloba, Elisa

    2015-08-01

    I will present results from the wide-field Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor (PISCeS): we investigate the resolved stellar haloes of two nearby galaxies (the spiral NGC253 and the elliptical Centaurus A, D~3.7 Mpc) out to a galactocentric radius of 150 kpc with Magellan/Megacam. The survey led to the discovery of ~20 faint satellites and stunning streams/substructures in two environments substantially different from the Local Group, i.e. the loose Sculptor group of galaxies and the Centaurus A group dominated by an elliptical. These discoveries clearly testify the past and ongoing accretion processes shaping the haloes of these nearby galaxies, and provide the first complete census of their satellite systems down to an unprecedented M_V<-8. This effectively enables the first direct comparison of external galaxies' resolved haloes to the PAndAS survey. The detailed characterization of the stellar content, shape and gradients in the extended haloes of NGC253, Centaurus A and in their satellites represent crucial constraints to theoretical models of galaxy formation and evolution.

  13. Depth as a driver of evolution in the deep sea: Insights from grenadiers (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) of the genus Coryphaenoides.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Michelle R; Violi, Biagio; Gray, Howard W I; Neat, Francis; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Grubbs, R Dean; Roa-Varón, Adela; Sutton, Tracey; Hoelzel, A Rus

    2016-11-01

    Here we consider the role of depth as a driver of evolution in a genus of deep-sea fishes. We provide a phylogeny for the genus Coryphaenoides (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) that represents the breadth of habitat use and distributions for these species. In our consensus phylogeny species found at abyssal depths (>4000m) form a well-supported lineage, which interestingly also includes two non-abyssal species, C. striaturus and C. murrayi, diverging from the basal node of that lineage. Biogeographic analyses suggest the genus may have originated in the Southern and Pacific Oceans where contemporary species diversity is highest. The abyssal lineage seems to have arisen secondarily and likely originated in the Southern/Pacific Oceans but diversification of this lineage occurred in the Northern Atlantic Ocean. All abyssal species are found in the North Atlantic with the exception of C. yaquinae in the North Pacific and C. filicauda in the Southern Ocean. Abyssal species tend to have broad depth ranges and wide distributions, indicating that the stability of the deep oceans and the ability to live across wide depths may promote population connectivity and facilitate large ranges. We also confirm that morphologically defined subgenera do not agree with our phylogeny and that the Giant grenadier (formerly Albatrossia pectoralis) belongs to Coryphaenoides, indicating that a taxonomic revision of the genus is needed. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the radiation and diversification of this genus, and the likely role of adaptation to the abyss.

  14. Aquarius-Pisces Constellation Boundary Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, Steve

    2017-06-01

    Observation, mapping and study of Galaxy Stars has provided humanity direction, foundation, clarity and understanding through the ages.Human civilization advances itself using increasing intelligence and knowledge to develop tools and know how, the science of constellation star maps included: All that has been created by humanity, is to serve humanity.When people continue to use constellation star maps that no longer serve people effectively, the maps are updated, as is now the Aquarius-Pisces Constellation Boundary Update (APCBU), which marks 2000 as the year the Sun is in Aquarius at the vernal equinox.The 21st Century APCBU accounts for and incorporates science factors of precession, relativity and galacticity for professional astronomers, and social imperatives of increasing freedom, liberation and egalitarian culture for the 7.5 billion people of Earth.Twenty years into this first century of a new millennium and a new age is an effective time for an APCBU of such elegant simplicity that it changes less than 0.1% of the area of the IAU 1930 official constellation map, which marks 2597 about the year the Sun is in Aquarius at the time of the vernal equinox.The 21st Century APCBU results provide clarity and direction for humanity's next 2,000 years, if not 10,000 or 12,000 years, and advance the official astronomy / science start of the Aquarius Age -- long anticipated, desired, and imperative, especially in America -- by some 600 years.How much attention is increasingly focused on this region of the sky -- such as the recent discovery of 7 Earth-like worlds orbiting the Trappist-1 star in the Aquarius constellation -- will be an epochal 21st Century phenomenon of human science, society, and starlife.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HST imaging of Pisces A and B (Tollerud+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollerud, E. J.; Geha, M. C.; Grcevich, J.; Putman, M. E.; Weisz, D. R.; Dolphin, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    The observations of Pisces A and B were taken as part of HST program GO-13745 (Cycle 22, PI Tollerud, executed 2014 October 30-November 8). Pisces A and B were observed for a single orbit each with ACS/WFC, using the F606W and F814W filters. (2 data files).

  16. PISCES: A "Stepping Stone" to International Space Exploration and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark W.; Schowengerdt, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES) was initiated by the Japan/US Science, Technology and Space Application Programs (JUSTSAP) to advance research and education in space exploration technology and systems working closely with the State of Hawaii. Hawaii has a heritage with space exploration including the training of Apollo astronauts and testing of lunar rover systems in some of the most realistic terrestrial sites available. The high altitude dry environment with greater solar insolation, and the dry lunar regolith-like volcanic ash and cratered terrain make Hawaiian sites ideal to support, international space exploration technology development, demonstration, education and training. This paper will summarize development and roles of PISCES in lunar surface analogs, simulations, technology demonstrations, research and training for space exploration technology and systems.

  17. Characterization of the Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Globose Head Whiptail Cetonurus globiceps (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) and Its Phylogenetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaofeng; Tian, Peng; Lin, Rongcheng; Huang, Dingyong; Wang, Jianjia

    2016-01-01

    The particular environmental characteristics of deep water such as its immense scale and high pressure systems, presents technological problems that have prevented research to broaden our knowledge of deep-sea fish. Here, we described the mitogenome sequence of a deep-sea fish, Cetonurus globiceps. The genome is 17,137 bp in length, with a standard set of 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and two typical non-coding control regions. Additionally, a 70 bp tRNA(Thr)-tRNA(Pro) intergenic spacer is present. The C. globiceps mitogenome exhibited strand-specific asymmetry in nucleotide composition. The AT-skew and GC-skew values in the whole genome of C. globiceps were 0 and -0.2877, respectively, revealing that the H-strand had equal amounts of A and T and that the overall nucleotide composition was C skewed. All of the tRNA genes could be folded into cloverleaf secondary structures, while the secondary structure of tRNA(Ser(AGY)) lacked a discernible dihydrouridine stem. By comparing this genome sequence with the recognition sites in teleost species, several conserved sequence blocks were identified in the control region. However, the GTGGG-box, the typical characteristic of conserved sequence block E (CSB-E), was absent. Notably, tandem repeats were identified in the 3' portion of the control region. No similar repetitive motifs are present in most of other gadiform species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 12 protein coding genes provided strong support that C. globiceps was the most derived in the clade. Some relationships however, are in contrast with those presented in previous studies. This study enriches our knowledge of mitogenomes of the genus Cetonurus and provides valuable information on the evolution of Macrouridae mtDNA and deep-sea fish.

  18. Characterization of the Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Globose Head Whiptail Cetonurus globiceps (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) and Its Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaofeng; Tian, Peng; Lin, Rongcheng; Huang, Dingyong; Wang, Jianjia

    2016-01-01

    The particular environmental characteristics of deep water such as its immense scale and high pressure systems, presents technological problems that have prevented research to broaden our knowledge of deep-sea fish. Here, we described the mitogenome sequence of a deep-sea fish, Cetonurus globiceps. The genome is 17,137 bp in length, with a standard set of 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and two typical non-coding control regions. Additionally, a 70bp tRNAThr-tRNAPro intergenic spacer is present. The C. globiceps mitogenome exhibited strand-specific asymmetry in nucleotide composition. The AT-skew and GC-skew values in the whole genome of C. globiceps were 0 and -0.2877, respectively, revealing that the H-strand had equal amounts of A and T and that the overall nucleotide composition was C skewed. All of the tRNA genes could be folded into cloverleaf secondary structures, while the secondary structure of tRNASer(AGY) lacked a discernible dihydrouridine stem. By comparing this genome sequence with the recognition sites in teleost species, several conserved sequence blocks were identified in the control region. However, the GTGGG-box, the typical characteristic of conserved sequence block E (CSB-E), was absent. Notably, tandem repeats were identified in the 3' portion of the control region. No similar repetitive motifs are present in most of other gadiform species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 12 protein coding genes provided strong support that C. globiceps was the most derived in the clade. Some relationships however, are in contrast with those presented in previous studies. This study enriches our knowledge of mitogenomes of the genus Cetonurus and provides valuable information on the evolution of Macrouridae mtDNA and deep-sea fish. PMID:27093057

  19. Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) for WFIRST/AFTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Qian; McElwain, Michael; Greeley, Bradford; Grammer, Bryan; Marx, Catherine; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Hilton, George; Perrin, Marshall; Sayson, Llop; Domingo, Jorge; hide

    2015-01-01

    Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) is a prototype lenslet array based integral field spectrometer (IFS) designed for high contrast imaging of extrasolar planets. PISCES will be used to advance the technology readiness of the high contrast IFS baselined on the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey TelescopeAstrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRSTAFTA) coronagraph instrument. PISCES will be integrated into the high contrast imaging testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and will work with both the Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC) and the Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC). We will present the PISCES optical design, including the similarities and differences of lenslet based IFSs to normal spectrometers, the trade-off between a refractive design and reflective design, as well as the compatibility to upgrade from the current 1k x 1k detector array to 4k x 4k detector array. The optical analysis, alignment plan, and mechanical design of the instrument will be discussed.

  20. Measurement of parallel ion energy distribution function in PISCES plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tynan, G.R.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.

    1987-08-01

    The PISCES facility is used to conduct controlled plasma-surface interaction experiments. Plasma parameters typical of those found in the edge plasmas of major fusion confinement experiments are produced. In this work, the energy distribution of the ion flux incident on a material surface is measured using a gridded energy analyzer in place of a material sample. The full width at half maximum energy distribution of the ion flux is found to vary from 10 eV to 30 eV both hydrogen and deuterium plasmas. Helium plasmas have a much lower FWHM energy spread than hydrogen and deuterium plasmas. The FWHM ion energy spread is found to be linearly related to the electron temperature. The most probable ion energy is found to be linearly related to the bias applied to the energy analyzer. Other plasma parameters have a weak influence upon the energy distribution of the ion flux. Two possible physical mechanisms for producing the observed results are introduced and suggestions for further work are made. The impact of the reported measurements on the materials experiments conducted in the PISCES facility are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  1. Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) for WFIRST/AFTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Qian; Mcelwain, Michael; Greeley, Bradford; Grammer, Bryan; Marx, Catherine; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Hilton, George; Sayson, Jorge Llop; Perrin, Marshall; hide

    2015-01-01

    Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) is a lenslet array based integral field spectrometer (IFS) designed for high contrast imaging of extrasolar planets. PISCES will be used to advance the technology readiness of the high contrast IFS baselined on the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope/Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST/AFTA) coronagraph instrument. PISCES will be integrated into the high contrast imaging testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and will work with both the Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC) and the Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC) cofigurations. We discuss why the lenslet array based IFS is selected for PISCES. We present the PISCES optical design, including the similarities and differences of lenslet based IFSs to normal spectrometers, the trade-off between a refractive design and reflective design, as well as the specific function of our pinhole mask on the back surface of the lenslet array to further suppress star light introduced speckles. The optical analysis, alignment plan, and mechanical design of the instrument will be discussed.

  2. Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) for WFIRST-AFTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Qian; Mcelwain, Michael; Greeley, Bradford; Grammer, Bryan; Marx, Catherine; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Hilton, George; Sayson, Jorge Llop; Perrin, Marshall; hide

    2015-01-01

    Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) is a lenslet array based integral field spectrometer (IFS) designed for high contrast imaging of extrasolar planets. PISCES will be used to advance the technology readiness of the high contrast IFS baselined on the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope/Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) coronagraph instrument. PISCES will be integrated into the high contrast imaging testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and will work with both the Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC) and the Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC) configurations. We discuss why the lenslet array based IFS was selected for PISCES. We present the PISCES optical design, including the similarities and differences of lenslet based IFSs to normal spectrometers, the trade-off between a refractive design and reflective design, as well as the specific function of our pinhole mask on the back surface of the lenslet array to reduce the diffraction from the edge of the lenslets. The optical analysis, alignment plan, and mechanical design of the instrument will be discussed.

  3. Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) for WFIRST-AFTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Qian; Mcelwain, Michael; Greeley, Bradford; Grammer, Bryan; Marx, Catherine; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Hilton, George; Sayson, Jorge Llop; Perrin, Marshall; Demers, Richard; Tang, Hong; Kern, Brian; Ferdosi, Janan

    2015-01-01

    Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) is a lenslet array based integral field spectrometer (IFS) designed for high contrast imaging of extrasolar planets. PISCES will be used to advance the technology readiness of the high contrast IFS baselined on the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope/Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) coronagraph instrument. PISCES will be integrated into the high contrast imaging testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and will work with both the Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC) and the Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC) configurations. We discuss why the lenslet array based IFS was selected for PISCES. We present the PISCES optical design, including the similarities and differences of lenslet based IFSs to normal spectrometers, the trade-off between a refractive design and reflective design, as well as the specific function of our pinhole mask on the back surface of the lenslet array to reduce the diffraction from the edge of the lenslets. The optical analysis, alignment plan, and mechanical design of the instrument will be discussed.

  4. Round and pointed-head grenadier fishes (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes) represent a single sister group: evidence from the complete mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Takashi P; Miya, Masaki; Endo, Hiromitsu; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2006-07-01

    The gene order of mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) has been employed as a useful phylogenetic marker in various metazoan animals, because it may represent uniquely derived characters shared by members of monophyletic groups. During the course of molecular phylogenetic studies of the order Gadiformes (cods and their relatives) based on whole mitogenome sequences, we found that two deep-sea grenadiers (Squalogadus modificatus and Trachyrincus murrayi: family Macrouridae) revealed a unusually identical gene order (translocation of the tRNA(Leu (UUR))). Both are members of the same family, although their external morphologies differed so greatly (e.g., round vs. pointed head) that they have been placed in different subfamilies Macrouroidinae and Trachyrincinae, respectively. Additionally, we determined the whole mitogenome sequences of two other species, Bathygadus antrodes and Ventrifossa garmani, representing a total of four subfamilies currently recognized within Macrouridae. The latter two species also exhibited gene rearrangements, resulting in a total of three different patterns of unique gene order being observed in the four subfamilies. Partitioned Bayesian analysis was conducted using available whole mitogenome sequences from five macrourids plus five outgroups. The resultant trees clearly indicated that S. modificatus and T. murrayi formed a monophyletic group, having a sister relationship to other macrourids. Thus, monophyly of the two species with disparate head morphologies was corroborated by two different lines of evidence (nucleotide sequences and gene order). The overall topology of the present tree differed from any of the previously proposed, morphology-based phylogenetic hypotheses.

  5. A new species of Bathycreadium Kabata, 1961 (Digenea: Opecoelidae) from Phycis blennoides (Brünnich) (Gadiformes: Phycidae) in the western Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Pérez-del-Olmo, Ana; Dallarés, Sara; Carrassón, Maite; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2014-07-01

    Bathycreadium brayi n. sp. is described based on specimens collected from the deep-sea greater forkbeard Phycis blennoides (Brünnich) (Gadiformes: Phycidae) in the Western Mediterranean. The new species is distinguished from B. flexicolle Kabata, 1961, B. elongata (Maillard, 1970) and B. nanaflexicolle Dronen, Rubec & Underwood, 1977 by the much smaller size of the body and most organs, the large (in relation to body length and width) ventral sucker and the distinctly more anterior extent of the vitelline fields and from B. biscayense Bray, 1973 in having a narrower body, longer forebody and oesophagus, distinctly smaller ventral sucker and sucker width ratio and the shape of the gonads. Re-examination of the type-material of B. biscayense revealed that the original description of this species is based on composite material. A redescription of B. biscayense based on adult specimens from its type-host, Trachyrincus scabrus (Rafinesque), and new data based on the re-examination of the type-specimens of B. flexicolle and B. elongata are also provided.

  6. PISCES-v2: an ocean biogeochemical model for carbon and ecosystem studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumont, O.; Ethé, C.; Tagliabue, A.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.

    2015-02-01

    PISCES-v2 is a biogeochemical model which simulates the lower trophic levels of marine ecosystem (phytoplankton, microzooplankton and mesozooplankton) and the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and of the main nutrients (P, N, Fe, and Si). The model is intended to be used for both regional and global configurations at high or low spatial resolutions as well as for short-term (seasonal, interannual) and long-term (climate change, paleoceanography) analyses. There are twenty-four prognostic variables (tracers) including two phytoplankton compartments (diatoms and nanophytoplankton), two zooplankton size-classes (microzooplankton and mesozooplankton) and a description of the carbonate chemistry. Formulations in PISCES-v2 are based on a mixed Monod-Quota formalism: on one hand, stoichiometry of C/N/P is fixed and growth rate of phytoplankton is limited by the external availability in N, P and Si. On the other hand, the iron and silicium quotas are variable and growth rate of phytoplankton is limited by the internal availability in Fe. Various parameterizations can be activated in PISCES-v2, setting for instance the complexity of iron chemistry or the description of particulate organic materials. So far, PISCES-v2 has been coupled to the NEMO and ROMS systems. A full description of PISCES-v2 and of its optional functionalities is provided here. The results of a quasi-steady state simulation are presented and evaluated against diverse observational and satellite-derived data. Finally, some of the new functionalities of PISCES-v2 are tested in a series of sensitivity experiments.

  7. PISCES-v2: an ocean biogeochemical model for carbon and ecosystem studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumont, O.; Ethé, C.; Tagliabue, A.; Bopp, L.; Gehlen, M.

    2015-08-01

    PISCES-v2 (Pelagic Interactions Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies volume 2) is a biogeochemical model which simulates the lower trophic levels of marine ecosystems (phytoplankton, microzooplankton and mesozooplankton) and the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and of the main nutrients (P, N, Fe, and Si). The model is intended to be used for both regional and global configurations at high or low spatial resolutions as well as for short-term (seasonal, interannual) and long-term (climate change, paleoceanography) analyses. There are 24 prognostic variables (tracers) including two phytoplankton compartments (diatoms and nanophytoplankton), two zooplankton size classes (microzooplankton and mesozooplankton) and a description of the carbonate chemistry. Formulations in PISCES-v2 are based on a mixed Monod-quota formalism. On the one hand, stoichiometry of C / N / P is fixed and growth rate of phytoplankton is limited by the external availability in N, P and Si. On the other hand, the iron and silicon quotas are variable and the growth rate of phytoplankton is limited by the internal availability in Fe. Various parameterizations can be activated in PISCES-v2, setting, for instance, the complexity of iron chemistry or the description of particulate organic materials. So far, PISCES-v2 has been coupled to the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) and Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) systems. A full description of PISCES-v2 and of its optional functionalities is provided here. The results of a quasi-steady-state simulation are presented and evaluated against diverse observational and satellite-derived data. Finally, some of the new functionalities of PISCES-v2 are tested in a series of sensitivity experiments.

  8. Fokker-Planck Modelling of PISCES Linear Divertor Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batishchev, O. V.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Schmitz, L.

    1996-11-01

    The gas target operating regime in the PISCES [1] linear divertor simulator is characterized by a relatively high plasma density, 2.5 × 10^19 m-3, and low temperature, 8 eV, in the middle section of an ≈ 1 m long plasma column. Near the target, the plasma temperature and density as measured by Langmuir probes drop to 2 eV and 3.5 × 10^18 m-3, respectively, as a result of electron energy loss due to dissociation, ionization, and radiation. Such a sharp gradient in the plasma parameters can enhance non-local effects. To study these, we performed kinetic simulations of the relaxation of the electron energy distribution function on the experimentally measured background plasma using the adaptive finite-volumes code ALLA [2]. We discuss the effects of the observed incompletely equilibrated electron distribution function on key plasma parameter measurements and plasma - neutral particle interactions. cm [1] L.Schmitz et al., Physics of Plasmas 2 (1995) 3081. cm [2] A.A.Batishcheva et al., Physics of Plasmas 3 (1996) 1634. cm ^*Under U.S. DoE Contracts No.DE-FG02-91-ER-54109 at MIT, DE-FG02-88-ER-53263 at Lodestar, and DE-FG03-95ER54301 at UCSD.

  9. An Overview of Recent PISCES Program PMI Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tynan, George; Doerner, Russell; Abe, Shota; Baldwin, Matthew; Barton, Joseph; Chen, Renkun; Gosselin, Jordan; Hollmann, Eric; Nishijima, Daisuke; Simmonds, Michael; Wang, Yong; Yu, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    The PISCES Program is focused on fundamental PMI studies of Be and W-based solid plasma facing components under steady-state and transient conditions. We will show results from studies in W, Be and mixed W-Be material systems. Topics of investigation include formation of near-surface nanobubbles from He plasma ion implantation, growth of W-fuzz from these bubbles in steady-state and transient conditions, D retention in Be and W and development of a D-retention model for both H/D isotope exchange and displacement damage experiments. Initial studies of PMI in displacement damaged W are also presented, showing the effect of damage and exposure temperature on D retention, D diffusion, W thermal conductivity. Be-based results include morphology evolution under high plasma flux exposure, Be erosion mechanisms, and retention in Be-based materials. Future plans and connections to fusion energy system requirements will be discussed. This work supported by grant DE-FG02-07ER54912.

  10. PISCES field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 21 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report is one of a series sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in the area of trace substance emissions from fossil-fuel power plants. This report presents the results of a sampling and analytical study to characterize trace substances emissions at Site 21. Site 21 is a pilot-scale electrostatic precipitator and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The flue gas for the pilot unit is provided by an adjacent power plant boiler which bums a medium-sulfur bituminous, coal. The primary objective in the Site 21 sampling and analytical program was to quantify the various components of variance in the measurement of trace chemical species. In addition to the replicate sample trains typically conducted at previous PISCES field measurements, duplicate analyses and duplicate (simultaneous) sample trains were also conducted. This enabled the variance due to sampling, analytical, and process conditions to be estimated. The objective of this report is to transmit the detailed data to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the Agency in evaluating utility trace chemical emissions as well as the associated health risk impacts - as mandated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This report does not attempt to compare the results with other sites. An assessment of data from all plants that have been tested is presented in the Electric Utility Trace Substances Synthesis Report.

  11. KINEMATIC DISCOVERY OF A STELLAR STREAM LOCATED IN PISCES

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Charles; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Grillmair, Carl

    2013-03-10

    We report the kinematic discovery of the Pisces Stellar Stream (PSS), at Galactic longitude l Almost-Equal-To 135 Degree-Sign and -39 Degree-Sign < b < -36 Degree-Sign . We originally identified this halo substructure from velocities of red giant branch stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8, and confirmed its presence in turnoff stars from SDSS photometric data. The PSS is a narrow, kinematically cold tidal stream, with {sigma}{sub v,0} Almost-Equal-To 8 km s{sup -1}. Its metallicity is [Fe/H] Almost-Equal-To -2.2, with {approx}0.3 dex dispersion. The color-magnitude signature of the stream turnoff, combined with our measured metallicity, places the PSS at a distance of 35 {+-} 3 kpc. The PSS is the same as the previously announced ''Triangulum stream'' and part of the proposed ''stream a''. We rule out an association of the PSS with other previously known Milky Way substructures in the same region of the sky.

  12. Trophic ecomorphology of Siluriformes (Pisces, Osteichthyes) from a tropical stream.

    PubMed

    Pagotto, J P A; Goulart, E; Oliveira, E F; Yamamura, C B

    2011-05-01

    The present study analysed the relationship between morphology and trophic structure of Siluriformes (Pisces, Osteichthyes) from the Caracu Stream (22º 45' S and 53º 15' W), a tributary of the Paraná River (Brazil). Sampling was carried out at three sites using electrofishing, and two species of Loricariidae and four of Heptapteridae were obtained. A cluster analysis revealed the presence of three trophic guilds (detritivores, insectivores and omnivores). Principal components analysis demonstrated the segregation of two ecomorphotypes: at one extreme there were the detritivores (Loricariidae) with morphological structures that are fundamental in allowing them to fix themselves to substrates characterised by rushing torrents, thus permitting them to graze on the detritus and organic materials encrusted on the substrate; at the other extreme of the gradient there were the insectivores and omnivores (Heptapteridae), with morphological characteristics that promote superior performance in the exploitation of structurally complex habitats with low current velocity, colonised by insects and plants. Canonical discriminant analysis revealed an ecomorphological divergence between insectivores, which have morphological structures that permit them to capture prey in small spaces among rocks, and omnivores, which have a more compressed body and tend to explore food items deposited in marginal backwater zones. Mantel tests showed that trophic structure was significantly related to the body shape of a species, independently of the phylogenetic history, indicating that, in this case, there was an ecomorphotype for each trophic guild. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that the Siluriformes of the Caracu Stream were ecomorphologically structured and that morphology can be applied as an additional tool in predicting the trophic structure of this group.

  13. Spectroscopic studies of carbon impurities in PISCES-A

    SciTech Connect

    Ra, Y.; Hirooka, Y.; Leung, W.K.; Conn, R.W. . Inst. of Plasma and Fusion Research); Pospieszczyk, A. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik)

    1989-08-01

    The graphite used for the limiter of the tokamak reactor produces carbon-containing molecular impurities as a result of the interactions with the edge plasma. The behavior of these molecular impurities has been studied using emission spectroscopy. The present study includes: finding molecular bands and atomic lines in the visible spectral range which can be used for the study of the molecular impurities, studying the breakup processes of the molecular impurities on their way from the source into the plasma, developing a spectroscopic diagnostic method for the absolute measurement of the molecular impurity flux resulting from graphite erosion. For these studies, carbon-containing molecules such as CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} were injected into the tokamak-boundary,like plasma generated by PISCES-A. The spectrograms of these gases were taken. Many useful bands and lines were determined from the spectrograms. The breakup processes of these gases were studied by observing the spatial profiles of the emission of the molecules and their radicals for different plasma conditions. For the absolute measurement of the eroded molecular impurity flux, the photon efficiency of the lines and bands were found by measuring the absolute number of the emitted photons and injected gas molecules. The chemical sputtering yield of graphite by hydrogen plasma was spectroscopically measured using the previously obtained photon efficiencies. It showed good agreement with results obtained by weight loss measurements. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. PISCES High Contrast Integral Field Spectrograph Simulations and Data Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llop Sayson, Jorge Domingo; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; McElwain, Michael W.; Gong, Qian; Perrin, Marshall; Brandt, Timothy; Grammer, Bryan; Greeley, Bradford; Hilton, George; Marx, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The PISCES (Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies) is a lenslet array based integral field spectrograph (IFS) designed to advance the technology readiness of the WFIRST (Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope)-AFTA (Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets) high contrast Coronagraph Instrument. We present the end to end optical simulator and plans for the data reduction pipeline (DRP). The optical simulator was created with a combination of the IDL (Interactive Data Language)-based PROPER (optical propagation) library and Zemax (a MatLab script), while the data reduction pipeline is a modified version of the Gemini Planet Imager's (GPI) IDL pipeline. The simulations of the propagation of light through the instrument are based on Fourier transform algorithms. The DRP enables transformation of the PISCES IFS data to calibrated spectral data cubes.

  15. PISCES High Contrast Integral Field Spectrograph Simulations and Data Reduction Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llop Sayson, Jorge Domingo; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; McElwain, Michael W.; Gong, Qian; Perrin, Marshall; Brandt, Timothy; Grammer, Bryan; Greeley, Bradford; Hilton, George; Marx, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The PISCES (Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies) is a lenslet array based integral field spectrograph (IFS) designed to advance the technology readiness of the WFIRST (Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope)-AFTA (Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets) high contrast Coronagraph Instrument. We present the end to end optical simulator and plans for the data reduction pipeline (DRP). The optical simulator was created with a combination of the IDL (Interactive Data Language)-based PROPER (optical propagation) library and Zemax (a MatLab script), while the data reduction pipeline is a modified version of the Gemini Planet Imager's (GPI) IDL pipeline. The simulations of the propagation of light through the instrument are based on Fourier transform algorithms. The DRP enables transformation of the PISCES IFS data to calibrated spectral data cubes.

  16. Loose groups of galaxies in the Perseus-Pisces survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasarti-Battistoni, R.

    1998-06-01

    We present a large catalog of loose groups of galaxies in the Southern Galactic Hemisphere, selected from the Perseus-Pisces redshift Survey (PPS). Particular care is taken in order to obtain group samples as homogeneous as possible to previously published catalogs. All our catalogs contain about 200 groups, significantly more than in most previous studies where group samples were obtained from galaxy data sets of comparable quality to (but smaller extent than) PPS. Groups are identified with the adaptive Friends-Of-Friends (FOF) algorithm of \\cite[Huchra & Geller (1982),]{HG82} with suitable normalizations D_0=0.231 \\ h(-1) Mpc and V_0=350 \\ km \\ s(-1) at cz_0=1000 \\ km \\ s(-1) . The luminosity function (LF) normalization phi_ *=0.02 \\ h(3) \\ Mpc(-3) appropriate for PPS yields a number density threshold delta n/n ~ 180 for the adopted D_0, instead of delta n/n ~ 80 used in previous studies of other samples. However, the customary choice of D_0 obtained (through the LF) from a fixed mass overdensity delta rho / rho =80, well motivated in theory, suffers from important observational uncertainties and sample-to-sample variations of the LF normalization, and from major uncertainties in the relation between galaxy density n and mass density rho . We discuss how to self-consistently match FOF parameters among different galaxy samples. We then separately vary several FOF and sample parameters, and discuss their effect on group properties. Loose groups in PPS nicely trace the large scale structure (LSS) in the parent galaxy sample. The group properties vary little with different redshift corrections, redshift cut-off, and galaxy LF, but are rather sensitive to the adopted links D_0 and V_0. More precisely, the typical group size (velocity dispersion) is linearly related to the adopted distance (velocity) link, while it is rather insensitive to the adopted velocity (distance) link. Physical properties of groups in PPS and in directly comparable samples show good

  17. The PISCES Project: How Teacher-Scientist Partners can Enhance Elementary Science Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, C.; Oechel, W.

    2003-12-01

    The PISCES Project (Partnerships Involving the Scientific Community in Elementary Schools www.sdsa.org/pisces) is an innovative program that brings high quality standards-based elementary science curriculum and hands-on laboratory materials into San Diego County's classrooms. The project is funded by the NSF Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12) program. The project was designed and is administered through cooperation among faculty at San Diego State University and the Science Department of the San Diego County Office of Education. Undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in science programs in San Diego area universities including San Diego State University, California State University San Marcos, and University of California San Diego partner with elementary school teachers. Through this partnership, the scientist brings scientific expertise to the classroom while the teacher delivers the lesson using current pedagogic methods. This is accomplished during a 3 month partnership in which the scientist joins the teacher in the classroom a few days each week to complete professional kit-based curriculum such as that available from FOSS (Full Option Science System) and STC (Science and Technology for Children). The teachers remain in the program for two years during which they have continuous access to the kit-based curriculum as well as two to three partnership cycles. Teachers receive assistance outside of the classroom as well attending professional development institutes three times a year to establish and maintain effective science teaching methods. The San Diego Science Alliance and other community and industry supporters provide the additionalfunding necessary to provide this teacher professional development Currenty, PISCES is present in over 40 schools and is able to provide partnerships to over 100 classrooms each year. In addition to the work done in San Diego, the project has expanded to Barrow, Alaska with plans to expand to La Paz

  18. Feeding habits of the bluemouth, Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus (Delaroche, 1809) (Pisces: Sebastidae) in the Portuguese coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Ana; Sequeira, Vera; Paiva, Rafaela Barros; Vieira, Ana Rita; Gordo, Leonel Serrano

    2012-06-01

    In order to investigate the feeding habits of Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus along the continental Portuguese coast, a total of 619 individuals were sampled of which 60% contained food in their stomach and 35% had more than one prey item. Among the 81 prey items that were identified in the stomachs, benthic and benthopelagic prey prevail on this species diet. Acantephyra sp, Pasiphaea sp, mysidacea, and teleostei n.i. were the prey with the higher percent index of relative importance (%IRI) value. Three length groups (5-20 cm, 21-27 cm, and 28-48 cm) were defined through cluster analysis of the mean abundance of prey items. A permutational MANOVA detected significant differences in the diet and stomach fullness index for TLG, season, and maturation stage. Smaller fishes had a generalized diet, feeding mainly on mysidacea changing their diet above 20 cm TL, where a major consumption of natantia was found. The larger individuals, >28 cm TL, present a less generalized diet with pisces as dominant prey group. Seasonally, natantia and pisces were the principal prey groups during spring and winter, respectively, while mysidacea and other crustaceans were predominant during the rest of the year. Mysidacea were also the main prey group for immature individuals while natantia and pisces were the principal prey groups to the other maturity stages. The results of this study indicate that H. d. dactylopterus has a diverse diet focused on small crustaceans such as misyds and as specimens grow shrimps and fishes become more consumed, with larger specimens having a more specialized diet. The different nutritional needs during spawning season also seemed to influence the feeding habits of H. d. dactylopterus.

  19. Synonymous codon usage pattern in mitochondrial CYB gene in pisces, aves, and mammals.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Arif; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2017-03-01

    Cytochrome b (CYB) protein plays an important role in complex III of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Codon usage is the phenomenon of non-uniform usage of synonymous codons. In the present study, we report the pattern of codon usage in MT-CYB gene using various codon usage parameters. Nucleotide composition such as % of C and T was higher than A and G in pisces. In aves, % of A and C was higher than T and G but in mammals, A and T was higher than C and G. Heat map shows that AT-ending codons were mostly negative and GC-ending codons were mostly positive. From the heat map based on RSCU values, it is evident that codon usage prefers A/C at the third codon position and it was less towards T/G in its third codon position. The codons absent in pisces were AGT (except Toxotes chatareus), TGT, and CAG (except Elasma zonatum). The codons such as AGT (except Falco peregrinus), CGT (except Vidua chalybeata), and ACG (except Aythya americana) were absent in aves whereas, in mammals, the absent codons were namely CAG (except Canis familiaris) and ACG (except Rattus norvegicus). Codon usage bias was low in pisces, aves, and mammals. The frequency of leucine was the highest in the amino acid and cysteine was the lowest. Correlation analysis further suggests that mutation pressure is mainly responsible for codon usage pattern. Natural selection might also play a vital role in codon usage pattern but it was weaker than mutation pressure.

  20. PiSCES: Pi(scine) stream community estimation software: A tool for nationwide fish assemblage predictions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods What species of fish might someone find in a local stream? How might that community change as a result of changes to characteristics of the stream and its watershed? PiSCES is a browser-based toolkit developed to predict a fish community for any NHD-Pl...

  1. Statistically based reevaluation of PISC-II round robin test data

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, P.G.; Taylor, T.T.; Doctor, S.R. )

    1993-05-01

    This report presents a re-analysis of an international PISC-II (Programme for Inspection of Steel Components, Phase 2) round-robin inspection results using formal statistical techniques to account for experimental error. The analysis examines US team performance vs. other participants performance,flaw sizing performance and errors associated with flaw sizing, factors influencing flaw detection probability, performance of all participants with respect to recently adopted ASME Section 11 flaw detection performance demonstration requirements, and develops conclusions concerning ultrasonic inspection capability. Inspection data were gathered on four heavy section steel components which included two plates and two nozzle configurations.

  2. Multiscale modeling of BeD release and transport in PISCES-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björkas, C.; Borodin, D.; Kirschner, A.; Janev, R. K.; Nishijima, D.; Doerner, R.; Nordlund, K.

    2013-07-01

    Observation of BeD sputtering in several different fusion plasma devices demonstrates the need to include these molecules into predictive modeling codes. In this work, Molecular Dynamics simulations are used to obtain information about sputtered BeD molecules and the results are implemented into the plasma impurity modeling code ERO. Rates for dissociation and ionization of BeD molecules in the plasma are also estimated. The modeling results are compared with PISCES-B experimental spectroscopic observations, validating the used models as a good agreement on the shape of the light emission profiles is found. The amount of released BeD is, however, somewhat overestimated.

  3. H I observations of two new dwarf galaxies: Pisces A and B with the SKA Pathfinder KAT-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carignan, C.; Libert, Y.; Lucero, D. M.; Randriamampandry, T. H.; Jarrett, T. H.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Tollerud, E. J.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Pisces A and Pisces B are the only two galaxies found via optical imaging and spectroscopy out of 22 Hi clouds identified in the GALFAHI survey as dwarf galaxy candidates. Aims: We derive the Hi content and kinematics of Pisces A and B. Methods: Our aperture synthesis Hi observations used the seven-dish Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7), which is a pathfinder instrument for MeerKAT, the South African precursor to the mid-frequency Square Kilometre Array (SKA-MID). Results: The low rotation velocities of ~5 km s-1 and ~10 km s-1 in Pisces A and B, respectively, and their Hi content show that they are really dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrr). Despite that small rotation component, it is more the random motions ~9-11 km s-1 that provide most of the gravitational support, especially in the outer parts. The study of their kinematics, especially the strong gradients of random motions, suggest that those two dwarf galaxies are not yet in equilibrium. Conclusions: These Hi- rich galaxies may be indicative of a large population of dwarfs at the limit of detectability. However, such gas-rich dwarf galaxies will most likely never be within the virial radius of MW-type galaxies and become subhalo candidates. Systems such as Pisces A and B are more likely to be found at a few Mpc s from MW-type galaxies. The final FITS cube is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/L3

  4. Comparative morphometric study of the vestibular system of the vertebrata: reptilia, aves, amphibia, and pisces.

    PubMed

    Ramprashad, F; Landolt, J P; Money, K E; Laufer, J

    1986-01-01

    Morphometric measurements were made from serial sections of the vestibular system in four classes of vertebrates: Reptilia, Aves, Amphibia, and Pisces. Representative species of reptile studied were the lizard (Gekko gecko), the common garter snake (Thamnophis sp.), and the common turtle (Chelonia sp.). The budgie (Melopsittacus undulatas), the common pigeon (Columba domestica), the yellow-bellied sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius), and the horned owl (Bubo virginianus) were chosen as representative of the bird. For the amphibian, the leopard frog (Rana pipiens), and the mud puppy (Necturus maculatus) were chosen for study. As representative of the fish, the goldfish (Carassius auratus), the tilapia (Tilapia mossambica), the guppy (Lebistes sp.), and the sea horse (Hippocampus sp.) were used in these measurements. The morphometric data obtained were then used in estimates of the time constants in the Steinhausen equation which describes the biophysics of fluid flow in the semicircular canals. In general, the time constants (theta/II in the Steinhausen equation) of these representatives of Reptilia, Aves, and Amphibia were of magnitude similar to those reported in mammals, despite the dissimilarities in the diameters of the ducts, the duct radii of curvature, the dimensions of the cristae ampullares and the utricle, and volumes of endolymph within the vestibular system. However, the short-time constants in Pisces were larger (therefore providing a slower response) than those in other vertebrates, and were similar to that of the turtle and the mud puppy.

  5. Target Selection for the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, David W.; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Jones, Michael; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS) is a new large targeted HI survey now underway using Arecibo's L-band Wide receiver system. A major goal is to constrain models of the Pisces Perseus infall, producing 5-σ detections of infall motions ˜500 km s-1. We are targeting sources that are likely to be at the PPS distance, but that are just below the the HI mass detection threshold of the ALFALFA survey. We expect to identify ˜800 objects of mass ˜108—9 M⊙ which will alllow us to constrain the lower mass end of the HI mass function in this infall environment.We have pursued a multi-pronged approach to target selection for this survey. Sources from ALFALFA, SDSS, and the GALEX GCAT single source catalogs were matched and intercompared via multi-band color photometry, surface brightnesses, and appearance in SDSS images. Final target selection based on visual inspection of SDSS images was found to correlate well with a color-selection technique based on GALEX/NUV - SDSS/r. Along with the details of the source selection we will discuss the facilitation and implementation of this process via a multi-institution collaborative website, and early results from the APSS survey.This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  6. Initial HI results from the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, David W.; Davis, Cory; Johnson, Cory; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Jones, Michael G.; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    The Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey is a targeted HI survey of galaxies that began its second observing season in October 2016. The survey is conducted by members of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT) and extensively involves undergraduates in observations, data reduction, and analysis. It aims to complement the HI sources identified by the ALFALFA extragalactic HI line survey by probing deeper in HI mass (to lower masses) than the legacy survey itself. Measurements of the HI line velocity widths will be combined with uniform processing of images obtained in the SDSS and GALEX public databases to localize the sample within the baryonic Tully Fisher relation, allowing estimates of their redshift-independent distances and thus their peculiar velocities.The survey is designed to constrain Pisces-Perseus Supercluster infall models by producing 5-σ detections of infall velocities to a precision of about 500 km/s. By targeting galaxies based on SDSS and GALEX photometry, we have achieved detection rates of 68% of the galaxies in our sample. We will discuss the target selection process, HI velocities and mass estimates from the 2015 fall observing season, preliminary results from 2016 observations, and preliminary comparisons with inflow models predicted by numerical simulations.This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-1211005, AST-1637339, AST-1637262.

  7. Implication of the visual system in the regulation of activity cycles in the absence of solar light: 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding sites and melatonin receptor gene expression in the brains of demersal deep-sea gadiform fish

    PubMed Central

    Priede, I. G.; Williams, L. M.; Wagner, H.-J.; Thom, A.; Brierley, I.; Collins, M. A.; Collin, S. P.; Merrett, N. R.; Yau, C.

    1999-01-01

    Relative eye size, gross brain morphology and central localization of 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding sites and melatonin receptor gene expression were compared in six gadiform fish living at different depths in the north-east Atlantic Ocean: Phycis blennoides (capture depth range 265 to 1260 m), Nezumia aequalis (445 to 1512 m), Coryphaenoides rupestris (706 to 1932 m), Trachyrincus murrayi (1010 to 1884 m), Coryphaenoides guentheri (1030 m) and Coryphaenoides (Nematonurus) armatus (2172 to 4787 m). Amongst these, the eye size range was 0.15 to 0.35 of head length with a value of 0.19 for C. (N.) armatus, the deepest species. Brain morphology reflected behavioural differences with well-developed olfactory regions in P. blennoides, T. murrayi and C. (N.) armatus and evidence of olfactory deficit in N. aequalis, C. rupestris and C. guentheri. All species had a clearly defined optic tectum with 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding and melatonin receptor gene expression localized to specific brain regions in a similar pattern to that found in shallow-water fish. Melatonin receptors were found throughout the visual structures of the brains of all species. Despite living beyond the depth of penetration of solar light these fish have retained central features associated with the coupling of cycles of growth, behaviour and reproduction to the diel light–dark cycle. How this functions in the deep sea remains enigmatic.

  8. Simulation of Be-C interaction dynamics in mixed Be/C layers formed in experiments at PISCES-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodin, D.; Doerner, R.; Nishijima, D.; Kirschner, A.; Kreter, A.; Matveev, D.; Galonska, A.; Philipps, V.

    2011-08-01

    The mitigation of carbon chemical erosion observed in PISCES-B due to the presence of a minor beryllium concentration in plasma can be determined to a large extent by formation of carbide (Be2C) on the plasma-facing surface. To study this, dedicated beryllium seeding experiments in the linear plasma simulator PISCES-B have been simulated using the Monte-Carlo code ERO. The spectroscopy is used to benchmark the simulations against observations. A temporal dependent evolution of the beryllium carbide formation on the carbon surface of the target is introduced on the basis of characteristic time scales. The influence of carbide formation on the effective mitigation time for chemical erosion is investigated.

  9. Acanthocephalus tumescens (Acanthocephala, Echinorhynchidae) in Galaxias maculatus (Pisces, Galaxiidae) of Lake Gutiérrez, Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Trejo, A; Semenas, L; Viozzi, G

    2000-02-01

    The seasonal distribution of Acanthocephalus tumescens (Acanthocephala : Echinorhynchidae) among Galaxias maculatus (Pisces : Galaxiidae) in Lake Gutiérrez was studied from March 1994 to June 1996. Acanthocephalus tumescens always occurs in the intestine, has an overdispersed frequency distribution, a similar proportion of sexes, and females are larger than males. Mean intensity and prevalence are low and increase with host length. The pattern of the infection shows seasonality, with recruitment in winter and a reproductive period during spring-summer.

  10. An Extended View of the Pisces Overdensity from the SCUSS Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, J. D.; Smith, M. C.; Belokurov, V.; Fan, X. H.; Fan, Z.; Irwin, M. J.; Jiang, Z. J.; Jing, Y. P.; Koposov, S. E.; Lesser, M.; Ma, J.; Shen, S. Y.; Wang, J. L.; Wu, Z. Y.; Zhang, T. M.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, Z. M.; Zou, H.

    2015-09-01

    The South Galactic Cap u-band Sky Survey (SCUSS) is a u-band photometric survey covering about 4000 square degrees of the South Galactic Cap, reaching depths of up to 23 mag. By extending around 1.5 mag deeper than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) single-epoch u data, SCUSS is able to probe a much larger volume of the outer halo, i.e., with SCUSS data blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars can trace the outer halo of the Milky Way as far as 100-150 kpc. Utilizing this advantage we combine the SCUSS u-band with the SDSS DR9 gri photometric bands to identify BHB stars and explore halo substructures. We confirm the existence of the Pisces overdensity, which is a structure in the outer halo (at around 80 kpc) that was discovered using RR Lyrae stars. For the first time we are able to determine its spatial extent, finding that it appears to be part of a stream with a clear distance gradient. The stream, which is ˜5° wide and stretches along ˜25°, consists of 20-30 BHBs with a total significance of around 6σ over the background. Assuming we have detected the entire stream and that the progenitor has fully disrupted, then the number of BHBs suggests that the original system was similar to a smaller classical or a larger ultra-faint dwarf galaxy. On the other hand, if the progenitor still exists, it can be hunted for by reconstructing its orbit from the distance gradient of the stream. This new picture of the Pisces overdensity sheds new light on the origin of this intriguing system.

  11. The Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Survey: An Undergraduate ALFALFA Team Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Jones, Michael; Craig, David; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Venkatesan, Aparna; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The Milky Way's position in an outer filament of Lanieakea affords us a striking view of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster (PPS) arcing roughly from 22h to 4h and 0° to +50° concentrated between cz = 4,000 km/s and cz = 8,000 km/s as a "wall" parallel to the plane of the sky. It is bounded by voids both between Laniakea and PPS and beyond PPS. Within this box, the 70% ALFALFA survey has detected 4,800 galaxies within cz = 8,000 km/s. Of these, 80% have masses greater than 108 M⊙. At the distance of the PPS, galaxies with MHI ≤ 108 M⊙ are below the ALFALFA detection limit. Thus to further explore this rich diversity of galaxy environments and the adjoining voids, the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team is in the process of using the L-band Wide receiver at Arecibo Observatory for the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS). We will observe galaxies with 108 M⊙ ≤ MHI ≤ 109 M⊙ chosen from the SDSS DR12 and GALEX catalogs. We are limiting our observations to the PPS ridge in 21h 30m to 3h 15m and 23° to 35°. Since this region lacks SDSS spectroscopy, targets have been selected using photometric criteria derived from SDSS and GALEX observations for galaxies detected by ALFALFA. The results of these observations will allow us to constrain the HI mass function along the PPS ridge. Application of the Tully-Fisher relation will allow a robust measure of the infall velocities of galaxies into the filament. This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  12. Bothriocephalus gadellus n. sp. (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidae) from the beardless codling Gadella imberbis (Vaillant) (Moridae) in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, with a review of species of Bothriocephalus Rudolphi, 1808 reported from gadiform fishes.

    PubMed

    Blend, Charles K; Dronen, Norman O

    2003-01-01

    Bothriocephalus gadellus n. sp. is described from the intestine of the beardless codling Gadella imberbis (Gadiformes: Moridae) from the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. It resembles B. scorpii, the type-species of Bothriocephalus, and B. manubriformis, the only species of the genus reported from the Gulf of Mexico. B. gadellus n. sp. differs from both species in having four excretory canals on each side of the proglottid (three per side in B. scorpii; two per side anastomosing to form an extensive plexus throughout the medulla in B. manubriformis ), 24-33 testes per proglottid (30-60 in B. scorpii; 60-100 in B. manubriformis), a total length of 31-47 mm (32-950 mm in B. scorpii; 130-1,000 mm in B. manubriformis), and a seminal receptacle and wing-like expansions on each proglottid (absent in B. scorpii and B. manubriformis), as well as lacking two sets of reproductive organs per proglottid (present in B. scorpii) and a vagina with a bulbous sphincter near the opening (present in B. manubriformis). An amendment to the generic diagnosis of Bothriocephalus might be warranted if other species of this genus are found to possess a seminal receptacle. B. gadellus n. sp. appears to be like those species of Bothriocephalus that can utilise two intermediate hosts (copepod and fish). B. ellipticus and B. neglectus are designated as species inquirendae. This is the first report of a cestode from a morid fish in the Gulf of Mexico, and the first report of a parasite from a species of Gadellus.

  13. 21 cm survey of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. IV. Addenda to the declination zone 21. 5 deg to 33. 5 deg

    SciTech Connect

    Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M.P.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY )

    1989-03-01

    Using the 305-m Arecibo telescope, 21-cm line data on 472 disk galaxies in the Pisces-Perseus supercluster have been obtained. Data on galaxies smaller than 1 arcmin are presented for the declination strips covered in previous studies (Giovanelli and Haynes, 1985 and Giovanelli et al., 1986). Tables of the 21-cm line data for this region are presented. 10 references.

  14. Materials erosion and redeposition studies at the PISCES-facility: net erosion under redeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hirooka, Y.; Goebel, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Leung, W.K.; Campbell, G.A.

    1986-05-01

    Simultaneous erosion and redeposition of copper and 304 stainless steel under controlled and continuous plasma (D,He,Ar) bombardment has been investigated in the PISCES-facility, which generates typical edge-plasma conditions of magnetic fusion devices. The plasma bombardment conditions are: incident ion flux in the range from 10/sup 17/ to 10/sup 18/ ions/sec/cm/sup 2/, ion bombarding energy of 100 eV, electron temperature in the range from 5 to 15 eV, plasma density in the range from 10/sup 11/ to 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/, target temperature in the range from 300 to 900K, and the total ion fluence in the range from 10/sup 20/ to 10/sup 22/ ions/cm/sup 2/. The net erosion yield under redeposition is found to be significantly smaller than the classical sputtering yield data. A first-order modeling is attempted to interpret the erosion and redeposition behavior of materials under plasma bombardment. It is pointed out both theoretically and experimentally that the mean free path for electron impact ionization of the sputtered material is the key parameter to control the overall mechanism of erosion and redeposition. Strongly modified surface morphologies of bombarded targets are observed and indicate a retrapping effect.

  15. TWO LOCAL VOLUME DWARF GALAXIES DISCOVERED IN 21 cm EMISSION: PISCES A AND B

    SciTech Connect

    Tollerud, Erik J.; Geha, Marla C.; Grcevich, Jana; Putman, Mary E.; Stern, Daniel E-mail: marla.geha@yale.edu E-mail: mputman@astro.columbia.edu

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of two dwarf galaxies, Pisces A and B, from a blind 21 cm H I search. These were the only two galaxies found via optical imaging and spectroscopy of 22 H I clouds identified in the GALFA-H I survey as dwarf galaxy candidates. They have properties consistent with being in the Local Volume (<10 Mpc), and one has resolved stellar populations such that it may be on the outer edge of the Local Group (∼1 Mpc from M31). While the distance uncertainty makes interpretation ambiguous, these may be among the faintest star-forming galaxies known. Additionally, rough estimates comparing these galaxies to ΛCDM dark matter simulations suggest consistency in number density, implying that the dark matter halos likely to host these galaxies are primarily H I-rich. The galaxies may thus be indicative of a large population of dwarfs at the limit of detectability that are comparable to the faint satellites of the Local Group. Because they are outside the influence of a large dark matter halo to alter their evolution, these galaxies can provide critical anchors to dwarf galaxy formation models.

  16. Fuzz growth in the gaps of castellated W in PISCES-A: experiment and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, M. J.; Dejarnac, R.; Komm, M.; Doerner, R. P.

    2017-06-01

    A castellated W target with gaps of width 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm is exposed at 1120 K to He ions in the PISCES-A linear plasma device. The average ion impact energy was 70 eV and the accumulated ion fluence 3.6 × 1026 m-2 over the top surface, which is exposed normal to the plasma flow. A layer of W fuzz of 3.4 ± 0.4 μm thick developed on the top surface. In addition, fuzz morphology is found to develop on the side walls of the gaps. Particle in cell modeling of the plasma-target sheath using the SPICE2 code predicts the plasma penetration into the gaps. The He ion flux to gap side walls falls off quasi-exponentially with depth with a decay rate dependent on the gap width. When the variation in He ion wall fluence is used in conjunction with the fluence dependent growth expression of Petty et al (2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 093033), modeling correctly predicts the observed maximum depth of formation, and measured variation of layer thickness, for fuzz found on the gap walls.

  17. HI data reduction for the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Cory; Johnson, Cory; Craig, David W.; Haynes, Martha P.; Jones, Michael G.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    The Undergraduate ALFALFA team is currently focusing on the analysis of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster to test current supercluster formation models. The primary goal of our research is to reduce L-band HI data from the Arecibo telescope. To reduce the data we use IDL programs written by our collaborators to reduce the data and find potential sources whose mass can be estimated by the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, which relates the luminosity to the rotational velocity profile of spiral galaxies. Thus far we have reduced data and estimated HI masses for several galaxies in the supercluster region.We will give examples of data reduction and preliminary results for both the fall 2015 and 2016 observing seasons. We will also describe the data reduction process and the process of learning the associated software, and the use of virtual observatory tools such as the SDSS databases, Aladin, TOPCAT and others.This research was supported by the NSF grant AST-1211005.

  18. [Reproduction of the fish Gymnothorax equatorialis (Pisces: Muraenidae) in Jalisco and Colima, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Lucano-Ramírez, G; Ruiz-Ramírez, S; Rojo-Vázquez, J A; González-Sansón, G

    2008-03-01

    Reproduction of the fish Gymnothorax equatorialis (Pisces: Muraenidae) in Jalisco and Colima, Mexico. A total of 707 Gymnothorax equatorialis were collected monthly in the Jalisco and Colima coast, Mexico, from December 1995 to December 1998 and from August to November 1999, in order to determine their reproduction patterns. Females outnumbered and had longer bodies (mean length 54.7 cm) than males (52.1 cm). The minimum, maximum and mean values of total fecundity were respectively 9 660, 99 992 and 32 029 eggs. The total body length at which 50 percent of individuals have ripe gonads (L50) was 43.7 cm for females and 42.7 cm TL for males. Ovaries had two main types of oocytes: small inmature in cromatin nucleolus phase (85.1 microm) and large mature in secundary vitellogenesis phase (701.6 microm). High numbers of spermatozoa were observed in the seminal tubes of ripe testicles, which presented a lobular development. Based in gonad features and temporal changes in the gonad-somatic index, it is concluded that G. equatorialis has two relatively short reproduction periods (at the middle and at the end of the year).

  19. [Size composition and reproductive cycle of Pseudupeneus grandisquamis (Pisces: Mullidae) in the Central Mexican Pacific].

    PubMed

    Lucano-Ramírez, G; Ruiz-Ramírez, S; Rojo-Vázquez, J A

    2006-03-01

    Size composition and reproductive cycle of Pseudupeneus grandisquamis (Pisces: Mullidae) in the Central Mexican Pacific. From June 1995 to December 1998 we used shrimp trawl nets to capture 492 Pseudupeneus grandisquamis in soft-bottom grounds off the central Mexican Pacific (Jalisco and Colima). The ength-weight ratio indicates allometric growth (p = 0.0035L(3.46) y r2 = 0.97). The total sex ratio was 1:1.15 (females: males). Mean total length was 153.8 mm (range 77-236 mm). A progression in length was found: the highest means were observed at the end of 1996 and during 1997. The mean length of females (162 mm) was longer than in males (150 mm). Four gonadic maturity stages were observed in both sexes; in females the most frequently stage was stage IV (mature gonads, 48.6%), while in males it was stage III (gonads in maturation, 45.0%). Seven microscopic oocyte development stages were identified. Oocyte development seems to be asynchronous. The mature testicle showed sperm inside the lobular lumen and in the duct. The highest values of the gonadosomatic index, as well as the largest percentages of individuals with mature gonads (at macroscopic and microscopic levels), were observed during winter and summer, suggesting that this species has two reproduction peaks by year. The length at which 50% of the individuals show gonads in maturation (L50) was 183 mm for the females and 181 mm for the males.

  20. Testing of beryllium marker coatings in PISCES-B for the JET ITER-like wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widdowson, A.; Baldwin, M. J.; Coad, J. P.; Doerner, R. P.; Hanna, J.; Hole, D. E.; Matthews, G. F.; Rubel, M.; Seraydarian, R.; Xu, H.; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2009-06-01

    Beryllium has been chosen as the first wall material for ITER. In order to understand the issues of material migration and tritium retention associated with the use of beryllium, a largely beryllium first wall will be installed in JET. As part of the JET ITER-like wall, beryllium tiles with marker coatings are proposed as a diagnostic tool for studying the erosion and deposition of beryllium around the vessel. The nominal structure for these coatings is a ˜10 μm beryllium surface layer separated from the beryllium tile by a 2-3 μm metallic inter-layer. Two types of coatings are tested here; one with a nickel inter-layer and one with a copper/beryllium mixed inter-layer. The coating samples were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering at General Atomics and were exposed to deuterium plasma in PISCES-B. The results of this testing show that the beryllium/nickel marker coating would be suitable for installation in JET.

  1. Helminth parasites of Girardinichthys multiradiatus (Pisces: Goodeidae) in the upper Lerma River sub-basin, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Nava, Petra; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Soto-Galera, Eduardo; Cruz, Blanca Jaimes

    2004-08-01

    Thirteen helminth species were recorded during a helminthological examination of 754 Girardinichthys multiradiatus (Meek) (Pisces: Goodeidae) collected from 20 localities in the upper Lerma River sub-basin on the highland plateau of Mexico. The study constitutes a complete and extensive inventory of the helminth parasites of this freshwater fish species across its entire current geographic distribution. The collected species included one adult trematode, three metacercariae, one monogenean, one adult cestode, three metacestodes, three nematode larvae and one cystacanth. The records of the metacercariae of Tylodelphys sp. and Ochetosoma brevicaecum, the larvae of the nematodes Contracaecum sp. and Falcaustra sp. and the cystacanth of Polymorphus brevis are all new records for G. multiradiatus. The metacercariae of Tylodelphys sp. were the most widespread and prevalent species in the sample, being collected from 15 of the 20 sampling localities, with a prevalence of 3.2-72.2%. The data indicate the helminth parasite community of G. multiradiatus to be relatively poor when compared with the helminth communities of freshwater fish from other parts of Mexico. This community is subject to colonization by generalist helminth species, mostly transported by birds. A further component of this community consists of helminth species that have been introduced anthropogenically.

  2. Mixed Material Plasma-Surface Interactions in ITER: Recent Results from the PISCES Group

    SciTech Connect

    Tynan, George R.; Baldwin, Matthew; Doerner, Russell; Hollmann, Eric; Nishijima, Daisuke; Umstadter, Karl; Yu, Jonathan

    2010-05-20

    This paper summarizes recent PISCES studies focused on the effects associated with mixed species plasmas that are similar in composition to what one might expect in ITER. Formation of nanometer scale whiskerlike features occurs in W surfaces exposed to pure He and mixed D/He plasmas and appears to be associated with the formation of He nanometer-scaled bubbles in the W surface. Studies of Be-W alloy formation in Be-seeded D plasmas suggest that this process may be important in ITER all metal wall operational scenarios. Studies also suggest that BeD formation via chemical sputtering of Be walls may be an important first wall erosion mechanism. D retention in ITER mixed materials has also been studied. The D release behavior from beryllium co-deposits does not appear to be a diffusion dominated process, but instead is consistent with thermal release from a number of variable trapping energy sites. As a result, the amount of tritium remaining in codeposits in ITER after baking will be determined by the maximum temperature achieved, rather than by the duration of the baking cycle.

  3. DISCOVERY OF AN ULTRA-DIFFUSE GALAXY IN THE PISCES-PERSEUS SUPERCLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Delgado, David; Grebel, Eva K.; Läsker, Ronald; Sharina, Margarita; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Toloba, Elisa; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Fliri, Jürgen; Valls-Gabaud, David; Chonis, Taylor S.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Gallego-Laborda, J.; Teuwen, Karel; Gómez-Flechoso, M. A.; and others

    2016-04-15

    We report the discovery of DGSAT I, an ultra-diffuse, quenched galaxy located 10.°4 in projection from the Andromeda galaxy (M31). This low-surface brightness galaxy (μ{sub V} = 24.8 mag arcsec{sup −2}), found with a small amateur telescope, appears unresolved in sub-arcsecond archival Subaru/Suprime-Cam images, and hence has been missed by optical surveys relying on resolved star counts, in spite of its relatively large effective radius (R{sub e}(V) = 12″) and proximity (15′) to the well-known dwarf spheroidal galaxy And II. Its red color (V − I = 1.0), shallow Sérsic index (n{sub V} = 0.68), and the absence of detectable Hα emission are typical properties of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and suggest that it is mainly composed of old stars. Initially interpreted as an interesting case of an isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the local universe, our radial velocity measurement obtained with the BTA 6 m telescope (V{sub h} = 5450 ± 40 km s{sup −1}) shows that this system is an M31-background galaxy associated with the filament of the Pisces-Perseus supercluster. At the distance of this cluster (∼78 Mpc), DGSAT I would have an R{sub e} ∼ 4.7 kpc and M{sub V} ∼ −16.3. Its properties resemble those of the ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) recently discovered in the Coma cluster. DGSAT I is the first case of these rare UDGs found in this galaxy cluster. Unlike the UDGs associated with the Coma and Virgo clusters, DGSAT I is found in a much lower density environment, which provides a fresh constraint on the formation mechanisms for this intriguing class of galaxy.

  4. Deuterium retention in tungsten after heavy ion damage and hydrogen isotope exchange in PISCES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, J. L.; Wang, Y. Q.; Dittmar, T.; Doerner, R. P.; Tynan, G. R.

    2014-08-01

    The effect of H isotope exchange and radiation damage on the retention of D in W was examined in the PISCES linear plasma device. W samples were treated with D plasma at low sample temperatures (473 K), with a fluence of 1026 ions/m2 and ion energies of 150 eV. Each sample was then exposed to varying doses of H plasma with similar sample temperature and plasma conditions to fluences ranging from 0 to 1026 ions/m2, to examine the effectiveness of isotope exchange as a means of tritium removal. The D(3He, p)4He nuclear reaction was used to measure D concentration profiles up to a depth of 7.7 μm. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) was used to determine the D retained throughout the bulk of the sample. Isotope exchange allows for a unique study of atomic migration by separately examining the diffusion of implanted atoms from those bombarding the surface. D atoms are exchanged out of traps as a result of H plasma bombardment and diffuse until either falling into another trap or reaching the surface to recombine and escape. Radiation damage at levels of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 displacements per atom (dpa) was carried out before plasma exposure on some samples with 2 MeV Cu ions as a surrogate for damage caused by fusion neutrons. The Cu ion damage was compared to damage induced by 6 MeV W ions to see if there is an effect of Cu contamination on retention. We saw little difference in Cu versus W ion damage at low dpa, but at 1 dpa, where Cu content reached 65 appm, contamination seems to be significant. Retention measurements showed that ion damage has little effectiveness on isotope removal at these sample temperatures; however, there is evidence to suggest that the trapping mechanisms in W change as damage is increased.

  5. PISCES field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 125 emissions report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report describes the results of a project to measure certain chemical emissions at the coal-fired electricity generating plant known as EPRI PISCES Site 125. The three units of Site 125 are fired with an Eastern bituminous coal. Unit 1 was the subject of this investigation; like the other two units, Unit 1 operates with a boiler of the cyclone type, and it controls emissions with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Units 1 and 2 also operate with limestone-fed venturi wet scrubbers to control sulfur dioxide emissions. The scrubbers associated with Units 1 and 2 employ forced oxidation to convert calcium sulfite to gypsum. The emission measurements were concerned with the following components of the flue gas: trace metals and acid gases. Water and various solids in process streams (coal, bottom ash, ESP-collected ash, limestone, and scrubber discharge) were also sampled and analyzed for trace metals and the nonmetals that produce the acid gases. Analyses of flue gas streams at the inlet of the ESP and the stack indicate that most of the trace metals are controlled at least to the same degree as the total particulate matter -- about 95%. Two trace metals not controlled to this degree occur to a significant degree in the vapor state; these elements are Hg and Se. A substantial fraction of nearly every metal is discharged with the bottom ash or slag, which represents roughly 70% of the mass of ash in the coal. Again, Hg and Se are exceptions. The acid gases HF, HCl, and SO{sub 2} are effectively removed in the scrubber. A fourth acid gas considered, phosphoric acid, is controlled by virtue of its capture in the bottom ash and fly ash.

  6. Star formation in galaxies along the Pisces-Cetus Supercluster filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Scott C.; Raychaudhury, Somak

    2007-03-01

    We investigate the variation of current star formation in galaxies as a function of distance along three supercluster filaments, each joining pairs of rich clusters, in the Pisces-Cetus supercluster, which is part of the two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS). We find that even though there is a steady decline in the rate of star formation, as well as in the fraction of star-forming galaxies, as one approaches the core of a cluster at an extremity of such a filament, there is an increased activity of star formation in a narrow distance range between 3 and 4h-170 Mpc, which is 1.5-2 times the virial radius of the clusters involved. This peak in star formation is seen to be entirely due to the dwarf galaxies (-20 < MB <= -17.5). The position of the peak does not seem to depend on the velocity dispersion of the nearest cluster, undermining the importance of the gravitational effect of the clusters involved. We find that this enhancement in star formation occurs at the same place for galaxies which belong to groups within these filaments, while group members elsewhere in the 2dFGRS do not show this effect. We conclude that the most likely mechanism for this enhanced star formation is galaxy-galaxy harassment, in the crowded infalling region of rich clusters at the extremities of filaments, which induces a burst of star formation in galaxies, before they have been stripped of their gas in the denser cores of clusters. The effects of strangulation in the cores of clusters, as well as excess star formation in the infalling regions along the filaments, are more pronounced in dwarfs since they more vulnerable to the effects of strangulation and harassment than giant galaxies.

  7. A new plasma-surface interactions research facility: PISCES-B and first materials erosion experiments on boronized graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.; Sketchley, T.; Leung, W.K.; Doerner, R.; Elverum, J.; Gunner, G.; Khandagle, M.; Lehmer, R.; Luong, P.; Ra, Y.; Schmitz, L.; Tynan, G.

    1989-08-01

    A new plasma-surface interactions research facility: PISCES-B has been designed and constructed at University of California, Los Angeles. The entire vacuum chamber is bakable and a base pressure of the order of 10{sup {minus}8} Torr is attainable using two turbo molecular pumps with a total pumping speed of 6000 l/s. The PISCES-B facility can generate continuous plasmas of argon, helium, hydrogen, deuterium and nitrogen. The density of these plasmas ranges from 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} to 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}13} cm{sup {minus}3} and the electron temperature ranges from 3 to 51 eV. The plasma bombardment flux to a target surface inserted in the plasma column can be varied from 1 {times} 10{sup 17} to 8 {times} 10{sup 18} ions cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. Due to the high pumping speed, the neutral pressure of the working gas during plasma generation is controllable in the wide range from 3 {times} 10{sup -5} to 1 {times} 10{sup -3} Torr. These conditions are similar to those seen at the limiter and divertor areas in toroidal fusion devices. Using the PISCES-B facility, first materials erosion experiments have been conducted on 3% boronized graphites and iso-graphites as the reference materials. The chemical sputtering yield due to hydrogen plasma bombardment at 300 eV for 3% boronized graphite has been found to be about 30% smaller than that for iso-graphites at temperatures from room temperature to 900{degree}C. Also, radiation enhanced sublimation due to hydrogen plasma bombardment at 400 eV is found to be suppressed by 20-30% for 3% boronized graphite at temperatures up to 1300{degree}C. No significant surface composition change is observed after hydrogen plasma bombardment to a fluence of the order of 10{sup 22} ions cm{sup {minus}2}. 30 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Studies of lithium deposition and D retention on tungsten samples exposed to Li-seeded plasmas in PISCES-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabarés, F. L.; Alegre, D.; Baldwin, M.; Nishijima, D.; Simmonds, M.; Doerner, R.; Alves, E.; Mateus, R.

    2017-04-01

    The interaction between lithium-seeded deuterium plasmas and tungsten targets has been studied in the PISCES-A divertor plasma simulator. Tungsten samples, of ITER-grade, with a diameter of 25 and 2 mm thick, were held at temperatures ranging from 403 to 873 K and exposed to Li/D plasmas under different plasma conditions and fixed total fluences of 5 ×1025 m‑2, with typical particle flux values of (1–5) × 1022 m‑2 s‑1. The deuterium and lithium contents of the samples after irradiation were analyzed by thermal desorption spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). No lithium deposition was found within the sensitivity range of NRA, except for the cold (403 K) sample on which a layer with Li atomic density below 2 × 1022 m‑2 was detected. Deuterium retention values in the range of 1018 m‑2 were measured, even for the Li deposition conditions.

  9. Hydrothermal Systems on Kermadec Arc Volcanoes Revealed by PISCES V Submersible Dives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embley, R. W.; de Ronde, C. E.; Massoth, G. J.; Wright, I. C.; Butterfield, D. A.; Clark, M. R.; Chadwick, W. W.; Lupton, J. E.; Malahoff, A.; Rowden, A. A.; Stott, M.; Evans, L. J.; Greene, R. R.; Opatkiewicz, A.; Roe, K.

    2005-12-01

    An interdisciplinary team of scientists from New Zealand and the United States conducted seventeen dives with the PISCES V at eight Kermadec arc volcanoes (seven were the first exploration) in April and May of 2005. The dive sites were selected based on the results of water column and multibeam surveys conducted by the New Zealand research vessel Tangaroa between 1999 and 2004. Five of the sites (Monowai, Macauley, "W", Brothers and Healy) were in calderas or on young cones within calderas. Two sites were on the summits of stratovolcanoes (Rumble V and Clark) without calderas and one site was in a summit crater (Giggenbach). A planned dive site on Monowai Cone was cancelled due to safety concerns based on its history of recent volcanic activity from hydroacoustic monitoring, mass-wasting and surface observations of sulfur slicks and CO2 bubble columns made in the October 2004. Hydrothermal systems were found at all of the sites but they differed in the style of venting. Three factors appear to determine the character of venting on the Kermadec Arc volcanoes. First, depth exerts important boundary conditions on the style of venting because of its control of the boiling point of seawater. The sites range in depth from less than 100 m (Giggenbach) to 1800 m (Brothers caldera wall). At the shallowest depths, degassing and boiling were observed (Giggenbach Volcano at 180 m) commonly accompanied by the precipitation of elemental sulfur (340 m at the bottom of the summit crater at Macauley Cone). At greater depths such as the northwest wall of Brother's volcano, higher temperature vent fluids alter near-surface country rock and have precipitated massive sulfides on the seafloor. Second, some of the volcanoes (Monowai, Brothers and Macauley cones and Giggenbach crater) have likely had recent magmatic/eruptive activity which could result in the enhanced degassing. Finally, outcrop-scale fracturing that mimics larger-scale regional tectonic lineaments appears to focus the

  10. Pisces did not have increased heart failure: data-driven comparisons of binary proportions between levels of a categorical variable can result in incorrect statistical significance levels.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C; Goldwasser, Meredith A

    2008-03-01

    We examined the impact on statistical inference when a chi(2) test is used to compare the proportion of successes in the level of a categorical variable that has the highest observed proportion of successes with the proportion of successes in all other levels of the categorical variable combined. Monte Carlo simulations and a case study examining the association between astrological sign and hospitalization for heart failure. A standard chi(2) test results in an inflation of the type I error rate, with the type I error rate increasing as the number of levels of the categorical variable increases. Using a standard chi(2) test, the hospitalization rate for Pisces was statistically significantly different from that of the other 11 astrological signs combined (P=0.026). After accounting for the fact that the selection of Pisces was based on it having the highest observed proportion of heart failure hospitalizations, subjects born under the sign of Pisces no longer had a significantly higher rate of heart failure hospitalization compared to the other residents of Ontario (P=0.152). Post hoc comparisons of the proportions of successes across different levels of a categorical variable can result in incorrect inferences.

  11. Stochastic parameterizations of biogeochemical uncertainties in a 1/4° NEMO/PISCES model for probabilistic comparisons with ocean color data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, F.; Brankart, J.-M.; Brasseur, P.; Cosme, E.

    2016-03-01

    In spite of recent advances, biogeochemical models are still unable to represent the full complexity of natural ecosystems. Their formulations are mainly based on empirical laws involving many parameters. Improving biogeochemical models therefore requires to properly characterize model uncertainties and their consequences. Subsequently, this paper investigates the potential of using random processes to simulate some uncertainties of the 1/4° coupled Physical-Biogeochemical NEMO/PISCES model of the North Atlantic ocean. Starting from a deterministic simulation performed with the original PISCES formulation, we propose a generic method based on AR(1) random processes to generate perturbations with temporal and spatial correlations. These perturbations are introduced into the model formulations to simulate 2 classes of uncertainties: the uncertainties on biogeochemical parameters and the uncertainties induced by unresolved scales in the presence of non-linear processes. Using these stochastic parameterizations, a probabilistic version of PISCES is designed and a 60-member ensemble simulation is performed. With respect to the simulation of chlorophyll, the relevance of the probabilistic configuration and the impacts of these stochastic parameterizations are assessed. In particular, it is shown that the ensemble simulation is in good agreement with the SeaWIFS ocean color data. Using these observations, the statistical consistency (reliability) of the ensemble is evaluated with rank histograms. Finally, the benefits expected from the probabilistic description of uncertainties (model error) are discussed in the context of future ocean color data assimilation.

  12. Transport and storage of anthropogenic C across the Greenland-Portugal OVIDE section: Observations vs NEMO-PISCES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehlen, M.; Racapé, V.; Zunino, P.; Lherminier, P.; Bopp, L.; Mercier, H.

    2016-02-01

    Authors: Racapé V., Zunino P., Lherminier P., Bopp L., Mercier, H. and Gehlen M. At present, the ocean takes up approximately one-third of total anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. The North Atlantic Ocean is a major sink region for anthropogenic carbon (CANT) and a major contributor to its storage and transport. While evidence is growing that storage and transport are variable on interannual to decadal timescales, their evolution in recent decades and in the future remains uncertain. The variability is thought to be controlled in large part by the intensity of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC), which is suggested to slow down over the 21st century. This study aims to investigate the relationship between CANT transport across the Greenland-Portugal OVIDE section and Cant storage in the North Atlantic basin, as well as their combined evolution over the past 40 years. It relies on the combination of a pluriannual data set and output from the global biogeochemical ocean general circulation model NEMO/PISCES at 1/2° spatial resolution forced by the atmospheric reanalysis DFS4.2. Based on an observation-model comparison, the CANT advective transport is largely underestimated by the model (5 times) compared to the data-based estimate. However, the vertical gradient of CANT in the water column is well reproduced by NEMO/PISCES, supporting the use of a novel indicator computed by Zunino et al. (2014) to express the variability of CANT transport (T°CANT). Following the approach by Zunino et al. (2014), the estimator, T°CANT, was first derived in the model from MOCσ and DELTA-CANT (the vertical gradient of CANT between the upper and the lower branch of MOCσ) averaged over the month of June. Next, the representativity of T°CANT derived from a single sampling event per year was evaluated against estimates computed from annual mean values of MOCσ and DELTA-CANT. After evaluation of the model skill over the period covered by observations, the model is used

  13. A proposal for a pharmacokinetic interaction significance classification system (PISCS) based on predicted drug exposure changes and its potential application to alert classifications in product labelling.

    PubMed

    Hisaka, Akihiro; Kusama, Makiko; Ohno, Yoshiyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are one of the major causes of adverse events in pharmacotherapy, and systematic prediction of the clinical relevance of DDIs is an issue of significant clinical importance. In a previous study, total exposure changes of many substrate drugs of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 caused by coadministration of inhibitor drugs were successfully predicted by using in vivo information. In order to exploit these predictions in daily pharmacotherapy, the clinical significance of the pharmacokinetic changes needs to be carefully evaluated. The aim of the present study was to construct a pharmacokinetic interaction significance classification system (PISCS) in which the clinical significance of DDIs was considered with pharmacokinetic changes in a systematic manner. Furthermore, the classifications proposed by PISCS were compared in a detailed manner with current alert classifications in the product labelling or the summary of product characteristics used in Japan, the US and the UK. A matrix table was composed by stratifying two basic parameters of the prediction: the contribution ratio of CYP3A4 to the oral clearance of substrates (CR), and the inhibition ratio of inhibitors (IR). The total exposure increase was estimated for each cell in the table by associating CR and IR values, and the cells were categorized into nine zones according to the magnitude of the exposure increase. Then, correspondences between the DDI significance and the zones were determined for each drug group considering the observed exposure changes and the current classification in the product labelling. Substrate drugs of CYP3A4 selected from three therapeutic groups, i.e. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), calcium-channel antagonists/blockers (CCBs) and benzodiazepines (BZPs), were analysed as representative examples. The product labelling descriptions of drugs in Japan, US and UK were obtained from the websites of each regulatory body. Among 220

  14. [Effect of pluviosity and sun shine on sperm production and seminal characteristics of the fish Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae)].

    PubMed

    Tabares, C J; Montoya, A F; Arboleda, L; Echeverri, A; Restrepo, L F; Olivera-Angel, M

    2006-03-01

    Effect of pluviosity and sun shine on sperm production and seminal characteristics of the fish Brycon henni (Pisces: Characidae). In Colombia the fish Brycon henni is a protected endemic species. It inhabits water bodies in coffee producing areas (700-1900 ma.s.l.; 4 degrees 35'56" N - 74 degrees 04'51" W; 18-28 degrees C). Insufficient knowledge of its basic biology and behavior prevent the commercial culture of this promising fish. We studied the production and sperm physiology of captive males. Along a year 20 samples were taken from each of 10 males. The sample was obtained by abdominal cefalo-caudal massage and transported to the laboratory at 4 degrees C. Except for September and October (maximum rainfall), sperm was always obtained in at least 50% of the males. Color, osmolality and pH were similar in all the samples. Volume, concentration, viability, motility and activation time were variable: sunshine had a positive effect on volume (Spearman p < 0.05) and on sperm concentration (Spearman p < 0.05) while pluviosity had a negative effect on volume and viability. The proportion of ions (Na, K, Mg, Ca) was constant along the year; Na being 10-fold higher than K and 100-fold higher than Mg and Ca; however the absolute concentration of all ions was slightly higher in April and in July (with no apparent relation with the other variables analyzed).

  15. [Reproduction and growth of the fish Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Rojas, Rosa L Soto; Mejía-Arana, Fernando; Palacios, J A; Hiramatsu, Kazuhito

    2009-01-01

    Reproduction and growth of the fish Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. The fish Lutjanus guttatus is important in the fisheries of Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica where they are captured with varied gear mainly by the artisanal fleet. We measured specimens from the commercial catch of 2002-2006. Gonadal state was determined macroscopically and age with otoliths The total length-total weight relationship was y = 0.0236x(2.8153) and total length-eviscerated weight y = 0.0216x(2.8129). Simplified relationships were y = 0.0173x3 and y = 0.0162x3. There is year-round reproduction with peaks in March (dry season) and September (rainy season). Male-female sexual ratio was 1:1. The age-length key for the gulf shows availability until the 6 years of age. The von Bertalanffy growth curve is L(t) = 65,9 (1-e(-0.13(t+2,66))).

  16. Seasonality of parasitic copepods on bullseye puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus (Pisces: Tetraodontidae), from the northwestern coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptalí; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel; Gómez, Samuel

    2011-08-01

    Seasonal occurrence of parasitic copepods in wild bullseye puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus (Pisces: Tetraodontidae), was analyzed in conjunction with variation of biotic and abiotic factors. Eleven samples were taken between February 2007 and February 2008 in Santa María La Reforma lagoon (northwestern coast of México). In total, 337 fish was examined; 5 parasitic copepod species were observed, including Acantholochus zairae , Caligus serratus , Lepeophtheirus simplex , Pseudochondracanthus diceraus , and Parabrachiella sp. The most common species were L. simplex , P. diceraus, and C. serratus (overall prevalence, 59, 53, and 35%, respectively), which significantly varied in prevalence and mean intensity between sampling months. A seasonal pattern was only observed for L. simplex, with higher infection levels in the warmest month than in the coldest month. Statistical analyses indicated that the intensity of L. simplex was positively correlated with water temperature. There were no significant differences in prevalence and intensity of infection among female and male hosts. At the component community level, species richness ranged between 4 and 5 during most of the study period, and no seasonality was observed in the number of individuals, Shannon diversity index, evenness index, or the Berger-Parker dominance index. At the infracommunity level, 4 descriptors used (mean species richness, mean number of individuals, mean Brillouin's diversity index, and mean Berger-Parker index) varied significantly between sampling months, but no seasonality was observed, except for a slight increase in the number of individuals during the warmest month. A significant positive association was detected between number of individuals and water temperature and between host size and both species richness and number of individuals. This is the first account of the ecology of these 5 parasitic copepods. Although no significant association was detected between fish condition factor and the

  17. Extending ALFALFA in the Direction of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster with the Arecibo L-Band Wide Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Jones, Michael G.; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hoffman, Lyle; Craig, David W.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    We have completed three “Harvesting ALFALFA” Arecibo observing programs in the direction of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster (PPS) since ALFALFA observations were finished in 2012. The first was to perform follow-up observations on high signal-to-noise (S/N > 6.5) ALFALFA detections needing confirmation and low S/N sources lacking optical counterparts. A few more high S/N objects were observed in the second program along with targets visually selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The third program included low S/N ALFALFA sources having optical counterparts with redshifts that were unknown or differed from the ALFALFA observations. It also included more galaxies selected from SDSS by eye and by Structured Query Language (SQL) searches with parameters intended to select galaxies at the distance of the PPS (~6,000 km/s). We used pointed basic Total-Power Position-Switched Observations in the 1340 - 1430 MHz ALFALFA frequency range. For sources of known redshift, we used the Wideband Arecibo Pulsar Processors (WAPP’s) , while for sources of unknown redshift we utilized a hybrid/dual bandwidth Doppler tracking mode using the Arecibo Interim 50-MHz Correlator with 9-level sampling.Results confirmed that a few high S/N ALFALFA sources are spurious as expected from the work of Saintonge (2007), low S/N ALFALA sources lacking an optical counterpart are all likely to be spurious, but low S/N sources with optical counterparts are generally reliable. Of the optically selected sources, about 80% were detected and tended to be near the distance of the PPS.This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  18. Temperature influence on deuterium retention for Be-W mixed thin films prepared by Thermionic Vacuum Arc method exposed to PISCES B plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepu, I.; Doerner, R. P.; Baldwin, M. J.; Porosnicu, C.; Lungu, C. P.

    2015-08-01

    Beryllium-tungsten thin films with well controlled elemental composition were prepared using Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) technique and subsequently exposed to steady state, high ion flux (5.5 - 9.8 × 1022 ions m-2 s-1) deuterium (D) plasma in the PISCES-B facility to consistent fluences of 2.3 × 1026 m-2. Six types of layers were studied, ranging from pure Be, composite Be-W, having the atomic ratios of 9:1; 7:3; 1:1; 3:7; to pure W with a total deposited layer thickness of 2 μm. The sample exposure temperatures, namely 300 K, 473 K, 573 K and 773 K, respectively, were measured in situ with a thermocouple placed on the back of the sample. Morphological and structural examinations were undertaken before and after plasma exposure. Results show an influence of temperature on the subsequent morphology of the surface. Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS) spectra showed a change in the D release behavior for different Be-W ratio for a certain exposure temperature.

  19. Thermal conductivity reduction of tungsten plasma facing material due to helium plasma irradiation in PISCES using the improved 3-omega method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shuang; Simmonds, Michael; Qin, Wenjing; Ren, Feng; Tynan, George R.; Doerner, Russell P.; Chen, Renkun

    2017-04-01

    The near-surface region of plasma facing material (PFM) plays an important role in thermal management of fusion reactors. In this work, we measured thermal conductivity of tungsten (W) surface layers damaged by He plasma in PISCES at UCSD. We studied the damage effect on both bulk, and thin film, W. We observed that the surface morphology of both bulk and thin film was altered after exposure to He plasma with the fluence of 1 × 1026 m-2 (bulk) and 2 × 1024 m-2 (thin film). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveals that the depth of the irradiation damaged layer was approximately 20 nm on the bulk W exposed to He plasma at 773 K for 2000 s. In order to measure the thermal conductivity of this exceedingly thin damaged layer in the bulk W, we adopted the well-established '3-omega' method and employed novel nanofabrication techniques to improve the measurement sensitivity. For the damaged W thin film sample, we measured the reduction in electrical conductivity and used the Wiedemann-Franz (W-F) law to extract the thermal conductivity. Results from both measurements show that thermal conductivity in the damaged layers was reduced by at least ∼80% compared to that of undamaged W. This large reduction in thermal conductivity can be attributed to the scattering of electrons, the dominant heat carriers in W, caused by defects introduced by He plasma irradiation.

  20. Toxicity of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 25EC) on Anopheles gambiae s.s., Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), and potential biocontrol agent, Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Anogwih, Joy A

    2014-08-01

    The toxicity of an emulsifiable formulation of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 25EC) on Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), and predator fish Poecilia reticulata Peters (Pisces: Poeciliidae) was investigated. Acute toxicity tests were carried out to determine the effect of the larvicide on mosquito larvae and fish species. To investigate the nontarget effects on P. reticulata, fish of similar size (3.5 +/- 0.2 cm) were randomly selected and exposed for 28 d, under static renewal bioassay, to sublethal concentrations of the larvicide capable of killing 30 and 70% of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The 24 h LC50 value of pirimiphos methyl on the test organisms ranged between 20.44 and 697.30 microg liter(-1). The ultrastructural changes observed in the intestinal cells of P. reticulata were characterized by degenerating cell membranes with gradual loss of gray area in pycnotic nucleus at lower concentration. Marked damage was found at higher concentration including distinct loss of gray areas in cytosol, absence of cristae, numerous ruptures, and several dead cells. Pirimiphos methyl was toxic to a predatory fish species, and for its relevance in vector control and crop protection, warrants cumulative assessment to establish its comprehensive ecological risk, and the dosage required for field larviciding.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Lota lota (Gadiformes: Gadidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Song, Na; Gao, Tianxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Lota lota has been determined by long polymerase chain reaction and primer walking methods. The mitogenome is a circular molecule of 16,547 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) and a control region as other bony fishes. Within the control region, we identified the termination-associated sequence domain (TAS), the central conserved sequence block domains (CSB-F and CSB-D), and the conserved sequence block domains (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3).

  2. [Variability in the relative abundance, size structure and sex ratio of the dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus (Pisces: Coryphaenidae) in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, México].

    PubMed

    Alejo-Plata, Carmen; Gómez, José Luis; Serrano-Guzmán, Saúl J

    2014-06-01

    Variability in the relative abundance, size structure and sex ratio of the dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus (Pisces: Coryphaenidae) in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, México. The dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus), is an oceanic epipelagic fish found worldwide in tropical and subtropical waters, with a high dispersal capability via large-scale migrations. This fast-swimming top-level predator is abundant in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, where it is caught incidentally by artisanal fisheries, and represents a target species for both recreational and commercial fisheries in Mexico, Ecuador, Peru and Central America. Nowadays, local fishery information on this species is scarce, thus our objective was to analyze the size structure by sex and the catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) tendency of dolphinfish caught in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, from 2000 to 2007. For this, fishery catches information was obtained from the artisanal fleet, at six landing sites in the Gulf, and the sex ratio, fork length (FL) and the catch per unit effort (CPUE) were estimated. From all sampling sites, a total of 3 494 females, and 3 877 males were obtained, and dolphinfish size as fork length (FL) ranged from 20.5 to 152cm. Fish size ranged from 25.5 to 148cm furcal length (FL) in males, and 20.5 to 129cm FL in females. The sex ratio (males:females) was 1:1, except in April-May (1:1.5, p < 0.05) and November (1:0.5, p < 0.05). The sex ratio at different size classes showed a significant bias towards females at smaller sizes (< 75cm FL), whereas the males were predominant in larger size classes (> 100cm FL). The size structure was bimodal, with a variation in the size average; the modes were defined as the small group (FL = 50-55cm) and the large size group (FL = 100-110cm). The CPUE showed seasonal changes: values were high for the November-December period, and values were lower for July-August. The seasonal and inter annual variation in the abundance of dolphinfish is probably related to a pre

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of Lota lota (Gadiformes: Gadidae) from the Burqin River in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhichuang; Zhang, Nan; Song, Na; Gao, Tianxiang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Lota lota has been determined by long polymerase chain reaction and primer walking methods. The mitogenome is a circular molecule of 16,519 bp in length and contains 37 mitochondrial genes including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) and a control region as other bony fishes. Within the control region, we identified the termination-associated sequence domain (TAS), the central conserved sequence block domains (CSB-F and CSB-D), and the conserved sequence block domains (CSB-1, CSB-2 and CSB-3).

  4. Kudoa alliaria in flesh of Argentinian hoki Macruronus magellanicus (Gadiformes; Merlucciidae).

    PubMed

    Whipps, Christopher M; Diggles, Benjamin K

    2006-04-06

    Myxozoans of the genus Kudoa are widespread parasites of marine fishes and primarily infect the body musculature of their hosts. Although Kudoa species are not usually associated with host mortality, some do form macroscopic cysts in the tissue and some are associated with post mortem tissue degradation. This is of concern to commercial fisheries as fillets may be unmarketable due to these infections. Because different species of Kudoa have different effects on their hosts, it is important to correctly identify species with epidemiological relevance, distinguishing those that are benign from those that are associated with these detrimental effects. Using morphological and molecular analyses, we identified K. alliaria infecting Argentinian hoki Macruronus magellanicus. Comparisons of the small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence revealed that K. alliaria is genetically very similar to K. rosenbuschi. Furthermore, there is significant overlap in myxospore dimensions between descriptions of these 2 Kudoa species as well as those of other Patagonian fishes. Thus, without careful examination of the myxospore dimensions, it may be difficult to identify these species on a routine basis. It is critical to accurately identify K. alliaria as, unlike K. rosenbuschi, it is not associated with tissue degradation. Ambiguities in some species descriptions highlight the need for thorough morphological analyses accompanied by molecular comparisons to clarify the species boundaries between Kudoa parasites of Patagonian fishes.

  5. Taxonomic study of Bathygadidae fishes (Gadiformes) from Atlantic Spanish waters combining morphological and molecular approaches.

    PubMed

    Bañón, Rafael; Arronte, Juan Carlos; Barros-García, David; Vázquez-Dorado, Sandra; De Carlos, Alejandro

    2013-12-13

    From 2009 to 2011 eleven specimens belonging to four bathygadid species of the family Bathygadidae were captured in two different locations in the northern waters of Spain. The morphometric measurements and meristic characters of these specimens are given. The specimens were identified as belonging to the genera Gadomus Regan, 1903, and Bathygadus Günther, 1878, including the following species: Gadomus dispar (Vaillant, 1888), Gadomus longifilis (Goode & Bean, 1885), Gadomus arcuatus (Goode & Bean, 1886) and Bathygadus melanobranchus Vaillant, 1888. As a result, a new northern limit of distribution of G. arcuatus from the northeastern Atlantic is reported. The first molecular identification and genetic interrelationships of Bathygadidae species, based on the mitochondrial COI nucleotide sequences -DNA barcodes- is reported. Sequences corresponding to specimens from the same species were identical and the overall mean genetic diversity (uncorrected p-distance) was 0.096 ± 0.008. Based on a morphological and meristic examination of the specimens, as well as on the available literature, an updated key of the members of the family Bathygadidae from the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean is provided.

  6. Myxozoans as biological tags for stock identification of the Argentine hake, Merluccius hubbsi (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae).

    PubMed

    Cantatore, D M P; Irigoitia, M M; Holzer, A S; Timi, J T

    2016-05-01

    Myxozoans have been successfully used as tags for fish stock identification around the world. However, few studies using myxozoan tags have been carried out in the Southern Atlantic, a region with complex oceanography that constitutes a potentially suitable scenario for testing the utility of myxozoans as indicators. Its usefulness was tested using six samples of Merluccius hubbsi in two different regions of the Argentine Sea. Generalized linear models were performed to assess the effects of fish size and sex, and year and region of capture and selected using the Information Theoretic approach. Three myxozoan species were recorded: Kudoa rosenbuschi, Myxoproteus meridionalis and Fabespora sp. Results of modelling species individually showed differential capabilities for detecting geographical population structure at different spatial scales, with K. rosenbuschi and Fabespora sp. allowing the discrimination of northern and southern stocks, but Fabespora sp. also as a promissory indicator of intrapopulation sub-structure due to different migratory routes during non-reproductive periods. This work confirms that myxozoans offer a set of suitable markers at different spatial scales, which can be selected individually or in any combination, depending on the geographical extent of the study, constituting tools adaptable to the objectives of further research on fish population structure.

  7. A new species of Nezumia (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) from Fieberling Guyot, eastern North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R R

    2001-07-01

    A new species of the macrourine genus Nezumia is described from specimens collected from the crest of Fieberling Guyot in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. The new species is distinguishable from all other Nezumia species chiefly on the basis of a high number of pelvic fin rays, a relatively high number of first dorsal fin soft rays, a steep blunt snout lacking scales ventrally, a relatively weak suborbital ridge, and a moderately long, thin barbel. Although possibly endemic to the Baja California Seamount Province, the new species appears to lack close relatives among the other Nezumia species of the eastern North Pacific Ocean. It might have arrived there either from a disjunct Tethyan distribution, thus retaining close relatives among the Atlantic Ocean species of Nezumia, or by way of stepping-stone dispersal from the Indo-west Pacific Ocean.

  8. Lepidapedon sereti n. sp. (Digenea: Lepidapedidae) in Coelorinchus sereti (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) from deep waters off Vanuatu.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rodney A; Faliex, Elisabeth; Allienne, Jean François; Mouahid, Gabriel

    2013-12-01

    Lepidapedon sereti n. sp. is described from the macrourid Coelorinchus sereti from the deep water off Vanuatu. It is placed in the Elongatum group and Elongatum subgroup. It differs from the other species described in this subgroup by the distinctly dorsally subterminal excretory pore. It also differs from other species in combinations of size, excretory vesicle length, proportions of forebody, post-testicular region and other metric features. This constitutes the first record of a Lepidapedon (sensu stricto) from the Central Western Pacific Ocean.

  9. Plasma-materials interactions and edge-plasma physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Hirooka, Y.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses the: Pisces Program; Pisces Facilities; Pisces Experiments: Materials and Surface Physics; Pisces Experiments: Edge Plasma Physics; and, Theoretical Analysis: Edge Plasma Behavior.

  10. Male polymorphism in Limia perugiae (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Erbelding-Denk, C; Schröder, J H; Schartl, M; Nanda, I; Schmid, M; Epplen, J T

    1994-01-01

    The male-polymorphic poeciliid fish, Limia perugiae, a small teleostean endemic to the southeast of the Caribbean island Hispañola, consists of three male size morphs with uniform females. Large males differentiate at a size varying between 25 and 38 mm; intermediate males, between 21 and 25 mm. Under competition, large males exhibit an elaborate courtship display, whereas small males show only a sneak-chase behavior. Intermediate males adapt their tactics to the respective competitors. However, all male morphs can switch from courtship display to sneak-chase behavior. In large mating groups with four males of different size and five or six virgin females, large dominant alpha-males as well as small subordinate delta-males did not produce any offspring. Unexpectedly, all progeny were sired exclusively by the intermediate subordinate beta- and gamma-males. Breeding experiments with the three male morphs can best be explained by a model of Y-linked genes for small and large size which are both suspended by the activity of an autosomal recessive repressor responsible for the development of intermediate males. The dominant allele of the recessive repressor, in either its homoorits heterozygous state, activates the Y-chromosomal genes for large or small size, respectively. Accordingly, intermediate males may produce male offspring of all size classes, depending on the presence of either the Y-linked gene or the autosomal repressor.

  11. Parasites of Urophycis brasiliensis (Gadiformes: Phycidae) as indicators of marine ecoregions in coastal areas of the South American Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Aldenice N; Pantoja, Camila; Luque, José L; Timi, Juan T

    2014-11-01

    The potential value of parasites as ecosystem markers was tested by analyzing the metazoan assemblages of Urophycis brasiliensis caught in four locations distributed in three ecoregions of the Warm Temperate Southwestern Atlantic. A total of 5,001 metazoan parasites belonging to 33 species were found. The identified parasites varied across locations in terms of presence, prevalence, and abundance, and their multivariate analyses resulted in clear similarity patterns. No differences were observed between two locations of the same ecoregion, whereas an evident separation of samples was observed across ecoregions in support of the existing hypotheses regarding the ecoregional division of the southwestern Atlantic. We proposed that parasite assemblages, which are composed of several metazoan phyla, are potentially useful as ecosystem indicators. This suggestion is derived from the combined evidence of the evolutionary history and biogeography of multiple lineages, which is expected to be more efficient in capturing recurrent patterns in overall biodiversity than individual lineages. Furthermore, as many parasites have complex life cycles, their distribution patterns are dependent not only on environmental conditions but also on the distribution and population density of all hosts involved in their life cycles, adding further sources of distributional variability that act synergistically to define robust geographical patterns. The selection of long-lived parasites and their comparative analysis provided evidence supporting the existence of three different stocks in the four sampled areas. The best parasite tags were those with low specificity in fish hosts, constituting promising biological tags for the stock discrimination of other fish species in the region.

  12. Histological Aspects of the Early Development of the Digestive System of Burbot Lota lota L. (Lotidae, Gadiformes).

    PubMed

    Furgała-Selezniow, Grazyna; Jankun, Małgorzata; Kujawa, Roman; Nowosad, Joanna; Biłas, Maria; Kucharczyk, Dariusz; Skrzypczak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The ontogeny of the digestive tract was studied histologically in burbot, Lota lota L., from hatching to 42 days post-hatch (dph). At hatching, the digestive tract consisted of a straight tube with discernible digestive accessory glands (the liver and the pancreas) dorsally attached to the yolk sac. Most of the yolk sac reserves were consumed during the first 12 days and were completely depleted by 17 dph. The first PAS-positive goblet cells appeared at 6 dph, dispersed within the epithelium of the oesophagus and increasing substantially in number and distribution as development progressed. At 12 dph, the first vacuoles (neutral lipids) appeared in the intestine, indicating the functional absorption of nutrients from food. Differentiation of gastric glands was first noticed at 17 dph and was extensive by 27 dph. L. lota larvae have a morphologically complete digestive tract by 32 dph. These findings on the development of the digestive system in L. lota may contribute to a better understanding of its ontogeny and can be useful for improvement of the larval rearing techniques of this promising species for freshwater aquaculture diversification.

  13. Morphological, morphometric, meristic and osteological evidence for two species of hake (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes: Merluccius) in Argentinean waters.

    PubMed

    Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Bezzi, S I; González Castro, M; Mabragaña, E; Hernández, D; Delpiani, S M; Figueroa, D E; Cousseau, M B; Deli Antoni, M Y; Tringali, L

    2011-05-01

    Morphologically, both classic and landmark-based morphometry and meristic analyses of 241 specimens of Merluccius, along with the re-examination of six paratype specimens of Merluccius hubbsi, the holotype and three paratypes of Merluccius patagonicus and the syntype of Merluccius australis revealed the presence of only two species of Merluccius in Argentinean waters. Internal structures (hyomandibula, urohyal and sagitta otolith) of M. hubbsi were compared to those reported for M. patagonicus and were shown to have identical morphology. Type specimens of M. patagonicus showed a complete overlap in morphometric and meristic characters with M. hubbsi, whereas M. australis had a greater number of second dorsal and anal-fin rays, and more lateral-line scales. In addition, M. australis had a smaller eye and longer snout than M. hubbsi and M. patagonicus. The results indicate that there is no evidence for a third hake species in Argentinean waters. Merluccius patagonicus is a synonym of M. hubbsi.

  14. [A new trematode species, Gonocerca pecitorali sp. n. (Hemiurata: Derogenidae) from Albatrossia pectoralis (Gilbert, 1891) (Gadiformes: Macrouridae)].

    PubMed

    Shevtsova, L S

    2013-01-01

    A new trematode species, Gonocerca pectorali sp. n. was revealed in the collection of fish trematodes from the Pacific Ocean (Kuril Islands region). A brief review of publications on the species composition of the genus Gonocerca is given and points of view of some researchers on the genus structure were analyzed. The description of G. pectorali is given together with the differential diagnosis of the new species and the discussion on its position in the structure of the genus.

  15. Redescription of Urophycis brasiliensis (Kaup 1858), a senior synonym of Urophycis latus Miranda Ribeiro 1903 (Gadiformes: Phycidae).

    PubMed

    Lemes, Paola C R; Loeb, Marina V; Santificetur, César; Melo, Marcelo R S

    2016-02-29

    Urophycis Gill 1864 is a genus of demersal fish composed by eight valid species with anti-tropical distributions in the western Atlantic. Only two species occur in the South Atlantic: U. brasiliensis (Kaup 1858) and U. mystacea Miranda Ribeiro 1903. These species have similar ranges from southeastern Brazil to northern Argentina, but U. brasiliensis occurs in more shallow waters than U. mystacea. Both species are important fishery resources in southern Brazil and Uruguay. Herein, we redescribe U. brasiliensis based on comparison of types and additional specimens, including the description of the Sagitta otolith, formerly place U. latus Miranda Ribeiro 1903 as a junior synonym of U. brasiliensis, and provide an updated map of distribution.

  16. DNA barcoding of the genus Lepidion (Gadiformes: Moridae) with recognition of Lepidion eques as a junior synonym of Lepidion lepidion.

    PubMed

    Bañón, R; Arronte, J C; Vázquez-Dorado, S; Del Río, J L; de Carlos, A

    2013-03-01

    DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase I gene (COI) from Lepidion spp. were employed to test the efficiency of species identification. A sample of 32 individuals from five Lepidion species was sequenced and combined with 26 sequences from other BOLD projects. As a result, 58 Lepidion DNA sequences of the COI gene belonging to eight of the nine recognized Lepidion species were analysed. Sequences were aligned and formed seven clades in a Bayesian phylogenetic tree, where Lepidion lepidion and Lepidion eques grouped jointly. The Kimura 2-parameter genetic distances, among congeners were, on average, 4.28%, 16 times greater than among conspecifics (0.27%). The main diagnostic meristic data of Lepidion spp. were compiled and a detailed morphological revision of the congeneric species L. eques and L. lepidion was made. The eye diameter was significantly different between L. eques and L. lepidion (P < 0.001). The number of anal fin rays ranged from 45 to 51 in L. lepidion and from 47 to 54 in L. eques, but no significant differences were obtained in the mean values of this variable (P = 0.07). According to the morphological and genetic analyses, the results strongly suggest that the Mediterranean codling L. lepidion and the North Atlantic codling L. eques are conspecific, making L. eques a junior synonym of L. lepidion.

  17. Relative gut lengths of coral reef butterflyfishes (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berumen, M. L.; Pratchett, M. S.; Goodman, B. A.

    2011-12-01

    Variation in gut length of closely related animals is known to generally be a good predictor of dietary habits. We examined gut length in 28 species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae), which encompass a wide range of dietary types (planktivores, omnivores, and corallivores). We found general dietary patterns to be a good predictor of relative gut length, although we found high variation among groups and covariance with body size. The longest gut lengths are found in species that exclusively feed on the living tissue of corals, while the shortest gut length is found in a planktivorous species. Although we tried to control for phylogeny, corallivory has arisen multiple times in this family, confounding our analyses. The butterflyfishes, a speciose family with a wide range of dietary habits, may nonetheless provide an ideal system for future work studying gut physiology associated with specialization and foraging behaviors.

  18. Snakeheads (Pisces, Channidae): A biological synopsis and risk assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Courtenay, Walter R.; Williams, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Snakeheads (family Channidae) are airbreathing freshwater fishes containing two genera, Channa with 26 species native to Asia, Malaysia, and Indonesia; and Parachanna with 3 species native to tropical Africa. Some snakeheads are small, reaching about 17 centimeters, but most are much larger, the largest reported to be 1.8 meters in length. All are considered thrust predators with most being piscivorous as adults. A few of the smaller snakeheads and colorful juveniles of some larger ones have been available to hobbyists through the aquarium fish trade. Several species are highly valued as food fishes within parts of their native ranges, especially in Asia where they are an important part of capture fisheries and aquaculture. Because of these uses by humans, introductions far beyond native ranges have occurred. One Asian snakehead has been established in Oahu, Hawaii, since before 1900. Another species was discovered established in southeastern Florida in 2000, and a third in a pond in Maryland in 2002. Others have been captured from natural waters of the United States without evidence of reproduction and likely represent released aquarium fishes. That snakeheads at or near sexual maturity were being sold alive in ethnic food markets raised fears that they could be introduced into novel waters. These concerns led to this study on the biology of snakeheads. A risk assessment is included that examines environmental and related aspects of snakehead introductions.

  19. PISCES field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 112 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report is one of a series sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in the area of trace substance emissions from fossil-fuel power plants. This report presents the results of a sampling and analytical study to characterize trace substances emissions at Site 112. Site 112 is a tangentially fired boiler firing residual oil. Site 112 employs electrostatic precipitators and a flue gas desulfurization system for particulate and SO{sub 2} control. Sampling at Site 112 was performed in July and August of 1992 for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and mercury. The objective of this report is to transmit the detailed data to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the Agency in evaluating utility trace chemical emissions as well as the associated health risk impacts - as mandated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This report does not attempt to compare the results with other sites. An assessment of data from all plants that have been tested is presented in the Electric Utility Trace Substances Synthesis Report (EPRI TR-104614).

  20. Pisces field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 117 emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report is one of a series sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in the area of trace substance emissions from fossil-fuel power plants. This report presents the results of a sampling and analytical study to characterize trace substances emissions at Site 117. Site 117 is a 1 MW selective catalytic reduction (SCR) pilot plant. The host boiler is an 850 MW boiler which burned a residual fuel oil. The objective of this report is to transmit the detailed data to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the Agency in evaluating utility trace chemical emissions as well as the associated health risk impacts - as mandated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This report does not attempt to compare the results with other sites. An assessment of data from all plants that have been tested is presented in the Electric Utility Trace Substances Synthesis Report.

  1. Alcohol abuse in sickle cell disease: the Pisces Project.

    PubMed

    Levenson, James L; McClish, Donna K; Dahman, Bassam A; Penberthy, Lynne T; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Aisiku, Imoigele P; Roseff, Susan D; Smith, Wally R

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is common in patients with chronic painful medical disorders, but it has not been studied in sickle cell disease (SCD). In a prospective cohort study of SCD adults, 31.4% were identified as abusing alcohol. There were no significant differences between alcohol abusers and nonabusers on demographics, biological variables, depression, anxiety, measures of crisis and noncrisis pain, or opioid use, but abusers reported more pain relief from opioids than nonabusers did. Alcohol abusers had fewer unscheduled clinic visits, emergency room visits, hospital days, and any health care utilization for SCD, but this was only significant for emergency room visits. Quality of life was similar between both groups, except that alcohol abusers unexpectedly had better overall physical summary scores. Alcohol abusers were more likely to report coping by ignoring pain, diverting attention, and using particular self-statements.

  2. MICROSATELLITE CHARACTERIZATION IN CENTRAL STONEROLLER CAMPOSTOMA ANOMALUM (PISCES: CYPRINIDAE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The central stoneroller (Campostoma anomalum) is a small cyprinid fish that is native to streams and rivers of central and eastern North America. It can be found in a range of anthropo- genically modified habitats, ranging from nearly pristine to highly polluted waters (Zimmerma...

  3. Organochlorine contaminants in different tissues from Platichthys flesus (Pisces, Pleuronectidea).

    PubMed

    Baptista, Joana; Pato, Pedro; Duarte, Armando C; Pardal, Miguel A

    2013-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) are organic contaminants that tend to accumulate in fish. Estuaries are exposed to high anthropogenic activities, therefore tending to accumulate more contaminants than the adjacent coastal waters. Platichthys flesus, a fish with high economic value, was analysed for PCBs and HCB along its different age groups, in liver, gills, gonads and muscle. Younger fishes were caught in the estuary, whereas older fishes were caught in the adjacent coastal waters and acquired at Figueira da Foz Regional Office of Docapesca-Portos e Lotas, SA. Both contaminants concentrations follow the pattern: liver>gills>muscle. Hepatosomatic index had the lowest values in younger fishes and the highest values in older fishes. Condition factor values remain stable with age. Younger fishes had higher PCBs concentrations than the older fishes. In opposition HCB was only detected in fish from 3+ to 5+ and its concentration tended to increase with age. Overall P. flesus is considered safe for human intake.

  4. [Larval development of Hypsophrys nicaraguensis (Pisces: Cichlidae) under laboratory conditions].

    PubMed

    Molina Arias, Alex

    2011-12-01

    The cichlid Hypsophrys nicaraguensis is a popular fish known as butterfly, and despite its widespread use as pets, little is known about its reproductive biology. In order to contribute to this knowledge, the study describes the relevant larval development characteristics, from adult and larval cultures in captivity. Every 12h, samples of larvae were collected and observed under the microscope for larval stage development, and every 24h morphometric measurements were taken. Observations showed that at 120h, some larvae had swimming activity and the pectoral fins development was visible; at 144h, the dorsal fin appear and all larvae started food intake; at 168h, the formation of anal fins begins, small rudiments of pelvic fins emerge, the separation of caudal fin from anal and dorsal fins starts, and the yolk sac is reabsorbed almost completely; at 288h, the pelvic fins starts to form; at 432h, the rays and spines of dorsal and anal fins can be distinguished, both the anal and the dorsal fins have the same number of spines and rays as in adults. After 480h larvae have the first scales, ending the larval stages and starting the transformation to fingerlings. Larvae were successfully fed with commercial diet.

  5. Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of the European Hake Merluccius merluccius (Merlucciidae, Gadiformes): U1 and U2 snRNA Gene Clusters Map to the Same Location.

    PubMed

    García-Souto, Daniel; Troncoso, Tomás; Pérez, Montse; Pasantes, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    The European hake (Merluccius merluccius) is a highly valuable and intensely fished species in which a long-term alive stock has been established in captivity for aquaculture purposes. Due to their huge economic importance, genetic studies on hakes were mostly focused on phylogenetic and phylogeographic aspects; however chromosome numbers are still not described for any of the fifteen species in the genus Merluccius. In this work we report a chromosome number of 2n = 42 and a karyotype composed of three meta/submetacentric and 18 subtelo/telocentric chromosome pairs. Telomeric sequences appear exclusively at both ends of every single chromosome. Concerning rRNA genes, this species show a single 45S rDNA cluster at an intercalary location on the long arm of subtelocentric chromosome pair 12; the single 5S rDNA cluster is also intercalary to the long arm of chromosome pair 4. While U2 snRNA gene clusters map to a single subcentromeric position on chromosome pair 13, U1 snRNA gene clusters seem to appear on almost all chromosome pairs, but showing bigger clusters on pairs 5, 13, 16, 17 and 19. The brightest signals on pair 13 are coincident with the single U2 snRNA gene cluster signals. Therefore, the use of these probes allows the unequivocal identification of at least 7 of the chromosome pairs that compose the karyotype of Merluccius merluccius thus opening the way to integrate molecular genetics and cytological data on the study of the genome of this important species.

  6. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Aporocotyle margolisi Smith, 1967 (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the North Pacific hake Merluccius productus (Ayres) (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae) off Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Orts, Jesus S; Hernández-Mena, David I; Alama-Bermejo, Gema; Kuchta, Roman; Jacobson, Kym C

    2017-07-06

    Aporocotylid blood flukes conspecific with Aporocotyle margolisi Smith, 1967 were collected from the bulbus arteriosus of the North Pacific hake Merluccius productus (Ayres). This study revisits the morphology of A. margolisi, including drawings, measurements and scanning electron microscopy images, and provides for the first time molecular data for the large subunit of the ribosomal RNA (28S rDNA) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes for this species. A 28S rDNA phylogenetic study of A. margolisi, and all available Aporocotyle spp., was also performed. The distribution range of A. margolisi is extended to the Pacific coast of the USA. We provide a morphological comparison of Aporocotyle spp. from the Pacific coast in North America as well as other Aporocotyle spp. infecting hake. Comparisons with the original description revealed that the new specimens of A. margolisi were considerably larger with respect to all morphological features, except for shorter spines. Molecular results showed a close relationship between A. margolisi and A. argentinensis Smith, 1969 from the Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi Marini. The phylogenetic relationships of Aporocotyle spp. point to a possible co-speciation of hakes species and these blood fluke parasites.

  7. Molecular Cytogenetic Analysis of the European Hake Merluccius merluccius (Merlucciidae, Gadiformes): U1 and U2 snRNA Gene Clusters Map to the Same Location

    PubMed Central

    García-Souto, Daniel; Troncoso, Tomás; Pérez, Montse; Pasantes, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    The European hake (Merluccius merluccius) is a highly valuable and intensely fished species in which a long-term alive stock has been established in captivity for aquaculture purposes. Due to their huge economic importance, genetic studies on hakes were mostly focused on phylogenetic and phylogeographic aspects; however chromosome numbers are still not described for any of the fifteen species in the genus Merluccius. In this work we report a chromosome number of 2n = 42 and a karyotype composed of three meta/submetacentric and 18 subtelo/telocentric chromosome pairs. Telomeric sequences appear exclusively at both ends of every single chromosome. Concerning rRNA genes, this species show a single 45S rDNA cluster at an intercalary location on the long arm of subtelocentric chromosome pair 12; the single 5S rDNA cluster is also intercalary to the long arm of chromosome pair 4. While U2 snRNA gene clusters map to a single subcentromeric position on chromosome pair 13, U1 snRNA gene clusters seem to appear on almost all chromosome pairs, but showing bigger clusters on pairs 5, 13, 16, 17 and 19. The brightest signals on pair 13 are coincident with the single U2 snRNA gene cluster signals. Therefore, the use of these probes allows the unequivocal identification of at least 7 of the chromosome pairs that compose the karyotype of Merluccius merluccius thus opening the way to integrate molecular genetics and cytological data on the study of the genome of this important species. PMID:26716701

  8. Merluccius tasmanicus Matallanas & Lloris 2006 is a junior synonym of M. australis (Hutton 1872) (Gadiformes: Merluciidae) based on morphological and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Antoni, Mariana Y Deli; Delpiani, Sergio M; Stewart, Andrew L; González-Castro, Mariano; De Astarloa, Juan M Díaz

    2015-05-07

    The high intraspecific variation among and the conservative external morphology of Merluccius spp. have resulted in serious identification difficulties. Four hundred and twenty fresh and preserved specimens of Merluccius were analyzed, including the type series of Merluccius australis, M. tasmanicus and M. hubbsi; specimens of M. hubbsi from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, and individuals of M. australis from Argentina and New Zealand were examined. The nomenclatural status of the type specimens of M. australis is discussed and the designation of a lectotype and a paralectotype is proposed. The comparative study of morphology, meristic, traditional and landmark-based morphometry, both external and internal, and through DNA-based Barcoding molecular tools demonstrates that Merluccius tasmanicus is a junior synonym of Merluccius australis. Meristic and morphometric characters of types of M. tasmanicus completely overlap those of M. australis, whereas M. hubbsi show fewer scales along the lateral line, total vertebrae, second dorsal and anal-fin rays. A trend of a longer snout and wider head in M. australis and M. tasmanicus, and larger eyes and longer pelvic fins, in M. hubbsi was observed. While discriminant characters were found in the internal elements (hyomandibula, urohyal and sagitta otolith) between M. hubbsi and M. australis, none were observed between M. australis and those reported for M. tasmanicus. DNA barcoding analyses found no evidence of the existence of other species of Merluccius besides M. hubbsi and M. australis.

  9. Early intrauterine embryonic development of the bothriocephalidean cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819), a parasite of the teleost Merluccius merluccius (L., 1758) (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae).

    PubMed

    Swiderski, Zdzisław; Miquel, Jordi; Torres, Jordi; Delgado, Eulàlia

    2013-07-01

    The early intrauterine embryonic development of the bothriocephalidean cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819), a parasite of the teleost Merluccius merluccius (L., 1758), was studied by means of light (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Contrary to the generic diagnosis given in the CABI Keys to the cestode parasites of vertebrates, the eggs of C. crassiceps, the type of species of Clestobothrium Lühe, 1899, are operculate and embryonated. Our LM and TEM results provide direct evidence that an operculum is present and that the eggs exhibit various stages of intrauterine embryonic development, and in fact represent a good example of early ovoviviparity. The intrauterine eggs of this species are polylecithal and contain numerous vitellocytes, generally ∼30, which are pushed to the periphery and remain close to the eggshell, whereas the dividing zygote and later the early embryo remain in the egg centre. During early intrauterine embryonic development, several cleavage divisions take place, which result in the formation of three types of blastomeres, i.e. macro-, meso- and micromeres. These can be readily differentiated at the TEM level, not only by their size, but also by the ultrastructural characteristics of their nuclei and cytoplasmic organelles. The total number of blastomeres in these early embryos, enclosed within the electron-dense eggshells, can be up to ∼20 cells of various sizes and characteristics. Mitotic divisions of early blastomeres were frequently observed at both LM and TEM levels. Simultaneously with the mitotic cleavage divisions leading to blastomere multiplication and their rapid differentiation, there is also a deterioration of some blastomeres, mainly micromeres. A similar degeneration of vitellocytes begins even earlier. Both processes show a progressive degeneration of both vitellocytes and micromeres, and are good examples of apoptosis, a process that provides nutritive substances, including lipids, for the developing embryo.

  10. [Genetic variation at the pantophysin (PanI) locus in North-East Arctic cod Gadus morhua L. (Gadiformes: Gadidae) population in the Barents Sea and adjacent waters].

    PubMed

    Makeenko, G A; Volkov, A A; Mugue, N S; Zelenina, D A

    2014-12-01

    We investigated polymorphisms in the pantophysin gene (Pan I locus) in a population of North-East Arctic cod, Gadus morhua L., throughout its foraging area in the Barents Sea and adjacent waters. Correlations between the frequencies of Pan I alleles and habitat conditions, such as depth and temperature, were explored. This study was based on a large number of specimens (2210 individuals) of different age and wide geographic sampling coverage. The frequency of the Pan I(A) allele, a known genetic marker of coastal cod, varied from zero to 0.47. Allele frequencies correlated with depth at the sampling location but not with bottom water temperatures. We observed variations in Pan I(A) frequencies among different age cohorts from the same area. The most prominent shift in Pan I polymorphism was detected at the early stages of the fish life cycle, between pelagic juveniles and benthic cod. We found that the Pan I(A) allele frequency in pelagic yearling cod was essentially same throughout the studied areas in the Barents Sea. In turn, juveniles settling at the northern and deep water locations showed a significant decrease in the allele frequency. In contrast, the frequency of the Pan I(A) allele remained constant in juveniles settling in shallow waters when compared to the pelagic stage. These results confirm the selective nature of the cod Pan I locus and indicate that selection process acting on individuals with different genotypes at the Pan I locus leads to the formation of a stable spatial distribution of allele frequencies observed in adult cod.

  11. Spermiogenesis and spermatozoon ultrastructure of the bothriocephalidean cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819), a parasite of the teleost fish Merluccius merluccius (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae).

    PubMed

    Marigo, Adji Mama; Delgado, Eulàlia; Torres, Jordi; Bâ, Cheikh Tidiane; Miquel, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Spermiogenesis and the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the bothriocephalidean cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819), a parasite of the teleost fish Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758), have been studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. Spermiogenesis involves firstly the formation of a differentiation zone. It is characterized by the presence of two centrioles associated with striated rootlets, an intercentriolar body and an electron-dense material in the apical region of this zone. Later, two flagella develop from the centrioles, growing orthogonally in relation to the median cytoplasmic process. Flagella then undergo a rotation of 90° until they become parallel to the median cytoplasmic process, followed by the proximodistal fusion of the flagella with the median cytoplasmic process. The nucleus elongates and afterwards it migrates along the spermatid body. Spermiogenesis finishes with the appearance of the apical cone surrounded by the single helical crested body at the base of the spermatid. Finally, the narrowing of the ring of arched membranes detaches the fully formed spermatozoon. The mature spermatozoon of C. crassiceps is filiform and contains two axonemes of the 9 + "1" trepaxonematan pattern, a parallel nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules, and electron-dense granules of glycogen. The anterior extremity of the gamete exhibits a short electron-dense apical cone and one crested body, which turns once around the sperm cell. The first axoneme is surrounded by a ring of thick cortical microtubules that persist until the appearance of the second axoneme. Later, these thick cortical microtubules disappear and thus, the mature spermatozoon exhibits two bundles of thin cortical microtubules. The posterior extremity of the male gamete presents only the nucleus. Results are discussed and compared particularly with the available ultrastructural data on the former "pseudophyllideans". Two differences can be established between spermatozoa of Bothriocephalidea and Diphyllobothriidea, the type of spermatozoon (II vs I) and the presence/absence of the ring of cortical microtubules.

  12. New records of larval stages of the eel cod genus Muraenolepis Günther 1880 (Gadiformes: Muraenolepididae) from the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, P; Hilton, E J; Matarese, A C

    2016-08-01

    Three newly discovered larval specimens of the genus Muraenolepis collected from the waters of the western Antarctic Peninsula are described. Knowledge of their natural history is sparse and information about their early life history is based on only a few larval stages. Here, the available literature on larval eel cods is reviewed, and the specimens placed in context.

  13. Molecular identification and transmission studies of X-cell parasites from Atlantic cod Gadus morhua (Gadiformes: Gadidae) and the northern black flounder Pseudopleuronectes obscurus (Pleuronectiformes: Pleuronectidae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidermal pseudotumours from Hippoglossoides dubius and Acanthogobius flavimanus in Japan and gill lesions in Limanda limanda from the UK have been shown to be caused by phylogenetically related protozoan parasites, known collectively as X-cells. However, the phylogenetic position of the X-cell group is not well supported within any of the existing protozoan phyla and they are currently thought to be members of the Alveolata. Ultrastructural features of X-cells in fish pseudotumours are somewhat limited and no typical environmental stages, such as spores or flagellated cells, have been observed. The life cycles for these parasites have not been demonstrated and it remains unknown how transmission to a new host occurs. In the present study, pseudobranchial pseudotumours from Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, in Iceland and epidermal pseudotumours from the northern black flounder, Pseudopleuronectes obscurus, in Japan were used in experimental transmission studies to establish whether direct transmission of the parasite is achievable. In addition, X-cells from Atlantic cod were sequenced to confirm whether they are phylogenetically related to other X-cells and epidermal pseudotumours from the northern black flounder were analysed to establish whether the same parasite is responsible for infecting different flatfish species in Japan. Results Phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequence data from Atlantic cod X-cells show that they are a related parasite that occupies a basal position to the clade containing other X-cell parasites. The X-cell parasite causing epidermal pseudotumours in P. obscurus is the same parasite that causes pseudotumours in H. dubius. Direct, fish to fish, transmission of the X-cell parasites used in this study, via oral feeding or injection, was not achieved. Non-amoeboid X-cells are contained within discrete sac-like structures that are loosely attached to epidermal pseudotumours in flatfish; these X-cells are able to tolerate exposure to seawater. A sensitive nested PCR assay was developed for the sub clinical detection of both parasites and to assist in future life cycle studies. PCR revealed that the parasite in P. obscurus was detectable in non-pseudotumourous areas of fish that had pseudotumours present in other areas of the body. Conclusions The inability to successfully transmit both parasites in this study suggests that either host detachment combined with a period of independent development or an alternate host is required to complete the life cycle for X-cell parasites. Phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA confirm a monophyletic grouping for all sequenced X-cell parasites, but do not robustly support their placement within any established protist phylum. Analysis of SSU rDNA from X-cells in Japanese flatfish reveals that the same parasite can infect more than one species of fish. PMID:21299903

  14. [The System of the Suborder Zoarcoidei (Pisces, Perciformes) as Inferred from Molecular Genetic Data].

    PubMed

    Radchenko, O A

    2015-11-01

    Based on an analysis of sequence variation in mitochondrial and nuclear markers, the levels of divergence, relationships, and system of the suborder Zoarcoidei was defined. It was demonstrated that DNA lineages of the families Bathymasteridae and Cebidichthyidae were positioned at the bottom ofthe suborder phylogenetic tree. The family Zoarcidae is a monophyletic group, the youngest in the evolutionary terms. Zoarcidae, Anarhichadidae, Neozorcidae, and Eulophiidae form a group of related families. The family Stichaeidae is heterogeneous and has a polyphyletic origin; within this family, the subfamilies Chirolophinae, Alectgiinae, Xiphisterinae, and Stichaeinae are sister taxa. The subfamilies Opisthocentrinae and Lumpeninae are isolated from Stichaedae; Opisthocentrinae is closely associated with the families Pholidae and Ptilichthyidae, and Lumpeninae is closely associated with Zaproridae and Cryptacanthodidae. It is suggested that the rank of subfamilies Opisthocentrinae and Lumpeninae should be raised.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the pink clownfish Amphiprion perideraion (Pisces: Perciformes, Pomacentridae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Xueyi; Li, Jianlong; Liu, Min

    2016-01-01

    In this study the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the pink clownfish Amphiprion perideraion was obtained by using eight consensus primer pairs with a long PCR technique. The circular mtDNA molecule was 16,579 bp in size and the overall nucleotide composition of the H-strand was 29.37% A, 25.50% T, 15.68% G and 29.45% C, with an A + T bias. The complete mitogenome contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and a control region, and the gene order was typical of vertebrate mitogenomes. The complete mitochondrial genome of A. perideraion is a representative of the subgenus Phalerebus for mitogenomes database of anemonefishes, which can be used to unveil taxonomic problems and phylogenetic relationships in Amphiprioninae.

  16. Epinephelus moara: a valid species of the family Epinephelidae (Pisces: Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Li, J-L; Ding, S-X; Liu, Z-Q

    2013-05-01

    This study documents the major external and internal morphological differences between Epinephelus bruneus and Epinephelus moara, and analyses the complete mitogenomes of both species. The partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (coI) sequence divergence between E. bruneus and E. moara is significantly higher than specimens within the same species (P < 0·05). Analyses of gene flow (Nm = 0·02) and genetic differentiation (ϕst = 0·92995, P > 0·05) reveal reproductive isolation between E. bruneus and E. moara. These results support the hypothesis that E. moara is a valid species. Further molecular comparisons between E. bruneus and E. moara obtained in this study and a specimen identified in GenBank as E. bruneus from South Korea reveal that the latter is identical to E. moara rather than to E. bruneus.

  17. Wallaceochromis gen. nov, a new chromidotilapiine cichlid genus (Pisces: Perciformes) from West Africa.

    PubMed

    Lamboj, Anton; Trummer, Franziska; Metscher, Brian D

    2016-07-26

    A new genus, Wallaceochromis, is described for the chromidotilapiine cichlids of the Pelvicachromis humilis group. It differs from Pelvicachromis sensu stricto in the number and arrangement of tubular infraorbitals, a straighter and sloping dorsal head profile with a low supraoccipital crest, higher abdominal vertebral counts (14-15 vs. 13-14), and in displaying a pattern of vertical bars on the body in several behavioral situations.

  18. First record of Cynoscion regalis (Pisces, Sciaenidae) in Portuguese continental waters.

    PubMed

    Gomes, P; Vieira, A R; Oliveira, R; Silva, H; Martins, R; Carneiro, M

    2017-06-01

    The occurrence of Cynoscion regalis in Portuguese continental waters is reported for the first time, with six specimens collected in 2015 from three areas: Tagus Estuary, Sado Estuary and Praia da Vieira (central-west coast). Analyses of morphometric and meristic characteristics confirmed all six specimens as C. regalis; further validation was obtained by sequencing a 675 bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. These records constitute a range extension of C. regalis into the southern north-east Atlantic Ocean. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. [Micropterus salmoides (Pisces: Centrarchidae) reproduction in the Gustavo Diaz Ordaz reservoir, Sinaloa, México].

    PubMed

    Beltrán Alvarez, Rigoberto; Sánchez Palacios, Jesús; Ramírez Lozano, Juan Pedro; Ortega Salas, Adolfo-Armando

    2013-09-01

    Micropterus salmoides is an important fish species for sport fishing activities, condition that has promoted its introduction to different reservoirs in Mexico and worldwide. With the aim to improve its fisheries management, this research dealt with some reproductive aspects of this species in the Gustavo Diaz Ordaz reservoir, where it was studied from August 2008 through March 2011. To this end, we obtained 938 specimens, with gillnets of different sizes, to determine their total length (Lt, in cm), weight (Pt, in g), sex, gonadosomatic index, condition factor, fecundity and size at first maturity. Lt and Pt ranged from 15.9 to 63 cm (37.4 +/- 78.0) and 57 to 4431 g (731.7 +/- 619.0), respectively. The Pt-Lt relationship showed a positive allometric growth, with no significant difference between males and females (F = 0.9955, p = 0.3187). The male: female ratio obtained was 1:0.83. Mass spawning lasted from December to April. Size at first maturity was 33.7 cm and average fecundity was 32294 +/- 12878.7 oocytes/female. The gonadosomatic index was low from May through November, and increased between January and March. The condition factor was high before the spawning season and decreased after the reproductive period. We recommend a fishing ban from January to March, and to allow the capture size between 33 and 40 cm.

  20. PISCES field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 119 emissions report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report is one of a series sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in the area of trace substance emissions from fossil-fuel power plants. This report presents the results of a sampling and analytical study to characterize trace substances emissions at Site 119. Site 119 is a residual oil-fired boiler, with an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Site 119 employs close-coupled overfire air and burner modifications for NO{sub x} control. The objective of this report is to transmit the detailed data to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the Agency in evaluating utility trace chemical emissions as well as the associated health risk impacts--as mandated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This report does not attempt to compare the results with other sites. An assessment of data from all plants that have been tested is presented in the Electric Utility Trace Substances Synthesis Report (EPRI TR-104614).

  1. PISCES field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 12 emissions report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This report is one of a series sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in the area of trace substance emissions from fossil-fuel power plants. This report presents the results of a sampling and analytical study to characterize trace substances emissions at Site 12. Site 12 is a large, pulverized coal-fired power plant that burns a medium-sulfur bituminous coal. Site 12 employs electrostatic precipitators and a flue gas desulfurization system for particulate and S02 control. Testing at Site 12 was performed in the summer of 1990, with additional retests in August and December of 1992 for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and mercury, respectively. Sampling and analytical problems during the initial test period necessitated the retests. The objective of this report is to transmit the detailed data to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the Agency in evaluating utility trace chemical emissions as well as the associated health risk impacts-as mandated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This report does not attempt to compare the results with other sites. An assessment of data from all plants that have been tested is presented in the Electric Utility Trace Substances Synthesis Report (EPRI TR-104614).

  2. PISCES field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 19 emissions report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report is one of a series sponsored by the Electric Power Research institute in the area of trace substance emissions from fossil-fuel power plants. This report presents the results of a sampling and analytical study to characterize trace substances emissions at Site 19. Site 19 is a pulverized coal-fired boiler burning a medium-sulfur bituminous coal. Site 19 employs electrostatic precipitators for particulate control. The objective of this report is to transmit the detailed data to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the Agency in evaluating utility trace chemical emissions as well as the associated health risk impacts--as mandated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This report does not attempt to compare the results with other sites. An assessment of data from all plants that have been tested is presented in the Electric Utility Trace Substances Synthesis Report (EPRI TR-104614).

  3. PISCES field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 102 emissions report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report is one of a series sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in the area of trace substance emissions from fossil-fuel power plants. This report presents the results of a sampling and analytical study to characterize trace substances emissions at Site 102. Site 102 is a cyclone boiler burning a sub-bituminous coal. Site 102 employs an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. The objective of this report is to transmit the detailed data to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the Agency in evaluating utility trace chemical emissions as well as the associated health risk impacts--as mandated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This report does not attempt to compare the results with other sites. An assessment of data from all plants that have been tested is presented in the Electric Utility Trace Substances Synthesis Report (EPRI TR-104614).

  4. PISCES field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 118 emissions report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report is one of a series sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in the area of trace substance emissions from fossil-fuel power plants. This report presents the results of a sampling and analytical study to characterize trace substances emissions at Site 118. Site 118 is a residual oil-fired boiler, with an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. The objective of this report is to transmit the detailed data to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the Agency in evaluating utility trace chemical emissions as well as the associated health risk impacts--as mandated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This report does not attempt to compare the results with other sites. An assessment of data from all plants that have been tested is presented in the Electric Utility Trace Substances Synthesis Report (EPRI TR-104614).

  5. Helminth parasites of Chapalichthys encaustus (Pisces: Goodeidae), an endemic freshwater fish from Lake Chapala, Jalisco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Aquino, Andrés; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Aguilar-Aguilar, Rogelio; Cabañas-Carranza, Guillermina; Ortega-Olivares, Mirza P

    2004-08-01

    A total of 6 helminth species were recorded during helminthological examination of 50 Chapalichthys encaustus from Lake Chapala, Jalisco, Mexico. Helminth species identified included: Salsuginus sp. (an undescribed monogenea); Posthodiplostomum minimum (metacercariae); Cyclustera ralli (metacestode); Polymorphus brevis (cystacanth); Contracaecum sp. (nematode larvae); and Rhabdochona lichtenfelsi (adult nematode). Of these, 2 (Salsuginus sp. and R. lichtenfelsi) are specialist species. The observed species richness, individual parasite abundance, and diversity were low. Data suggest that host specificity is an important factor contributing to observed community composition and richness. Host feeding habits and helminth species availability seem to determine the characteristics of these helminth assemblages.

  6. Characterization of MboI satellites in Cirrhina mrigala and Clarias batrachus (Pisces).

    PubMed

    Padhi, B K; Ghosh, S K; Mandal, R K

    1998-02-01

    We have cloned and characterized two highly reiterated, tandemly repeated, and A+T rich MboI DNA fragments, one in Cirrhina mrigala (Cyprinidae), with a monomer size of 266 bp, and one in Clarias batrachus (Clariidae), with a monomer size of 227 bp. The MboI fragment in C. mrigala is species-specific and absent in other carps, such as Catla catla and Labeo rohita. The MboI fragment in C. batrachus was also present in two other catfishes tested, namely Clarias gariepinus and Heteropneustes fossilis. In C, mrigala x C. catla and C. mrigala x L. rohita hybrids, the C. mrigala specific MboI fragment is inherited uniparentally. In the reciprocal hybrids of C. batrachus x H. fossilis, the satellite ladder contains the bands of both parental species. The MboI satellite of carp may be useful in genetic introgression analysis and that of catfish in distinguishing between gynogenetic progeny and true hybrids.

  7. A mitochondrial DNA based phylogeny of weakfish species of the Cynoscion group (Pisces: Sciaenidae).

    PubMed

    Vergara-Chen, Carlos; Aguirre, Windsor E; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2009-11-01

    We infer the phylogeny of fishes in the New World Cynoscion group (Cynoscion, Isopisthus, Macrodon, Atractoscion, Plagioscion) using 1603bp of DNA sequence data from three mitochondrial genes. With the exception of Plagioscion, whose position was ambiguous, the Cynoscion group is monophyletic. However, several genera examined are not monophyletic. Atlantic and Pacific species of Cynoscion are interspersed in the tree and geminate species pairs are identified. Intergeneric relationships in the group are clarified. Our analysis is the first comprehensive phylogeny for the Cynoscion group based on molecular data and provides a baseline for future comparative studies of this important group.

  8. Spawning Behavior, Egg Development, Larvae and Juvenile Morphology of Hyphessobrycon eques (Pisces: Characidae) Characidae Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Min; Kim, Na-Ri; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Han, Ji-Hyeong; Son, Maeng-Hyun; Cho, Jae-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Hyphessobrycon eques is a famous fish for ornamental fish market and aquarium. They are inhabit in regions of Amazon and Paraguay River basin. Serpae fishs were investigated 2–3 males are chased to female, and then males attempted to simulate the females abdomen. After fertilization, eggs were kept in incubators at 28°C. The fertilized eggs had adhesive and demesal characteristics and had a mean diameter of 0.92 ± 0.01 mm. Larvae hatched at 16 hrs post fertilization. The hatched larvae averaged 2.90 ± 0.16 mm in total length (LT). Complete yolk sac resorption and mouth opening occurred on the third day post hatching. At 45 days post hatching, the larvae were 12.5 ± 1.60 mm LT and had reached the juvenile stage. PMID:25949194

  9. Nematode larvae infecting Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier, 1829 (Pisces: Teleostei) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuraiem, Bianca P; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza N; Gomes, Delir C; Clemente, Sérgio C São

    2016-05-31

    From July to December, 2013, thirty Priacanthus arenatus specimens commercialized in the cities of Niterói and Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, were acquired. The fish were necropsied and filleted to investigate the presence of nematode larvae. Twenty fish (66.7%) out of the total were parasitized by nematode larvae. A total of 2024 larvae were collected; among them, 30 third-instar larvae of Anisakis sp. showed prevalence (P) = 20%, mean abundance (MA) = 1, and the mean intensity (MI) = 5, and infection sites (IS) = caecum, stomach, liver, and mesentery; and 1,994 third-instar larvae (1,757 encysted and 237 free) of Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum with P = 66.7%, MA = 66.5, and MI = 99.7, and IS = spleen, caecum, stomach, liver, mesentery, and abdominal muscle. This is the first study to report H. deardorffoverstreetorum and Anisakis sp. larvae parasitizing P. arenatus.

  10. Short communication: first report of nematodes parasitizing the four-eyed-fish, Anableps anableps (Pisces, Cyprinodontiformes).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Juliana Souza; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; Ederli, Nicole Brand

    2017-08-01

    The genus Anableps is composed of species Anableps anableps, Anableps dowi, and Anableps microlepis. These fishes are tropical and usually live on the surface of brackish water, being popularly known as four-eyed-fishes due to the presence of prominent eyes and a pupil split horizontally. A. anableps and A. microlepis are considered as sister species that live in sympatry in South America. A. dowi, however, is restricted to the Pacific Ocean (Central America) and is considered the most primitive species of this genus. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of endoparasites in A. anableps from the Parnaíba's Delta and characterize them morphologically. During the necropsy, larvae of Contracaecum sp. in the third larval stage (L3) were collected from the pancreas of A. anableps, but no endoparasites were observed in other organs. The worms had a cuticular tooth and excretory pore located at the anterior end, a thread like body, whitish color, and without distinction of sex. The length of the ventricular appendix of the larvae was much greater than in other studies. This is the first report of endoparasitism in A. anableps and the first report of nematodes in four-eyed-fishes.

  11. Deep-water chaunacid and lophiid anglerfishes (Pisces: Lophiiformes) off the south-eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caruso, John H.; Ross, S.W.; Sulak, K.J.; Sedberry, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research cruises to deep (80-910 m) reef habitats off the south-eastern U.S. and in the northern Gulf of Mexico have provided new information on the diagnostic characteristics, behaviours, colour patterns in life, bottom associations, distributions and maximum sizes of species of the anglerfish genera Chaunax, Lophiodes and Sladenia. Chaunax stigmaeus occurred much further south than previously known (Blake Plateau off South Carolina), and all C. stigmaeus observed were found associated with dense beds of dead coral (Lophelia pertusa) rubble or on broken hard bottom. In contrast, Chaunax suttkusi was found on soft bottoms. Chaunax stigmaeus and C. suttkusi appear to be sympatric over a major portion of their ranges. Because knowledge of pigmentation in live or freshly caught Chaunax is critical to distinguish some members of the genus, changes in the colouration of C. suttkusi were noted and documented photographically immediately after death and after fixation. The yellow spots found on some, but not all specimens, temporarily disappeared completely after death, but they reappeared after fixation, slowly disappearing thereafter along with other carotenoid pigments. Lophiodes beroe and Lophiodes monodi were collected for the first time off the Atlantic coast of the U.S., being previously known only from the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the northern coast of South America. For both species (L. beroe and L. monodi), the collections included the two largest known representatives of the species (400 and 325 mm standard length, respectively). Lophiodes beroe commonly occurred on L. pertusa rubble, and seemed to prefer this habitat. Occupying such a habitat that is deep and difficult to sample probably explains how this common species escaped detection. Only a single L. monodi was collected or observed, so this species appears to be uncommon in this geographic area or at least so on coral rubble habitat. Detailed aspects of the colour patterns of both species were noted. In particular, L. beroe displayed a characteristic pattern of white patches in life that were not apparent after death. The first photographic documentation of the colour pattern in life and of the pharyngeal pigmentation of Lophiodes reticulatus is provided. The third known specimen of Sladenia shaefersi, and the first to be taken in U.S. waters was collected from coral rubble near the base of a steep 200 m scarp on the Blake Plateau. ?? 2007 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Deep-water chaunacid and lophiid anglerfishes (Pisces: Lophiiformes) off the Southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caruso, John H.; Ross, S.W.; Sulak, Kenneth J.; Sedberry, George R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research cruises to deep (80–910 m) reef habitats off the south-eastern U.S. and in the northern Gulf of Mexico have provided new information on the diagnostic characteristics, behaviours, colour patterns in life, bottom associations, distributions and maximum sizes of species of the anglerfish genera Chaunax, Lophiodes and Sladenia. Chaunax stigmaeus occurred much further south than previously known (Blake Plateau off South Carolina), and all C. stigmaeusobserved were found associated with dense beds of dead coral (Lophelia pertusa) rubble or on broken hard bottom. In contrast, Chaunax suttkusi was found on soft bottoms. Chaunax stigmaeusand C. suttkusi appear to be sympatric over a major portion of their ranges. Because knowledge of pigmentation in live or freshly caught Chaunax is critical to distinguish some members of the genus, changes in the colouration of C. suttkusi were noted and documented photographically immediately after death and after fixation. The yellow spots found on some, but not all specimens, temporarily disappeared completely after death, but they reappeared after fixation, slowly disappearing thereafter along with other carotenoid pigments. Lophiodes beroe andLophiodes monodi were collected for the first time off the Atlantic coast of the U.S., being previously known only from the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and the northern coast of South America. For both species (L. beroe and L. monodi), the collections included the two largest known representatives of the species (400 and 325 mm standard length, respectively). Lophiodes beroecommonly occurred on L. pertusa rubble, and seemed to prefer this habitat. Occupying such a habitat that is deep and difficult to sample probably explains how this common species escaped detection. Only a single L. monodi was collected or observed, so this species appears to be uncommon in this geographic area or at least so on coral rubble habitat. Detailed aspects of the colour patterns of both species were noted. In particular, L. beroe displayed a characteristic pattern of white patches in life that were not apparent after death. The first photographic documentation of the colour pattern in life and of the pharyngeal pigmentation of Lophiodes reticulatus is provided. The third known specimen of Sladenia shaefersi, and the first to be taken in U.S. waters was collected from coral rubble near the base of a steep 200 m scarp on the Blake Plateau.

  13. Blood cell lineage in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus (Pisces: Petromyzontidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piavis, George W.; Hiatt, James L.

    1971-01-01

    Blood cell types of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, are described and identified and the lineage of mature circulating cells in peripheral blood is traced to blast cells in the hematopoietic fat body. The fat body appears to be the phylogenetic precursor of bone marrow in higher forms, since blood cells originate and begin maturation in this tissue. Experimental animals were injected first with a hematopoietic stimulant and then (at an experimentally determined time) with pertussis vaccine to release proliferated blood cells into peripheral blood. Peripheral blood for smears was collected by cardiac exsanguination; hematopoietic tissue was extirpated for imprints; and leucocyte preparations were made by a special technique. Blood cells of the sea lamprey are apparently products of at least four distinct blast cells, each of which has a 'one end' maturation process. Results of this investigation support the polyphyletic theory of blood cell formation.

  14. [Concentrations of trace metals in Ariopsis bonillai (Pisces: Siluriformes) of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribe].

    PubMed

    Campos, N H

    1992-08-01

    To determine changes in the contents of some heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cu) in the fish Ariopsis bonillai, at Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia, monthly samples were taken between July 1987 and June 1988. The highest concentrations in the muscle appear between November and February (4.24 micrograms Cd/g, 109.4 micrograms Zn/g and 13.3 micrograms Cu/g), during the periods of lower salinity, at the end of the rainy season, and at the beginning of the dry season. Metals were measured also in the liver: values for Zn and Cu were ten times higher than in the muscle. About the first half of the year, the values tend to be similar. Cd differences were not as strong as for the other metals.

  15. Microstructure of pharyngeal tooth enameloid in the parrotfish Scarus rivulatus (Pisces: Scaridae).

    PubMed

    Carr, A; Kemp, A; Tibbetts, I; Truss, R; Drennan, J

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure of parrotfish pharyngeal teeth was examined using scanning electron microscopy to infer possible mechanical properties of the dentition with respect to their function. Parrotfish tooth enameloid is formed from fluorapatite crystals grouped into bundles. In the upper and lower pharyngeal jaw, the majority of the crystal bundles are orientated either perpendicularly or vertically to the enameloid surface. The only exception is in the trailing apical enameloid in which the majority of bundles are orientated perpendicularly or horizontally to the trailing surface. A distinct transition occurs through the middle of the apex between the leading and trailing enameloid in teeth of the lower pharyngeal jaw. This transition appears less distinct in the teeth of the upper pharyngeal jaw. Enameloid microstructure indicates that shear forces predominate at the apex of the teeth. In the remainder of the enameloid, the microstructure indicates that wear is predominant, and the shear forces are of less importance.

  16. Evaluation of genotoxicity and effects on reproduction of nonylphenol in Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Rivero, Carla L G; Barbosa, Antônio C; Ferreira, Maria Fernanda N; Dorea, José G; Grisolia, Cesar K

    2008-11-01

    Nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) is widely used as a component of detergents, paints, pesticides, and many other products. In the aquatic environment NPE breakdown to 4-nonylphenol (NP), which is more stable and persistent. NP is estrogenic in fish, avian, and mammals and is described as an environmental pollutant with endocrine disruptor characteristics. The genotoxicity of NP was evaluated through micronuclei assay and single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) in peripheral erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus exposed in vivo. The study on reproductive development was also carried out in male and female gonads of O. niloticus. Lethal concentration (LC 50%) of 0.032 ml l(-1) was previously determined. We ran assays with O. niloticus exposed to concentrations of 1.0, 10.0, and 16.0 microl l(-1) of NP diluted in water. Our results showed that NP was not genotoxic. However, 3-day exposure to NP in concentrations of 1.0, 10.0, and 16.0 microl l(-1) of water increased the frequency of reproductive stages in males and females. The histology of the reproductive tract of the treated fish was significantly altered in females treated with 16.0 microl l(-1) of water when compared to controls. Analogous estrogenic effects were observed, such as accelerated maturation of oocytes and spermatogenesis. These results showed that the O. niloticus reproductive system is sensitive to NP estrogenicity.

  17. Description of a new species of Microstoma (Pisces, Microstomatidae) from the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gon, Ofer; Stewart, Andrew L

    2014-11-12

    A new species of the microstomatid genus Microstoma is described from specimens collected in the SW Pacific Ocean off New Zealand and Australia. Microstoma australis n. sp. differs from M. microsotma of the Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean in having a higher number of gill rakers and vertebrae. Both species are compared with available data for NE Pacific specimens.

  18. A new species of Saurida (Pisces: Synodontidae) from the Mascarene Plateau, Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Russell, Barry C

    2015-04-16

    A new species of lizardfish, Saurida tweddlei n.sp., from the Mascarene Plateau, Western Indian Ocean, is described and figured. The new species is characterised by the following combination of characters: dorsal fin with 12-13 rays; pectorals with 14-15 rays; lateral-line scales 53-55; transverse scale rows above lateral line 4½, below lateral line 5½; pectoral fins moderately long (extending to or just beyond a line from origin of pelvic fins to origin of dorsal fin); 2 rows of teeth on outer palatines; 0-3 teeth on vomer; tongue with about 4-5 rows of teeth posteriorly; caudal peduncle compressed (depth greater than width); stomach and intestine pale whitish. A key to the species of Saurida of the Western Indian Ocean is provided.

  19. Chromosomal Variability Between Populations of Electrophorus electricus Gill, 1864 (Pisces: Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Adauto Lima; Ready, Jonathan Stuart; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Milhomem, Susana Suely Rodrigues; de Figueiredo-Ready, Wilsea Maria Batista; Silva, Fernando Henrique Ramos; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko

    2015-12-01

    The electric eel, Electrophorus electricus, the only species of its genus, has a wide distribution in the Amazon and Orinoco drainages. There is little previous information regarding the population variation in E. electricus, with only basic karyotype data from two populations (Amazon and Araguaia Rivers). Karyotypic description and analysis of CO1 barcode sequences were performed for E. electricus from three localities (Caripetuba, Irituia, and Maicuru Rivers). All samples share the 2n=52 (42 m-sm [meta-submetacentric] +10 st-a [subtelo-acrocentric]) with previously studied material. However, the Maicuru River samples differ from the other populations, as they have B chromosomes. The distribution of noncentromeric constitutive heterochromatin between samples is relatively divergent. All samples analyzed present the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR) located in a single chromosome pair. In the samples from Caripetuba, NORs were colocalized with a heterochromatin block, whereas the NOR was flanked by heterochromatin in Maicuru River samples and pericentromeric heterochromatin adjacent NOR was found in Irituia River samples. Alignment of CO1 barcode sequences indicated no significant differentiation between the samples analyzed. Results suggest that karyotypic differences between samples from the Caripetuba, Irituia, and Amazon Rivers represent chromosome polymorphisms. However, differences between the samples from the Maicuru and Araguaia Rivers and the remaining populations could represent interpopulation differentiation, which has not had time to accrue divergence at the CO1 gene level.

  20. Effect of body size and temperature on respiration of Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milano, D.; Vigliano, P.H.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Body mass and temperature are primary determinants of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals. Oxygen consumption of post-larval Galaxias maculatus was measured in respirometry trials under different temperatures (5–21°C) and varying body masses (0.1–>1.5 g) spanning a relevant range of thermal conditions and sizes. Specific respiration rates (R in g O2 g−1 d−1) declined as a power function of body mass and increased exponentially with temperature and was expressed as: R = 0.0007 * W −0.31 * e 0.13 * T. The ability of this model to predict specific respiration rate was evaluated by comparing observed values with those predicted by the model. Our findings suggest that the respiration rate of G. maculatus is the result of multiple interactive processes (intrinsic and extrinsic factors) that modulate each other in ‘meta-mechanistic’ ways; this would help to explain the species’ ability to undergo the complex ontogenetic habitat shifts observed in the lakes of the Andean Patagonic range.

  1. PISCES The Commander’s Tool for an Effective Exit Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-16

    Joint Operational Military Medical Conference in San Antonio, TX, 11 March, 2002). 7. W. P. Hamblet and J. G. Kline, “PDD 56 and Complex Contingency...Release, U.S. Army Special Operations Command.. Release 212-07. 16 May, 2003. http://www.soc.mil/News/news_home.htm Hamblet , W.P. and Kline, J.P

  2. Chromosomal distribution of microsatellite repeats in Amazon cichlids genome (Pisces, Cichlidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia; Terencio, Maria Leandra; de Tavares, Édika Sabrina Girão Mitozo; Martins, Cesar; Feldberg, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fish of the family Cichlidae are recognized as an excellent model for evolutionary studies because of their morphological and behavioral adaptations to a wide diversity of explored ecological niches. In addition, the family has a dynamic genome with variable structure, composition and karyotype organization. Microsatellites represent the most dynamic genomic component and a better understanding of their organization may help clarify the role of repetitive DNA elements in the mechanisms of chromosomal evolution. Thus, in this study, microsatellite sequences were mapped in the chromosomes of Cichla monoculus Agassiz, 1831, Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823, and Symphysodon discus Heckel, 1840. Four microsatellites demonstrated positive results in the genome of Cichla monoculus and Symphysodon discus, and five demonstrated positive results in the genome of Pterophyllum scalare. In most cases, the microsatellite was dispersed in the chromosome with conspicuous markings in the centromeric or telomeric regions, which suggests that sequences contribute to chromosome structure and may have played a role in the evolution of this fish family. The comparative genome mapping data presented here provide novel information on the structure and organization of the repetitive DNA region of the cichlid genome and contribute to a better understanding of this fish family’s genome. PMID:26753076

  3. Initial development of Prochilodus hartii (Pisces: Prochilodontidae) submitted to induced reproduction.

    PubMed

    Abdo, Tiago Figueiredo; Perrotti, Paulo Brant; Meireles, Wesley Antunes; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2016-06-01

    The Prochilodontidae prepare for reproduction in captivity, but neither ovulation nor spawning occurs, thus requiring induced reproduction for breeding and restocking. This study analyzed for the first time the embryogenesis and larval ontogeny of P. hartii submitted to induced reproduction by hypophysation with crude common carp pituitary extract. The extrusion of oocytes and sperm was performed manually and fertilization was done using the dry method. After fertilization, the eggs were kept in incubators at 23°C. A stereomicroscope was used to measure egg diameter and to monitor embryo development. Samples of larvae were collected daily for 7 days for histological and biometric analyses. The recently extruded oocytes, non-hydrated, are spherical, grey, and non-adhesive with a diameter of 1480 ± 39 μm and after hydration, have a diameter of 2860 ± 120 μm. The positive response to hypophysation was 100% for females and 80% for males. Spawning occurred 7 h after the third hormonal dosage. The fertilization rate was 77% at 23°C. Blastopore closure occurred at 6 h 45 min and embryonic development was completed 36 h 10 min after fertilization. After 204 h post fertilization (hpf) the larvae reached a standard length of 6.56 ± 0.14 mm with the yolk sac completely resorbed. In P. hartii, the oral cavity opening occurred 132 hpf. The results of this study provide knowledge to better understand induced reproduction, breeding, and management of P. hartii, a species with a high potential for pisciculture, and which is commercially important in the Jequitinhonha River basin.

  4. [Citogenetic characterization of the tropical freshwater fish Parachromis managuensis (Pisces: Cichlidae)].

    PubMed

    Arias-Rodríguez, Lenin; Páramo-Delgadillo, Salomón; Durán-González, Alicia de la Luz

    2006-03-01

    To describe the cytogenetics of the jaguar cichlid fish Parachromis managuensis, we collected eight males and 13 females in Villahermosa, Tabasco, México. The specimens were processed with standard cytogenetic techniques (slightly modified), and high quality fields of chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis were obtained; 14 of these fields were analyzed by meristics and statistics methods. The specimens presented a diploid modal number of 2n = 48 chromosomes, which is similar to the number reported for others Central American cichlids; five pairs were submetacentric-metacentrics (biarmed) and 19 were subtelocentric-telocentric (uni-armed), giving a fundamental number (NF) of 58. The haploid number was confirmed by counting meiotic fields in metaphase I. There was not evidence of heteromorphism: sexual chromosomes were not identifiable.

  5. A new sympatric region for distinct karyotypic forms of Hoplias malabaricus (Pisces, Erythrinidae).

    PubMed

    Born, G G; Bertollo, L A C

    2006-02-01

    Specimens of Hoplias malabaricus from Lagoa Carioca, an isolated lake of the Rio Doce State Park (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil), were cytogenetically studied. The diploid number was found to be constant, i.e., 2n = 42 chromosomes, although two karyotypic forms were found: karyotype A, characterized by 22M + 20SM chromosomes, observed only in a male specimen, and karyotype B, characterized by 24M + 16SM + 2ST and 24M + 17SM + 1ST chromosomes in female and male specimens, respectively. This sex difference found in karyotype B is related to an XX/XY sex chromosome system. Another female specimen of H. malabaricus, also carrying karyotype A, had previously been found in the same lake. The available data indicate that two sympatric cytotypes of H. malabaricus exist in the Lagoa Carioca, with cytotype A occurring at a lower frequency and differing from cytotype B by undifferentiated sex chromosomes.

  6. Distribution and habitat suitability index model for the Andean catfish Astroblepus ubidiai (Pisces: Siluriformes) in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Vélez-Espino, Luis A

    2006-06-01

    In conservation biology there is a basic need to determine habitat suitability and availability. Astroblepus ubidiai (Siluriforms), the only native fish in the highlands of Imbabura province in the Ecuadorian Andes, was abundant in the past in the Imbakucha watershed and adjacent drainages, but currently it is restricted to a few isolated refuges. Conservation actions are needed if this unique fish is to persist. A Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) for the species has been developed in order to aid management decisions. In this HSI model biomass density (B) was selected as a better indicator of habitat quality than either abundance or density. A population well-being index (PI) was constructed with the combination of B and an indicator of fish health (proportion of fish in the population with parasites and deformities). Based in other models of benthic fish the habitat variables current velocity, flow, depth, width, cover, invertebrate composition, vegetation type, terrestrial vegetation, land use, substrate, temperature, pH, TDS, oxygen, altitude, and slope were included in the analysis. An anthropogenic perturbation index (H) and a fragment isolation index (FII) were developed and included as habitat variables as well. The HSI model was applied to refuges and a sample of 15 aquatic bodies without fish populations within the study region. From the sampled sites without A. ubidiai 26.6% presented low quality, and the remaining 73.3% had medium quality according to the HSI estimated. Good quality habitat for dispersal, escape or translocations is rare in the region. The low HSIs estimated in some of the refuges suggests that current populations are not settled in the most favorable habitat but in the habitat least favorable to the agents of decline.

  7. Slingshot feeding of the goblin shark Mitsukurina owstoni (Pisces: Lamniformes: Mitsukurinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Tomita, Taketeru; Suda, Kenta; Sato, Keiichi; Ogimoto, Keisuke; Chappell, Anthony; Sato, Toshihiko; Takano, Katsuhiko; Yuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Five striking and prey capture events of two goblin sharks were videotaped at sea for the first time, showing their extraordinary biting process. The goblin sharks swung their lower jaw downward and backward to attain a huge gape and then rapidly protruded the jaws forward a considerable distance. The jaws were projected at a maximum velocity of 3.1 m/s to 8.6–9.4% of the total length of the shark, which is by far the fastest and greatest jaw protrusion among sharks. While the jaws were being retracted, the mouth opened and closed again, which was considered a novel feeding event for sharks. Phylogenetic evidence suggested that their feeding behavior has evolved as an adaptation to food-poor deep-sea environments, possibly as a trade-off for the loss of strong swimming ability. PMID:27282933

  8. Identification of Bacterial Specialists in Hosts belonging to Aves, Mammalia, and Pisces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Only a portion of bacteria found in animal guts are able to establish specific associations within animal hosts. Taxa that have formed these specialized relationships may have played a prominent role in host evolution and may also contribute significantly to current host physiolo...

  9. STT Doubles with Large Delta M - Part VII: Andromeda, Pisces, Auriga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Wilfried; Nanson, John

    2017-01-01

    The results of visual double star observing sessions suggested a pattern for STT doubles with large DM of being harder to resolve than would be expected based on the WDS catalog data. It was felt this might be a problem with expectations on one hand, and on the other might be an indication of a need for new precise measurements, so we decided to take a closer look at a selected sample of STT doubles and do some research. Similar to the other objects covered so far several of the components show parameters quite different from the current WDS data.

  10. Plate tectonics and biogeographical patterns of the Pseudophoxinus (Pisces: Cypriniformes) species complex of central Anatolia, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hrbek, Tomas; Stölting, Kai N; Bardakci, Fevzi; Küçük, Fahrettin; Wildekamp, Rudolf H; Meyer, Axel

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships of Pseudophoxinus (Cyprinidae: Leuciscinae) species from central Anatolia, Turkey to test the hypothesis of geographic speciation driven by early Pliocene orogenic events. We analyzed 1141 aligned base pairs of the complete cytochrome b mitochondrial gene. Phylogenetic relationships reconstructed by maximum likelihood, Bayesian likelihood, and maximum parsimony methods are identical, and generally well supported. Species and clades are restricted to geologically well-defined units, and are deeply divergent from each other. The basal diversification of central Anatolian Pseudophoxinus is estimated to have occurred approximately 15 million years ago. Our results are in agreement with a previous study of the Anatolian fish genus Aphanius that also shows a diversification pattern driven by the Pliocene orogenic events. The distribution of clades of Aphanius and Pseudophoxinus overlap, and areas of distribution comprise the same geological units. The geological history of Anatolia is likely to have had a major impact on the diversification history of many taxa occupying central Anatolia; many of these taxa are likely to be still unrecognized as distinct. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Tapeworms (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of Clarias batrachus (Pisces: Siluriformes) in the Indomalayan region.

    PubMed

    Ash, Anirban; Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, Mikuláš; Kar, Pradip Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Revision of monozoic cestodes (Caryophyllidea) parasitic in commercially important walking catfish Clarias batrachus (L.) in tropical Asia (Indomalayan zoogeographical region) was carried out, based on the evaluation of newly collected material from India, Indonesia, and Thailand, as well as a study of type specimens. Instead of the 59 nominal taxa of 15 genera from 3 caryophyllidean families previously described, only 8 species of the Lytocestidae are considered to be valid: Bovienia indica (Niyogi, Gupta and Agarwal, 1982) n. comb.; Bovienia raipurensis (Satpute and Agarwal, 1980) Mackiewicz, 1994; Bovienia serialis (Bovien, 1926) Fuhrmann, 1931; Djombangia penetrans Bovien, 1926; Lucknowia microcephala (Bovien, 1926) n. comb.; Lytocestus indicus (Moghe, 1925) Woodland 1926; Pseudocaryophyllaeus ritai Gupta and Singh, 1983; and Pseudocaryophyllaeus tenuicollis (Bovien, 1926) n. comb. All valid species are redescribed and SEM photomicrographs of their scolices and photomicrographs of their eggs are provided for the first time. Crescentovitus Murhar, 1963, Heeradevina Srivastav and Khare, 2005, Pseudobatrachus Pathak and Srivastav, 2005, Pseudobilobulata Srivastav and Lohia, 2002, Pseudoclariasis Pathak, 2002, and Pseudoinverta Pathak, 2002 are invalidated and 50 nominal species are newly synonymized, including 4 species described from other fish hosts. Taxonomic status of the remaining caryophyllidean taxa reported from C. batrachus (at least 6 taxa) could not be clarified because of the unavailability of their original descriptions. A key to identification of caryophyllidean tapeworms parasitic in C. batrachus is provided. To avoid current inflation of descriptions of invalid taxa, researchers are strongly encouraged to work only with well-fixed material; damaged, decomposed, or strongly flattened specimens should not be used for taxonomic studies, and type specimens must always be deposited in internationally recognized collections.

  12. Dentex carpenteri, a new species of deepwater seabream from Western Australia (Pisces: Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Yukio; Newman, Stephen J; Russell, Barry C

    2015-05-13

    A new species of sparid fish, Dentex carpenteri, is described from nine type specimens collected off Ningaloo Reef near Exmouth, Western Australia. Four valid species of Dentex are currently known in the western Pacific, Dentex abei and D. hypselosomus in the Northern Hemisphere, and D. fourmanoiri and D. spariformis in the Southern Hemisphere. These four species comprise the "Dentex hypselosomus complex". Dentex carpenteri n. sp. is most similar to D. spariformis in overall body form, but differs from D. spariformis in having the posterior margin of the upper jaw not reaching or reaching slightly beyond a vertical at the anterior margin of eye; often with the greater part from the snout to the second infraorbital yellowish; deeper suborbital (9.7-10.9% SL); and a considerably deeper body (vs. posterior margin of upper jaw reaching clearly beyond anterior margin of eye; slight yellow region on snout; suborbital depth shallow (7.6-9.6% SL); and a less deep body in D. spariformis). The mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rRNA, 545 bp) of the above five species were analyzed using the Atlantic congener, Dentex macrophthalmus as an out-group, the results clearly indicating that D. carpenteri n. sp. is a valid and distinct species. A key to the "Dentex hypselosomus complex" is provided. The distributional information available for the five species from the western Pacific, including western Australia and the nearby eastern Indian Ocean, are discussed, with the species considered to be allopatric.

  13. Slingshot feeding of the goblin shark Mitsukurina owstoni (Pisces: Lamniformes: Mitsukurinidae).

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Tomita, Taketeru; Suda, Kenta; Sato, Keiichi; Ogimoto, Keisuke; Chappell, Anthony; Sato, Toshihiko; Takano, Katsuhiko; Yuki, Yoshio

    2016-06-10

    Five striking and prey capture events of two goblin sharks were videotaped at sea for the first time, showing their extraordinary biting process. The goblin sharks swung their lower jaw downward and backward to attain a huge gape and then rapidly protruded the jaws forward a considerable distance. The jaws were projected at a maximum velocity of 3.1 m/s to 8.6-9.4% of the total length of the shark, which is by far the fastest and greatest jaw protrusion among sharks. While the jaws were being retracted, the mouth opened and closed again, which was considered a novel feeding event for sharks. Phylogenetic evidence suggested that their feeding behavior has evolved as an adaptation to food-poor deep-sea environments, possibly as a trade-off for the loss of strong swimming ability.

  14. [Age and growth of Oreochromis aureus (Pisces: Cichlidae) in Sanalona Reservoir, Sinaloa, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Alvarez, Rigoberto; Sánchez-Palacios, Jesús; Valdez, Guadalupe L; Ortega-Salas, Armando A

    2010-03-01

    Oreochromis aureus is an important fishing resource in this reservoir but little biological information is available for management purposes. To study its age and growth in the site, we obtained samples using gill nets of six mesh sizes, and collecting fish from commercial catches, on a bimonthly basis, from November 2006 to September 2007. Total length (Lt), total weight (Pt), sex and gonadosomatic maturity were analyzed. Age determination was done by readings of scale growth marks, and its validation was made by the marginal and gonadosomatic index. A total of 384 fish were collected. Length and weight varied from 125 to 345 mm and from 40 to 671 g, respectively. Growth in length and weight are described by the following von Bertalanffy equations: Lt=416 [1-e(-0.3682)(t+0.4975)] and Pt=1323 [1-e(-0.3682(t+0.4975)](3.0652). Two growth marks per year were registered, these were associated to metabolic and environmental factors like reproduction and temperature.

  15. [Fertility, fecundity and gonadosomatic index of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae) in Heredia, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Mario Urriola; Cabrera Peña, Jorge; Quesada, Maurizio Protti

    2004-12-01

    Between September and November of 1998, 1 432 females of Poecilia reticulata were collected in a pond in Santo Domingo, Heredia, Costa Rica. The average total length of females was 34.43 +/- 7.26 mm (range 17.80 and 51.50 mm) and the average total weight of 0.69 +/- 0.48 g (range 0.06 and 2.32 g). This species is a viviparous matrotrofic and the specimens were sexually mature. The total length-fertility relationship was F = 0.527e 0.1171Lt (r2 = 0.9404). The average fertility was 56.1 +/- 43.6 (eggs + embryos) (range 8.0 and 197.6). The total length-fecundity relationship was Fo = 0.695e(0.1076Lt (r2 = 0.9376). The average fecundity was of 49.0 +/- 36.0 (oocytes + ova) (range 7.0 and 179.0). The total length-gonadosomatic index relationship was IGS = 0.0014 e0.134 Lt (r2 = 0.8581). The average gonadosomatic index was 0.25 +/- 0.27% (range 0.02 and 1.31%).

  16. [Culture of Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poecilidae) in tropical water bodies, Veracruz, México].

    PubMed

    Murillo, Patricia Devezé; Mendiola, Juan Lorenzo Reta; Sánchez Luna, Basilio

    2004-12-01

    Poecilia reticulata, also known as guppy, is the most popular fish in the aquarium environment. Guppys are viviparous fish with high tolerance to extreme temperatures. The development of the offspring takes between 25 and 30 days. We developed a technology for raising guppys, which outlines infrastructure and devices for reproduction, nursery, feeding, and commercialization, evaluating the financial and technical feasibility of this technology in a case study. The complete reproductive cycle occured in floating cages with 1 mm mesh and the method was tested in a tropical lagoon in Mexico. Water quality was monitored throughout the study period (temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH levels). A marketing survey was carried out at all existing aquarium shops in Veracruz City. Data collected depict quantities demanded and offered for each species by season, place of origin, and resistance to handling. The hydrobiological characteristics were: average temperature 31.4 degrees C, dissolved oxygen 4.5 mgl(-1), and pH level 6.8. With these values we built a production function, and used it to evaluate profitability. We estimate a benefit/cost ratio of 1.16, with a net annual income of US$257.67. The system may provide two permanent jobs.

  17. Pain Site Frequency and Location in Sickle Cell Disease: the PiSCES Project

    PubMed Central

    McClish, Donna K; Smith, Wally R; Dahman, Bassam A; Levenson, James L; Roberts, John D; Penberthy, Lynne T; Aisiku, Imoigele P; Roseff, Susan D; Bovbjerg, Viktor E

    2009-01-01

    Treatment options for sickle cell disease (SCD) pain could be tailored to pain locations. But few epidemiologic descriptions of SCD pain location exist; these are based on few subjects over short time periods. We examined whether SCD pain locations vary by disease genotype, gender, age, frequency of pain, depression, pain crisis or healthcare utilization. We enrolled 308 adults with SCD in 2002–2004. Subjects kept daily pain diaries for up to 6 months, including a body chart. Analyses employed mixed model and generalized estimating equations. 260 subjects completed at least one body chart. An average of 3.3/16 sites (25%) were painful. The number of pain sites varied by age, depression, frequent pain days, crisis and unplanned hospital/ED utilization. Lower back, knee/shin and hip, hurt on average more than a third of pain days, while jaw and pelvis hurt on fewer than 10% of days. Odds of a crisis were increased substantially when pain was in the arm, shoulder, upper back, sternum, clavicle, chest or pelvis (OR>1.5) while the odds of unplanned utilization were substantially increased for the sternum, clavicle and chest (OR>2.0). Pain in SCD varies considerably both within and between subjects, although it occurs most commonly in the lower back and lower extremities. The number and location of pain sites varies significantly by age, frequent pain, crisis and utilization. Identification and understanding of combinations of pain location and intensity may help to understand the etiology of SCD and improve SCD management. PMID:19631468

  18. A trophic ecology of two grenadier species (Macrouridae, Pisces) in deep waters of the Southwest Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laptikhovsky, V. V.

    2005-08-01

    The feeding habits of slope-dwelling macrourid fishes from the southern Southwest Atlantic is unknown. In this study the feeding ecology of the two most abundant species, Macrourus carinatus and M. holotrachys, was investigated. Both these grenadiers fed on a variety of prey, including gelatinous plankton, crustaceans, mesopelagic and benthic fish and cephalopods, echinoderms, as well as fishery discards. M. carinatus forage mostly in depths shallower than 900 m and its feeding spectrum and hunting strategy display important seasonal variability. It consumes more pelagic fish, squid and crustaceans than M. holotrachys, which probably indicates occasional feeding in the water column and higher availability of pelagic prey. M. holotrachys forages mostly in depths deeper than 1100 m and is a specialised bottom feeder. Macrourids are able to switch their feeding strategy from browsing on abundant food sources in summer and autumn (a narrow niche breadth and high number of prey per stomach) to hunting occasional prey in winter and spring (a wide niche breadth, low number of prey per stomach). Both species are of similar size and hard to distinguish morphologically, but in deep water M. holotrachys males are smaller than, and females larger than, those of M. carinatus. A probable reason for such energy re-distribution within a population in M. holotrachys is to achieve a higher reproductive output in a food-poor and harsh deep-sea environment.

  19. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae).

    PubMed

    Alwan, Nisreen; Esmaeili, Hamid-Reza; Krupp, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C. damascina and the C. damascina species complex. It investigates phylogenetic relationships among the various members of the C. damascina complex, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were projected against paleogeographical events to interpret the geographic distribution of the taxa under consideration in relation to the area's geological history. Samples were obtained from throughout the geographic range and were subjected to genetic analyses, using two molecular markers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (n = 103) and the two adjacent divergence regions (D1-D2) of the nuclear 28S rRNA genes (n = 65). Six closely related species were recognized within the C. damascina complex, constituting two main lineages: A western lineage represented by C. caelestis, C. damascina, and C. umbla and an eastern lineage represented by C. buhsei, C. coadi, and C. saadii. The results indicate that speciation of these taxa is rather a recent event. Dispersal occurred during the Pleistocene, resulting in present-day distribution patterns. A coherent picture of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the C. damascina species complex is drawn, explaining the current patterns of distribution as a result of paleogeographic events and ecological adaptations.

  20. Feeding of the megamouth shark (Pisces: Lamniformes: Megachasmidae) predicted by its hyoid arch: a biomechanical approach.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Taketeru; Sato, Keiichi; Suda, Kenta; Kawauchi, Junro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro

    2011-05-01

    Studies of the megamouth shark, one of three planktivorous sharks, can provide information about their evolutionary history. Megamouth shark feeding has never been observed in life animals, but two alternative hypotheses on biomechanics suggest either feeding, i.e., ram feeding or suction feeding. In this study, the second moment of area of the ceratohyal cartilages, which is an indicator of the flexural stiffness of the cartilages, is calculated for 21 species of ram- and suction-feeding sharks using computed tomography. The results indicate that suction-feeding sharks have ceratohyal cartilages with a larger second moment of area than ram-feeding sharks. The result also indicates that the ram-suction index, which is an indicator of relative contribution of ram and suction behavior, is also correlated with the second moment of area of the ceratohyal. Considering that large bending stresses are expected to be applied to the ceratohyal cartilage during suction, the larger second moment of area of the ceratohyal of suction-feeding sharks can be interpreted as an adaptation for suction feeding. Based on the small second moment of area of the ceratohyal cartilage of the megamouth shark, the feeding mode of the megamouth shark is considered to be ram feeding, similar to the planktivorous basking shark. From these results, an evolutionary scenario of feeding mechanics of three species of planktivorous sharks can be suggested. In this scenario, the planktivorous whale shark evolved ram feeding from a benthic suction-feeding ancestor. Ram feeding in the planktivorous megamouth shark and the basking shark evolved from ram feeding swimming-type ancestors and that both developed their unique filtering system to capture small-sized prey. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Biogeographic patterns in the cartilaginous fauna (Pisces: Elasmobranchii and Holocephali) in the southeast Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Caro, Carolina; Bennett, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    The abundance and species richness of the cartilaginous fish community of the continental shelf and slope off central Chile is described, based on fishery-independent trawl tows made in 2006 and 2007. A total of 194,705 specimens comprising 20 species (9 sharks, 10 skates, 1 chimaera) were caught at depths of 100–500 m along a 1,000 km transect between 29.5°S and 39°S. Sample site locations were grouped to represent eight geographical zones within this latitudinal range. Species richness fluctuated from 1 to 6 species per zone. There was no significant latitudinal trend for sharks, but skates showed an increased species richness with latitude. Standardised catch per unit effort (CPUE) increased with increasing depth for sharks, but not for skates, but the observed trend for increasing CPUE with latitude was not significant for either sharks or skates. A change in community composition occurred along the depth gradient with the skates, Psammobatis rudis, Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma dominating communities between 100 and 300 m, but small-sized, deep-water dogfishes, such as Centroscyllium spp. dominated the catch between 300 and 500 m. Cluster and ordination analysis identified one widespread assemblage, grouping 58% of sites, and three shallow-water assemblages. Assemblages with low diversity (coldspots) coincided with highly productive fishing grounds for demersal crustaceans and bony fishes. The community distribution suggested that the differences between assemblages may be due to compensatory changes in mesopredator species abundance, as a consequence of continuous and unselective species removal. Distribution patterns and the quantitative assessment of sharks, skates and chimaeras presented here complement extant biogeographic knowledge and further the understanding of deep-water ecosystem dynamics in relation to fishing activity in the south-east Pacific Ocean. PMID:24918036

  2. Identification of Bacterial Specialists in Hosts belonging to Aves, Mammalia, and Pisces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Only a portion of bacteria found in animal guts are able to establish specific associations within animal hosts. Taxa that have formed these specialized relationships may have played a prominent role in host evolution and may also contribute significantly to current host physiolo...

  3. Chromosomal distribution of microsatellite repeats in Amazon cichlids genome (Pisces, Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia; Terencio, Maria Leandra; de Tavares, Édika Sabrina Girão Mitozo; Martins, Cesar; Feldberg, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    Fish of the family Cichlidae are recognized as an excellent model for evolutionary studies because of their morphological and behavioral adaptations to a wide diversity of explored ecological niches. In addition, the family has a dynamic genome with variable structure, composition and karyotype organization. Microsatellites represent the most dynamic genomic component and a better understanding of their organization may help clarify the role of repetitive DNA elements in the mechanisms of chromosomal evolution. Thus, in this study, microsatellite sequences were mapped in the chromosomes of Cichla monoculus Agassiz, 1831, Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823, and Symphysodon discus Heckel, 1840. Four microsatellites demonstrated positive results in the genome of Cichla monoculus and Symphysodon discus, and five demonstrated positive results in the genome of Pterophyllum scalare. In most cases, the microsatellite was dispersed in the chromosome with conspicuous markings in the centromeric or telomeric regions, which suggests that sequences contribute to chromosome structure and may have played a role in the evolution of this fish family. The comparative genome mapping data presented here provide novel information on the structure and organization of the repetitive DNA region of the cichlid genome and contribute to a better understanding of this fish family's genome.

  4. Application of the comet assay in erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces): A methodological comparison

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The present study applied the comet assay to erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus with the aim of improving protocols to detect DNA damage in these cells, by using two distinct pHs (pH = 12.1 and pH > 13) and evaluating whether there is a correspondence between silver and ethidium bromide staining. Comets were visually examined and, the frequency of cells with and without damage was obtained, as well as the distribution of classes and scores. By using the Kruskal-Wallis test, our results revealed that pH 12.1 is more effective, although both pHs can be used. Our findings also suggest that silver staining can substitute ethidium bromide, an expensive and highly toxic stain that requires specific equipment for examination. PMID:21637662

  5. Population dynamics of mottled sculpin (PISCES) in a variable environment: information theoretic approaches

    Treesearch

    Gary D. Grossman; Robert E Ratajczak; J. Todd Petty; Mark D. Hunter; James T. Peterson; Gael Grenouillet

    2006-01-01

    We used strong inference with Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to assess the processes capable of explaining long-term (1984-1995) variation in the per capita rate of change of mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi) populations in the Coweeta Creek drainage (USA). We sampled two fourth- and one fifth-order sites (BCA [uppermost], BCB, and CC [lowermost])...

  6. Biochemistry, physiology, and ecology of bioluminescence in Porichthys notatus (Pisces: batrachoididae)

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The minute quantities of Vargula luciferin required to establish long-lasting bioluminescence capability in Puget Sound Porichthys has raised questions concerning the mechanism of luminescence induction. To address these question, a small, known quantity of Vargula luciferin was fed to nonluminescent Puget Sound Porichthys and after monitoring the subsequent light output over a two-year period, it was determined that more light was emitted than could be accounted for by the ingested luciferin. Thus, Porichthys is able to turn over luciferin either by recycling or de novo synthesis. To distinguish between these possibilities, /sup 14/C-labeled luciferin was synthesized and fed to nonluminescent Porichthys. Luciferin recovered from the photophores showed no change in specific activity, demonstrating that incorporation of undiluted Vargula luciferin is sufficient to establish bioluminescence capability in the fish, which is then sustained by recycling of luciferin. Porichthys possesses a specialized mechanism for taking up luciferin from the gut-but shows no apparent specific adaptation for transport of luciferin in the blood. Binding of luciferin to erythrocytes and plasma components greatly retarded the rate of luciferin autoxidation, but appeared to be a nonspecific property of fish blood.

  7. Arterioles in the swimming muscles of the leatherjacket Parika scaber (Pisces: Balistidae).

    PubMed

    Davison, W

    1987-06-01

    The leatherjacket (Parika scaber) is a balistiform fish which swims using its dorsal and anal median fins. The muscles controlling these fins are well vascularised, with control of blood flow effected by arterioles. These arterioles are long with a single layer of smooth muscle surrounding the endothelium, although the amount of contractile material is sparse, probably a consequence of the low blood pressure. The endothelial cells contain microfilaments, probably contractile, running along the length of the arteriole. The function of this material is unknown.

  8. Growth, feeding and reproduction of the catfish Eremophilus mutisii (Pisces: Trichomycteridae), from artificial reservoirs in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Gabriel; Abril, Maritza; González, Esperanza

    2006-06-01

    The catfish, Eremophilus mutisii, was cultured under different densities in artificial rainfall reservoirs at Caldas, Boyacá, Colombia. At capture, the average total length of the animals was 10 cm and the weight ranged between 9 and 10 g. These fish were in initial stages of sexual development. After a year in the reservoirs, they had increased in length and weight as follows (densities in parentheses): 5.22 cm and 27.23 g (0.5 individuals/m2); 1.98 cm and 8.79 g (1 individual/m2), and 2.45 cm and 0.82 g (2 individuals/m2). They were at the early stages of sexual maturity, and their condition factor fluctuated between 0.61 and 0.96. They preferably ingested insect larvae that were found in benthic and littoral communities of the reservoirs. The benthos was dominated by ephippia of Daphnia, lumbriculids, and chironomid larvae. The biomass of benthic organisms ranged between 0.1126 and 1.3847 g/m2. In the littoral community aquatic insects were the most important component, especially the hemipterans. The biomass of the littoral fauna ranged between 0.14 and 4.05 g/m2.

  9. PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY IN THE SAILFIN MOLLY, POECILIA LATIPINNA (PISCES: POECILIIDAE). I. FIELD EXPERIMENTS.

    PubMed

    Trexler, Joel C; Travis, Joseph

    1990-02-01

    Sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) display marked interdemic variation in body size. We employed "common-garden" experiments in field enclosures to explore the potential role of environmental factors in determining the interdemic phenotypic variation in growth rate, age at maturity, and size at maturity. The largest single, consistent source of variation for all traits was family identity within populations. Environmental effects acted predominantly through family x environment interactions. There was little evidence for any intrinsic variation among populations once family heterogeneity had been accounted for. In general, when statistically significant differences existed, fish raised in a saltwater pond grew faster than their broodmates raised in a freshwater pond. Both males and females tended to mature at a smaller size and later in the freshwater pond than in the saltwater pond. The effects of the environmental conditions differed among the three years in which we performed these studies. In only one year was there a substantial difference between fish raised under the two environmental conditions. These results indicate that direct environmental effects are not strong enough to account for the differences in body size among natural populations and that intrinsic differences among natural populations are due to different frequency distributions of genotypes that are present in all populations. © 1990 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. HIERARCHICAL ORGANIZATION OF GENETIC VARIATION IN THE SAILFIN MOLLY, POECILIA LATIPINNA (PISCES: POECILIIDAE).

    PubMed

    Trexler, Joel C

    1988-09-01

    Twenty-two percent of all allozyme variation documented in the sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna) was attributable to regional differences, while only 3% was attributable to differences among demes within regions. Of the variation documented in a given region, 6-12% was attributable to variation among demes. Cluster analyses supported these conclusions quantitatively. Spatial-autocorrelation analyses offered more explicit support: demes separated by increasingly greater distances were increasingly dissimilar. Analyses using F statistics and rare alleles suggest "effective gene flow rates" (the product of effective population size and gene flow rate) of approximately 4, a level more than sufficient to prevent local independence of gene-frequency dynamics. These results, taken together, suggest that mollies do not have a population structure conducive to the operation of Wright's shifting-balance process and make the striking patterns of interdemic variation in body size and sexual behavior observed in this species all the more interesting. © 1988 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY IN THE SAILFIN MOLLY, POECILIA LATIPINNA (PISCES: POECILIIDAE). II. LABORATORY EXPERIMENT.

    PubMed

    Trexler, Joel C; Travis, Joseph; Trexler, Melanie

    1990-02-01

    Field studies indicate that the influence of environmental factors on growth rate and size and age at maturity in sailfin mollies (Poecilia latipinna) is inconsistent over time and suggest that the marked interdemic variation in male body size in this species is the result of genetic variation. However, the role of specific environmental factors in generating phenotypic variation must be studied under controlled conditions unattainable in nature. We raised newborn sailfin mollies from four populations in laboratory aquaria under all possible combinations of two temperatures, three salinities, and two food levels to examine explicitly the influence of these environmental factors. Males were much less susceptible than females to temperature variation and were generally less plastic than females in terms of all three traits. Members of both sexes matured at larger sizes and at later ages in less saline and in cooler environments. Food levels were not sufficiently different to affect the traits we studied. The effects of temperature and salinity were not synergistic. Males from different populations exhibited different average ages and sizes at maturity, but females did not. The magnitudes of the effects we found were not substantial enough to account for the consistent interdemic differences in male and female body size that have been observed previously. Our results also indicate that no single environmental factor is solely responsible for the environmental effects observed in field experiments on growth and development. These studies, together with other work, indicate that the strongest sources of interdemic variation are genetic differences in males and differences in postmaturation growth and survivorship in females. © 1990 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Near-infrared observations of galaxies in Pisces-Perseus. V. On the origin of bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, L. K.; Pierini, D.; Giovanardi, C.

    2004-02-01

    We investigate the scaling relations of bulge and disk structural parameters for a sample of 108 disk galaxies. Structural parameters of individual galaxies are obtained from two-dimensional bulge/disk decomposition of their H-band surface brightness distributions. Bulges are modelled with a generalized exponential (Sérsic) with variable integer shape index n. We find that bulge effective scalelengths reB and luminosity MB increase with increasing n, but disk properties are independent of bulge shape. As Hubble type T increases, bulges become less luminous and their mean effective surface brightness <μeB> gets fainter; disk <μeD> shows a similar, but much weaker, trend. When bulge parameters (<μeB>, reB, MB) are compared with disk ones (<μeD>, reD, MD), they are tightly correlated for n=1 bulges. The correlations gradually worsen with increasing n such that n=4 bulges appear virtually independent of their disks. The Kormendy relation, <μeB> vs. reB, is shown to depend on bulge shape n; the two parameters are tightly correlated in n=4 bulges (r=0.8), and increasingly less so as n decreases; disk <μeD> and reD are well correlated (r=0.7). Bulge-to-disk size ratios reB/reD are independent of Hubble type, but smaller for exponential bulges; the mean reB/reD for n=1 bulges is 4 times smaller than that for n=4, with a spread which is 9 times smaller. Strongly barred SB galaxies with exponential bulges are more luminous than their unbarred counterparts. Exponential bulges appear to be closely related to their underlying disks, while bulges with higher n values are less so; n=4 bulges and their disks apparently have no relation. We interpret our results as being most consistent with a secular evolutionary scenario, in which dissipative processes in the disk are responsible for building up the bulges in most spirals. Based on observations at the TIRGO, NOT, and VATT telescopes. TIRGO (Gornergrat, CH) is operated by IRA-CNR, Arcetri, Firenze. NOT (La Palma, Canary Islands) is operated by NOTSA, the Nordic Observatory Scientific Association. VATT (Mt. Graham, AZ) is operated by VORG, the Vatican Observatory Research Group. Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/414/905.

  13. PISCES field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 101 emissions report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report is one of a series sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in the area of trace substance emissions from fossil-fuel power plants. This report presents the results of a sampling and analytical study to characterize trace substances emissions at Site 101. Site 101 is a pulverized coal-fired boiler burning a sub-bituminous coal. Site 101 employs a reverse-gas fabric filter for particulate control and a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization system for SO{sub 2} control. The objective of this report is to transmit the detailed data to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the Agency in evaluating utility trace chemical emissions as well as the associated health risk impacts-as mandated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This report does not attempt to compare the results with other sites.

  14. The effects of temperature and busulfan (Myleran) on the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae (Pisces, Characiformes) spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira-Silva, Diógenes Henrique; Silva, Amanda Pereira dos Santos; Ninhaus-Silveira, Alexandre; Veríssimo-Silveira, Rosicleire

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to standardize a protocol to suppress spermatogenesis in the characiform fish, Astyanax altiparanae, for future use as a host in germ cell transplant research, opening opportunities for a range of studies, such as spermatogenesis analyses and transgenesis because this species presents livestock characteristics to be used as a biological model. The effects of the chemotherapeutic busulfan (formulated as Myleran), which is used as medicine, therefore not as toxic to humans manipulation as analytical grade busulfan (Fluka) used in previous studies, were evaluated at physiological temperature of 28 °C, ideal for growth and reproduction of A altiparanae, and also at increased temperature 35 °C. The temperature groups were divided into three treatment groups: busulfan, DMSO only, and an untreated control. Macroscopic, histologic, stereological, and ultrastructure analysis showed that, at 28 °C, busulfan did not cause depletion of germ cells in A altiparanae. However, at 35 °C, sterilization was observed 3 weeks after the initial application. Similar results were obtained with maintenance of fish at 35 °C for a longer period with no accompanying Myleran treatment. This procedure allows reduction in stress and lower mortality resulting from manipulation during busulfan injection and is also suitable for mass treatment because large numbers of fish can be incubated in warm water.

  15. Ecophysiological behavior of Caquetaia kraussii (Pisces: Cichlidae) exposed to different temperatures and salinities.

    PubMed

    Segnini de Bravo, M I; Chung, K S

    2001-03-01

    Tropical river sardine, Caquetaia kraussii, captured from La Aguá lagoon (Sucre State, Venezuela) were acclimatized for four weeks at 22, 24, 30 and 32 degrees C and at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 17@1000 salinity. To evaluate effects of thermal response to acclimatization level, the fish were transferred suddenly from lower temperatures (22 and 24 degrees C) to higher ones (32 and 30 degrees C) respectively. Then thermal resistance time was measured at the lethal temperature of 40.9 degrees C for 30 days. We considered that acclimatization process completed when resistance time was stabilized at the new temperature regime. For the saline effect, the concentrations of sodium and potassium were measured in the tissues at each treatment: gills, white muscle, gut and heart. The results showed that thermal tolerance increased rapidly in 3 h with a 6 degrees C rise in temperature (from 24 to 30 degrees C) and in 24 h with a 10 degrees C rise (22 to 32 degrees C). With decreasing temperatures, the acclimatization level reached its lowest in 11 days with a 6 degrees C decreases (from 30 to 24 degrees C) and in 14 days with a 10 degrees C decrease (32 to 22 degrees C). Caquetaia kraussii regulates as much sodium as potassium in gills and white muscle tissues at all salinity levels tested; however, gut and heart tissues showed significantly different regulations among salinities examined.

  16. Molecular Phylogeny and Zoogeography of the Capoeta damascina Species Complex (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Nisreen; Esmaeili, Hamid-Reza; Krupp, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Capoeta damascina was earlier considered by many authors as one of the most common freshwater fish species found throughout the Levant, Mesopotamia, Turkey, and Iran. However, owing to a high variation in morphological characters among and within its various populations, 17 nominal species were described, several of which were regarded as valid by subsequent revising authors. Capoeta damascina proved to be a complex of closely related species, which had been poorly studied. The current study aims at defining C. damascina and the C. damascina species complex. It investigates phylogenetic relationships among the various members of the C. damascina complex, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships were projected against paleogeographical events to interpret the geographic distribution of the taxa under consideration in relation to the area’s geological history. Samples were obtained from throughout the geographic range and were subjected to genetic analyses, using two molecular markers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (n = 103) and the two adjacent divergence regions (D1-D2) of the nuclear 28S rRNA genes (n = 65). Six closely related species were recognized within the C. damascina complex, constituting two main lineages: A western lineage represented by C. caelestis, C. damascina, and C. umbla and an eastern lineage represented by C. buhsei, C. coadi, and C. saadii. The results indicate that speciation of these taxa is rather a recent event. Dispersal occurred during the Pleistocene, resulting in present-day distribution patterns. A coherent picture of the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the C. damascina species complex is drawn, explaining the current patterns of distribution as a result of paleogeographic events and ecological adaptations. PMID:27309854

  17. Oxidative stress enzyme and histopathological lesions in Colossoma macropomum (pisces, ariidae) for environmental impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Ticianne de Sousa de Oliveira Mota; Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Dantas, Janaina Gomes; Castro, Jonatas da Silva; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    This study used oxidative stress enzyme (Glutathione S-Transferase and Catalase), histopathological lesions (Branchial lesions) and biometric data in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in an Environmental Protection Area at São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations (A1 = contaminated area and A2 = reference site) within the protected area on four occasions. The activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in C. macropomum was compared with biometric data and histopathological lesions. Results have shown that biometric data decreased significantly in fish (p<0.05) at the contaminated site. The activity of CAT was higher in fish specifically caught in A1. A significant difference was observed in the GST activity in the liver of C. macropomum when comparing fish from the contaminated site and those from the reference site (p<0.05).

  18. Patterns of brain morphology in mid-European Cyprinidae (Pisces, Teleostei): a quantitative histological study.

    PubMed

    Kotrschal, K; Junger, H

    1988-01-01

    The present study considers patterns of brain morphology in 14 common species of mid-European Cyprinidae. Sixteen areas per brain were measured on serial cryostat sections by computer-aided planimetry. The volumes of these areas were expressed as % of the total brain volume. These brain centres (ranked according to falling values of the coefficient of variation VR, of the interspecific mean) are: Lobus facialis, L. vagus, central acustic area, Crista cerebellaris, Bulbus olfactorius, Eminentia granularis, Stratum opticum (of the optic tectum), Torus longitudinalis, Nucleus habenularis, Valvula cerebelli, Corpus cerebelli, Telencephalon, Tectum opticum, Diencephalon, Torus semicircularis, mesencephalic tegmentum. Seven primary sensory areas are leading in VR; highest in interspecific variability were the two special viscerosensory brainstem lobes for external (L. facialis) and internal (L. vagus) taste. Low in interspecific variability were integration centres (see above). By plotting the relative volumina of those brain centres which represent three major sensory modalities: brain stem chemosense, acoustico-lateralis and sense of vision, species are separated into three groups: 1) Most species scatter along an axis from moderately (Aspius aspius, Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus cephalus, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Alburnus alburnus, Chondrostoma nasus) to highly developed chemo- and acustico-lateralis centres (Vimba vimba, Abramis brama, Abramis ballerus). Blicca bjoercna is situated in the middle of this axis. Within the latter group the optic centres are evenly well developed. 2) Carassius carassius, Gobio gobio and Tinca tinca are characterized by relatively small acoustico-lateralis and optic areas, but highly developed chemocentres. 3) Pelecus cultratus is monotypic among the species investigated by having large acoustico-lateralis and optic, but modestly developed chemocentres. The brain patterns relative to life style are discussed.

  19. Comparative life histories of fishes in the subgenus Limia (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Cohen, S N; Regus, J U; Reynoso, Y; Mastro, T; Reznick, D N

    2015-07-01

    This study presents life-history descriptions for 12 species in the subgenus Limia, which are endemic to the Greater Antilles. All species in this study lack evidence of superfoetation, producing a single brood of offspring before developing subsequent broods. Interbrood intervals (number of days between parturition events) are also consistent with intervals of species that lack superfoetation. Maternal provisioning, characterized by matrotrophy index, is <1.0 for all species of Limia. This is consistent with species that provide little or no maternal provisioning to developing embryos after ovum fertilization (lecithotrophic). Four species exhibit potentially bi-modal size distributions of mature males. Work on other poeciliids suggests that such bimodal distributions can be caused by genetic polymorphisms in some species. Principle component analyses revealed an axis of interspecific variation in life histories that separated species with small size at maturity and the production of many, small offspring from those with large size at maturity and that produce few, large offspring. This pattern of life-history diversity occurs in many other groups of organisms.

  20. Comparative life histories of fishes in the genus Phallichthys (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Regus, J U; Johnson, J B; Webb, S A; Reznick, D N

    2013-07-01

    This study presents a description of the life histories of all four species of the genus Phallichthys, found primarily in the Atlantic slope of Central America (ranging from northern Panama to Mexico), based on a combination of data collected from preserved and living specimens. All species produced a single litter of offspring before developing another brood (i.e. no superfoetation). In the laboratory, the mean time interval between successive litters ranged from 24 to 48 days, further suggesting that they lack superfoetation. Embryos lose from 15 to 65% of their dry mass during development, meaning all or the large majority of resources required for development are provided prior to fertilization (lecithotrophy). All mature male size distributions were platykurtotic and appeared either bimodal or multimodal. Multimodal and skewed size distributions have been associated with genetic polymorphisms for size at maturity in other species of Poeciliidae. As the sister clade to Phallichthys includes genera in which all species have superfoetation (Neoheterandria and Poeciliopsis), these results suggest that their common ancestor with Phallichthys also had superfoetation and that the trait has been lost.

  1. Restricted movement by mottled sculpin (Pisces: Cottidae) in a southern Appalachian stream.

    Treesearch

    J. Todd Petty; Gary D. Grossman

    2004-01-01

    1. We used direct observation and mark-recapture techniques to quantify movements by mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) in a 1 km segment of Shope Fork in western North Carolina. Our objectives were to: (i) quantify the overall rate of sculpin movement, (ii) assess variation in movement among years, individuals, and sculpin size classes, (iii) relate movement to...

  2. Fecundity, survival, and growth of the seahorse Hippocampus ingens (Pisces: Syngnathidae) under semi-controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Salas, A A; Reyes-Bustamante, H

    2006-12-01

    We studied fecundity, survival, and growth of the seahorse Hippocampus ingens under semi-controlled conditions. Three wild brood stock mature males of 14.8, 24.5, and 32.0 g released 1,598, 1,703, and 1,658 juveniles. Juvenile stocking densities of 12 were settled in 60-1 aquariums in groups of 1, 12, and 20 days old organisms. The rate of survival was 21.5, 61.9, and 59.0%, respectively, in 35 days. Juveniles were fed a mix diet of rotifers B. plicatilis and Artemia nauplii, then they were transferred to a cement tank of 100,000 1 at a density of 50/1,000 1 and fed with live adult Artemia for 60 days more. They grew from an average of 0.7, 1.5, and 2.7 to 4.5, 5.4, and 6.7 cm, respectively, in 95 days. The seawater temperature varied from 17 to 23 degrees C.

  3. A new species of the genus Bathylagichthys (Pisces, Bathylagidae) from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gon, Ofer; Stewart, Andrew L

    2014-11-17

    Bathylagichthys kobylianskyi n. sp. is described from specimens collected during fisheries surveys of the Exclusive Economic Zone of New Zealand. It was previously misidentified as B. problematicus, from which it differs in having fewer vertebrae (43-45 versus 49-51) and more gill rakers (usually 27-31 versus 25-28). Bathylagichthys kobylianskyi n. sp. is closely related to B. greyae of the Atlantic Ocean as both have two branchiostegal rays and a short supraorbital. The latter species differs from B. kobylianskyi n. sp. in having a more slender body, fewer gill rakers and modally higher number of vertebrae and anal-fin rays.

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the sixblotch hind Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Pisces: Perciformes).

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Sheng-Tai; Chen, Kao-Sung; Tseng, Chen-Te; Wu, Chi-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the sixblotch hind, Cephalopholis sexmaculata was presented in this study. This mitochondrial genome consists of 16,589 bp, with 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a noncoding control region (CR), and its gene arrangement is identical to most vertebrates. The overall base composition of the heavy strand is A, 29.35%; G, 16.08%; C, 28.56%; and T, 26.01%. The COI gene started with GTG codon and the ATP6 gene started with CTG codon. The complete mitogenomic data may provide informative for further phylogenetic approach of species of Cephalopholis and related genera belong to the Epinephelidae groupers.

  5. Early Osteological Development of Larvae and Juveniles in Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara (Pisces: Serranidae)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Myeong, Jeong In; Park, Jae Min

    2016-01-01

    We observed the osteological development of larval and juvenile red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) in order to generate data for the assessment of skeletal deformities and to inform phylogenetic systematics research. Larvae and juveniles were obtained from a aquafarm in Muan-gun, Jeolla-namdo Province, Korea. The average water temperature at the time of breeding was 23.0°C and average water salinity was 33.0 psu. Freshly hatched fish larvae had not undergone any ossification, but ossification of the parasphenoid bone, which forms the base of the cranium, occurred as the juveniles reached an average body length (BL) of 2.49 mm. At the same time, ossification of the preopercle and opercle occurred in the operculum, and ossification of the maxilla, which forms the upper jaw, and the dentary bones, which form the lower jaw, began. In addition, ossification of the vertebra occurred by formation of 7 vertebral centra and the neural spine in the abdominal vertebra. When the juveniles reached an average (BL) of 5.22 mm, ossification of the nasal, lateral ethmoid, and alisphenoid bones occurred in the cranium; ossification of the endopterygoid and metapterygoid bones began in the palatine region; and ossification of the hypohyal and interhyal bones occurred in the hyoid arch. At an average (BL) of 20.9 mm, ossification of the basisphenoid bone in the cranium and the suborbital bone in the orbital region occurred. Ossification of the vertebra then occurred by the formation of long pairs of ribs from the third to the ninth abdominal vertebrae, completing osteological development. PMID:27660824

  6. [Larval development of some Bregmaceros species (Pisces: Bregmacerotidae) from the southeast Gulf of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Blas-Cabrera, Jorge; Sánchez-Ramírez, Marina; Ocaña-Luna, Alberto

    2006-06-01

    We redescribe the larval development of Bregmaceros cantori based on 925 specimens ranging from 1.1 to 20.2 mm in standard length (SL), and describe the larvae of B. atlanticus (27 larvae, 1.7-7.5 mm), B. houdei (six, 1.5-1.9 mm) and B. macclellandi (three, 2.4, 3.4 and 5.4 mm). All specimens were collected in the southern Gulf of Mexico from November 27 through December 6, 1998. Larvae were identified to species, and descriptions were made based on pigmentation, and morphometric and meristic characteristics. We defined five development stages: preflexion, flexion, postflexion, transformation and juvenile. In the preflexion stage B. cantori displayed a greater growth in mouth size and head length relative to SL (positive allometry); there was negative allometry from the flexion to juvenile stage. B. cantori have the shortest body height and head length, thus being the thinnest; whereas B. macclellandi larvae are the most robust ones. From the four species reported from the southern Gulf of Mexico, B. atlanticus larvae are the most pigmented in both head and body, with an homogeneous pattern; B. macclellandi presents a different pigmentation pattern consisting in large melanophore groups with a body arrangement that changes from one stage to the next; additionally, from the preflexion stage it develops both the occipital radius and pelvic fins. B. houdei larvae measuring 1.5 to 1.9 mm have melanophores at the tip of the lower jaw and the head, as well as at the pectoral fin base. Larval development was more pronounced in this B. cantori and B. atlanticus than in specimens from higher latitudes.

  7. The potential of stem cell therapy for stroke: is PISCES the sign?

    PubMed

    Smith, Helen K; Gavins, Felicity N E

    2012-06-01

    Substantial developments in the field of stem cell research point toward novel therapies for the treatment of diseases such as stroke. This review covers the establishment of tissue damage in stroke and the status of current therapies. We evaluate stem cell therapy with respect to other treatments, including clinical, preclinical, and failed, and provide a comprehensive account of stem cell clinical trials for stroke therapy currently underway. Finally, we describe mechanisms through which stem cells improve outcome in experimental stroke as well as potential pitfalls this basic research has identified.

  8. Biogeographic patterns in the cartilaginous fauna (Pisces: Elasmobranchii and Holocephali) in the southeast Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Carlos; Vargas-Caro, Carolina; Bennett, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    The abundance and species richness of the cartilaginous fish community of the continental shelf and slope off central Chile is described, based on fishery-independent trawl tows made in 2006 and 2007. A total of 194,705 specimens comprising 20 species (9 sharks, 10 skates, 1 chimaera) were caught at depths of 100-500 m along a 1,000 km transect between 29.5°S and 39°S. Sample site locations were grouped to represent eight geographical zones within this latitudinal range. Species richness fluctuated from 1 to 6 species per zone. There was no significant latitudinal trend for sharks, but skates showed an increased species richness with latitude. Standardised catch per unit effort (CPUE) increased with increasing depth for sharks, but not for skates, but the observed trend for increasing CPUE with latitude was not significant for either sharks or skates. A change in community composition occurred along the depth gradient with the skates, Psammobatis rudis, Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma dominating communities between 100 and 300 m, but small-sized, deep-water dogfishes, such as Centroscyllium spp. dominated the catch between 300 and 500 m. Cluster and ordination analysis identified one widespread assemblage, grouping 58% of sites, and three shallow-water assemblages. Assemblages with low diversity (coldspots) coincided with highly productive fishing grounds for demersal crustaceans and bony fishes. The community distribution suggested that the differences between assemblages may be due to compensatory changes in mesopredator species abundance, as a consequence of continuous and unselective species removal. Distribution patterns and the quantitative assessment of sharks, skates and chimaeras presented here complement extant biogeographic knowledge and further the understanding of deep-water ecosystem dynamics in relation to fishing activity in the south-east Pacific Ocean.

  9. Instrument Construction and Initial Validation: Professional Identity Scale in Counseling (PISC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Hong Ryun

    2013-01-01

    The advantages of having a strong professional identity include ethical performances, promoted wellness, and increased awareness of roles and functions among individual counselors (Brott & Myers, 1999; Grimmit & Paisley, 2008; Ponton & Duba, 2009). Scholars in the counseling field have underscored the importance of unified professional…

  10. Metacestodes of Glossocercus auritus (Cyclophyllidea, Gryporhynchidae) in Poecilia reticulata (Pisces, Poeciliidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; Melo, Alan Lane de

    2011-01-01

    Studies on fish parasites in Pampulha dam, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, found specimens of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 harboring natural infection by larval stages of tapeworms. A total of 250 specimens of P. reticulata were collected and analyzed between February and August 2010, of which 23 were found infected (prevalence 9.2%) with one metacestode each (mean intensity 1, mean abundance 0.09). The analyses of the parasites, particularly the morphology of rostellar hooks, made it possible to identify Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818). This is the first report of G. auritus metacestode in South America and P. reticulata is a newly known host for this parasite.

  11. Molecular systematics and biogeography of the circumglobally distributed genus Seriola (Pisces: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Swart, Belinda L; von der Heyden, Sophie; Bester-van der Merwe, Aletta; Roodt-Wilding, Rouvay

    2015-12-01

    The genus Seriola includes several important commercially exploited species and has a disjunct distribution globally; yet phylogenetic relationships within this genus have not been thoroughly investigated. This study reports the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny for this genus based on mitochondrial (Cytb) and nuclear gene (RAG1 and Rhod) DNA sequence data for all extant Seriola species (nine species, n=27). All species were found to be monophyletic based on Maximum parsimony, Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. The closure of the Tethys Sea (12-20 MYA) coincides with the divergence of a clade containing ((S. fasciata and S. peruana), S. carpenteri) from the rest of the Seriola species, while the formation of the Isthmus of Panama (±3 MYA) played an important role in the divergence of S. fasciata and S. peruana. Furthermore, factors such as climate and water temperature fluctuations during the Pliocene played important roles during the divergence of the remaining Seriola species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spawning seasons of Rasbora tawarensis (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in Lake Laut Tawar, Aceh Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rasbora tawarensis is an endemic freshwater fish in Lake Laut Tawar, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Unfortunately, its status is regarded as critical endangered with populations decreasing in recent years. To date no information on the spawning activities of the fish are available. Therefore, this study provides a contribution to the knowledge on reproductive biology of R. tawarensis especially on spawning seasons as well as basic information for conservation of the species. Methods Monthly sampling was conducted from April 2008 to March 2009 by using selective gillnets. The gonadosomatic index, size composition and sex ratio were assessed. The gonadal development was evaluated based on macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the gonads. Results The gonadosomatic index (GSI) varied between 6.65 to 18.16 in female and 4.94 to 8.56 for male. GSI of the female R. tawarensis was higher in March, September and December indicating the onset of reproductive seasons, the GSI and oocyte size being directly correlated with gonadal development stages. Although, a greater proportion of mature male than female was detected during the study, the sex ratio showed that the overall number of female was higher than male. The ovaries had multiple oocyte size classes at every stage of gonadal development, thus R. tawarensis can be classified as a group synchronous spawner or a fractional multiple spawner. Conclusion The spawning seasons of R. tawarensis were three times a year and September being the peak of the reproductive season and the female was the predominant sex. This species is classified as a group synchronous spawner. PMID:20482777

  13. Oocyte adhesiveness and embryonic development of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pisces: Characidae).

    PubMed

    Weber, André Alberto; Arantes, Fábio Pereira; Sato, Yoshimi; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2013-05-01

    This study shows for the first time the presence of a jelly coat on oocytes of neotropical Characiformes fish. This structure could be responsible for the adhesiveness of Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes, a species widely distributed in South America including in the São Francisco River basin in Brazil. Adult specimens of A. bimaculatus were submitted to artificial reproduction in order to analyse the egg morphology and embryonic development. The eggs were fertilised and kept in incubators with a water temperature of 24°C so that embryogenesis could be monitored. Ovulated and unfertilised oocytes were also collected and submitted to routine histological techniques. Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes were found to be spherical, yellowish, and covered by a thin jelly coat with a slightly adhesive surface. The mean oocyte diameter was 1.03 ± 0.03 mm, the perivitelline space was 0.21 ± 0.02 mm and the jelly coat's thickness was 0.04 ± 0.01 mm. Positive periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain and Alcian blue stain pH 2.5 indicated the presence of neutral glycoproteins, and carboxylated acid glycoconjugates on the jelly coat that formed mucosubstances that may be associated with egg adhesiveness. At a water temperature of 24°C, blastopore closure and hatching occurred at 5 h and 17 h after fertilisation, respectively. The results of this study provide essential information for phylogenetic studies and for a better understanding of the reproductive strategy of A. bimaculatus, currently included in the incertae sedis group of the Characidae family due to the lack of monophyly among the families of the group.

  14. In situ assessment of two catfish species (pisces, Ariidae) to evaluate pollution in a harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho; Junior, Audalio Rebelo Torres; Sousa, Débora Batista Pinheiro; de Sousa de Oliveira Mota Andrade, Ticianne; Torres, Hetty Salvino; da Silva Castro, Jonatas; da Silva de Almeida, Zafira; Santos, Débora Martins Silva; Tchaicka, Lígia

    2016-12-01

    A histopathological and biometric database for the catfish Sciades herzbergii and Bagre bagre from São Luís Island (Harbor area) and Caranguejos Island (reference area) in Brazil is presented. Branchial and hepatic lesions were classified into three reaction patterns: 1) circulatory or inflammatory disturbances; 2) regressive changes; 3) progressive changes. The total length (Lt), standard length (Ls), furcal length (Lf), total weight (Wt), and gonad weight (Wg) of each fish were recorded. As expected, most populations of catfish considered in this study are highly heterogeneous, with lengths and weights deviating from the reference sample. No histopathological lesions were observed in Sciades herzbergii examined at the reference site (Caranguejos Island). In contrast, 90% of the catfish S. herzbergii from sites located in the Harbor Area (São Luís Island) had one or more types of branchial and hepatic lesions. As opposed to what was observed in S. herzbergii, more than 86.33% of Bagre bagre individuals showed histopathological alterations in both areas. The utility of histopathological lesions and biometric data as sensitive indicators of the health of wild catfish populations has been demonstrated. Sciades herzbergii proved to be a better species for biomonitoring because it was able to differentiate one impacted site (Port Area/ São Luís Island) from a region relatively free of contaminants (Reference Area/ Caranguejos Island).

  15. Early Osteological Development of Larvae and Juveniles in Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara (Pisces: Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Myeong, Jeong In; Park, Jae Min

    2016-06-01

    We observed the osteological development of larval and juvenile red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) in order to generate data for the assessment of skeletal deformities and to inform phylogenetic systematics research. Larvae and juveniles were obtained from a aquafarm in Muan-gun, Jeolla-namdo Province, Korea. The average water temperature at the time of breeding was 23.0°C and average water salinity was 33.0 psu. Freshly hatched fish larvae had not undergone any ossification, but ossification of the parasphenoid bone, which forms the base of the cranium, occurred as the juveniles reached an average body length (BL) of 2.49 mm. At the same time, ossification of the preopercle and opercle occurred in the operculum, and ossification of the maxilla, which forms the upper jaw, and the dentary bones, which form the lower jaw, began. In addition, ossification of the vertebra occurred by formation of 7 vertebral centra and the neural spine in the abdominal vertebra. When the juveniles reached an average (BL) of 5.22 mm, ossification of the nasal, lateral ethmoid, and alisphenoid bones occurred in the cranium; ossification of the endopterygoid and metapterygoid bones began in the palatine region; and ossification of the hypohyal and interhyal bones occurred in the hyoid arch. At an average (BL) of 20.9 mm, ossification of the basisphenoid bone in the cranium and the suborbital bone in the orbital region occurred. Ossification of the vertebra then occurred by the formation of long pairs of ribs from the third to the ninth abdominal vertebrae, completing osteological development.

  16. Mitochondrial and allozyme genetics of incipient speciation in a landlocked population of Galaxias truttaceus (Pisces: Galaxiidae).

    PubMed

    Ovenden, J R; White, R W

    1990-03-01

    Galaxias truttaceus is found in coastal rivers and streams in south-eastern Australia. It spawns at the head of estuaries in autumn and the larvae spend 3 months of winter at sea before returning to fresh water. In Tasmania there are landlocked populations of G. truttaceus in a cluster of geologically young lakes on the recently glaciated Central Plateau. These populations have no marine larval stage and spawn in the lakes in spring. Speciation due to land locking is thought to be a frequent occurrence within Galaxias. To investigate the nature of the speciation event which may be occurring within lake populations of G. truttaceus we studied the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and allozyme diversity of both lake and stream populations. Using the presence or absence of restriction sites recognized by 13 six-base restriction endonucleases, we found 58 mtDNA haplotypes among 150 fish collected from 13 Tasmanian and one south-east Australian mainland stream populations. The most parsimonious network relating the haplotypes by site loss or gain was starlike in shape. We argue that this arrangement is best explained by selection upon slightly beneficial mutations within the mitochondrial genome. Gene diversity analysis under Wright's island model showed that the populations in each drainage were not genetically subdivided. Only two of these stream haplotypes were found among the 66 fish analyzed from four lake populations. Despite the extreme lack of mtDNA diversity in lake populations, the observed nuclear DNA heterozygosity of 40 lake fish (0.10355) was only slightly less than that of 82 stream fish (0.11635). In the short time (3000-7000 years) that the lake fish have been landlocked, random genetic drift in a finite, stable-sized population was probably not responsible for the lack of mtDNA diversity in the lake populations. We infer the lake populations have probably experienced at least one, severe, but transitory bottleneck possibly induced by natural selection for life-history characters essential for survival in the lacustrine habitat. If speciation is occurring in the landlocked populations of G. truttaceus, then it may be driven by genetic transilience.

  17. Mitochondrial and Allozyme Genetics of Incipient Speciation in a Landlocked Population of Galaxias Truttaceus (Pisces: Galaxiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ovenden, J. R.; White, RWG.

    1990-01-01

    Galaxias truttaceus is found in coastal rivers and streams in south-eastern Australia. It spawns at the head of estuaries in autumn and the larvae spend 3 months of winter at sea before returning to fresh water. In Tasmania there are landlocked populations of G. truttaceus in a cluster of geologically young lakes on the recently glaciated Central Plateau. These populations have no marine larval stage and spawn in the lakes in spring. Speciation due to land locking is thought to be a frequent occurrence within Galaxias. To investigate the nature of the speciation event which may be occurring within lake populations of G. truttaceus we studied the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and allozyme diversity of both lake and stream populations. Using the presence or absence of restriction sites recognized by 13 six-base restriction endonucleases, we found 58 mtDNA haplotypes among 150 fish collected from 13 Tasmanian and one south-east Australian mainland stream populations. The most parsimonious network relating the haplotypes by site loss or gain was starlike in shape. We argue that this arrangement is best explained by selection upon slightly beneficial mutations within the mitochondrial genome. Gene diversity analysis under Wright's island model showed that the populations in each drainage were not genetically subdivided. Only two of these stream haplotypes were found among the 66 fish analyzed from four lake populations. Despite the extreme lack of mtDNA diversity in lake populations, the observed nuclear DNA heterozygosity of 40 lake fish (0.10355) was only slightly less than that of 82 stream fish (0.11635). In the short time (3000-7000 years) that the lake fish have been landlocked, random genetic drift in a finite, stable-sized population was probably not responsible for the lack of mtDNA diversity in the lake populations. We infer the lake populations have probably experienced at least one, severe, but transitory bottleneck possibly induced by natural selection for life-history characters essential for survival in the lacustrine habitat. If speciation is occurring in the landlocked populations of G. truttaceus, then it may be driven by genetic transilience. PMID:2155855

  18. Reproduction and embryogenesis of the mandi-amarelo catfish, Pimelodus maculatus (Pisces, Pimelodidae), in captivity.

    PubMed

    Arantes, F P; Borçato, F L; Sato, Y; Rizzo, E; Bazzoli, N

    2013-02-01

    To study reproduction and embryogenesis, Pimelodus maculatus specimens were kept in captivity and captured bimonthly during 1 year. Gonads samples (211 specimens) were collected and submitted to routine histological techniques. Pimelodus maculatus prepared to reproduce when water temperature was high, and even reached advanced maturation but did not spawn in captivity. Spent fish gonads were not documented, and atretic follicles were frequent (60%) in late maturation females. When then submitted to hypophysation, 70% of the females responded positively to hormonal treatment. Oocyte extrusion occurred 8 h after a second hormonal injection at 26°C. The fertilisation rate was 65.1 ± 9.2% at 24°C. Recently spawned oocytes of P. maculatus were spherical, non-adhesive, yellow in colour, with an average diameter of 1113.92 ± 37.02 μm and covered by a thick gelatinous layer. Blastopore closure occurred 7 h and 30 min after fertilisation. Embryonic development was completed within 18 h after fertilisation. The results of this work provide important knowledge for the handling and cultivation of not only P. maculatus, but other species of potential value for fish culture. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Two new species of Clestobothrium (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea), parasites of Merluccius australis and m. hubbsi (Gadiformes: Merlucciidae) from the Patagonian shelf of Argentina, with comments on Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819).

    PubMed

    de Pertierra, Alicia A Gil; Incorvaia, Inés S; Arredondo, Nathalia J

    2011-06-01

    Abstract: Two new species of bothriocephalidean cestodes, Clestobothrium splendidum sp. n. from Merluccius australis (Hutton) and Clestobothrium cristinae sp. n. from Merluccius hubbsi Marini from the Patagonian shelf of Argentina, are described. Clestobothrium splendidum can be typified by the following characteristics: a medium-sized strobila composed of410-528 proglottides that are much wider than long; 49-90 testes per mature proglottis, partially surrounding the ovary posteriorly; a transversely elongated genital pore situated anterior to spurious articulations; presence of a genital atrium; a globular cirrus-sac occupying 4-6% of mature proglottis width; a vagina with sphincter and three pairs of osmoregulatory canals on each side of the proglottis. Clestobothrium cristinae is characterised by its small size; 71-219 proglottides; 39-64 testes per mature proglottis, usually surrounding completely the ovary posteriorly; a rounded genital pore situated at the same level of spurious articulations; an oval cirrus-sac occupying 8-16% of mature proglottis width; and three pairs of osmoregulatory canals on each side of the proglottis. Clestobothrium cristinae shares with C. splendidum the type and distribution of microtriches, except for the central surface delimited by two lips. Additionally, type and voucher materials of Clestobothrium crassiceps (Rudolphi, 1819) from Merluccius merluccius were studied. A key to species is provided.

  20. Descriptions of four species of grenadier fishes of the genera Hymenocephalus and Hymenogadus (Teleostei, Gadiformes, Macrouridae) from the New Zealand region and Tasman Sea, including two new species of Hymenocephalus.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Peter; Iwamoto, Tomio

    2014-08-21

    Two new species of Hymenocephalus are described from the New Zealand region and Tasman Sea. Hymenocephalus fuscus sp. n. has 11-12 pelvic fin rays, is darkly pigmented, with enlarged bony ridges on the dorsal aspects of head, lacks a chin barbel, has few (16-19) gill rakers on inner side of first arch and is similar to other species in the H. aterrimus species group. Hymenocephalus maculicaudus sp. n. has 8 pelvic fin rays, a mid-lateral line of melanophores on body and tail that extends about a head length posterior to anal fin origin, a short (7-16 % HL) chin barbel and is similar to other species in the H. megalops species group. Hymenocephalus nascens has 12-14 pelvic fin rays, lacks a chin barbel, has a mid-lateral stripe of silvery (fresh) or brownish (preserved) pigment running along trunk and tail. Hymenogadus gracilis has a serrated (weak, near tip) first dorsal fin spine, 7-9 pelvic fin rays, long (20-30% HL) chin barbel, and one row of enlarged melanophores along lateral mid-line of the tail. Hymenocephalus nascens and Hymenogadus gracilis are recorded for the first time from the New Zealand region. A key to the known New Zealand species of Hymenocephalus and Hymenogadus is provided. 

  1. Simulation of a Shot from the Otomelara 76/62 with Pisces-2delk Gain Burning (Simulatie van een schot van de Otomelara 76/62 met pisces-2delk Gain Burning).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    zijn tijdstap. Dit gebeurt zodanig dat schokgolven of trillingen nooit in 66n cycle een hele gridcel kunnen passeren. Merk op dat daardoor naast de...2DELK theoretical manual (1987) van S. Hancock [11 en het Technical Report TR 87-2118/1 ’Equations and numerical solution of gas-particle flow. GRAINS...bij het programma beschikbaar. Dit is een duidelijke handicap. 2.3 De input-rile In deze paragraaf zal de input-file worden bekeken. Omdat de manual

  2. Molecular phylogeny of the families Pleuronectidae and Poecilopsettidae (PISCES, Pleuronectiformes) from Korea, with a Proposal for a new classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hwan-Sung; Kim, Jin-Koo; Kim, Byung-Jik

    2016-03-01

    A new classification of the Korean pleuronectids was proposed based on a molecular phylogeny using specimens collected from Korea (including some Japanese specimens) between 2008 and 2013. A molecular phylogeny based on partial sequences of the two mitochondrial DNA regions (COI and 16S rRNA) supported the reciprocal monophyly of the three genera, Cleisthenes, Pleuronectes and Pseudopleuronectes. We also found that the genus Poecilopsetta is clearly distinct from Pleuronectidae at the family level. Therefore, the previous classification of the Korean pleuronectids should be changed as follows; two families (Pleuronectidae and Poecilopsettidae), 18 genera, and 26 species. Further research is required to resolve the taxonomic uncertainty of the five species in the genus Limanda, which clustered into two clades in our analysis.

  3. Effect of temperature on microstructures and retention properties in tungsten exposed to D + He + Be mixture plasmas in PISCES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, N.; Miyamoto, M.; Nishijima, D.; Baldwin, M. J.; Doerner, R. P.; Ueda, Y.; Sagara, A.; Höschen, T.

    2015-08-01

    The influence of temperature on microstructures and D retention properties in tungsten exposed to D + He + Be mixture plasmas is investigated. For the low temperature exposure case at 573 K, the Be seeding to D + He mixture plasmas results in the suppression of high density He nano-bubbles, which are distinctive internal defects observed in He irradiated/exposed metals. In contrast, fine and high-density He bubbles appear for W exposed to D + He + Be mixture plasmas at higher temperatures of >773 K. TDS measurements also show that the influence of Be seeding to D + He mixture plasmas, which counteracts the significant reduction in D retention, becomes weak with increasing temperature. From XPS analyses, it is considered that Be2W is formed by interdiffusion and solid-state-reaction at the high temperature exposure case, and the influence of the metallic Be on surface properties gradually disappears with increasing temperature.

  4. Extreme clonal uniformity of Phoxinus eos/neogaeus gynogens (pisces: Cyprinidae) among variable habitats in northern Minnesota beaver ponds.

    PubMed Central

    Elder, J F; Schlosser, I J

    1995-01-01

    Genetic surveys of parthenogenetic vertebrate populations have demonstrated a common pattern of relatively high degrees of clonal variation and the coexistence of numerous clones. In striking contrast, the Phoxinus eos/Phoxinus neogaeus/hybrid gynogen complex of cyprinid fishes exhibits no clonal variation within a northern Minnesota drainage characterized by successional beaver ponds. Gynogens were sampled from three habitats in each of four different pond types in a single drainage in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. The abundance of gynogens relative to sexual dace varied with pond type, being least common in deep upland ponds and most common in shallow, collapsed, lowland ponds (13.4% and 48.6%, respectively). Simple-sequence multilocus DNA fingerprinting of 464 individual gynogens detected one, and only one, clone. DNA fingerprints, generated sequentially by using three oligonucleotide probes, (CAC)5, (GACA)4, and the Jeffreys' 33.15 probe, all revealed the same unprecedented lack of variation. The extreme lack of clonal diversity in these gynogens across a range of habitat types does not fit the general pattern of high clonal diversity found within populations of other vertebrate parthenogens. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7761438

  5. [Embryonic and Larval Development of the Asian Seabass Lates calcarifer (Pisces: Perciformes: Latidae) under Thermostatically Controlled Conditions].

    PubMed

    Shadrin, A M; Pavlov, D S

    2015-01-01

    Material for this study was obtained from the hatchery with brood stock of Lates calcarifer that originated from a natural population living in inshore waters off Central Vietnam. Commercial interest in L. calcarifer as an object of mariculture and wildstock fishery has resulted in several publications on its early life history; nevertheless, comprehensive description of early development of L. calcarifer based on controlled incubation of embryos and larvae has remained absent. In the present paper embryonic and larval development to the stage of anlage of pelvic fins is described in detail and illustrated with original drawings of live material on the basis of thermostatically controlled incubation of embryos at 27°C and larvae at 26.8°C (26.5-28.0°C). The first cleavage furrow appeared at the age of 33.5 min. The duration of synchronous cleavage cycle was 16 min. About 80% of all embryos hatched at the age of 18 h. The length of newly hatched larva during the first hour after emergence from the egg shell was 1.63 ± 0.016 mm (1.50-1.75 mm). Chronology of development of the organs, early circulatory system, and pigmentation pattern is given. The dynamics of change in the trunk and caudal body segment number in larva from hatching to the moment of anlage of pelvic fins is shown. The total number of body segments reached the maximum value of 26-27 soon after hatching and then decreased to 20-21 segments. Newly received data are discussed in a comparative context of development of some other teleosts.

  6. [Distribution, abundance and population parameters of Diapterus rhombeus (Pisces: Gerreidae) in Laguna de Términos, Campeche, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ayala-Pérez, L A; Gómez-Montes, B A; Miranda, J R

    2001-06-01

    Diapterus rhombeus dominates the nektonic community of Terminos Lagoon and is associated to zones with submerged vegetation, temperatures between 27 and 33 degrees C and salinity between 25 and 36.5 UPS. A total of 3,024 individuals were collected with a trawl net in 23 sites between September 1997 and September 1998. The length-weight model parameters are a = 0.0098; b = 3.155 with a 96% correlation. The growth parameters are L infinity = 20.4 cm, k = 0.74 and t(o) = -4.207 and the total mortality coefficient is 3.526. Fish length is 2.5-18.0 cm with a mode of 7.5 cm. Recruitment is continuous with a peak from May to August. The species uses several habitats of the lagoon mainly for feeding and growth, reproduction probably occurs in the adjacent continental shelf. Movements between continental shelf and the estuarine system represent a continuous energy flow.

  7. Campechetrema herrerai n. gen., n. sp. (Trematoda: Cryptogonimidae) from the intestine of Petenia splendida (Pisces: Cichlidae) from Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lamothe-Argumedo, R; Salgado-Maldonado, G; Pineda-López, R

    1997-02-01

    Campechetrema herrerai n. gen, n. sp. is described from the cichlid fish Petenia splendida from EI Vapor lagoon, an oligohaline lagoon, Campeche, México. It is distinguished from other genera of Cryptogoniminae by the presence of a single gonotyl, a preequatorial acetabulum, few vitelline follicles, and lack of pars prostatica and prepharynx.

  8. Effects of a Supraseasonal Drought on the Ecological Attributes of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Pisces, Sciaenidae) in a Brazilian Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Antonia E. F.; Oliveira, Jônnata F.; Fernandes, Rodrigo; Costa, Rodrigo S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a supraseasonal drought on the ecological attributes of Plagioscion squamosissimus. The fish were caught quarterly from February 2010 to November 2014 using gill nets in the reservoir of Santa Cruz, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The abundance of the species was evaluated with the catch per unit effort (CPUE) metric and then correlated with the accumulated rainfall and water volume of the reservoir. The diet of the fish was evaluated using the feeding index (IAi). The proportional similarity index (PSi) was used to evaluate the variation in the niches of the fish. The body condition was inferred through the relative condition factor, and its variation was assessed with ANOVA. A reduction in the abundance of the species that were positively correlated with the reservoir water volume was observed. The diet of the fish comprised shrimp, gastropods, fish, insects, shrimp larvae, and vegetable matter, with shrimp being the major component. PSi showed the occurrence of individual specialization during November 2013 and November 2014. The relative condition factor was not correlated with a reduction in the water volume of the reservoir. The supraseasonal drought did not affect the relative condition factor, diet, and the trophic niche, but it did affect the species abundance. PMID:28326431

  9. Pirimicarb-based formulation-induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in the freshwater fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns, 1842) (Pisces, Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Vera-Candioti, Josefina; Soloneski, Sonia; Larramendy, Marcelo L

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the aspects of lethality, genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity in the ten spotted live-bearer exposed under laboratory conditions to the pirimicarb-based formulation Patton Flow® (50% active ingredient (a.i.)). Acute effects were evaluated using different end points for lethality, genotoxicity, and cytotoxicity. Median lethal concentration (LC50) estimation was employed as a bioassay for lethality, whereas micronucleus (MN) induction and alterations in erythrocyte/erythroblast frequency were used as end points for genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, respectively. Results demonstrated an LC5096h value of 88 mg/L. Patton Flow® increased the MN frequency in fish erythrocytes after 48 h of exposure at a concentration of 66 mg/L, whereas a concentration range of 22-66 mg/L was able to exert the same genotoxic effect at 96 h of treatment. Furthermore, cytotoxicity was also observed by alterations in erythrocyte/erythroblast frequencies within the concentration range of 22-66 mg/L, regardless of the exposure time. Our current observations provide evidence that Patton Flow® (50% a.i.) should be considered a clear lethal, cytotoxic, and genotoxic agent on Cnesterodon decemmaculatus. Thus, repeated applications of this carbamic insecticide can enter the aquatic environment and exert deleterious effects on aquatic organisms other than the evaluated species C. decemmaculatus.

  10. Two new species of parasitic nematodes from the dogtooth tuna Gymnosarda unicolor (Pisces) off the Maldive Islands.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Lorber, Julia; Konecný, Robert

    2007-02-01

    Two new nematode species, Philometra gymnosardae n. sp. (Philometridae) and Heptochona maldivensis n. sp. (Rhabdochonidae), are described from the dogtooth tuna Gymnosarda unicolor (Rüppell) (Scombridae, Perciformes) from the Indian Ocean off the Maldive Islands (Republic of Maldives). The former species is characterized mainly by unequal, conspicuously long (859 and 435 microm) spicules; the structure of the caudal end in the male (found in the host's stomach); by markedly large, oval cephalic papillae (n = 8) of the outer circle; the presence of a small, anterior bulb on the very long esophagus; and 2 large caudal projections in the gravid female (parasitic in the host's body cavity). This is the first-known species of Philometra whose gravid females are present in the body cavity of tuna fishes. Heptochona maldivensis resembles H. stromatei but differs mainly in the position of deirids, shape of the muscular esophagus, character of postanal papillae, length of the left spicule (648 microm), much larger body measurements, location in the host (stomach), and the host type. Rhabdochona parastromatei Bilqees, 1971, is synonymized with H. stromatei, whereas Heptochona sindica Akram and Pie de Imprenta, 1988, and H. rivdica Akram, 1988, are invalid names. Heptochona varmai is transferred to another genus as Rhabdochona varmai (Gupta and Masoodi, 1990) n. comb. Rhabdochona varmai, Heptochona schmidtii Arya, 1991, and Rhabdochona marina Lakshmi and Sudha, 1999, are considered species inquirendae.

  11. The Mugil curema species complex (Pisces, Mugilidae): a new karyotype for the Pacific white mullet mitochondrial lineage.

    PubMed

    Nirchio, Mauro; Oliveira, Claudio; Siccha-Ramirez, Zoila R; de Sene, Viviani F; Sola, Luciana; Milana, Valentina; Rossi, Anna Rita

    2017-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have shown that the Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 species complex includes M. incilis Hancock, 1830, M. thoburni (Jordan & Starks, 1896) and at least four "M. curema" mitochondrial lineages, considered as cryptic species. The cytogenetic data on some representatives of the species complex have shown a high cytogenetic diversity. This research reports the results of cytogenetic and molecular analyses of white mullet collected in Ecuador. The analyzed specimens were molecularly assigned to the Mugil sp. O, the putative cryptic species present in the Pacific Ocean and showed a 2n = 46 karyotype, which is composed of 2 metacentric and 44 subtelocentric/acrocentric chromosomes. This karyotype is different from the one described for M. incilis (2n = 48) and from those of the two western Atlantic lineages Mugil curema (2n = 28), and Mugil margaritae (2n = 24). Data suggest the need for a morphological analysis to assign a species name to this Pacific lineage.

  12. Comparative molecular cytogenetic analysis of three Leuciscus species (Pisces, Cyprinidae) using chromosome banding and FISH with rDNA.

    PubMed

    Boron, Alicja; Porycka, Katarzyna; Ito, Daisuke; Abe, Syuiti; Kirtiklis, Lech

    2009-03-01

    A comparative molecular cytogenetic analysis was performed on three species of the genus Leuciscus viz. ide L. idus, chub L. cephalus and dace L. leuciscus distributed in Poland, using C-, Ag- and chromomycin A(3) (CMA(3))-stainings and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5.8S + 28S rDNA as a probe. Although the three species examined shared 2n = 50 chromosomes and the largest acrocentric chromosome pair in the complement, they were characterized with karyotypic differences in terms of the number of uni- and biarmed chromosomes and the localization of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) revealed by Ag-staining and FISH. L. idus and L. cephalus showed the rDNA sites on the long arms of one submetacentric (SM) chromosome pair and on the short arms of one subtelocentric (ST) chromosome pair, respectively. These NORs were CMA(3)-positive, GC-rich and C-positive heterochromatic sites in both species. Such chromosome banding features were also true for four NORs localizing on one of each SM and ST pair in L. leuciscus, but considerable numerical NOR polymorphism became apparent with Ag-staining and FISH due to a different combination of these NOR-bearing SMs and STs in this dace. The present results indicate that the molecular cytogenetic analysis applied herein may become useful to elucidate the karyotype evolution and phylogenetic relationships among the species in the genus Leuciscus and other related groups.

  13. PiSCES: Pictures with social context and emotional scenes with norms for emotional valence, intensity, and social engagement.

    PubMed

    Teh, Elizabeth J; Yap, Melvin J; Liow, Susan J Rickard

    2017-08-25

    Picture databases are commonly used in experimental work on various aspects of emotion processing. However, existing standardized facial databases, typically used to explore emotion recognition, can be augmented with more contextual information for studying emotion and social perception. Moreover, the perception of social engagement, i.e., the degree of interaction or engagement inferred between the people in target pictures, has not been measured. In this paper, we describe the development of a database comprising 203 black-and-white line drawings depicting people within various situational contexts, and normed on perceived emotional valence, intensity, and social engagement, a new construct. Analyses of ratings collected from 62 young adults (30 females, 32 males; mean age 22 years) revealed the typical quadratic relationship between valence and intensity, i.e., stimuli that are more emotionally charged, whether positively or negatively valenced, are more intense than emotionally-neutral stimuli. Moreover, the results showed significant linear and quadratic relationships between valence and social engagement ratings, indicating that emotionally-charged social scenes were perceived as more engaging than emotionally-neutral social scenes. This new database will facilitate investigations of how people perceive and interpret social and emotional information in everyday interactions, and is offered as a resource to experimenters involved in social and/or emotional processing research.

  14. Ultrastructural study of vitellogenesis and oogenesis of Crepidostomum metoecus (Digenea, Allocreadiidae), intestinal parasite of Salmo trutta (Pisces, Teleostei)

    PubMed Central

    Greani, Samuel; Quilichini, Yann; Marchand, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    We describe the vitellogenesis and oogenesis of Crepidostomum metoecus from Salmo trutta collected in Corsica. This is the first study conducted in the Allocreadiidae family. The maturation of C. metoecus vitellocytes comprises four different stages depending on organelle content. The follicular vitellarium is surrounded by a basal lamina. Vitellocytes are randomly distributed into the vitellarium, although fully mature vitellocytes are found in the center of the follicle. During maturation, the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio decreases, whereas synthetic activity increases. Fully mature vitellocytes are filled with β-glycogen particles and shell globule clusters. Compared to other trematodes studied, C. metoecus possesses a large amount of nutritive reserves for the developing embryo and high quantities of material for the developing shell. Oocyte maturation takes place in four stages: oogonia, primary oocytes, developing oocytes, and mature oocytes. Developing oocytes enter the zygotene-pachytene stage of the first meiotic division recognizable by the presence of synaptonemal complexes in the nucleoplasm. The low protein composition of mature oocytes associated with the large nutrient content of vitellocytes of C. metoecus enables us to consider that oocytes do not take part of the nutrition of the future embryo of the miracidium. A cytochemical test (Thiéry method) allowed us to detect the presence of polysaccharides and glycogen during maturation of these two cell types. PMID:27845028

  15. Sperm ultrastructure of the digenean Aphallus tubarium (Rudolphi, 1819) Poche, 1926 (Platyhelminthes, Cryptogonimidae) intestinal parasite of Dentex dentex (Pisces, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Greani, S; Marchand, B

    2012-02-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of a cryptogonimid digenean, Aphallus tubarium, a parasite of Dentex dentex, is described. The spermatozoon possesses the elements found in other digeneans: two axonemes with 9+"1" pattern, a mitochondrion, a nucleus, cortical microtubules, external ornamentation and spine-like bodies. However, the mitochondrion appears as a cord with a bulge; this characteristic has never been described in other studied cryptogonimid and in other digeneans except in one lepocreadiid, Holorchis micracanthum. Likewise, the presence of a thin cytoplasm termination in the anterior part of the spermatozoon has never been pointed out in the cryptogonimids.

  16. Lipids in the skin of a cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) (Heteropneustidae, Pisces). A histochemical investigation.

    PubMed

    Mittal, A K; Rai, A K; Banerjee, T K; Agarwal, S K

    1976-08-25

    Localization and characterization of different lipids in the cellular constituents of the skin of Heteropneustes fossilis has been made using several histochemical techniques. High contents of cholesterol, its esters and phospholipids have been correlated with the metabolically active state of the basal cells undergoing cell proliferation and differentiation. The polygonal cells in the outermost layer of the epidermis, though rich in phospholipid contain small amounts of cholesterol and its esters. This has been correlated with the metabolically less active state of theses cells. Neutral lipids and phospholipids in the polygonal cells of the outermost layer may contribute to the contents of surface slime and act as an efficient barrier for the penetration of water through the skin. The deposits of neutral lipids in the subcutis may provide energy during the period of fasting, act as a barrier for water diffusion through the skin and serve as shock absorbing pads protecting the fish from mechanical injury.

  17. Embryonic and Morphological Development of Larvae and Juvenile of the Buenos Aires Tetra, Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Pisces Characidae) Characidae Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Min; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Han, Ran

    2015-01-01

    We have launched an investigation for Embryonic Development, Larvae and Juvenile Morphology, of Buenos aires tetra in order to build basic data of Characidae and fish seeding production. We brought 50 couples of Characidae from Bizidduck aquarium in Yeosu-si, Jeollanamdo, from Korea on March of 2015. We put them in the tetragonal glass aquarium (50×50×30 cm). Breeding water temperature was 27.5~28.5°C (mean 28.0±0.05°C) and being maintained. The shape of fertilized egg was round shape, and it was adhesive demersal egg. The egg size was 0.63~0.91 mm (mean 0.74±0.07 mm, n=20). After getting fertilized egg, the developmental stage was gastrula stage, and embryo covered almost two-thirds of Yolk. Incubation was happened after 16 hours 13 minutes from gastrula stage, and the tail of juvenile came out first with tearing egg capsule. Immediately after the incubation, prelarvae had 3.78~3.88 mm length (mean 3.84±0.04 mm, n=5), and it had no mouth and anus yet. 34 days after hatching from the incubation, juvenile had 8.63~13.1 mm (mean 10.9±1.66 mm), and it had similar silver-colored body shape with its mother. PMID:25949207

  18. Micronucleus frequency and hematologic index in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Ariidae) for environmental impact assessment at a protected area in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2014-10-06

    This study used micronucleus assays and erythrocyte indices in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in the Environmental Protection Area at Maracanã, São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data (length and weight) and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices including: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated, and blood samples were examined for micronuclei and nuclear morphological changes. Micronuclei were found in fish from both locations, although the frequency was higher in fish from Ambude River. Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: micronuclei and binucleate nuclei. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. macropomum as indicators of environmental health.

  19. A management plan for the sport fishery of Parachromis dovii (Pisces: Cichlidae) in Hule lake, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Tabash, F A; Guadamuz, E

    2000-01-01

    A first attempt to regulate the fishing activity while preserving the species and its habitats is presented for Hule lake. We intensively sampled the "guapote" between March 1996 and April 1997 using monofilament gill nets and a floating line, collecting 421 individuals. P. dovii biomass was relatively low; this species had a long life cycle (8-10 years) and the growth oscillation was low (C = 0.3). Maximum life expectation was estimated at 12 years and the point of minimum growth coincided with the spawning that takes place between November and December. After spawning, P. dovii take around seven months to reach recruitment size (54.6 mm). The length for sexual maturity was 134 mm Lt, which indicates that this species is viable for reproduction soon after leaving the protection zones around the lagoon. "Guapote" sport fishing in the Hule lake is in equilibrium, the renewal rate is 80%. An increment in the actual fishery effort is not recommended, since it could seriously affect the natural renewal capacity of the stock.

  20. Integrative taxonomy of Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae (Nematoda) in Paralichthys patagonicus and Xystreurys rasile (Pisces: Teleostei) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Michelle Cristie Gonçalves da; Knoff, Marcelo; Felizardo, Nilza Nunes; Di Azevedo, Maria Isabel N; Torres, Eduardo José Lopes; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; São Clemente, Sérgio Carmona de

    2016-10-17

    Thirty-six Paralichthys patagonicus and 30 Xystreurys rasile were collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to investigate the presence of anisakid and raphidascaridid nematodes. Anisakis typica, Terranova sp., Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. were identified using integrative taxonomy of morphological and genetic data. Morphological and morphometric analysis was conducted using bright field microscopy with scanning electron microscopy for topographic characterization of the cuticular surface. Phylogenetic analysis, using ITS and cox2 molecular targets, clearly demonstrated the species identification of A. typica and H. deardorffoverstreetorum and the high diversity of H. deardorffoverstreetorum. This is the first report of A. typica, H. deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. parasitizing P. patagonicus and X. rasile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Morphological biomarkers in Prochilodus lineatus (pisces, prochilodontidae) for environmental impact assessment in the region of the Baixada Maranhense, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dantas, Janaína Gomes; Andrade, Ticianne de Sousa de Oliveira Mota; Sodré, Camilla Fernanda Lima; Castro, Jonatas da Silva; Carvalho-Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes; Junior, Audálio Rebelo Torres

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the types of histopathological lesions found in gills of Prochilodus lineatus of the Environmental Protection Area of the Baixada Maranhense region (Brazil). Fish were collected in Mearim river. Sampling took place in October, November and December 2014. We have purchased 30 samples of fish from local fishermen. In the laboratory fish gills were removed, and then fixed in 10% formalin solution and kept into alcohol 70% to the usual histological processing. The tissue was performed by light microscopy and findings were photomicrographed in light microscope - ZEIS. The following lesions were identified: epithelial displacement, the marginal channel shift a start vascular congestion, hyperplasia and merging multiple slides; epithelial disruption, edema, vascular congestion, total fusion of lamellae and disorganization of secondary lamellae. These changes express a response of the body to some xenobiontes. Morphological changes in the gills may represent adaptive strategies for conservation of some biological functions when animals are facing changes in the water quality.

  2. Unique patterns of pelvic fin evolution: a case study of balistoid fishes (Pisces: Tetraodontiformes) based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Yamanoue, Yusuke; Miya, Masaki; Matsuura, Keiichi; Sakai, Harumi; Katoh, Masaya; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2009-01-01

    Balistoid fishes have a unique and reduced pelvic fin structure, which does not exhibit paired structures. The pelvic complex exhibits reductive trends, but its rudimentary structure was retained among balistoids, and its unidirectional and parsimonious reduction in more derived lineages has been hypothesized based on morphology. We investigated the evolution of pelvic complex reduction in balistoids using whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) data from 33 species (27 newly determined during the study) that represent the entire morphological diversity of balistoids. Partitioned maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were conducted with two datasets that comprised concatenated nucleotide sequences from 13 protein-coding genes (all positions included; third codon positions converted into purine [R] and pyrimidine [Y] [RY-coding]) plus 22 transfer RNA and two ribosomal RNA genes. The resultant trees were well resolved and largely congruent, with most internal branches having high support values. The mitogenomic datasets strongly supported monophylies of both balistids and monacanthids, but rejected previous hypotheses on the intra-relationships in each family. The present tree topology revealed that highly reduced pelvic complexes had multiple origins, and optimization of the traits on the resultant tree strongly suggested the non-unidirectional and independent reduction of pelvic complexes in balistoids. The evolution of balistoid pelvic structure is very different among fishes that exhibit its reductive trends, and this uniqueness in pelvic evolution may be a link to their reproductive behaviors.

  3. Characterization of three species from the subfamily Leuciscinae (Pisces, Cyprinidae) using the nuclear ITS-1 rDNA spacer.

    PubMed

    Kirtiklis, Lech; Grzymkowska, Monika; Boroń, Alicja

    2013-01-01

    Fish species from the subfamily Leuciscinae are an important part of the European ichthyofauna. The abundance of this fish group has decreased in some natural populations because of human impact and partly by interspecific hybridization. The objective of the present study was to use the ITS-1 rDNA spacer for identification of the European chub, the common dace and the ide. The examination was conducted using the PCR-RFLP technique. PCR products of closely-related species were discriminated using Hinfl and Smal restriction endonucleases. Characteristic RFLP patterns observed in this study offer a simple method for distinguishing the species, thus providing an additional method of identification useful in fish management, biodiversity conservation and aquaculture.

  4. Seasonal and ontogenetic changes modulate oxygen consumption and antioxidant defenses in the cutlassfish Trichiurus lepturus (Pisces, Trichiuridae).

    PubMed

    Filho, Danilo Wilhelm; Fraga, César G; Boveris, Alberto

    2017-03-24

    Several oxidative stress markers and liver oxygen consumption were measured in different tissues of the marine fish Trichiurus lepturus in late summer and late winter, as well as in juveniles and adult females. Oxygen consumption in liver, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in liver, red cells, lens and roe, vitamin E, ubiquinol10, β-carotene in liver, red cells, and roe, as well as contents of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipoperoxidation (TBARS) in red cells were evaluated. Regarding ontogeny, compared to adult fish, juveniles showed significant higher SOD activity in liver and lens, as well as higher liver contents of vitamin E. In contrast, adult females showed higher contents of vitamin E in roe, ubiquinol10 in liver and roe, and higher GSH levels in red cells, while the other markers remained unchanged. Regarding seasonal changes, no differences were detected in adult females for liver CAT and ubiquinol10, CAT in roe, vitamin E in roe and in red cells, liver and red cell ubiquinol10, and in GSH in red cells. However, and coinciding with the spawning period of late summer, liver oxygen consumption, SOD and CAT activity and ubiquinol10 contents in roe and SOD activity in red cells, and red cell TBARS contents were higher compared to late winter. These temporal antioxidant adjustments of Trichiurus lepturus seem to be parallel to the higher oxygen consumption typical of juvenile forms and also to the intense spawning and foraging activities of adult females in late summer.

  5. [The diet of the neotropical insectivorous fish Creagrutus bolivari (Pisces: Characidae) according to the "graphic" and "relative importance" methods].

    PubMed

    Ortaz, Mario; von Bach, Pablo Borjas; Candia, Rubén

    2006-12-01

    The diet ofa neotropical fish species (Creagrutus bolivari) was studied using different methods: the Cortés 1997 graphic method and two relative importance indexes, one designed by George and Hadley in 1979 (% RIi) and another proposed by Cortés in 1997 (% IRIi). Only discrete prey (aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates) were used in the diet analysis. The occurrence (% A), number (% N) and weight (% G) frequencies were estimated for each food item. A total of 240 specimens (size range from 25.3 to 64.7 mm standard length) were analyzed. For values of % A > 50 %, % IRIi was higher than % RIi with an opposite trend (up to 130 times) for values of % A < 50 %. % IRIi overestimated the relative importance of prey for high values of % A, while it underestimated the relative importance of prey for low values of % A, showing a nonlinear relationship to % A. The variables used in the Cortés graphic method are insufficient to evaluate predator feeding strategy (generalization versus specialization). Therefore, we suggest including other variables, such as population and individual trophic niche breadth and a suitable field sampling record. An extended sampling record is necessary to classify prey as rare or dominant according to Cortés' classification. The indexes of relative importance and graphic method are complementary. Compound indexes that comprise mass, number, and occurrence provide a more accurate description of diet and allow comparative studies. The graphic analysis is easy to interpret and helps in the evaluation of prey importance and predator feeding strategy.

  6. Estimation of spawning area of Pisodonophis sangjuensis Ji and Kim, 2011 (Pisces: Ophichthidae) based on leptocephali size and distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hwan-Sung; Hwang, Kangseok; Choi, Jung Hwa; Cha, Hyung-Kee; Kim, Jin-Koo

    2017-06-01

    Pre-metamorphic leptocephali of Pisodonophis sangjuensis ( n = 91, 10.4-90.2 mm in total length, TL) were collected in the East China Sea for the first time. Pre-metamorphic leptocephali of P. sangjuensis, which were identified using mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (mtDNA COI), are characterized by various combinations of morphological characters: 8 moderate to pronounced gut loops with the kidney terminating on the 6-7th loops; and 8 subcutaneous pigment patches on the tail just ventral to the notochord. Pisodonophis sangjuensis leptocephali were more numerously collected offshore than inshore around Jeju Island. The smallest leptocephali (< 15.0 mm TL) were collected from the south far from Jeju Island, and the largest leptocephali (> 100.0 mm TL) were collected from around Jeju Island and the southern coast of Korea. Our findings indicate that P. sangjuensis spawns offshore south of Jeju Island that is an area associated with high water temperature, and then the hatched leptocephali are transported to Jeju Island or the southern coast of Korea by the Tsushima Warm Current.

  7. [Phylogeography of Altai osmans (Oreoleuciscus sp., Cyprinidae, Pisces) based on sequence variation of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene].

    PubMed

    Slyn'ko, Iu V; Borovikova, E A

    2012-06-01

    Representatives of the genus Oreoleuciscus (Altai osmans) from the water bodies of Western Mongolia were examined for sequence polymorphism of the mitochondrial DNA fragment containing the cytochrome b (Cyt-b) gene. A total of 17 sequence variants (haplotypes) were discovered, which formed two clusters, A and B, with nonoverlapping geographic localization. Cluster A included haplotypes of Altai osmans from the Valley of Lakes water bodies. Cluster B consisted of two subclusters, the first of which (B1) united sequence variants of the populations from Hollow of the Great Lakes and the lakes of the Great Altai Range. The second subcluster (B2) was formed by the haplotypes originating from the Hollow of the Lake Uvs, some isolated lakes of the Northwestern Khangay region, and the water bodies of the Arctic Ocean Basin (basins of Selenga and Orchon rivers). Based on the genetic divergence estimates and the radiation time of genetic geographic groups identified, the existence of three allopatric species of Altaic osmans in the genus Oreoleuciscus was substantiated.

  8. Comparative age and growth of common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Pisces: Centropomidae) from coastal and riverine areas in Southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Perera-Garcia, Martha A; Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Contreras-Sánchez, Wilfrido; Ferrara, Allyse; Huerta-Ortiz, Maricela; Hernández-Gómez, Raúl E

    2013-06-01

    Common snook Centropomus unidecimalis is an important commercial and fishery species in Southern Mexico, however the high exploitation rates have resulted in a strong reduction of its abundances. Since, the information about its population structure is scarce, the objective of the present research was to determine and compare the age structure in four important fishery sites. For this, age and growth of common snook were determined from specimens collected monthly, from July 2006 to March 2008, from two coastal (Barra Bosque and Barra San Pedro) and two riverine (San Pedro and Tres Brazos) commercial fishery sites in Tabasco, Mexico. Age was determined using sectioned saggitae otoliths and data analyzed by von Bertalanffy and Levenberg-Marquardt among others. Estimated ages ranged from 2 to 17 years. Monthly patterns of marginal increment formation and the percentage of otoliths with opaque rings on the outer edge demonstrated that a single annulus was formed each year. The von Bertalanffy parameters were calculated for males and females using linear adjustment and the non-linear method of Levenberg-Marquardt. The von Bertalanffy growth equations were FLt = 109.21(1-e-0.2(t+0.57)) for Barra Bosque, FLt = 94.56(1-e-027(t+0.485)) for Barra San Pedro, FLt = 97.15(1-e 0.17(t + 1.32)) for San Pedro and FLt = 83.77(1-e-026(t + 0.49)) for Tres Brazos. According to (Hotelling's T2, p < 0.05) test growth was significantly greater for females than for males. Based on the Chen test, von Bertalanffy growth curves were different among the study sites (RSS, p < 0.05). Based on the observed differences in growth parameters among sampling sites (coastal and riverine environments) future research need to be conducted on migration and population genetics, in order to delineate the stock structure of this population and support management programs.

  9. The significance of meristic variation in Benthosema glaciale (Pisces, Myctophoidei) and of the species distribution off northwest Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badcock, Julian

    1981-12-01

    A comparison of meristics (vertebrae, AO photophores, and gill rakers) between populations of the lanternfish Benthosema glaciale from the eastern North Atlantic north of the Gulf of Cadiz, the Canary Current Upwelling Region, and the Mediterranean reaffirms the distinctions made by TåNING (1918, Report on the Danish Oceanographical Expeditions 1908-1910 to the Mediterranean and adjacent seas, 2, 1-154) between Northern Atlantic and Mediterranean forms and furthermore shows that the Upwelling and Mediterranean populations are indistinguishable on the basis of these characters. Although the current systems through the Straits of Gibraltar are such that the potential for contact between the Northern Atlantic and Mediterranean populations exists, no clinal relationship of meristics between them was found in the area of Mediterranean Outflow. This, and observed changes in interspecific relationships held by the Northern population and also the different relationships held by the Northern and Mediterranean populations point strongly to their genetic separation. Consideration of other species showing distribution patterns analagous to those of B. glaciale populations suggests that whilst gene flow between the Mediterranean and Canary Current Upwelling regions must be strongly maintained, that between the Mediterranean and Northern Atlantic is much weaker. Moreover, the evidence suggests that a subpolar-temperate and temperate mesopelagic fish fauna may exist in a pseudoceanic capacity, extending southwards of the Gulf of Cadiz along the northwest African slpe area in the "Mauritanean Upwelling Region". Within the northern sector of this region these species have their centres of abundance over the slope rather than off it, whereas species of other basic distribution patterns (northern and tropical) have their centres further offshore, at least in late winter and early spring. The onslope fauna breeds and thrives around upwelling conditions, whereas the situation regarding northern species of the offslope fauna may be analagous to that on the western seaboard, where tropical species can be maintained in abundance in temperate climes by the Florida Current-Gulf Stream system. It is suggested that the hydrographic and circulatory characters off northwest Africa would maintain the core abundances of these two faunas as separate entities.

  10. Host and environmental risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium scophthalmi (Apicomplexa) infection in cultured turbot, Psetta maxima (L.) (Pisces, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Pellitero, Pilar; Perez, Andrés; Quiroga, M Isabel; Redondo, M José; Vázquez, Sonia; Riaza, Ana; Palenzuela, Oswaldo; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Nieto, José M

    2009-11-12

    An epidemiological cohort study of Cryptosporidium scophthalmi in cultured turbot Psetta maxima L. of Northwestern Spain was conducted along a four-year period. Four different ongrowing cohorts were monitored monthly from introduction into the ongrowing tanks (10-50 g) until reaching market size (400-1400 g). The association of host and environmental factors with five categories of parasite abundance was assessed using a multivariable regression framework. Epidemiological factors assessed here were water temperature, weight, length, month of collection, season, age, origin, condition factor, water filtration, and status to the myxozoan Enteromyxum scophthalmi infection. E. scophthalmi was included into the analysis because it targets the same organ than C. scophthalmi and it was prevalent in the studied population. The multivariable analysis demonstrated the statistically significant association between several factors and parasite abundance. C. scophthalmi abundance was associated (P<0.05) with age, condition factor, season, and status to E. scophthalmi infection. Young animals, with poor condition factor, during spring or summer, and not infected with the myxozoan were most likely to be highly infected by C. scophthalmi. Inclusion of these four variables significantly (P<0.05) improved the model, compared to the model that did not include any of these epidemiological factors. Increasing levels of C. scophthalmi abundance were associated (P<0.01) with higher severity of C. scophthalmi-compatible lesions. The frequency of distribution of C. scophthalmi abundance was clearly right-skewed and fitted a negative binomial distribution, whereas the intensity of infection fitted a Poisson distribution. The quantification of the variance-to-mean ratio stratified by age demonstrated overdispersion for 8-16 months old fish, although this bivariate association is likely affected by several other factors, as suggested by the results of the multivariable analysis. The negative relation between C. scophthalmi abundance and status to E. scophthalmi infection suggests differences in the transmission, onset, and course of both infections. The coarse filtration used in some cohorts did not significantly affect the levels of infection. C. scophthalmi was probably introduced into the ongrowing tanks mainly with carrier fish, though the involvement of infective oocysts from the water supply cannot be disregarded. Infection prevalence and mean intensity decreased with fish age and a seasonal distribution was found. Results presented here will help to understand the epidemiology of C. scophthalmi in turbot, to estimate the expected levels of infection associated with presence or absence of epidemiological factors, and to quantify the impact that the disease may have on susceptible turbot populations. The multivariable model used here is more powerful than the visual inspection of graphics for exploring associations in cooperative processes and can be easily extended to the assessment of epidemiological associations in other population and parasitic diseases.

  11. Effects of predation environment and food availability on somatic growth in the Livebearing Fish Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Gale, Brittany H; Johnson, Jerald B; Bruce Schaalje, G; Belk, Mark C

    2013-02-01

    Variation in somatic growth rates is of great interest to biologists because of the relationship between growth and other fitness-determining traits, and it results from both genetic and environmentally induced variation (i.e. plasticity). Theoretical predictions suggest that mean somatic growth rates and the shape of the reaction norm for growth can be influenced by variation in predator-induced mortality rates. Few studies have focused on variation in reaction norms for growth in response to resource availability between high-predation and low-predation environments. We used juvenile Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora from high-predation and low-predation environments to test for variation in mean growth rates and for variation in reaction norms for growth at two levels of food availability in a common-environment experiment. To test for variation in growth rates in the field, we compared somatic growth rates in juveniles in high-predation and low-predation environments. In the common-environment experiment, mean growth rates did not differ between fish from differing predation environments, but the interaction between predation environment and food level took the form of a crossing reaction norm for both growth in length and mass. Fish from low-predation environments exhibited no significant difference in growth rate between high and low food treatments. In contrast, fish from high-predation environments exhibited variation in growth rates between high and low food treatments, with higher food availability resulting in higher growth rates. In the field, individuals in the high-predation environment grow at a faster rate than those in low-predation environments at the smallest sizes (comparable to sizes in the common-environment experiment). These data provide no evidence for evolved differences in mean growth rates between predation environments. However, fish from high-predation environments exhibited greater plasticity in growth rates in response to resource availability suggesting that predation environments may exhibit increased variation in food availability for prey fish and consequent selection for plasticity.

  12. [Reproduction of the spiny puffer, Diodon holocanthus (Pisces: Diodontidae) in the continental shelf of Mexican Central Pacific].

    PubMed

    Lucano-Ramírez, Gabriela; Peña-Pérez, Edith; Ruiz-Ramírez, Salvador; Rojo-Vázquez, Jorge; González-Sansón, Gaspar

    2011-03-01

    Diodon holocanthus is an important economic and ecological species of the demersal fish community, caught as bycatch from local shrimp fishery. The reproductive biology of this long-spine porcupinefish has not yet been described, and reproductive season, the sex ratio, length distribution, length at first gonad maturity, and the gonad macro and microscopic features are described. A total of 400 organisms, ranging from 5.0 to 40.3 cm (average 18.4 cm) total length, were caught from the continental shelf of the Central Mexican Pacific, from December 1995 and December 1998. Sex ratio was 1:0.86 females to males (n = 253). The length at which 50% of the individuals showed maturing gonads was 19.7 cm for females and 20.1 cm for males. Length of the smallest organism with ripe gonads was 12.2 cm for females and 13 cm for males. Four gonadal maturation stages were found in both sexes, and five oocyte development phases were identified. The oocyte development pattern is of asynchronous type, which means the species can reproduce several times a year. Testicle development is lobular type, as in most teleost fishes. Monthly mean values of the gonad-somatic index suggest the reproduction activity peaks in June, and September-December.

  13. Morphological biomarkers in Prochilodus lineatus (pisces, prochilodontidae) for environmental impact assessment in the region of the Baixada Maranhense, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dantas, Janaína Gomes; Andrade, Ticianne de Sousa de Oliveira Mota; Castro, Jonatas da Silva; Sodré, Camilla Fernanda Lima; Carvalho-Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes; Junior, Audálio Rebelo Torres

    2015-12-31

    This study aimed to identify the types of histopathological lesions found in gills of Prochilodus lineatus of the Environmental Protection Area of the Baixada Maranhense region (Brazil). Fish were collected in Mearim river. Sampling took place in October, November and December 2014. We have purchased 30 samples of fish from local fishermen. In the laboratory fish gills were removed, and then fixed in 10% formalin solution and kept into alcohol 70% to the usual histological processing. The tissue was performed by light microscopy and findings were photomicrographed in light microscope - ZEIS. The following lesions were identified: epithelial displacement, the marginal channel shift a start vascular congestion, hyperplasia and merging multiple slides; epithelial disruption, edema, vascular congestion, total fusion of lamellae and disorganization of secondary lamellae. These changes express a response of the body to some xenobiontes. Morphological changes in the gills may represent adaptive strategies for conservation of some biological functions when animals are facing changes in the water quality.

  14. A new species of highland loach, Schistura sirindhornae, from the upper Chao Phraya River basin, Thailand (Pisces: Ostariophysi: Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Suvarnaraksha, Apinun

    2015-05-22

    Schistura sirindhornae, a new species of nemacheilid, is described from the Nan River basin in northern Thailand. It is distinguished from all other species of Schistura in having overlapping scales on the entire body similar to scales of balitorids, transparent scales on the belly and thorax, a lateral-line canal that is similar to that of most cyprinids and balitorids in being present across the entire lateral-line surface of the scale instead of being represented only by a pore. It also has a unique color pattern of irregular brown bars on the back and side of the faint yellow-orange body, a bright triangular orange mark on the occiput, an orange crown-shaped mark between the eyes, an uninterrupted black mark along the base of the dorsal fin, a crescent-shaped bar on the base of the caudal fin, and bright iridescent orange areas on the upper and lower extremities of the caudal-fin base. Schistura sirindhornae is known only from the upper Nan River drainage, Nan Province, Thailand.

  15. Gamma ionization of Phagicola longa (Trematoda:Heterophyidae) in Mugilidae (pisces) in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, S. A.; Wiendl, F. M.; Almeida Dias, E. R.; Arthur, V.; Daniotti, C.

    1993-07-01

    The mullet (Mugilidae) is a fish caught in large quantities in brackish and marine waters of the southern Brazilian coast, which in consequence of its raw consumption as "sashimi", a typical Japanese dish, has led to ten cases of human infection by Phagicola longa in São Paulo, Brazil. The mullet acts as a second intermediate host for the parasite, as in human heterophysiasis in the Near and Far East. In order to control these infections under commercial storage conditions and in raw consumption, the radiolysis of P. longa was studied in three mullet species-the silver mullet ( Mugil curema), the grey mullet ( M. platanus) and the "paratipema" ( Mugil sp.) - subjected to ionization ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 kGy (2.21 kGy/h). It was observed that 1.0 and 2.0 kGy caused a motility decrease in silver mullet parasites from 100% to 15% and 17%, and that doses of 4.0 and 10.0 kGy caused metacercaria inviability. The parasite motility decreased in the grey mullet treated with doses of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 kGy, from 56% to 31%, 9%, 18% and 5%, respectively, 4.0 kGy tending to be the control dose for P. longa. This dose also controls other metacercaria found in the "parati-pema", without changing the odor, color or appearance of the treated mullet.

  16. Feeding habits of the deep-sea fish, Scopelogadus beanii (Pisces: Melamphaide), in the western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartner, John V.; Musick, John A.

    1989-10-01

    Stomach contents were examined from 106 specimens (37-113 mm SL) of the melamphaid Scopelogadus beanii collected from the slope waters of the western North Atlantic Ocean by bottom and midwater trawls. Seventy-five stomachs (70.8%) contained food. Gelatinous zooplankton (mainly salps) and associated obligate and facultative symbiotic hyperiid amphipods of the genera Vibilia, Parathemisto, and Phronima were the predominant food items in the stomachs of S. beanii, although calanoid copepods (especially Paraeuchaeta norvegica) were of similar importance in individuals from offshore midwater trawls. Other pelagic prey items included halocyprid ostracods, euphausiids and fishes. Representatives from three benthic groups (gammaridean amphipods, polychaetes and pelecypods) were recovered from stomachs of specimens from bottom trawls. The only significant pattern observed in diel feeding periodicity was a decrease in the percentage of stomachs containing food between 1201 and 1800 h as compared to the percentage of stomachs containing food between 1201 and 2400 h. This observation might be an artifact, however, because no differences in degree of prey digestion were observed. Limited seasonal data from bottom-trawled collections indicate that consumption of amphipods was highest in spring, whereas that of gelatinous plankton was highest in summer and autumn. There were no apparent ontogenetic shifts in diet composition. Differences in prey importance between bottom and pelagic trawl-captured individuals may be due to vertical ranges and abundance of prey taxa and the presence of S. beanii near the bottom in continental slope waters.

  17. Sharing morphospaces: early ontogenetic shape changes in two clingfish larvae (Pisces: Gobiesocidae) from the south-east Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Durán, V; Jahnsen-Guzmán, N; Landaeta, M F

    2017-09-18

    Larval body shape changes and developmental timing were examined in two clingfish species from the south-east Pacific Ocean, Gobiesox marmoratus and Sicyases sanguineus. Ontogenetic allometry showed no interspecific variation and <7 mm standard length (LS ) larvae of both species occupied similar morphospace, but larger G. marmoratus showed increased body depth while larvae of S. sanguineus developed a flattened head and maintained a hydrodynamic body. Estimated developmental timing suggests that larval body shape changes were faster in G. marmoratus than in S. sanguineus prior to settlement. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  18. Ultrastructural study of the spermatozoon of Pronoprymna ventricosa (Digenea, Baccigerinae), parasite of the twaite shad Alosa fallax Lacepede (Pisces, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Josephine; Marchand, Bernard

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, we describe the ultrastructural organisation of the spermatozoon of a Digenea Baccigerinae Pronoprymna ventricosa. This spermatozoon possesses the elements found in the others digeneans: two axonemes with 9 + "1" pattern, a mitochondrion, a nucleus, cortical microtubules and external ornamentations. However, this spermatozoon presents two particularities. The first is the presence of a single field of cortical microtubules disposed in the ventral side (mitochondrion side) of the spermatozoon. In the other digeneans, two fields of cortical microtubules are observed between the two axonemes. The second is the presence of external ornamentations not associated with cortical microtubules. These two points have, to our knowledge, never been described in another digenean. Moreover, a separation in two groups of the digenean spermatozoa is proposed in relation to the localisation of the external ornamentations. We propose to distinguish a first group exhibiting these elements in the proximal part of the spermatozoon and a second one with external ornamentations in a second part of the gamete.

  19. Feeding ecology of the Stomiiformes (Pisces) of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge. 1. The Sternoptychidae and Phosichthyidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, Vanda; Sutton, Tracey; Menezes, Gui; Falkenhaug, Tone; Bergstad, Odd Aksel

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive trophic studies in the vast mid-oceanic regions are rare compared to coastal and fisheries-oriented investigations. Field sampling conducted by the multidisciplinary, international Census of Marine Life project MAR-ECO, namely the 2004 G.O. Sars cruise, has generated one of the largest open ocean deep-pelagic sample collections ever obtained. With the overall goal of understanding carbon flow processes within and through the deep-pelagic nekton associated with the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge system (N MAR), quantitative trophic analyses were conducted in order to identify the major intraspecific patterns in diet of characteristic members of the midwater fish community. Diets of five abundant species of zooplanktivorous fishes were examined in detail in terms of prey taxonomy and variability in space, ontogeny and diel cycle. Two major patterns of feeding were identified. Pattern 1 included three species preying primarily on copepods, Argyropelecus hemigymnus, Maurolicus muelleri and Vinciguerria attenuata, the former two of which revealed spatial differences in diet with latitude, mostly likely related to latitudinal prey distributions and densities. Maurolicus demonstrated ecological differences in diet that mirrored phenotypic variation North and South of the Subpolar Front, an 'oceanic species concept' question that warrants further research. Pattern 2 included two species feeding primarily on amphipods, Argyropelecus aculeatus and Sternoptyx diaphana, both of which showed ontogenetic variability in feeding primarily related to specific amphipod taxon sizes, rather than prey switching to other major prey taxa. This is the first study that highlights the importance of amphipods in the diets of these species. All fish species showed selectivity in prey choice, possibly related to competition with the other major nekton components along the N MAR, namely the Myctophidae and other zooplanktivorous Stomiiformes. Daily ration fell within the expected values for midwater fishes (1-4% of body weight) with the exception of S. diaphana, suggesting that this species is unique among the zooplanktivores - either its ration is three times higher than the other species, or it eats one-third as often (i.e., every 3 days). Given the high percent stomach fullness observed throughout the diel cycle, we believe the former to be the case, which is the first estimate of its kind for a midwater fish. In order to facilitate further quantitative research on mesopelagic carbon cycling, detailed prey length/weight regressions are presented here.

  20. Lethal effects of elevated pH and ammonia on juveniles of neotropical fish Colosoma macropomum (Pisces, Caracidae).

    PubMed

    de Croux, Parma; Julieta, Maria; Loteste, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    Ammonia is the main nitrogenous waste material excreted by gills, then is oxided first to nitrite and then to nitrate. The proportion of ionized-un-ionized ammonia depends on pH and temperature, when this variables increase in a solution containing ammonia the equation goes to left, so the proportion of NH3 increases and the solution becomes more toxic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute lethal effects of elevated pH and ammonia on tambaqui juveniles. With a constant ammonia concentration of 5.0 mg/l NH3, there was no mortality a pH of 6.0 (control) and 7.0; but was of 10-20% a pH of 8.0 and 100% at 9.0. The lethal effects of elevated pH and un-ionized ammonia should be recognized as a potential factor contributing to the variable success of tambaqui production ponds, but this species is highly resistant in comparison with other freshwater fish.

  1. Range expansion of the Mayan cichlid, cichlasoma urophthalmus (pisces, cichlidae), above 28°N in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paperno, R.; Ruiz-Carus, R.; Krebs, J.M.; McIvor, C.C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduced exotic species are a well-recognized problem in Florida's subtropical ecosystems. The presence of the exotic Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) was first confirmed in Florida in 1983, when numerous individuals were found in the northeastern Florida Bay. Since then, this species has continued to expand its range northward. The capture, beginning in October 2004 to present, of large numbers of Mayan cichlids from central Florida's east- and west-coast mangrove systems north of 28°N latitude is documented here. Mayan cichlids in a wide range of sizes (estimated ages 0-7 years) at both east- and west-coast sites were collected. In addition, macroscopic examination of gonads showed the presence of developing eggs. The occurrence of multiple age-classes, maturing individuals, cichlid nests, and juveniles, plus repeated collections over a four-year period, indicates that the Mayan cichlid is successfully reproducing and surviving the average winter temperatures in some estuarine waters in central Florida.

  2. Distribution and biology of five grenadier fish (Pisces: Macrouridae) from the upper and middle slope of the northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massutí, Enric; Morales-Nin, Beatriz; Stefanescu, Constantí

    1995-03-01

    Specimens of five Macrouridae species ( Trachyrhynchus trachyrhynchus, Nezumia aequalis, Hymenocephalus italicus, Coelorhynehus coelorhynchus and Coelorhynchus labiatus) were obtained from 76 bottom trawls in the Catalan Sea at depths between 147 and 1290 m. Abundance, biomass and length distribution by depth varied depending on the species. For T. trachyrhynchus, maximum abundance and biomass were found between 900 and 1000 m. In H. italicus, abundance and biomass decreased below 500-600 m, whereas abundance and biomass showed a bimodal trend for N. aequalis. In these species, the mean length of the specimens increased with depth. The sex-ratio was 50% for intermediate sizes while larger fish were predominantly females. Reproduction patterns were different for each species. Ripe females of N. aequalis and H. italicus were found all year round, while C. coelorhynchus and C. labiatus ripe females were found in spring-summer and autumn winter, respectively. No ripe females of T. trachyrhynchus were found. Size at attainment of 50% maturity for N. aequalis and H. italicus was 4.5 and 2.7 cm pre-anal length (PAL), respectively. The PAL-otolith length (OL) and OL- otolith weight (OW) relationships showed a negative allometry, except for C. labiatus whose OL-OW relationship was isometric. Seasonal growth was detected in the otoliths of all five species; fast growth rings were laid down in summer. All the species reach ages of at least 9 years, and growth rates were relatively high and greater for females.

  3. The influence of colony size and coral health on the occupation of coral-associated gobies (Pisces: Gobiidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiemer, L.; Niedermüller, S.; Herler, J.

    2009-03-01

    Fishes of the genus Gobiodon are habitat specialists by their association with Acropora corals. Little is known about the parameters that define host coral quality for these fishes, in particular their breeding pairs. Data were collected in the northern Red Sea using 10 × 1-m belt transects in different reefs and zones. Gobiid density was highly correlated with coral density over all sites and zones, and the more specialized goby species preferred coral species that are less vulnerable to environmental stress. Moreover, the occupation rate of corals by goby breeding pairs significantly increased with colony size and decreased with partial mortality of colonies. Logistic regression showed that both coral size (being most important) and partial mortality are key factors influencing the occupation by breeding pairs. This study provides the first evidence that breeding pairs of coral-associated gobiids have more advanced habitat requirements than con-specifics in other social states. As coral reefs are threatened worldwide and habitat loss and degradation increase, this information will help predict the potential effects on those reef fishes obligatorily associated with live corals.

  4. Global metabolic response in the bile of pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis, Pisces) sublethally exposed to the pyrethroid cypermethrin.

    PubMed

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Marino, Damián J; Giachero, Gabriela; Castro, Eduardo A; Ronco, Alicia E

    2012-02-01

    The metabolic profile of Odontesthes bonariensis and its global response to the insecticide cypermethrin were studied using HPLC-MS-based metabolomics. Three experiments using either juveniles or adults of O. bonariensis were performed by exposing fish (6, 24, or 96 h) to sublethal concentrations of cypermethrin (5 or 10 μg/L). Metabolic profiling was performed on either whole bile or aqueous and organic extracts. Chromatography was performed using a C18 column and an ACN/H₂O mobile phase. Electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interfaces were used in positive and negative modes. Full scan MS data were processed using the XCMS software, log-transformed, and analyzed using either regression analysis or principal component analysis (PCA). The highest amount of information (1163 peaks) was yielded by analyzing the whole bile with the ESI⁻ interface. Complementary information, useful for metabolite confirmation, was obtained from the aqueous and organic extracts and using the ESI⁺ and APCI interfaces. The bile metabolic profile of O. bonariensis was characterized by some abundant metabolite ions corresponding with taurine conjugated bile acids, which were useful as reference peaks. A characteristic global metabolic response to cypermethrin was identified in the bile of O. bonariensis. A ten-fold or higher variation in abundance was observed in the whole bile of exposed fish for a small group of peaks (32), and these peaks corresponded to an even smaller number of metabolites (nineteen). Both regression analysis and PCA were useful in identifying those peaks, better explaining differences between exposed and control groups, but slight differences were suggested by each of those methods. Using unsupervised PCA scores, we were able to distinguish organisms from each treatment on the basis of the metabolic changes induced by the cypermethrin, this variability being explained mainly by only one principal component (PC3, 17.7 percent total variance). Two cypermethrin metabolites were identified as major contributors within the augmented peaks: the known glucuronide of 4'-hydroxy-cypermethrin and the sulfate of 4'-hydroxycypermethrin, not previously reported in fish bile. The HPLC-MS-based metabolomic approach demonstrated to be a powerful ecotoxicological tool for identifying biological responses to pollutants, discovering new metabolic pathways and proposing specific biomarkers using non model organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Food and feeding relationships of three sympatric slickhead species (Pisces: Alepocephalidae) from northeastern Chatham Rise, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. R. L.; Breen, B. B.

    2013-09-01

    The food and feeding relationships of mid-slope slickheads in New Zealand waters are little known compared with those from the northern hemisphere. This study examines the feeding relationships of three common slickhead species from approximately 1000 m on Chatham Rise, New Zealand: Alepocephalus antipodianus (Parrot, 1948), A. australis (Barnard, 1923), and Xenodermichthys copei (Gill, 1884). The Alepocephalus species were predominantly benthopelagic feeders with a small benthic component to their diets. Alepocephalus australis fed on pelagic tunicates, notably Pyrosoma atlanticum Péron, 1804. Alepocephalus antipodianus fed on fish and pelagic tunicates, and also crustaceans. Xenodermichthys copei fed primarily on crustaceans. Considerable material was recovered from the intestines of all three species, and much of it was identifiable and only partially digested, including the remains of pelagic tunicates. There was little dietary overlap between the stomach contents of the three slickhead species indicating a degree of niche partitioning. Intestinal contents differed from stomach contents in weight, but not in number of items for all three species. The composition of stomach and intestinal contents differed for A. australis, but not for A. antipodianus or X. copei, which suggests that intestinal contents could be potentially useful in lieu of stomach content. There was a high level of overlap between the intestinal contents of A. antipodianus and A. australis, suggesting a possible closer dietary relationship between these two species than that indicated by stomach contents alone. Despite limitations in sample size and spatial and temporal coverage, the results from this study indicate that the three slickhead species could play an important role in the structuring of the demersal community at mid-slope depths on northeastern Chatham Rise.

  6. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene on the early development of California grunion, Leuresthes tenuis (pisces, atherinidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, D.L.; Duncan, K.L.; Hose, J.E.; Puffer, H.W.

    1983-07-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), which is carcinogenic and mutagenic in mammals, exists worldwide in the marine environment. Sources of this polycyclic aromatic hydrcarbon include oil spills, industrial effluents, and atmospheric fallout. This study is the first to examine the effects of BaP on the embryonic development of a teleost, the California grunion. Gametes were stripped from spawning adults and eggs were artificially fertilized. The fertilized eggs were then incubated for up to 14 days with initial concentrations of BaP ranging from 0 to 869 ppb. Steady-state tissue levels of BaP ranged from 0.46 to 19.92 ppm, which represented bioaccumulation factors of 146-437 times the steady-state BaP concentrations in seawater. When compared with controls, embryos exposed to initial BaP levels of 24 ppb or greater showed decreased hatchings, reduced notochord lengths, and increased morphological abnormalities. These results suggest that exposure of grunion embryos to BaP in contaminated areas may lead to their decreased survival.

  7. [Feeding habits of Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) at Los Cóbanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Rodrigo Rojas, José; Maravilla, Erick; Chicas, Francisco

    2004-03-01

    Abstract: A total of 175 spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus were collected monthly in the Los Cobanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador, from January to December 2000 to determine its feeding habits. The fishes studied ranged 9.8 - 58.0 cm in total length. Were collected using push-net and hook and line. This snapper is a bentonic opportunistic carnivorous predator. The total biomass of the stomach contents was 260.5 g. Crustaceans (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae. Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae), were the most abundant group: they accounted for 50.4% of the total biomass. Numerically, Portunus asper was the most abundant prey. Ontogenic differences were observed in the diet. In juveniles (16 cm TL). at any time of the year, the most frequent and abundant components were crustaceans and in adults were crustaceans, fishes and mollusks. The relative importance of different components of the diet was assessed with two indexes that combine. in different ways. percentage frequency of occurrence, percentage number and percentage weight of prey categories. The commercial use this resource and the absence of management strategies are discussed.

  8. Abundance variation of Porichthys margaritatus (Pisces: Batrachoididae) throughout thermic and bathymetric gradients in the central Mexican pacific.

    PubMed

    Godínez-Domínguez, E; Aguilar-Palomino, B; González-Sansón, G

    2001-06-01

    Three cruises, one in each of the main stream patterns in the area, were made on the central Mexican Pacific continental slope (May-June 1995, November 1995, and March 1996). Seven trawl sampling sites were defined per cruise, and in each site four bathymetric levels were sampled (20, 40, 60, and 80 m). During the warmest seasons, the highest abundance of Porichthys margaritatus was at 60 m. When the temperature of the bottom water was lower, in March 1996, the highest abundance of P. margaritatus moved towards 40 m. The depths with greatest abundance fluctuated between 18 and 21 degrees C, indicating a narrow temperature preference range. A Gaussian model was used to explain the relation between abundance and temperature.

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure of bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae (Pisces, Prochilodontidae) in the Magdalena River basin and its tributaries, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Berdugo, Gilberto Orozco; Narváez Barandica, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Prochilodus magdalenae is an endemic freshwater fish that occurs in the Magdalena, Sinú and Atrato hydrographic basins. It has an important economic role and is a food resource for the artisanal fishing communities. Its socioeconomic importance contrasts with the current status of its fisheries, where stocks are being depleted. Considering its importance and lack of information on its genetic structure, we used seven microsatellite markers to assess the genetic structure of wild populations of P. magdalenae. The genetic diversity was assessed and the population genetic structure was estimated through Fst, analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian analysis. A total of 290 alleles were found in all loci throughout all population. The high polymorphism contrasts with the levels of observed heterozygosity (Ho = 0.276), which are the lowest values recorded for the family. We found three populations of bocachico coexisting throughout the studied system, contradicting the hypothesis that freshwater migratory fish form panmictic populations. These results on the genetic structure of P. magdalenae constitute tools for a better understanding of the behavior and biology of this species, contributing to fish management and conservation programs. PMID:24688289

  10. Human neural stem cells in patients with chronic ischaemic stroke (PISCES): a phase 1, first-in-man study.

    PubMed

    Kalladka, Dheeraj; Sinden, John; Pollock, Kenneth; Haig, Caroline; McLean, John; Smith, Wilma; McConnachie, Alex; Santosh, Celestine; Bath, Philip M; Dunn, Laurence; Muir, Keith W

    2016-08-20

    CTX0E03 is an immortalised human neural stem-cell line from which a drug product (CTX-DP) was developed for allogeneic therapy. Dose-dependent improvement in sensorimotor function in rats implanted with CTX-DP 4 weeks after middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke prompted investigation of the safety and tolerability of this treatment in stroke patients. We did an open-label, single-site, dose-escalation study. Men aged 60 years or older with stable disability (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score ≥6 and modified Rankin Scale score 2-4) 6-60 months after ischaemic stroke were implanted with single doses of 2 million, 5 million, 10 million, or 20 million cells by stereotactic ipsilateral putamen injection. Clinical and brain imaging data were collected over 2 years. The primary endpoint was safety (adverse events and neurological change). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01151124. 13 men were recruited between September, 2010, and January, 2013, of whom 11 (mean age 69 years, range 60-82) received CTX-DP. Median NIHSS score before implantation was 7 (IQR 6-8) and the mean time from stroke was 29 (SD 14) months. Three men had subcortical infarcts only and seven had right-hemisphere infarcts. No immunological or cell-related adverse events were seen. Other adverse events were related to the procedure or comorbidities. Hyperintensity around the injection tracts on T2-weighted fluid-attenuation inversion recovery MRI was seen in five patients. At 2 years, improvement in NIHSS score ranged from 0 to 5 (median 2) points. Single intracerebral doses of CTX-DP up to 20 million cells induced no adverse events and were associated with improved neurological function. Our observations support further investigation of CTX-DP in stroke patients. ReNeuron Limited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A new species of Pseudocrepidobothrium (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) from Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Pisces: Siluriformes) in the Paraná River basin (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Nathalia J; De Pertierra, Alicia A Gil; De Chambrier, Alain

    2014-10-01

    This study describes the proteocephalidean tapeworm Pseudocrepidobothrium chanaorum sp. n. (Proteocephalidae: Proteocephalinae), which was found in the intestine of Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eigenmann et Eigenmann) from the Colastiné River, a tributary of the Paraná River. The new species differs from the two other species of the genus, P. eirasi (Rego et de Chambrier, 1995) and P. ludovici Ruedi et de Chambrier, 2012, parasites of Phractocephalus hemioliopterus (Bloch et Schneider) from the Amazon River in Brazil, in having fewer proglottides (4-8 without ventral appendages vs 7-12 with ventral appendages and 20-36 without ventral appendages, respectively), a smaller scolex (350-450 μm wide vs 495-990 μm and 515-1020 μm wide, respectively), in the total number of testes (21-25 vs 21-51 and 37-79, respectively), a cirrus-sac usually directed anteriorly if the vagina is posterior to the cirrus-sac vs transversely situated in the known species. The study of the tegumental surface of Pseudocrepidobothrium spp. revealed the presence of four types of microtriches: papilliform, acicular and capilliform filitriches, and gladiate spinitriches. The three species have a similar microthrix pattern, with minor differences on the immature proglottis surface. Pseudocrepidobothrium chanaorum sp. n. is the ninth proteocephalid reported from P. reticulatum.

  12. Embryonic and Morphological Development of Larvae and Juvenile of the Buenos Aires Tetra, Hyphessobrycon anisitsi (Pisces Characidae) Characidae Fishes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Min; Han, Kyeong-Ho; Han, Ran

    2015-03-01

    We have launched an investigation for Embryonic Development, Larvae and Juvenile Morphology, of Buenos aires tetra in order to build basic data of Characidae and fish seeding production. We brought 50 couples of Characidae from Bizidduck aquarium in Yeosu-si, Jeollanamdo, from Korea on March of 2015. We put them in the tetragonal glass aquarium (50×50×30 cm). Breeding water temperature was 27.5~28.5°C (mean 28.0±0.05°C) and being maintained. The shape of fertilized egg was round shape, and it was adhesive demersal egg. The egg size was 0.63~0.91 mm (mean 0.74±0.07 mm, n=20). After getting fertilized egg, the developmental stage was gastrula stage, and embryo covered almost two-thirds of Yolk. Incubation was happened after 16 hours 13 minutes from gastrula stage, and the tail of juvenile came out first with tearing egg capsule. Immediately after the incubation, prelarvae had 3.78~3.88 mm length (mean 3.84±0.04 mm, n=5), and it had no mouth and anus yet. 34 days after hatching from the incubation, juvenile had 8.63~13.1 mm (mean 10.9±1.66 mm), and it had similar silver-colored body shape with its mother.

  13. Littorally adaptive? Testing the link between habitat, morphology, and reproduction in the intertidal sculpin subfamily Oligocottinae (Pisces: Cottoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Michael D.; López, J. Andrés

    2017-01-01

    While intertidal habitats are often productive, species-rich environments, they are also harsh and highly dynamic. Organisms that live in these habitats must possess morphological and physiological adaptations that enable them to do so. Intertidal fishes are generally small, often lack scales, and the diverse families represented in intertidal habitats often show convergence into a few general body shapes. However, few studies have quantified the relationship between phenotypes and intertidal living. Likewise, the diversity of reproductive traits and parental care in intertidal fishes has yet to be compared quantitatively with habitat. We examine the relationship of these characters in the sculpin subfamily Oligocottinae using a phylogenetic hypothesis, geometric morphometrics, and phylogenetic comparative methods to provide the first formal test of associations between fish phenotypes and reproductive characters with intertidal habitats. We show that the ability to live in intertidal habitats, particularly in tide pools, is likely a primitive state for Oligocottinae, with a single species that has secondarily come to occupy only subtidal habitats. Contrary to previous hypotheses, maximum size and presence of scales do not show a statistically significant correlation with depth. However, the maximum size for all species is generally small (250 mm or less) and all show a reduction in scales, as would be expected for an intertidal group. Also contrary to previous hypotheses, we show that copulation and associated characters are the ancestral condition in Oligocottinae, with copulation most likely being lost in a single lineage within the genus Artedius. Lastly, we show that body shape appears to be constrained among species with broader depth ranges, but lineages that occupy only a narrow range of intertidal habitats display novel body shapes, and this may be associated with habitat partitioning, particularly as it relates to the degree of wave exposure. PMID:28828246

  14. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Microcotyle pancerii (Monogenea: Polyopisthocotylea: Microcotylidae), parasite of meagre Argyrosomus regius (Pisces: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2009-04-01

    The present work deals with the ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Microcotyle pancerii, a gill parasite of meagre Argyrosomus regius collected in Corsican fish farms. Spermiogenesis was rather similar to that observed in other polyopisthocotylean Monogenea. The intercentriolar body was different from that described in digeneans. The nuclear condensation occurred in 2 successive stages. First, during the nuclear migration in the median cytoplasmic process, the nucleus developed a honeycomb-like appearance. Then, after the flagellar fusion, a discontinuous twisting of the chromatin appeared along the nucleus, with this process ending in total nuclear condensation. The structure of the spermatozoon is characterized by 2 axonemes (9 + "1" pattern), a single and continuous field of cortical microtubules, a mitochondrion, and a nucleus. Our findings were compared with various ultrastructural features in order to highlight variability within the group.

  15. Changes in hormonal profile, gonads and sperm quality of Argyrosomus regius (Pisces, Scianidae) during the first sexual differentiation and maturation.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, R; Zilli, L; Storelli, C; Vilella, S

    2012-03-15

    In the present study, sexual gonadal differentiation and first sexual maturation of Meagre (Argyrosomus regius) was studied, based upon the annual changes in gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonadal histology, and the plasma steroid hormones, testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and estradiol (E2). In addition, spermatozoa characteristics were evaluated by measuring sperm motility and morphology. Results demonstrated that Meagre completes sex differentiation at 10 to 12 mo of age, and are group-synchronous spawners, which reach puberty at 2 (mean length 26.8 ± 0.7 cm, mean weight 920 ± 75 g; N = 10) and 3 (mean length 35.8 ± 0.8 cm, mean weight 1610 ± 89 g; N = 10) years of age for males and females, respectively. In males, during the sex differentiation period, T levels were significantly higher with respect to those of 11-KT; this suggests that T has a key role in the early phases of the sex differentiation. During the spawning season an increase in plasma concentrations of all hormones was observed with 11-KT levels being significantly higher that those of T. In females, during the sex differentiation period, there was an increase in E2 plasma levels, while during the first spawning season, a significant increase of T and E2 levels were measured. Regarding sperm characteristics, the measured curvilinear velocity (VCL) and straight-linear velocity (VSL), resulted in the same order of magnitude with respect to those measured in other marine fish, while the average path velocity (VAP) was similar to that measured in the European Eel. The head of Meagre spermatozoa presents as oval shaped with a surface area of approximately 3.66 μm(2) and a perimeter of approximately 6.65 μm. All these findings represent an important basis for further investigation on the reproductive biology of this specie and may assist the farmers to improve seed production in aquaculture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic evidence and new morphometric data as essential tools to identify the Patagonian seahorse Hippocampus patagonicus (Pisces, Syngnathidae).

    PubMed

    González, R; Dinghi, P; Corio, C; Medina, A; Maggioni, M; Storero, L; Gosztonyi, A

    2014-02-01

    A genetic study to support morphometric analyses was used to improve the description and validate the Patagonian seahorse Hippocampus patagonicus (Syngnathidae) on the basis of a large number of specimens collected in the type locality (San Antonio Bay, Patagonia, Argentina). DNA sequence data (from the cytochrome b region of the mitochondrial genome) were used to differentiate this species from its relatives cited for the west Atlantic Ocean. Both phylogenetic and genetic distance analyses supported the hypothesis that H. patagonicus is a species clearly differentiated from others, in agreement with morphometric studies. Hippocampus patagonicus can be distinguished from Hippocampus erectus by the combination of the following morphometric characteristics: (1) in both sexes and all sizes of H. patagonicus, the snout length is always less than the postorbital length, whereas the snout length of H. erectus is not shorter than the postorbital length in the largest specimens; (2) in both sexes of H. patagonicus, the trunk length:total length (LTr :LT ) is lower than in H. erectus (in female H. patagonicus: 0·27-0·39, H. erectus: 0·36-0·40 and in male H. patagonicus: 0·24-0·34, H. erectus: 0·33-0·43) and (3) in both sexes, tail length:total length (LTa :LT ) in H. patagonicus is larger than in H. erectus (0·61-0·78 v. 0·54-0·64). © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. [First report in Panama on Nerocila californica Schioedte and Meinert 1881 (Isopoda: Cymothoidea) in Sciaenops ocellatus (L) (Pisces: Sciaenidae)].

    PubMed

    Garcés, H A

    1993-01-01

    One juvenile specimen of the isopod Nerocila californica (acuminata form) was found on the skin of a cage-raised red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, in Aguadulce, Cocle Province. This finding is the first report of the occurrence of Nerocila californica as ectoparasitic of fishes on the Pacific side of the Republic of Panama.

  18. Evidence for historical introgression along a contact zone between two species of char (Pisces: Salmonidae) in northwestern North America.

    PubMed

    Redenbach, Z; Taylor, Eric B

    2002-05-01

    Phylogeographic analyses can yield valuable insights into the geographic and historical contexts of contact and hybridization between taxa. Two species of char (Salmonidae), Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) and bull trout (S. confluentus) have largely parapatric distributions in watersheds of northwestern North America. They are, however, sympatric in several localities and hybridization and some introgression occurs across a broad area of contact. We conducted a comparative phylogenetic analysis of Dolly Varden and bull trout to gain a historical perspective of hybridization between these species and to test for footprints of historical introgression. We resolved two major Dolly Varden mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clades (with 1.4-2.2% sequence divergence between haplotypes) that had different geographical distributions. Clade N is distributed across most of the range of Dolly Varden, from southern British Columbia through to the Kuril Islands in Asia. Clade S had a much more limited distribution, from Washington state, at the southern limit of the Dolly Varden range, to the middle of Vancouver Island. The distribution and inferred ages of the mtDNA clades suggested that Dolly Varden survived the Wisconsinan glaciation in a previously unsuspected refuge south of the ice sheet, and that Dolly Varden and bull trout were probably in continuous contact over most of the last 100,000 years. When bull trout were included in the phylogenetic analysis, however, the mtDNA of neither species was monophyletic: Clade S Dolly Varden clustered within the bull trout mtDNA clade. This pattern was discordant with two nuclear phylogenies produced (growth hormone 2 and rRNA internal transcribed sequence 1), in which Dolly Varden and bull trout were reciprocally monophyletic. This discordance between mtDNA- and nDNA-based phylogenies indicates that historical introgression of bull trout mtDNA into Dolly Varden occurred. Percent sequence divergence within these introgressed Dolly Varden (clade S) was 0.2-0.6%, implying that the introgression occurred prior to the most recent glaciation. Our analysis and other evidence of contact between divergent lineages in northwestern North America strongly suggests that the area may be the site of previously unsuspected suture zones of aquatic biotas.

  19. Can the name Mugil cephalus (Pisces: Mugilidae) be used for the species occurring in the north western Atlantic?

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Almanzar, Eloísa; Simons, James; Espinosa-Pérez, Héctor; Chiappa-Carrara, Xavier; Ibáñez, Ana L

    2016-05-09

    Menezes et al. (2010) show that Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758 is different from Mugil liza Valenciennes 1836, the latter being the mullet found along the Atlantic coast of South America. They also suggest that individuals identified as M. cephalus from the northwest Atlantic could represent a population of M. liza in this region, since they doubt the presence of M. cephalus in waters colder than the ones of the West Indies. In order to clarify the presence of M. cephalus in the northwest Atlantic, this study compares meristic and morphometric measurements of M. cephalus and M. liza from the Gulf of Mexico with those obtained by Menezes et al. (2010) for M. liza from South America and for M. cephalus in the Mediterranean Sea. Results show that there are differences in both morphometric and meristic data between the two species. The morphometric measure that differentiates these species is the distance from the snout to the dorsal fin, which is positioned backwards in M. liza compared with M. cephalus. The body width is consistently greater in M. cephalus than M. liza. The meristic character that discriminates between both species is the number of scales in the longitudinal series that, in M. cephalus, ranges from 38 to 43 while in M. liza between 32 to 39. The information presented in this work confirms the presence of M. cephalus in the Gulf of Mexico and the sympatric presence of M. liza is established, even if its abundance is quite low.

  20. Morphological aspects of Clinostomidae metacercariae (Trematoda: Digenea) in Hoplerytrinus unitaeniatus and Hoplias malabaricus (Pisces: Erythrinidae) of the Neotropical region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Benigno, Raimundo N M; Knoff, Marcelo; Matos, Edilson R; Gomes, Delir C; Pinto, Roberto M; Clemente, Sérgio C São

    2014-05-14

    Species of fish of Marajó Island, State of Pará, Brazil, were examined to identify the trematodes parasitizing 102 Hoplerytrinus unitaeniatus (gold wolf fish) and 104 Hoplias malabaricus (thraira). Metacercariae of two species of trematodes, 170 specimens of Clinostomatopsis sorbens and 10 Ithyoclinostomum dimorphum were found and identified. The parasitary indices of C. sorbens from H. unitaeniatus and H. malabaricus, were 43.14% and 30.77% for prevalence, 2.52 and 1.84 for mean intensity, 1.09 and 0.57 for mean abundance and 1 to 9 and 1 to 7 for range of infection, respectively, on both fish the site of infection was the mesentery. The parasitary indices of I. dimorphum from H. unitaeniatus were 2.94% for prevalence, 2.66 for mean intensity, 0.08 for mean abundance, 1 to 4 for range of infection, and the sites of infection were the mesentery and the muscle. Metacercariae of I. dimorphum were collected in muscles of a specimen of H. malabaricus, with 0.96% of prevalence, intensity of infection of 2 parasites and 0.02 of abundance. New morphological data of external and internal structures are presented. This is the first record of metacercariae of C. sorbens and I. dimorphum in Amazonian fish.

  1. Feeding ecology of Liza ramada (Risso, 1810) (Pisces, Mugilidae) in a south-western estuary of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, P. R.

    2003-05-01

    The feeding activity of the Liza ramada population inhabiting the Mira estuary (Portugal) is reduced during the winter and summer months. At the beginning of the spawning migration (i.e. November) an increase in the amount of food ingested was noticed. In the upper estuary, the feeding behaviour is independent of the tidal cycle, although there is some evidence of a daily rhythm in the food consumption rate, with a reduction during the night. No significant correlation was found between the quantity of particulate organic matter and the concentration of microalgae present in the stomach contents, and it seems that the bulk of the organic matter ingested by the thin-lipped grey mullets comes from a different origin than planktonic or benthic microalgae. The L. ramada population showed a positive selection for sediment particles between 55 and 250 μm in diameter. In general, the diet composition of this species showed a low diversity of food items. A total of 52 food items were identified in the stomach contents, the Bacillariophyceae being the dominant group. The genera Melosira and Ciclotella were the most common and abundant food items, although the genera Navicula, Nitzschia and Surirella were also classified as preferential food items. It was found that the volume of ploughed sediment that resulted from the feeding activity of the thin-lipped grey mullets, and the correspondent disturbed area increased exponentially with the length of the fish.

  2. Surface ultrastructure of the gills of the mullets Mugil curema, M. liza and M. platanus (Mugilidae, Pisces).

    PubMed

    Eiras-Stofella, D R; Charvet-Almeida, P; Fanta, E; Vianna, A C

    2001-02-01

    Mugil curema, M. liza, and M. platanus were collected from the southeastern and southern coast of Brazil. The second gill arches were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and histology. The highest density of chloride and mucus-secreting cells was observed in the gill filaments of M. liza and M. platanus. Spines are scarce and were found only in the pharyngeal region of M. curema. The dorsal angle of curvature of the simple projections is most reduced in the rakers of M. liza and M. platanus. The raker borderline on the internal side of the arches of M. curema has grooves that do not occur in the other two species. On the external side of the branchial arches, the borders of the rakers of M. liza and M. platanus are smooth. The shape of the rakers is characteristic for each species: in M. curema, it resembles the letter "D"; in M. liza, it is trapezoidal, and in M. platanus, it is triangular. Thus there is a morphologic similarity between M. liza and M. platanus, and both differ from M. curema. All three species show elongated and extremely elaborated rakers that are placed next to each other and turned toward the opercular cavity. There are few taste buds and only several mucus-secreting cells along the whole pharyngeal region. These characteristics suggest that these species do not select food chemically but obtain it mechanically with the rakers and aggregate it with mucus.

  3. Aggressive behaviour of an epigean population of Astyanax mexicanus (Characidae, Pisces) and some observations of three subterranean populations.

    PubMed

    Burchards, H; Dölle, A; Parzefall, J

    1985-08-01

    The different populations have been tested for aggressive behaviour in groups of four to eight animals of both sexes in tanks ranging from 251 to 9501. In darkness less aggressive behaviour has been observed with the help of an infrared video-camera in the epigean fish and the eyed Micos cave fish. The strongest degree of reduction in aggressive behaviour is shown by the totally blind populations. The aggressiveness increases in the epigean fish as soon as space and food supply diminish.

  4. Testing the interactive effects of carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids on ejaculate traits in the guppy Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Gasparini, C; Turchini, G M; Evans, J P

    2015-05-01

    Using the polyandrous livebearing guppy Poecilia reticulata, this study revealed no main effects of carotenoids in the diet on ejaculate traits, but significant main effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on sperm viability and weak but significant interacting effects of both nutrients on sperm length. Collectively, these findings not only add evidence that PUFAs are critical determinants of sperm quality, but also provide tentative evidence that for some traits these effects may be moderated by carotenoid intake.

  5. Biomarkers and bioindicators of the health condition of Ameca splendens and Goodea atripinnis (Pisces: Goodeaidae) in the Ameca River, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Vera, Ricardo; López-López, Eugenia; Sedeño-Díaz, Jacinto Elias

    2007-05-01

    Pollution of water bodies causes stress on organisms inhabiting them. Determination of biomarkers and bioindicators on fish populations reflects whether they are subject to stress. We assessed two populations of Ameca splendens and Goodea atripinnis in a reference site (spring "El Rincon") and De La Vega reservoir, which receives wastewater of a sugar industry, on Ameca River course. We analyzed level of lipid peroxidation and enzymatic activities of gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase, acetylcholinesterase and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase as biomarkers; we also studied age classes and various body indexes. Environmental factors were recorded and a water quality index was assessed. Water quality was better in the spring than in the reservoir. Organisms inhabiting the reservoir presented higher oxidative stress by the lipid peroxidation levels, and neurotoxic impacts by the acetylcholinesterase and some detoxification mechanisms were evident by the gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities. Integrated Biomarker Response demonstrate that De La Vega reservoir is a more stressing place to organisms living there, particularly for A. splendens. In both species, males were more affected than females. Condition and reproductive parameters in reservoir showed evidences of physiological changes due to xenobiotics exposure and suggest a tactic of the organisms to survive in this site. Both biomarkers and body indexes revealed that A. splendens is a more sensitive species than G. atripinnis to environmental stress.

  6. Parasitic community of Fransciscodoras marmoratus (Reinhardt, 1874) (Pisces: Siluriformes, Doradidae) from the upper São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, M D; Brasil-Sato, M C

    2006-08-01

    One hundred and thirteen specimens of Franciscodoras marmoratus (Reinhardt, 1874) were collected in the upper São Francisco River (18 degrees 12' 32" S, 45 degrees 15' 41" W, state of Minas Gerais) between September, 1999 and January, 2004 to investigate their parasite fauna. From this total, 45 (39.8%) were afflicted by at least one parasite species. The parasitic richness consisted of six species represented by Hirudinea (n = 20), Monogenoidea (n = 25), Eucestoda (n = 55), Nematoda (n = 1, n = 2) and Acanthocephala (n = 41) found in the dry and wet periods making a total of 144 specimens. Proteocephalus renaudi Chambrier & Vaucher, 1994 was the only species with prevalence higher than 10% and a typical aggregate distribution pattern. The prevalence, intensity and abundance of P. renaudi were not influenced by the total length or sex of the hosts or by the collection periods. The relative condition factor indicated that the health of the P. renaudi hosts was not significantly affected in relation to fish not infected by parasites. The fish stocked in tanks before necropsy were opportunistically infested by Lernaea cyprinacea Yashuv, 1959. The various parasites found indicate that F. marmoratus is omnivorous and a potential definitive host. The parasite species, except for Acanthocephala, have expanded their known geographic distribution to the São Francisco River Basin. The parasite community was considered isolationist because of the low endoparasite diversity, infrapopulations with low intensity, lack of evidence of parasite interactions and sparse signs of parasite aggression against their hosts.

  7. [Oropharyngeal morphology and food habits of Micropogonias furnieri (Pisces: Sciaenidae) in the North coast of Estado Sucre, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, L J; Prieto, A; Lemus, M

    2001-01-01

    Morphology of the mandibular and pharyngeal region, and the feeding habits of Micropogonias furnieri were examined in 256 male and female specimens, between 28.7 and 54.3 cm total length, collected around Morro Puerto Santo, in northeast Sucre State, Venezuela (10 degrees 45'00" N-63 degrees 8'0" W), from May 1989 to April 1990. Micropogonias furnieri has a small ventral mouth; protrusible premaxillary and dentary; first branchial arches with 21 to 27 gill rakers, generally 24 to 25; and 7 to 11 pyloric caecae. The index of vacuity was low, with mean value of 7.00%. The mean intestinal index was 0.72, indicative of carnivorous species. Analysis of frequency of occurrence, indicates preference for crustaceans (45.70%), mainly crabs (34.90%), followed by polychaetes (28.00%), fishes (11.41%) and occasionally mollusks and echinoderms (4.0 and 3.9%, respectively). The diet of this species did not vary with sex.

  8. Spatial and temporal distribution of Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea) in usipa (Engraulicypris sardella) (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in Lake Nyasa.

    PubMed

    Gabagambi, N P; Skorping, A

    2017-08-18

    Engraulicypris sardella is an endemic and economically important cyprinid species in Lake Nyasa/Malawi which has recently been infected by the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis. This parasite is known to induce severe pathological and behavioural effects on other cyprinids, including castration, followed by a collapse of infected populations. As a first step to understanding the dynamics between this parasite and E. sardella, we studied the spatial and temporal variation in prevalence over a period of 1 year. Overall prevalence was about 15%, but we observed a consistently higher prevalence in the littoral compared to the pelagic zone. Fish in the upper water levels showed the highest prevalence, with a marked decline with increasing water depth down to 150 m. The proportion of infected fish varied over time, with a significantly higher prevalence in the rainy season. In a huge lake like the Nyasa, with a surface area of 29,000 km2 and a maximum depth of 785 m, the transmission success of the parasite appears to show large variations in time and space. We suggest that these conditions could lead the parasite to become persistent within the lake, rather than the typical epidemic situation as observed in smaller bodies of water.

  9. Egg Development of the Ussurian Bullhead Fish, Leiocassis ussuriensis (Pisces: Bagridae) and Morphological Development of Its Larvae and Juveniles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Min; Yim, Hu-Sun; Lee, Yong-Sik; Kim, Heung-Yun; Han, Kyeong-Ho

    2015-12-01

    This study was examined the ovogenesis of Ussurian bullhead, Leiocassis ussuriensis and the morphological development of its larvae and juveniles and to use the results as basic information for the preservation of species and resource enhancement. For artificial egg collection, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) was injected at a rate of 10 IU per gram of fish weight. During breeding period, water temperature maintained at 24.5~26.5°C (mean 25.0±0.05°C). The process of ovogenesis reached the two-cell stage in 50 minutes after fertilization. In 73 hours of fertilization the movement of the embryoid body became active state and the larvae began to hatch from the tail through the oolemma. Length of prelarvae were 6.33~6.50 mm long (mean 6.40±0.06 mm) just after hatching having yolk with their mouth not opened. After thirty eight days of hatching, juveniles were 30.6∼32.5 mm long (mean 31.5±0.65 mm). The color was dark yellowish brown throughout the entire body, and the number of caudal fin rays developed to thirty six perfectly.

  10. Micronucleus frequency and hematologic index in Colossoma macropomum (Pisces, Ariidae) for environmental impact assessment at a protected area in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    This study used micronucleus assays and erythrocyte indices in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in the Environmental Protection Area at Maracanã, São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations within the protected area, Serena Lagoon and Ambude River, on four occasions. Biometric data (length and weight) and an aliquot of blood were collected from each fish for analysis. Erythrocyte indices including: mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated, and blood samples were examined for micronuclei and nuclear morphological changes. Micronuclei were found in fish from both locations, although the frequency was higher in fish from Ambude River. Nuclear morphological changes were identified only in fish collected from Ambude River. Several nuclear morphological changes were found in erythrocytes stained with Giemsa, including: micronuclei and binucleate nuclei. On average, erythrocyte indices were lower in fish collected from Ambude River than in those from Serena Lagoon. Our results indicate that micronuclei and erythrocyte indices can be used in C. macropomum as indicators of environmental health.

  11. Redescription and genetic characterization of Cucullanus dodsworthi (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the checkered puffer Sphoeroides testudineus (Pisces: Tetraodontiformes).

    PubMed

    Mejía-Madrid, Hugo H; Aguirre-Macedo, María Leopoldina

    2011-08-01

    Cucullanus dodsworthi Barreto, 1922 was originally described from the checkered puffer fish, Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus), from Brazilian waters. New material of this nematode species was recovered from the same type host species from Mexican waters off the Yucatán Peninsula. This material was compared with Brazilian specimens. Although Mexican material closely resembles the original description of C. dodsworthi in general appearance, previously undescribed characters, as observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, are described for the first time in this species from both Brazilian and Mexican specimens. These characters include lateral body alae or conspicuous lateral fields that begin in the cervical region and end anterior to first pair of adcloacal papillae in males and at the anus level in females, cephalic and caudal alae absent; presence of pseudobuccal capsule with simple buccal frame well sclerotized with dorsal arrow structures, lateral structures, and lateral reniform structures; deirids, excretory pore, and postdeirids; slight anal protuberance in both sexes, unpaired precloacal papilla in males, phasmids near pair 10 in males and near tail tip in females; female with protruding vulvar lips and smooth eggs. In the absence of better descriptions of this genus, it can be concluded that C. dodsworthi is the only species of marine Cucullanus from the Americas that possesses lateral body alae. Molecular characterization of C. dodsworthi with SSU (18S) and ITS2 rDNA genes is included. A preliminary genetic comparison between SSU rDNA of C. dodsworthi , Truttaedacnitis truttae (Fabricius, 1794), and Dichelyne mexicanus Caspeta-Mandujano, Moravec and Salgado-Maldonado, 1999 places C. dodsworthi as a putative sister taxon to T. truttae . The finding of C. dodsworthi in Mexican marine waters also represents a new geographical record.

  12. Age, reproduction and fecundity of the spined loach Cobitis taenia L. (Pisces, Cobitidae) from Lake Klawój (Poland).

    PubMed

    Juchno, Dorota; Boroń, Alicja

    2006-07-01

    This is the first study concerning the features of the reproduction process of the karyologically identified spined loach C. taenia (2n=48). The histology of 71 ovaries, and gonadosomatic index (GSI) of karyologically identified spined loach Cobitis taenia L. from Lake Klawój (Northern Poland) were examined. The absolute and relative fecundity of 25 females was estimated by gravimetric method. The age of fish was determined according to the annual increments of otholits. The spawning of C. taenia from Lake Klawój took place from May to July, at a water temperature exceeding 18.5 degrees C. The GSI values at the beginning of the reproduction period ranged from 7 to 19%. The average absolute fecundity of females was 2078 eggs, with the number ranging from 869 to 3371 eggs. High individual variability in the gonad histology and the GSI values during the reproductive period was observed. Such variability could be the result of beginning the reproduction process in the fish at various times and, probably, due to the various numbers of batches laid and various numbers of eggs per batch.

  13. Old fish in a young lake: stone loach (Pisces: Barbatula barbatula) populations in Lake Constance are genetically isolated by distance.

    PubMed

    Barluenga, Marta; Meyer, Axel

    2005-04-01

    The genetic structure of 10 populations (453 individuals) of stone loach (Barbatula barbatula L.), a small bottom-dwelling cyprinid fish, in the littoral zone of Lake Constance, central Europe, was investigated by analysing the mitochondrial control region sequences and five microsatellite loci. An unexpectedly high degree of genetic diversity (up to 0.36%) and old estimated age of these populations (> 150 000 years) based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was found. These findings contrast with the relatively young age of the lake, which could be colonized by fish only after the last ice age around 15 000 bp. Stone loach appears to be an old species in a young lake. Both types of molecular markers showed population genetic structure pronounced in mtDNA (overall F(ST) = 0.15) but moderate in microsatellites (F(ST) = 0.03). As predicted by its life history, philopatry, and limited capacity for dispersal, stone loach populations of Lake Constance show a clear pattern of isolation by distance. Geographic distances along the shores are the best explanation for the observed geographical distribution of genetic differentiation (r = 0.88), indicating that open water represents a barrier for the dispersal of the stone loach. The colonization of Lake Constance might have occurred initially at one location and then populations spread throughout the lake in a stepwise manner following the shoreline, and subsequently remained largely genetically isolated as suggested by the large observed differences among them.

  14. Redescription of Cheilinus quinquecinctus Rüppell, 1835 (Pisces: Perciformes, Labridae), a valid endemic Red Sea wrasse.

    PubMed

    Bogorodsky, Sergey V; Alpermann, Tilman J; Mal, Ahmad O

    2016-08-31

    The labrid fish Cheilinus quinquecinctus Rüppell, originally described from the Red Sea, has long been regarded as a junior synonym of C. fasciatus (Bloch). Herein, both nominal species are redescribed, based on examination of the types and additional material from the Red Sea (for C. quinquecinctus) and the Indo-West Pacific (for C. fasciatus). Rüppell's description of Cheilinus quinquecinctus was originally based on three syntypes, and the most representative adult specimen is designated as the lectotype. We show that Cheilinus quinquecinctus is restricted to the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, and it differs from the similar C. fasciatus in having modally fewer gill rakers on the first gill arch, a total of 13-16 (mean 13.9, usually 13 or 14 ) (vs. 13-16, mean 14.7, usually 14 or 15), in developing a ragged posterior margin of the caudal fin with age (versus only upper and lower caudal-fin lobes developing with age), and in its color pattern. The phylogenetic analysis of the COI barcoding region accords with the species status of C. quinquecinctus with the placement of the two sister species in two divergent and reciprocally monophyletic evolutionary lineages. A full description of C. quinquecinctus and diagnosis of C. fasciatus is provided here for comparison. In addition, the data include a table of the results of the meristic and morphological examination of type and additional specimens of both species from throughout their distribution ranges as well as a table of gill-raker counts of all examined specimens. Underwater color photographs are provided for comparison of juveniles, females and males of both species.

  15. Helminth parasites of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825 (Pisces: Carangidae) from Madeira Island, Atlantic Ocean, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Melo-Moreira, E; Pinheiro de Carvalho, M A A

    2012-09-01

    The helminth parasite fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel Trachurus picturatus Bowdich 1825, caught off the Madeira Islands was composed of six different taxa. Prevalence and abundance of larval Anisakis sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Nybelinia lingualis (Trypanorhyncha: Tentaculariidae), the most common parasite taxa, were 24.3%, 0.9 and 37.9%, 0.7, respectively. Bolbosoma vasculosum (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) and the monogeneans Heteraxinoides atlanticus (Monogenea: Heteraxinidae) and Pseudaxine trachuri (Monogenea: Gastrocotylidae) were comparatively rare. The depauperate helminth fauna of the oceanic horse mackerel at Madeira compared to other geographical regions of the north-eastern Atlantic, namely the Azores banks and the West African coast, may be attributed to the paucity of nutrients off oceanic islands and to a low density of the fish population.

  16. Galaxitaenia toloi n. gen., n. sp. (Eucestoda: Pseudophyllidea) from Galaxias platei (Pisces: Osmeriformes, Galaxiidae), in the Patagonian region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gil de Pertierra, Alicia A; Semenas, Liliana G

    2005-08-01

    Galaxitaenia n. gen. (Eucestoda: Pseudophyllidea) is proposed to accommodate Galaxitaenia toloi n. gen., n. sp. from Galaxias platei, a freshwater fish inhabiting Andean lakes in Argentine Patagonia. Galaxitaenia belongs to the Triaenophoridae because it possesses a marginal genital pore, a ventral uterine pore, and a follicular vitelline gland. The new genus can be distinguished from other triaenophorids by the following combination of characters: a scolex with a prominent rectangular apical disc without hooks, grooves, or indentations; neck present; segments wider than long to quadrangular; testes in 2 lateral fields, often connected anteriorly; cirrus unarmed; an ovary situated posteriorly; a vagina posterior to the cirrus sac; vitelline follicles medullary, in 2 ventral fields forming 2 wings interrupted medially; a uterus saccate to branched; and eggs without operculum. The types, distribution, and density of microtriches were analyzed on the surface of the tegument of scolex, neck, and immature segments. The presence of tumuli were observed on the apical disc of the scolex. Galaxitaenia toloi n. sp. is the first triaenophorid species recorded in a South American freshwater fish and the fourth helminth parasitizing the intestine of G. platei.

  17. Heavy Metals and Histopathological Alterations in Salminus franciscanus (Lima & Britski, 2007) (Pisces: Characiformes) in the Paraopeba River, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Savassi, Lourenço Almeida; Arantes, Fabio Pereira; Gomes, Marcos Vinicius Teles; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2016-04-01

    Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr, Hg, and Fe in the liver, spleen and muscle, of the fish Salminus franciscanus, from two sections of Paraopeba River, highly affected by anthropogenic influences, was detected in levels above those recommended for human consumption. Positive correlations between fish size and levels of metals were detected for Cd, Pb, Hg, and Zn. In the livers, areas with lipid accumulation and pigmented macrophages were also observed, as was fibrosis of the spleen in the parenchymal area through the presence of pigmented macrophages. The diameter of vitellogenic follicles was less and the frequency of atresia was higher in fish from section A. Thus, our study showed that beyond the risk to the population that eats S. franciscanus from the Paraopeba River, we should also consider the risk to the conservation of this species, since histopathological changes were detected in target organs and in some reproductive parameters.

  18. Big Fish, Little Fish: Two New Ultra-faint Satellites of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belokurov, V.; Walker, M. G.; Evans, N. W.; Gilmore, G.; Irwin, M. J.; Just, D.; Koposov, S.; Mateo, M.; Olszewski, E.; Watkins, L.; Wyrzykowski, L.

    2010-03-01

    We report the discovery of two new Milky Way satellites in the neighboring constellations of Pisces and Pegasus identified in data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Pisces II, an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy lies at the distance of ~180 kpc, some 15° away from the recently detected Pisces I. Segue 3, an ultra-faint star cluster lies at the distance of 16 kpc. We use deep follow-up imaging obtained with the 4-m Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory to derive their structural parameters. Pisces II has a half-light radius of ~60 pc, while Segue 3 is 20 times smaller at only 3 pc.

  19. Embryonic and larval development of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, Quoy and Gaimard, 1824, Pisces, TeleosteI), a South American catfish.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C R; Barcellos, L J G; Kreutz, L C; Quevedo, R M; Ritter, F; Silva, L B

    2006-11-01

    The jundiá (Rhamdia quelen, Quoy and Gaimard) is an endemic South American fish species. Because this species supports cold winters and grows faster during warm months, it has begun to be viewed as an ideal species for fish production in southern South America. In the present study, jundiá oocytes used were obtained by extrusion from females after hormone injection. Soon after hydration, the eggs were transferred to 50 L conic glass incubators, with constant and controlled water influx. Samples of fertilized eggs were transferred to Petri dishes and, examined under a stereoscopic microscope, were spherical, demersal, and non-adhesive with defined perivitelline space and resistant chorion. Cleavage stages occurred during the first 3.5 h. After hatching, larvae were transferred to 200 L glass fiber incubators. First signs of embryo movement were observed 21 h after fertilization; larval eclosion occurred 30.5 h after fertilization. Present findings may provide a basis for studies aimed at determining the complete ontogeny of jundiá and may be useful in eco-toxicological studies.

  20. [Feeding habits and trophic ecology of the fish Lutjanus griseus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) associated with submerged vegetation in Laguna de Términos, Campeche, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Guevara, Emma; Alvarez, Hernán; Mascaró, Maite; Rosas, Carlos; Sánchez, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In Campeche, Mexico, the Laguna de Términos has Thalassia testudinum beds inhabited by the grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus 1758). Along one year, we collected 994 individuals and 672 had food in their stomachs; we recorded number, weight, and frequency oftrophic groups, and the index of relative importance. Dominant food components were Farfantepenaeus duorarum and Palemonetes octaviae, Eucinostomus gula (Cuvier 1830) and Libinia dubia. Salinity and temperature were related to the number of individuals collected and with greater fish consumption by large L. griseus. The trophic niche breadth index was calculated for six size-classes of fish. The smallest and the largest fish had the lowest index values, whereas medium-size snappers had higher values. This snapper has a preference for habitats with submerged vegetation. The percentage of fish with food in their stomachs was higher during dark hours, providing evidence of the nocturnal habits of this fish.

  1. The total body length and body weight examination among gabus Sentani fish population, Oxyeleotris heterodon, Weber 1907 (Pisces: Eleotridae) of Sentani lake, Papua, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriyani, E. D.; Abinawanto, Bowolaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    The gabus Sentani fish lived in the Sentani Lake, Papua, since million years ago. Nowadays, the population of those species is getting extinct because of the overexploitation, whereas the culture effort of this species has not been developed, yet. The purpose of the study was to examine the total body length and body weight collected from some villages surrounding Sentani Lake such as Ifar village, Sosiri village, and Putali village. The body weight average of gabus fish from Ifar village, Sosiri village, and Putali village were 373.53 g, 426.86 g, and 118.34 g respectively. While the total body length average of gabus Sentani fish from Ifar village, Sosiri village, and Putali village were 279.30 mm, 223.30 mm and 222.06 mm, respectively. The growth model was W = 0.021067L3.086 with R2 value was 35.8 %, and r value was 0.598. Gabus Sentani fish, Oxyeleotris heterodon (Weber 1907) exhibited positive allometric (b > 3).

  2. The description of Gyrodactylus corleonis sp. n. and G. neretum sp. n. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) with comments on other gyrodactylids parasitising pipefish (Pisces: Syngnathidae).

    PubMed

    Paladini, Giuseppe; Cable, Joanne; Fioravanti, Maria Letizia; Faria, Patricia J; Shinn, Andrew P

    2010-03-01

    The current work describes two new species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 collected from pipefish Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann et Kendall) and Syngnathus typhle L. during two separate gyrodactylosis episodes on fish held in a public aquarium located in northern Italy. The gyrodactylids collected from the skin, fins and gills of pipefish were subjected to a morphological analysis of the attachment hooks and the morphometric data were compared to the four species of Gyrodactylus previously described from syngnathid hosts, namely G. eyipayipi Vaughan, Christison, Hansen et Shinn, 2010, G. pisculentui Williams, Kritsky, Dunnigan, Lash et Klein, 2008, G. shorti Holliman, 1963 and G. syngnathi Appleby, 1996. Principal components analysis (PCA) of the morphological data indicated six clusters; two discrete groups among the specimens taken from the pipefisli held in the Italian aquarium and four further groups representing G. eyipayipi, G. pisculentus, G. shorti and G. syngnathi. Molecular sequences of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S gene for the new species considered here were then compared with those available for other species in GenBank. The comparison did not reveal any identical match, supporting the morphological analysis that Gyrodactylus corleonis sp. n. from S. typhle and Gyrodactylus neretum sp. n. from S. scovelli represent distinct species. Both G. corleonis and G. neretum possess robust hamuli, marginal hook blades that curve smoothly from their sickle base to a point beyond the toe and, ventral bars with a broad median portion and a reduced membrane. Gyrodactylus corleonis, however, can be distinguished on the basis of its heart-shaped ventral bar; G. neretum has a 1:2 hamulus point:shaft ratio and a rectangular-shaped ventral bar. A redescription of the haptoral hard parts of the four species previously recorded on pipefish is also presented.

  3. Induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities by cyclophosphamide and colchicine in Xenotoca melanosoma (Pisces, Goodeidae) from Lake La Alberca in Michoacan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Aguirre, Jose Luis; Torres-Bugarin, Olivia; Buelna-Osben, Hector Rene; Flores-Kehn, Lola Paulina; Ramos-Ibarra, Maria Luisa; Zuniga-Gonzalez, Guillermo; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    This study is a follow-up of previous research in which we described the frequency of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) in the Goodeid Xenotocoa melanosoma collected from Lake La Alberca, located in the state of Michoacan, Mexico. In the present work, we measured micronuclei (MN) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in erythrocytes of peripheral blood. Bioassays taken at 24 or 96 hours in either the cyclophosfamide (CP) or colchicine (COL) showed a significant increase in MN and BC (P values ranging from 0.0499 to 0.0036) compared with information from wild organisms collected over 3 years. Concentrationdependent and time-dependent responses support the proposal of using endemic Xenotoca melanosoma as a bioindicator of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity with a high transcendence for the health of the entire ecosystem and evaluation of the Lerma-Chapala watershed.

  4. Microscopic evidence of the opportunistic reproductive strategy and early sexual maturation of the small-sized characin Knodus moenkhausii (Characidae, Pisces).

    PubMed

    Ceneviva-Bastos, M; Taboga, S R; Casatti, L

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the reproductive biology of Knodus moenkhausii, an abundant small-sized characin fish with broad occurrence in the Paraná River basin, Brazil. Specimens were collected monthly to determine fecundity, length at first maturity, reproductive period and spawning type. Gonads were macroscopically classified according to their form, size and texture in three different stages (immature, maturing or mature). Histological procedures were conducted to confirm gonadal developmental stages, and it was possible to notice that maturing females actually presented atretic oocytes, and all males that were macroscopically classified as immature, maturing and mature actually presented abundant spermatozoa in their gonads. Because of these discrepancies, a reclassification of gonadal maturations stages was needed after histological analysis, reinforcing its importance to studies on the reproduction of small characins. Reproduction occurred throughout the year though with two peaks. The length of the smallest mature individuals was 13 mm SL for males and 24 mm SL for females. Despite presenting relatively small batch fecundity, some life history traits such as early reproduction, multiple spawning throughout the year, in association with known opportunistic feeding habits, explain the high abundance of this species in locations where it occurs. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Infective pentastomid larvae from Pygocentrus nattereri Kner (Pisces, Characidae) from the Miranda River, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with notes on their taxonomy and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Giesen, Suely C; Takemoto, Ricardo M; Calitz, Frikkie; Lizama, Maria de los Angeles Perez; Junker, Kerstin

    2013-11-01

    During parasitological surveys of freshwater fish from the Miranda River, Brazil, 199 Pygocentrus nattereri Kner (Characidae) were caught. Two pentastomid families, Subtriquetridae Fain, 1961, represented by its single genus Subtriquetra Sambon, 1922, and Sebekidae Sambon, 1922, represented by three genera, were present. Free-living larvae of Subtriquetra subtriquetra (Diesing, 1835) were collected from the swim bladder. Encysted larvae of Alofia Giglioli, 1922 were found in the abdominal cavity, chambers of the heart, musculature, on the surface of the gonads and swim bladder. Some Alofia larvae were moving freely in the swim bladder. Larvae of Sebekia Sambon, 1922 were encysted in the musculature. Some larvae of Leiperia Sambon, 1922 were found encysted in the musculature and on the surface of the pyloric caeca, whereas others occurred free in the abdominal cavity. In some of the latter, the head was buried deep in the wall of the intestine, stomach or ovaries, whereas the rest of their body remained free. Infective pentastomid larvae were present throughout the year with an overall prevalence of 77%. Both prevalence and intensity were higher in members of the Sebekidae than in Su. subtriquetra, possibly due to the latter's mode of transmission and its high pathogenicity. No sex-related, statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) in prevalence or abundance were found. Fish weight and length had significant but weak positive correlations (r < or = 0.27) with the abundance of pentastomid larvae, possibly reflecting an increased likelihood of prior exposure in older fish. Parasite abundance had no significant effect on host body condition (p > or = 0.69). A higher prevalence and monthly mean abundance of pentastomids were seen in the dry season and might be due to increased host densities as habitats dry up. Pygocentrus nattereri represents a new intermediate host record for the genera Alofia, Leiperia and Subtriquetra.

  6. [Ecological aspects between Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Anisakidae) and the host Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner, 1860 (Pisces, Characidae) in natural populations of northeastern Argentina].

    PubMed

    Hamann, M I

    1999-01-01

    From February 1987 to February 1989, the populational biology of Contraceacum sp. (larvae) in its paratenic host, the fish Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner, 1860, was studied in two ponds in a subtropical permanent habitat northeastern of Argentina. Fishes from Ramada Paso pond presented 80% of prevalence and 1 to 132 larvae per fish while fishes from Aeroclub pond presented 63% of prevalence and 1 to 184 larvae per fish. Fishes collected from Aeroclub pond have shown a high prevalence of infection during the first period of study (1987), diminishing the following year. In fishes from Ramada Paso pond the prevalence varied not significatively during the two years. Prevalence and mean intensity of infection increase with body length and weight of the hosts. Sex of hosts is not an influential factor in parasitic level. The lenitic "closed" environmental (Ramada Paso pond) evidenced the greatest larvae mean intensity and prevalence. Although, the lenitic "open" environmental (Aeroclub pond) showed the greatest parasitic number of individuals in an infrapopulation. The spatial dispersion in both ponds were aggregated and fit well a negative binomial model. Nevertheless, the Aeroclub pond presented the greatest overdispersion.

  7. Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimatã-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).

    PubMed

    Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Hélio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2011-07-01

    Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus.

  8. Climate change and oceanic barriers: genetic differentiation in Pomatomus saltatrix (Pisces: Pomatomidae) in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Pardiñas, A F; Campo, D; Pola, I G; Miralles, L; Juanes, F; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2010-11-01

    Nucleotide variation of partial cytochrome b sequences was analysed in the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix to investigate the population-structuring roles of climate change and oceanic barriers. Western and eastern North Atlantic Ocean populations appeared to be totally isolated, with the latter connected to the Mediterranean Sea within which further structuring occurred.

  9. Temporal and spatial changes in mercury concentrations in the North Atlantic as indicated by museum specimens of glacier lanternfish Benthosema glaciale (Pisces: Myctophidae).

    PubMed

    Martins, I; Costa, V; Porteiro, F M; Santos, R S

    2006-10-01

    Museum specimens of glacier lanternfish Benthosema glaciale were used to investigate long-term variations in mercury concentration of mesopelagic organisms from the North Atlantic. B. glaciale is an abundant mesopelagic fish species in the boreal and sub-polar pelagic regions of the North Atlantic, playing an important role in the cycling of energy in the oceanic food webs of these systems. We used 35 museum specimens of lanternfish, collected from the Gulf Stream biogeographic region between 1936 and 1993, to test for long-term variations in mercury concentrations. In addition, we studied the mercury concentrations throughout the geographical range of the species, using 105 specimens collected around 1970s. Mercury concentrations were similar over time; however there was evidence of a noteworthy increase in mercury contamination during the World War II (1941) followed by a general decrease with lowest concentrations being found in 1954 and 1993. Significant differences were found between the different studied areas, probably reflecting different degrees of anthropogenic contamination. The results presented here indicate that museum myctophids may be suitable for the assessment of historical changes in mercury contamination of marine ecosystems.

  10. Three new species of Hatschekia Poche, 1902 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae) parasitic on boxfishes (Pisces: Tetraodontiformes: Aracanidae and Ostraciidae) in Japanese waters.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2010-02-01

    Three new species of Hatschekia Poche, 1902 are described from the gill filaments of three species of boxfishes captured off southern Japan: H. pseudostracii n. sp. on Kentrocapros aculeatus (Houttuyn) (Aracanidae); H. bibullae n. sp. on Lactoria diaphana (Bloch & Schneider) (Ostraciidae); and H. kuroshioensis n. sp. on Tetrosomus concatenates (Bloch) (Ostraciidae). Of the 93 currently valid species in the genus, these new species differ from the 87 species which lack four stout processes on the posterior margin of the intercoxal sclerites of legs 1 and 2. Those processes are present on the remaining six species and the three new species. Of these nine species, H. pseudostracii n. sp. is distinguished by having a T-shaped chitinous frame on the cephalothorax, the leg 1 exopod twice as long as the endopod and a small parabasal papilla. H. bibullae n. sp. can be differentiated by a combination of morphological features as follows: a well-developed, thumb-shaped parabasal papilla, the leg 1 exopod twice as long as the endopod and a trunk lacking posterior lobes. H. kuroshioensis n. sp. can be recognised by bearing a T-shaped chitinous frame on the cephalothorax, the leg 1 exopod is three times as long as the endopod and the trunk lacks posterior lobes.

  11. A new species of parasitic copepod of the genus Hatschekia Poche, 1902 (Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae) from filefishes (Pisces: Tetraodontiformes: Monacanthidae) from off Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2010-05-01

    Hatschekia khahajya n. sp. is described from the gill filaments of two monacanthid fishes, Cantherhines dumerilii (Hollard) and Amanses scopes (Cuvier), caught off Okinawa, Japan. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the possession of the following combination of characters: cephalothorax length/trunk length ratio greater than 0.40; cephalothorax with a pair of lateral bars on the chitinous ring and a posterior pair of surface ridges; trunk with a bifurcate chitinous frame extending over its anterior third and with well-developed posterior lobes that extend beyond the abdomen; and four processes plus two spinular rows on the distal margin of the intercoxal sclerite of legs 1 and 2.

  12. Ploidy-dependent survival of progeny arising from crosses between natural allotriploid Cobitis females and diploid C. taenia males (Pisces, Cobitidae).

    PubMed

    Juchno, Dorota; Jabłońska, Olga; Boroń, Alicja; Kujawa, Roman; Leska, Anna; Grabowska, Anna; Nynca, Anna; Swigońska, Sylwia; Król, Magdalena; Spóz, Aneta; Laskowska, Natalia; Lao, Miłosz

    2014-08-01

    Crosses between 21 triploid hybrid Cobitis females and 19 C. taenia (2n = 48) males led to viable progeny; whereas no embryonic development was observed in crosses with tetraploid males (4n = 98). The ploidy status of 491 progenies randomly selected with flow cytometry (316) or chromosome analysis (175) revealed an average of 55.2 % triploids and 44.8 % tetraploids, but the ratio of 3n versus 4n fish did change during development. In the first 2 days after hatching, approximately 65.1 % of tetraploid larvae were observed. Their number decreased significantly to 30.8 and 6.2 % on average during 2-5 and 10-15 months of life, respectively. The karyotype of tetraploid progeny (4n = 98) included 3n = 74 chromosomes of the parental female and n = 24 of C. taenia male. The number of tetraploid progeny indicated indirectly that about 66 % of eggs from 3n females were fertilized with C. taenia. The rest of the eggs developed clonally via gynogenesis or hemiclonally via hybridogenesis into triploids of the same karyotype structure as parental females. We have documented for the first time that (at least under experimental conditions) tetraploids are commonly formed, but are less viable than triploids, and a ratio similar to what is found under natural conditions is finally attained. The current explanation concerning the ploidy and karyotype structure of the progeny confirms that the eggs of 3n Cobitis females are not only capable of maintaining all chromosomes but are also capable of incorporating the sperm genome, thus creating the potential to produce tetraploids.

  13. A Sensitive CO(1-0) Survey in Pegasus-Pisces; Reducing the Dark Gas Inventory the Old-Fashioned Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, Loris A.; Donate, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The idea that substantial molecular gas is present in the ISM but is not detectable by the CO(1-0) emission line at 115 GHz has become fairly prevalent in the last decade. This component has come to be known as “dark gas” in the sense that it is hard to trace using the standard spectral line tracers. It is usually identified by gamma-ray or infrared emission, or via the C+ spectral line at 158 microns. However, in determining the dark gas component and comparing it to the molecular gas traced by the CO(1-0) line, existing CO surveys of varying sensitivity are employed. Even the most sensitive CO surveys typically employed in this fashion have at best 1-sigma rms values of about 0.1 K in antenna temperature. We surveyed a small region in the vicinity of the high-latitude molecular cloud MBM 55 in the CO(1-0) line using the Arizona Radio Observatory 12-meter telescope. The 1-sigma rms of our survey (0.02 - 0.03 K) was significantly better than that of typical CO surveys. We detected more CO emission than previous work had found and increased the known H2 in the region by nearly 80%, thereby reducing significantly the contribution from dark gas.

  14. Saurida lessepsianus a new species of lizardfish (Pisces: Synodontidae) from the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea, with a key to Saurida species in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Russell, Barry C; Golani, Daniel; Tikochinski, Yaron

    2015-05-12

    Saurida lessepsianus n. sp., a lizardfish (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae) from the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea, previously misidentified as S. undosquamis (Richardson) and more recently as S. macrolepis Tanaka, is described as a new species. It is characterised by the following combination of characters: dorsal fin with 11-12 rays; pectoral fins with 13-15 rays; lateral-line scales 47-51; transverse scale rows above lateral line 4½, below lateral line 5½; pectoral fins moderately long (extending to between just before or just beyond a line from origin of pelvic fins to origin of dorsal fin); 2 rows of teeth on outer palatines; 0-2 teeth on vomer; tongue with 3-6 rows of teeth posteriorly; caudal peduncle slightly compressed (depth a little more than width); upper margin of caudal fin with row of 3-8 (usually 6 or 7) small black spots; stomach pale grey to blackish anteriorly; intestine whitish. The species is common in the Red Sea and as a result of Lessepsian migration through the Suez Canal, it is now widely distributed in the eastern Mediterranean. The taxonomic status of two other Red Sea nominal species, Saurus badimottah Rüppell [= Saurida tumbil (Bloch)] and Saurida sinaitica Dollfus in Gruvel (a nomen nudum), is clarified. A key is provided for the species of Saurida in the Red Sea.

  15. Distribution, Population Biology, and Trophic Ecology of the Deepwater Demersal Fish Halosauropsis macrochir (Pisces: Halosauridae) on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Clark, Laura; Hansen, Hege Øverbø; Cousins, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Halosauropsis macrochir ranked amongst the most abundant and widespread demersal fishes on the mid-Atlantic Ridge of the North Atlantic (Iceland-Azores) with greatest abundance at 1700–3500 m. All sizes, ranging from 10–76 cm total length, occurred in the area without any apparent spatial pattern or depth trend. Using otolith sections displaying growth increments assumed to represent annuli, the age range recorded was 2–36 years, but most individuals were <20 years. Length and weight at age data were used to fit growth models. No differences between sexes in length and weight at age were observed. The majority of samples had a surplus of males. Diet analysis showed that H. macrochir feeds on Crustacea, Teleostei, Polychaeta, and Cephalopoda, but few prey could be identified to lower taxonomical levels. The mid-Atlantic Ridge constitutes a major portion of the North Atlantic living space of the abyssal halosaur where it completes its full life cycle, primarily as an actively foraging euryophagous micronekton/epibenthos and infauna feeder, becoming a partial piscivore with increasing size. PMID:22384030

  16. Fate of trace elements in a 2000-MW coal-fired power station: PISCES Site 131 field chemical emissions monitoring program emissions report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, F.; Price, H.J.

    1996-04-01

    As part of the Field Chemical Emissions Monitoring (FCEM) program, PowerGen and EPRI have sponsored research to determine the fate of trace element emissions from Site 131--a 2000-MW pulverized-coal-fired-power plant. Three plant configurations were investigated on units employing (1) low-NOx burners, (2) conventional burners, and (3) conventional burners with an improved electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a new wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The majority of fractional closures were good for most trace elements and were within the project goals of being able to account for 70--130% of the inlet feed in the emission streams. Comparison between the analyses of the precipitator outlet dusts shows little variation, other than that attributable to the original coal composition. As expected, the improved precipitators and new FGD along with a consequent reduction in dust burden, markedly decreased the mass emission of metals in the solid phase. Removal efficiencies of 65--95% were achieved across the FGD system for the vapor phase trace elements (mercury, selenium, chlorine, and fluorine). Moreover, the use of a new FGD system reduced the final stack emissions, with the majority of species concentrating in the sludge phase. Finally, organic emissions measured, including dioxins and furans, were very low and in most cases near the method detection limit. The results from Site 131 would be most applicable for utilities burning the same type of fuel at a power plant with a similar ESP and a wet FGD control system.

  17. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Cavisoma magnum (Southwell, 1927) (Acanthocephala, Palaeacanthocephala, Cavisomidae), from Siganus lineatus (Pisces, Teleostei, Siganidae) (Valenciennes, 1835) in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Justine, J-L; Bray, R A; Marchand, B

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents an ultrastructural study of Cavisoma magnum (Acanthocephala, Cavisomatidae) with a Transmission Electron Microscopy tool. This parasite of the fish Siganus lineatus is here reported for the first time from off New Caledonia, South Pacific. It is the first study describing the ultrastructure, spermiogenesis and spermatozoon of a species of the family Cavisomatidae. The young spermatid of C. magnum possesses a centriole constituted of doublets without a central element. After the elaboration of a flagellum of 9+2 pattern, the centriole migrates in a nuclear groove. Then the flagellum migration occurs and gives rise to a spermatozoon. The distribution and the size of the protein granules are reported and the posterior extremity appears like a chromatin lamina wave. Comparative ultrastructural data are presented on sperm and spermiogenesis of the Acanthocephala and Rotifers examined to date and the phylogenetic implications are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Molin, 1858) (Acanthocephala, Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae) from Anguilla anguilla (Pisces, Teleostei) in Urbino ponds (Corsica Island).

    PubMed

    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Dal Pos, N; Greani, S; Marchand, B

    2012-07-01

    This study deals with first ultrastructure features of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae), a parasite of the fish Anguilla anguilla, reported for the first time in a Mediterranean pond. The spermiogenesis of A. incrassatus shows original specificities which have never been pointed out to this day in ultrastructural studies on spermiogenesis: the centriolar derivative is divided into two parts of different densities: an electron-dense, and the other, electron-lucent; a ring form has been observed on each side of the axoneme; a centriole with one central element. After the elaboration of a flagellum of 9+2 pattern, the centriole migrates in a nuclear groove. Rapidly, the centriole disappears. Then, the flagellum migration occurs by a series of processes and gives rise to a spermatozoon. The spermatozoon of A. incrassatus presents its own specificities: it exhibits an evolution of the centriolar derivative characterized by only nine peripheral elements deprived of a central element in the anterior part, then nine peripheral and one central element, and finally, nine peripheral elements with two central elements. An assumption is emitted on a probable correspondence of the evolution of the derivative centriolar during the spermiogenesis and the evolution that occurs in the spermatozoon. Protein granules also show different sizes and forms, full or emptied of their contents compared with data on other Acanthocephala.

  19. Solearhynchus kostylewi (Meyer, 1932) comb. nov. (acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae), a rare parasite of Solea solea (pisces: soleidae) in the Gemlik Bay, Sea of Marmara.

    PubMed

    Kvach, Y; Oğuz, M C

    2010-03-01

    Paracanthocephaloides kostylewi (Meyer, 1932), a rare parasite of the common sole Solea solea, previously placed in the Arhythmacanthidae, is transfered to the genus Solearhynchus de Buron & Maillard, 1985 of the family Echinorhynchidae as Solearhynchus kostylewi (Meyer, 1932) new comb., because its proboscis is armed by a single type of hooks, the posterior hook in each row is pinlike and with feebly developed root. The species is redescribed on the basis of newly collected material from the Gemlik Bay, Sea of Marmara. A key to the species of Solearhynchus is provided.

  20. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the digenean Tergestia acanthocephala (Stossich, 1887) (Gymnophalloidea: Fellodistomidae): An intestinal parasite of Belone belone gracilis (Pisces: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Kacem, H; Ndiaye, P I; Neifar, L; Torres, J; Miquel, J

    2015-06-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of the digenean Tergestia acanthocephala (Gymnophalloidea: Fellodistomidae) is described. Live digeneans were collected from Belone belone gracilis (Teleostei: Belonidae), caught off the Gulf of Gabès in Chebba (Tunisia). The mature spermatozoon of T. acanthocephala exhibits the general pattern described in numerous digeneans, characterized by the presence of two axonemes of the different length of the 9+'1' pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. Moreover, the morphology of the posterior spermatozoon extremity in T. acanthocephala corresponds to the fasciolidean type of Quilichini et al. (2010a). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of chronic arsenic exposure under environmental conditions on bioaccumulation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzymatic defenses in wild trout Salmo trutta (Pisces, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Greani, Samuel; Lourkisti, Radia; Berti, Liliane; Marchand, Bernard; Giannettini, Jean; Santini, Jérémie; Quilichini, Yann

    2017-06-16

    The present study evaluates the relation between chronic arsenic (As) exposure in the natural distribution area of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta), oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymatic defenses. Two rivers of the same watershed were evaluated to highlight the correlation between As accumulation and the resulting stress: (i) the Presa River, which has high chronic As levels (2281.66 µg/L) due to past mining activity, and (ii) the Bravona River (control river). This metalloid was measured in main fish tissues (gills, kidney, liver, muscle, gonads and fins) and water. As organotropism in S. trutta was kidney > liver > gill > fin > gonad > muscle. The HepatoSomatic Index (HSI) and somatic condition (CF) were used to compare fish population conditions from both sites. Arsenic can be absorbed by the gills and can induce oxidative stress and disturb antioxidant defenses. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress response by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) content, as a marker of lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymatic defenses (Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST)), in the main tissues of control and exposed trout. The highest MDA content was found in the kidney and liver of exposed trout. SOD and CAT activities in exposed livers and kidneys were considerably increased while a significant rise of GPx activity was observed only in the liver. GST activity was found to be significantly induced in the liver of exposed trout. The results demonstrate that arsenic bioaccumulation can induce lipid peroxidation and substantial modifications in antioxidant enzymatic defenses in main wild trout tissues.

  2. Measured Copper Toxicity to Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Pisces: Poeciliidae) and Predicted by Biotic Ligand Model in Pilcomayo River Water: A Step for a Cross-Fish-Species Extrapolation

    PubMed Central

    Casares, María Victoria; de Cabo, Laura I.; Seoane, Rafael S.; Natale, Oscar E.; Castro Ríos, Milagros; Weigandt, Cristian; de Iorio, Alicia F.

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine copper toxicity (LC50) to a local species (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus) in the South American Pilcomayo River water and evaluate a cross-fish-species extrapolation of Biotic Ligand Model, a 96 h acute copper toxicity test was performed. The dissolved copper concentrations tested were 0.05, 0.19, 0.39, 0.61, 0.73, 1.01, and 1.42 mg Cu L−1. The 96 h Cu LC50 calculated was 0.655 mg L−1 (0.823 − 0.488). 96-h Cu LC50 predicted by BLM for Pimephales promelas was 0.722 mg L−1. Analysis of the inter-seasonal variation of the main water quality parameters indicates that a higher protective effect of calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulphate, and chloride is expected during the dry season. The very high load of total suspended solids in this river might be a key factor in determining copper distribution between solid and solution phases. A cross-fish-species extrapolation of copper BLM is valid within the water quality parameters and experimental conditions of this toxicity test. PMID:22523491

  3. Light and scanning electron microscopy of Henneguya arapaima n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae) and histology of infected sites in pirarucu (Arapaima gigas: Pisces: Arapaimidae) from the Araguaia River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feijó, M M; Arana, S; Ceccarelli, P S; Adriano, E A

    2008-10-20

    In this report, we describe Henneguya arapaima n. sp., a parasite of the gill arch and gall bladder of Arapaima gigas (pirarucu) collected in the Araguaia River, in the municipality of Nova Crixás, Goiás State, central Brazil. The plasmodia were white, round or ellipsoidal and measured 200-600 microm. Parasite development was asynchronous and the mature spores were fusiform and had smooth wall. The spores measurements were (range, with means+/-S.D. in parentheses): total length-48.4-53.1 microm (51.6+/-3.4 microm), body length-13.5-15.2 microm (14.2+/-0.8 microm), body width-5.1-6.1 microm (5.7+/-0.5 microm), body thickness-4.7-5.3 microm (4.9+/-0.2 microm) and caudal process length-38.0-41.2 microm (38.3+/-2.9 microm). The polar capsules were elongated and of unequal size, with lengths of 6.3-6.8 microm (6.5+/-0.2) and 6.2-6.6 microm (6.3+/-0.1) for the longest and shortest axes, respectively. Capsule width was 1.4-1.6 microm (1.5+/-0.1). Histological analysis showed that the plasmodia occurred in the tunica adventitia of the gall bladder and were delimited by a thin capsule of connective tissue. In the gill arch, the plasmodia were also surrounded by connective tissue similar to the endomesium of striated skeletal muscle cells. Sixty-five juvenile specimens of A. gigas weighing 1.0-25.0 kg were examined, 17 (26.1%) of which were infected. Of these, 14 (82.3%) had cysts in the gall bladder, two (11.7%) had cysts in the gill arch and only one (5.9%) had cysts in both organs. When the fish were grouped by weight, the prevalence of infection in fish weighing up to 10.0 kg (20.7%) was significantly lower than in fish weighing 10.1-25.0 kg (50%) (G=3.93; d.f.=1; p<0.05).

  4. Genetic and Morphological Variation of the Forkbeard, Phycis phycis (Pisces, Phycidae): Evidence of Panmixia and Recent Population Expansion along Its Distribution Area

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ana Sofia B.; Sequeira, Vera; Neves, Ana; Paiva, Rafaela Barros

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of population structure of a species is essential to effectively assess and manage fisheries. In the present study, genetics, by mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequence analysis, and body geometric morphometrics were used to evaluate the existence of distinct populations of the forkbeard (Phycis phycis), an important commercial species in several European countries, especially Portugal and Spain. For geometric morphometric analysis, specimens were collected in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean—Azores, Madeira and mainland Portugal, and for genetic analysis, these samples were complemented with samples collected in the Mediterranean Sea—Spain, Italy and Croatia, in order to cover the entire distribution area of the species. Body shape of the forkbeard from the Northeast Atlantic was found to be highly variable. This variation was probably associated with different environmental factors between the study areas. Despite morphological variation, a low genetic differentiation between samples from different areas was found, most likely due to gene flow that occurred in the past or with the demographic history of the species. Moreover, the presence of unique haplotypes in the Northeast Atlantic and in the Mediterranean suggests that recent gene flow between populations from these areas should be limited. Altogether, a high haplotype diversity, a low nucleotide diversity, a “star-like” network and the results of the mismatch distribution, indicate a possible signature of recent population expansions, which probably started during the end of the Last Glacial Maximum and led to the colonization of the Northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean. PMID:27941988

  5. [Phylogenetic analysis of Altai osmans of the genus Oreoleuciscus (Pisces, Cyprinidae, Leuciscinae), based on the analysis of the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene (Co-1) sequence].

    PubMed

    Batishcheva, N M; Kartavtsev, Iu F; Bogutskaia, N G

    2011-10-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of Altai osmans of the genus Oreoleuciscus from two different parts of the range was carried out. In this study, based on the mitochondrial Co-1 gene sequence, a total of 25 fish specimens belonging to four genera were examined: (1) O. humilis, 2 specimens; O. potanini, 13 specimens; (2) Pseudaspius leptocephalus, 1 specimen; (3) Tribolodon brandtii, T. hakonensis, and T. sachalinensis from the GenBank database, 8 speciens; and (4) Leuciscus waleckii, 1 specimen (used as an outgroup). The p-distances were very low both within and between the species: (1) 0.20 +/- 0.03%; (2) 0.40 +/- 0.12%; and (1-2) 0.80 +/- 0.04%. To visualize the relationships among all of the species examined, the neighbor joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), Bayesian (BA), and maximum likelihood (ML) trees were constructed. The results obtained using these methods were very similar. It was demonstrated that species assignment of the individuals (barcoding) with the help Co-1 gene was effective, despite of very low divergence of the two osman taxa, which was comparable with typical intraspecific values in other animal groups. Taxonomic status of O. potanini and O. humilis requires further investigation with paying attention to low genetic distances between these species along with the lack of material from sympatric parts of the ranges.

  6. Morphology of the teleost ampullary organs in marine salmontail catfish Neoarius graeffei (Pisces: Ariidae) with comparative analysis to freshwater and estuarine conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Arnault R G; Whitehead, Darryl L; Bennett, Michael B; Tibbetts, Ian R

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that due to the relative conductivity of the environment, and to maintain sensory function, ampullary organs of marine Neoarius graeffei would differ morphologically from those described previously for estuarine and freshwater conspecifics. Unlike the ampullary systems of N. graeffei from freshwater and estuarine habitats, the ampullary pores of marine specimens occur in two distinct patterns; numerous pores seemingly randomly scattered on the head and ventro-lateral regions of the body, and pores arranged in distinctive vertical lines above the lateral line on the dorso-lateral body of the fish. Light and electron microscopy revealed that the ampullary organs also differed morphologically from estuarine and freshwater specimens in the presence of longer ampullary canals, a hitherto unreported canal wall composition, and in the collagen sheath surrounding both the canal and the ampulla proper within dermal connective tissues. Ampullary pores were wider in marine individuals and opened to the longest ampullary canals reported for this species. The canal wall was lined by cuboidal and squamous epithelial cells. Each ampullary canal opened into a single ampulla proper containing significantly more receptor cells than estuarine and freshwater conspecifics. The distribution of ampullary pores as well as the microstructure of the ampullary organs indicates that the electrosensory system of marine N. graeffei differs from those of estuarine and freshwater specimens in ways that would be expected to maintain the functionality of the system in a highly conductive, fully marine environment, and reveals the remarkable plasticity of this species' ampullary system in response to habitat conductivity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Measured Copper Toxicity to Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Pisces: Poeciliidae) and Predicted by Biotic Ligand Model in Pilcomayo River Water: A Step for a Cross-Fish-Species Extrapolation.

    PubMed

    Casares, María Victoria; de Cabo, Laura I; Seoane, Rafael S; Natale, Oscar E; Castro Ríos, Milagros; Weigandt, Cristian; de Iorio, Alicia F

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine copper toxicity (LC50) to a local species (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus) in the South American Pilcomayo River water and evaluate a cross-fish-species extrapolation of Biotic Ligand Model, a 96 h acute copper toxicity test was performed. The dissolved copper concentrations tested were 0.05, 0.19, 0.39, 0.61, 0.73, 1.01, and 1.42 mg Cu L(-1). The 96 h Cu LC50 calculated was 0.655 mg L(-1) (0.823 - 0.488). 96-h Cu LC50 predicted by BLM for Pimephales promelas was 0.722 mg L(-1). Analysis of the inter-seasonal variation of the main water quality parameters indicates that a higher protective effect of calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulphate, and chloride is expected during the dry season. The very high load of total suspended solids in this river might be a key factor in determining copper distribution between solid and solution phases. A cross-fish-species extrapolation of copper BLM is valid within the water quality parameters and experimental conditions of this toxicity test.

  8. Molecular characterization of Hysterothylacium fabri (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from Zeus faber (Pisces: Zeidae) caught off the Mediterranean coasts of Turkey based on nuclear ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer; Yardimci, Banu; Onuk, Ertan Emek; Umur, Sinasi

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, Hysterothylacium fabri was found in the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, Turkey and characterized by sequencing of nuclear (internal transcribed spacer, ITS) and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2, cox2) markers. Pairwise comparison between the entire ITS fragment including ITS-1, 5.8S, ITS-2 sequences of the H. fabri isolates from the Mediterranean Sea (Turkey, KC852206) and other H. fabri isolates from the South China Sea (JQ520158), the South Korea waters (JX974558) showed differences ranged from 0.1 and 1.1%. With the present study, H. fabri from the Mediterranean Sea was characterized for the first time by sequencing of the cox2 gene.

  9. A comparison of ages estimated by the polarized light method with ages estimated by vertebrae in females of Coryphaenoides acrolepis (Pisces: Macrouridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Raymond R.

    1982-11-01

    Rings of scales seen by the use of polarized light are compared to those of vertebral centra of the Pacific grenadier Coryphaenoides acrolepis (Bean). Although the number of rings in the two structures from the same individual show significant statistical agreement, strict numerical agreement occurred in only 22 out of 100 comparisons. Ageing by either technique produced comparable logistic growth curves.

  10. Morphological re-description and new geographical records for three digenean parasites infecting African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Pisces: Clariidae) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Sakarn, Thabet; El-Shahawi, Gamal; El-Fayoumi, Hoda; Mohammed, Rana

    2016-11-01

    Sixty specimens of African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae) were collected during the period of March 2014-February 2015 from boat landing sites and fishermen of the River Nile at Beni Suef Governorate, Egypt, and examined for the presence of digenean parasites. The morphology of these parasites was studied by using light microscopy to describe morphological and morphometrically measurements for different body parts. Three digenean species belonging to three different genera were collected from various organs within the examined fish species. A certain degree of site specificity was also observed, with Thaparotrema botswanensis being found only in the gall bladder of C. gariepinus, while both Pseudoholorchis clarii and Glossidium pedatum were found only in the intestine and thus seem to occupy a certain niche within their host. This study represent as the first record of T. botswanensis and G. pedatum from C. gariepinus, as well as the first report of the genera from the River Nile in Egypt. In addition, re-description of P. clarii clarifies measurements for some body parts.

  11. Infracommunity structure of parasites of Hemigymnus melapterus (Pisces: Labridae) from Lizard Island, Australia: the importance of habitat and parasite body size.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gabriela; Cribb, Thomas H

    2005-02-01

    This study describes the community of all metazoan parasites from 14 individuals of thicklip wrasse, Hemigymnus melapterus, from Lizard Island, Australia. All fish were parasitized, and 4,649 parasite individuals were found. Twenty-six parasite species were identified although only 6 species were abundant and prevalent: gnathiid isopods, the copepod Hatschekia hemigymni, the digenean Callohelmis pichelinae, and 3 morphotypes of tetraphyllidean cestode larvae. We analyzed whether the body size and microhabitat of the parasites and size of the host affected understanding of the structure of the parasite community. We related the abundance, biovolume, and density of parasites with the host body size and analyzed the abundances and volumetric densities of some parasite species within microhabitats. Although the 2 most abundant species comprised 75% of all parasite individuals, 4 species, each in similar proportion, comprised 85% of the total biovolume. Although larger host individuals had higher richness, abundance, and biovolume of parasites than smaller individuals, overall parasite volumetric density actually decreased with the host body size. Moreover, parasites exhibited abundances and densities significantly different among microhabitats; some parasite species depended on the area available, whereas others selected a specific microhabitat. Parasite and habitat size exhibited interesting relationships that should be considered more frequently. Considerations of these parameters improve understanding of parasite community structure and how the parasites use their habitats.

  12. Metazoan parasite infracommunities of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey, 1960) (Pisces: Epinephelidae) in reef and coastal environments off the coast of Yucatán, México.

    PubMed

    Espínola-Novelo, Juan F; González-Salas, Carlos; Guillén-Hernández, Sergio; MacKenzie, Ken

    2015-09-01

    The black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci is a commercially important fish off the coast of Yucatan, Mexico. To investigate possible differences between parasite communities in two different environments, 60 fish were collected from two areas during 2010 and 2011 and examined for parasites. The fish were classified into two age groups, in each of which the parameters of parasitic infection - prevalence, abundance and intensity - were determined. Parasite faunas were further described at the infracommunity level. Using both univariate (PERMANOVA) and multivariate statistical methods, the values of richness, abundance, diversity and Brillouin evenness as well as the Index values of Bray-Curtis and Jaccard for similarity were calculated and compared. The results of these tests and of CAP discriminant analyses at the two sites showed the existence of two distinct parasite communities. The parasite taxa mainly responsible for the differences were the digeneans Dollfustrema sp., Prosorhynchus spp., Lepidapedoides epinepheli and Hamacreadium mutabile, and the nematode Philometra salgadoi. The potential for some of these parasites to be used as biological tags for stock identification of M. bonaci is discussed.

  13. Testing the potential of DNA barcoding in vertebrate radiations: the case of the littoral cichlids (Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika.

    PubMed

    Breman, Floris C; Loix, Sara; Jordaens, Kurt; Snoeks, Jos; Van Steenberge, Maarten

    2016-11-01

    We obtained 398 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcodes of 96 morphospecies of Lake Tanganyika (LT) cichlids from the littoral zone. The potential of DNA barcoding in these fishes was tested using both species identification and species delineation methods. The best match (BM) and best close match (BCM) methods were used to evaluate the overall identification success. For this, three libraries were analysed in which the specimens were categorized into Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) in three alternative ways: (A) morphologically distinct, including undescribed, species, (B) valid species and (C) complexes of morphologically similar or closely related species. For libraries A, B and C, 73, 73 and 96% (BM) and 72, 70 and 94% (BCM) of the specimens were correctly identified. Additionally, the potential of two species delineation methods was tested. The General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) analysis suggested 70 hypothetical species, while the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method revealed 115 putative species. Although the ABGD method had a tendency to oversplit, it outperformed the GMYC analysis in retrieving the species. In most cases where ABGD suggested oversplitting, this was due to intraspecific geographical variation. The failure of the GMYC method to retrieve many species could be attributed to discrepancies between mitochondrial gene trees and the evolutionary histories of LT cichlid species. Littoral LT cichlids have complex evolutionary histories that include instances of hybridization, introgression and rapid speciation. Nevertheless, although the utility of DNA barcoding in identification is restricted to the level of complexes, it has potential for species discovery in cichlid radiations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Density of Trematocranus placodon (Pisces: Cichlidae): a predictor of density of the schistosome intermediate host, Bulinus nyassanus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae), in Lake Malaŵi.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Henry; Stauffer, Jay R

    2011-06-01

    From the mid-1980s, we recorded a significant increase in urinary schistosomiasis infection rate and transmission among inhabitants of lakeshore communities in the southern part of Lake Malaŵi, particularly on Nankumba peninsula in Mangochi District. We suggested that the increase was due to over-fishing, which reduced the density of snail-eating fishes, thereby allowing schistosome intermediate host snails to increase to higher densities. In this article, we collected data to test this hypothesis. The density of both Bulinus nyassanus, the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium, and Melanoides spp. was negatively related to density of Trematocranus placodon, the most common of the snail-eating fishes in the shallow water of Lake Malaŵi. Both these snails are consumed by T. placodon. Transmission of S. haematobium through B. nyassanus only occurs in the southern part of the lake and only at villages where high density of the intermediate host is found relatively close to the shore. Thus, we believe that implementation of an effective fish ban up to 100-m offshore along these specific shorelines in front of villages would allow populations of T. placodon to increase in density and this would lead to reduced density of B. nyassanus and possibly schistosome transmission. To reduce dependence on natural fish populations in the lake and still maintain a source of high quality food, culture of indigenous fishes may be a viable alternative.

  15. Two nematodes, Dentinema trichomycteri n. g., n. sp. (Cosmocercidae) and Procamallanus chimusensis Freitas & Ibáñez, 1968 (Camallanidae), from catfishes Trichomycterus spp. (Pisces) in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Chara, Julian; Shinn, Andrew P

    2004-11-01

    Light and scanning electron microscopical examinations of nematode samples collected from the stomachs and intestines of catfishes Trichomycterus spp. (Trichomycteridae, Siluriformes) from three streams in Colombia revealed the presence of two species, Dentinema trichomycteri n. g., n. sp. (Cosmocercidae) (type-host Trichomycterus sp.) and Procamallanus ( Spirocamallanus ) chimusensis Freitas & Ibáñez, 1968 (Camallanidae). The new, monotypic genus Dentinema is characterised mainly by the presence of a triangular mouth surrounded by three poorly developed lips, four submedian cephalic papillae, three conical teeth in the well-developed buccal cavity, an elongate oesophageal isthmus which is clearly separated from the corpus, precloacal oblique muscle bands, and by the absence of a ventral sucker. P. chimusensis , recorded from Colombia for the first time, is redescribed from specimens collected from Trichomycterus chapmani (Eigenmann) (a new host record) and Trichomycterus sp.; new observations show that this species belongs to a small group of Procamallanus spp. exhibiting a distinct sexual diversity in the structure of the buccal capsule. P. pexatus Pinto, Fábio, Noronha & Rolas, 1976 is synonymised with P. chimusensis .

  16. The migration patterns of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pleuronectidae, Pisces) at the southern limit of its distribution range: Ecological implications and fishery management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Pedro; Dias, Ester; Babaluk, John; Antunes, Carlos

    2011-02-01

    This study aims to determine the diversity of migration patterns of the European flounder ( Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758)) present in the Minho estuary and in the adjacent coastal area (NW-Iberian Peninsula). Assessing the diversity of flounder migration patterns at the southern limit of its distribution allows the determination of characteristics of the species' ecology and provides useful information for fishery managers, since it is a regionally important estuarine fishery. An unexpected result of our study was that flounder appears to spawn in both estuarine and coastal areas and not just in coastal areas as was previously widely accepted. Our interpretation of otolith strontium distribution patterns from flounder specimens collected in the freshwater tidal area of the Minho estuary and in the lower estuary suggested that the flounders hatched in the estuary, while only 6.7% of those captured in the coastal area hatched in the coastal area. Ultimately, studies aimed at collecting larval stages and adult flounders must be made to confirm that flounders spawn in the estuary and to define new and better scientifically supported fishing policies, or simply to confirm the existing ones regarding temporal and spatial closures for each gear used in the Minho estuary.

  17. Three new species of Hatschekia Poche, 1902 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae) parasitic on Abalistes filamentosus (Pisces: Tetraodontiformes: Balistidae) from off Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2009-11-01

    Three new species of the copepod genus Hatschekia Poche, 1902, H. lima n. sp., H. cylindrus n. sp. and H. sunaoi n. sp., are described from the gill filaments of a triggerfish, Abalistes filamentosus Matsuura & Yoshino, caught off the Ryukyu Islands, Okinawa, Japan. These new species share an unusual morphological character, i.e. four stout posterior spines on the intercoxal sclerites of legs 1 and 2. H. lima n. sp. differs from its congeners in having a robust inner lobe on the maxillule and leg 3 with a swollen basal lobe. H. cylindrus n. sp. is distinguishable from its congeners by having a cephalothorax fused to the trunk and a double-semicircular chitinous frame. H. sunaoi n. sp. is characterised by leg 3 with a swollen basal lobe and an oval cephalothorax.

  18. A new perspective on phylogeny and evolution of tetraodontiform fishes (Pisces: Acanthopterygii) based on whole mitochondrial genome sequences: Basal ecological diversification?

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The order Tetraodontiformes consists of approximately 429 species of fishes in nine families. Members of the order exhibit striking morphological diversity and radiated into various habitats such as freshwater, brackish and coastal waters, open seas, and deep waters along continental shelves and slopes. Despite extensive studies based on both morphology and molecules, there has been no clear resolution except for monophyly of each family and sister-group relationships of Diodontidae + Tetraodontidae and Balistidae + Monacanthidae. To address phylogenetic questions of tetraodontiform fishes, we used whole mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences from 27 selected species (data for 11 species were newly determined during this study) that fully represent all families and subfamilies of Tetraodontiformes (except for Hollardinae of the Triacanthodidae). Partitioned maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses were performed on two data sets comprising concatenated nucleotide sequences from 13 protein-coding genes (all positions included; third codon positions converted into purine [R] and pyrimidine [Y]), 22 transfer RNA and two ribosomal RNA genes (total positions = 15,084). Results The resultant tree topologies from the two data sets were congruent, with many internal branches showing high support values. The mitogenomic data strongly supported monophyly of all families and subfamilies (except the Tetraodontinae) and sister-group relationships of Balistidae + Monacanthidae and Tetraodontidae + Diodontidae, confirming the results of previous studies. However, we also found two unexpected basal splits into Tetraodontoidei (Triacanthidae + Balistidae + Monacanthidae + Tetraodontidae + Diodontidae + Molidae) and Triacanthodoidei (Ostraciidae + Triodontidae + Triacanthodidae). Conclusion This basal split into the two clades has never been reported and challenges previously proposed hypotheses based on both morphology and nuclear gene sequences. It is likely that the basal split had involved ecological diversification, because most members of Tetraodontoidei exclusively occur in shallow waters (freshwater, brackish and coastal waters, and open seas), while those of Triacanthodoidei occur mainly in relatively deep waters along continental shelves and slopes except for more derived ostraciids. This suggests that the basal split between the two clades led to subsequent radiation into the two different habitats. PMID:18638411

  19. Distribution, population biology, and trophic ecology of the deepwater demersal fish Halosauropsis macrochir (Pisces: Halosauridae) on the mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    PubMed

    Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Clark, Laura; Hansen, Hege Øverbø; Cousins, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Halosauropsis macrochir ranked amongst the most abundant and widespread demersal fishes on the mid-Atlantic Ridge of the North Atlantic (Iceland-Azores) with greatest abundance at 1700-3500 m. All sizes, ranging from 10-76 cm total length, occurred in the area without any apparent spatial pattern or depth trend. Using otolith sections displaying growth increments assumed to represent annuli, the age range recorded was 2-36 years, but most individuals were <20 years. Length and weight at age data were used to fit growth models. No differences between sexes in length and weight at age were observed. The majority of samples had a surplus of males. Diet analysis showed that H. macrochir feeds on Crustacea, Teleostei, Polychaeta, and Cephalopoda, but few prey could be identified to lower taxonomical levels. The mid-Atlantic Ridge constitutes a major portion of the North Atlantic living space of the abyssal halosaur where it completes its full life cycle, primarily as an actively foraging euryophagous micronekton/epibenthos and infauna feeder, becoming a partial piscivore with increasing size.

  20. The EcoRI centromeric satellite DNA of the Sparidae family (Pisces, Perciformes) contains a sequence motive common to other vertebrate centromeric satellite DNAs.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Ramos, M A; Jamilena, M; Lozano, R; Ruiz Rejón, C; Ruiz Rejón, M

    1995-01-01

    By means of cloning, sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we have determined that the EcoRI satellite DNA family is conserved in the 10 sparid species analyzed here. Its conservation, its chromosomal location at the centromere of each chromosome, and its structural features could make this satellite DNA family an important structural and/or functional element of the centromeres of these species. Monomeric units of this satellite DNA have a consensus length of 187 bp. Its sequence is characterized by a high AT content and the presence of short runs of consecutive AT base pairs. These monomeric EcoRI repeats also contain three to four copies, depending on the species, of a short sequence reflecting the repetitive duplication and subsequent divergence of an ancestral 9-bp sequence in this family. This sequence motive is conserved in some parts of the monomeric units of the different species studied at the same positions, and, precisely, surrounding the area in which the curvature of the monomeric molecule is greatest. The 9-bp sequence motive is similar to other direct-repeat sequences of the centromeric satellite DNAs of other vertebrates, including those of amphibians and mammals.

  1. Effect of dietary (n-3) highly unsaturated fatty acids on growth and survival of fat snook (Centropomus parallelus, Pisces: Centropomidae) larvae during first feeding.

    PubMed

    Seiffert, M E; Cerqueira, V R; Madureira, L A

    2001-05-01

    The effect of rotifers, Brachionus rotundiformis (S-type), fed three different diets: A (rotifer fed Nannochloropsis oculata), B (rotifer fed N. oculata and baker's yeast, 1:1), and C (rotifer fed N. oculata and baker's yeast, 1:1, and enriched with Selcoregister mark or target), was evaluated based on the survival, growth and swim bladder inflation rate of fat snook larvae. Rotifers of treatment A had higher levels (4.58 mg/g dry weight) of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) than B (1.81 mg/g dry weight), and similar levels (0.04 and 0.06 mg/g dry weight, respectively) of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Rotifers of treatment C had the highest levels of EPA (13.2 mg/g dry weight) and DHA (6.08 mg/g dry weight). Fat snook eggs were obtained by spawning induction with human chorionic gonadotropin. Thirty hours after hatching, 30 larvae/liter were stocked in black cylindric-conical tanks (36-liter capacity). After 14 days of culture, there were no significant differences among treatments. Mean standard length was 3.13 mm for treatment A, 3.17 mm for B, and 3.39 mm for C. Mean survival rates were very low (2.7% for treatment A, 2.3% for B, and 1.8% for C). Swim bladder inflation rates were 34.7% for treatment A, 27.1% for B, and 11.9% for C. The lack of differences in growth and survival among treatments showed that the improvement of the dietary value of rotifer may not have been sufficient to solve the problem of larval rearing. Some other factor, probably pertaining to the quality of the larvae, may have negatively influenced survival.

  2. A new species of the blind cave gudgeon Milyeringa (Pisces: Gobioidei, Eleotridae) from Barrow Island, Western Australia, with a redescription of M. veritas Whitley.

    PubMed

    Larson, Helen K; Foster, Ralph; Humphreys, William F; Stevens, Mark I

    2013-02-19

    A new species of the eyeless eleotrid genus Milyeringa is described from wells sunk on Barrow Island, Western Australia. Milyeringa justitia n. sp. is the third species of the genus to be named. Morphological data and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) DNA sequence data from a wide sample of localities at which the genus occurs was used to evaluate relationships and species limits. Milyeringa veritas is redescribed, and M. brooksi is synonymised with M. veritas. The unique form and ecology of these fishes, plus the threats to their survival, warrants immediate and continuing attention in management.

  3. Evaluation of environmental quality of two estuaries in Ilha do Maranhão, Brazil, using histological and genotoxic biomarkers in Centropomus undecimalis (Pisces, Centropomidae).

    PubMed

    Cantanhêde, Sildiane Martins; da Silva Castro, Geane; Pereira, Natália Jovita; de Pinho Campos, Jonas Silva; da Silva, Juliana; Tchaicka, Lígia; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho; de Souza Torres, José Ribamar; Santos, Débora Martins Silva

    2016-10-01

    Estuaries are subjected to continual environmental impacts from activities in the catchment areas. This research assessed the quality of two estuarine habitats located in Ilha do Maranhão, Brazil, through histological and genotoxic biomarkers in Centropomus undecimalis, comparing the data obtained to metal, physical, and chemical concentrations of water samples. The gill histological alterations were analyzed by the histological alteration index and genotoxic lesions in erythrocytes were detected by the Micronucleus Test. The analysis of metals revealed that all water samples contained at least two elements with concentrations higher than that allowed by the current Brazilian law. For gill histological analysis, snook of both areas assessed exhibited moderate lesions, indicating that the local fish are affected by environmental stress. Micronucleus analysis of snook showed that the Bacanga river basin is the most affected. In addition to assessing the health of commercial fish populations, the information about the biomarkers used for the species can serve to contribute to the preparation and/or application of health assessment models and implementation of environmental recovery policies for coastal aquatic environments.

  4. Oligomeric protein complexes of apolipoproteins stabilize the internal fluid environment of organism in redfins of the Tribolodon genus [Pisces; Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Alla M; Serebryakova, Marina V; Lamash, Nina E

    2017-03-01

    One of the most important functions of plasma proteins in vertebrates is their participation in osmotic homeostasis in the organism. Modern concepts about plasma proteins and their capillary filtration are based on a model of large monomeric proteins that are able to penetrate the interstitial space. At the same time, it was revealed that a considerable amount of oligomeric complexes are present in the low-molecular-weight (LM) protein fraction in the extracellular fluids of fishes. The functions of these complexes are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the LM-fraction proteins in the plasma and interstitial fluid (IF) of redfins of the genus Tribolodon. This fish alternatively spends parts of its life cycle in saline and fresh waters. We identified the protein Wap65, serpins and apolipoproteins in this fraction. By combining the methods of 2D-E under native and denaturing conditions with MALDI, we demonstrated that only apolipoproteins formed complexes. We showed that serum apolipoproteins (АроА-I, Аро-14) were present in the form of homooligomeric complexes that were dissociated with the release of monomeric forms of proteins in the course of capillary filtration to IF. Dissociation of homooligomers is not directly correlated with the change in salinity but is correlated with seasonal dynamics. We found that there was a significant decrease in the total protein concentration in IF relative to plasma. Therefore, we suggested that dissociation of homooligomeric complexes from various apolipoproteins supports the isoosmoticity of extracellular fluids relative to capillary wall stabilization through a fluid medium in fish.

  5. Does morphology predict trophic niche differentiation? Relationship between feeding habits and body shape in four co-occurring juvenile species (Pisces: Perciformes, Sparidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Daniele; Bonhomme, Vincent; Colangelo, Paolo; Bonifazi, Andrea; Jona Lasinio, Giovanna; Ardizzone, Giandomenico

    2017-05-01

    Feeding habits, diet overlap and morphological correlates of four juvenile species of the genus Diplodus were investigated during their settlement periods, along the Tyrrhenian coast. Stomach content analysis showed that the diets of D. sargus and D. puntazzo mainly comprised benthic prey such as harpacticoid copepods, amphipods and polychaetes. On the other hand, D. vulgaris and D. annularis fed mainly on planktonic prey such as ciclopoids, calanoids copepods and fish larvae. A biologically significant diet overlap, calculated using the Schoener index, was recorded between D. sargus and D. puntazzo and between D. vulgaris and D. annularis. Morphological characters related to feeding such as gape height and gut length with their relative growth patterns suggested that different trophic preferences have led to a morphological diversification of feeding structures. Therefore, a geometric morphometric outline method, namely Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA) was used to examine shape modification of the head and body regions. The multivariate analyses performed on shape descriptors demonstrated that the four species were morphologically distinct due to different feeding habits: the two species which feed mainly on benthic prey presented a discoidal shape, with broad profiles and rounded head; by contrast, the other two species which relied mostly on planktonic prey, presented a streamlined and more elongated body shape.

  6. [Reproduction and feeding habits of Mustelus dorsalis (Pisces: Triakidae) in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica: elements for a sustainable management].

    PubMed

    Rojas M, José Rodrigo

    2006-09-01

    A total of 311 sharptooth smooth-hound Mustelus dorsalis were collected in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica from March 1999 to May 2000 to determine reproduction and feeding habits. The fishes were collected using hook and line. 250 females and 61 males were identified. The females are bigger (550-660 mm) and heavier (400-1,000 g) than males (500-585 mm and 200-300 g, respectively). All samples collected were mature and the minimum length to first maturity observed is 500 and 541 mm for females and males, respectively. From September to March individuals were mature, while samples caught during April and August were immature. A total of 1,259 embryos were analyzed. Number of embryos per liter ranged from two to six, the total length is from 130 to 205 mm and the weight from 6 to 35 g. This shark is a polyphagous opportunistic carnivore that preys on crustaceans (Squilla hancocki, S. parva, Litopenaeus sp.), fishes (Anchoa sp., Caranx sp., Lutjanus sp., Engraulis sp.) and mollusks (Loligo sp. and Octopus sp.). Main prey item was S. hancocki. The presence of mature sharks of both sexes along the year and the consumption of food items associated to shallow coastal rocky waters suggest that this sector of Nicoya Gulf is a nursery ground and an essential habitat. Based on these results the establishment of an integral management plan is proposed.

  7. Population ecology of the tonguefish Symphurus thermophilus (Pisces; Pleuronectiformes; Cynoglossidae) at sulphur-rich hydrothermal vents on volcanoes of the northern Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunnicliffe, Verena; Tyler, Jennifer; Dower, John F.

    2013-08-01

    Flatfish are a major component of the hydrothermal vent community on three seamounts of the northern Mariana Volcanic Arc in the northwest Pacific. Nikko, Kasuga-2 and Daikoku seamounts host vent fields between 375 and 480 m depth where high temperature vents release molten sulphur. The small cynoglossid tonguefish, Symphurus thermophilus Munroe and Hashimoto, is ubiquitous in all vent habitats observed on these seamounts: among extensive fields of tubeworms and mussels and on solid sulphur surfaces on Nikko; on sulphur-rich sediments and barnacle-covered boulders on Kasuga-2; and on recent sulphur flows and on broad areas of loose and semi-consolidated sediments on Daikoku. We recorded repeated forays by individuals onto flows of molten sulphur as these surfaces cooled. Based on observations using ROVs, the mean density is 90 fish/m2 with maximum counts over 200 fish/m2 on Daikoku sediments. Compared to collected tonguefish from Daikoku and Kasuga-2, those from Nikko have significantly greater lengths and, on average, six times the mass. Otolith data indicate upper ages of 13 years with Nikko tonguefish growing significantly faster. Diets of tonguefish on the three seamounts reflect the different habitats and prey availability; in Daikoku specimens, small crustaceans and polychaetes are most common while on Nikko, gut contents are predominantly larger shrimp. We made the unusual observation of stunned midwater fish falling to the seafloor near the vents where S. thermophilus immediately attacked them. This tonguefish has a wide diet range and foraging behaviour that likely influence the differing growth rates and sizes of fish inhabiting the different vent sites. Limited genetic data suggest that larval exchange probably occurs among sites where the common habitat factor is high levels of elemental sulphur forming hard and partly unconsolidated substrata. Here, in the northern range of the Mariana Trench Marine National Monument, S. thermophilus, despite having an unusually broad habitat association, may be restricted in its overall range to this region of isolated volcanoes with active hydrothermalism.

  8. Gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864) (Pisces: Characidae) in the São Francisco river, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, T L; Bazzoli, N; Brito, M F G

    2006-05-01

    The gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã, Brycon orthotaenia in the São Francisco river, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, were studied from December, 1998 to November, 1999. The matrinxã B. orthotaenia is an endemic species in the São Francisco river basin in Brazil and important for commercial fishing. The size of the 1st gonadal maturation, indicated by the total length of the smallest spent males and spawned female, was 32.0 and 40.5 cm respectively. Reproduction occurred from October to January, when high frequencies of females and males at an advanced ripening/mature stage and spawned females were found. The short spawning period and histological characteristics of spawned ovaries containing only oocytes in stages of initial development, along with post-ovulatory and atresic follicles, indicated that Brycon orthotaenia presents total spawning.

  9. [Size and age structure of the striped marlin Tetrapturus audax (Pisces: Xiphidae), at Cabo San Lucas, Baja California sur, México].

    PubMed

    Barrera, Felipe Neri Melo; Uraga, Roberto Felix

    2004-12-01

    The striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) is found in temperate and tropical waters of the Pacific and Indian Ocean. It is particularly abundant in the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula. Specimens brought to Cabo San Lucas port (22 degrees 53' N y 109 degrees 54' W) by the sport fishery fleet that operates withing a radius of 54 km from 1988 to 1993 were sexes, measured and weighed. A total 1030 individuals were sampled. Dorsal fin spines (389) were collected for age estimation. The spines were sectioned and hyaline-opaque bands counted. The relation of length to spine radius was similar for males and females. The fourth dorsal spine reflected the growth of the fish. The rhythm of growth mark formation is yearly and related to the sea surface temperature. Ten age groups were found and the seventh group was the most abundant, followed by groups "6" and "8". The age structure of the striped marlin was stable in the study period. The observed sizes were 160-280 cm jaw length with 90% of the organisms measuring between 190 and 225 cm. The small individuals recruit to the fishery from June to December.

  10. Intersex and liver alterations induced by long-term sublethal exposure to 17α-ethinylestradiol in adult male Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Young, Brian Jonathan; López, Gabriela Carina; Cristos, Diego Sebastián; Crespo, Diana Cristina; Somoza, Gustavo Manuel; Carriquiriborde, Pedro

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the responses of the gonopodium morphology and the gonadal and liver histology of adult male Cnesterodon decemmaculatus to sublethal long-term exposure concentrations of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). Two experiments were conducted exposing the fish to waterborne concentrations of EE2 ranging from 20 ng/L to 200 ng/L for 8 wk, 12 wk, and 16 wk. Intersex gonads were observed after 8 wk and 16 wk in fish exposed to 200 ng EE2/L and 100 ng EE2/L, respectively. Oocytes' development from testis germ cells and replacement of the efferent duct periodic acid-Schiff-positive secretion surrounding spermatozeugmata by parenchymal tissue and duct structure alterations were the major observed changes in the gonads. In contrast, no response was observed in the gonopodium morphology. Liver histology was also altered, showing increasing steatosis, single-cell necrosis to generalized necrosis, and disruption of acinar organization from 100 ng EE2/L to 200 ng EE2/L. In summary, the present results showed that although EE2 was not able to alter the morphology of a developed gonopodium, it was capable of inducing development of testicular oocytes in adult male C. decemmaculatus at environmentally relevant concentrations. Thus, externally normal but intersex C. decemmaculatus males would be expected in the wastewater-receiving streams that the species inhabits. According to the literature, the present study would be the first indicating estrogen-induced intersex in adult male poeciliid. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1738-1745. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. THE GRAY NEEDLE: LARGE GRAINS IN THE HD 15115 DEBRIS DISK FROM LBT /PISCES/Ks AND LBTI /LMIRcam/L' ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Hinz, Philip M.; Vaitheeswaran, Vidhya; Skemer, Andrew J.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Bailey, Vanessa; Schneider, Glenn; Close, Laird; Apai, Daniel; Leisenring, Jarron; Skrutskie, Michael; Mannucci, Filippo; Esposito, Simone; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Pinna, Enrico; Argomedo, Javier; Agapito, Guido; Bono, Giuseppe; Briguglio, Runa; Boutsia, Kostantina; and others

    2012-06-10

    We present diffraction-limited Ks band and L' adaptive optics images of the edge-on debris disk around the nearby F2 star HD 15115, obtained with a single 8.4 m primary mirror at the Large Binocular Telescope. At the Ks band, the disk is detected at signal-to-noise per resolution element (SNRE) {approx} 3-8 from {approx}1 to 2.''5 (45-113 AU) on the western side and from {approx}1.''2 to 2.''1 (63-90 AU) on the east. At L' the disk is detected at SNRE {approx} 2.5 from {approx}1 to 1.''45 (45-90 AU) on both sides, implying more symmetric disk structure at 3.8 {mu}m. At both wavelengths the disk has a bow-like shape and is offset from the star to the north by a few AU. A surface brightness asymmetry exists between the two sides of the disk at the Ks band, but not at L'. The surface brightness at the Ks band declines inside 1'' ({approx}45 AU), which may be indicative of a gap in the disk near 1''. The Ks - L' disk color, after removal of the stellar color, is mostly gray for both sides of the disk. This suggests that scattered light is coming from large dust grains, with 3-10 {mu}m sized grains on the east side and 1-10 {mu}m dust grains on the west. This may suggest that the west side is composed of smaller dust grains than the east side, which would support the interpretation that the disk is being dynamically affected by interactions with the local interstellar medium.

  12. Changes in Glutathione S-Transferase Activity and Parental Care Patterns in a Catfish (Pisces, Ariidae) as a Biomarker of Anthropogenic Impact in a Brazilian Harbor.

    PubMed

    Fortes Carvalho Neta, Raimunda Nonata; Barbosa, Gleyciane Lobato; Torres, Hetty Salvino; Pinheiro Sousa, Débora Batista; Castro, Jonatas da Silva; Santos, Débora Martins Silva; Tchaicka, Lígia; Almeida, Zafira da Silva de; Teixeira, Erivania Gomes; Torres, Audalio Rebelo

    2017-01-01

    Catfish have been used as a model system for studying biochemical mechanisms of biotransformation. The main goal of this study was to identify alterations in hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and changes in the parental care pattern of a mouth-brooding catfish, Sciades herzbergii, as a biomarker of anthropogenic impact in a port area on the northeastern coast of Brazil. The fish were sampled from a natural reserve (A1 = reference site) and from an industrialized port area (A2 = impacted site). Two analyses were carried out: hepatic GST activity and mouth-brooding behavior of males. Catfish collected from the A1 site displayed all stages of gonadal maturation, and some of the adult males were mouth brooding 12-30 embryos. Not all gonadal maturation stages of the catfish were represented at the A2 site, and no mouth-brooding males were observed. GST activity in the liver of S. herzbergii was significantly higher in fish from the impacted site compared with fish from the reference site. Values for the enzymatic activity increased progressively in fish sampled from the reserve area as they became more reproductively mature (immature ≤ maturing ≤ mature ≤ spent). However, the greatest values for GST activity (2.84 ± 0.31 μmol min(-1) mg protein(-1)) among fish sampled from the impacted area were found in (immature) juveniles. These data suggest that changes in hepatic GST activity and mouth-brooding behavior of S. herzbergii can be used as biomarkers of anthropogenic impact.

  13. Effects of nickel chloride and oxygen depletion on behaviour and vitality of zebrafish (Danio rerio, Hamilton, 1822) (Pisces, Cypriniformes) embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Kienle, Cornelia; Köhler, H-R; Filser, Juliane; Gerhardt, Almut

    2008-04-01

    We examined acute (2 h exposure of 5-day-old larvae) and subchronic (exposure from fertilization up to an age of 11 days) effects of NiCl(2).6H2O on embryos and larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio), both alone and in combination with oxygen depletion. The following endpoints were recorded: acute exposure: locomotory activity and survival; subchronic exposure: hatching rate, deformations, locomotory activity (at 5, 8 and 11 days) and mortality. In acute exposures nickel chloride (7.5-15 mg Ni/L) caused decreasing locomotory activity. Oxygen depletion (or=10 mg Ni/L resulted in delayed hatching at an age of 96 h, in decreased locomotory activity at an age of 5 days, and increased mortality at an age of 11 days (LC20=9.5 mg Ni/L). The observed LOEC for locomotory activity (7.5 mg Ni/L) is in the range of environmentally relevant concentrations. Since locomotory activity was already affected by acute exposure, this parameter is recommended to supplement commonly recorded endpoints of toxicity.

  14. Balancing genetic uniqueness and genetic variation in determining conservation and translocation strategies: a comprehensive case study of threatened dwarf galaxias, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Pisces: Galaxiidae).

    PubMed

    Coleman, R A; Weeks, A R; Hoffmann, A A

    2013-04-01

    Genetic markers are widely used to define and manage populations of threatened species based on the notion that populations with unique lineages of mtDNA and well-differentiated nuclear marker frequencies should be treated separately. However, a danger of this approach is that genetic uniqueness might be emphasized at the cost of genetic diversity, which is essential for adaptation and is potentially boosted by mixing geographically separate populations. Here, we re-explore the issue of defining management units, focussing on a detailed study of Galaxiella pusilla, a small freshwater fish of national conservation significance in Australia. Using a combination of microsatellite and mitochondrial markers, 51 populations across the species range were surveyed for genetic structure and diversity. We found an inverse relationship between genetic differentiation and genetic diversity, highlighting a long-term risk of deliberate isolation of G. pusilla populations based on protection of unique lineages. Instead, we adopt a method for identifying genetic management units that takes into consideration both uniqueness and genetic variation. This produced a management framework to guide future translocation and re-introduction efforts for G. pusilla, which contrasted to the framework based on a more traditional approach that may overlook important genetic variation in populations. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Ailinella mirabilis gen. n., sp. n. (eucestoda: pseudophyllidea) from Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) in the Andean-Patagonian region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    de Pertierra, Alicia A Gil; Semenas, Liliana G

    2006-12-01

    Ailinella gen. n. (Pseudophyllidea: Triaenophoridae) is proposed to accommodate Ailinella mirabilis sp. n. from Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1842), a freshwater fish inhabiting the Andean lakes in Argentinean Patagonia. Ailinella belongs to the Triaenophoridae because it has a marginal genital pore, a follicular vitelline gland, and a ventral uterine pore. The new genus can be distinguished from other triaenophorids by the following combination of characters: a small body size, a low number of proglottides, which are longer than wide, a truncated pyramidal to globular scolex, a rectangular apical disc, presence of the neck, lack of internal longitudinal musculature separating the cortex from the medulla, testes distributed in one central field surrounding the ovary laterally and posteriorly, the vagina predominantly anterior to the cirrus sac, vitelline follicles circum-medullary, the genital pores post-equatorial, a saccate uterus, and operculate eggs. Blade-like spiniform microtriches were present on all tegument surfaces, and tumuli on all surfaces of the scolex and the anterior surface of the neck. Microtriches were characterized according to their size and density, and tumuli according to their size, inter-tumulus distance and density. Ailinella mirabilis is the first cestode described from G. maculatus and the second triaenophorid species recorded from a South American freshwater fish.

  16. Stratigraphic context and paleoenvironmental significance of minor taxa (Pisces, Reptilia, Aves, Rodentia) from the late Early Pleistocene paleoanthropological site of Buia (Eritrea).

    PubMed

    Rook, L; Ghinassi, M; Carnevale, G; Delfino, M; Pavia, M; Bondioli, L; Candilio, F; Coppa, A; Martínez-Navarro, B; Medin, T; Papini, M; Zanolli, C; Libsekal, Y

    2013-01-01

    The Buia Homo site, also known as Wadi Aalad, is an East African paleoanthropological site near the village of Buia that, due to its very rich yield from the late Early Pleistocene, has been intensively investigated since 1994. In this paper, which reports on the finds of the 2010-2011 excavations, we include new fossil evidence on previously identified taxa (i.e., reptiles), as well as the very first description of the small mammal, fish and bird remains discovered. In particular, this study documents the discovery of the first African fossil of the genus Burhinus (Aves, Charadriiformes) and of the first rodent from the site. This latter is identified as a thryonomyid rodent (cane rat), a relatively common taxon in African paleoanthropological faunal assemblages. On the whole, the new occurrences documented within the Buia vertebrate assemblage confirm the occurrence of taxa characterized by strong water dependence. The paleoenvironmental characteristics of the fauna are confirmed as fully compatible with the evidence obtained through sedimentology and facies analysis, documenting the sedimentary evolution of fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the whiting, Merlangius merlangus and the haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus: a detailed genomic comparison among closely related species of the Gadidae family.

    PubMed

    Roques, Severine; Fox, Clive J; Villasana, Maria I; Rico, Ciro

    2006-11-15

    We determined the first complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences for the whiting (Merlangius merlangus, family Gadidae, order Gadiformes) and the haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus, family Gadidae, order Gadiformes). The entire mitogenomes were amplified and sequenced by primer walking using newly designed specific internal primers. Lengths were 16,569 and 16,585 bases for whiting and haddock respectively, lengths which lie within the range of previously reported gadiform sequences from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, 16,696 bases) and walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma, 16,570 bases). Gene arrangement in both species conformed to the order seen in most vertebrate mitochondrial genomes. We identified a long intergenic spacer located between the tRNA(Thr) and tRNA(Pro) genes (of 100 and 70 bp long for whiting and haddock, respectively), as previously described for other species of the order Gadiformes. Using nucleotide and amino acid divergence data of four complete gadoid mitogenomes (M. merlangius, M. aeglefinus, G. morhua and T. chalcogramma), we examined in detail the relative mtDNA mutation patterns across genes and among Gadidae species and tested for the performance of each protein-coding, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA gene in depicting the expected phylogeny among the four species, as compared with the whole genome dataset. This comparison may be particularly useful in phylogenetic analyses of such a diverse fish family, as well as for the understanding of the patterns of nucleotide substitution of the mtDNA at low levels of divergence.

  18. Origin and dynamic lineage characteristics of the developing Drosophila midgut stem cells.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Shigeo; Aghajanian, Patrick; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2016-08-15

    Proliferating intestinal stem cells (ISCs) generate all cell types of the Drosophila midgut, including enterocytes, endocrine cells, and gland cells (e.g., copper cells), throughout the lifetime of the animal. Among the signaling mechanisms controlling the balance between ISC self-renewal and the production of different cell types, Notch (N) plays a pivotal role. In this paper we investigated the emergence of ISCs during metamorphosis and the role of N in this process. Precursors of the Drosophila adult intestinal stem cells (pISCs) can be first detected within the pupal midgut during the first hours after onset of metamorphosis as motile mesenchymal cells. pISCs perform 2-3 rounds of parasynchronous divisions. The first mitosis yields only an increase in pISC number. During the following rounds of mitosis, dividing pISCs give rise to more pISCs, as well as the endocrine cells that populate the midgut of the eclosing fly. Enterocytes do not appear among the pISC progeny until around the time of eclosion. The "proendocrine" gene prospero (pros), expressed from mid-pupal stages onward in pISCs, is responsible to advance the endocrine fate in these cells; following removal of pros, pISCs continue to proliferate, but endocrine cells do not form. Conversely, the onset of N activity that occurs around the stage when pros comes on restricts pros expression among pISCs. Loss of N abrogates proliferation and switches on an endocrine fate among all pISCs. Our results suggest that a switch depending on the activity of N and pros acts at the level of the pISC to decide between continued proliferation and endocrine differentiation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Trident Biological Surveys: SUBASE Bangor (July 1977 and June 1978) and Indian Island Annex (January, May 1974 and June 1978). Supplement 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    pus californicus UROCHORDATA Distaplia occidew;alis Boltenia villosa Pyura haustor Corella wilimeniana Table D-1. Continued 83 CHORDATA ! PISCES...1. Continued CHORDATA /PISCES Brachyistius frenatus C’.inocottus embryum Hexagram’nos stelleri Lumpenus sagitta P/tolis leata Table D-2. Additions to

  20. Methods for design and evaluation of integrated hardware/software systems for concurrent computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Terrence W.

    1987-01-01

    Two testbed programming environments to support the evaluation of a large range of parallel architectures have been implemented under the program Parallel Implementation of Scientific Computing Environments (PISCES). The PISCES 1 environment was applied to two areas of aerospace interest: a sparse matrix iterative equation solver and a dynamic scene analysis system. Currently, the NICE/SPAR testbed system for structural analysis is being modified for parallel operation under PISCES 2; the PISCES 1 applications are also being adapted for PISCES 2. A new formal model of concurrent computation has been developed, based on the mathematical system known as H graph semantics together with a timed Petri net model of the parallel aspects of a system.

  1. Successive Losses of Central Immune Genes Characterize the Gadiformes’ Alternate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Solbakken, Monica H.; Rise, Matthew L.; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.; Jentoft, Sissel

    2016-01-01

    Great genetic variability among teleost immunomes, with gene losses and expansions of central adaptive and innate components, has been discovered through genome sequencing over the last few years. Here, we demonstrate that the innate Myxovirus resistance gene (Mx) is lost from the ancestor of Gadiformes and the closely related Stylephorus chordatus, thus predating the loss of Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (MHCII) in Gadiformes. Although the functional implication of Mx loss is still unknown, we demonstrate that this loss is one of several ancient events appearing in successive order throughout the evolution of teleost immunity. In particular, we find that the loss of Toll-like receptor 5 predates the loss of Mx involving the entire Paracanthopterygii lineage. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny, we show that loss of MHCII and Mx overlap with major paleoclimatic and geological events indicating that these genetic changes were adaptive responses to the changing environment at the time. PMID:27797950

  2. A Novel Offset Cancellation Based on Parasitic-Insensitive Switched-Capacitor Sensing Circuit for the Out-of-Plane Single-Gimbaled Decoupled CMOS-MEMS Gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ming-Hui; Huang, Han-Pang

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel parasitic-insensitive switched-capacitor (PISC) sensing circuit design in order to obtain high sensitivity and ultra linearity and reduce the parasitic effect for the out-of-plane single-gimbaled decoupled CMOS-MEMS gyroscope (SGDG). According to the simulation results, the proposed PISC circuit has better sensitivity and high linearity in a wide dynamic range. Experimental results also show a better performance. In addition, the PISC circuit can use signal processing to cancel the offset and noise. Thus, this circuit is very suitable for gyroscope measurement. PMID:23493122

  3. A novel offset cancellation based on parasitic-insensitive switched-capacitor sensing circuit for the out-of-plane single-Gimbaled decoupled CMOS-MEMS gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming-Hui; Huang, Han-Pang

    2013-03-14

    This paper presents a novel parasitic-insensitive switched-capacitor (PISC) sensing circuit design in order to obtain high sensitivity and ultra linearity and reduce the parasitic effect for the out-of-plane single-gimbaled decoupled CMOS-MEMS gyroscope (SGDG). According to the simulation results, the proposed PISC circuit has better sensitivity and high linearity in a wide dynamic range. Experimental results also show a better performance. In addition, the PISC circuit can use signal processing to cancel the offset and noise. Thus, this circuit is very suitable for gyroscope measurement.

  4. Characterization of mitochondrial control region in Merlucciidae: sequence variation and molecular phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Crous, Marta; Roldán, María I

    2015-06-12

    In order to describe the structure and evolution of Merlucciidae and related Gadiformes mitochondrial control region we analysed 470 bp of 31 taxa belonging to 28 different species. The general structure and conserved sequence blocks observed in Gadiformes mitochondrial control region are similar to those present in other teleost fishes. The length of this segment is variable among related species due to the presence of numerous indels at domain I. Domain II is the most conserved region with a high G content. The GTGGG-box is absent in all Merluccius and seven other Gadidae species. Several methods of phylogenetic analyses has revealed the monophyly of Gadiformes, Gadinae and Merlucciidae. Merlucciidae is most closely related to Gadidae. Within Merlucciidae, American and Euroafrican clades show similar levels of differentiation to those within Gadinae where Trisopterus and Micromesistius are sister taxa. Genetic distance values for Merluccius subspecies pairs are less than half of those between species, comparable to intra specific differentiation levels in marine fish species.

  5. Discovery and Development of Therapeutic Drugs against Lethal Human RNA- Viruses: A Multidisciplinary Assault

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-20

    Coelenterata PT 1.90 Pre 11/14/89 B721743 M-3314 Australia.78 Coelenterata PT 2.18 Pre 11/14/89 B721749 6584 M-3328 Australia.78 Chordata /Tunicata PT 1.67 Pre...PT 13.99 Pre 10/31/89 B721880 6589 M-3160 Palau.79 Chordata /Pisces PT 1.02 Pre 10/31/89 B721892 6590 M-3163 Palau.79 Chordara/Pisces YF 10.52 Pre 01...02/90 B721899 6591 M-3163 Palau.79 Chordaca/Pisces PT 5.84 Pre 01/02/90 of 6591 M-3165 Palau.79 Chordata /Pisces PT 5.56 Pre 01/02/90 B721905 6592 M

  6. BIG FISH, LITTLE FISH: TWO NEW ULTRA-FAINT SATELLITES OF THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Belokurov, V.; Walker, M. G.; Evans, N. W.; Gilmore, G.; Irwin, M. J.; Koposov, S.; Watkins, L.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Just, D.; Olszewski, E.; Mateo, M. E-mail: walker@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2010-03-20

    We report the discovery of two new Milky Way satellites in the neighboring constellations of Pisces and Pegasus identified in data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Pisces II, an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy lies at the distance of {approx}180 kpc, some 15 deg. away from the recently detected Pisces I. Segue 3, an ultra-faint star cluster lies at the distance of 16 kpc. We use deep follow-up imaging obtained with the 4-m Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory to derive their structural parameters. Pisces II has a half-light radius of {approx}60 pc, while Segue 3 is 20 times smaller at only 3 pc.

  7. Galaxies in Hiding

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-05

    There are nearly 200 galaxies within the marked circles in this image from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. These are part of the Perseus-Pisces supercluster of galaxies located 250 million light-years away.

  8. MoonRIDERS: NASA and Hawaii's Lunar Surface Flight Experiment for Late 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, R. M.

    2015-10-01

    This briefing will update the MoonRIDERS lunar surface flight experiment project between NASA-KSC, PISCES, and two Hawaii high schools investigating critical lunar dust-removal technologies. Launch planned in early 2017 on GLXP mission.

  9. Validity of a blue stripe snapper, Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828) and a related species, L. bengalensis (Bloch 1790) with a new species (Pisces; Lutjanidae) from the Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Yukio; Al-Mamry, Juma M; Heemstra, Phillip C

    2016-04-07

    Lutjanus octolineatus (Cuvier 1828), previously considered a junior synonym of Lutjanus bengalensis (Bloch 1790), is shown to be a valid species and lectotypes are designated. Both species are redescribed. The two species have overlapping distributions in the Indian Ocean, but are clearly separable by different dorsal-fin spine counts, blue-striped pattern on the body and the presence or absence of a subocular extension of cheek scales. Lutjanus octovittata (Valenciennes 1830), formerly assigned to synonymy of L. bengalensis, is considered a junior synonym of L. octolineatus based on examination of the holotype. Lutjanus sapphirolineatus n. sp., a species formerly misidentified as L. bengalensis, is described based on 10 specimens from Oman and Somalia. The new species differs from the three species above by a combination of different characters. Analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1, 603 bp) genetic marker, also strongly supports the validity of each species of the blue-striped snapper complex as distinct.

  10. Lamellodiscus aff. euzeti Diamanka, Boudaya, Toguebaye & Pariselle, 2011 (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) from the gills of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes) (Pisces: Sparidae) collected in the Arabian Sea, with comments on the distribution, specificity and historical biogeography of Lamellodiscus spp.

    PubMed

    Machkewskyi, Volodymyr K; Dmitrieva, Evgenija V; Gibson, David I; Al-Jufaili, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Specimens of Lamellodiscus Johnston & Tiegs, 1922 (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) were collected from the gills of Cheimerius nufar (Valenciennes) (Sparidae) in the Arabian Sea. All of these parasites belonged to one and the same species, which is morphologically very close to L. euzeti Diamanka, Boudaya, Toguebaye & Pariselle, 2011. A different host, distant locality and small morphological differences compared with the original description of L. euzeti acted as a stimulus for a detailed redescription. The specimens from the Arabian Sea differ slightly in the details of the male copulatory organ (MCO) from the type-specimens of L. euzeti, which were re-examined, and from the respective drawings in its original description. Such differences include a longer inner process of the large element of the accessory piece associated with the proximal part of the copulatory tube, a longer point on the small element of the accessory piece associated with the distal part of the copulatory tube, and the presence of a smooth or slightly folded inner margin of this element rather than structures resembling spines which occur in the type-specimens of L. euzeti. Therefore, the present specimens infecting C. nufar in the Indo-Pacific may represent a different, but morphologically very similar species to the Atlantic form L. euzeti; consequently, they are recognised here as Lamellodiscus aff. euzeti. This form belongs to the 'ignoratus s. str.' subgroup of the genus. The composition of this subgroup is redefined to comprise 17 species, including L. corallinus Paperna, 1965 but excluding L. acanthopagri Roubal, 1981, and the morphology of the MCO of representatives of this group is clarified. A link between the diversity of Lamellodiscus species and the ancestral origin of present-day sparid species in the Tethys Sea is suggested. It is shown that Lamellodiscus spp. exhibit rather high levels of specificity to their hosts, since half of them parasitise only a single host species and c.90% infect closely related host species. Comparison of the levels of host-specificity of the species of this genus with other narrowly specific genera of the Dactylogyridea revealed that their estimations are comparable. The possibility of intra-host speciation within Lamellodiscus is discussed. It is shown that a co-evolutionary model is more discernible if it includes data on the occurrence of morphologically similar species from different regions and host taxa.

  11. Redescription of Testudotaenia testudo (Magath, 1924) (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidea), a parasite of Apalone spinifera (Le Sueur) (Reptilia: Trionychidae) and Amia calva L. (Pisces: Amiidae) in North America and erection of the Testudotaeniinae n. subfam.

    PubMed

    de Chambrier, Alain; Coquille, Sandrine C; Mariaux, Jean; Tkach, Vasyl

    2009-05-01

    Testudotaenia testudo (Magath, 1924) is redescribed from the intestine of the softshell turtle Apalone spinifera (Le Sueur) (Trionychidae) and the bowfin Amia calva Linnaeus (Amiidae) from Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee, United States. A new subfamily, the Testudotaeniinae, is erected. The new taxon differs from all proteocephalidean subfamilies in the position of the genital organs in relation to the longitudinal internal musculature, i.e. the testes are cortical, rarely medullary; the ovary is partly medullary, with cortical lobes; the vitelline follicles are mainly medullary, with some follicles in the cortex; and the uterus is cortical. A key to the subfamilies of the order Proteocephalidea Mola, 1928 is provided. The most characteristic features of T. testudo are the precocious uterine aperture, the presence of internal uterine pores (as previously described for Proteocephalus paraguayensis (Rudin, 1917)), the eggs laid unripe, the very long strobila (up to 970 mm), and the presence of an anterior circular musculature in the suckers, which is considered as a good differential character. Three other species were found in Amia calva: Proteocephalus perplexus La Rue, 1911, P. ambloplitis (Leidy, 1887) and a new, undescribed form. Sequences of the partial nuclear 28S rRNA gene of specimens of T. testudo from Apalone spinulifera and Amia calva confirm the conspecificity of samples from these two very distinct hosts, which may represent a capture phenomenon. As the subfamily Adenobrechmoinae Bursey, Goldberg & Kraus, 2006 and the genus Adenobrechmos Bursey, Goldberg & Kraus, 2006 are based on the presence of an apical organ, a character which reflects a rather common convergence, we consider the Adenobrechmoinae to be a junior synonym of the Proteocephalinae La Rue, 1911 and Adenobrechmos a junior synonym of Ophiotaenia La Rue, 1911. Adenobrechmos greeri Bursey, Goldberg & Kraus, 2006 thus becomes Ophiotaenia greeri (Bursey, Goldberg & Kraus, 2006) n. comb.

  12. Migration of the curimbatá Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) (Pisces, Prochilodontidae) at the waterfall "Cachoeira de Emas" of the Mogi-Guaçu river--São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Capeleti, A R; Petrere, M

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we counted the ascending curimbatás at the fish ladder at the Cachoeira de Emas from October, 1992 to September, 1993 in one whole day (24 h period) per month at different observation points in the dam for 5 min every hour. Most of the fish (80%) were counted not in the fish ladder itself, but in two adjacent spillways at its left, perhaps due to the comparatively increased flow as they are narrower than the ladder. The bulk of the migration occurred in September/October. We inspected the degree of injury of the fish in order to examine the hypothesis that larger fish are less injured, however no conclusion was reached. The degree of injury varied between different points and in different months of the year.

  13. New species of Cacatuocotyle (Monogenoidea, Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the anus and the gill lamellae of Astyanax aeneus (Pisces, Ostariophysi: Characidae) from the Rio Lacantún basin in the Biosphere Reserve of Montes Azules, Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Franco, Edgar F Mendoza; Caspeta-Mandujano, J M; Salgado-Maldonado, G

    2013-01-01

    As part of a biological inventory of the Rio Lacantún basin in the Biosphere Reserve of Montes Azules from Chiapas State (southeastern, Mexico), the following monogenoid ectoparasites infecting the external surface of the anal opening and the gill lamellae of the freshwater fish Astyanax aeneus (Characidae) in ten streams were found: Cacatuocotyle chajuli sp. nov. (anus), Cacatuocotyle exiguum sp. nov., and Cacatuocotyle sp. (gill lamellae). C. chajuli is differentiated from its single congener, Cacatuocotyle paranaensis (Boeger et al. Syst Parasitol 36:75-78, 1997), from the gills of Characidium lanei (Characidae) from Paraná Brazil, in having a noticeably V-shaped haptoral bar and larger hooks and anchors. C. exiguum differs from these two latter species in the size of its anchors. Illustrations and data on morphological and biometric variability of individual specimens of C. chajuli and C. exiguum from different streams are provided. The present data support the statement about three species of Astyanax, which harbor the richest monogenoidean diversity in the Neotropics with a total of 18 species reported up to now. Occurrences of species of Cacatuocotyle on different sites of infection on three distant host species [including a Neotropical cichlid (Cichlidae) species] suggest that these monogenoideans switching to new hosts can result in the availability of potential hosts within the same habitat instead of showing signs of preferential switching between closely related hosts or on their respective microhabitats.

  14. The influence of food competition and host specificity on the transmission of Triaenophorus crassus (Cestoda) and Cystidicola farionis (Nematoda) to Coregonus lavaretus and Coregonus albula (Pisces:Coregonidae) in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, K; Valtonen, E T; Niemi, A; Poikola, K

    1999-11-01

    As a superior competitor for planktonic food, vendace (Coregonus albula), when abundant, is expected to displace whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) from feeding on plankton and to force it to rely more on benthic food. The predicted result would be a reduced abundance of the copepod-transmitted cestode Triaenophorus crassus in whitefish, but an increase in the abundance of the nematode Cystidicola farionis transmitted via benthic amphipods. We studied the occurrence of both parasites in whitefish during 1991-1996 in three interconnected areas at Lake Saimaa, Finland, where the densities of the vendace stocks varied due to natural fluctuation in year-class strengths. In accordance with our hypothesis, some indication of the effect of the density of the vendace population on abundance of C. farionis infection in whitefish was found, but not in the case of T. crassus. Only 0.2% of vendace were infected with T. crassus, while up to 100% of the whitefish in the yearly samples harboured the parasite. In further experiments we clarified which copepod species in Lake Saimaa act as first intermediate hosts of T. crassus, and verified from stomach samples the exposure of both whitefish and vendace to those species. Experimental infections indicated that the infectivity of T. crassus is lower for vendace than for whitefish. We suggest that the reason why vendace stock density does not affect T. crassus infection in whitefish is that T. crassus is transmitted in littoral areas during a short period in spring. At that time of the year copepods are abundant and available to both whitefish and vendace, but since the parasite is less infective to vendace. they do not become infected. At other times of the year, dense vendace stocks may force whitefish to shift to benthic food, which includes amphipods transmitting C. farionis. During vendace stock decline, whitefish may, however, continue to feed on plankton and avoid exposure to C. farionis.

  15. Chromosomal mapping of H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes in eight species of Astyanax (Pisces, Characiformes) with different diploid numbers: syntenic conservation of repetitive genes.

    PubMed

    Piscor, Diovani; Parise-Maltempi, Patricia Pasquali

    2016-03-01

    The genus Astyanax is widely distributed from the southern United States to northern Patagonia, Argentina. While cytogenetic studies have been performed for this genus, little is known about the histone gene families. The aim of this study was to examine the chromosomal relationships among the different species of Astyanax. The chromosomal locations of the 5S rRNA and H3 histone genes were determined in A. abramis, A. asuncionensis, A. altiparanae, A. bockmanni, A. eigenmanniorum, A. mexicanus (all 2n = 50), A. fasciatus (2n = 46), and A. schubarti (2n = 36). All eight species exhibited H3 histone clusters on two chromosome pairs. In six species (A. abramis, A. asuncionensis, A. altiparanae, A. bockmanni, A. eigenmanniorum, and A. fasciatus), syntenic clusters of H3 histone and 5S rDNA were observed on metacentric (m) or submetacentric (sm) chromosomes. In seven species, clusters of 5S rDNA sequences were located on one or two chromosome pairs. In A. mexicanus, 5S rDNA clusters were located on four chromosome pairs. This study demonstrates that H3 histone clusters are conserved on two chromosome pairs in the genus Astyanax, and specific chromosomal features may contribute to the genomic organization of the H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes.

  16. Heat-shock protein (Hsp70) and cytochrome P-450 (CYP1A) in the white mullet Mugil curema (Pisces:Mugilidae) as biomarkers to assess environmental quality in coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Rios-Sicairos, Julian; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel; Leal-Tarin, Beatriz; Hernandez-Cornejo, Rubi; Aguilar-Zarate, Gabriela; Garcia-De-La-Parra, Luz Maria; Gutierrez, Jesus N; Marquez-Rocha, Facundo; Garcia-Gasca, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    Biomarkers have been useful tools to monitor some effects of pollution in coastal environments. Hepatic expression of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) were analyzed in white mullet (Mugil curema) by RT-PCR from July, 2005 until July, 2006 in three coastal lagoons located in the southern Gulf of California, Mexico. These three coastal systems receive contaminants derived from local anthropogenic activities. Heat-shock proteins function to maintain protein integrity in the presence of stressors (such as heat or chemicals) and can be used as biomarkers of homeostatic alterations in polluted environments, whereas cytochrome P450 family members participate in steroid hormone synthesis and metabolism, and in xenobiotic transformation as a detoxification mechanism. The expression levels of both genes showed consistency in time and space, and presented a high overall correlation (r = 0.731, P < 0.001). Regardless of a high individual variability, both genes presented higher expression levels in the Urias Estuary (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 for CYP1A and Hsp70, respectively), which was considered the most polluted among the three systems, especially during the rainy season (summer to fall). Gene expression levels were significantly associated with non-halogenated hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments during the sampling period (r = 0.686, P = 0.019 for CYP1A and r = 0.91, P < 0.001 for Hsp70), suggesting that both genes respond to chemicals in the environment. The results indicate that Mugil curema is a good candidate species to implement biomonitoring programs in tropical coastal environments.

  17. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical localization of insulin-like growth factor-I and myostatin during development of Dicentrarchus labrax (Pisces: Osteichthyes).

    PubMed

    Patruno, Marco; Sivieri, Susanna; Poltronieri, Carlo; Sacchetto, Roberta; Maccatrozzo, Lisa; Martinello, Tiziana; Funkenstein, Bruria; Radaelli, Giuseppe

    2008-03-01

    The distribution of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and myostatin (MSTN) was investigated in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry. Real-time PCR indicated that IGF-I mRNA increased from the second day post-hatching and that this trend became significant from day 4. ISH confirmed a strong IGF-I mRNA expression from the first week post-hatching, with the most abundant expression being detected in the liver of larvae and adults. Real-time PCR also showed that the level of MSTN mRNA increased significantly from day 25. The expression of MSTN mRNA was higher in muscle and almost absent in other anatomical regions in both larvae and adults. Interestingly, the lateral muscle showed a quantitative differential expression of IGF-I and MSTN mRNAs in red and white muscle, depending on the developmental stage examined. IGF-I immunoreactivity was detected in developing intestine at hatching and in skeletal muscle, skin and yolk sac. MSTN immunostaining was evident in several tissues and organs in both larvae and adults. Both IGF-I and MSTN proteins were detected in the liver from day 4 post-hatching and, subsequently, in the kidney and heart muscle from day 10. Our results suggest, on the basis of a combined methodological approach, that IGF-I and MSTN are involved in the regulation of somatic growth in the sea bass.

  18. Heterobothrium lineatus (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) infecting the gills of the Nile puffer Tetraodon lineatus (Pisces: Tetraodontidae) from the River Nile, Egypt with a new localit record: a light and scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Kareem S; Khalil, Mona Fathi; Gamil, Irene Sameh; Elebiarie, Ahmed Salem; Ibrahim, Rokia Mahmoud

    2013-12-01

    Heterobothrium lineatus (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) is described from the gills of Tetraodon lineatus collected from the River Nile at Helwan governorate, Egypt as a new locality record. The morphology and morphometric characterization of the recovered worms were described by means of light and scanning electron microscopy. Twenty two out 35 with a percentage of 62.9% of the examined fish were infected with Heterobothrium sp. (the intensity of infection was about ten worms per fish in general). Most of the infected fish had very pale gills and showed symptoms of anemia. Morphologically, the adult worms were elongated with anterior pointed and posterior broad ends, it measured 1.15-1.76 (1.52 +/- 0.02) mm in length x 0.28-0.39 (0.29 +/- 0.02) mm in width. Two buccal organs situated anteriorly around mouth opening were shown by light and scanning electron microscopy. Haptor subdivided into four pairs of clamps without isthmus separating it from body. The recovered worm differed from the previously species in the same genus by small dimensions of the measurements and presence of a copulatory organ armed with 7-11 genital hooks. Also, it is distinguished from H. tetrodonis and H. okamotoi by absence of a distinct isthmus, and resembled H. lamothei from gills of Sphoeroides testodineus in Mexico and H. lineatus from T. lineatus in Egypt in general appearance and presence of rectangular haptor with the fourth pair of clamps smaller than the previous ones.

  19. Molecular systematics and DNA barcoding of Altai osmans, oreoleuciscus (pisces, cyprinidae, and leuciscinae), and their nearest relatives, inferred from sequences of cytochrome b (Cyt-b), cytochrome oxidase c (Co-1), and complete mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Kartavtsev, Yuri Phedorovich; Batischeva, Natalia M; Bogutskaya, Nina G; Katugina, Anna O; Hanzawa, Naoto

    2017-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) at the protein-coding Cyt-b gene along with data retrieved from GenBank for Co-1 gene fragments and complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Altai osmans and the nearest relatives of Leuciscinae fish species were compared for the estimation of variability and phylogenetic tree building. Phylogenetic trees were built by four techniques: Bayesian (BA), maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and neighbor-joining (NJ). Resolution of Cyt-b trees for species of two genera (Oreoleuciscus and Phoxinus) was quite distinct at all the approaches. For Tribolodon, the single gene trees were not well resolved; however, the mitogenome tree was resolved. Species identification on per individual basis (DNA barcoding) was high for both Cyt-b and Co-1 genes. The trees built using the data for 13 protein mitochondrial genes revealed a complicated phylogenetic pattern within the subfamily Leuciscinae. Scores of the average p-distances at three taxonomic levels were considerably different: (1) 1.16 ± 0.96, (2) 8.21 ± 1.01, and (3) 16.41 ± 0.85 for Cyt-b and (1) 1.04 ± 0.78, (2) 8.30 ± 0.92, and (3) 10.74 ± 0.79 for 13 protein genes of mitogenome, where (1) is intraspecies, (2) is intragenus, and (3) is intrasubfamily levels. Data on mitogenome distances were summarized for the taxonomic hierarchy for the first time. A concordant increase in distance score with growth of the rank of taxa (having the minimum score at the intraspecies level), both for a single gene and the whole mitogenome, substantiates the concept that speciation in the subfamily Leuciscinae in most cases follows the geographic mode. The distinct clustering of Altai osmans, Oreoleuciscus potanini and O. humilis, in the Cyt-b and Co-1 gene trees with small overall genetic distances, obtained for both genes, allows us to consider these taxa as separate but genetically sister species.

  20. A new genus and species of the Monticelliinae (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidea), a parasite of Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Pisces: Siluriformes) from the Paraná River basin (Argentina), with comments on microtriches of proteocephalideans.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Nathalia J; de Chambrier, Alain; Gil de Pertierra, Alicia A

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes Regoella brevis gen. n. et. sp. n. (Proteocephalidea: Monticelliinae), a parasite of the intestine of the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) from the Paraná River basin. The new genus is placed in the Monticelliinae because of the cortical position of the genital organs. It differs from all known genera included in the Monticelliinae by the following combination of characters: 1) a quadrangular scolex with a truncated conical apex and formed by four lobes separated by grooves; 2) uniloculate suckers of inverted triangular shape possessing a small cone-shaped projection at each corner of the anterior margin; 3) strobila consisting of a low number of proglottides; 4) testes arranged in one dorsal field; 5) a cirrus-sac, which represents more than one half of the proglottis width, cirrus surrounded by conspicuous chromophilic gland cells; 6) a butterfly-shaped and strongly lobulate ovary; and 7) formation of uterus of type 2. The examination of the tegument surface with scanning electron microscopy revealed the occurrence of three types of microtriches: acicular and capilliform filitriches and gladiate spinitriches. The new species is the eighth proteocephalidean reported from P. fasciatum, six of which are commonly found in the Amazon and Paraná River basins.

  1. The influence of history and contemporary stream hydrology on the evolution of genetic diversity within species: an examination of microsatellite DNA variation in bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus (Pisces: Salmonidae).

    PubMed

    Costello, A B; Down, T E; Pollard, S M; Pacas, C J; Taylor, E B

    2003-02-01

    An understanding of the relative roles of historical and contemporary factors in structuring genetic variation is a fundamental, but understudied aspect of geographic variation. We examined geographic variation in microsatellite DNA allele frequencies in bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus, Salmonidae) to test hypotheses concerning the relative roles of postglacial dispersal (historical) and current landscape features (contemporary) in structuring genetic variability and population differentiation. Bull trout exhibit relatively low intrapopulation microsatellite variation (average of 1.9 alleles per locus, average He = 0.24), but high levels of interpopulation divergence (F(ST) = 0.39). We found evidence of historical influences on microsatellite variation in the form of a decrease in the number of alleles and heterozygosities in populations on the periphery of the range relative to populations closer to putative glacial refugia. In addition, one region of British Columbia that was colonized later during deglaciation and by more indirect watershed connections showed less developed and more variable patterns of isolation by distance than a similar region colonized earlier and more directly from refugia. Current spatial and drainage interconnectedness among sites and the presence of migration barriers (falls and cascades) within individual streams were found to be important contemporary factors influencing historical patterns of genetic variability and interpopulation divergence. Our work illustrates the limited utility of equilibrium models to delineate population structure and patterns of genetic diversity in recently founded populations or those inhabiting highly heterogeneous environments, and it highlights the need for approaches incorporating a landscape context for population divergence. Substantial microsatellite DNA divergence among bull trout populations may also signal divergence in traits important to population persistence in specific environments.

  2. Spatial distribution and interaction of four species of the catfish genus Hypostomus Lacépède with bottom of Rio São Francisco, Canindé do São Francisco, Sergipe, Brazil (Pisces, Loricariidae, Hypostominae).

    PubMed

    Garavello, J C; Garavello, J P

    2004-08-01

    The large catfishes, genus Hypostomus Lacépède, are common species in almost all freshwater environments of South America. The behavior of specimens from the species Hypostomus alatus, Hypostomus francisci, Hypostomus cf. wuchereri, and Hypostomus sp., from the region downstream from the Xingó Hydroelectric Power Dam, located in Canindé do São Francisco on the Rio São Francisco, were observed. Morphological characters collected from preserved specimens were also studied in the laboratory, in order to shed light on interactions between those fishes and the river bottom. In addition, the formulation of Gatz (1979) was applied to better explain the environmental interactions of Hypostomus species. This study revealed that the fishes utilize their suckers, through a mouth equipped with an oral disk, as well as the pectoral, pelvic, and caudal fins areas, to interact with the rocky river-bottom. The comb-toothed inferior mouth of the Hypostomus showed itself able to grasp green algae on the river bottom. With the help of the oral disk and sucker mouth, which anchor the fishes, in conjunction with the arched design of pectoral and pelvic fin spines, they are also able to remain upright while exploring this substratum. In addition, their large, concave caudal-fin is associated with fast locomotion over short distances. This combination of characteristics allow these fish to live on the bottom of large South American rivers.

  3. Automated mapping of persistent ice and snow cover across the western U.S. with Landsat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selkowitz, David J.; Forster, Richard R.

    2016-01-01

    We implemented an automated approach for mapping persistent ice and snow cover (PISC) across the conterminous western U.S. using all available Landsat TM and ETM+ scenes acquired during the late summer/early fall period between 2010 and 2014. Two separate validation approaches indicate this dataset provides a more accurate representation of glacial ice and perennial snow cover for the region than either the U.S. glacier database derived from US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Raster Graphics (DRG) maps (based on aerial photography primarily from the 1960s–1980s) or the National Land Cover Database 2011 perennial ice and snow cover class. Our 2010–2014 Landsat-derived dataset indicates 28% less glacier and perennial snow cover than the USGS DRG dataset. There are larger differences between the datasets in some regions, such as the Rocky Mountains of Northwest Wyoming and Southwest Montana, where the Landsat dataset indicates 54% less PISC area. Analysis of Landsat scenes from 1987–1988 and 2008–2010 for three regions using a more conventional, semi-automated approach indicates substantial decreases in glaciers and perennial snow cover that correlate with differences between PISC mapped by the USGS DRG dataset and the automated Landsat-derived dataset. This suggests that most of the differences in PISC between the USGS DRG and the Landsat-derived dataset can be attributed to decreases in PISC, as opposed to differences between mapping techniques. While the dataset produced by the automated Landsat mapping approach is not designed to serve as a conventional glacier inventory that provides glacier outlines and attribute information, it allows for an updated estimate of PISC for the conterminous U.S. as well as for smaller regions. Additionally, the new dataset highlights areas where decreases in PISC have been most significant over the past 25–50 years.

  4. Automated mapping of persistent ice and snow cover across the western U.S. with Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selkowitz, David J.; Forster, Richard R.

    2016-07-01

    We implemented an automated approach for mapping persistent ice and snow cover (PISC) across the conterminous western U.S. using all available Landsat TM and ETM+ scenes acquired during the late summer/early fall period between 2010 and 2014. Two separate validation approaches indicate this dataset provides a more accurate representation of glacial ice and perennial snow cover for the region than either the U.S. glacier database derived from US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Raster Graphics (DRG) maps (based on aerial photography primarily from the 1960s-1980s) or the National Land Cover Database 2011 perennial ice and snow cover class. Our 2010-2014 Landsat-derived dataset indicates 28% less glacier and perennial snow cover than the USGS DRG dataset. There are larger differences between the datasets in some regions, such as the Rocky Mountains of Northwest Wyoming and Southwest Montana, where the Landsat dataset indicates 54% less PISC area. Analysis of Landsat scenes from 1987-1988 and 2008-2010 for three regions using a more conventional, semi-automated approach indicates substantial decreases in glaciers and perennial snow cover that correlate with differences between PISC mapped by the USGS DRG dataset and the automated Landsat-derived dataset. This suggests that most of the differences in PISC between the USGS DRG and the Landsat-derived dataset can be attributed to decreases in PISC, as opposed to differences between mapping techniques. While the dataset produced by the automated Landsat mapping approach is not designed to serve as a conventional glacier inventory that provides glacier outlines and attribute information, it allows for an updated estimate of PISC for the conterminous U.S. as well as for smaller regions. Additionally, the new dataset highlights areas where decreases in PISC have been most significant over the past 25-50 years.

  5. Gone fishing in a fluid trial.

    PubMed

    Hjortrup, Peter B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn; Perner, Anders

    2016-03-01

    To maximise the yield of existing data by assessing the effect on mortality of being born under the zodiac sign Pisces in a trial of intravenous (IV) fluids. A retrospective observational study, with no predefined hypothesis or statistical analysis plan, of 26 Scandinavian intensive care units between 2009 and 2011. Patients aged 18 years or older with severe sepsis and in need of fluid resuscitation, randomised in the Scandinavian Starch for Severe Sepsis/ Septic Shock (6S) trial. Ninety-day mortality. We included all 798 randomised patients in our study; 70 (9%) were born under the sign of Pisces. The primary outcome (death within 90 days after randomisation) occurred in 25 patients (35.7%) in the Pisces group, compared with 348 patients (48%) in the non-Pisces group (relative risk, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.54-1.03; one-sided P = 0.03). In a multicentre randomised clinical trial of IV fluids, being born under the sign of Pisces was associated with a decreased risk of death. Our study shows that with convenient use of statistics and an enticing explanatory hypothesis, it is possible to achieve significant findings in post-hoc analyses of data from large trials.

  6. Semiconductor device modeling on a workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Diegert, C.

    1985-09-01

    We choose to move from large mainframe computers to workstations to gain the interactive graphics we need to prepare and to analyze semiconductor device modeling problems. Given this much on a workstation, it is convenient to attempt to solve the entire problem there. We find that a top-of-the-line Apollo 660 workstation, with bit-slice processor, pipelined arithmetic processor, and 4 megabytes of real memory, is surprisingly effective in finding solutions when running the Pisces II device modeling code. In our experiment we find where the workstation bogs down when running these problems. We both analyze the Pisces CPU time log and we sample the executing program to accumulate a histogram of execution time as distributed over the source code. Results suggest how Pisces could be adapted to solve somewhat larger problems entirely on the workstation. Evolution of a trusted derivative of Pisces, to be used on supercomputers without interactivity, is suggested to complement our success with Pisces on workstations. 4 refs.

  7. Redescription of Proctophantastes gillissi (Overstreet et Pritchard, 1977) (Trematoda: Zoogonidae) with discussion on the systematic position of the genus Proctophantastes Odhner, 1911.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Sergey; Gordeev, Ilya; Lebedeva, Daria

    2016-09-01

    The redescription of Proctophantastes gillissi (Overstreet et Pritchard, 1977) (Trematoda: Zoogonidae) was made on specimens collected from Muraenolepis marmorata Günther, 1880 (Gadiformes) caught in the Ross Sea and the Amundsen Sea (Antarctic). The fish is a new host of this parasite. Phylogenetic relations of P. gillissi were inferred by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis of partial sequences from 28S rDNA. The findings from analysis of the molecular data are not consistent with the traditional point of view about the position of the genus Proctophantastes Odhner, 1911 in the subfamily Lepidophyllinae. The taxonomical position of the genus needs further revision.

  8. A campaign to end animal testing: introducing the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd.

    PubMed

    Stoddart, Gilly; Brown, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    The successful development and validation of non-animal techniques, or the analysis of existing data to satisfy regulatory requirements, provide no guarantee that this information will be used in place of animal experiments. In order to advocate for the replacement of animal-based testing requirements, the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd (PISC) liaises with industry, regulatory and research agencies to establish and promote clear paths to validation and regulatory use of non-animal techniques. PISC and its members use an approach that identifies, promotes and verifies the implementation of good scientific practices in place of testing on animals. Examples of how PISC and its members have applied this approach to minimise the use of animals for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals regulation in the EU and testing of cosmetics on animals in India, are described. 2014 FRAME.

  9. Expanding the Planetary Analog Test Sites in Hawaii - Planetary Basalt Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES) is one of the very few planetary surface research test sites in the country that is totally funded by the state legislature. In recent expansions, PISCES is broadening its work in planetary test sites to include much more R&D work in the planetary surface systems, and the manipulation of basalt materials. This is to include laser 3D printing of basalt, 'lunar-concrete' construction in state projects for Hawaii, renewable energy, and adding lava tubes/skylights to their mix of high-quality planetary analog test sites. PISCES Executive Director, Rob Kelso, will be providing program updates on the interest of the Hawaii State Legislature in planetary surface systems, new applied research initiatives in planetary basalts and interests in planetary construction.

  10. Measuring helium bubble diameter distributions in tungsten with grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M.; Kluth, P.; Doerner, R. P.; Kirby, N.; Riley, D.; Corr, C. S.

    2016-02-01

    Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering was performed on tungsten samples exposed to helium plasma in the MAGPIE and Pisces-A linear plasma devices to measure the size distributions of resulting helium nano-bubbles. Nano-bubbles were fitted assuming spheroidal particles and an exponential diameter distribution. These particles had mean diameters between 0.36 and 0.62 nm. Pisces-A exposed samples showed more complex patterns, which may suggest the formation of faceted nano-bubbles or nano-scale surface structures.

  11. A language comparison for scientific computing on MIMD architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Mark T.; Patrick, Merrell L.; Voigt, Robert G.

    1989-01-01

    Choleski's method for solving banded symmetric, positive definite systems is implemented on a multiprocessor computer using three FORTRAN based parallel programming languages, the Force, PISCES and Concurrent FORTRAN. The capabilities of the language for expressing parallelism and their user friendliness are discussed, including readability of the code, debugging assistance offered, and expressiveness of the languages. The performance of the different implementations is compared. It is argued that PISCES, using the Force for medium-grained parallelism, is the appropriate choice for programming Choleski's method on the multiprocessor computer, Flex/32.

  12. Demersal fishes associated with Lophelia pertusa coral and hard-substrate biotopes on the continental slope, northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Allen, Brooks R.; Luke, Kirsten E.; Norem, April D.; Randall, Michael; Quaid, Andrew J.; Yeargin, George E.; Miller, Jana M.; Harden, William M.; Caruso, John H.; Ross, Steve W.

    2007-01-01

    The demersal fish fauna of Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758) coral reefs and associated hard-bottom biotopes was investigated at two depth horizons in the northern Gulf of Mexico using a manned submersible and remote sampling. The Viosca Knoll fauna consisted of at least 53 demersal fish species, 37 of which were documented by submersible video. On the 325 m horizon, dominant taxa determined from frame-by-frame video analysis included Stromateidae, Serranidae, Trachichthyidae, Congridae, Scorpaenidae, and Gadiformes. On the 500 m horizon, large mobile visual macrocarnivores of families Stromateidae and Serranidae dropped out, while a zeiform microcarnivore assumed importance on reef "Thicket" biotope, and the open-slope taxa Macrouridae and Squalidae gained in importance. The most consistent faunal groups at both depths included sit-and-wait and hover-and-wait strategists (Scorpaenidae, Congridae, Trachichthyidae), along with generalized mesocarnivores (Gadiformes). The specialized microcarnivore, Grammicolepis brachiusculus Poey, 1873, appears to be highly associated with Lophelia reefs. The coral "Thicket" biotope was extensively developed on the 500 m site, but fish abundance was low with only 95 fish per hectare. In contrast to Lophelia reefs from the eastern the North Atlantic, the coral "Rubble" biotope was essentially absent. This study represents the first quantitative analysis of fishes associated with Lophelia reefs in the Gulf of Mexico, and generally in the western North Atlantic.

  13. Podocotyle nimoyi n. sp. (Digenea: Opecoelidae: Plagioporinae) and a re-description of Podocotyle pearsei Manter, 1934 from five species of deep-sea macrourids from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Blend, Charles K; Dronen, Norman O; Armstrong, Howard W

    2016-06-02

    Two rare species of Podocotyle Dujardin, 1845 (Digenea: Opecoelidae) parasitizing five macrourid species inhabiting the deep waters of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea off Panama are described. Podocotyle nimoyi n. sp. was found in the intestine of the pugnose grenadier, Sphagemacrurus grenadae (Parr), and the common Atlantic grenadier, Nezumia aequalis (Günther) (Gadiformes: Macrouridae), at depths of 534-995 m in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico off Florida and represents the fifth species of Podocotyle endemic to the deep sea. Podocotyle pearsei Manter, 1934, was re-described from the intestine of the bullseye grenadier, Bathygadus macrops Goode & Bean, the doublethread grenadier, Gadomus arcuatus (Goode & Bean), and the western softhead grenadier, Malacocephalus occidentalis Goode & Bean (Gadiformes: Macrouridae), collected from 591-728 m depths in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico off Florida and the Caribbean Sea off Panama. The following new host records are established: P. nimoyi n. sp. is the third parasite species known from S. grenadae and the first digenean species reported from this host; P. nimoyi n. sp. is the first reported species of Podocotyle parasitizing N. aequalis; and this is the first report of P. pearsei or any representative of the genus Podocotyle infecting B. macrops, G. arcuatus and M. occidentalis. A listing of all digenean parasites previously reported from the five macrourid species examined herein is given and some observations are made about Podocotyle in the deep sea.

  14. The era of Aries and Kriophoros statues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Mantarakis, P.; Dimitrijević, M. S.

    We discuss the possibility that the great number of ancient Greek statues of Kriophoros (= `ram-bearer') before 1 BC may have been the result of religious influence stemming from the knowledge that the constellation of Aries marked the point of vernal equinox rather than Pisces.

  15. Development of the Drosophila entero-endocrine lineage and its specification by the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina L.; Ortiz, Paola A.; Ying, Chong T.; Moridzadeh, Rameen; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the developmental-genetic steps that shape the entero-endocrine system of Drosophila melanogaster from the embryo to the adult. The process starts in the endoderm of the early embryo where precursors of endocrine cells and enterocytes of the larval midgut, as well as progenitors of the adult midgut, are specified by a Notch signaling-dependent mechanism. In a second step that occurs during the late larval period, enterocytes and endocrine cells of a transient pupal midgut are selected from within the clusters of adult midgut progenitors. As in the embryo, activation of the Notch pathway triggers enterocyte differentiation, and inhibits cells from further proliferation or choosing the endocrine fate. The third step of entero-endocrine cell development takes place at a mid-pupal stage. Before this time point, the epithelial layer destined to become the adult midgut is devoid of endocrine cells. However, precursors of the intestinal midgut stem cells (pISCs) are already present. After an initial phase of symmetric divisions which causes an increase in their own population size, pISCs start to spin off cells that become postmitotic and express the endocrine fate marker, Prospero. Activation of Notch in pISCs forces these cells into an enterocyte fate. Loss of Notch function causes an increase in the proliferatory activity of pISCs, as well as a higher ratio of Prospero-positive cells. PMID:21382366

  16. [Zooplankton of the Costa Rica Dome: taxonomy and biogeography].

    PubMed

    Vicencio Aguilar, M E; Fernández Alamo, M A

    1996-08-01

    A list of the species and taxa of some pelagic animals from a tropical upwelling region, based on collections made off the coast of Costa Rica is presented. The list includes a total of 224 species, 53 genera and 11 subspecific forms in Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Artropoda (Crustacea), Chaetognatha and Pisces.

  17. Proceedings of the 9th international conference on nondestructive evaluation in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, K.; Doherty, J.E.; Edelmann, X.

    1988-01-01

    The conference presented in this book included sessions on: Inspection of pressure vessels and other critical components; steam generators and tubing; and new transducer designs and performance. The topics covered include: The major results of the PISC RRT on cast stainless steel components; in-situ testing of BWR closure head studs; and cladding induced perturbations encountered in ultrasonic testing of PWR vessels.

  18. Proceedings of the 8th international conference on NDE in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 8th international conference on NDE in the nuclear industry. Topics covered include: NDE reliability and performance demonstration testing; In-service inspection---fuel support structures; NDE of stem generators; and PISC II.

  19. Computer modeling of complete IC fabrication process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Robert W.

    1987-05-01

    The development of fundamental algorithms for process and device modeling as well as novel integration of the tools for advanced Integrated Circuit (IC) technology design is discussed. The development of the first complete 2D process simulator, SUPREM 4, is reported. The algorithms are discussed as well as application to local-oxidation and extrinsic diffusion conditions which occur in CMOS AND BiCMOS technologies. The evolution of 1D (SEDAN) and 2D (PISCES) device analysis is discussed. The application of SEDAN to a variety of non-silicon technologies (GaAs and HgCdTe) are considered. A new multi-window analysis capability for PISCES which exploits Monte Carlo analysis of hot carriers has been demonstrated and used to characterize a variety of silicon MOSFET and GaAs MESFET effects. A parallel computer implementation of PISCES has been achieved using a Hypercube architecture. The PISCES program has been used for a range of important device studies including: latchup, analog switch analysis, MOSFET capacitance studies and bipolar transient device for ECL gates. The program is broadly applicable to RAM and BiCMOS technology analysis and design. In the analog switch technology area this research effort has produced a variety of important modeling and advances.

  20. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all species of swordtails and platies (Pisces: Genus Xiphophorus) uncovers a hybrid origin of a swordtail fish, Xiphophorus monticolus, and demonstrates that the sexually selected sword originated in the ancestral lineage of the genus, but was lost again secondarily.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ji Hyoun; Schartl, Manfred; Walter, Ronald B; Meyer, Axel

    2013-01-29

    Males in some species of the genus Xiphophorus, small freshwater fishes from Meso-America, have an extended caudal fin, or sword - hence their common name "swordtails". Longer swords are preferred by females from both sworded and - surprisingly also, non-sworded (platyfish) species that belong to the same genus. Swordtails have been studied widely as models in research on sexual selection. Specifically, the pre-existing bias hypothesis was interpreted to best explain the observed bias of females in presumed ancestral lineages of swordless species that show a preference for assumed derived males with swords over their conspecific swordless males. However, many of the phylogenetic relationships within this genus still remained unresolved. Here we construct a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of all 26 known Xiphophorus species, including the four recently described species (X. kallmani, X. mayae, X. mixei and X. monticolus). We use two mitochondrial and six new nuclear markers in an effort to increase the understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the species in this genus. Based on the phylogeny, the evolutionary history and character state evolution of the sword was reconstructed and found to have originated in the common ancestral lineage of the genus Xiphophorus and that it was lost again secondarily. We estimated the evolutionary relationships among all known species of the genus Xiphophorus based on the largest set of DNA markers so far. The phylogeny indicates that one of the newly described swordtail species, Xiphophorus monticolus, is likely to have arisen through hybridization since it is placed with the southern platyfish in the mitochondrial phylogeny, but with the southern swordtails in the nuclear phylogeny. Such discordance between these two types of markers is a strong indication for a hybrid origin. Additionally, by using a maximum likelihood approach the possession of the sexually selected sword trait is shown to be the most likely ancestral state for the genus Xiphophorus. Further, we provide a well supported estimation of the phylogenetic relationships between the previously unresolved northern swordtail groups. This comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the entire genus Xiphophorus provides evidence that a second swordtail species, X. monticolus, arose through hybridization. Previously, we demonstrated that X. clemenciae, another southern swordtail species, arose via hybridization. These findings highlight the potential key role of hybridization in the evolution of this genus and suggest the need for further investigations into how hybridization contributes to speciation more generally.

  1. Learning Directory 1970-71. A Comprehensive Guide to Instructional Materials in All Media. Volume I, Users Guide, Source Index, Instructional Materials Index A-Boun; Volume II, Bourq-Dros; Volume III, Drou-Gree; Volume IV, Greg-Mari; Volume V, Mark-Pisc; Volume VI, Pise-Smel; Volume VII, Smer-Z, 0-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., New York, NY.

    Over 200,000 distinct items of instructional material are indexed in this seven volume annual directory. They are presented in 600,000 entries under more than 225,000 different topics. Information in the directory is divided into two sections: the instructional materials index and the source index. The instructional materials index is organized…

  2. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all species of swordtails and platies (Pisces: Genus Xiphophorus) uncovers a hybrid origin of a swordtail fish, Xiphophorus monticolus, and demonstrates that the sexually selected sword originated in the ancestral lineage of the genus, but was lost again secondarily

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Males in some species of the genus Xiphophorus, small freshwater fishes from Meso-America, have an extended caudal fin, or sword – hence their common name “swordtails”. Longer swords are preferred by females from both sworded and – surprisingly also, non-sworded (platyfish) species that belong to the same genus. Swordtails have been studied widely as models in research on sexual selection. Specifically, the pre-existing bias hypothesis was interpreted to best explain the observed bias of females in presumed ancestral lineages of swordless species that show a preference for assumed derived males with swords over their conspecific swordless males. However, many of the phylogenetic relationships within this genus still remained unresolved. Here we construct a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of all 26 known Xiphophorus species, including the four recently described species (X. kallmani, X. mayae, X. mixei and X. monticolus). We use two mitochondrial and six new nuclear markers in an effort to increase the understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the species in this genus. Based on the phylogeny, the evolutionary history and character state evolution of the sword was reconstructed and found to have originated in the common ancestral lineage of the genus Xiphophorus and that it was lost again secondarily. Results We estimated the evolutionary relationships among all known species of the genus Xiphophorus based on the largest set of DNA markers so far. The phylogeny indicates that one of the newly described swordtail species, Xiphophorus monticolus, is likely to have arisen through hybridization since it is placed with the southern platyfish in the mitochondrial phylogeny, but with the southern swordtails in the nuclear phylogeny. Such discordance between these two types of markers is a strong indication for a hybrid origin. Additionally, by using a maximum likelihood approach the possession of the sexually selected sword trait is shown to be the most likely ancestral state for the genus Xiphophorus. Further, we provide a well supported estimation of the phylogenetic relationships between the previously unresolved northern swordtail groups. Conclusions This comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the entire genus Xiphophorus provides evidence that a second swordtail species, X. monticolus, arose through hybridization. Previously, we demonstrated that X. clemenciae, another southern swordtail species, arose via hybridization. These findings highlight the potential key role of hybridization in the evolution of this genus and suggest the need for further investigations into how hybridization contributes to speciation more generally. PMID:23360326

  3. Review of Pennella Oken, 1816 (Copepoda: Pennellidae) with a description of Pennella benzi sp. nov., a parasite of Escolar, Lepidocybium flavobrunneum (Pisces) in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Hogans, W E

    2017-03-17

    The genus Pennella Oken, 1816, mesoparasitic copepods from marine fish and mammals, is reviewed with the objective of determining the validity of members of the genus. Details of the external morphological structures of the adult female are presented. Pennella species are differentiated based on a combination of characters: the type of host parasitized, overall length of the parasite, shape, size and configuration of cephalothoracic papillae, segmentation of the first and second antenna, holdfast horn number, shape and configuration, and structure of the abdominal plumes. A new species of Pennella, Pennella benzi sp. nov., is described from the escolar, Lepidocybium flavobrunneum in the northwest Atlantic. Pennella balaenoptera Koren & Danielssen, 1877 is reported from the harbor porpoise (Phocaena phocaena) in the Bay of Fundy, a new locality record. The validity of 44 species is assessed; nine species (P. balaenoptera Koren & Danielssen, 1877, P. benzi sp. nov., P. diodontis Oken, 1816, P. exocoeti (Holten, 1802), P. filosa Linnaeus, 1758, P. hawaiiensis Kazachenko & Kurochkin, 1974, P. instructa Wilson, 1917, P. makaira Hogans, 1988 and P. sagitta Linnaeus, 1758) are considered substantiated and valid; six species (P. elegans Gnanamuthu, 1957, P. longicauda Gnanamuthu, 1957, P. platycephalus Gnanamuthu, 1957, P. remorae Murray, 1856, P. robusta Gnanamuthu, 1957, and P. selaris Kirtisinghe, 1964) exhibit unique characteristics, but are based on descriptions of single specimens, have not been found since the original reports and are considered as species inquirendae; the remaining species are unsubstantiated and invalid based on inadequate or missing original descriptions, or are designated as synonyms of valid species. A key to the valid species of the genus is provided.

  4. Evolution of the immune system influences speciation rates in teleost fishes.

    PubMed

    Malmstrøm, Martin; Matschiner, Michael; Tørresen, Ole K; Star, Bastiaan; Snipen, Lars G; Hansen, Thomas F; Baalsrud, Helle T; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Hanel, Reinhold; Salzburger, Walter; Stenseth, Nils C; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Jentoft, Sissel

    2016-10-01

    Teleost fishes constitute the most species-rich vertebrate clade and exhibit extensive genetic and phenotypic variation, including diverse immune defense strategies. The genomic basis of a particularly aberrant strategy is exemplified by Atlantic cod, in which a loss of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II functionality coincides with a marked expansion of MHC I genes. Through low-coverage genome sequencing (9-39×), assembly and comparative analyses for 66 teleost species, we show here that MHC II is missing in the entire Gadiformes lineage and thus was lost once in their common ancestor. In contrast, we find that MHC I gene expansions have occurred multiple times, both inside and outside this clade. Moreover, we identify an association between high MHC I copy number and elevated speciation rates using trait-dependent diversification models. Our results extend current understanding of the plasticity of the adaptive immune system and suggest an important role for immune-related genes in animal diversification.

  5. A new species of Hamaticolax Ho & Lin, 2006 (Copepoda: Bomolochidae) from deep water macrourids in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Pérez-I-García, David; Carrassón, Maite; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2017-02-01

    Hamaticolax resupinus n. sp. is described from specimens collected from the gill cavities of Coelorinchus mediterraneus Iwamoto & Ungaro and Coryphaenoides mediterraneus (Giglioli) (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) caught in the Western Mediterranean Sea at depths between 1,236 and 1,626 m. Hamaticolax resupinus n. sp. closely resembles H. maleus Oldewage, 1994, but differs from the latter by its smaller body size and in having a genital double-somite in the female that is markedly wider than the free abdominal somites and has strongly convex lateral margins. The new species is only the second bomolochid found on a macrourid host and is the first from depths in excess of 1,200 m. Hamaticolax resupinus n. sp. also represents the first parasitic copepod recorded from Coe. mediterraneus and only the third one from Cor. mediterraneus worldwide.

  6. Aries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Ram; abbrev. Ari, gen. Arietis; area 441 sq. deg.) A northern zodiacal constellation that lies between Taurus and Pisces, and culminates at midnight in late October. It represents the ram in Greek mythology whose golden fleece was the quest of Jason and the Argonauts. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest. In Ptolemy's day the Sun was in Aries at the v...

  7. Star of Bethlehem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, D.; Murdin, P.

    2001-07-01

    The biblical Star of Bethlehem, which heralded the birth of Jesus Christ, is only mentioned in the Gospel of St Matthew 2. The astrologically significant 7 bc triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in the constellation of Pisces is the most likely candidate, although a comet/nova in 5 bc and a comet in 4 bc cannot be ruled out. There is also the possibility that the star was simply fictitious....

  8. Be W alloy formation in static and divertor-plasma simulator experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, M. J.; Doerner, R. P.; Nishijima, D.; Buchenauer, D.; Clift, W. M.; Causey, R. A.; Schmid, K.

    2007-06-01

    Collaborative Be-W interaction experiments conducted at UC-San Diego PISCES Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (SNL/CA), are reported. In the divertor-plasma simulator PISCES-B, W targets are exposed to Be seeded D2 plasma in the temperature range 1070-1320 K. All reveal the formation of surface Be-W alloying. The alloy reaction rate is found to increase with surface temperature in the range 1023-1123 K in SNL vacuum-deposition phase formation experiments. In both sets of experiments the efficiency of surface alloying is found to depend on the availability of surface deposited Be. This availability is reduced by evaporation at high temperature, and also by plasma re-erosion in the case of PISCES-B targets. Surface analysis of targets using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals Be12W as the dominant alloy composition where Be surface availability is optimal.

  9. Interactions among xerophilic fungi associated with dried salted fish.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, K A; Hocking, A D

    1993-02-01

    Interactions were investigated among five xerophilic fungi, Polypaecilum pisce, Basipetospora halophila, Eurotium rubrum, Aspergillus wentii and A. penicillioides, isolated from Indonesian dried salted fish. A range of water activities (aw) (0.98, 0.95, 0.90 and 0.84) and temperatures (15 degrees, 25 degrees and 30 degrees C) were studied on agar media in Petri dishes, and with dried fish as a substrate at 0.90 and 0.84 aw at 30 degrees C. Generally, the fungi exhibited one of two interaction types: mutual inhibition on contact, or inhibition of one or both species on contact, with the inhibited species continuing to grow at a significantly reduced rate. On glucose-based agar media A. wentii and E. rubrum were most competitive at all aw values and temperatures studied, while on NaCl media P. pisce and B. halophila were usually most competitive. The Petri dish system was a useful model, but did not completely simulate the interactions observed on dried fish. Polypaecilum pisce and B. halophila were able to compete more strongly on fish than on agar media, especially at 0.90 aw. This study provides some evidence that each species examined had a niche in which it was dominant, and that species interactions as well as environmental factors are important in determining the dominant fungal species on dried salted fish.

  10. Science Update on the Hawaii Undersea Research Lab's Deep Submergence Operations in 2006 and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.; Wiltshire, J. C.; Orange, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL), the NOAA Undersea Research Program (NURP) Center for Hawaii and the Western Pacific, is one of six regional NURP Centers specializing in providing scientists with the tools and expertise they need to investigate the undersea environment, including HOVs, ROVs, and other cutting edge technologies. Established at the University of Hawaii 26 years ago, HURL's mission is to study deep water marine processes in the Pacific Ocean through a competitive proposal and review process. The dual Pisces IV and Pisces V 2000-meter HOV, an RCV-150 900-meter ROV, and multibeam equipped support ship R/V Ka`imikai-o-Kanaloa (KoK) have been continuously upgraded and adapted to carry out cutting edge scientific expeditions. Following a successful far ranging five month program to the South Pacific in 2005, a complete overhaul for Pisces IV was carried out in the first half of 2006 with science dives in the main Hawaiian Islands taking place from August to December. Sixty Pisces dives are being performed for over 25 principal investigators and senior scientists in 10 projects. These projects include studies of deep-water benthic algae, the ecology of submarine canyons, paleo-sea level study, explosive volcanism on Loihi Seamount, drowned reefs off the northeastern coast of the Big Island of Hawaii, followed by several dive series with multiple biological, reef, and fisheries PIs working off Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Lanai on bottomfish, artificial reef, precious coral, and invasive species assessments. Complete overhaul of Pisces V will be done in 2007, after which a fall program in the newly designated Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument is expected. Following that, preparations will begin in earnest for the FY 2008 expedition to the North Pacific. This expedition is anticipated to be six months in length and involve over 80 HOV dives. It will cover the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Emperor Seamounts, and the coasts of

  11. Mission Accomplished: Deep Submergence Science Routinely Supported Using Multiple Vehicles Throughout the Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory's 2005 South Pacific Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerby, T.; Smith, J. R.; Shackelford, R.; Wiltshire, J. C.; Malahoff, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) recently completed an internationally partnered 5-month, 14,500 nautical mile multiple leg expedition to the South Pacific that included 21 study sites in the waters of American Samoa, New Zealand, Tonga, and the U.S. Line Islands to commemorate its 25th anniversary of supporting deep submergence science in the Pacific Ocean. During this voyage, HURL successfully operated its two human occupied vehicles ( Pisces IV and Pisces V) each capable of diving to 2000 m from their support ship, the R/V Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa ( KoK). In addition, a remotely operated vehicle ( RCV-150) with a nearly 1000-m depth limit was utilized alternately with the Pisces HOV's. The size and organized placement of these vehicles on the compact but efficiently run KoK (70-m length, 2000-tons displacement, 14 crew) allowed for deployment of a CTD rosette system and recovery of instrument package moorings during the same cruise leg. The Pisces submersibles are 20-ft long, 13-ton, 3-person vehicles with 7-10 hours duration, up to 350-lb payload capacities, and three forward looking viewports. The small size of the Pisces' relative to much larger deeper diving HOV's increases their agility, thus allowing maneuvering into more difficult sampling site terrain. The smaller package also facilitates rapid launch (8 min avg, stdev=1) and recovery (12 min avg, stdev=2) in heavier seas (up to sea state 5), as routinely experienced in the South Pacific during the austral winter. In addition to the enhanced safety aspect of having two compatible submersibles aboard, scientific efficiency has benefited by allowing the rotation of vehicles on extended deployments prior to battery servicing, thus maintaining an overall dive time average of 7.1 hr (stdev=1.52) for an average dive depth of 891 m (stdev=431) in 2005. Having the two fully operational submersibles also provides a contingency for equipment malfunction while on site that saved 7 dive days in 2005 alone

  12. MATERNAL AND POST-WEANING EXPOSURE TO A HIGH FAT DIET PROMOTES VISCERAL OBESITY AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS IN ADULT RATS.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Perez, Gabriela; Santana dos Santos, Lucimeire; dos Santos Cordeiro, Gabriele; Matos Paraguassú, Gardênia; Abensur Athanazio, Daniel; Couto, Ricardo David; Bonfim de Jesus Deiró, Tereza Cristina; Manhães de Castro, Raul; Barreto-Medeiros, Jairza Maria

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: teniendo en cuenta el consumo frecuente de dietas ricas en grasas por las mujeres en edad reproductiva, el objetivo del presente estudio fue investigar los efectos del consumo materno de una dieta alta en grasas durante el periodo perinatal y/o post-destete en el higado y el metabolismo de los lipidos en ratas jovenes. Métodos: ratas hembra Wistar fueron alimentadas durante el embarazo y la lactancia con un alto contenido de grasa (H) o de control (C). La descendencia se asigno a cuatro grupos: Control (CC, n = 11), descendencia alimentada con una dieta de control despues del destete; Control de dieta alta en grasa (CH, n = 10), crias alimentadas con una dieta alta en grasas despues del destete; Alta en grasas de alta en grasa (HH, n = 10), hijos de madres H alimentados con una dieta alta en grasas despues del destete; y Control de alta en grasa (HC, n = 9), hijos de madres H alimentados con dieta de control tras el destete. Resultados y discusión: la ingesta de alimentos no difirio entre los grupos; sin embargo, el peso relativo del tejido adiposo fue mayor en los animales de los grupos HC, HH y CH (p ≤ 0,005). La esteatosis hepatica se encontro en los CH y HH, que tambien presentaban hipercolesterolemia (p ≤ 0,05). Los niveles de las enzimas hepaticas alanina aminotransferasa (ALT) y gamma-glutamil transpeptidasa (GGT) fueron mayores en el grupo de HH, y el nivel de LDL fue mayor en el grupo CH en comparacion con el CC. El consumo de la dieta propicio la obesidad durante los periodos criticos del desarrollo y puede contribuir a la aparicion de obesidad visceral, esteatosis hepatica e hipercolesterolemia en ratas adultas, incluso en ausencia de cambios en la ingesta dietetica.

  13. Metazoan fish parasites of Macrourus berglax Lacepède, 1801 and other macrourids of the North Atlantic: Invasion of the deep sea from the continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palm, H. W.; Klimpel, S.

    2008-01-01

    Between 2001 and 2003, a total of 105 Macrourus berglax Lacepède, 1801 were collected from Irminger Sea, at depths between 250 and 450 m, and were studied for parasites. Twenty-four different parasite species were identified. Nematodes (eight spp.) and digeneans (six spp.) were the most species rich, followed by crustaceans (four spp.), cestodes (three spp.), acanthocephalans (two spp.) and monogeneans (one sp.). Core species included the digenean Gonocerca phycidis (maximum 62.9% prevalence), the nematodes Anisakis sp. (62.9%), Capillaria gracilis (65.8%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (60.0%), Neoascarophis macrouri (88.6%), Spinitectus oviflagellis (82.9%), and the acanthocephalan Echinorhynchus gadi (97.1%). M. berglax was the final host for most of the parasites, and was infested with only a few larval forms. The species composition, diversity as well as the prevalence and intensity of infestation for most parasite species collected, were similar in the different years, indicating no distinct interannual variation at this deep-sea locality. Comparisons of the parasite fauna of M. berglax with macrourids belonging to the genera Macrourus, Coryphaenoides, Coelorhynchus and Nezumia revealed a similar infestation pattern amongst these deep-sea fish, consisting of the same or closely related species. This observation suggests that the parasite life-cycles in these benthopelagic deep-sea fishes follow similar pathways independent of geographical location. A similar habitat and food preference of macrourids results in a similar parasite fauna. The host specificity of some of the parasites is low, with most species (nine) infesting Teleostei, Gadiformes (six), Macrouridae (two), Macrourus spp. (one) and specifically M. berglax (five). Overlapping infestation patterns of M. berglax parasites with phylogenetically related gadiform fish from the continental shelf region suggest that the deep-sea parasite fauna in macrourids has evolved along with their hosts from parasite

  14. The Independent Technical Analysis Process Final Report 2006-2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey; Ham, Kenneth; Dauble, Dennis; Johnson, Gary

    2007-03-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical analytical support for system-wide fish passage information (BPA Project No. 2006-010-00). The goal of this project was to produce rigorous technical analysis products using independent analysts and anonymous peer reviewers. This project provided an independent technical source for non-routine fish passage analyses while allowing routine support functions to be performed by other well-qualified entities. The Independent Technical Analysis Process (ITAP) was created to provide non-routine analysis for fish and wildlife agencies and tribes in particular and the public in general on matters related to juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead passage through the mainstem hydrosystem. The process was designed to maintain the independence of analysts and reviewers from parties requesting analyses, to avoid potential bias in technical products. The objectives identified for this project were to administer a rigorous, transparent process to deliver unbiased technical assistance necessary to coordinate recommendations for storage reservoir and river operations that avoid potential conflicts between anadromous and resident fish. Seven work elements, designated by numbered categories in the Pisces project tracking system, were created to define and accomplish project goals as follows: (1) 118 Coordination - Coordinate technical analysis and review process: (a) Retain expertise for analyst/reviewer roles. (b) Draft research directives. (c) Send directive to the analyst. (d) Coordinate two independent reviews of the draft report. (e) Ensure reviewer comments are addressed within the final report. (2) 162 Analyze/Interpret Data - Implement the independent aspects of the project. (3) 122 Provide Technical Review - Implement the review process for the analysts. (4) 132 Produce Annual Report - FY06 annual progress report with Pisces Disseminate (5) 161

  15. Sediment quality and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Lower Neponset River, Massachusetts, and implications for urban river restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Cooke, Matthew G.; Merrill, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to restore fish passage, habitat, and recreational use of the Neponset River, a tributary to Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, have raised concerns about the sediment, water, and biota quality of the river. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Department of Fish and Game Riverways Program and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, studied sediment and water quality, with a specific focus on polychlorinated biphenyls, in the Neponset River. Sediment samples were collected throughout the Neponset River and tested for elements and organic compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Although enriched compared to background concentrations, sediment quality in the Neponset River was generally better than that of other urban rivers in the United States, except with respect to one constituent, polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations of lead, some polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in the sediment may be toxic to aquatic organisms and may pose a risk to human health. The sediment quality also fails to meet the minimum requirements set by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for lined landfill disposal. The locations of the source(s) of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River were determined by means of congener analysis from PISCES passive water-column samplers. The PISCES data indicate a sharp increase in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and a substantial shift in congener pattern downstream of one PISCES sampling location near Fairmont Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. This result indicates that the area upstream of this sampling location may be the location of a historical source of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River. The present (2003) source to the water column may likely be PCB contaminated sediment.

  16. Simulating Fertilization of the Ocean as a Carbon Sequestration Strategy: Effectiveness and Unintended Consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Caldeira, K

    2002-03-20

    The primary objectives of this project are to assess, and improve our understanding of: (1) The effectiveness of various strategies to intentionally store carbon in the ocean through fertilization of the surface ocean with iron and/or macronutrients; and (2) Unanticipated environmental consequences of these ocean fertilization strategies. We propose to use what may be the best global ocean biogeochemical model in the world (PISCES) and apply it to perform the most realistic global-scale simulations of various iron fertilization scenarios. Versions of PISCES are currently used by MPI in Germany and IPSL in France. The model represents diatoms, coccolithophorids, and two classes of zooplankton. This model considers Fey N, P, O{sub 2}, Si, alkalinity, and carbon; for some of these it considers dissolved inorganic and organic, as well as particulate, forms. We would install the PISCES model with a minimum of modification into the LLNL ocean model, and perform an initial suite of simulations of both iron fertilization experiments (e.g., SOFeX) and proposed iron fertilization strategies. Based on the simulated experiments, we will analyze model deficiencies with respect to the observations and use this analysis to improve future versions of the model. The source code for and results from this set of models will be freely distributed, and thus should help groups performing related work elsewhere. This project the most-realistic ocean fertilization simulations yet performed in a global model, with an assessment of and improvement in the reliability of those predictions using results from iron fertilization experiments such as SOFeX. These results will help provide context and guidance for biological observations within the ocean carbon sequestration research program.

  17. Proteome Scale Characterization of Human S-Acylated Proteins in Lipid Raft-enriched and Non-raft Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Di Vizio, Dolores; Kirchner, Marc; Steen, Hanno; Freeman, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Protein S-acylation (palmitoylation), a reversible post-translational modification, is critically involved in regulating protein subcellular localization, activity, stability, and multimeric complex assembly. However, proteome scale characterization of S-acylation has lagged far behind that of phosphorylation, and global analysis of the localization of S-acylated proteins within different membrane domains has not been reported. Here we describe a novel proteomics approach, designated palmitoyl protein identification and site characterization (PalmPISC), for proteome scale enrichment and characterization of S-acylated proteins extracted from lipid raft-enriched and non-raft membranes. In combination with label-free spectral counting quantitation, PalmPISC led to the identification of 67 known and 331 novel candidate S-acylated proteins as well as the localization of 25 known and 143 novel candidate S-acylation sites. Palmitoyl acyltransferases DHHC5, DHHC6, and DHHC8 appear to be S-acylated on three cysteine residues within a novel CCX7–13C(S/T) motif downstream of a conserved Asp-His-His-Cys cysteine-rich domain, which may be a potential mechanism for regulating acyltransferase specificity and/or activity. S-Acylation may tether cytoplasmic acyl-protein thioesterase-1 to membranes, thus facilitating its interaction with and deacylation of membrane-associated S-acylated proteins. Our findings also suggest that certain ribosomal proteins may be targeted to lipid rafts via S-acylation, possibly to facilitate regulation of ribosomal protein activity and/or dynamic synthesis of lipid raft proteins in situ. In addition, bioinformatics analysis suggested that S-acylated proteins are highly enriched within core complexes of caveolae and tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, both cholesterol-rich membrane structures. The PalmPISC approach and the large scale human S-acylated protein data set are expected to provide powerful tools to facilitate our understanding of the

  18. The activation of the rat insulin gene II by BETA2 and PDX-1 in rat insulinoma cells is repressed by Pax6.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Gabriele; Hessabi, Behnam; Karkour, Anke; Henrion, Ulrike; Dahlhaus, Meike; Ostmann, Annett; Giese, Bernd; Fraunholz, Martin; Grabarczyk, Piotr; Jack, Robert; Walther, Reinhard

    2010-12-01

    The transcriptional transactivator Pax6 binds the pancreatic islet cell-specific enhancer sequence (PISCES) of the rat insulin I gene. However the human, mouse, and rat insulin gene II promoters do not contain a PISCES element. To analyze the role of Pax6 in those PISCES-less promoters, we investigated its influence on rat insulin gene II expression and included in our studies the main activators: pancreatic and duodenal homeobox protein-1 (PDX-1) and BETA2/E47. Luciferase assays, Northern blots, and RIA were used to study effects of Pax6 overexpression, gel shift and chromatin precipitation assays to study its binding to the DNA, and yeast two-hybrid assays and glutathione S transferase capture assays to investigate its interactions with PDX-1 and BETA2. Finally, glucose-dependent intracellular transport of Pax6 was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy. Overexpression of Pax6 prevents activation of the rat insulin II gene by BETA2 and PDX-1 and hence suppresses insulin synthesis and secretion. In vitro, Pax6 binds to the A-boxes, thereby blocking binding of PDX-1, and at the same time, its paired domain interacts with BETA2. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the nuclear-cytoplasmic localization of Pax6 and PDX-1 are oppositely regulated by glucose. From the results, it is suggested that at low concentrations of glucose, Pax6 is localized in the nucleus and prevents the activation of the insulin gene by occupying the PDX-1 binding site and by interacting with BETA2.

  19. A new model for the global biogeochemical cycle of carbonyl sulfide - Part 1: Assessment of direct marine emissions with an oceanic general circulation and biogeochemistry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Fichot, C. G.; Peylin, P.

    2015-03-01

    The global budget of tropospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is believed to be at equilibrium because background air concentrations have remained roughly stable over at least the last decade. Since the uptake of OCS by leaves (associated with photosynthesis) and soils have been revised significantly upwards recently, an equilibrated budget can only be obtained with a compensatory source of OCS. It has been assumed that the missing source of OCS comes from the low-latitude ocean, following the incident solar flux. The present work uses parameterizations of major production and removal processes of organic compounds in the NEMO-PISCES (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean, Pelagic Interaction Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies) ocean general circulation and biogeochemistry model to assess the marine source of OCS. In addition, the OCS photo-production rates computed with the NEMO-PISCES model~were evaluated independently using the UV absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (derived from satellite ocean color data) and apparent quantum yields available in the literature. Our simulations show global direct marine emissions of OCS in the range of 573-3997 GgS yr-1, depending mostly on the quantification of the absorption rate of chromophoric dissolved organic matter. The high estimates of that range are unlikely, as they correspond to a formulation that most likely overestimate photo-production process. Low and medium (813 GgS yr-1) estimates derived from the NEMO-PISCES model are however consistent spatially and temporally~with the suggested missing source of Berry et al. (2013), allowing us thus to close the global budget of OCS given the recent estimates of leaf and soil OCS uptake.

  20. A new model for the global biogeochemical cycle of carbonyl sulfide - Part 1: Assessment of direct marine emissions with an oceanic general circulation and biogeochemistry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Fichot, C. G.; Peylin, P.

    2014-08-01

    The global budget of tropospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is believed to be at equilibrium because background air concentrations have remained roughly stable over at least the last decade. Since the uptakes of OCS by leaves (associated to photosynthesis) and soils have been revised significantly upwards recently, an equilibrated budget can only be obtained with a compensatory source of OCS. It has been assumed that the missing source of OCS comes from the low latitude ocean, following the incident solar flux. The present work uses parameterizations of major production and removal processes of organic compounds in the NEMO-PISCES Ocean General Circulation and Biogeochemistry Model to assess the marine source of OCS. In addition, the OCS photo-production rates computed with the NEMO-PISCES model were evaluated independently using UV absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (derived from satellite ocean color) and apparent quantum yields available in the literature. Our simulations show global direct marine emissions of COS in the range of 573-3997 Gg S yr-1, depending mostly on the quantification of the absorption rate of chromophoric dissolved organic matter. The high estimates on that range are unlikely, as they correspond to a formulation that most likely overestimate photo-production process. Low and medium (813 Gg S yr-1) estimates derived from the NEMO-PISCES model are however consistent spatially and temporally with the suggested missing source of Berry et al. (2013), allowing thus to close the global budget of OCS given the recent estimates of leaf and soil OCS uptakes.

  1. MoonRIDERS: NASA and Hawaiis Innovative Lunar Surface Flight Experiment for Landing in Late 2017

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelso, R. M.; Romo, R.; Mackey, P. J.; Phillips, J. R., III; Cox, R. E.; Hogue, M. D.; Calle, C. I.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, NASA Kennedy Space Center, Hawaii's state aerospace agency PISCES, and two Hawaii high schools Iolani and Kealakehe have come together in a unique collaboration called MoonRIDERS. This strategic partnership will allow Hawaii students to participate directly in sending a science experiment to the surface of the moon. The MoonRIDERS project started in the spring of 2014, with each institution responsible for its own project costs and activities. PISCES, given its legislative direction in advancing planetary surface systems, saw this collaboration as an important opportunity to inspire a young generation and encourage STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) learning. Under the guidance of PISCES and NASA, the students will be involved hands-on from start to finish in the engineering, testing, and validation of a space technology called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS). Dust is a critical issue for space exploration, as evidenced by the Apollo lunar missions and Mars rovers and landers. Dust creates a number of problems for humans and hardware, including inhalation, mechanical interference, wear and tear on spacesuits, inhibition of heat transfer on radiators, and reduced efficiency of solar panels. To address this, the EDS is designed to work on a variety of materials, and functions by generatingelectrodynamic fields to clear away the dust. The Google Lunar XPRIZE (GLXP), a space competition "designed to inspire pioneers to do robotic space transport on a budget," serves as a likely method for the MoonRIDERS to get their project to the moon. The EDS would potentially be flown as a hosted payload on a competitor's lander (still to be chosen). This briefing will provide an overview of the technology, the unique partnership, progress update and testing leading to this flight opportunity.

  2. Neuroprotective effects of prior exposure to enriched environment on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats: the possible molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kewei; Wu, Yi; Hu, Yongshan; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Hongyu; Liu, Gang; Chen, Yao; Guo, Zhenzhen; Jia, Jie

    2013-11-13

    Increasing evidence shows that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury is neuroprotective in animal models. Recent studies have demonstrated that animals housed in an enriched environment condition after an experimental stroke obtained a better functional outcome than those housed in a standard condition. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of enriched environment exposure prior to injury. The current study examined the neuroprotective effects of prior enriched environment exposure after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, weighing 55-65g at the beginning of the experiment, were randomly assigned to a pre-ischemic enriched environment (PIEE) or pre-ischemic standard condition (PISC) group for 1 month. They were weighed on days1, 7, 18, and 28, and their locomotor activity was tracked during the period between 9:00am and 3:00pm daily. After 1 month, ischemia was induced by occluding the middle cerebral artery for 90min, followed by reperfusion. After approximately 24h of the operation, functional outcomes were assessed using the beam-walking test and a neurological evaluation scale in all rats. We measured the expression of extracellular signal regulated protein kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) by western blotting and gene expression levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthasen (iNOS) by Real-Time PCR in the cortical area affected by ischemia. Finally, we measured the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which is a biomarker of oxidative stress. The results showed that rats in the PIEE group had lighter weight than those in the PISC group. The functional outcomes of rats in the PIEE group were better than those in the PISC group, and substances associated with inflammation, such as MDA, nNOS, iNOS, and phospho-ERK1/2, were lower in the PIEE group compared with the PISC group. These results

  3. Ontogeny and modulation after PAMPs stimulation of β-defensin, hepcidin, and piscidin antimicrobial peptides in meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    PubMed

    Campoverde, Cindy; Milne, Douglas J; Estévez, Alicia; Duncan, Neil; Secombes, Christopher J; Andree, Karl B

    2017-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), components of innate immunity, play an important role in protecting fish. In this study we report the molecular cloning of full open reading frames and characterization of expression of three AMP genes (β-defensin (defb), hepcidin (hep2), piscidin (pisc) in meagre (Argyrosomus regius). A phylogenetic analysis of the expressed sequences obtained shows the defensin isoform forms a clade with the other members of the beta class of this family, hepcidin corresponds to hepcidin 2, and piscidin corresponds to class I of its respective family. Gene expression profiles of AMPs was investigated, by means of quantification of mRNA in nine development stages, from 8 days post-hatching (dph) to accomplishment of juvenile form (120 dph). During development it was demonstrated defb, hep2, pisc were expressed in all stages of larval development and in juvenile tissues (kidney, spleen gut and gill). Moreover, expression patterns suggest the expression levels of theses AMPs are influenced by live prey (rotifer, Artemia) and first intake of commercial diet. Induction experiments in vivo (24 h) and in vitro (4, 12, 24 h) with PAMPs (LPS, poly (I:C), β-glucan) revealed significant changes in gene expression of the three AMP genes, in kidney, spleen, gut and gill. However, expression profiles differed in magnitude and time course response. defb expression shows a similar trend in vivo and in vitro in kidney at 24 h after LPS and β-glucan stimulation. The hep2 expression levels were up-regulated upon β-glucan challenge in vivo, more in gut and gills than kidney, while in vitro hep2 expression was up-regulated in kidney cells by LPS, poly (I:C), β-glucan (4 h). pisc expression was up-regulated in kidney cells, splenocytes by β-glucan, but in gill cells by poly (I:C) and β-glucan in vivo. However, pisc expression was upregulated in kidney cells by β-glucan and gill cells by LPS at 4 post-stimulation in vitro. These data suggest that AMPs

  4. Penetration of tungsten-alloy rods into composite ceramic targets: Experiments and 2-D simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Z.; Dekel, E.; Hohler, V.; Stilp, A. J.; Weber, K.

    1998-07-01

    A series of terminal ballistics experiments, with scaled tungsten-alloy penetrators, was performed on composite targets consisting of ceramic tiles glued to thick steel backing plates. Tiles of silicon-carbide, aluminum nitride, titanium-dibroide and boron-carbide were 20-80 mm thick, and impact velocity was 1.7 km/s. 2-D numerical simulations, using the PISCES code, were performed in order to simulate these shots. It is shown that a simplified version of the Johnson-Holmquist failure model can account for the penetration depths of the rods but is not enough to capture the effect of lateral release waves on these penetrations.

  5. Joining Forces: Preparing to Fight Coalition Air War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Peters , European Contributions to Operation Allied Force: Implications for Transatlantic Cooperation (Santa Monica: RAND, 2001), 5. 40 Lake, “The...factsheet_up_factsfigures_en.pdf (accessed on 7 Jan 2013). 2 Helene Cooper and Steven Lee Myers, “U.S. Tactics in Libya May Be a Model for Other Efforts”, New York Times (New...www.carlisle.army.mil/USAWC/parameters/Articles/2012spring/Borghard_Pisc hedda.pdf (accessed 5 Nov 2012), 68-69. 11 Helene Cooper and Steven Lee Myers

  6. Sea floor gouges and pits in deep fjords, Baffin Island: Possible mammalian feeding traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, F. J.; Syvitski, J. P. M.

    1989-06-01

    Pisces submersible dives within Baffin Island fjords have revealed the common occurrence of pits on the sea floor, at water depths between 40 and 326 m. The size of these pits are in the decimeter to meter range. Through indirect evidence (by comparison of morphologic features to pits or gouges of known origin) they are believed to be feeding traces of narwhal, beluga, or bowhead whales. If so, they are the deepest mammalian feeding traces yet reported. Bioerosion by large foraging mammals may be a more common sea floor process than previously thought.

  7. The Church of San Miniato al Monte, Florence: Astronomical and Astrological Connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrimplin, V.

    2011-06-01

    The church of San Miniato al Monte is examined in the context of interest in astrology and astronomy in early Renaissance Florence. Vitruvius emphasised the need for architects to "be acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens" in his famous Ten Books of Architecture and, at San Miniato, astronomical and astrological features are combined in order to link humanity with the celestial or spiritual realm. The particular significance of Pisces and Taurus is explored in relation to Christian symbolism, raising questions about the role of astronomy and astrology in art and architecture.

  8. [Structure of fish serum albumins].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, A M

    2010-01-01

    Data are presented about the presence of serum albumins in fishes of different classes and orders inhabiting different ecological conditions, about structure of typical albumins and albumin-like proteins, and about the degree of homology of these proteins to mammalian albumins. There is shown a wide spectrum of structural diversity of albumins in Pisces due to their participation in osmotic, plastic, and transport functions under conditions of environment and of the organism internal media. Detection of similar motifs in the piscine and mammalian albumin genes allows uniting these genes into one superfamily and considering vertebrate albumins the homologous proteins.

  9. Research in computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Several short summaries of the work performed during this reporting period are presented. Topics discussed in this document include: (1) resilient seeded errors via simple techniques; (2) knowledge representation for engineering design; (3) analysis of faults in a multiversion software experiment; (4) implementation of parallel programming environment; (5) symbolic execution of concurrent programs; (6) two computer graphics systems for visualization of pressure distribution and convective density particles; (7) design of a source code management system; (8) vectorizing incomplete conjugate gradient on the Cyber 203/205; (9) extensions of domain testing theory and; (10) performance analyzer for the pisces system.

  10. Larval Fish of Selected Aquatic Habitats on the Lower Mississippi River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    high stages, with an 18.7-m difference in vater level. The aver- age water velocity within the main channel is from 0.9 to 1.9 a/sec with a maximum...flowmeter readings . In the case of the habitat comparisons, stations representing the locations (e.g., main channel or Carolina Revetment) were pooled...34Larval Suckers (Pisces- Catostomidae ) from the Lower Mississippi River," Association of Southeastern Biologists Bulletin, Vol 25, No. 2, p 56. ! ! 1979a

  11. A simple estimate of funneling-assisted charge collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Larry D.

    1991-01-01

    Funneling is qualitatively discussed in detail, and a quantitative analysis is given for the total (time-integrated) collected charge. It is shown that, for an n(+)/p junction, the total collected charge QT is given by QT = (1 + mu-n/mu-p) QD + 2Q(diff), where QD is the charge initially liberated in the depletion region and Qdiff is charge collected by diffusion. This equation does not apply to very short ion tracks or to devices having a thin epilayer. A numerical example is presented, and a comparison is made with PISCES results.

  12. Hierarchical analysis of taxonomic variation in intraspecific competition across fish species.

    PubMed

    Foss-Grant, Andrew P; Zipkin, Elise F; Thorson, James T; Jensen, Olaf P; Fagan, William F

    2016-07-01

    The nature and intensity of intraspecific competition can vary greatly among taxa, yet similarities in these interactions can lead to similar population dynamics among related organisms. Variation along the spectrum of intraspecific competition, with contest and scramble competition as endpoints, leads to vastly different responses to population density. Here we investigated the diversity of intraspecific competition among fish species, predicting that functional forms of density-dependent reproduction would be conserved in related taxa. Using a hierarchical model that links stock-recruitment parameters among populations, species, and orders, we found that the strength of overcompensation, and therefore the type of intraspecific competition, is tightly clustered within taxonomic groupings, as species within an order share similar degrees of compensation. Specifically, species within the orders Salmoniformes and Pleuronectiformes exhibited density dependence indicative of scramble competition (overcompensation) while the orders Clupeiformes, Gadiformes, Perciformes, and Scorpaeniformes exhibited dynamics consistent with contest competition (compensation). Maximum potential recruitment also varied among orders, but with less clustering across species. We also tested whether stock-recruitment parameters correlated with maximum body length among species, but found no strong relationship. Our results suggest that much of the variation in the form of density-dependent reproduction among fish species may be predicted taxonomically due to evolved life history traits and reproductive behaviors. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Isolation of the pituitary gonadotrophic α-subunit hormone of the giant amazonian fish: pirarucu (Arapaima gigas).

    PubMed

    Faria, M T; Carvalho, R F; Sevilhano, T C A; Oliveira, N A J; Silva, C F P; Oliveira, J E; Soares, C R J; Garcez, R; Santo, P R E; Bartolini, P

    2013-06-01

    The cDNAs of the α-subunit of the pituitary gonadotrophic hormones (GTHα) of fish of the order Osteoglossiformes or the superorder Osteoglossomorpha have never been sequenced. For a better understanding the phylogenetic diversity and evolution of PGHα in fish and for future biotechnological synthesis of the gonadotrophic hormones (ag-FSH and ag-LH), of Arapaima gigas, one of the largest freshwater fishes of the world, its GTHα cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcriptase and the polymerase chain reaction starting from total pituitary RNA. The ag-GTHα-subunit was found to be encoded by 348 bp, corresponding to a protein of 115 amino acids, with a putative signal peptide of 24 amino acids and a mature peptide of 91 amino acids. Ten cysteine residues, responsible for forming 5 disulfide linkages, 2 putative N-linked glycosylation sites and 3 proline residues, were found to be conserved on the basis of the known sequences of vertebrate gonadotrophic hormones. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the amino acid sequences of 38 GTHα-subunits, revealed the highest identity of A. gigas with members of the Acipenseriformes, Anguilliformes, Siluriformes and Cypriniformes (87.1-89.5 %) and the lowest with Gadiformes and Cyprinodontiformes (55.0 %). The obtained phylogenetic tree agrees with previous analysis of teleostei, since A. gigas, of the order of Osteoglossiformes, appears as the sister group of Clupeocephala, while Elopomorpha forms the most basal group of all other teleosts.

  14. Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) macrouri n. sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from two deep-sea macrourid fishes in the Western Mediterranean: Morphological and molecular characterisations.

    PubMed

    Pérez-i-García, David; Constenla, María; Carrassón, Maite; Montero, Francisco E; Soler-Membrives, Anna; González-Solís, David

    2015-10-01

    A new nematode species, Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) macrouri n. sp. (Anisakidae), is described from male and female specimens found in the intestine, and occasionally in stomach and pyloric caeca, of two deep-water macrourid fishes (Gadiformes) off Barcelona, Mediterranean Sea: Nezumia aequalis (Günther) (type-host) and Trachyrincus scabrus (Rafinesque). Based on light and scanning electron microscopy examination, the new species shows similar morphological features as the other four valid species of the subgenus Raphidascaris Railliet & Henry, 1915, but it differs from Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) acus (Bloch, 1779), Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) lutjani Olsen, 1952 and Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) mediterraneus Lèbre & Petter, 1983 in the high number of precloacal papillae (23-32) and from Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) gigi Fujita, 1928 in the length of the spicules. Moreover, Raphidascaris (Raphidascaris) macrouri n. sp. exhibits a high variability on the number and distribution of caudal papillae, which was not recorded in the other four mentioned species. This is the first species of this subgenus reported from the family Macrouridae. Sequences of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region are analysed and compared with closely related nematode species. Molecular analysis confirmed the uniformity of the R. (R.) macrouri n. sp. between hosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Repeatability of clades as a criterion of reliability: a case study for molecular phylogeny of Acanthomorpha (Teleostei) with larger number of taxa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Bonillo, Céline; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2003-02-01

    Although much progress has been made recently in teleostean phylogeny, relationships among the main lineages of the higher teleosts (Acanthomorpha), containing more than 60% of all fish species, remain poorly defined. This study represents the most extensive taxonomic sampling effort to date to collect new molecular characters for phylogenetic analysis of acanthomorph fishes. We compiled and analyzed three independent data sets, including: (i) mitochondrial ribosomal fragments from 12S and 16s (814bp for 97 taxa); (ii) nuclear ribosomal 28S sequences (847bp for 74 taxa); and (iii) a nuclear protein-coding gene, rhodopsin (759bp for 86 taxa). Detailed analyses were conducted on each data set separately and the principle of taxonomic congruence without consensus trees was used to assess confidence in the results as follows. Repeatability of clades from separate analyses was considered the primary criterion to establish reliability, rather than bootstrap proportions from a single combined (total evidence) data matrix. The new and reliable clades emerging from this study of the acanthomorph radiation were: Gadiformes (cods) with Zeioids (dories); Beloniformes (needlefishes) with Atheriniformes (silversides); blenioids (blennies) with Gobiesocoidei (clingfishes); Channoidei (snakeheads) with Anabantoidei (climbing gouramies); Mastacembeloidei (spiny eels) with Synbranchioidei (swamp-eels); the last two pairs of taxa grouping together, Syngnathoidei (aulostomids, macroramphosids) with Dactylopteridae (flying gurnards); Scombroidei (mackerels) plus Stromatoidei plus Chiasmodontidae; Ammodytidae (sand lances) with Cheimarrhichthyidae (torrentfish); Zoarcoidei (eelpouts) with Cottoidei; Percidae (perches) with Notothenioidei (Antarctic fishes); and a clade grouping Carangidae (jacks), Echeneidae (remoras), Sphyraenidae (barracudas), Menidae (moonfish), Polynemidae (threadfins), Centropomidae (snooks), and Pleuronectiformes (flatfishes).

  16. Digenean parasites of deep-sea teleosts: a review and case studies of intrageneric phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Bray, R A; Littlewood, D T; Herniou, E A; Williams, B; Henderson, R E

    1999-01-01

    Studies on the digenean parasites of deep-sea (> 200 m depth) teleosts are reviewed and two case study generic phylogenies are presented based on LSU rDNA and ND1 mtDNA sequences. The phylogeny of the lepocreadiid genus Lepidapedon, the most common deep-sea digenean genus, is not clearly resolved as the two gene trees are not compatible. It can be inferred, however, that the genus has radiated in the deeper waters off the continental shelf, mainly in fishes of the gadiform family Macrouridae. Steringophorus, a fellodistomid genus, is better resolved. In this case a deep-sea radiation is also indicated, but the pattern of host-specificity is not clear, with evidence of much host-switching. Results of studies of the parasites of the macrourid fish Coryphaenoides (Nematonurus) armatus from various depths have reinforced recent views on the lack of zoned depth-related communities in the deep-sea. The diversity of deep-sea digeneans is relatively low with only 18 families (of about 60) reported. Little, or nothing, is known from most deep-sea areas and nothing from trenches and mid-ocean ridge systems.

  17. The reproductive biology of a shallow water morid ( Salilota australis Günther, 1878), around the Falkland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brickle, Paul; Laptikhovsky, Vladimir; Arkhipkin, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    The reproductive biology of a shelf morid, red cod ( Salilota australis) was investigated in the Falkland Islands, in order to expand our knowledge of the reproductive strategy of this relatively unstudied family of fishes. Red cod spawn to the south and south-west of West Falkland between August and October. Length frequency and sex ratio data suggest that females arrive at the spawning grounds first. The greatest spawning activity occurred in early evening and this timing may be an adaptation to reduce predation on eggs. Ripe egg size varied from 0.95 to 1.26 mm and was not dependant on female size. There was no regulative atresia during maturation and the formation of fecundity and fecundity increased with increasing fish total length ( LT) from 300,000 (42-45 cm LT) to 4.5-9.0 million eggs (75-83 cm LT). The fecundity of most of the population was between 2 and 5 million eggs. Red cod releases small batches of eggs over the spawning period. Batch size ranged from 30,000-90,000 (39-42 cm LT) in smaller animals to 400,000-800,000 (>75 cm LT) in larger animals and the batch size of first spawners was significantly higher than for advanced spawners. The study allows us to discuss the evolutionary relationships between the Gadiformes.

  18. Linking species habitat and past palaeoclimatic events to evolution of the teleost innate immune system

    PubMed Central

    Jentoft, Sissel

    2017-01-01

    Host-intrinsic factors as well as environmental changes are known to be strong evolutionary drivers defining the genetic foundation of immunity. Using a novel set of teleost genomes and a time-calibrated phylogeny, we here investigate the family of Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes and address the underlying evolutionary processes shaping the diversity of the first-line defence. Our findings reveal remarkable flexibility within the evolutionary design of teleost innate immunity characterized by prominent TLR gene losses and expansions. In the order of Gadiformes, expansions correlate with the loss of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) and diversifying selection analyses support that this has fostered new immunological innovations in TLRs within this lineage. In teleosts overall, TLRs expansions correlate with species latitudinal distributions and maximum depth. By contrast, lineage-specific gene losses overlap with well-described changes in palaeoclimate (global ocean anoxia) and past Atlantic Ocean geography. In conclusion, we suggest that the evolvability of the teleost immune system has most likely played a prominent role in the survival and successful radiation of this lineage. PMID:28446692

  19. Behaviour of fish by-catch in the mouth of a crustacean trawl.

    PubMed

    Queirolo, D; Gaete, E; Montenegro, I; Soriguer, M C; Erzini, K

    2012-06-01

    The behaviour of fish by-catch was recorded and characterized by in situ observations in the mouth of a crustacean trawl using an underwater camera system with artificial light, at depths between 106 and 461 m, along the central coast of Chile. The groups or species studied were rattails (family Macrouridae), Chilean hake Merluccius gayi gayi, sharks (orders Carcharhiniformes and Squaliformes), skates (family Rajidae), flatfishes (genus Hippoglossina) and small benthopelagic and demersal fishes (orders Osmeriformes, Stomiiformes, Gadiformes, Ophidiiformes and Perciformes). The fish behaviour was categorized in terms of (1) position in the water column, (2) initial orientation with respect to the trawl, (3) locomotion and (4) swimming speed with respect to the trawl. Rattails, sharks, skates and flatfishes were passive in response to the trawl and showed similar behavioural patterns, with most fishes observed sitting or touching the bottom with no swimming or other activity. Merluccius gayi gayi was the most active species, displaying a wide combination of behavioural responses when the trawl approached. This species showed several behavioural patterns, mainly characterized by swimming forward at variable speed. A fraction of small bentho-pelagic and demersal fishes also showed an active behaviour but always at lower speed than the trawl. The species-specific differences in behaviour in the mouth of the trawl suggest that improvements at the level of the footrope can be made to reduce by-catch, especially of passive species.

  20. Proliferation of elongate fishes in the deep sea.

    PubMed

    Neat, F C; Campbell, N

    2013-12-01

    It was hypothesized that energetically efficient anguilliform swimming and axial elongation in fishes is favoured in the deep sea and predicted that the degree of elongation of the body form of fishes would increase with depth. An index of fish shape was derived from the relationship between length and mass. This was combined with data on abundance of c. 266 fish species from 389 research trawl tows made at depths of between 300 and 2030 m in the north-east Atlantic Ocean. The degree of elongation of the fish increased with depth to c. 1250 m before levelling off. The strength of this phenomenon varied between higher level taxa, being most apparent in the Gadiformes and Osmeriformes, and weak or absent in the Perciformes and Selachimorpha. The advantage of efficient elongate body forms may explain why certain taxa such as the grenadiers (Macrouridae) have dominated the deep sea, some have restricted depth ranges, e.g. the sharks, skates and rays, and others are almost entirely absent, e.g. the flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes). © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Global assessment of molecularly identified Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in their teleost intermediate hosts.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Thomas; Hailer, Frank; Palm, Harry W; Klimpel, Sven

    2013-05-01

    Here, we present the ITS ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence data on 330 larvae of nematodes of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 collected from 26 different bony fish species from 21 sampling locations and different climatic zones. New host records are provided for Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) sensu stricto (s.s.) and A. pegreffli Campana-Rouget et Biocca, 1955 from Anoplopoma fimbria (Pallas) (Santa Barbara, East Pacific), A. typica (Diesing, 1860) from Caesio cuning (Bloch), Lepturacanthus savala (Cuvier) and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus) (Indonesia, West Pacific), A. simplex s.s. from Cololabis saira (Brevoort) (Hawaii, Central Pacific), A. simplex C of Nascetti et al. (1986) from Sebastolobus alascanus Bean (Santa Barbara, East Pacific) and A. physeteris Baylis, 1923 from Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson (Namibia, East Atlantic). Comparison with host records from 60 previous molecular studies of Anisakis species reveals the teleost host range so far recorded for the genus. Perciform (57 species) and gadiform (21) fishes were the most frequently infected orders, followed by pleuronectiforms (15) and scorpaeniforms (15). Most commonly infected fish families were Scombridae (12), Gadidae (10), Carangidae (8) and Clupeidae (7), with Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus) alone harbouring eight Anisakis species. Different intermediate host compositions implicate differing life cycles for the so far molecularly identified Anisakis sibling species.

  2. Bathymetric gradients of fecundity and egg size in fishes: A Mediterranean case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Arcaya, Ulla; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Murua, Hilario; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Bahamon, Nixon; Recasens, Laura; Rotllant, Guiomar; Company, Joan B.

    2016-10-01

    There is a general hypothesis that species inhabiting deep-sea waters have lower fecundity and larger eggs than shallower species. However, there are few comparative studies which explore this trend because of the complexity of sampling in deep waters, especially in fishes. We present here the first analysis of fecundity and egg size with depth along an isothermal environment. We calculate the relative fecundity and egg size of 11 species of demersal deep-sea fish from the western Mediterranean and included in our analyses published data for an additional 14 species from the same geographic area. The results show that the relative fecundity (eggs per g of individual) of the analyzed fishes slightly decreased along the bathymetric gradient, whereas egg size increased with depth. When the analysis was conducted including only species from the order Gadiformes, the most speciose group in the region and with the widest depth range of distribution (50-2000 m), there was no relationship between relative fecundity and depth, while the deepest species had larger egg sizes than shallower ones. The finding of similar relative fecundities but larger egg sizes suggests that these deep-sea species are investing a higher amount of energy in the production of offspring than shallower water counterparts. The results are discussed in relation to the isothermal characteristics of the deep Mediterranean Sea and ecological adaptations for reproductive success.

  3. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program : Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation : 2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Vitale, Angelo J.; Hallock, Stephanie A.; Firehammer, Jon A.

    2008-12-12

    This annual report summarizes previously unreported data collected to fulfill the contractual obligations for BPA project No.1990-044-00, 'Coeur d'Alene Subbasin Fisheries Habitat Enhancement', during the 2006 calendar year. Even though the contract performance period for this project crosses fiscal and calendar years, the timing of data collection and analysis, as well as implementation of restoration projects, lends itself to this reporting schedule. The 2006 performance period marked the first year that BPA implemented its Process Improvement Initiative with the Pisces system serving as the vehicle for developing statements of work and tracking project performance. This document attempts to provide some consistency between the project objectives, around which past reports have been structured, and the new work element format adopted for use in Pisces. The report is formatted into three primary sections that respectively provide results and discussion of: (1) monitoring and evaluation of biological and physical habitat indicators; (2) implementation of restoration and enhancement projects; and (3) education and outreach work performed during 2006. The relevant work elements and/or milestones found in the statement of work are listed under these section headings and described in the body of the report.

  4. Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Annual Report 2004-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, Brian

    2004-10-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife Area funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 05 contract period October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. The greatest success realized during this contract period was completion of the water system that will provide water to wetland basins within the Vancouver Lake Unit and three independent basins on adjoining Clark County owned lands. The water system paid for by Clark Public Utilities was designed and built under the direction of Ducks Unlimited. Having a reliable water supply for these areas has allowed us for the first time to begin making significant progress toward our wetland vegetation management goals on this unit. A reduction in the density of reed canary grass has already been noted and increased levels of native plant occurrence have been observed. Our most notable setback was an increase in the infestation of purple loosestrife within a portion of the Shillapoo Lakebed including parts of the North and South Units. A great deal of effort and time was spent on addressing the problem including hand cutting and spraying individual plants.

  5. The Arrowhead Mini-supercluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomarède, Daniel; Tully, R. Brent; Hoffman, Yehuda; Courtois, Hélène M.

    2015-10-01

    Superclusters of galaxies can be defined kinematically from local evaluations of the velocity shear tensor. The location where the smallest eigenvalue of the shear is positive and maximal defines the center of a basin of attraction. Velocity and density fields are reconstructed with Wiener Filter techniques. Local velocities due to the density field in a restricted region can be separated from external tidal flows, permitting the identification of boundaries separating inward flows toward a basin of attraction and outward flows. This methodology was used to define the Laniakea Supercluster that includes the Milky Way. Large adjacent structures include Perseus-Pisces, Coma, Hercules, and Shapley but current kinematic data are insufficient to capture their full domains. However, there is a small region trapped between Laniakea, Perseus-Pisces, and Coma that is close enough to be reliably characterized and that satisfies the kinematic definition of a supercluster. Because of its shape, it is given the name the Arrowhead Supercluster. This entity does not contain any major clusters. A characteristic dimension is ˜25 Mpc and the contained mass is only ˜ {10}15 {M}⊙ .

  6. Liquid Lithium Limiter Effects on Tokamak Plasmas and Plasma-Liquid Surface Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    R. Kaita; R. Majeski; R. Doerner; G. Antar; M. Baldwin; R. Conn; P. Efthimion; M. Finkenthal; D. Hoffman; B. Jones; S. Krashenninikov; H. Kugel; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; J. Menard; T. Munsat; D. Stutman; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; V. Soukhanovskii; D. Whyte; R. Woolley; L. Zakharov

    2002-10-15

    We present results from the first experiments with a large area liquid lithium limiter in a magnetic fusion device, and its effect on improving plasma performance by reducing particle recycling. Using large area liquid metal surfaces in any major fusion device is unlikely before a test on a smaller scale. This has motivated its demonstration in the CDX-U spherical torus with a unique, fully toroidal lithium limiter. The highest current discharges were obtained with a liquid lithium limiter. There was a reduction in recycling, as indicated by a significant decrease in the deuterium-alpha emission and oxygen radiation. How these results might extrapolate to reactors is suggested in recycling/retention experiments with liquid lithium surfaces under high-flux deuterium and helium plasma bombardment in PISCES-B. Data on deuterium atoms retained in liquid lithium indicate retention of all incident ions until full volumetric conversion to lithium deuteride. The PISCES-B results also show a material loss mechanism that lowers the maximum operating temperature compared to that for the liquid surface equilibrium vapor pressure. This may restrict the lithium temperature in reactors.

  7. Investigation of He–W interactions using DiMES on DIII-D

    DOE PAGES

    Doerner, R. P.; Rudakov, D. L.; Chrobak, C. P.; ...

    2016-01-22

    Here, tungsten button samples were exposed to He ELMing H-mode plasma in DIII-D using 2.3 MW of electron cyclotron heating power. Prior to the exposures, the W buttons were exposed to either He, or D, plasma in PISCES-A for 2000 s at surface temperatures of 225–850 °C to create a variety of surfaces (surface blisters, subsurface nano-bubbles, fuzz). Erosion was spectroscopically measured from each DiMES sample, with the exception of the fuzzy W samples which showed almost undetectable WI emission. Post-exposure grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering surface analysis showed the formation of 1.5 nm diameter He bubbles in themore » surface of W buttons after only a single DIII-D (3 s, ~150 ELMs) discharge, similar to the bubble layer resulting from the 2000 s. exposure in PISCES-A. No surface roughening, or damage, was detected on the samples after approximately 600 ELMs with energy density between 0.04–0.1 MJ m–2.« less

  8. Beryllium deposition on International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor first mirrors: Layer morphology and influence on mirror reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    De Temmerman, G.; Baldwin, M. J.; Doerner, R. P.; Nishijima, D.; Seraydarian, R.; Schmid, K.; Kost, F.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Marot, L.

    2007-10-15

    Metallic mirrors will be essential components of the optical diagnostic systems in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Reliability of these systems may be affected by mirror reflectivity changes induced by erosion and/or deposition of impurities (carbon, beryllium). The present study aims to assess the effect of beryllium (Be) deposition on the reflectivity of metallic mirrors and to collect data on the optical quality of these layers in terms of morphology, roughness, etc. Mirrors from molybdenum and copper were exposed in the PISCES-B linear plasma device to collect eroded material from graphite and beryllium targets exposed to beryllium-seeded deuterium plasma. After exposure, relative reflectivity of the mirrors was measured and different surface analysis techniques were used to investigate the properties of the deposited layers. Be layers formed in PISCES-B exhibit high levels of porosity which makes the reflectivity of the Be layers much lower than the reflectivity of pure Be. It is found that if Be deposition occurs on ITER first mirrors, the reflectivity of the coated mirrors will strongly depend on the layer morphology, which in turn depends on the deposition conditions.

  9. Simulating the growth and distribution of planktic foraminifer using an ecophysiological multi-species model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombard, F.; Labeyrie, L.; Michel, E.; Bopp, L.; Cortijo, E.; Retailleau, S.; Howa, H.; Jorissen, F.

    2011-01-01

    We present an eco-physiological model reproducing the growth of eight foraminifer species (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, Neogloboquadrina incompta, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerinoides sacculifer, Globigerinella siphonifera and Orbulina universa). By using the main physiological rates of foraminifers (nutrition, respiration, symbiotic photosynthesis), this model estimates their growth as a function of temperature, light availability, and food concentration. Model parameters are directly derived or calibrated from experimental observations and only the influence of food concentration (estimated via chl-a concentration) was calibrated against field observations. Growth rates estimated from the model show positive correlation with observed abundance from plankton net data suggesting close coupling between individual and assemblage growth rates. This observation was used to directly estimate potential abundance from the model-derived growth. Using satellite data, the model simulate the dominant foraminifer with a 70.5% efficiency when compared to a data set of 576 field observations worldwide. Using outputs of a biogeochemical model of the global ocean (PISCES) instead of satellite images as forcing variables gives also good results, but with lower efficiency (58.9%). The model also correctly reproduces the relative worldwide abundance and the diversity of the eight species when compared to core tops observations both using satellite and PISCES data. This model allows prediction of the season and water depth at which each species has its highest growth potential. This offers promising perspectives for both an improved quantification of paleoceanographic reconstructions and for a better understanding of the foraminiferal role in the marine carbon cycle.

  10. Modelling planktic foraminifer growth and distribution using an ecophysiological multi-species approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombard, F.; Labeyrie, L.; Michel, E.; Bopp, L.; Cortijo, E.; Retailleau, S.; Howa, H.; Jorissen, F.

    2011-04-01

    We present an eco-physiological model reproducing the growth of eight foraminifer species (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma, Neogloboquadrina incompta, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerinoides sacculifer, Globigerinella siphonifera and Orbulina universa). By using the main physiological rates of foraminifers (nutrition, respiration, symbiotic photosynthesis), this model estimates their growth as a function of temperature, light availability, and food concentration. Model parameters are directly derived or calibrated from experimental observations and only the influence of food concentration (estimated via Chlorophyll-a concentration) was calibrated against field observations. Growth rates estimated from the model show positive correlation with observed abundance from plankton net data suggesting close coupling between individual growth and population abundance. This observation was used to directly estimate potential abundance from the model-derived growth. Using satellite data, the model simulate the dominant foraminifer species with a 70.5% efficiency when compared to a data set of 576 field observations worldwide. Using outputs of a biogeochemical model of the global ocean (PISCES) instead of satellite images as forcing variables gives also good results, but with lower efficiency (58.9%). Compared to core tops observations, the model also correctly reproduces the relative worldwide abundance and the diversity of the eight species when using either satellite data either PISCES results. This model allows prediction of the season and water depth at which each species has its maximum abundance potential. This offers promising perspectives for both an improved quantification of paleoceanographic reconstructions and for a better understanding of the foraminiferal role in the marine carbon cycle.

  11. Development and prototyping of an autonomous, low-cost oceanographic drifter buoy with real-time global bi-directional satellite communication capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moxey, L.; Ohta, A.

    2016-12-01

    This project designed and prototyped the electronics payload of an oceanographic drifter buoy relying on low-cost off-the-shelf hardware. The prototype drifter buoy, called "PISCES-A", featured bi-directional Iridium satellite communications capabilities that allows users to modify in real time the buoy's data collection and data transmission frequency and configuration, even after its ocean deployment. After being built, PISCES-A was deployed in the N. Pacific Ocean during a NOAA oceanographic research cruise, where it collected real time and archived oceanographic data (latitude & longitude, velocity, heading, sea-surface temperature, sea-surface salinity) and system diagnostics information (voltage, internal humidity, internal temperature). The buoy hardware cost $931, and yielded high resolution in situ oceanographic data. Comparisons with satellite-based sea-surface height and sea-surface temperature data showed good agreement between the locations of the mesoscale oceanographic features, regional surface currents and sea-surface temperatures (average difference of 0.31° C). The drifter buoy demonstrated the impact that carefully engineered, low-cost electronic systems can have in the sciences, particularly within the field of physical oceanography.

  12. Closing the carbon cycle in the EC EARTH earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Matthias; Döscher, Ralf; Meier, Markus; Svensson, Gunilla

    2015-04-01

    A closed carbon cycle, i.e. the exchange of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial and marine carbon reservoirs (living biomass, soil carbon, sediments etc) via the atmosphere is essential for state of the art earth system models and it will become more and more important in the framework of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). It is also a prerequisite for simulating the atmospheric pCO2 in a fully prognostic mode and thus, for the realistic simulation of the important feedback of the carbon cycle to the predicted future climate change. The main challenges of this work are two fold: It requires close cooperation between physical oceanographers, meteorologists and biogeochemists. Moreover, especially the marine carbon cycle has very long internal time scales which demand for long spinup phases. The work presented here is the result of the joined efforts of the Meteorological Institute University of Stockholm, the Rossby Center for Climatic Research and the oceanographic department of the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), and the University of Lund. We here introduce our basic strategy for the implementation of the marine biogeochemistry model PISCES into EC Earth and first results for the marine carbon cycle model PISCES are presented.

  13. The Origin of the Common Yearly Counting in the Julian and Gregorian Calendar with Special Attention to the Ancient Astronomy and World View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothwangl, Sepp

    Because of a new consideration and recently revealed new facts and documents it is maintained that Dionysius Exiguus fixed the common Christian yearly count with the aim to mark the begin and end of the age of Pisces. By incorporating of three factors, he precalculated the conjunction of all naked eye planets including Sun and Moon of May 2000. He figured it out with the help of so called eternal planet boards and a ``plotting year calculation'' (Zieljahrberechnung). Then he determined the year 1 A. D. exactly 1999 years before it, due the medieval assumed constant of precession, (66 2/3 years each degree), that was base of calculation of later Arabian and Persian astronomers. Thus he linked the ``Platonic Year'' with the ``Greatest Year''. He did this in order to fulfil the Christian belief of the return of the Lord during a planetary position which is equivalent to the Greek Symposium or the start of the Kali Yuga, calculated by the Indian astronomer Aryabhata. For both calculations actually the alignment of all planets of year 531 CE was the base. In his late antique religious and astronomical world view Dionysius determined the yearly counting such a way, that the year 2000 (2nd millennium) of his count should mark the end of the age of Pisces (ICHTHYS) and the religiously prophesied Christian end time.

  14. Response of the GPHS/RTG system to potential launch accident environments

    SciTech Connect

    Mukunda, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft is designed to carry out an orbital tour of the Saturnian system and an investigation of the planet, its satellites, atmosphere, and its ring system. The space vehicle is powered by three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) which are mounted normal to the thrust axis of the vehicle. The nuclear heat source for each RTG consists of a stacked column of eighteen General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module primarily consists of an aeroshell, two Graphite Impact Shells (GIS), and four Fueled Clads (FC). Each FC consists of a fuel pellet of plutonium-238 in the form of the oxide PuO{sub 2} encased in an iridium shell which serves to contain the fuel. An extensive program of experimental tests and analyses was conducted in support of previous missions (Galileo and Ulysses) which served to calibrate and validate the PISCES 2D-ELK continuum mechanics code. This paper describes the response of the GPHS-RTG system to a large number of potential launch accident environments employing the MSC/PISCES Euler Lagrange shell coupled hydrocode as an analytical tool. The results of these calculations quantified the integrity of the iridium clad fuel containment system and provided a data base for a determination of the overall risk for the Cassini mission by others. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Fuzzy tungsten in a magnetron sputtering device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, T. J.; Khan, A.; Heil, T.; Bradley, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    Helium ion induced tungsten nanostructure (tungsten fuzz) has been studied in a magnetron sputtering device. Three parameters were varied, the fluence from 3.4 × 1023-3.0 × 1024 m-2, the He ion energy from 25 to 70 eV, and the surface temperature from 900 to 1200 K. For each sample, SEM images were captured, and measurements of the fuzz layer thickness, surface roughness, reflectivity, and average structure widths are provided. A cross-over point from pre-fuzz to fully formed fuzz is found at 2.4 ± 0.4 × 1024 m-2, and a temperature of 1080 ± 60 K. No significant change was observed in the energy sweep. The fuzz is compared to low fluence fuzz created in the PISCES-A linear plasma device. Magnetron fuzz is less uniform than fuzz created by PISCES-A and with generally larger structure widths. The thicknesses of the magnetron samples follow the original Φ1/2 relation as opposed to the incubation fluence fit.

  16. Investigation of He–W interactions using DiMES on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Doerner, R. P.; Rudakov, D. L.; Chrobak, C. P.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Corr, C.; De Temmerman, G.; Kluth, P.; Lasnier, C. J.; McLean, A. G.; Pace, D. C.; Pitts, R. A.; Schmitz, O.; Thompson, M.; Winters, V.

    2016-01-22

    Here, tungsten button samples were exposed to He ELMing H-mode plasma in DIII-D using 2.3 MW of electron cyclotron heating power. Prior to the exposures, the W buttons were exposed to either He, or D, plasma in PISCES-A for 2000 s at surface temperatures of 225–850 °C to create a variety of surfaces (surface blisters, subsurface nano-bubbles, fuzz). Erosion was spectroscopically measured from each DiMES sample, with the exception of the fuzzy W samples which showed almost undetectable WI emission. Post-exposure grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering surface analysis showed the formation of 1.5 nm diameter He bubbles in the surface of W buttons after only a single DIII-D (3 s, ~150 ELMs) discharge, similar to the bubble layer resulting from the 2000 s. exposure in PISCES-A. No surface roughening, or damage, was detected on the samples after approximately 600 ELMs with energy density between 0.04–0.1 MJ m–2.

  17. Investigation of He-W interactions using DiMES on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerner, R. P.; Rudakov, D. L.; Chrobak, C. P.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Corr, C.; De Temmerman, G.; Kluth, P.; Lasnier, C. J.; McLean, A. G.; Pace, D. C.; Pitts, R. A.; Schmitz, O.; Thompson, M.; Winters, V.

    2016-02-01

    Tungsten button samples were exposed to He ELMing H-mode plasma in DIII-D using 2.3 MW of electron cyclotron heating power. Prior to the exposures, the W buttons were exposed to either He, or D, plasma in PISCES-A for 2000 s at surface temperatures of 225-850 °C to create a variety of surfaces (surface blisters, subsurface nano-bubbles, fuzz). Erosion was spectroscopically measured from each DiMES sample, with the exception of the fuzzy W samples which showed almost undetectable WI emission. Post-exposure grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering surface analysis showed the formation of 1.5 nm diameter He bubbles in the surface of W buttons after only a single DIII-D (3 s, ˜150 ELMs) discharge, similar to the bubble layer resulting from the 2000 s. exposure in PISCES-A. No surface roughening, or damage, was detected on the samples after approximately 600 ELMs with energy density between 0.04-0.1 MJ m-2.

  18. A High-Fidelity Solar System Model and High-Contrast Integral Field Spectrograph Prototype for Exoplanet Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, A. N.; McElwain, M. W.; Roberge, A.; Nesvold, E.; Stark, C. C.; Kuchner, M. J.; Robinson, T.; Meadows, V. S.; Straughn, A. N.; Turnbull, M. C.; Gong, Q.; Woodgate, B.; Brandt, T.; Staplefelt, K.; Heap, S.; Hilton, G.

    2014-03-01

    and spectral capabilities. To that end, we have begun fabrication of the Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES), a lenslet-based integral field spectrograph (IFS) that will have a resolution of R~70, a wavelength span of 0.65 µm to 0.9 µm, and used as a prototype IFS for mission concepts such as the AFTA-Coronagraph, the Probe Science and Technology (STDT) teams, and ATLAST. Upon completion in 2015, PISCES will be integrated into the High-Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at NASA JPL, where it will undergo simulations with the Haystacks models and also be available to the community for testing. We present the design of PISCES, its current status, and preliminary simulations specific to the PISCES parameters of how exoplanetary systems formulated with Haystacks would look to PISCES and what those results mean for detectability of exoEarths and potential biomarkers.

  19. THE EFFECT OF DIETARY WHEAT BRAN ON SUCROSE-INDUCED CHANGES OF SERUM GLUCOSE AND LIPIDS IN RATS.

    PubMed

    Numan Ahmad, Mousa; Rabah Takruri, Hamid

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: son conocidos los muchos beneficios del salvado de trigo para la salud, pero su glucosa y la actividad hipolipemiante aún sigue sin resolverse. Objetivos: investigar los efectos de cantidades variables de salvado de trigo en la alimentación sobre la glucosa en suero y los lípidos en ratas alimentadas con sacarosa. Métodos: se asignaron a ochenta ratas Sprague-Dawley macho cuatro dietas a base de sacarosa que contenían 0, 5, 10 o 20% de salvado de trigo (WB) dadas ad libitum a las ratas durante 4, 8, 12 o 16 semanas. Glucosa sérica, colesterol total (CT), colesterol de baja y alta densidad de lipoproteínas (LDL -C y HDL -C), los triglicéridos (TG), fosfolípidos (PL) y lípidos totales (TL) se cuantificaron al final de cada período de alimentación y otros parámetros biológicos se evaluaron. Resultados: en todos los períodos de alimentación, la ingesta de alimentos mostró una tendencia lineal ascendente (p < 0,05), mientras que el peso corporal no respondió a WB. En comparación con 0%, 10% o 20 inducida WB disminución (p < 0.05) en TC (16 semanas) y HDL-C (12 o 16 semanas), mientras que 5, 10 o 20% WB inducida disminución similar en PL (4 o 12 semanas), TL (todos los períodos) y glucosa (4 u 8 semanas). Este efecto de glucosa y lípidos bajar se justificó descendiendo respuestas lineales (p < 0.05) a WB. PL y TL descendente respuestas a WB se observaron en todos los períodos de alimentación. TG exhibió ningún cambio con WB, pero respondió linealmente (4 u 8 semanas). Las diferencias en la glucosa o lípidos variables de ratas alimentadas con dietas WB para todos los períodos de alimentación fueron menos evidentes. Conclusiones: los resultados sugieren que el salvado de trigo reduce la glucosa y los lípidos en suero, principalmente fosfolípidos, en ratas alimentadas con sacarosa en una interacción que puede tener implicaciones clínicas en condiciones cardiometabólicas.

  20. The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory's 25th Anniversary Expedition to the South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.; Wiltshire, J. C.; Malahoff, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL) was established by NOAA at the University of Hawaii 25 years ago as part of its National Undersea Research Program. HURL's mission is to study deep water marine processes in the Pacific Ocean through a competitive proposal and review process. The dual Pisces IV and Pisces V 2000-meter manned submersibles, an RCV-150 1000-meter ROV, and multibeam equipped support ship R/V Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa ( KoK) were largely acquired from the petroleum industry then adapted and upgraded to carry out cutting edge scientific expeditions. These studies range from active submarine volcanoes, delicate precious coral gardens, endangered marine mammal and fisheries management, to engineering surveys and deployment of observatory systems. HURL successfully completed a major 5-month expedition to the South Pacific during March-August 2005, working in the waters of New Zealand, Tonga, American Samoa, and the U.S. Line Islands covering a distance of nearly 14,500 nautical miles. This mission was significant in both the scientific merit and scope of operations, consisting of 8 different cruise legs at 21 study sites, with 12 chief and co-chief scientists, 58 total science team participants, and completing 61 out of 56 scheduled Pisces science dives, 17 ROV dives, 5 multibeam survey areas, 6 CTD rosette deployments, and 7 instrument mooring recoveries. The $3.5 million expedition was funded by an international partnership with New Zealand agencies (GNS & NIWA) and the University of Kiel in Germany along with the NOAA Office of Exploration and National Undersea Research Program. While most of the individual cruise legs focused on active submarine volcanoes of the Tonga-Kermadec Islands Arc and the Samoan hot spot chain with their hydrothermal systems and associated biological communities, others concentrated on marine protected areas including those of American Samoa and the remote atolls of the Line Islands of the Central Pacific. These studies

  1. Locating and Evaluating Sea-Disposed Munitions--Examples from the Hawaii Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, M.; Wilkens, R. H.; Kelley, C.; de Carlo, E. H.; MacDonald, K.; Garcia, S.; Vanwoerkom, M.; Payne, Z.; Dupra, V.; Rosete, M.; Cox, M.; Fineran, S.; King, J. C.; Carton, G.

    2009-12-01

    The Army, under its Environmental Quality Technology (EQT) Program funded the HUMMA Project to assess the location of, and potential risk to human health posed by, sea disposed munitions (discarded military munitions (DMM)) at a study site south of Pearl Harbor, Hawai‘i known as HI-05. These conventional and chemical munitions are believed to have been exposed to undersea biochemical and mechanical erosion since the late 1940’s. To locate <2-meter long DMM at depths of 300-600 meters, we used a series of nested surveys beginning with an IMI-120 sidescan sonar survey of HI-05. From backscatter data gridded into 0.5-2m cells, we identified trails of highly reflective targets as candidate study sites. We initially surveyed these sites using a towed video camera. Subsequently, during a 12-day program aboard the R/V Kaimikai-o-Kanaloa, we surveyed selected targets using PISCES submersibles and an RCV-150 remotely operated vehicle operated by the Hawaii Undersea Research Lab. Every trail of reflective targets identified in the IMI-120 data was subsequently shown to contain DMM of various types. In combination with completing optical surveys to augment the IMI-120 acoustic data, the PISCES submersibles collected 96 sediment and 24 water samples within 1 and 2 meters of high-interest DMM as well as comparative background sites. The Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center supported dive operations to ensure crew personnel were not exposed to chemical agents (CA) and processed samples on board to determine if CA was present. The processed samples were then packaged and shipped to various shore-based laboratories to determine the presence of energetics and metals. Upon completion of the diving program, various species of locally consumed snapper and shrimp were collected near several of the sediment and water sample sites for analogous laboratory analyses. Our approach proved to be highly successful, identifying in a 5-day long IMI-120 survey the location of dozens of

  2. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the Trypanorhyncha Diesing, 1863 (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda).

    PubMed

    Palm, Harry W; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Olson, Peter D; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2009-08-01

    Complete ssrDNA and partial lsrDNA (D1-D3) of 31 species, mainly from the Indo-Pacific region, were sequenced and added to 66 species of the marine cestode order Trypanorhyncha; thus 35% of the 277 known species were sampled. The resulting phylogenetic tree resolved two major clades that represent trypanorhynchs originally parasitizing rajiform (skate and ray) or galeoform hosts. The tree topology supports an earlier classification based on morphology that splits the order into the superfamily Eutetrarhynchoidea together with the Tentacularioidea, and the Gymnorhynchoidea together with the Lacistorhynchoidea and Otobothrioidea. Three of the five recognized superfamilies are monophyletic (Tentacularioidea, Gymnorhynchoidea, Otobothrioidea). Nodal support for the Eutetrarhynchidae and Lacistorhynchidae was poor and resulted in paraphyletic clades. Mapping of morphological characters showed the tentacular armature of the scolex to be highly variable within clades, demonstrating that armature patterns used traditionally in classification, are homoplasious. Similarly, the tetrabothriate scolex, currently utilized as a family-distinguishing character in traditional classifications, has developed independently in multiple groups. Synapomorphies for the higher taxa are detailed. Sequence data from duplicate taxa confirmed interoceanic distribution patterns and low intraspecific genetic divergence and host specificity for nine trypanorhynch species belonging to five families and four superfamilies. Four distinct lineages of trypanorhynchs can be recognized with one mainly infecting rajiform hosts whereas the others infecting both, sharks and rays. Eutetrarhynchoids and tentacularioids have secondarily invaded shark hosts whilst utilising the marine food web involving teleost fishes as intermediate hosts. Three cases of host switching from sharks to rays can be inferred within the lacistorhynchoids, in one case caused by a switch from perciform to gadiform intermediate hosts

  3. A continuum of life histories in deep-sea demersal fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Haedrich, Richard L.

    2012-03-01

    It is generally perceived that all deep-sea fishes have great longevity, slow growth, and low reproductive output in comparison to shelf dwelling species. However, such a dichotomy is too simplistic because some fishes living on continental slopes are relatively fecund and fast growing, important considerations in respect to the management of expanding deep-sea fisheries. We tested two hypotheses that might explain variation in life history attributes of commercially exploited demersal fishes: (1) phylogeny best explains the differences because deep-sea species are often in different families from shelf dwelling ones and, alternatively, (2) environmental factors affecting individual life history attributes that change with depth account for the observed variation. Our analysis was based on 40 species from 9 orders, including all major commercially exploited deep-sea fishes and several phylogenetically related shelf species. Depth of occurrence correlated significantly with age at 50% maturity increasing linearly with depth (r2=0.46), while the von Bertalanffy growth coefficient, maximum fecundity and potential rate of population increase declined significantly and exponentially with depth (r2=0.41, 0.25 and 0.53, respectively). These trends were still significant when phylogenetically independent contrasts were applied. The trends were also consistent with similar slopes amongst members of the order Gadiformes and the order Scorpaeniformes. Reduced temperatures, predation pressure, food availability, or metabolic rates may all contribute to such changes with depth. Regardless of the mechanisms, by analyzing a suite of fishes from the shelves to the slope the present analysis has shown that rather than a simple dichotomy between deep-sea fishes and shelf fishes there is a continuum of life history attributes in fishes which correlate strongly with depth of occurrence.

  4. X-Cells Are Globally Distributed, Genetically Divergent Fish Parasites Related to Perkinsids and Dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Mark A; Fuss, Janina; Kristmundsson, Árni; Bjorbækmo, Marit F M; Mangot, Jean-François; Del Campo, Javier; Keeling, Patrick J; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Bass, David

    2017-06-05

    "X-cells" have long been associated with tumor-like formations (xenomas) in marine fish, including many of commercial interest. The name was first used to refer to the large polygonal cells that were found in epidermal xenomas from flatfish from the Pacific Northwest [1]. Similar looking cells from pseudobranchial xenomas had previously been reported from cod in the Atlantic [2] and Pacific Oceans [3]. X-cell pathologies have been reported from five teleost orders: Pleuronectiformes (flatfish), Perciformes (perch-like fish), Gadiformes (cods), Siluriformes (catfish), and Salmoniformes (salmonids). Various explanations have been elicited for their etiology, including being adenomas or adenocarcinomas [4, 5], virally transformed fish cells [6-8], or products of coastal pollution [9, 10]. It was hypothesized that X-cells were protozoan parasites [1, 11-13], and although recent molecular analyses have confirmed this, they have failed to place them in any phylum [14-18], demonstrating weak phylogenetic associations with the haplosporidians [16] or the alveolates [15]. Here, we sequenced rRNA genes from European and Japanese fish that are known to develop X-cell xenomas. We also generated a metagenomic sequence library from X-cell xenomas of blue whiting and Atlantic cod and assembled 63 X-cell protein-coding genes for a eukaryote-wide phylogenomic analysis. We show that X-cells group in two highly divergent clades, robustly sister to the bivalve parasite Perkinsus. We formally describe these as Gadixcellia and Xcellia and provide a phylogenetic context to catalyze future research. We also screened Atlantic cod populations for xenomas and residual pathologies and show that X-cell infections are more prevalent and widespread than previously known. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phylogenetic Diversity and Cosymbiosis in the Bioluminescent Symbioses of “Photobacterium mandapamensis”▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kaeding, Allison J.; Ast, Jennifer C.; Pearce, Meghan M.; Urbanczyk, Henryk; Kimura, Seishi; Endo, Hiromitsu; Nakamura, Masaru; Dunlap, Paul V.

    2007-01-01

    “Photobacterium mandapamensis” (proposed name) and Photobacterium leiognathi are closely related, phenotypically similar marine bacteria that form bioluminescent symbioses with marine animals. Despite their similarity, however, these bacteria can be distinguished phylogenetically by sequence divergence of their luminescence genes, luxCDAB(F)E, by the presence (P. mandapamensis) or the absence (P. leiognathi) of luxF and, as shown here, by the sequence divergence of genes involved in the synthesis of riboflavin, ribBHA. To gain insight into the possibility that P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi are ecologically distinct, we used these phylogenetic criteria to determine the incidence of P. mandapamensis as a bioluminescent symbiont of marine animals. Five fish species, Acropoma japonicum (Perciformes, Acropomatidae), Photopectoralis panayensis and Photopectoralis bindus (Perciformes, Leiognathidae), Siphamia versicolor (Perciformes, Apogonidae), and Gadella jordani (Gadiformes, Moridae), were found to harbor P. mandapamensis in their light organs. Specimens of A. japonicus, P. panayensis, and P. bindus harbored P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi together as cosymbionts of the same light organ. Regardless of cosymbiosis, P. mandapamensis was the predominant symbiont of A. japonicum, and it was the apparently exclusive symbiont of S. versicolor and G. jordani. In contrast, P. leiognathi was found to be the predominant symbiont of P. panayensis and P. bindus, and it appears to be the exclusive symbiont of other leiognathid fishes and a loliginid squid. A phylogenetic test for cospeciation revealed no evidence of codivergence between P. mandapamensis and its host fishes, indicating that coevolution apparently is not the basis for this bacterium's host preferences. These results, which are the first report of bacterial cosymbiosis in fish light organs and the first demonstration that P. leiognathi is not the exclusive light organ symbiont of leiognathid fishes

  6. Phylogenetic diversity and cosymbiosis in the bioluminescent symbioses of "Photobacterium mandapamensis".

    PubMed

    Kaeding, Allison J; Ast, Jennifer C; Pearce, Meghan M; Urbanczyk, Henryk; Kimura, Seishi; Endo, Hiromitsu; Nakamura, Masaru; Dunlap, Paul V

    2007-05-01

    "Photobacterium mandapamensis" (proposed name) and Photobacterium leiognathi are closely related, phenotypically similar marine bacteria that form bioluminescent symbioses with marine animals. Despite their similarity, however, these bacteria can be distinguished phylogenetically by sequence divergence of their luminescence genes, luxCDAB(F)E, by the presence (P. mandapamensis) or the absence (P. leiognathi) of luxF and, as shown here, by the sequence divergence of genes involved in the synthesis of riboflavin, ribBHA. To gain insight into the possibility that P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi are ecologically distinct, we used these phylogenetic criteria to determine the incidence of P. mandapamensis as a bioluminescent symbiont of marine animals. Five fish species, Acropoma japonicum (Perciformes, Acropomatidae), Photopectoralis panayensis and Photopectoralis bindus (Perciformes, Leiognathidae), Siphamia versicolor (Perciformes, Apogonidae), and Gadella jordani (Gadiformes, Moridae), were found to harbor P. mandapamensis in their light organs. Specimens of A. japonicus, P. panayensis, and P. bindus harbored P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi together as cosymbionts of the same light organ. Regardless of cosymbiosis, P. mandapamensis was the predominant symbiont of A. japonicum, and it was the apparently exclusive symbiont of S. versicolor and G. jordani. In contrast, P. leiognathi was found to be the predominant symbiont of P. panayensis and P. bindus, and it appears to be the exclusive symbiont of other leiognathid fishes and a loliginid squid. A phylogenetic test for cospeciation revealed no evidence of codivergence between P. mandapamensis and its host fishes, indicating that coevolution apparently is not the basis for this bacterium's host preferences. These results, which are the first report of bacterial cosymbiosis in fish light organs and the first demonstration that P. leiognathi is not the exclusive light organ symbiont of leiognathid fishes

  7. Morphometric and molecular characterisation of specimens of Lepidapedon Stafford, 1904 (Digenea: Lepidapedidae) from the deep-sea fish Mora moro (Risso) (Teleostei: Moridae) in the western Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Dallarés, Sara; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Carrassón, Maite; Gibson, David I; Pérez-del-Olmo, Ana

    2013-07-01

    In a study of the parasites of the deep-sea fish Mora moro (Risso) (Gadiformes: Moridae) off the Mediterranean coasts of Catalonia and the Balearic Islands (Spain), we were able to distinguish two morphs of specimens belonging to Lepidapedon Stafford, 1904 (Digenea: Lepidapedidae). This material is herein described and illustrated. Comparative sequence analyses using partial mitochondrial nad1 sequences revealed that the material assigned to one of these morphs can be considered conspecific with the material identified as Lepidapedon desclersae Bray & Gibson, 1995 from the same host. However, the published nad1 sequence for L. desclersae was generated from a specimen ex M. moro from the North East Atlantic. Examination of the voucher specimens associated with this sequence revealed that both the North East Atlantic and the Mediterranean specimens ex M. moro differ from L. desclersae as described from its type-host, Lepidion eques (Günther), in the anterior extent of the vitelline fields which is further posterior, reaching only to the posterior margin of the external seminal vesicle in L. desclersae, versus being at the mid-level of this organ and reaching the posterior margin of the ventral sucker. Therefore, we have tentatively assigned the material characterised here, both morphologically and molecularly as Lepidapedon sp. Acquisition of additional sequences for both nad1 mitochondrial and 28S rRNA genes of L. desclersae from material ex Lepidion spp. is required in order to determine whether the observed morphometric variation reflects host-related or inter-specific differences. The second morph of Lepidapedon from M. moro is described and distinguished on morphometric grounds, such as the position of the most anterior vitelline follicles, which reach to the anterior margin of the ventral sucker. Its identity is commented upon, but, in view of the fact that there were few specimens and no molecular data available, it is not named.

  8. Fish Ecology and Evolution in the World's Oxygen Minimum Zones and Implications of a Warming Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, N.; Navarro, E. C.; Yazzie, A. T.; Barry, J. P.; Levin, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Predicting how demersal fish communities will respond as hypoxic areas expand with climate change requires an understanding of how existing oxygen gradients influence the abundance, diversity, and trophic ecology of demersal fish communities. A literature review of studies from continental margins with oxygen minimum zones in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean, is combined with new data from research cruises to the Gulf of California and the US West Coast, to examine how hypoxic areas influence the structure and function of demersal fish communities. Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are deep-sea environments where organisms experience chronic hypoxic and suboxic conditions and have persisted over much longer timescales than coastal eutrophication-induced hypoxic zones, allowing for the evolution of adaptations to low oxygen conditions. While coastal studies have found that fish are one of the most hypoxia-intolerant groups, representative demersal fish species in the orders Cottiformes, Scorpaeniformes, Pleuronectiformes, Gobiiformes, Perciformes, Lophiiformes, Carcharhiniformes, Ophidiiformes, Myxiniformes, and Gadiformes have evolved to exploit physiologically extreme OMZ environments and are important components of the benthic community. In OMZs, certain fish species are some of the most hypoxia-tolerant members of the megafauna community, present even under extremely low oxygen conditions (< 5 µmol/kg) where most invertebrates are absent, though these communities are typically characterized by single-species dominance. To explore differences in the trophic ecology of these "hypoxia-tolerant" fish communities, stable isotope and gut content analysis are used to compare the Southern California Bight OMZ core fish community to the hypoxia-intolerant upper slope fish community. Results show that fish living in the OMZ core have significantly enriched δ13C and δ15N signatures and feed on different prey items.

  9. Description of plerocerci and adults of a new species of Grillotia (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha) in teleosts and elasmobranchs from the Patagonian shelf off Argentina.

    PubMed

    Menoret, Adriana; Ivanov, Verónica A

    2012-12-01

    A new species of Grillotia was found from teleosts and elasmobranchs along the Patagonian shelf off Argentina. Grillotia patagonica n. sp. is described from plerocerci recovered from gadiform (Moridae) and perciform fish (Cheilodactylidae, Bovichtidae, and Nototheniidae) and adults from the smallthorn sand skate Psammobatis rudis (Rajiformes, Rajidae). Grillotia patagonica most closely resembles species in the Grillotia erinaceus species complex (viz., Grillotia borealis, Grillotia brayi, Grillotia dollfusi, G. erinaceus, and Grillotia musculara) in having 4 hooks per principal row and 2 or more intercalary rows in the metabasal region, a band of hooks on the external surface of the tentacle, numerous proglottids, a hermaphroditic sac, internal and external seminal vesicles, uterine pore, and attachment of the retractor muscle in the mid region of the tentacular bulb. Grillotia patagonica n. sp. is unique among all valid species in the genus by having the hooks on the first row reduced and of a different shape from the rest of the metabasal rows. Despite the diversity of elasmobranchs that are available as definitive hosts for species in Grillotia, most species (10/14) are oioxenous or mesostenoxenous. The specificity for the last intermediate host is variable among species of Grillotia, with most plerocerci being oioxenous (5/15) or euryxenous (8/15). Host specificity is higher for the adult stage in the definitive host (mean HS(S) = 4.07) than for the plerocerci (mean HS(S) = 7.30). All the species with oioxenous specificity (either larvae or adults) have limited geographic distributions. Some previous records of species of Grillotia from fishes caught off Argentina require reconsideration, i.e., G. erinaceus, Grillotia minuta (reported as Grillotia bothridiopunctata) and G. borealis . An updated host-parasite checklist for the valid species of Grillotia is also presented along with new host records for Grillotia carvajalregorum.

  10. Density-dependent changes in effective area occupied for sea-bottom-associated marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Thorson, James T; Rindorf, Anna; Gao, Jin; Hanselman, Dana H; Winker, Henning

    2016-10-12

    The spatial distribution of marine fishes can change for many reasons, including density-dependent distributional shifts. Previous studies show mixed support for either the proportional-density model (PDM; no relationship between abundance and area occupied, supported by ideal-free distribution theory) or the basin model (BM; positive abundance-area relationship, supported by density-dependent habitat selection theory). The BM implies that fishes move towards preferred habitat as the population declines. We estimate the average relationship using bottom trawl data for 92 fish species from six marine regions, to determine whether the BM or PDM provides a better description for sea-bottom-associated fishes. We fit a spatio-temporal model and estimate changes in effective area occupied and abundance, and combine results to estimate the average abundance-area relationship as well as variability among taxa and regions. The average relationship is weak but significant (0.6% increase in area for a 10% increase in abundance), whereas only a small proportion of species-region combinations show a negative relationship (i.e. shrinking area when abundance increases). Approximately one-third of combinations (34.6%) are predicted to increase in area more than 1% for every 10% increase in abundance. We therefore infer that population density generally changes faster than effective area occupied during abundance changes. Gadiformes have the strongest estimated relationship (average 1.0% area increase for every 10% abundance increase) followed by Pleuronectiformes and Scorpaeniformes, and the Eastern Bering Sea shows a strong relationship between abundance and area occupied relative to other regions. We conclude that the BM explains a small but important portion of spatial dynamics for sea-bottom-associated fishes, and that many individual populations merit cautious management during population declines, because a compressed range may increase the efficiency of harvest.

  11. Variation and temporal patterns in the composition of the surface ichthyoplankton in the southern Bay of Biscay (W. Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Elbée, Jean; Castège, Iker; Hémery, Georges; Lalanne, Yann; Mouchès, Claude; Pautrizel, Françoise; D'Amico, Frank

    2009-05-01

    From September 2000 to December 2006, surface plankton samples were collected on a monthly basis, from a station located in the southern Bay of Biscay (43°37N; 1°43W France), near the deep Capbreton canyon. In this paper, the results for the ichthyoplankton assemblage are presented. Among the 62 taxa recorded, only 35 were present in the larval stage whilst only 10 were represented by their eggs. Taxa represented by both stages (eggs+larvae; N=17) had the highest abundance. The presence in the surface plankton assemblage of species, at either or both stage, is interpreted within the context of the bathymetric distribution of species. The maxima in abundance and diversity occurred in February-March, for eggs, and May-June, for larvae. This 3-month time-lag between the stages is proposed to be related to the timing of egg spawning and larval recruitment to the pelagic environment. Mean egg abundances (82.4±29.8 eggs/10 m 2) were 10-fold higher than the larval abundances (7.1±1.8 larvae/10 m 2). Despite pronounced monthly variability, no statistically significant decrease in either egg or larvae abundance was observed during this 6-year study period. Compared with previous published studies, this study shows that the peak in ichthyoplankton diversity occurred two months earlier. In addition, the spawning period occurred over the whole year, even during autumn and winter. Using ordination techniques, the annual sequence appearance of taxa are described at the study site: Gadiforms, Ammodytidae and Pleuronectiforms were present during the winter whilst Sparidae, Blennidae, Labridae and Gobiidae, formed the summer group. Only three species, European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, European pilchard Sardina pilchardus and Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus were recorded throughout the year.

  12. The C. U. Ariëns Kappers brain collection.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Michel A; Johnson, John I

    2011-05-01

    The C. U. Ariëns Kappers brain collection, at the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience in Amsterdam, is one of the largest and oldest of the world's catalogued repositories of specimens that reveal the course of brain evolution and the resulting panoply of neural biodiversity. Established a century ago, it has served since then as the basis of the encyclopedic texts authored by its founder, as well as research publications into the current time. It consists of 726 specimens: these include 309 mammals, 134 birds, 81 reptiles, 21 amphibians, and 179 "pisces"--a grouping of bony fish, sharks, and cyclostomes. We present here accounts of the history and contents of this treasure trove of research materials. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Environmental Impact Research Program. Ecological Effects of Rubble Weir Jetty Construction at Murrells Inlet, South Carolina. Volume 3. Community Structure and Habitat Utilization of Fishes and Decapods Associated with the Jetties.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    ocllatue 33.3 22.2 42.2 il 33.3 33.3 15.9 ___ tu! -Ti 33.3 22.2 29.2 Total Docapade 33.3 12.5 4.2 100.0 5.6 95.4 Chordata Fine" unidentifid 66.7 75.0 14.6...N V F N V Crustoea D"corods, Osyride aulpbheroetria 100.0 50.0 23.1 Chordata Pisces Leiostus zouthurus 100.0 50.0 76.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 Umber of...Zanthidae undetermined 100.0 12.5 10.8 ] 8tyozoa uNmbraipore arborescens 16.7 0.2 (0.1 bchinodermata Ophiuroidea undetermined 100.0 12.5 0.6 Chordata

  14. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Confiscated Telmatobius in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Zevallos, Samanta; Elías, Roberto K; Berenguel, Raúl A; Weaver, Thomas J; Reading, Richard P

    2016-10-01

    The Peruvian Andes are the home of 27 species of frogs of the genus Telmatobius, many of which are critically endangered. Illegal trade of adult frogs for purported medical properties likely represents the major threat facing these species. This activity, besides reducing their populations, may contribute to the dissemination of the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes chytridiomycosis, a disease posing a threat to many populations of amphibians. We screened frogs confiscated by the Administration of Forestry and Wildlife in Lima, Peru, for Bd. We used real-time PCR to diagnose Bd at the Laboratory of Wildlife, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnics, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, in Lima and Pisces Molecular Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, US. Of 62 samples collected during this study, 60% (37) were PCR positive for Bd, confirming that illegal trade of amphibians can pose a risk for disseminating Bd.

  15. IRAS galaxies versus POTENT mass - Density fields, biasing, and Omega

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekel, Avishai; Bertschinger, Edmund; Yahil, Amos; Strauss, Michael A.; Davis, Marc; Huchra, John P.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison of the galaxy density field extracted from a complete redshift survey of IRAS galaxies brighter than 1.936 Jy with the mass-density field reconstructed by the POTENT procedure from the observed peculiar velocities of 493 objects is presented. A strong correlation is found between the galaxy and mass-density fields; both feature the Great Attractor, part of the Perseus-Pisces supercluster, and the large void between them. Monte Carlo noise simulations show that the data are consistent with the hypotheses that the smoothed fluctuations of galaxy and mass densities at each point are proportional to each other with the 'biasing' factor of IRAS galaxies, b(I), and that the peculiar velocity field is related to the mass-density field as expected according to the gravitational instability theory. Under these hypotheses, the two density fields can be related by specifying b(I) and the cosmological density parameter, Omega.

  16. Flight Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) Optical Design for WFIRST Coronagraphic Exoplanet Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Qian; Groff, Tyler D.; Zimmerman, Neil; Mandell, Avi; McElwain, Michael; Rizzo, Maxime; Saxena, Prabal

    2017-01-01

    Based on the experience from Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) for WFIRST, we have moved to the flight instrument design phase. The specifications for flight IFS have similarities and differences from the prototype. This paper starts with the science and system requirement, discusses a number of critical trade-offs: such as IFS type selection, lenslet array shape and layout versus detector pixel accuracy, how to accommodate the larger Field Of View (FOV) and wider wavelength band for a potential add-on StarShade occulter. Finally, the traditional geometric optical design is also investigated and traded: reflective versus refractive, telecentric versus non-telecentric relay. The relay before the lenslet array controls the chief angle distribution on the lenslet array. Our previous paper has addressed how the relay design combined with lenslet arraypinhole mask can further compress the residual star light and increase the contrast. Finally, a complete phase A IFS optical design is presented.

  17. Studies on the oil spillage near shorline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voicu, I.; Dumitrescu, L. G.; Panaitescu, V. F.; Panaitescu, M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a simulation of an oil spillage near shoreline in real conditions. The purpose of the paper is to determine the evolution of oil spill on sea water surface and in the same time to determine the total costs of depolluting operations organized by the authorities. The simulation is made on the PISCES II Simulator (Potential Incident Simulator Control and Evaluation System) which is designed to handle on real situations such as oil pollutions of the sea. The mathematical model used by the simulator is the dispersion oil-water model, taking account all external conditions such as air/sea water temperature, current/wind speed and direction, sea water density, petroleum physical properties. In the conclusions chapter is presented oil spill details with a financial report for total costs of depolluting operation.

  18. A Meta-Protocol Architecture for Connecting Computer Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    meta-protocol architecture. 070 END NOTES CHAPTER 1 [1] GROE86, p. 288 [2] STAL84, p. 215 [3] WITT86, p. 3 [4] ROBE7O, p. 543 [5] PISC86, pp. 120-121...p. 185 [29] CALL83, p. 1389 71 END NOTES CHAPTER 2 [11 GEESO, p. 14 [21 SUNS81, p. 345 ’ [3] GROE86, p. 289 [4] SUNS8O, p. 147 [5] SCHN83, p. 17 [6... END NOTES CHAPTER 3 [1] TANE81, p. 325 [2] STAL85B, p. 101 [3] SUNS78, p. 442 [4] M1L83, p. 14 [5] M1L83, p. 81 [61 1S087, p. 19 [7] STAL84, p. 202

  19. Modeling of hydrocarbon fueling

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T. ); Pospieszczyk, A. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik)

    1990-07-01

    We have compared a database of rate coefficients for CH{sub 4} with experiments on PISCES-A to understand the role of carbon-based impurities in determining the fueling profile of carbon-dominated machines. A three-dimensional Monte Carlo model that embodies the Ehrhardt-Langer CH{sub 4} breakup scheme has been developed. The model has been compared with spectroscopic observations of the spatial variation of the hydrocarbon product decay rates, and reasonable agreement has been found. The comparison is sensitive to the non-Maxwellian electron distribution and to observed spatial inhomogeneities in the electron density and temperature profiles. Applications of the model to parameters characteristic of the tokamak scrape-off layer are presented.

  20. The Key Role of Epigenetics in the Persistence of Asexual Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Castonguay, Emilie; Angers, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Asexual organisms, often perceived as evolutionary dead ends, can be long-lived and geographically widespread. We propose that epigenetic mechanisms could play a crucial role in the evolutionary persistence of these lineages. Genetically identical organisms could rely on phenotypic plasticity to face environmental variation. Epigenetic modifications could be the molecular mechanism enabling such phenotypic plasticity; they can be influenced by the environment and act at shorter timescales than mutation. Recent work on the asexual vertebrate Chrosomus eos-neogaeus (Pisces: Cyprinidae) provides broad insights into the contribution of epigenetics in genetically identical individuals. We discuss the extension of these results to other asexual organisms, in particular those resulting from interspecific hybridizations. We finally develop on the evolutionary relevance of epigenetic variation in the context of heritability. PMID:22567390

  1. How the first stars shaped the faintest gas-dominated dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeke, Robbert; Vandenbroucke, Bert; de Rijcke, Sven

    2016-08-01

    Cosmological simulations predict that dark matter halos with circular velocities lower than 30 km/s should have lost most of their neutral gas by heating of the ultra-violet background. This is in stark contrast with gas-rich galaxies such as e.g. Leo T, Leo P and Pisces A, which all have circular velocities of ~15 km/s (Ryan-Weber et al. 2008, Bernstein-Cooper et al. 2014, Tollerud et al. 2015). We show that when we include feedback from the first stars into our models, simulated dwarfs have very different properties at redshift 0 than when this form of feedback is not included. Including this Population-III feedback leads to galaxies that lie on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation over the entire mass range of star forming dwarf galaxies, as well as reproducing a broad range of other observational properties.

  2. Spectroscopic characterization and imaging of laser- and unipolar arc-induced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Aussems, Damien U. B.; Nishijima, Daisuke; Brandt, Christian; Doerner, Russell P.; Cardozo, Niek J. Lopes

    2014-08-14

    Tungsten plasmas induced by unipolar arcs were investigated using optical emission spectroscopy and imaging, and compared with laser-induced tungsten plasmas. The unipolar arcs were initiated in the linear-plasma simulator PISCES-A at UCSD under fusion relevant conditions. The electron temperature and density of the unipolar arc plasmas were in the range 0.5–0.7 eV and 0.7–2.0 × 10{sup 20 }m{sup −3}, respectively, and increased with increasing negative bias voltage, but did not correlate with the surface temperature. In comparison, the electron temperature and density of the laser-induced plasmas were in the range 0.6–1.4 eV and 7 × 10{sup 19}–1 × 10{sup 22 }m{sup −3}, respectively.

  3. Redescriptions of Polysteganus coeruleopunctatus (Klunzinger 1870) and P. lineopunctatus (Boulenger 1903), with two new species from Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Yukio; Heemstra, Phillip C

    2015-12-21

    Five valid species in the genus Polysteganus (Pisces; Sparidae) from the Western Indian Ocean are currently known: P. baissaci Smith 1978, P. coeruleopunctatus (Klunzinger 1870), P. mascarenensis Iwatsuki & Heemstra, 2011, P. praeorbitalis (Günther 1859), and P. undulosus (Regan 1908). Although P. lineopunctatus (Boulenger 1903) has long been synonymized under P. coeruleopunctatus, both species are redescribed as valid. Two new species of Polysteganus were discovered in the course of this review. Polysteganus flavodorsalis n. sp. is described on the basis of six type specimens (143-265 mm SL) from Nazareth Bank, Mascarene Plateau, Indian Ocean, and P. cerasinus n. sp. is described based on the holotype (134 mm SL) from Saya de Malha Bank. Provisional distribution patterns of the eight valid species of Polysteganus in the Western Indian Ocean are discussed. A key to the species of Polysteganus is provided.

  4. Optimal, real-time control--colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.E.

    1991-05-01

    With reasonable definitions, optimal control is possible for both classical and quantal systems with new approaches called PISC(Parallel) and NISC(Neural) from analogy with RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing). If control equals interaction, observation and comparison to some figure of merit with interaction via external fields, then optimization comes from varying these fields to give design or operating goals. Structural stability can then give us tolerance and design constraints. But simulations use simplified models, are not in real-time and assume fixed or stationary conditions, so optimal control goes far beyond convergence rates of algorithms. It is inseparable from design and this has many implications for colliders. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Erosion of beryllium under high-flux plasma impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerner, R. P.; Björkas, C.; Nishijima, D.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.

    2013-07-01

    Be sputtering yields, measured by weight loss, in PISCES-B are a factor of 5-10 less than that predicted by binary collision approximations. Measurements show the BeO surface is removed early in the plasma bombardment. Modeling of molecular ions (D2+ and D3+) species and redeposition cannot explain the difference. Surface morphology that evolves during the exposure reduces the sputtering yield by a factor of 2-3. Plasma fuel atoms retained in the surface decrease the sputtering yield compared to calculations of a pure Be surface. These effects may explain the measured erosion rates in the absence of Be impurities within the plasma. By introducing Be impurity ions into the plasma, it is possible to simulate a controllable amount of redeposition. The weight loss from eroding Be targets, with Be seeding, is unchanged until the concentration of Be ions in the plasma greatly exceeds the sputtering yield in the non-beryllium seeded exposure.

  6. Word Frequency Analysis MOS: 41C Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    PLU"$ IPL ;APOINT I PIIETER 1 POOP PVSITIJ, PUSITIONEO I POST . I POTENTIOMETER 4,~, PISC1SIUN Pi pR?10 11 PRISM I PI’(;JE( T*,f PPllPFR iPIJPLICA...CHIAPTER - -.- - --.--- A ACH. 11 ELRr’, 11 GUNFNROS It ITE it PRISM IL SUPP.1PT It THAT it THfItI 10 ACCESS 1) OUT Inl CIACLC .- if) FOLLCMING to- 10...IITRUPTER I INT’l ; LlAll I LEVEL ING 2 LIFT 2 L IGHT% Z LlfJ 5 % 7 1’AJJR 2 tit - SFR IES 2 MULTIMETEP .1 -lJ ;l A11 03/A 10 4 1 - 2 M!Il .2 wiIl - 2

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the largest living fish: whale shark Rhincodon typus (Orectolobiformes: Rhincodontidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Ai, Weiming; Pan, Lianghao; Shi, Xiaofang

    2016-01-01

    The whale shark Rhincodon typus (Pisces: Chondrichthyes, Orectolobiformes, Rhincodontidae) is the largest living fish on Earth. In this study, we presented its complete mitogenome. It is 16,928 bp in length, contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and one control region with the typical gene order and transcriptional direction in the vertebrates. Overall base composition of the R. typus mitogenome is 33.5% A, 24.3% C, 12.8% G and 29.5% T. Two start codon (GTG and ATG) and two stop codon patterns (TAG and TAA/T) were found in protein-coding genes. The tRNA-Ser2 could not be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure because of the replacement of its dihydrouridine arm by a simple loop. A termination associated sequences (TAS) and three conserved sequence blocks (CSB1-3) were identified in the control region.

  8. Transport of Aluminum impurities in Helium Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajjar, Rima; Hollmann, Eric; Krasheninnikov, Sergei; Doerner, Russell

    2013-10-01

    Impurity radiation losses at the edge of fusion devices are crucial for establishing detached divertor regimes in ITER and future tokamak reactors, despite the problem they cause in reducing plasma efficiency. Complex parallel and cross-field impurity transport suggest a rather fluid description when treating edge dynamics, leading somehow to marginal simulation results of the impurity transport problem. A kinetic description accounting for impurity/plasma collisions should be used instead, generating more details on the collision dynamics, while the relatively high mass difference between colliding particles leads to major simplifications in the physics of the problem. Modeling of Aluminum injection and entrainment into steady-state Helium plasma is presented. Multiple ionization and radial losses are included and numerical results are then compared to experimental data obtained from PISCES machine. Work was supported in part by the DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER54739 at UCSD.

  9. Morphological and molecular identification of the fish-borne metacercaria of Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa Ransom, 1920 in Mugil liza from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martorelli, S R; Lino, A; Marcotegui, P; Montes, M M; Alda, P; Panei, C J

    2012-12-21

    This is the first report of Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa Ransom, 1920 (Digenea: Heterophyidae) in Argentina confirmed by morphological and molecular studies. The metacercaria was found encysted in myotomal musculature, heart and mesentery of the mullet Mugil liza (Pisces: Mugilidae) from Samborombon bay. We provide a morphological description of the metacercaria which we identified using species-specific primers for A. (Phagicola) longa and nucleotid sequence. This worldwide parasite has been reported as one of the causative agents of heterophyiosis, an emerging fish-borne disease of humans, contracted by the consumption of raw mullet. The discovery of A. (Phagicola) longa in Argentina represents a warning of the potentially great impact of this parasite on public health.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of Mediterranean Mugilids by allozymes and 16S mt-rRNA genes investigation: are the Mediterranean species of Liza monophyletic?

    PubMed

    Rossi, Anna Rita; Ungaro, Andrea; De Innocentiis, Sabina; Crosetti, Donatella; Sola, Luciana

    2004-10-01

    The family Mugilidae (Pisces, Mugiliformes) includes species which are present in all tropical and temperate regions. Six species, Chelon labrosus, Mugil cephalus, Liza aurata, L. ramada, L. saliens, Oedalechilus labeo, are commonly found in the Mediterranean. These species have been widely studied through morphological, biochemical, and molecular markers. However, their phylogenetic relationships, and therefore the assumed monophyly of Liza species, still remain unclear: To further investigate this topic, gene-enzyme systems and sequences of the partial 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene were analyzed in Italian samples of all six Mediterranean species. The phylogenetic reconstructions indicated M. cephalus as being the most divergent species and the existence of a main cluster including all the Mediterranean species of Liza and C. labrosus. The parametric bootstrap approach adopted to test alternative phylogenetic hypotheses indicated that the Mediterranean species of Liza do not form a monophyletic group exclusive of Chelon.

  11. IRAS galaxies versus POTENT mass - Density fields, biasing, and Omega

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekel, Avishai; Bertschinger, Edmund; Yahil, Amos; Strauss, Michael A.; Davis, Marc; Huchra, John P.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison of the galaxy density field extracted from a complete redshift survey of IRAS galaxies brighter than 1.936 Jy with the mass-density field reconstructed by the POTENT procedure from the observed peculiar velocities of 493 objects is presented. A strong correlation is found between the galaxy and mass-density fields; both feature the Great Attractor, part of the Perseus-Pisces supercluster, and the large void between them. Monte Carlo noise simulations show that the data are consistent with the hypotheses that the smoothed fluctuations of galaxy and mass densities at each point are proportional to each other with the 'biasing' factor of IRAS galaxies, b(I), and that the peculiar velocity field is related to the mass-density field as expected according to the gravitational instability theory. Under these hypotheses, the two density fields can be related by specifying b(I) and the cosmological density parameter, Omega.

  12. Data on sediment quality and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls from the Lower Neponset River, Massachusetts, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Cooke, Matthew G.; Merrill, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Department of Fish and Game Riverways Program, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, studied sediment and water quality in the lower Neponset River, which is a tributary to Boston Harbor. Grab and core samples of sediment were tested for elements and organic compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Physical properties of sediment samples, including grain size, were also measured. Selected sediment-core samples were tested for reactive sulfides and metals by means of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, which are sediment-disposal-related tests. Water quality, with respect to polychlorinated biphenyl contamination, was determined by testing samples collected by PISCES passive-water-column samplers for polychlorinated biphenyl congeners. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls were calculated by congener and by Aroclor.

  13. Exposures of tungsten nanostructures to divertor plasmas in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Rudakov, D. L.; Wong, C. P. C.; Doerner, R. P.; Wright, G. M.; Abrams, T.; Baldwin, M. J.; Boedo, J. A.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Chrobak, C. P.; Guo, H. Y.; Hollmann, E. M.; McLean, A. G.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Leonard, A. W.; Moyer, R. A.; Pace, D. C.; Thomas, D. M.; Watkins, J. G.

    2016-01-22

    Tungsten nanostructures (W-fuzz) prepared in the PISCES-A linear device have been found to survive direct exposure to divertor plasmas in DIII-D. W-fuzz was exposed in the lower divertor of DIII-D using the divertor material evaluation system. Two samples were exposed in lower single null (LSN) deuterium H-mode plasmas. The first sample was exposed in three discharges terminated by vertical displacement event disruptions, and the second in two discharges near the lowered X-point. More recently, three samples were exposed near the lower outer strike point in predominantly helium H-mode LSN plasmas. In all cases, the W-fuzz survived plasma exposure with little obvious damage except in the areas where unipolar arcing occurred. In conclusion, arcing is effective in W-fuzz removal, and it appears that surfaces covered with W-fuzz can be more prone to arcing than smooth W surfaces.

  14. The structure of the nearby universe traced by theIRAS galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yahil, Amos

    1993-01-01

    One of the most important discoveries of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) has been the detection of about 20,000 galaxies with 60 microns fluxes above 0.5 Jy. From the observational point of view, the IRAS galaxies are ideal tracers of density, since they are homogeneously detected over most of the sky, and their fluxes are unaffected by galactic extinction. The nearby universe was mapped by the IRAS galaxies to a distance of approximately 200 h(exp -1) Mpc for the absolute value of b less than 5 deg. The ability to map down to such low galactic latitudes has proven to be particularly imporant, since some of the most important nearby large-scale structures, such as the Great Attractor, the Perseus-Pisces region, and the Shapley concentration, all lie there. Two major results of the U.S. IRAS redshift survey are discussed.

  15. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Collaborative Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, John M.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) has allowed faculty and students from a wide range of public and private colleges and especially those with small astronomy programs to learn how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a legacy radio astronomy survey. The UAT has achieved this through close collaboration with ALFALFA PIs to identify research areas accessible to undergraduates. In this talk we will summarize the main research efforts of the UAT, including multiwavelength followup observations of ALFALFA sources, the UAT Collaborative Groups Project, the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), and the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005.

  16. Working session 2: Tubing inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, J.; Tapping, R.L.

    1997-02-01

    This session was attended by delegates from 10 countries, and four papers were presented. A wide range of issues was tabled for discussion. Realizing that there was limited time available for more detailed discussion, three topics were chosen for the more detailed discussion: circumferential cracking, performance demonstration (to focus on POD and sizing), and limits of methods. Two other subsessions were organized: one dealt with some challenges related to the robustness of current inspection methods, especially with respect to leaving cracked tubes in service, and the other with developing a chart of current NDE technology with recommendations for future development. These three areas are summarized in turn, along with conclusions and/or recommendations. During the discussions there were four presentations. There were two (Canada, Japan) on eddy current probe developments, both of which addressed multiarray probes that would detect a range of flaws, one (Spain) on circumferential crack detection, and one (JRC, Petten) on the recent PISC III results.

  17. Spatial and body-size dependent response of marine pelagic communities to projected global climate change.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Stelly; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Arsouze, Thomas; Gehlen, Marion; Maury, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Temperature, oxygen, and food availability directly affect marine life. Climate models project a global warming of the ocean's surface (~+3 °C), a de-oxygenation of the ocean's interior (~-3%) and a decrease in total marine net primary production (~-8%) under the 'business as usual' climate change scenario (RCP8.5). We estimated the effects of these changes on biological communities using a coupled biogeochemical (PISCES)--ecosystems (APECOSM) model forced by the physical outputs of the last generation of the IPSL-CM Earth System Model. The APECOSM model is a size-structured bio-energetic model that simulates the 3D dynamical distributions of three interactive pelagic communities (epipelagic, mesopelagic, and migratory) under the effects of multiple environmental factors. The PISCES-APECOSM model ran from 1850 to 2100 under historical forcing followed by RCP8.5. Our RCP8.5 simulation highlights significant changes in the spatial distribution, biomass, and maximum body-size of the simulated pelagic communities. Biomass and maximum body-size increase at high latitude over the course of the century, reflecting the capacity of marine organisms to respond to new suitable environment. At low- and midlatitude, biomass and maximum body-size strongly decrease. In those regions, large organisms cannot maintain their high metabolic needs because of limited and declining food availability. This resource reduction enhances the competition and modifies the biomass distribution among and within the three communities: the proportion of small organisms increases in the three communities and the migrant community that initially comprised a higher proportion of small organisms is favored. The greater resilience of small body-size organisms resides in their capacity to fulfill their metabolic needs under reduced energy supply and is further favored by the release of predation pressure due to the decline of large organisms. These results suggest that small body-size organisms might be

  18. Inhibition of erythrocytes δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in fish from waters affected by lead smelters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Olsen, Bill; Serdar, Dave; Coffey, Mike

    2002-01-01

    We assessed the effects on fish of lead (Pb) released to streamsby smelters located in Trail, BC (Canada), E. Helena, MT, Herculaneum, MO, and Glover, MO. Fish were collected by electrofishing from sites located downstream of smelters and from reference sites. Blood from each fish was analyzed for δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and hemoglobin (Hb), and samples of blood, liver, or carcass were analyzed for Pb, zinc (Zn), or both. Fish collected downstreamof all four smelters sites had elevated Pb concentrations, decreased ALAD activity, or both relative to their respectivereference sites. At E. Helena, fish from the downstream site also had lower Hb concentrations than fish from upstream. Differences among taxa were also apparent. Consistent with previous studies, ALAD activity in catostomids (Pisces: Catostomidae-northern hog sucker,Hypentelium nigricans;river carpsucker, Carpiodes carpio; largescale sucker, Catostomus macrocheilus; and mountain sucker, C. platyrhynchus) seemed more sensitive to Pb-induced ALADinhibition than the salmonids (Pisces: Salmonidae-rainbow trout,Oncorhynchus mykiss; brook trout,Salvelinus fontinalis) or common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Some of these differences may have resulted from differential accumulation of Zn, which was not measured at all sites. We detected noALAD activity in channel catfish (Ictaluruspunctatus) from either site on the Mississippi River at Herculaneum, MO. Our findings confirmed that Pb is releasedto aquatic ecosystems by smelters and accumulated by fish, andwe documented potentially adverse effects of Pb in fish. We recommend that Zn be measured along with Pb when ALAD activityis used as a biomarker and the collection of at least 10 fish ofa species at each site to facilitate statistical analysis.

  19. Shillapoo Wildlife Area, Annual Report 2006-2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, Brian

    2006-10-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments, challenges and successes on WDFW's Shillapoo Wildlife Area funded under Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Wildlife Mitigation Program (BPA project No.2003-012-00) during the Fiscal Year 07 contract period October 1, 2006-September 30, 2007. The information presented here is intended to supplement that contained in BPA's PISCES contract development and reporting system. The organization below is by broad categories of work but references are made to individual work elements in the PISCES Statement of Work as appropriate. The greatest success realized during this contract period was significant positive changes in the vegetative community in several wetland basins throughout the wildlife area. This major goal is being achieved in part by new equipment and operation capability funded under the BPA contract, state capital and migratory bird stamp funds, and the past or ongoing investment of other partners including Ducks Unlimited, The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), Clark Public Utilities and others. We continue to be challenged by requirements under the archaeological and historic preservation act necessary to protect many sensitive sites known to occur within the wildlife area. The problems encountered to date have been largely administrative in nature and those experienced this year were unforeseen and probably unavoidable. Early in the contract period, WDFW and BPA had agreed to have a BPA staff archaeologist perform the survey and reporting work. Unexpectedly, just prior to the expected start date for the surveys, the employee resigned leaving BPA's staff short handed and necessitated contracting the work with an archaeological consultant. This delay caused us to forego work on several projects that are now deferred until the next contract period. The most notable projects impacted by this unfortunate circumstance are those involving the construction or repair of fences.

  20. Mapping Milky Way Halo Structure with Blue Horizontal Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Charles; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.

    2017-01-01

    The use of blue horizontal brach (BHB) and red giant branch stars as tracers of stellar debris streams is a common practice and has been useful in the confirmation of kinematic properties of previously identified streams. This work explores less common ways of untangling the velocity signatures of streams traveling radially to our line of sight, and to peer toward the higher density region of the Galactic Center using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Using spectra of BHB stars, we are able to kinematically distinguish moving groups in the Milky Way halo. The results of this thesis advance our knowledge of the following stellar halo substructures: the Pisces Stellar Stream, the Hercules-Aquila Cloud, the Hercules Halo Stream, and the Hermus Stream. A study of red giant stars led to the kinematic discovery of the Pisces Stellar Stream. Red giant stars were also examined to determine that the previously identified velocity signature that was suggested for the Hercules-Aquila Cloud was due to disk star contamination and errors in preliminary SDSS velocities. The Hercules Halo Stream is a previously unidentified structure that could be related to the Hercules-Aquila Cloud, and was discovered as a velocity excess of SDSS BHB stars. We identify a group of 10 stars with similar velocities that are spatially coincident with the Hermus Stream. An orbit is fit to the Hermus Stream that rules out a connection with the Phoenix Stream.This work was supported by NSF grants AST 09-37523, 14-09421, 16-15688, the NASA/NY Space Grant fellowship, and contributions made by The Marvin Clan, Babette Josephs, Manit Limlamai, and the 2015 Crowd Funding Campaign to Support Milky Way Research.